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1

Greater syntactic impairments in native language in bilingual Parkinsonian patients  

PubMed Central

Objective: To investigate the presence of syntactic impairments in native language in Parkinson's disease. Methods: Twelve bilingual patients, with Friulian as their first language (L1) and Italian as their second (L2), with Parkinson's disease and 12 normal controls matched for age, sex, and years of schooling, were studied on three syntactic tasks. Results: Patients with Parkinson's disease showed a greater impairment of L1 than L2. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of greater basal ganglia involvement in the acquisition and further processing of grammar in L1 v L2 possibly due to a major involvement of procedural memory in representing L1 grammar. PMID:15548481

Zanini, S; Tavano, A; Vorano, L; Schiavo, F; Gigli, G; Aglioti, S; Fabbro, F

2004-01-01

2

Quantitative measures of nocturnal insomnia symptoms predict greater deficits across multiple daytime impairment domains.  

PubMed

This study examined the associations between reported quantitative sleep measures and multiple daytime impairment domains. We collected data from a subsample of adults (n = 513) from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study and Community Twin Study. Results revealed that greater insomnia symptom frequency (days per week) significantly predicted greater global sleep-related functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Sleep onset latency was also positively associated with depressive symptoms. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated 3-4 nights per week and 36-40 min provided optimal sensitivity and specificity for impairment. Thus, insomnia frequency and sleep latency are critical in understanding the impact of insomnia on multiple impairment domains. Using functional impairment as criterion, these findings also support the use of specific quantitative cutoffs for sleep measures in diagnostic systems. PMID:24617964

Drake, Christopher L; Vargas, Ivan; Roth, Thomas; Friedman, Naomi P

2015-01-01

3

Which type of repetitive muscle contractions induces a greater acute impairment of position sense?  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine which type of repetitive muscle contractions induces a greater acute impairment of elbow position sense. Eleven male subjects participating in the study underwent (i) an exercise task (ET) consisting of 9 sets of 10 voluntary isometric, concentric, or eccentric contractions randomly performed on three separate sessions, and (ii) a pre- and post-exercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction (iMVC). Prior to and between sets of ET, a proprioception task (PT) consisting of matching the right arm to the left reference arm was performed at three different target angular positions (70 degrees , 110 degrees and 150 degrees). Each ET was immediately followed by 3 PT and 1 min rest. The statistical analysis revealed that post-exercise iMVCs were significantly decreased compared to pre-exercise iMVC in all conditions with a greater drop following the eccentric task. Despite this greater drop, position sense was significantly affected by the concentric exercise task. In addition, the spectral EMG signals significantly shifted towards lower frequencies from the initial values, regardless of exercise task. The results showed that concentric muscle contractions impaired position sense to a greater extent compared to isometric and eccentric contractions. PMID:19410485

Fortier, Sylvie; Basset, Fabien A; Billaut, François; Behm, David; Teasdale, Normand

2010-04-01

4

Which type of repetitive muscle contractions induces a greater acute impairment of position sense?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine which type of repetitive muscle contractions induces a greater acute impairment of elbow position sense. Eleven male subjects participating in the study underwent (i) an exercise task (ET) consisting of 9 sets of 10 voluntary isometric, concentric, or eccentric contractions randomly performed on three separate sessions, and (ii) a pre- and post-exercise

Sylvie Fortier; Fabien A. Basset; François Billaut; David Behm; Normand Teasdale

2010-01-01

5

Is memory impairment greater than cognitive impairment in moderate chronic alcoholics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of the research were to test (i) whether moderate chronic alcoholics (A\\/pts) perform worse that non teetotaler controls (C\\/pts) either on memory or on intelligence tasks or on both, and (ii) whether there was a significant difference between verbal and spatial memory scores pointing to the claimed prevailing right hemisphere sensitivity to alcohol abuse. Great care was taken

E. Capitani; M. Della Pria; G. Doro; H. Spinnler

1983-01-01

6

Significance of Impaired Serum Gelatinases Activities in Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Introduction: A consortium of metabolic risk factors accelerate the onset of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and certain cancers. Proteolytic enzymes like matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are regulated by a group of endogenous proteins called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP). These TIMPs binds to active and alternate sites of activated MMPs and facilitate regulation. Impaired expression of MMPs may have a significant contribution in the pathogenesis of many tissues-destructive processes like tumor progression and cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Materials and Methods: This case control study lays stress on the possible role of impaired levels of circulating MMP-2 and 9 in metabolic syndrome (MetS). The age, sex-matched 388 subjects with 190 newly diagnosed patients, and 198 healthy controls were recruited. To screen the patients with MetS, biochemical analysis of patients for impaired glucose level, hypertension, body mass index (BMI), and lipid profile was performed. The circulating level of MMP-2 and -9 in serum was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in all patients and control. Results: All metabolic risk factors were statistically significant (P < 0.01) in patients against control group. The serum MMP-2 and -9 level was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in patients having MetS as compared with control group. Conclusions: Similar trend was observed in gender wise analysis of serum MMP level. Higher MMP level alteration observed in male patients as compared with female patients. PMID:24748744

Yadav, Suraj Singh; Singh, Manish Kumar; Dwivedi, Pradeep; Mandal, Raju Kumar; Usman, Kauser; Khattri, Sanjay; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar

2014-01-01

7

The Relationship between Impaired Driving Crashes and Beliefs about Impaired Driving: Do Residents in High Crash Rate Counties Have Greater Concerns about Impaired Driving?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between impaired driving crashes and public beliefs and concerns about impaired driving across each of Maryland's twenty-four counties (including Baltimore City). It was hypothesized that residents of counties that experience higher impaired driving crashes would express more concerns about impaired driving and perceive more risks about driving impaired than

Kenneth H. Beck; Alice F. Yan; Min Qi Wang; Timothy J. Kerns; Cynthia A. Burch

2009-01-01

8

Significantly greater reduction in breast cancer mortality from post-diagnosis running than walking.  

PubMed

The purpose of these analyses is to test prospectively whether post-diagnosis running and walking differ significantly in their association with breast cancer mortality. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to compare breast cancer mortality to baseline exercise energy expenditure (METs, 1 MET-hour ?1 km run) in 272 runners and 714 walkers previously diagnosed with breast cancer from the National Runners' and Walkers' Health Studies when adjusted for age, race, menopause, family history, breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use. Diagnosis occurred (mean ± SD) 7.9 ± 7.3 years before baseline. Forty-six women (13 runners and 33 walkers) died from breast cancer during 9.1-year mortality surveillance. For the 986 runners and walkers combined, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 23.9% MET-hours/day [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-38.3%; p = 0.004]. There was a significantly greater decrease in risk for running than walking (risk per MET-hours/day run vs. walked: p = 0.03). For the 272 runners analyzed separately, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 40.9% per MET-hours/day run (95% CI: 19.3-60.0%, p = 0.0004). When analyzed by categories of running energy expenditure, breast cancer mortality was 87.4% lower for the 1.8-3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 41.3-98.2% lower, p = 0.008) and 95.4% lower for the ?3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 71.9-100% lower, p = 0.0004) compared to the <1.07 MET-hours/day category. In contrast, the 714 walkers showed a nonsignificant 4.6% decrease in breast cancer mortality per MET-hours/day walked (95% CI: 27.3% decreased risk to 21.3% increased risk, p = 0.71). These results suggest that post-diagnosis running is associated with significantly lower breast cancer mortality than post-diagnosis walking. PMID:24470442

Williams, Paul T

2014-09-01

9

Significant Impairment in Immune Recovery Following Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background Although immunosuppression from cancer adjuvant therapy has been documented, how these suppressed immune responses recover to baseline values after completion of cancer adjuvant therapy has not been studied systematically. Objectives To examine the probability of immune recovery following cancer adjuvant therapy and the potential impact of cancer adjuvant therapy type and cancer stage on immune recovery in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Method In a repeated-measures design, immune responses were measured 4 times in 80 early stage breast cancer patients: prior to, and at 2, 6, and 12 months from the beginning of cancer adjuvant therapy. Natural killer cell activity (NKCA), lymphokine-activated killer cell activity, lymphocyte proliferation, CD subsets (CD4, CD8, and CD56), and cytokines (IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-1?) were selected for their relevance to breast cancer. Immune recovery was defined by the level of immune response reaching to and above baseline levels. Data were analyzed using a multivariate generalized linear mixed model approach. Results Delayed immune recovery to pretreatment baseline levels continued to the 12-month time point in all parameters. The percentages of immune recovery ranged from 6% to 76% of the patients, varying among immune parameters. Overall, immune recovery was poorer for IFN-?, IL-2, IL-4, lymphocyte proliferation and NKCA than for CD subsets and IL-6. The type of cancer adjuvant therapy, not cancer stage, showed selective influence on immune recovery. Chemotherapy or chemo- and radiotherapy combination significantly delayed IL-2 recovery, whereas radiotherapy significantly delayed IL-4 recovery. Discussion Immune recovery following breast cancer adjuvant therapy is delayed significantly for an extended time period in numerous immune parameters. The type of cancer adjuvant therapy has selective influence on immune recovery. Future investigations are warranted to elucidate the time course of immune recovery, clinical significance of poor immune recovery, and factors influencing immune recovery in order to develop potential interventions. PMID:19289931

Kang, Duck-Hee; Weaver, Michael T.; Park, Na-Jin; Smith, Barbara; McArdle, Traci; Carpenter, John

2009-01-01

10

A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few South American macrofloras of Paleocene age are known, and this limits our knowledge of diversity and composition between the end-Cretaceous event and the Eocene appearance of high floral diversity. We report new, unbiased collections of 2516 compression specimens from the Paleocene Salamanca Formation (ca. 61.7 Ma) from two localities in the Palacio de los Loros exposures in southern Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina. Our samples reveal considerably greater richness than was previously known from the Paleocene of Patagonia, including 36 species of angiosperm leaves as well as angiosperm fruits, flowers, and seeds; ferns; and conifer leaves, cones, and seeds. The floras, which are from siltstone and sandstone channel-fills deposited on low-relief floodplain landscapes in a humid, warm temperate climate, are climatically and paleoenvironmentally comparable to many quantitatively collected Paleocene floras from the Western Interior of North America. Adjusted for sample size, there are >50% more species at each Palacio de los Loros quarry than in any comparable U.S. Paleocene sample. These results indicate more vibrant terrestrial ecosystems in Patagonian than in North American floodplain environments ˜4 m.y. after the end-Cretaceous extinction, and they push back the time line 10 m.y. for the evolution of high floral diversity in South America. The cause of the dis parity is unknown but could involve reduced impact effects because of greater distance from the Chicxulub site, higher latest Cretaceous diversity, or faster recovery or immigration rates.

Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter; Johnson, Kirk R.; Zamuner, Alba B.; Rubén Cúneo, N.; Matheos, Sergio D.; Singer, Bradley S.

2007-10-01

11

Graphene oxide nanoribbons exhibit significantly greater toxicity than graphene oxide nanoplatelets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene oxide (GOs) has emerged in recent years as a versatile nanomaterial, demonstrating tremendous potential for multifunctional biomedical applications. GOs can be prepared by the top-down or bottom-up approach, which leads to a great variability of GOs being produced due to the different procedures and starting carbon sources adopted. This will have an effect on the physiochemical properties of GOs and their resultant toxic behavior. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of graphene-oxide nanoribbons (GONRs; ~310 × 5000 nm) and graphene-oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs; 100 × 100 nm), prepared from the oxidative treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs; ~100 × 5000 nm) and stacked graphene nanofibers (SGNFs; 100 × 5000 nm), respectively. In vitro assessments revealed that the GONRs exhibited a much stronger cytotoxicity over the GONPs, and we correlated that observation with characterization data that showed GONRs to have a greater amount of carbonyl groups as well as greater length. Therefore, we put forward that the stronger toxic behavior of GONRs is a result of the synergistic effect between these two factors, and the type of carbon source used to prepare GOs should be carefully considered in any future bioapplications.

Khim Chng, Elaine Lay; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

2014-08-01

12

The Social Significance of Street Soccer in Greater Cairo: Game Structure and Social Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an ethnographic research conducted to study street soccer in three popular districts in Cairo. Through in-depth interviews with a non-random purposeful sample of street soccer players and observation of several street soccer matches in the three communities, the study aims to elucidate the social significance of street soccer in Cairo by examining both the effect of the

Nashaat Hussein

2011-01-01

13

The Social Significance of Street Soccer in Greater Cairo: Game Structure and Social Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

:This article presents an ethnographic research conducted to study street soccer in three popular districts in Cairo. Through in-depth interviews with a non-random purposeful sample of street soccer players and observation of several street soccer matches in the three communities, the study aims to elucidate the social significance of street soccer in Cairo by examining both the effect of the

Nashaat Hussein

2011-01-01

14

Presence and Significant Determinants of Cognitive Impairment in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and to identify clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in MS. Methods 303 patients with MS and 279 healthy controls were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N); measures of pre-morbid verbal competence and neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. Results Patients and healthy controls were matched for age, gender, education and pre-morbid verbal Intelligence Quotient. Patients presenting with cognitive impairment were 108/303 (35.6%). In the overall group of participants, the significant predictors of the most sensitive BRB-N scores were: presence of MS, age, education, and Vocabulary. The significant predictors when considering MS patients only were: course of MS, age, education, vocabulary, and depression. Using logistic regression analyses, significant determinants of the presence of cognitive impairment in relapsing-remitting MS patients were: duration of illness (OR?=?1.053, 95% CI?=?1.010–1.097, p?=?0.015), Expanded Disability Status Scale score (OR?=?1.247, 95% CI?=?1.024–1.517, p?=?0.028), and vocabulary (OR?=?0.960, 95% CI?=?0.936–0.984, p?=?0.001), while in the smaller group of progressive MS patients these predictors did not play a significant role in determining the cognitive outcome. Conclusions Our results corroborate the evidence about the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with MS. Furthermore, our findings identify significant clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in a large sample of MS patients for the first time. Implications for further research and clinical practice were discussed. PMID:23922813

Borghi, Martina; Cavallo, Marco; Carletto, Sara; Ostacoli, Luca; Zuffranieri, Marco; Picci, Rocco Luigi; Scavelli, Francesco; Johnston, Harriet; Furlan, Pier Maria; Bertolotto, Antonio; Malucchi, Simona

2013-01-01

15

Brief Report: Inner Speech Impairment in Children with Autism Is Associated with Greater Nonverbal than Verbal Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin's (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized that children with both autism and a nonverbal greater than verbal (NV greater than V) skills…

Lidstone, Jane S. M.; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

2009-01-01

16

Brief Report: Inner Speech Impairment in Children with Autism is Associated with Greater Nonverbal than Verbal Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin’s (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with\\u000a autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized\\u000a that children with both autism and a nonverbal > verbal (NV > V) skills profile would show the greatest inner speech impairment.\\u000a CWA and typically

Jane S. M. Lidstone; Charles Fernyhough; Elizabeth Meins; Andrew J. O. Whitehouse

2009-01-01

17

Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the olfactory bulb impairs olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We examined two important examples of these, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95, in regard to the functional role of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) in regulation of olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). To test whether activation of egr-1 in the olfactory bulb (OB) is required for olfactory memory of these bats, bilaterally canulated individuals were infused with antisense (AS) or non-sense (NS)-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of egr-1, or with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), 2h before the olfactory training. Our results showed that behavioral training significantly up-regulates immediate early gene (IEG) EGR-1 and key synaptic proteins Synaptotagmin-1(SYT-1), CaMKII and PSD-95, and phosphorylation of CaMKII in the OB at the protein level per se. Subsequently, we observed that egr-1 antisense-ODN infusion in the OB impaired olfactory memory and down regulates the expression of CaMKII and PSD-95, and the phosphorylation of CaMKII but not SYT-1. In contrast, NS-ODN or PBS had no effect on the expression of the PSDs CaMKII or PSD-95, or on the phosphorylation of CaMKII. When the egr-1 NS-ODN was infused in the OB after training for the novel odor there was no effect on olfactory memory. These findings suggest that egr-1 control the activation of CaMKII and PSD-95 during the process of olfactory memory formation. PMID:22796292

Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2012-08-30

18

Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

2011-01-01

19

Quality of life is significantly impaired in long-term survivors of acute liver failure and particularly in acetaminophen-overdose patients.  

PubMed

Functional outcomes for long-term survivors of acute liver failure (ALF) are not well characterized. The aim of this prospective study was to determine health-related quality of life in long-term adult ALF survivors. Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry participants completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life 14 and Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires at 1- and/or 2-year follow-up study visits. Responses were compared among ALF subgroups and to those for available general US population controls. Among the 282 adult ALF patients, 125 had undergone liver transplantation (LT), whereas 157, including 95 acetaminophen overdose (APAP) patients and 62 non-APAP patients, were spontaneous survivors (SSs). APAP SS patients reported significantly lower general health scores and more days of impaired mental and physical health, activity limitations due to poor health, pain, depression, and anxiety in comparison with the other groups (P???0.001). There were no significant differences in coma grade or in the use of mechanical ventilation or intracranial pressure monitoring among the patient groups during their ALF hospitalization, but APAP SSs had significantly higher rates of psychiatric disease and substance abuse (P?greater proportion of the combined SS patients reported fair or poor health and ?14 days of impaired physical/mental health and activity limitations due to poor health. In addition, a greater proportion of LT recipients reported ?14 days of impaired physical/mental health. Similar results were observed with the SF-36 across the 3 ALF subgroups and in comparison with population controls. In conclusion, long-term adult survivors of ALF reported significantly lower quality of life scores than US population controls. Furthermore, APAP SS patients reported the lowest quality of life scores, possibly because of higher rates of premorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23780824

Rangnekar, Amol S; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie; McGuire, Brendan; Lee, William M; Fontana, Robert J

2013-09-01

20

Use of Direct Instruction to Teach Reading to Students with Significant Cognitive Impairments: Student Outcomes and Teacher Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with significant cognitive impairments make measurable gains in reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests--Revised when taught using Direct Instruction reading programs. Additionally, the study explored teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction…

Kanfush, Philip Michael, III.

2010-01-01

21

Cognitive impairment in patients with chronic pain: The significance of stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article examines the role of emotional distress and other aspects of suffering in the cognitive impairment that\\u000a often is apparent in patients with chronic pain. Research suggests that pain-related negative emotions and stress potentially\\u000a impact cognitive functioning independent of the effects of pain intensity. The anterior cingulate cortex is likely an integral\\u000a component of the neural system that

Robert P. Hart; James B. Wade; Michael F. Martelli

2003-01-01

22

Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale's (NIHSS's) association with upper extremity (UE) impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM), and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant (P = ?0.204; p = 0.014) but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant (P = ?0.141; p = 0.089). Subjects scoring a “zero” on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity. PMID:24772367

Hand, Brittany; Page, Stephen J.; White, Susan

2014-01-01

23

Alzheimer’s disease and memory-monitoring impairment: Alzheimer’s patients show a monitoring deficit that is greater than their accuracy deficit  

PubMed Central

We assessed the ability of two groups of patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and two groups of older adults to monitor the likely accuracy of recognition judgments and source identification judgments about who spoke something earlier. Alzheimer’s patients showed worse performance on both memory judgments and were less able to monitor with confidence ratings the likely accuracy of both kinds of memory judgments, as compared to a group of older adults who experienced the identical study and test conditions. Critically, however, when memory performance was made comparable between the AD patients and the older adults (e.g., by giving AD patients extra exposures to the study materials), AD patients were still greatly impaired at monitoring the likely accuracy of their recognition and source judgments. This result indicates that the monitoring impairment in AD patients is actually worse than their memory impairment, as otherwise there would have been no differences between the two groups in monitoring performance when there were no differences in accuracy. We discuss the brain correlates of this memory-monitoring deficit and also propose a Remembrance-Evaluation model of memory-monitoring. PMID:21620877

Dodson, Chad S.; Spaniol, Maggie; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Deason, Rebecca G.; Ally, Brandon A.; Budson, Andrew E.

2011-01-01

24

Higher Education is Not Associated with Greater Cortical Thickness in Brain Areas Related to Literacy or Intelligence in Normal Aging or Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Education may reduce risk of dementia through passive reserve, by increasing neural substrate. We tested the hypotheses that education is associated with thicker cortex and reduced rates of atrophy in brain regions related to literacy and intellectual ability. Healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment were categorized into High (?18 yrs) and Low (?13 yrs) education groups. Higher education was associated with thinner cortices in several areas, but one-year atrophy rates in these areas did not differ by education group. These results do not support a passive reserve model in which early life education protects against dementia by increasing cortical thickness. Connectivity and synaptic efficiency, or other lifestyle factors may more directly reflect cognitive reserve. PMID:22905705

Pillai, Jagan A.; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J.; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M.; Salmon, David P.; Galasko, Douglas; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

2012-01-01

25

Reducing hazard related falls in people 75 years and older with significant visual impairment: how did a successful program work?  

PubMed Central

Background In a randomized controlled trial testing a home safety program designed to prevent falls in older people with severe visual impairment, it was shown that the program, delivered by an experienced occupational therapist, significantly reduced the numbers of falls both at home and away from home. Objectives To investigate whether the success of the home safety assessment and modification intervention in reducing falls resulted directly from modification of home hazards or from behavioral modifications, or both. Methods Participants were 391 community living women and men aged 75 years and older with visual acuity 6/24 meters or worse; 92% (361 of 391) completed one year of follow up. Main outcome measures were type and number of hazards and risky behavior identified in the home and garden of those receiving the home safety program, compliance with home safety recommendations reported at six months, location of all falls for all study participants during the trial, and environmental hazards associated with each fall. Results The numbers of falls at home related to an environmental hazard and those with no hazard involved were both reduced by the home safety program (n?=?100 participants) compared with the group receiving social visits (n?=?96) (incidence rate ratios?=?0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.21 to 0.74) and 0.43 (0.21 to 0.90), respectively). Conclusions The overall reduction in falls by the home safety program must result from some mechanism in addition to the removal or modification of hazards or provision of new equipment. PMID:17018669

Grow, S J La; Robertson, M C; Campbell, A J; Clarke, G A; Kerse, N M

2006-01-01

26

Group Therapy for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Their Significant Others: Results of a Waiting-List Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have to deal with an uncertain prognosis and also face a multitude of memory-related problems and psychosocial consequences. A newly developed group programme proved to be feasible, however, it needed confirmation by a controlled study. Aim: This controlled study evaluates this group therapy for MCI patients aimed to help them accept and manage

Liesbeth W. A. Joosten-Weyn Banningh; Judith B. Prins; Myrra J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen; Hugo H. Wijnen; Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert; Roy P. C. Kessels

2011-01-01

27

Inactivation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling in myelinating glial cells results in significant loss of adult spiral ganglion neurons accompanied by age-related hearing impairment.  

PubMed

Hearing loss has been attributed to many factors, including degeneration of sensory neurons in the auditory pathway and demyelination along the cochlear nerve. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which signal through four receptors (Fgfrs), are produced by auditory neurons and play a key role in embryonic development of the cochlea and in neuroprotection against sound-induced injury. However, the role of FGF signaling in the maintenance of normal auditory function in adult and aging mice remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the contribution of glial cells, which myelinate the cochlear nerves, is poorly understood. To address these questions, we generated transgenic mice in which Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 were specifically inactivated in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes but not in neurons. Adult mutant mice exhibited late onset of hearing impairment, which progressed markedly with age. The hearing impairment was accompanied by significant loss of myelinated spiral ganglion neurons. The pathology extended into the cochlear nucleus, without apparent loss of myelin or of the deletion-bearing glial cells themselves. This suggests that perturbation of FGF receptor-mediated glial function leads to the attenuation of glial support of neurons, leading to their loss and impairment of auditory functions. Thus, FGF/FGF receptor signaling provides a potentially novel mechanism of maintaining reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia in adult and aging animals. Dysfunction of glial cells and FGF receptor signaling may therefore be implicated in neurodegenerative hearing loss associated with normal aging. PMID:19598249

Wang, S J; Furusho, M; D'Sa, C; Kuwada, S; Conti, L; Morest, D K; Bansal, R

2009-11-15

28

Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

2014-01-01

29

Significant head accelerations can influence immediate neurological impairments in a murine model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

Although blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is well recognized for its significance in the military population, the unique mechanisms of primary bTBI remain undefined. Animate models of primary bTBI are critical for determining these potentially unique mechanisms, but the biomechanical characteristics of many bTBI models are poorly understood. In this study, we examine some common shock tube configurations used to study blast-induced brain injury in the laboratory and define the optimal configuration to minimize the effect of torso overpressure and blast-induced head accelerations. Pressure transducers indicated that a customized animal holder successfully reduced peak torso overpressures to safe levels across all tested configurations. However, high speed video imaging acquired during the blast showed significant head accelerations occurred when animals were oriented perpendicular to the shock tube axis. These findings of complex head motions during blast are similar to previous reports [Goldstein et al., 2012, "Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model," Sci. Transl. Med., 4(134), 134ra160; Sundaramurthy et al., 2012, "Blast-Induced Biomechanical Loading of the Rat: An Experimental and Anatomically Accurate Computational Blast Injury Model," J. Neurotrauma, 29(13), pp. 2352-2364; Svetlov et al., 2010, "Morphologic and Biochemical Characterization of Brain Injury in a Model of Controlled Blast Overpressure Exposure," J. Trauma, 69(4), pp. 795-804]. Under the same blast input conditions, minimizing head acceleration led to a corresponding elimination of righting time deficits. However, we could still achieve righting time deficits under minimal acceleration conditions by significantly increasing the peak blast overpressure. Together, these data show the importance of characterizing the effect of blast overpressure on head kinematics, with the goal of producing models focused on understanding the effects of blast overpressure on the brain without the complicating factor of superimposed head accelerations. PMID:24950710

Gullotti, David M; Beamer, Matthew; Panzer, Matthew B; Chen, Yung Chia; Patel, Tapan P; Yu, Allen; Jaumard, Nicolas; Winkelstein, Beth; Bass, Cameron R; Morrison, Barclay; Meaney, David F

2014-09-01

30

Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Morphometry significantly increases the ability to detect group differences in schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Analysis (ODVBA) (Zhang and Davatzikos, 2011) is a recently-developed and validated framework of voxel-based group analysis, which transcends limitations of traditional Gaussian smoothing in the forms of analysis such as the General Linear Model (GLM). ODVBA estimates the optimal non-stationary and anisotropic filtering of the data prior to statistical analyses to maximize the ability to detect group differences. In this paper, we extensively evaluate ODVBA to three sets of previously published data from studies in schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease, and evaluate the regions of structural difference identified by ODVBA versus standard Gaussian smoothing and other related methods. The experimental results suggest that ODVBA is considerably more sensitive in detecting group differences, presumably because of its ability to adapt the regional filtering to the underlying extent and shape of a group difference, thereby maximizing the ability to detect such difference. Although there is no gold standard in these clinical studies, ODVBA demonstrated highest significance in group differences within the identified voxels. In terms of spatial extent of detected area, agreement of anatomical boundary, and classification, it performed better than other tested voxel-based methods and competitively with the cluster enhancing methods. PMID:23631985

Zhang, Tianhao; Davatzikos, Christos

2013-10-01

31

[Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].  

PubMed

Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90?%. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases. PMID:24414233

Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

2014-01-01

32

Impaired Sexual Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of impaired sexual function in adults with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is greater than in the general population.\\u000a Studies have examined different aspects of sexual function among adults with PD and their partners. Comparison groups have\\u000a included healthy adults matched for age and gender, as well as age-matched controls with chronic, non-neurological disease\\u000a with motor impairment. Impaired sexual function

Cheryl Waters; Janice Smolowitz

33

Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p?=?0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p?=?0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p?=?0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

2012-01-01

34

Greater Yellowstone Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Greater Yellowstone Bibliography is a database with over 28,900 bibliographic citations to scholarly, popular, professional, and creative literature about the greater Yellowstone region. It includes citations for journal, magazine, and newspaper articles, as well as books, book chapters, conference papers, government documents, theses, maps, CDs, and other materials. Citations can be searched by author, subject keyword, and geographic location.

William, Van A.; Wyoming, University O.

35

Greater Good Science Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the University of California, Berkeley, the Greater Good Science Center (GGSC) is "devoted to the scientific understanding of happy and compassionate individuals, strong social bonds, and altruistic behavior." To achieve this goal, the GGSC enlists a broad range of scholars from various disciplines, publishes a quarterly magazine ("Greater Good"), and maintains an outreach program that includes a website designed for parents who wish to foster emotional intelligence in their children. On their homepage, visitors can look over the "Most Recent" area to learn about recent findings, view webcasts with experts from the Center, and also read about their latest publications. Visitors can also view the Greater Good tip of the week on the homepage to read a highlighted article.

2008-01-01

36

Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey website uses remotely sensed data to analyze landscape change in the Greater Yellowstone Area. It features maps and satellite images that show the geographical extent of the area, its management, land cover, and land use.

Survey, U. S.

37

Michael Langley GREATER MSP  

E-print Network

food, clean water, and health solutions will drive the global economy in coming years. The Greater MSP · Software/ IT · Advanced manufacturing · Energy/renewables Advanced Manufacturing & Technology · FinancialFinancial Services & Insurance Food & Agribusiness Headquarters & Business Services · Corporate headquarters

Levinson, David M.

38

Tuberculosis in greater kudu.  

PubMed

Four greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) died while maintained in captivity at a zoo. Necropsy revealed tuberculous lesions in the lungs, spleen, and thoracic lymph nodes. Histopathologic findings included granulomas with Langhans' giant cells, necrosis, and mineralization. Acid-fast organisms isolated from tissues of each kudu were identified as Mycobacterium bovis. PMID:789313

Himes, E M; LyVere, D B; Thoen, C O; Essey, M A; Lebel, J L; Freiheit, C F

1976-11-01

39

Impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: inter-rater reliability and factor structure of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in patients, significant others and clinicians  

PubMed Central

Aims: This study sought to address two questions: (1) what is the inter-rater reliability of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) when completed by patients, their significant others, and clinicians; and (2) does the factor structure of the DEX vary for these three groups? Methods: We obtained DEX ratings for 113 patients with an acquired brain injury from two brain injury services in the UK and two services in Ireland. We gathered data from two groups of raters—“significant others” (DEX-SO) such as partners and close family members and “clinicians” (DEX-C), who were psychologists or rehabilitation physicians working closely with the patient and who were able to provide an opinion about the patient’s level of everyday executive functioning. Intra-class correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated between each of the three groups (self, significant other, clinician). Principal axis factor (PAF) analyses were also conducted for each of the three groups. Results: The factor analysis revealed a consistent one-factor model for each of the three groups of raters. However, the inter-rater reliability analyses showed a low level of agreement between the self-ratings and the ratings of the two groups of independent raters. We also found low agreement between the significant others and the clinicians. Conclusion: Although there was a consistent finding of a single factor solution for each of the three groups, the low level of agreement between significant others and clinicians raises a question about the reliability of the DEX. PMID:25346668

McGuire, Brian E.; Morrison, Todd G.; Barker, Lynne A.; Morton, Nicholas; McBrinn, Judith; Caldwell, Sheena; Wilson, Colin F.; McCann, John; Carton, Simone; Delargy, Mark; Walsh, Jane

2014-01-01

40

Vision Impairment Among Older Adults Residing in Assisted Living  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To examine rates of visual impairment of older adults in assisted living facilities (ALFs). METHODS Vision screening events were held at 12 ALFs in Jefferson County, Alabama for residents ?60 years of age. Visual acuity, cognitive status, and presence of eye conditions were assessed. RESULTS 144 residents were screened. 67.8% failed distance screening, 70.9% failed near screening, and 89.3% failed contrast sensitivity screening. 40.4% of residents had cognitive impairment and 89% had a least one diagnosed eye condition. Visual acuities did not differ significantly between cognitive status groups or with greater numbers of eye conditions. DISCUSSION This study is the first to provide information about vision impairment in the assisted living population. Of those screened, 70% had visual acuity worse than 20/40 for distance or near vision, and 90% had impaired contrast sensitivity. Cognitive impairment accounted for a small percentage of the variance in near vision and contrast sensitivity. PMID:23338786

Elliott, Amanda F.; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia

2013-01-01

41

Three 15-min Bouts of Moderate Postmeal Walking Significantly Improves 24-h Glycemic Control in Older People at Risk for Impaired Glucose Tolerance  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Inactive older (?60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community and were nonsmoking, with a BMI <35 kg/m2 and a fasting blood glucose concentration between 105 and 125 mg dL?1. Participants completed three randomly ordered exercise protocols spaced 4 weeks apart. Each protocol comprised a 48-h stay in a whole-room calorimeter, with the first day serving as the control day. On the second day, participants engaged in either 1) postmeal walking for 15 min or 45 min of sustained walking performed at 2) 10:30 a.m. or 3) 4:30 p.m. All walking was on a treadmill at an absolute intensity of 3 METs. Interstitial glucose concentrations were determined over 48 h with a continuous glucose monitor. Substrate utilization was measured continuously by respiratory exchange (VCO2/VO2). RESULTS Both sustained morning walking (127 ± 23 vs. 118 ± 14 mg dL?1) and postmeal walking (129 ± 24 vs. 116 ± 13 mg dL?1) significantly improved 24-h glycemic control relative to the control day (P < 0.05). Moreover, postmeal walking was significantly (P < 0.01) more effective than 45 min of sustained morning or afternoon walking in lowering 3-h postdinner glucose between the control and experimental day. CONCLUSIONS Short, intermittent bouts of postmeal walking appear to be an effective way to control postprandial hyperglycemia in older people. PMID:23761134

DiPietro, Loretta; Gribok, Andrei; Stevens, Michelle S.; Hamm, Larry F.; Rumpler, William

2013-01-01

42

For the Greater Good  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "For the Greater Good" series is comprised of five featured articles. Each article portrays one author's personal stories of people and animals whose lives have been improved or saved by medical breakthroughs made possible by animal research. The series was edited by Samuel R. Sperry, then Editorial Page Associate Editor at the Seattle P-I newspaper. The articles are contained in the PDF curriculum guide, which includes a 5-lesson unit outlining the use of models in both science and ethics, and provides resources for exploring the use of animals in research. The curriculum guide also includes an assessment involving a letter to the editor.

PhD Carolyn C Landel (Western Washington University Faculty and Research Associate, Science, Math, and Technology Education)

2004-01-01

43

Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers  

PubMed Central

We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

44

Hearing Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... Impaired? For people who lose their hearing after learning to speak and hear, it can be difficult to adjust because hearing has been an essential aspect of their communication and relationships. The good news ...

45

Impaired physicians.  

PubMed

Nearly every physician has encountered a doctor who is causing problems in the practice or at the hospital. These include physicians who are impaired because of drug or alcohol abuse. Managing these physicians and helping them get back on track can be difficult and daunting. This article will discuss impaired physicians with suggestions for interacting with them and helping them become valuable members of the team. PMID:24873127

Harbin, Tom; Baum, Neil

2014-01-01

46

Impaired Driving  

MedlinePLUS

Impaired driving is dangerous. It's the cause of more than half of all car crashes. It means operating a motor vehicle while you are affected by Alcohol Legal or illegal drugs Sleepiness Distractions, such as using a cell phone or texting Having a medical condition which affects your driving For ...

47

Frontal\\/Executive Impairments in Schizophrenia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of frontal\\/executive impairments in schizophrenia is reported. Schizophrenia patients and controls were not significantly different with respect to age, sex, and premorbid IQ. The schizophrenia group demonstrated significant impairments in cognitive flexibility and forward planning, replicating results from a 1990 study by Morice. Impairment prevalence figures of 65 and 76 percent for cognitive flexibility and forward planning, respectively,

Rodney Morice; Ann Delahunty

1996-01-01

48

Clinical differences among mild cognitive impairment subtypes in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Mild cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a construct in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and occurs in about 25% of non-demented PD patients. Although executive dysfunction is the most frequent type of cognitive deficit in PD, the cognitive phenotype of PD mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) is broad. PD-MCI subtypes are represented by amnestic and nonamnestic domain impairment as well as single- and multiple-domain impairment. However, it is unclear whether patients with different PD-MCI subtypes also differ in other clinical characteristics besides cognitive profile. Methods We studied 128 PD-MCI subjects at our Movement Disorders center, comparing clinical, motor, and behavioral characteristics across the PD-MCI subtypes. Results We found varying proportions of impairment subtypes: nonamnestic single-domain (47.7%), amnestic multiple-domain (24.2%), amnestic single-domain (18.8%), and nonamnestic multiple-domain (9.5%). Attentional/executive functioning and visuospatial abilities were the most frequently impaired domains. PD-MCI subtypes differed in their motor features with nonamnestic multiple-domain PD-MCI subjects showing particularly pronounced problems with postural instability and gait. Differences among PD-MCI subtypes in age, PD duration, medication use, mood or behavioral disturbances, or vascular disease were not significant. Conclusions In addition to differing cognitive profiles, PD-MCI subtypes differ in motor phenotype and severity but not in mood, behavioral, or vascular co-morbidities. Greater postural instability and gait disturbances in the nonamnestic multiple-domain subtype emphasize shared non-dopaminergic neural substrates of gait and cognition in PD. Furthermore, increased burden of cognitive dysfunction, rather than type of cognitive deficit, may be associated with greater motor impairment in PD-MCI. PMID:22778009

Goldman, Jennifer G.; Weis, Holly; Stebbins, Glenn; Bernard, Bryan; Goetz, Christopher G.

2012-01-01

49

Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers Predict Lung Function Impairment  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Cross-sectional studies demonstrate an association between metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function. Objectives: To define if metabolic syndrome biomarkers are risk factors for loss of lung function after irritant exposure. Methods: A nested case-control study of Fire Department of New York personnel with normal pre–September 11th FEV1 and who presented for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation before March 10, 2008. We correlated metabolic syndrome biomarkers obtained within 6 months of World Trade Center dust exposure with subsequent FEV1. FEV1 at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation within 6.5 years defined disease status; cases had FEV1 less than lower limit of normal, whereas control subjects had FEV1 greater than or equal to lower limit of normal. Measurements and Main Results: Clinical data and serum sampled at the first monitoring examination within 6 months of September 11, 2001, assessed body mass index, heart rate, serum glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), leptin, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin. Cases and control subjects had significant differences in HDL less than 40 mg/dl with triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dl, heart rate greater than or equal to 66 bpm, and leptin greater than or equal to 10,300 pg/ml. Each increased the odds of abnormal FEV1 at pulmonary evaluation by more than twofold, whereas amylin greater than or equal to 116 pg/ml decreased the odds by 84%, in a multibiomarker model adjusting for age, race, body mass index, and World Trade Center arrival time. This model had a sensitivity of 41%, a specificity of 86%, and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.77. Conclusions: Abnormal triglycerides and HDL and elevated heart rate and leptin are independent risk factors of greater susceptibility to lung function impairment after September 11, 2001, whereas elevated amylin is protective. Metabolic biomarkers are predictors of lung disease, and may be useful for assessing risk of impaired lung function in response to particulate inhalation. PMID:22095549

Naveed, Bushra; Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Gracely, Edward J.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Ferrier, Natalia; Kasturiarachchi, Kusali J.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Rom, William N.; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J.

2012-01-01

50

Greater Yellowstone ecosYstem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellowstone National Park forms the core of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE)— and at 28,000 square miles, is one of the largest intact temperate-zone ecosystems on Earth today. Each of Yellowstone National Park's sepa- rate parts—the hydrothermal features, the wildlife, the lakes, the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone River, and the petrified trees— could easily stand alone as a national

GYE BASICS

51

Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center is a portal to information about the natural and cultural resources of Yellowstone and Grand Teton (including John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway) national parks and Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. By reporting on what has been learned from research and monitoring in these parks, we hope to increase public awareness of new findings and encourage studies that will help guide park management decisions. The National Park Service has set up Research Learning Centers as public-private partnerships that promote the sharing of scientific knowledge about the parks.

Service, National P.

52

Tracking motor impairments in the progression of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale is used to characterize motor impairments and establish motor diagnosis. Little is known about the timing of diagnostic confidence level categories and the trajectory of motor impairments during the prodromal phase. Goals of this study were to estimate the timing of categories, model the prodromal trajectory of motor impairments, estimate the rate of motor impairment change by category, and provide required sample size estimates for a test of efficacy in clinical trials. In total, 1010 gene-expanded participants from the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington's Disease (PREDICT-HD) trial were analyzed. Accelerated failure time models were used to predict the timing of categories. Linear mixed effects regression was used to model the longitudinal motor trajectories. Age and length of gene expansion were incorporated into all models. The timing of categories varied significantly by gene expansion, with faster progression associated with greater expansion. For the median expansion, the third diagnostic confidence level category was estimated to have a first occurrence 1.5 years before diagnosis, and the second and first categories were estimated to occur 6.75 years and 19.75 years before diagnosis, respectively. Motor impairments displayed a nonlinear prodromal course. The motor impairment rate of change increased as the diagnostic confidence level increased, with added acceleration for higher progression scores. Motor items can detect changes in motor impairments before diagnosis. Given a sufficiently high progression score, there is evidence that the diagnostic confidence level can be used for prodromal staging. Implications for Huntington's disease research and the planning of clinical trials of efficacy are discussed. PMID:24150908

Long, Jeffery D; Paulsen, Jane S; Marder, Karen; Zhang, Ying; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A

2014-03-01

53

Frontolimbic atrophy is associated with agitation and aggression in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

Background The neuroanatomy of agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's disease is not well understood. Methods We analyzed 24 months of Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data for patients with Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment-stable, and mild cognitive impairment-converter (n = 462) using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire Agitation and Aggression subscale. Magnetic resonance imaging regions of interest that correlated with Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire Agitation and Aggression subscale raw scores were included in mixed-model, repeated-measures analyses of agitation and aggression over time with age, sex, apolipoprotein E ?4 status, education, and Mini-Mental State Examination score as covariates. Results Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire Agitation and Aggression subscale scores worsened in patients with Alzheimer's disease and in mild cognitive impairment-converter (P <.05; trend for mild cognitive impairment, P =.0518). Greater agitation and aggression severity was associated with greater atrophy of frontal, insular, amygdala, cingulate, and hippocampal regions of interest (P < .05). Mini-Mental State Examination score was significant in mixed-effect model repeated measures only in mild cognitive impairment-converters for posterior regions of interest. Demographics and apolipoprotein ?4 were not associated with agitation and aggression. Conclusions Agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment is associated with neurodegeneration affecting the anterior salience network that may reduce capacity to process and regulate behaviors properly. PMID:23253778

Trzepacz, Paula T.; Yu, Peng; Bhamidipati, Phani K.; Willis, Brian; Forrester, Tammy; Tabas, Linda; Schwarz, Adam J.; Saykin, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

54

Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Cognitive functioning is moderately to severely impaired in patients with schizophrenia. This impairment is the prime driver of the significant disabilities in occupational, social, and economic functioning in patients with schizophrenia and an important treatment target. The profile of deficits in schizophrenia includes many of the most important aspects of human cognition: attention, memory, reasoning, and processing speed. While various efforts are under way to identify specific aspects of neurocognition that may lie closest to the neurobiological etiology and pathophysiology of the illness, and may provide relevant convergence with animal models of cognition, standard neuropsychological measures continue to demonstrate the greatest sensitivity to functionally relevant cognitive impairment.The effects of antipsychotic medications on cognition in schizophrenia and first-episode psychosis appear to be minimal. Important work on the effects of add-on pharmacologic treatments is ongoing. Very few of the studies completed to date have had sufficient statistical power to generate firm conclusions; recent studies examining novel add-on treatments have produced some encouraging findings. Cognitive remediation programs have generated considerable interest as these methods are far less costly than pharmacologic treatment and are likely to be safer. A growing consensus suggests that these interventions produce modest gains for patients with schizophrenia, but the efficacy of the various methods used has not been empirically investigated. PMID:23027411

Keefe, Richard S E; Harvey, Philip D

2012-01-01

55

Neural Correlates of True and False Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer’s disease, which has been described as a ‘disconnection syndrome’. PMID:23118992

Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M.; Riddell, Patricia M.; Ellis, Judi A.; Freeman, Jayne E.; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

2012-01-01

56

Voting schemes offer greater reliability  

SciTech Connect

How does a mechanically driven chemical plant outperform its competitors? By running safely and reliably, that`s how. Today, when a critical pump fails, more often than not a standby pump is ready to be put into service. The process continues uninterrupted. Not so when an instrument fails. Instead, the process usually stops, product goes out-of-spec, customers wait for product, and engineers write investigation reports. This is especially true during startup and shutdown phases at chemical plants when incidents are most abnormally high. Safety systems have progressed significantly in reliability by advancing from a single programmable logic controller (PLC) concept to triplicated systems that can communicate digitally with a distributed control system (DCS) and be programmed with a high degree of reliability. Field devices have not kept pace. Critical instruments have basically been single-loop control or trip points. Emergency shutdown (ESD) functions have gained independence control or trip points. Emergency shutdown (ESD) functions have gained independence from control points, but, in so doing, have added components that may fail and falsely trip a unit off-line. We know that parts and devices fail. We know there are costs associated with frivolous trips due to such failures. Now we must recognize that the costs associated with frivolous trips (lost product and profit) could be significantly reduced or eliminated by upgrading systems to include redundant transmitters. Combining this redundancy with an appropriate voting scheme for generating trips will produce even higher probabilities of success and minimize costs even more. This article examines four ESD voting schemes: one of one, one of two, two of two, and two of three. One of three, one of four, and so forth will not be described because as the number of transmitters increases in a one-of-x scheme, the likelihood of a false trip goes to 100%.

Wood, R.A.

1997-06-01

57

Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

2010-01-01

58

Differential effects of orthographic and phonological consistency in cortex for children with and without reading impairment  

PubMed Central

One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers during a rhyming task in the visual modality. In line with our previous study, for Normal Readers, lower phonological and orthographic consistency were associated with greater activation in several regions including bilateral inferior/middle frontal gyri, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex as well as left fusiform gyrus. Impaired Readers activated only bilateral anterior cingulate cortex in response to decreasing consistency. Group comparisons revealed that, relative to Impaired Readers, Normal Readers exhibited a larger response in this network for lower phonological consistency whereas orthographic consistency differences were limited. Lastly, brain-behavior correlations revealed a significant relationship between skill (i.e. Phonological Awareness and non-word decoding) and cortical consistency effects for Impaired Readers in left inferior/middle frontal gyri and left fusiform gyrus. Impaired Readers with higher skill showed greater activation for higher consistency. This relationship was reliably different from that of Normal Readers in which higher skill was associated with greater activation for lower consistency. According to single-route or connectionist models, these results suggest that Impaired Readers with higher skill devote neural resources to representing the mapping between orthography and phonology for higher consistency words, and therefore do not robustly activate this network for lower consistency words. PMID:18725239

Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

2009-01-01

59

Adapting for Impaired Patrons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

Schuyler, Michael

1999-01-01

60

Changes in Brain Function Occur Years before the Onset of Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

To develop targeted intervention strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we first need to identify early markers of brain changes that occur before the onset of cognitive impairment. Here, we examine changes in resting-state brain function in humans from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We compared longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), assessed by 15O-water PET, over a mean 7 year period between participants who eventually developed cognitive impairment (n = 22) and those who remained cognitively normal (n = 99). Annual PET assessments began an average of 11 years before the onset of cognitive impairment in the subsequently impaired group, so all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval. A voxel-based mixed model analysis was used to compare groups with and without subsequent impairment. Participants with subsequent impairment showed significantly greater longitudinal rCBF increases in orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and anterior cingulate regions, and greater longitudinal decreases in parietal, temporal, and thalamic regions compared with those who maintained cognitive health. These changes were linear in nature and were not influenced by longitudinal changes in regional tissue volume. Although all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval, most of the accelerated rCBF changes seen in the subsequently impaired group occurred within regions thought to be critical for the maintenance of cognitive function. These changes also occurred within regions that show early accumulation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that there may be a connection between early pathologic change and early changes in brain function. PMID:24227712

Goh, Joshua O.; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael A.; O'Brien, Richard J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M.

2013-01-01

61

Is statistical significance always significant?  

PubMed

One way in which we learn new information is to read the medical literature. Whether or not we do primary research, it is important to be able to read literature in a critical fashion. A seemingly simple concept in reading is to interpret p values. For most of us, if we find a p value that is <.05, we take the conclusion to heart and quote it at every opportunity. If the p value is >.05, we discard the paper and look elsewhere for useful information. Unfortunately, this is too simplistic an approach. The real utility of p values is to consider them within the context of the experiment being performed. Defects in study design can make an interpretation of a p value useless. One has to be wary of type I (seeing a "statistically significant" difference just because of chance) and type II (failing to see a difference that really exists) errors. Examples of the former are publication bias and the performance of multiple analyses; the latter refers to a trial that is too small to demonstrate the difference. Finding significant differences in surrogate or intermediate endpoints may not help us. We need to know if those endpoints reflect the behavior of clinical endpoints. Selectively citing significant differences and disregarding studies that do not find them is inappropriate. Small differences, even if they are statistically significant, may require too much resource expenditure to be clinically useful. This article explores these problems in depth and attempts to put p values in the context of studies. PMID:16207667

Koretz, Ronald L

2005-06-01

62

Greater occipital nerve blockade in cervicogenic headache.  

PubMed

Cervicocogenic headache (CeH) is a relatively common disorder. Although on ideal treatment is available so far, blockades in different structures and nerves may be temporarily effective. We studied the effects of 1-2 mL 0.5% bupivacaine injection at the ipsilateral greater occipital nerve (GON) in 41 CeH patients. The pain is significantly reduced both immediately and as long as 7 days after the blockade. The improvement is less marked during the first two days, a phenomenon we called "tilde pattern". GON blockades may reduce the pool of exaggerated sensory input and antagonize a putative "wind-up-like effect" which may explain the headache improvement. PMID:10029873

Vincent, M B; Luna, R A; Scandiuzzi, D; Novis, S A

1998-12-01

63

Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis  

PubMed Central

Background Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood. Objectives To determine the factors associated with lung function impairment and to compare changes in spirometry during bronchiectasis exacerbation and convalescence (1 week following 14-day antibiotic therapy). Methods We recruited 142 patients with steady-state bronchiectasis, of whom 44 with acute exacerbations in the follow-up were included in subgroup analyses. Baseline measurements consisted of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), sputum volume, purulence and bacteriology, spirometry and diffusing capacity. Spirometry, but not diffusing capacity, was examined during acute exacerbations and convalescence. Results In the final multivariate models, having bronchiectasis symptoms for 10 years or greater (OR?=?4.75, 95%CI: 1.46–15.43, P?=?0.01), sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR?=?4.93, 95%CI: 1.52–15.94, P<0.01) and HRCT total score being 12 or greater (OR?=?7.77, 95%CI: 3.21–18.79, P<0.01) were the major variables associated with FEV1 being 50%pred or less; and the only variable associated with reduced DLCO was 4 or more bronchiectatic lobes (OR?=?5.91, 95%CI: 2.20–17.23, P<0.01). Overall differences in FVC and FEV1 during exacerbations and convalescence were significant (P<0.05), whereas changes in other spirometric parameters were less notable. This applied even when stratified by the magnitude of FEV1 and DLCO reduction at baseline. Conclusion Significant lung function impairment should raise alert of chest HRCT abnormality and sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in patients with predominantly mild to moderate steady-state bronchiectasis. Acute exacerbations elicited reductions in FVC and FEV1. Changes of other spirometric parameters were less significant during exacerbations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01761214 PMID:25405614

Lin, Zhi-ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-min; Lin, Zhi-min; Zheng, Jin-ping; Chen, Rong-chang; Zhong, Nan-shan

2014-01-01

64

The Relationship of Audibility and the Development of Canonical Babbling in Young Children With Hearing Impairment  

PubMed Central

This article investigated the relationship between age at onset of canonical babbling and audibility of amplified speech in children with hearing impairment. Thirteen children with severe–profound hearing impairment and two children with normal hearing participated in a longitudinal investigation of vocalization development. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design was used to analyze vocalization recordings obtained during two phases (hearing aid [HA] and cochlear implant [CI]). Audibility during HA and CI use was calculated using the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII). Earlier ages of canonical babble onset were related to greater audibility of the speech signal during HA use. Children who developed canonical babble had an SII of .35 or greater. SII was a statistically significant predictor of age of onset of canonical babble. Results support the concept of an “essential” level of audibility for onset of canonical babble. Findings are discussed relative to their methodological and clinical implications regarding treatment decision making. PMID:20457674

Bass-Ringdahl, Sandie M.

2010-01-01

65

Screening for Vision Problems in Children with Hearing Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vision problems occur at higher rates in the deaf and hearing impaired population than in the general population. When an individual has a hearing impairment, vision becomes more significant in the instructional and learning process, as well as in social and communicative exchanges. Regular comprehensive visual screening of hearing impaired

Demchak, MaryAnn; Elquist, Marty

66

Subtle Deficits in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Greater cognitive and functional deficits in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are associated with higher rates of dementia. We explored the relationship between these factors by comparing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among cognitive subtypes of MCI and examining associations between IADL and neuropsychological indices. Methods We analyzed data from 1,108 MCI and 3,036 normal control subjects included in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set who were assessed with the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ). Results IADL deficits were greater in amnestic than nonamnestic MCI, but within these subgroups, did not differ between those with single or multiple domains of cognitive impairment. FAQ indices correlated significantly with memory and processing speed/executive function. Conclusions IADL deficits are present in both amnestic MCI and nonamnestic MCI but are not related to the number of impaired cognitive domains. These cross-sectional findings support previous longitudinal reports suggesting that cognitive and functional impairments in MCI may be independently associated with dementia risk. PMID:20798539

Teng, Edmond; Becker, Brian W.; Woo, Ellen; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Lu, Po H.

2010-01-01

67

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

2010-07-01

68

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

2011-07-01

69

Management and Conservation Disturbance Factors Influencing Greater  

E-print Network

Management and Conservation Disturbance Factors Influencing Greater Sage-Grouse Lek Abandonment large declines in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations; thus, understanding the probability of sage-grouse lek abandonment in the Bighorn Basin (BHB) of north-central Wyoming from 1980

Beck, Jeffrey L.

70

Habitat Relations Interseasonal Movements of Greater  

E-print Network

Habitat Relations Interseasonal Movements of Greater Sage-Grouse, Migratory Behavior interseasonal movements for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) using radio-telemetry spanning the majority of the species distribution in Wyoming. Sage-grouse are currently a candidate

Beck, Jeffrey L.

71

Greater Rochester Nursing Home Quality Consortium  

E-print Network

Greater Rochester Nursing Home Quality Consortium Innovations in Nursing Home Quality Improvement 3 Elder Care Quality Through Collaboration: A Dialogue with Nursing Home Administrators and Team Members of your reservation. This Conference is free and open to the public #12;The Greater Rochester Nursing Home

Goldman, Steven A.

72

Ontogeny of Larval Greater Redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi)  

E-print Network

and Mohr, 1978a; Fuiman, 1979), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum, Buynak and Mohr, 1979Ontogeny of Larval Greater Redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi) CHRISTOPHER M. BUNT1 AND STEVEN J.--Adult greater redhorse Moxostoma valenciennesi, were seined from the Grand River, Ontario, and artificially

Cooke, Steven J.

73

Neuropsychological impairment in incest offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-one incest perpetrators were compared to 36 nonviolent nonsex offenders for the presence of neuropsychological impairment. The WAIS-R, Halstead-Reitan battery, and CT scans of the brain were used. The sex offenders were also examined for the presence of substance abuse, violence, pedophilia, and biological relationship to the victim. Incest offenders had significantly lower IQ scores than controls but generally were

R. Langevin; G. Wortzman; R. Dickey; P. Wright; L. Handy

1988-01-01

74

Cortical Visual Impairment: New Directions  

PubMed Central

Cortical visual impairment is the leading cause of bilateral low vision in children in the U.S., yet very little research is being done to find new diagnostic measures and treatments. Dr. Velma Dobson's pioneering work on visual assessments of developmentally delayed children stands out as highly significant in this field. Future research will assess new diagnostic measures, including advanced imaging techniques. In addition, research will evaluate methods to prevent, treat, and rehabilitate infants and children afflicted with this condition. PMID:19417710

Good, William V.

2009-01-01

75

To further analyse this greater inhibition of protein synthesis to DEX in old rats, pro-  

E-print Network

to glucocorticoids along with the establish- ment of a greater insulin-resistant state may explain muscle protein in the impairment of skeletal muscle protein synthesis observed in dia- betes-associated or glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance. K. Grzelkowska, D. Dard-K. Grzelkowska, D. Dard- evet, C. Somet, M. Balage, J. Grizard

Boyer, Edmond

76

The Emancipation of Visually Impaired People in Social Science Research Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1999 we began research, funded by the "Thomas Clinton Trust", to explore the opinions of visually impaired people on visual impairment research. We found people wanted greater inclusion of visually impaired people in such research and participatory, empowering and emancipatory research was a priority for them. We also found, through reviewing…

Duckett, Paul; Pratt, Rebekah

2007-01-01

77

Profile of memory impairment as a prognostic marker in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate whether recognition memory can be used to identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) at greater risk for converting to dementia. We recruited 2172 aMCI patients. They were divided into two groups: aMCI with impaired recall but normal recognition (aMCI-IRNR) vs aMCI with impaired recall and impaired recognition (aMCI-IRIR). We compared demographic findings and neuropsychological performance and illustrated the difference in converting to dementia between the two groups. Study subjects consisted of 1022 (47.0%) patients with aMCI-IRNR and 1150 (53.0%) patients with aMCI-IRIR. In most neuropsychological tests except for digit span forward, patients with aMCI-IRIR were more impaired than patients with aMCI-IRNR even after adjustment of their age and sex. Cox analysis adjusting age and gender revealed that the risk of dementia conversion was higher in patients with aMCI-IRIR than in patients with aMCI-IRNR [hazard ratio (HR)=1.400, 95% CI 1.009-1.943; P=0.044]. This study showed that recognition memory can be used to identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) at greater risk for converting to dementia. PMID:25394906

Lee, Manyong; Lim, Tae Sung; Lee, Hyun Young; Moon, So Young

2014-12-15

78

Associations between Visual, Hearing, and Dual Sensory Impairments and History of Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement by Older Drivers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between visual and hearing impairment and motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement in older drivers. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting North central Alabama Participants Population-based sample of 2,000 licensed-drivers, age 70 and older. Measurements Visual acuity was measured using the Electronic Visual Acuity test. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the Pelli-Robson chart. Presence of subjective hearing loss and other health conditions were determined using a general health questionnaire. Information regarding MVCs for all participants spanning the five years prior to study enrollment was obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Safety. Results Following adjustment for age, race, gender, number of miles driven, number of medical conditions, general cognitive status, and visual processing speed, older drivers having both visual acuity and hearing impairment (rate ratio RR 1.52, 95% confidence interval CI 1.01–2.30), contrast sensitivity impairment alone (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00–2.02), and both contrast sensitivity and hearing impairment (RR 2.41, 95% CI 1.62–3.57) had elevated MVC rates, compared to drivers with no visual or hearing impairments. Drivers with visual acuity loss alone or hearing loss alone did not have significantly different MVC rates when compared to the no impairment group after adjustment for multiple variables. Conclusion Older drivers with dual sensory impairment are at greater MVC risk than those with only a visual acuity or a hearing deficit alone. A combined screening approach of screening for both hearing impairment and visual impairment may be a useful tool to identify older drivers at risk for MVC involvement. PMID:23350867

Green, Kimberly A.; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia

2012-01-01

79

Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.  

PubMed

Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. PMID:22749768

Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan

2013-03-01

80

Plant Oils Were Associated with Low Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Japanese Workers  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid has been suggested to be involved in development of diabetes. However, its association is unclear among Japanese populations, which consume large amounts of fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present cross-sectional study examined the association of individual dietary fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns with abnormal glucose metabolism among 1065 Japanese employees, aged 18–69 years. Impaired glucose metabolism is defined if a person has a history of diabetes, current use of anti-diabetic drug, fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dl (?6.1 mmol/L) or greater, or hemoglobin A1C of 6.0% (?42 mmol/mol) or greater. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary fatty acid patterns were extracted by principal component analysis. Odds ratios of impaired glucose metabolism according to tertile categories of each fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounding variables. A higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend?=?0.03, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively). Alpha-linolenic acid was marginally significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend?=?0.12). Of three fatty acid patterns identified, a higher plant oil pattern score, which characterized by high intake of alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, was associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend?=?0.03). No association was observed for other patterns. In conclusion, plant source fatty acids might be protectively associated with development of diabetes in Japanese adults. PMID:23741386

Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Nanri, Akiko; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya

2013-01-01

81

Mild cognitive impairment is linked with faster rate of cortical thinning in patients with Parkinson's disease longitudinally.  

PubMed

Previous studies have shown greater atrophy in grey and white matter of various brain regions in patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment than in those without. These anatomical differences likely account for the distinct clinical profiles observed between those groups, but do not account for the evolution of regional brain degradation observed as the disease evolves. Although we have shown recently that cortical thinning correlates significantly more with disease duration in Parkinson's patients with mild cognitive impairment than in those without, to the best of our knowledge no study to date has explored this longitudinally. The present study investigated the longitudinal changes of the cortical and subcortical grey matter in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without mild cognitive impairment. Additionally, these two groups were compared with healthy controls. We found a higher rate of cortical thinning in the temporal, occipital, parietal and supplementary motor area, in patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment compared with both cognitively stable patients and healthy controls. On the other hand cognitively stable patients had only one lateral occipital and one fusiform cluster with increased rate of thinning compared with healthy individuals. Correlating the rate of change of cortical thickness with the results of Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores revealed significant thinning associated with cognitive decline in the group of all patients, in similar regions including temporal and medial occipital lobe. Finally, a significant decrease in the volume of the amygdala and nucleus accumbens was observed specifically in patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment. These results indicate that the early presence of mild cognitive impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease is associated with a faster rate of grey matter thinning in various cortical regions as well as a significant diminishment of limbic subcortical structures. This specific pattern of brain degradation associated with the early presence of mild cognitive impairment might serve as a marker of development toward dementia. PMID:24613932

Hanganu, Alexandru; Bedetti, Christophe; Degroot, Clotilde; Mejia-Constain, Béatriz; Lafontaine, Anne-Louise; Soland, Valérie; Chouinard, Sylvain; Bruneau, Marie-Andrée; Mellah, Samira; Belleville, Sylvie; Monchi, Oury

2014-04-01

82

Pragmatic impairments in adults with childhood diagnoses of autism or developmental receptive language disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audiotaped conversational samples from adults diagnosed as having autistic disorders (n=15) or developmental receptive language disorders (n=17) in childhood were transcribed and analyzed using methods based on those of Bishop and Adams (1989). Subjects with autism showed substantially greater pragmatic impairment not explicable by generalized impairment of verbal skills. This was mainly due to autistic subjects' greater difficulty in forming

Martin J. Eales

1993-01-01

83

Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

2011-01-01

84

Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

2013-01-01

85

Impairments to Vision  

MedlinePLUS

... an external Non-Government web site. Impairments to Vision Normal Vision Diabetic Retinopathy Age-related Macular Degeneration In this ... pictures, fixate on the nose to simulate the vision loss. In diabetic retinopathy, the blood vessels in ...

86

Mild Cognitive Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... other people their age. This condition is called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. People with MCI can take care of themselves and do their normal activities. MCI memory problems may include Losing things often Forgetting ...

87

Speech and Language Impairments  

MedlinePLUS

... speech or language impairment will need speech-language pathology services . This related service is defined by IDEA as follows: (15) Speech-language pathology services includes— (i) Identification of children with speech ...

88

Earthquake Dynamics in the Greater Antilles Subduction Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Greater Antilles subduction zone lies north of the densely populated islands of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. A large earthquake on this subduction zone could cause significant structural damage and human suffering, and could furthermore trigger a large tsunami with equally devastating effects. The near-shore hanging wall of the subduction zone is cut by at least two

D. D. Oglesby; E. L. Geist

2009-01-01

89

Impairment in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a For children with mental health problems, impairment results in a diminished ability to perform at developmentally expected\\u000a levels. Impairment in daily life activities can include dysfunction or an absence of adaptation in social, emotional, psychological,\\u000a or occupational\\/academic domains, and it is a core component of nearly all childhood and adolescent mental health disorders.\\u000a Currently, the American Psychiatric Association's (APA's) Diagnostic

Gregory A. Fabiano; William E. Pelham Jr

90

Severe hearing impairment among military veterans--United States, 2010.  

PubMed

A substantial proportion of hearing loss in the United States is attributable to employment-related exposure to noise. Among military veterans, the most common service-connected disabilities are hearing impairments, suggesting that occupational noise exposure during military service might cause more veterans to have hearing loss than nonveterans. However, a recent analysis of data from the 1993-1995 Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study did not find significant differences between the two groups. To further investigate hearing loss among veterans, specifically the prevalence of severe hearing impairment (SHI), data from the 2010 Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) were analyzed. This report describes the results of those analyses, which indicated that the prevalence of SHI among veterans was significantly greater than among nonveterans. Veterans were 30% more likely to have SHI than nonveterans after adjusting for age and current occupation, and veterans who served in the United States or overseas during September 2001-March 2010, the era of overseas contingency operations (including Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom), were four times more likely than nonveterans to have SHI. These findings suggest a need for increased emphasis on improving military hearing conservation programs (HCPs) and on hearing loss surveillance in military and veterans' health systems. PMID:21775950

2011-07-22

91

Retrieval and encoding of episodic memory in normal aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated retrieval and encoding of episodic memory in normal aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). There was significant decline in the function of orientation, language and praxis besides memory impairment in the MCI group. Impairment of encoding and retrieval of episodic memory was observed in the MCI group. Encoding of episodic memory is vulnerable to be impaired

Qing-Song Wang; Jiang-Ning Zhou

2002-01-01

92

A 60-year-old woman with mild memory impairment: review of mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Many older individuals experience or demonstrate cognitive impairment that is significantly abnormal for their age and education yet beneath the threshold for a diagnosis of dementia. This mild cognitive impairment causes minimal functional impairment and is often overlooked in clinical settings, yet affected individuals are at heightened risk for a range of adverse outcomes including conversion to dementia. The case of Ms E, a 60-year-old woman with mild memory impairment and white matter lesions on magnetic resonance imaging, provides an opportunity to consider the questions that face patient, family, and clinicians when mild cognitive symptoms prompt a search for diagnosis and management options. Discussion of her case reviews mild cognitive impairment with emphasis on an evidence-based approach to evaluation and treatment, including management of comorbid medical conditions, lifestyle changes, and pharmacotherapy. PMID:18768403

Ellison, James M

2008-10-01

93

Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

McLean, Dulce Didio

1991-01-01

94

Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. [Exxon Exploration Co., Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1996-12-31

95

Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. (Exxon Exploration Co., Houston, TX (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

96

Ecology and Greater Prairie-Chicken  

E-print Network

Ecology and Management of the Greater Prairie-Chicken Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University E-969E-969E-969 Ecology, Editor Professor and Extension Specialist Rangeland Ecology and Management Department of Plant and Soil

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

97

2010 Annual Report Greater West Texas  

E-print Network

. They visited the Children's Advocacy Center, Ronald Mc- Donald House, South Plains Food Bank, Early Learning Center, and Boys & Girls Club. · Our Facebook page launched in September. Visit the page today and become a fan! www.facebook.com/pages/Greater-West-Texas-State- Employee-Charitable-Campaign/103542263037744

Rock, Chris

98

Psychiatric symptom impairment in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The general aim of this study was to examine the relation of psychiatric symptom-induced impairment with other common parameters of mental health in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prevalence rates are used to illustrate the implications of different criteria for caseness. Parents/teachers completed DSM-IV-referenced rating scales for 6-12 year old children with ASD (N?=?115), the majority of whom were boys (86 %). Most children were rated by parents (81 %) or teachers (86 %) as being socially or academically impaired by symptoms of at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common impairing conditions (parent/teacher) were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (67 %/71 %), oppositional defiant disorder (35 %/33 %), and anxiety disorder (47 %/34 %), and the combined rates based on either informant were generally much higher. Agreement between symptom cutoff and impairment cutoff was acceptable for most disorders. A larger percentage of youth were impaired by psychiatric symptoms than met symptom cutoff criteria, and the discrepancy between impairment cutoff and clinical cutoff (impairment cutoff plus symptom cutoff) was even greater. Impairment was moderately to highly correlated with both number and severity of symptoms. Parents' and teachers' ratings indicated little agreement as to whether a child was impaired. Findings for youth with ASD were similar to non ASD child psychiatry outpatient referrals, but clearly different in several ways from comparable studies of community-based samples. PMID:23605958

Kaat, Aaron J; Gadow, Kenneth D; Lecavalier, Luc

2013-08-01

99

Driving impairment due to sleepiness is exacerbated by low alcohol intake  

PubMed Central

Methods: Twelve healthy young men drove for two hours in the afternoon, in an instrumented car on a simulated motorway. In a repeated measures, counterbalanced design, they were given alcohol or placebo under conditions of normal sleep or prior sleep restriction. Measurements were: driving impairment (lane drifting), subjective sleepiness, and EEG measures of sleepiness. Results: Whereas sleep restriction and alcohol each caused a significant deterioration in all indices, the combined alcohol and sleep restriction further and significantly worsened lane drifting (which typifies sleep related crashes). This combined effect was also reflected to a significant extent in the EEG, but not with subjective sleepiness. That is, alcohol did not significantly increase subjective sleepiness in combination with sleep loss when compared with sleep loss alone. Conclusions: Modest, and apparently "safe" levels of alcohol intake exacerbate driving impairment due to sleepiness. The sleepy drivers seemed not to have realised that alcohol had increased their sleepiness to an extent that was clearly reflected by a greater driving impairment and in the EEG. PMID:12937193

Horne, J; Reyner, L; Barrett, P

2003-01-01

100

Generalized anxiety disorder in a nonclinical sample of children: Symptom presentation and predictors of impairment  

PubMed Central

Presentation of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in a nonclinical sample of children (7–11 years old) and factors that predict overall impairment were examined. Symptom presentation was compared in children with GAD (n = 49) and anxious children without GAD (n = 42). Children with GAD endorsed significantly more worries, greater intensity of worries, and more DSM-IV associated symptoms than anxious children without GAD. Eighty-six percent of children with GAD had a comorbid diagnosis with 4% having a depressive disorder. Number of associated symptoms was most predictive of GAD impairment based on child perspective and intensity of worry was most predictive based on clinician perspective. Overall, findings from the current study are consistent with reports based on clinical samples. The DSM-IV-TR criteria for GAD were supported, with the exception that children with GAD typically present with several associated symptoms, rather than only one. PMID:18815006

Layne, Ann E.; Bernat, Debra H.; Victor, Andrea M.; Bernstein, Gail A.

2012-01-01

101

Benzo[a]pyrene Impairs Neurodifferentiation in PC12 Cells  

PubMed Central

Animal studies indicate neurobehavioral anomalies after prenatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). In order to determine if BaP directly affects neurodevelopment, we compared its effects to those of the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), in undifferentiated and differentiating neuronotypic PC12 cells, evaluating indices of cell replication, cell number, neurite outgrowth and phenotypic differentiation. Unlike CPF, BaP did not inhibit DNA synthesis in undifferentiated cells. In cells undergoing nerve growth factor-induced differentiation, CPF reduced cell numbers (assessed by DNA content) whereas BaP increased them, suggesting a delay in the transition between cell replication and differentiation. Indices of cell enlargement (total protein/DNA) and neurite outgrowth (membrane protein/DNA) also showed opposite effects of CPF (increases) and BaP (decreases). We directly confirmed BaP impairment of neurodifferentiation by measuring markers for the two neurotransmitter phenotypes expressed by PC12 cells: tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine phenotype) and choline acetyltransferase (acetylcholine phenotype). BaP significantly reduced both markers in differentiating cells, with a preferentially greater effect on the acetylcholine phenotype. Our results indicate that low, nontoxic levels of BaP can impair neurodifferentiation, resulting in excess cell numbers at the expense of the emergence of neurotransmitter phenotypes. BaP thus has direct actions on developing neuronal cells that could contribute to the adverse neurodevelopmental effects seen with in vivo exposures. PMID:19539729

Slotkin, Theodore A.; Seidler, Frederic J.

2009-01-01

102

Spared and impaired aspects of motivated cognitive control in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and 39 healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with nonreward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and nonreward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between nonreward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared with baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the nonreward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both nonreward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of "just-in-time," reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

Mann, Claire L; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L; Barch, Deanna M

2013-08-01

103

Do greater mouse-eared bats experience a trade-off between energy conservation and learning?  

PubMed

Bats, some species of rodents and some birds are able to save energy during the summer period by decreasing their body temperature and falling into torpor. Some studies indicate that torpor prevents sleeping and causes effects similar to sleep deprivation. Impairment of processes stabilizing memory slows down learning accuracy and speed. We conducted two experiments to test whether greater mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis, which commonly use torpor during the summer period, experience a trade-off between energy savings and learning abilities. We compared learning speed and accuracy in bats that were exposed to low (7°C) and higher ambient temperatures (22°C) between training and experimental sessions. Tests were conducted in experiments with food reward (food search) and without food reward (perch search). Time spent with the skin temperature above 30°C was significantly longer for bats exposed to 22°C than for those exposed to 7°C, and longer in experiments with food reward than without food reward. We observed only a very weak tendency for better accuracy and shorter search times in bats exposed to 22°C than in those exposed to 7°C. Our data indicate that memory consolidation of bats under natural conditions is not affected by daily torpor when bats are in good condition and may therefore defend against a rapid fall into torpor. We suggest that homeostatic processes connected with the circadian rhythm allow protection of the consolidation of memory for relatively simple tasks despite time spent in torpor. PMID:25392460

Ruczy?ski, Ireneusz; Clarin, Theresa M A; Siemers, Bjoern M

2014-11-15

104

Pharmacokinetics of sunitinib malate in subjects with hepatic impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of sunitinib and its active metabolite, SU12662.\\u000a This open-label study enrolled subjects with normal hepatic function (n = 8), mild (Child–Pugh [CP]-A; n = 8), or moderate (CP-B; n = 8) hepatic impairment. Subjects received sunitinib 50 mg as a single oral dose. Mild or moderate hepatic impairment did\\u000a not significantly alter sunitinib, SU12662, or total

Carlo L. Bello; May Garrett; Laurie Sherman; John Smeraglia; Bob Ryan; Melvin Toh

2010-01-01

105

Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

106

Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.  

PubMed

Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile. PMID:24906427

Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

2014-06-01

107

Vestibular disorders and dual task performance: impairment when walking a straight path.  

PubMed

Locomotion is impaired in some people with vestibular disorders. Performance on cognitive tasks is also impaired in many people with vestibular disorders. The goal of this study was to determine if patients with vestibular disorders have decreased ability to complete a dual task performance involving a cognitive task, an additional motor task or both tasks, combined along a linear path. Subjects were normal, had benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or had various vestibular disorders that caused unilateral weakness. They were asked to walk 7.62 m in a straight line with eyes open or closed, without extra tasks, and while nodding the head, naming things, and both nodding and naming. The patients walked significantly slower than controls, especially when performing the cognitive task. Patients had greater ataxia and began veering sooner than normals. The subjects' veering increased significantly with the addition of cognitive tasks. The patient groups did not differ significantly from each other. The changes in velocity did not affect the veering. These data suggest that patients with vestibular disorders are impaired in their ability to complete a linear path when cognitive tasks are added. PMID:21558642

Roberts, Jess C; Cohen, Helen S; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh

2011-01-01

108

Selenium Concentrations in Greater Scaup and Dreissenid Mussels During Winter on Western Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hypothesis for the decline of the North American greater (Aythya marila) and lesser (A. affinis) scaup population is that contaminant burdens acquired on wintering or staging areas impair reproduction or cause lethal\\u000a or sublethal health effects. Recent studies have found increased selenium (Se) concentrations in scaup but have focused on\\u000a the fall and spring staging periods. From January to

L. L. WareS; S. A. Petrie; S. S. Badzinski; R. C. Bailey

2011-01-01

109

Drug Impaired Driving Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... Learn More About Impaired Driving Issue Brief 3 states – California, New York and Hawaii – separate driving under the influence of alcohol, under ... information, consult the appropriate State Highway Safety Office . State Per Se Laws for Drugs (Forbidding Prohibited Substances in Driver's Body) DEC/DRE Programs (Providing Law ... Idaho Yes Illinois Yes Yes Indiana Yes ...

110

Alcohol, drugs and driving: implications for evaluating driver impairment.  

PubMed

Impaired driving is a significant traffic safety problem, and alcohol and drugs taken before driving contribute substantially to this problem. With the increase in use of prescription medication and the decriminalization of some drugs, it has become increasingly important to understand the manifestation of driver impairment. Building upon previous alcohol research conducted at the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS), this study enrolled commercial bus drivers to evaluate the effect of triazolam on driving performance to assess difference between placebo, 0.125, and 0.25 mg doses in a randomized and double-blind design. On each of three randomized visits, subjects drove a simulator scenario that had previously been used to demonstrate effects of alcohol on driving performance. Plasma triazolam levels were obtained before the simulator drive. The protocol included participants receiving study medication and placebo over a 3-week period of time one to two weeks apart. The simulator drives used for this analysis occurred approximately 140 minutes after dosing-after the subjects had completed four bus simulator drives and neuropsychological tests over a 2-hour period of time surrounding dosing. The driving scenario contained representative situations on three types of roadways (urban, freeway, and rural) under nighttime driving conditions. Lane keeping performance (ability to drive straight in the lane) under the three doses of triazolam demonstrates that at the 0.25 mg dose, statistically significant effects on performance are observed, but no effects are found at the 0.125 mg level when testing at this time period after dosing. This differs from the effects of alcohol, which shows impairing effects at a 0.05% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and a greater effect at 0.10% BAC. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding how different types of drugs affect driving performance in realistic driving environments. Although some compounds may have an effect that correlates linearly to dosage, that is not always the case. An understanding of these differences and how they vary across driving tasks is essential to developing a robust evaluation protocol that can accurately describe the effects of a wide variety of drugs on driver impairment. This information can be used to reduce the risk of deleterious effects of therapeutic medications while ensuring their safe and beneficial use. PMID:24406943

Brown, Timothy; Milavetz, Gary; Murry, Daryl J

2013-01-01

111

Everyday Memory Impairment of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated everyday memory impairment in 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) and compared the scores with those of 48 age-, sex- and education-matched normal controls (NC) and 48 age-, sex- and education-matched Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Overall everyday memory was impaired in MCI patients but the severity was milder than that

Hiroaki Kazui; Akemi Matsuda; Nobutsugu Hirono; Etsuro Mori; Noriko Miyoshi; Atsushi Ogino; Hiromasa Tokunaga; Yoshitaka Ikejiri; Masatoshi Takeda

2005-01-01

112

Greater Expectations: Adolescents' Positive Motivations for Sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESULTS: Participants valued intimacy the most, then social status and, finally, sexual pleasure. These relationship goals differed significantly by gender and sexual experience. Females valued intimacy significantly more and sexual pleasure less than males. Sexually experienced adolescents valued both intimacy and pleasure more than sexually in- experienced adolescents. Among females, but not males, sexually experienced adolescents valued the goal of

Mary A. Ott; Susan G. Millstein; Susan Ofner; Bonnie L. Halpern-Felsher

2006-01-01

113

Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As Boston was once known as the "Athens of America", it will probably not be a surprise to learn that the metropolitan area has more arts and cultural organizations per capita than any other place in the United States. One organization that is dedicated to strengthen this vibrant arts community is the Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston. They provide pro bono legal services for artists, training workshops to serve artists and art administrators, and they also train business professionals to serve on nonprofit boards of directors. The Council is also a chapter of the American for the Arts organization, and their homepage provides an event calendar, announcements, and talks. Along the right-hand side of the page visitors will find easy-to-use links such as "I need legal help" and "I want to be a more successful artist." Also, the site contains links to sign up for their Twitter feed and to join their Facebook network.

114

Post-Stroke Cognitive Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairments following stroke have in recent years attracted increasing attention from neurologists. A number of studies have demonstrated that the incidence of impaired cognitive functions can reach 40?60% in elderly patients during the first six months following transient ischemic attacks, minor strokes, and strokes with minimal neurological deficit. The severity of cognitive impairments reaches the level of dementia in

N. V. Vakhnina; L. Yu. Nikitina; V. A. Parfenov; N. N. Yakhno

2009-01-01

115

Specific Language Impairments in Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The fourth volume in a series on communication and language intervention focuses on specific language impairments in children, and contains papers presented at a 1992 conference. Papers include the following: "Specific Language Impairments in Children: An Introduction" (Ruth V. Watkins); "Studies of Genetics of Specific Language Impairment" (J.…

Watkins, Ruth V., Ed.; Rice, Mabel L., Ed.

116

Evaluation of passive transfer in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

PubMed

Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) calves can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study, serum samples from neonatal kudu calves were tested for immunoglobulin using different tests validated for domestic ruminants, including measurement of gamma globulin (GG) measured by protein electrophoresis, total solids (TS) measured by calibrated refractometry, total protein (TP) and globulins measured by colorimetry, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the zinc sulfate turbidity test (ZSTT). In a logistic regression model, TP, TS, globulins, and the natural log transform of GGT were the only significant parameters associated with FPT. Various historic parameters related to the dam, as well as calf weight, sex, glucose, and packed cell volume, were not significant. Based on the results, FPT in greater kudu is defined as GG of < 0.5 g/dl, a value lower than that in domestic cattle. TS measured by refractometry has an 80% sensitivity and a 100% specificity for FPT in greater kudu. With FPT defined as GG < 0.5 g/dl, kudu calves with a TS < 4.8 g/dl and a negative ZSTT have an increased probability of requiring medical intervention and additional diagnostics may be warranted. PMID:22204060

Hammond, Elizabeth E; Fiorello, Christine V

2011-12-01

117

Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that approximate each other sufficiently closely to constitute a majority for the purpose of quantifying reliability. This criterion is, simply, that if there do not exist at least three sensors having weights greater than a prescribed minimum acceptable value, then the array as a whole is deemed to have failed.

Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

2004-01-01

118

Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Older Vietnamese  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study examined correlates of cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment among older adults living in Da Nang, Vietnam and surrounding rural areas. Methods The analytic sample consisted of 489 adults 55 and older stratified by gender, age, and rural/urban status. The sample was 46% rural, 44% women, with a mean age of 69.04. Interviews were conducted in individuals’ homes by trained interviewers. The dependent variable was a Vietnamese version of the MMSE. A multiple linear regression was run with the MMSE continuous scores reflecting cognitive functioning, while a binary logistic regression was conducted with an education-adjusted cut-off score reflecting possible cognitive impairment. Age, gender, education, material hardship, depressive symptoms (CES-D), war injury, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease conditions served as correlates, controlling for marital status and rural/urban residence. Results About 33% of the sample scored below the standard cutoff of 23 on the MMSE. However only 12.9% of the sample would be considered impaired using the education-adjusted cutoff score. Cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment as indicated by MMSE scores were significantly associated with being older, completing fewer years of education, and material hardship. Gender, depressive symptoms, and cerebrovascular disease were associated with cognitive functioning, but not cognitive impairment. Conclusion These results show that social characteristics, physical illness, and mental health are associated with cognitive functioning. The study also raises questions about the need for standardization of screening measures on Vietnamese populations. PMID:23697847

Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H.; Hoang, Chuong N.; Nguyen, Ha T.

2014-01-01

119

Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project  

SciTech Connect

The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

1997-10-01

120

Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network (GPGN) is a project by the Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries designed "to develop a web-based repository of geographically organized historical information about Philadelphia, its geography, its buildings, and its people." It's quite an impressive endeavor, and anyone with a love for the City of Brotherly Love will want to spend at least a few hours on the site. First-time visitors can get started by clicking on the Resource Browser on the homepage. Here they will have access to thousands of digitized materials, including early images of the city, planning documents, historic views, land use maps, and so on. The items here date from 1683 to the late 1960s, and visitors can use the resource type toggle feature to look for specific groups of documents. Moving on, visitors can also use the Interactive Maps Viewer to look over map layers that include a 1934 land value appraisal map and a 1942 land use map created by the Works Progress Administration. Finally, visitors shouldn't miss the Educational Resources area. Here they will find guides for teachers seeking to use this wealth of information in their own classrooms.

121

Effects of Chronic Stress on Memory Decline in Cognitively Normal and Mildly Impaired Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective The literature provides evidence of a strong relationship between greater stress and memory loss, but few studies have examined this relationship with both variables measured over time. The authors sought to determine the prospective association between subjective and objective measures of chronic stress and rate of memory decline in cognitively normal and mildly impaired older adults. Method This longitudinal study was conducted at a university research center and included 61 cognitively normal subjects and 41 subjects with mild cognitive impairment (ages 65–97). Fifty-two subjects were followed for up to 3 years (mean=2 years) and received repeated stress and cognitive assessments. Exclusion criteria were dementia, significant medical or psychiatric conditions, and medication use (e.g., corticosteroids) that might affect cortisol level or cognitive functioning. The main outcome measure was a regression-based slope reflecting performance change on tests of global cognition and episodic memory as a function of baseline diagnosis, recent life events, and salivary cortisol. Examiners were blind to stress ratings and cortisol levels at the time of cognitive testing. Results Higher event-based stress ratings collected over the follow-up period were associated with faster cognitive decline in subjects with mild cognitive impairment but not in cognitively normal subjects. In contrast, higher cortisol levels were associated with slower cognitive decline in subjects with mild cognitive impairment but not in cognitively normal subjects. Conclusions Chronic stress affects cognitive functioning differently in cognitively normal subjects and those with mild cognitive impairment. Cortisol, while likely to have neurotoxic effects over time, may enhance cognitive functioning in older adults compromised by existing cognitive deficits. PMID:19755573

Peavy, Guerry M.; Salmon, David P.; Jacobson, Mark W.; Hervey, Aaron; Gamst, Anthony C.; Wolfson, Tanya; Patterson, Thomas L.; Goldman, Sherry; Mills, Paul J.; Khandrika, Srikrishna; Galasko, Douglas

2010-01-01

122

Significant sequelae after bacterial meningitis in Niger: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Beside high mortality, acute bacterial meningitis may lead to a high frequency of neuropsychological sequelae. The Sahelian countries belonging to the meningitis belt experience approximately 50% of the meningitis cases occurring in the world. Studies in Africa have shown that N. meningitidis could cause hearing loss in up to 30% of the cases, exceeding sometimes measles. The situation is similar in Niger which experiences yearly meningitis epidemics and where rehabilitation wards are rare and hearing aids remain unaffordable. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of neuropsychological sequelae after acute bacterial meningitis in four of the eight regions of Niger. Methods Subjects exposed to acute bacterial meningitis were enrolled into a cohort with non exposed subjects matched on age and gender. Consenting subjects were interviewed during inclusion and at a control visit two months later. If clinical symptoms or psychological troubles persisted at both visits among the exposed subjects with a frequency significantly greater than that observed among the non exposed subjects, a sequelae was retained. The comparison of the frequency of sequelae between non exposed and exposed subjects to bacterial meningitis was also calculated using the Fisher exact test. Results Three persisting functional symptoms were registered: headaches, asthenia, and vertigo among 31.3, 36.9, and 22.4% respectively of the exposed subjects. A significant motor impairment was retrieved among 12.3% of the exposed versus 1.6% of the non exposed subjects. Hearing loss significantly disabled 31.3% of the exposed subjects and 10.4% exhibited a serious deafness. Conclusions This study carried out in Niger confirms two serious neurological sequelae occurring at high frequencies after bacterial meningitis: severe and profound hearing loss and motor impairment. Cochlear implantation and hearing aids are too expensive for populations living in developing countries. Neurological sequelae occurring after meningitis should sensitize African public health authorities on the development of rehabilitation centers. All these challenges can be met through existing strategies and guidelines. PMID:23687976

2013-01-01

123

Increased left hemisphere impairment in high-functioning autism: A tract based spatial statistics study.  

PubMed

There is evidence emerging from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) research that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with greater impairment in the left hemisphere. Although this has been quantified with volumetric region of interest analyses, it has yet to be tested with white matter integrity analysis. In the present study, tract based spatial statistics was used to contrast white matter integrity of 12 participants with high-functioning autism or Aspergers syndrome (HFA/AS) with 12 typically developing individuals. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) was examined, in addition to axial, radial and mean diffusivity (AD, RD and MD). In the left hemisphere, participants with HFA/AS demonstrated significantly reduced FA in predominantly thalamic and fronto-parietal pathways and increased RD. Symmetry analyses confirmed that in the HFA/AS group, WM disturbance was significantly greater in the left compared to right hemisphere. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature suggestive of reduced FA in ASD, and provide preliminary evidence for RD impairments in the left hemisphere. PMID:25159311

Perkins, Thomas John; Stokes, Mark Andrew; McGillivray, Jane Anne; Mussap, Alexander Julien; Cox, Ivanna Anne; Maller, Jerome Joseph; Bittar, Richard Garth

2014-11-30

124

Color synesthesia improves color but impairs motion perception.  

PubMed

A recent study showed that color synesthetes have increased color sensitivity but impaired motion perception. This is exciting because little research has examined how synesthesia affects basic perceptual processes outside the context of synesthetic experiences. The results suggest that synesthesia broadly impacts perception with greater neural implications than previously considered. PMID:24581557

McCarthy, J Daniel; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

2014-05-01

125

Clinical implications of impaired microcirculation.  

PubMed

Various types of microcirculation disturbances have been described in the course of systemic diseases, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the so-called "idiopathic oedema" syndrome. This article summarizes the relevant microcirculatory disorders associated with diabetes and their pathophysiology. These functional disorders occur before or in association with anatomical lesions of diabetic microangiopathy. Increased capillary permeability to albumin is frequently observed in diabetes. In a placebo-controlled trial, Daflon 500 mg, a purified, micronized, flavonoidic fraction, significantly improved this disorder. Patients complaining of an oedematous syndrome almost always have an increased extracellular fluid volume, probably largely due to increased capillary permeability. Diabetes and "idiopathic oedema" therefore constitute two examples of the major clinical implications of impaired microcirculation. PMID:8919261

Valensi, P; Behar, A

1995-09-01

126

Spatial memory impairments in amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a virtual radial arm maze  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to apply the virtual radial arm maze (VRAM) task to find spatial working memory and reference memory impairments in patients of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Spatial memory functions between aMCI converters and nonconverters are also compared using VRAM results. Methods We assessed the spatial memory in 20 normal controls, 20 aMCI, and 20 mild AD subjects using VRAM. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and other neuropsychological tests were given to the subjects in conjunction with the VRAM test. Scores in working memory errors and reference memory errors were compared among the three groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, aMCI patients were followed-up after 5 years and surveyed for AD conversion rate. Results In AD patients, both spatial working and reference memory were impaired. However, in aMCI subjects, only spatial reference memory was impaired. Significant spatial reference memory impairment was found in the aMCI converter group when compared to the nonconverter group. Conclusion Spatial working memory is less impaired in aMCI while reference memory is similarly damaged in AD. In aMCI patients, more severe spatial reference memory deficit is a neuropsychological marker for AD conversion. VRAM may be well utilized in humans to assess spatial memory in normal aging, in aMCI, and in AD. PMID:24790448

Lee, Jun-Young; Kho, Sooyeon; Yoo, Hye Bin; Park, Soowon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kwon, Jun Soo; Cha, Kyung Ryeol; Jung, Hee-Yeon

2014-01-01

127

Sexual Dimorphism in Healthy Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A DTI Study  

PubMed Central

Previous PET and MRI studies have indicated that the degree to which pathology translates into clinical symptoms is strongly dependent on sex with women more likely to express pathology as a diagnosis of AD, whereas men are more resistant to clinical symptoms in the face of the same degree of pathology. Here we use DTI to investigate the difference between male and female white matter tracts in healthy older participants (24 women, 16 men) and participants with mild cognitive impairment (21 women, 12 men). Differences between control and MCI participants were found in fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusion (DR), axial diffusion (DA) and mean diffusion (MD). A significant main effect of sex was also reported for FA, MD and DR indices, with male control and male MCI participants having significantly more microstructural damage than their female counterparts. There was no sex by diagnosis interaction. Male MCIs also had significantly less normalised grey matter (GM) volume than female MCIs. However, in terms of absolute brain volume, male controls had significantly more brain volume than female controls. Normalised GM and WM volumes were found to decrease significantly with age with no age by sex interaction. Overall, these data suggest that the same degree of cognitive impairment is associated with greater structural damage in men compared with women. PMID:22768288

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Desmond; Bartley, Mairead; Collins, Ronan; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2012-01-01

128

Sexual dimorphism in healthy aging and mild cognitive impairment: a DTI study.  

PubMed

Previous PET and MRI studies have indicated that the degree to which pathology translates into clinical symptoms is strongly dependent on sex with women more likely to express pathology as a diagnosis of AD, whereas men are more resistant to clinical symptoms in the face of the same degree of pathology. Here we use DTI to investigate the difference between male and female white matter tracts in healthy older participants (24 women, 16 men) and participants with mild cognitive impairment (21 women, 12 men). Differences between control and MCI participants were found in fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusion (DR), axial diffusion (DA) and mean diffusion (MD). A significant main effect of sex was also reported for FA, MD and DR indices, with male control and male MCI participants having significantly more microstructural damage than their female counterparts. There was no sex by diagnosis interaction. Male MCIs also had significantly less normalised grey matter (GM) volume than female MCIs. However, in terms of absolute brain volume, male controls had significantly more brain volume than female controls. Normalised GM and WM volumes were found to decrease significantly with age with no age by sex interaction. Overall, these data suggest that the same degree of cognitive impairment is associated with greater structural damage in men compared with women. PMID:22768288

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L W; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Desmond; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2012-01-01

129

Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.  

PubMed

The phylogeography of the bush habituated African bovid species impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from Southern Africa toward Eastern regions in the greater kudu. Results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. The study reveals a similar pattern, that is a marked divergence of lineages from South-western Africa relative to other regions. This pattern is opposed to previously published findings in other African bovid species. In the impala, the genetically isolated region is consistent with morphology because it is recognized as the subspecies A. m. petersi, the black-faced impala. In contrast, the similar split of South-western mitochondrial lineages was not expected in the greater kudu on the basis of morphology. Both species show a significant population genetic differentiation. Beyond their phylogeographical value, our results should raise conservation concerns about South-western populations of both species. The black-faced impala is categorized as vulnerable and our data show indications of hybridization with common impala A. m. melampus. The previously unrecognized genetic status of the South-western kudus could also imply conservation regulations. PMID:11298982

Nersting, L G; Arctander, P

2001-03-01

130

Sirolimus impairs wound healing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  Clinically, the immunosuppressive drug sirolimus, used in organ transplantation, appears to impair wound healing. Little is\\u000a known about the mechanisms of action. We investigated the effect of sirolimus on wound healing, and we analyzed the expression\\u000a of stimulating mediators of angiogenesis (VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor) and collagen synthesis (nitric oxide)\\u000a in wounds.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Groups of ten

Michael Schäffer; Robert Schier; Markus Napirei; Stefan Michalski; Thilo Traska; Richard Viebahn

2007-01-01

131

Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?  

PubMed Central

Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

2013-01-01

132

Cognitive impairment in methadone maintenance patients.  

PubMed

Few well-controlled studies have examined psychomotor and cognitive performance in methadone maintenance patients (MMP). In the present study, performance of 18 opioid-dependent MMP was evaluated relative to that of 21 control participants without substance abuse histories. The MMP and control groups were balanced with respect to gender, race, age, years of education, current employment status, current reading level, and estimated IQ score. Recent drug abstinence was verified by urine testing. Participants with a urine screen positive for benzodiazepines or a breathalyzer test positive for alcohol prior to performance testing were excluded. To avoid testing under conditions of acute heroin or cocaine intoxication, but without testing under conditions of acute withdrawal, participants with current use of heroin or cocaine were only required to abstain for 24 h prior to performance testing. MMP exhibited impairment relative to controls in psychomotor speed (digit symbol substitution and trail-making tests), working memory (two-back task), decision making (gambling task), and metamemory (confidence ratings on a recognition memory test); results also suggested possible impairment in inhibitory mechanisms (Stroop color-word paradigm). MMP did not exhibit impairment in time estimation, conceptual flexibility or long-term memory. The wide range of impaired functions is striking, and may have important implications for daily functioning in MMP. Further research is necessary to determine the clinical significance of the impairments in laboratory-based tests for daily performance in the natural environment, as well as to differentiate impairments due to acute methadone dosing, chronic methadone maintenance, chronic poly-drug abuse, and other factors. PMID:12062778

Mintzer, Miriam Z; Stitzer, Maxine L

2002-06-01

133

[Mild cognitive impairment].  

PubMed

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy. PMID:19764601

Pavlovi?, Dragan M; Pavlovi?, Aleksandra M

2009-01-01

134

Passengers of Impaired Drivers  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aims of this study are (a) to estimate the prevalence of passengers riding with alcohol-impaired drivers; (b) to investigate the role of demographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational status) and relevant driving conditions (time of the day, trip origin, vehicle ownership) on shaping the likelihood of alcohol-impaired driving; (c) to identify and estimate the prevalence of passengers as alternative drivers (PADs); and (d) to examine the role that vehicle ownership plays in shaping the occurrence of PADs. Method Data came from a unique convenience sample of passengers obtained from the 2007 National Roadside Survey, a random sample of drivers from the 48 contiguous states. Results The prevalence of PADs in the targeted population (mostly weekend night vehicles) was higher with drivers at .00

Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John

2012-01-01

135

Oak Ridge greater confinement disposal demonstrations  

SciTech Connect

Demonstrations are being conducted in association with the disposal of a high activity low-level waste (LLW) stream. The waste stream in question will result from the cement solidification of decanted liquids from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The solid waste will be produced beginning in mid summer 1988. It is anticipated to have significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90, with smaller amounts of other radionuclides and <100 nCi/gm of TRU. The solid waste forms are expected to have surface dose rates in the 1 to 2 r/hr range. The solid waste will also contain several chemical species at concentrations which are below those of concern, but which may present enhanced corrosion potential for the disposal units. 2 refs., 5 figs.

Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clapp, R.B.

1987-01-01

136

Impaired Competence for Pretense in Children with Autism: Exploring Potential Cognitive Predictors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lack of pretense in children with autism has been explained by a number of theoretical explanations, including impaired mentalising, impaired response inhibition, and weak central coherence. This study aimed to empirically test each of these theories. Children with autism (n = 60) were significantly impaired relative to controls (n = 65) when…

Bigham, Sally

2010-01-01

137

Differences in Socialization between Visually Impaired Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to…

Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh

2011-01-01

138

Early life exposure to sevoflurane impairs adulthood spatial memory in the rat.  

PubMed

Sevoflurane is a general anesthetic commonly used in the pediatric setting because it is sweet-smelling, nonflammable, fast acting and has a very short recovery time. Although recent clinical data suggest that early anesthesia exposure is associated with subsequent learning and memory problems, it is difficult to determine the exact scope of developmental neurotoxicity associated with exposure to specific anesthetics such as sevoflurane. This is largely due to inconsistencies in the literature. Thus, in the present studies we evaluated the effect of early life exposure to sevoflurane (1%, 2%, 3% or 4%) on adulthood memory impairment in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were exposed to different regimens of sevoflurane anesthesia on postnatal days (PNDs) 3, 7, or 14 or at 7 weeks (P7W) of age and spatial memory performance was assessed in adulthood using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Rats exposed to sevoflurane exhibited significant memory impairment which was concentration and exposure duration dependent. Disruption of MWM performance was more severe in animals exposed on both PNDs 3 and 7 than in animals exposed on both PNDs 3 and 14. The younger the animal's age at the time of exposure, the more significant the effect on later MWM performance. Compared to the neonates, animals exposed at P7W were relatively insensitive to sevoflurane: memory was impaired in this group only after repeated exposures to low doses or single exposures to high doses. Early life exposure to sevoflurane can result in spatial memory impairments in adulthood and the shorter the interval between exposures, the greater the deficit. PMID:23994303

Shen, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yusheng; Xu, Shiqin; Zhao, Qingsong; Guo, Xirong; Shen, Rong; Wang, Fuzhou

2013-12-01

139

Moderate noise induced cognition impairment of mice and its underlying mechanisms.  

PubMed

Noise pollution is recognized as a serious human health problem in modern society. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of moderate-intensity white noise exposure on learning and memory of mice, and the underlying mechanisms. The learning and memory ability of mice were evaluated by water maze and step-down inhibitory avoidance experiments respectively, following 1, 3, and 6 weeks noise exposure (80 dB SPL, 2h/day). To explore potential mechanisms, we determined levels of oxidative stress in the inferior colliculus (IC), auditory cortex (AC), and hippocampus (the structures comprising the critical encephalic region associated with the acoustic lemniscal ascending pathway), the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau in the hippocampus (important role in learning and memory), and the basic auditory response properties of neurons in the IC. Moderate-intensity noise exposure impaired the learning and memory ability of mice in both water maze and step-down inhibitory avoidance experiments, and the longer the noise exposure time the greater the impairment. At 6 weeks after noise exposure, there was also evidence of oxidative damage in the IC, AC, and hippocampus, hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the hippocampus, and significant changes in the auditory response properties of neurons in the IC. These data results suggest that moderate-intensity noise can progressively impair the learning and memory ability of mice, which may result from peroxidative damage, tau hyperphosphorylation, and auditory coding alteration. PMID:21726571

Cheng, Liang; Wang, Shao-Hui; Chen, Qi-Cai; Liao, Xiao-Mei

2011-10-24

140

Effects of late visual impairment on mental representations activated by visual and tactile stimuli.  

PubMed

Similarly to sighted people, individuals congenitally affected by a severe visual impairment can maintain and mentally manipulate spatial information about tactile stimuli [Vecchi, T., Cattaneo, Z., Monegato, M., Pece, A., Cornoldi, C., Pietrini, P., 2006. Why Cyclops could not compete with Ulysses: monocular vision and mental images. NeuroReport 17, 723-726]. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the onset timing of a severe (but not total) sight loss may influence spatial imagery abilities based on haptic input. To this purpose, a group of late severe visually impaired people and a matched group of normally sighted participants (all blindfolded) were presented with an imagery task requiring to memorize and retrieve a number of locations presented on tactile matrices. Results indicate that a severe visual deficit occurring later in life significantly impairs spatial imagery abilities to a greater extent than in the case of congenital blindness, probably as a consequence of a modest development of specific compensatory mechanisms associated with congenital deficits. PMID:17368576

Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Cornoldi, Cesare

2007-05-01

141

Mild cognitive impairment und Schlaf.  

E-print Network

??Hintergrund: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) bezeichnet kognitive Defizite, die vom normalen Alterungsprozess abweichen, jedoch noch keiner Demenz entsprechen. Personen, die davon betroffen sind, weisen ein… (more)

Schadenhofer, Claudia

2014-01-01

142

How impaired are children and adolescents by mental health problems? Results of the BELLA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The consideration of impairment plays a crucial role in detecting significant mental health problems in children whose symptoms\\u000a do not meet diagnostic criteria. The assessment of impairment may be particularly relevant when only short screening instruments\\u000a are applied in epidemiological surveys. Furthermore, differences between childrens’ and parents’ perceptions of present impairment\\u000a and impairing symptoms are of interest with respect to

Nora Wille; Susanne Bettge; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen; Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer

2008-01-01

143

Anatomical variation in the position of the greater palatine foramen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study measured the position of the greater palatine foramen relative to adjacent anatomical landmarks in Brazilian skulls. The perpendicular distance of the greater palatine foramen to the midline maxillary suture in Brazilian skulls was about 14 mm and the distance of greater palatine foramen to the incisive foramen was approximately 36 mm. The distance of greater palatine foramen

Bruno R. Chrcanovic; Antônio L. N. Custódio

2010-01-01

144

Driving impairs talking.  

PubMed

It is well known that conversation (e.g., on a cell phone) impairs driving. We demonstrate that the reverse is also true: Language production and comprehension, and the encoding of the products of comprehension into memory, are less accurate when one is driving. Ninety-six pairs of drivers and conversation partners engaged in a story-retelling task in a driving simulator. Half of the pairs were older adults. Each pair completed one dual-task block (driving during the retelling task) and two single-task control blocks. The results showed a decline in the accuracy of the drivers' storytelling and of their memory for stories that were told to them by their nondriving partners. Speech production suffered an additional cost when the difficulty of driving increased. Measures of driving performance suggested that the drivers gave priority to the driving task when they were conversing. As a result, their linguistic performance suffered. PMID:20081155

Becic, Ensar; Dell, Gary S; Bock, Kathryn; Garnsey, Susan M; Kubose, Tate; Kramer, Arthur F

2010-02-01

145

Type 2 diabetes mellitus and exercise impairment  

PubMed Central

Limitations in physical fitness, a consistent finding in individuals with both type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus, correlate strongly with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These limitations may significantly contribute to the persistent excess cardiovascular mortality affecting this group. Exercise impairments in VO2 peak and VO2 kinetics manifest early on in diabetes, even with good glycemic control and in the absence of clinically apparent complications. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction is often present but does not fully explain the observed defect in exercise capacity in persons with diabetes. In part, the cardiac limitations are secondary to decreased perfusion with exercise challenge. This is a reversible defect. Similarly, in the skeletal muscle, impairments in nutritive blood flow correlate with slowed (or inefficient) exercise kinetics and decreased exercise capacity. Several correlations highlight the likelihood of endothelial-specific impairments as mediators of exercise dysfunction in diabetes, including insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, decreased myocardial perfusion, slowed tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and impairment in mitochondrial function. Both exercise training and therapies targeted at improving insulin sensitivity and endothelial function improve physical fitness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Optimization of exercise functions in people with diabetes has implications for diabetes prevention and reductions in mortality risk. Understanding the molecular details of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may provide specific therapeutic targets for the remediation of this defect. Rat models to test this hypothesis are under study. PMID:23299658

Bridenstine, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G.

2013-01-01

146

Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

2012-01-01

147

Spina Bifida and Anencephalus in Greater London  

PubMed Central

In order to make comparisons with the findings in a high frequency area, South Wales, with those in a low frequency area, south-east England, a birth frequency and family study was made of all births with neural tube malformations (spina bifida cystica, encephalocele, anencephaly, and iniencephaly) in 32 of the 33 London Boroughs over a 3-year period from 1 April 1965 to 31 March 1968. The births were ascertained through local authority registers, stillbirth and infant death certificates, and hospital records. The frequencies found were 1·54 for spina bifida (including encephalocele) and 1·41 for anencephaly (including iniencephaly). This was less than four tenths of the South Wales frequency. Evidence of an excess of winter births was found for both types of malformation, with a peak for conceptions in February, March, and April. The parents of 870 of the original 1209 index patients were traced and visited for the family survey. The usual social class effect was seen, a deficit of fathers in social class I and II. The birth order distribution of legitimately born patients standardized for maternal age showed only a small excess of firstborn and a deficit rather than an excess of lateborn. For maternal age, however, standardized for birth order, there was an excess of patients born to mothers under 20 and over 35 years of age. The whole family study sample showed a striking excess of patients born to parents from India and Pakistan compared to parents born in the West Indies in relation to households of immigrant parents in the 1966 sample Census. A small sample of 164 patients with matched controls had more parents born in Ireland and India and Pakistan and fewer born in south-east England and the West Indies than the controls. The proportions of sibs affected with spina bifida and anencephaly were 3·42% for spina bifida index patients and 5·44% for anencephaly. For patients born after the index patient the proportions were 5·17 and 4·17%, respectively. The overall risk to sibs was lower than that shown in the South Wales survey, but substantially higher relative to the population birth frequency. The risk to sibs was not apparently influenced by father's social class but there was an indication of an effect of mother's father's social class, with a lower risk where mother had grown up in a class I, II, or IIIa home. There was no apparent influence of grandparental birth place. There was no apparent effect of a relative affected other than a sib. Among cousins a significant increase over the population birth frequency was seen only in mother's sisters' children. The findings, like those of earlier surveys, suggest a multifactorial aetiology of the neural tube malformations, depending both on genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. PMID:4590246

Carter, C. O.; Evans, Kathleen

1973-01-01

148

Executive attention impairment in first-episode schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background We compared the attention abilities of a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and a group of healthy participants using the Attention Network Test (ANT), a standard procedure that estimates the functional state of three neural networks controlling the efficiency of three different attentional behaviors, i.e., alerting (achieving and maintaining a state of high sensitivity to incoming stimuli), orienting (ability to select information from sensory input), and executive attention (mechanisms for resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and actions). Methods We evaluated 22 FES patients from 17 to 29?years of age with a recent history of a single psychotic episode treated only with atypical neuroleptics, and 20 healthy persons matched with FES patients by sex, age, and educational level as the control group. Attention was estimated using the ANT in which participants indicate whether a central horizontal arrow is pointing to the left or the right. The central arrow may be preceded by spatial or temporal cues denoting where and when the arrow will appear, and may be flanked by other arrows (hereafter, flankers) pointing in the same or the opposite direction. Results The efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive networks was estimated by measuring how reaction time was influenced by congruency between temporal, spatial, and flanker cues. We found that the control group only demonstrated significantly greater attention efficiency than FES patients in the executive attention network. Conclusions FES patients are impaired in executive attention but not in alerting or orienting attention, suggesting that executive attention deficit may be a primary impairment during the progression of the disease. PMID:22998680

2012-01-01

149

Subjective cognitive complaints contribute to misdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Subjective cognitive complaints are a criterion for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), despite their uncertain relationship to objective memory performance in MCI. We aimed to examine self-reported cognitive complaints in subgroups of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort to determine whether they are a valuable inclusion in the diagnosis of MCI or, alternatively, if they contribute to misdiagnosis. Subgroups of MCI were derived using cluster analysis of baseline neuropsychological test data from 448 ADNI MCI participants. Cognitive complaints were assessed via the Everyday Cognition (ECog) questionnaire, and discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-report. Cluster analysis revealed Amnestic and Mixed cognitive phenotypes as well as a third Cluster-Derived Normal subgroup (41.3%), whose neuropsychological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker profiles did not differ from a "robust" normal control group. This cognitively intact phenotype of MCI participants overestimated their cognitive problems relative to their informant, whereas Amnestic MCI participants with objective memory impairment underestimated their cognitive problems. Underestimation of cognitive problems was associated with positive CSF AD biomarkers and progression to dementia. Overall, there was no relationship between self-reported cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning, but significant correlations were observed with depressive symptoms. The inclusion of self-reported complaints in MCI diagnostic criteria may cloud rather than clarify diagnosis and result in high rates of misclassification of MCI. Discrepancies between self- and informant-report demonstrate that overestimation of cognitive problems is characteristic of normal aging while underestimation may reflect greater risk for cognitive decline. PMID:25156329

Edmonds, Emily C; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Galasko, Douglas R; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

2014-09-01

150

Spared and Impaired Aspects of Motivated Cognitive Control in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and thirty-nine healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with non-reward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and non-reward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between non-reward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared to baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the non-reward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both non-reward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of “just-in-time,” reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

Mann, Claire L.; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L.; Barch, Deanna M.

2013-01-01

151

Lesions impairing regular versus irregular past tense production?  

PubMed Central

We investigated selective impairments in the production of regular and irregular past tense by examining language performance and lesion sites in a sample of twelve stroke patients. A disadvantage in regular past tense production was observed in six patients when phonological complexity was greater for regular than irregular verbs, and in three patients when phonological complexity was closely matched across regularity. These deficits were not consistently related to grammatical difficulties or phonological errors but were consistently related to lesion site. All six patients with a regular past tense disadvantage had damage to the left ventral pars opercularis (in the inferior frontal cortex), an area associated with articulatory sequencing in prior functional imaging studies. In addition, those that maintained a disadvantage for regular verbs when phonological complexity was controlled had damage to the left ventral supramarginal gyrus (in the inferior parietal lobe), an area associated with phonological short-term memory. When these frontal and parietal regions were spared in patients who had damage to subcortical (n = 2) or posterior temporo-parietal regions (n = 3), past tense production was relatively unimpaired for both regular and irregular forms. The remaining (12th) patient was impaired in producing regular past tense but was significantly less accurate when producing irregular past tense. This patient had frontal, parietal, subcortical and posterior temporo-parietal damage, but was distinguished from the other patients by damage to the left anterior temporal cortex, an area associated with semantic processing. We consider how our lesion site and behavioral observations have implications for theoretical accounts of past tense production. PMID:24273726

Meteyard, Lotte; Price, Cathy J.; Woollams, Anna M.; Aydelott, Jennifer

2013-01-01

152

Recognition of facial emotional expression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

We examined whether recognition of facial emotional expression would be affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A total of 50 elderly persons met the initial inclusion criteria; 10 were subsequently excluded (Geriatric Depression Score > 5). 22 subjects were classified with aMCI based on published criteria (single domain aMCI [SD-aMCI], n = 10; multiple domain aMCI [MD-aMCI], n = 12); 18 subjects were cognitively normal. All underwent standard neurological and neuropsychological evaluations as well as tests of facial emotion recognition (FER) and famous faces identification (FFI). Among normal controls, FFI was negatively correlated with Mini-Mental Status Examination scores and positively correlated with executive function. Among patients with aMCI, FER was correlated with attention/speed of processing. No other correlations were significant. In a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, and education, a poorer score on FER, but not on FFI, was associated with greater odds of being classified as MD-aMCI (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-13.91; p = 0.042). This association was not explained by memory or global cognitive score. There was no association between FER or FFI and SD-aMCI (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.36-3.57; p = 0.836). Therefore, FER, but not FFI, may be impaired in MD-aMCI. This implies that in MD-aMCI, the tasks of FER and FFI may involve segregated neurocognitive networks. PMID:22954669

Varjassyová, Alexandra; Ho?ínek, Daniel; Andel, Ross; Amlerova, Jana; Laczó, Jan; Sheardová, Kate?ina; Magerová, Hana; Holmerová, Iva; Vyhnálek, Martin; Bradá?, Ond?ej; Geda, Yonas E; Hort, Jakub

2013-01-01

153

Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4-5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11-12% vs. SW: 6-8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction. PMID:24505104

Csapo, R; Malis, V; Hodgson, J; Sinha, S

2014-04-15

154

Do older adults experience greater thermal strain during heat waves?  

PubMed

Heat waves are the cause of many preventable deaths around the world, especially among older adults and in countries with more temperate climates. In the present study, we examined the effects of age on whole-body heat loss and heat storage during passive exposure to environmental conditions representative of the upper temperature extremes experienced in Canada. Direct and indirect calorimetry measured whole-body evaporative heat loss and dry heat exchange, as well as the change in body heat content. Twelve younger (21 ± 3 years) and 12 older (65 ± 5 years) adults with similar body weight (younger: 72.0 ± 4.4 kg; older: 80.1 ± 4.2 kg) and body surface area (younger: 1.8 ± 0.1 m(2); older: 2.0 ± 0.1 m(2)) rested for 2 h in a hot-dry [36.5 °C, 20% relative humidity (RH)] or hot-humid (36.5 °C, 60% RH) environment. In both conditions, evaporative heat loss was not significantly different between groups (dry: p = 0.758; humid: p = 0.814). However, the rate of dry heat gain was significantly greater (by approx. 10 W) for older adults relative to younger adults during the hot-dry (p = 0.032) and hot-humid exposure (p = 0.019). Consequently, the cumulative change in body heat content after 2 h of rest was significantly greater in older adults in the hot-dry (older: 212 ± 25 kJ; younger: 131 ± 27 kJ, p = 0.018) as well as the hot-humid condition (older: 426 ± 37 kJ; younger: 317 ± 45 kJ, p = 0.037). These findings demonstrate that older individuals store more heat during short exposures to dry and humid heat, suggesting that they may experience increased levels of thermal strain in such conditions than people of younger age. PMID:24552369

Stapleton, Jill M; Larose, Joanie; Simpson, Christina; Flouris, Andreas D; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

2014-03-01

155

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE TO EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH WEST NILE VIRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined 45- 80% in North America since 1950. Although much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss, recent field studies have indicated that West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant negative impact on local populations of grouse. We confirm the susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to WNV infection in laboratory experimental

Larry Clark; Jeffrey Hall; Robert McLean; Michael Dunbar; Kaci Klenk; Richard Bowen

2006-01-01

156

Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).  

PubMed

Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds. PMID:18436686

Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

2008-04-01

157

Spatial variations in travel behavior within greater Toronto area  

SciTech Connect

Rapid suburbanization of housing and employment has produced severe traffic congestion in North American cities. One response to this problem in the greater Toronto area (GTA) has been to identify urban forms that are more supportive of public transport and require less vehicle kilometers of travel to support. The analytical tools used to assess the travel implications of different urban forms normally use travel demand parameters that are uniform across an area. This has yielded misleading estimates of travel demands. This paper describes analyses of the intraregional differences in travel behavior in the greater Toronto area. The analyses described are at two spatial scales: the suburb (municipality/planning district) level and the much finer traffic analysis zone level. The analysis units were grouped into high-growth, developing,a nd low-growth categories at both spatial scales. The analyses reported in this paper show that household characteristics and travel behavior are quite similar for both established and redeveloping zones in the older, stable suburbs. Significant differences in travel characteristics exist between the older, established zones and the growing zones in the developing suburbs. Household trip rates are shown to vary with household size, car ownership, and whether a household is located in a stable or growing suburb. Accessibility to public transport is shown to affect trip behavior differently in growing areas than in established areas. The paper concludes by discussing the public policy and transport systems analysis implications of the results.

Ghaeli, R.; Hutchinson, B.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1998-03-01

158

Children with unexplained chronic pain: substantial impairment in everyday life  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe and quantify impairment in an outpatient population of children with chronic pain of unknown origin (UCP). Methods: A total of 149 children who presented with pain of at least three months' duration and without a satisfactory explanation at presentation were studied. Number of somatic complaints (Children's Somatisation Inventory, CSI), pain intensity (VAS, 0–10 cm), functional disability (Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-CF) and clinical history), and general health perceptions (CHQ) were determined. Results: Mean age of the children was 11.8 years; 73% were girls. Overall, 72% suffered impairment in sports activities, 51% reported absence from school, 40% experienced limitations in social functioning, and 34% had problems with sleeping. Mean number of somatic symptoms differed significantly between boys (8.4) and girls (10.7). The CHQ-CF scores for physical functioning, role/social functioning, and general health perceptions were 76.4, 70.7, and 57.5, respectively, indicating substantial impairment on all domains. The mean pain intensity was 4.7 for current and 7.1 for worst pain. Children solely evaluated by a general practitioner prior to referral reported less, though still substantial, impairment. Low general health perceptions, impaired role/social functioning, high pain intensity, and having headache or musculoskeletal pain were independent predictors of having significant impairment. Conclusions: Referred children with UCP show substantial impairment on multiple domains in daily life. PMID:15899922

Konijnenberg, A; Uiterwaal, C; Kimpen, J; van der Hoeven, J; Buitelaar, J; de Graeff-Meeder, E R

2005-01-01

159

Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human population growth and peripherality of populations. However, future range loss may relate less to historical mechanisms and more to recent changes in land use and habitat condition, including energy developments and invasions by non-native species such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and West Nile virus. In conjunction with local measures of population performance, landscape-scale predictions of future range loss may be useful for prioritizing management and protection. Our results suggest that initial conservation efforts should focus on maintaining large expanses of sagebrush habitat, enhancing quality of existing habitats, and increasing habitat connectivity.

Aldridge, C. L.; Nielsen, S. E.; Beyer, H. L.; Boyce, M. S.; Connelly, J. W.; Knick, S. T.; Schroeder, M. A.

2008-01-01

160

Subcutaneous Interferon ?-1a May Protect against Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: 5-Year Follow-up of the COGIMUS Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effects of subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) -1a on cognition over 5 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods Patients aged 18–50 years with RRMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ?4.0) who had completed the 3-year COGIMUS study underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging, neurological examination, and neuropsychological testing at years 4 and 5. Predictors of cognitive impairment at year 5 were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Of 331 patients who completed the 3-year COGIMUS study, 265 participated in the 2-year extension study, 201 of whom (75.8%; sc IFN ?-1a three times weekly: 44 µg, n?=?108; 22 µg, n?=?93) completed 5 years' follow-up. The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment in the study population overall remained stable between baseline (18.0%) and year 5 (22.6%). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment also remained stable in both treatment groups between baseline and year 5, and between year 3 and year 5. However, a significantly higher proportion of men than women had cognitive impairment at year 5 (26.5% vs 14.4%, p?=?0.046). Treatment with the 22 versus 44 µg dose was predictive of cognitive impairment at year 5 (hazard ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.48–0.97). Conclusions This study suggests that sc IFN ?-1a dose-dependently stabilizes or delays cognitive impairment over a 5-year period in most patients with mild RRMS. Women seem to be more protected against developing cognitive impairment, which may indicate greater response to therapy or the inherently better prognosis associated with female sex in MS. PMID:24137499

Patti, Francesco; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Amato, Maria Pia; Trojano, Maria; Bastianello, Stefano; Tola, Maria Rosalia; Cottone, Salvatore; Plant, Andrea; Picconi, Orietta

2013-01-01

161

Neuropsychological criteria for mild cognitive impairment improves diagnostic precision, biomarker associations, and progression rates.  

PubMed

We compared two methods of diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI): conventional Petersen/Winblad criteria as operationalized by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and an actuarial neuropsychological method put forward by Jak and Bondi designed to balance sensitivity and reliability. 1,150 ADNI participants were diagnosed at baseline as cognitively normal (CN) or MCI via ADNI criteria (MCI: n = 846; CN: n = 304) or Jak/Bondi criteria (MCI: n = 401; CN: n = 749), and the two MCI samples were submitted to cluster and discriminant function analyses. Resulting cluster groups were then compared and further examined for APOE allelic frequencies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker levels, and clinical outcomes. Results revealed that both criteria produced a mildly impaired Amnestic subtype and a more severely impaired Dysexecutive/Mixed subtype. The neuropsychological Jak/Bondi criteria uniquely yielded a third Impaired Language subtype, whereas conventional Petersen/Winblad ADNI criteria produced a third subtype comprising nearly one-third of the sample that performed within normal limits across the cognitive measures, suggesting this method's susceptibility to false positive diagnoses. MCI participants diagnosed via neuropsychological criteria yielded dissociable cognitive phenotypes, significant CSF AD biomarker associations, more stable diagnoses, and identified greater percentages of participants who progressed to dementia than conventional MCI diagnostic criteria. Importantly, the actuarial neuropsychological method did not produce a subtype that performed within normal limits on the cognitive testing, unlike the conventional diagnostic method. Findings support the need for refinement of MCI diagnoses to incorporate more comprehensive neuropsychological methods, with resulting gains in empirical characterization of specific cognitive phenotypes, biomarker associations, stability of diagnoses, and prediction of progression. Refinement of MCI diagnostic methods may also yield gains in biomarker and clinical trial study findings because of improvements in sample compositions of 'true positive' cases and removal of 'false positive' cases. PMID:24844687

Bondi, Mark W; Edmonds, Emily C; Jak, Amy J; Clark, Lindsay R; Delano-Wood, Lisa; McDonald, Carrie R; Nation, Daniel A; Libon, David J; Au, Rhoda; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P

2014-01-01

162

Diabetes Cognitive Impairments and the Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbs  

PubMed Central

The problem of cognitive impairment resulting from diabetes is gaining more acceptance and attention. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been proved to be associated with reduced performance on numerous domains of cognitive function. Although the exact mechanisms of cognitive impairments in diabetes have not been completely understood, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance seem to play significant roles. And other possible risk factors such as hypoglycemia, insulin deficiency, vascular risk factors, hyperactive HPA axis, depression, and altered neurotransmitters will also be examined. In the meanwhile, this review analyzed the role of the active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes cognitive impairments. PMID:24386004

Guo, Leilei; Tian, Guoqing

2013-01-01

163

The visually impaired patient.  

PubMed

Blindness or low vision affects more than 3 million Americans 40 years and older, and this number is projected to reach 5.5 million by 2020. In addition to treating a patient's vision loss and comorbid medical issues, physicians must be aware of the physical limitations and social issues associated with vision loss to optimize health and independent living for the visually impaired patient. In the United States, the four most prevalent etiologies of vision loss in persons 40 years and older are age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy. Exudative macular degeneration is treated with laser therapy, and progression of nonexudative macular degeneration in its advanced stages may be slowed with high-dose antioxidant and zinc regimens. The value of screening for glaucoma is uncertain; management of this condition relies on topical ocular medications. Cataract symptoms include decreased visual acuity, decreased color perception, decreased contrast sensitivity, and glare disability. Lifestyle and environmental interventions can improve function in patients with cataracts, but surgery is commonly performed if the condition worsens. Diabetic retinopathy responds to tight glucose control, and severe cases marked by macular edema are treated with laser photocoagulation. Vision-enhancing devices can help magnify objects, and nonoptical interventions include special filters and enhanced lighting. PMID:18533377

Rosenberg, Eric A; Sperazza, Laura C

2008-05-15

164

The Relationship Between Diabetic Retinopathy and Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Recent studies have shown an increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with diabetes. An association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal microvasculature disease and cognitive impairment has been reported as potential evidence for a microvascular component to the cognitive impairment. It was hypothesized that severity of DR would be associated with cognitive impairment in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Three hundred eighty patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a population-based eye screening program and grouped by severity of DR as follows: no/mild DR (n = 252) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 128). Each participant underwent psychosocial assessment; depression screening; ophthalmic and physical examination, including blood assays; and cognitive assessment with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Mini-Cog. General linear modeling was used to examine severity of DR and cognitive impairment, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS Severity of DR demonstrated an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment (fully adjusted R2 = 0.415, P < 0.001). Ethnicity contributed most to the variance observed (16%) followed by education (7.3%) and retinopathy status (6.8%). The no/mild DR group had lower cognitive impairment scores on ACE-R (adjusted mean ± SE 77.0 ± 1.9) compared with the PDR group (82.5 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). The MMSE cutoff scores showed that 12% of the no/mild DR group (n = 31) had positive screening results for dementia or significant cognitive impairment compared with 5% in the PDR group (n = 6). CONCLUSIONS Patients with minimal DR demonstrated more cognitive impairment than those with advanced DR. Therefore, the increased prevalence of cognitive impairment in diabetes may be associated with factors other than evident retinal microvascular disease. PMID:23633523

Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne R.; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Amiel, Stephanie; Forbes, Angus

2013-01-01

165

Impaired fibrinolysis and insulin resistance in patients with hypertension.  

PubMed

Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigens and activities were measured in 28 patients with hypertension and 12 normal controls. Steady state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentrations were also determined after an infusion of somatostatin, insulin and glucose. Patients with hypertension were further subdivided into two groups: insulin resistance (SSPG > 190 mg/dL, n = 14) and no insulin resistance (SSPG < 190 mg/dL, n = 14). As compared to normal controls, hypertensive patients, either with or without insulin resistance, had a significant (P < .005) increases in PAI-1 activity (18.6 +/- 1.3 upsilon 8.1 +/- 0.8 IU/mL), PAI-1 antigen (31.1 +/- 2.0 upsilon 12.7 +/- 0.9 ng/mL) and tPA antigen (15.5 +/- 0.9 upsilon 8.8 +/- 0.9 ng/mL), and significant decrease in tPA activity (0.43 +/- 0.05 upsilon 1.02 +/- 0.16 IU/mL) than normotensive controls. Furthermore, hypertensive patients with insulin resistance had significantly higher PAI-1 activity (22.0 +/- 2.2 upsilon 15.3 +/- 0.8 IU/mL, P = .006) and tPA antigen (17.4 +/- 1.2 upsilon 13.6 +/- 1.3 ng/mL, P = .02) than did hypertensive patients without insulin resistance. However, PAI-1 antigen was insignificantly higher (34.1 +/- 2.9 upsilon 28.1 +/- 2.4 ng/mL, P = .06) and tPA activity insignificantly lower (0.42 +/- 0.08 upsilon 0.43 +/- 0.08 IU/mL, P = .47) in hypertensive patients with insulin resistance than in those without insulin resistance. In addition, PAI-1 activity and tPA antigen were significantly correlated with blood pressure, SSPG, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and integrated glucose response to an oral load of 75 g glucose. Thus, patients with hypertension have impaired fibrinolytic activity due to increased PAI-1 when compared to normotensive controls, and the magnitude of this fibrinolytic defect is greater in hypertensive patients who have insulin resistance. Insulin resistance with associated metabolic abnormalities may be one of the causes for impaired fibrinolysis in hypertension. PMID:8735180

Jeng, J R; Sheu, W H; Jeng, C Y; Huang, S H; Shieh, S M

1996-05-01

166

Teen Girls May Face Greater Risk of Depression  

MedlinePLUS

... explains girls' greater risk of depression, she added. "Parents, educators, and clinicians should understand that girls' greater exposure to [relationship-related stress] places them at risk for vulnerability ...

167

Neurocognitive Impairment and HIV Risk Factors: A Reciprocal Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairment among populations at risk for HIV poses a significant barrier to managing risk behaviors. The impact\\u000a of HIV and several cofactors, including substance abuse and mental illness, on cognitive function is discussed in the context\\u000a of HIV risk behaviors, medication adherence, and risk-reduction interventions. Literature suggests that cognitive impairment\\u000a is intertwined in a close, reciprocal relationship with both

Pria Anand; Sandra A. Springer; Michael M. Copenhaver; Frederick L. Altice

2010-01-01

168

Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence with Reading Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two family aggregation studies involving 25 children (ages 5-10) with specific language impairment (SLI) report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments and reading impairments. Results indicate that when language impairments occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with reading impairments.…

Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula

2003-01-01

169

Chronic stress impairs collateral blood flow recovery in aged mice.  

PubMed

Chronic stress is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Aging is also associated with vascular dysfunction. We hypothesize that chronic stress accelerates collateral dysfunction in old mice. Mice were subjected to either chronic social defeat (CSD) or chronic cold stress (CCS). The CSD mice were housed in a box inside an aggressor's cage and exposed to the aggressor. The CCS group was placed in iced water. After chronic stress, mice underwent femoral artery ligation (FAL) and flow recovery was measured. For the CSD group, appearance and use scores of the foot and a behavioral test were performed. CSD impaired collateral flow recovery after FAL. Further, stressed mice had greater ischemic damage, impaired foot function, and altered behavior. The CCS mice also showed impaired collateral flow recovery. Chronic stress causes hind limb collateral dysfunction in old mice, a conclusion reinforced by the fact that two types of stress produced similar changes. PMID:25315467

Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Sood, Subeena; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Jhamnani, Sunny; Aghili, Nima; Nashin, Hajra; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Epstein, Stephen E; Burnett, Mary Susan

2014-11-01

170

Early presentation of gait impairment in Wolfram Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Classically characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities, Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is also associated with atypical brainstem and cerebellar findings in the first decade of life. As such, we hypothesized that gait differences between individuals with WFS and typically developing (TD) individuals may be detectable across the course of the disease. Methods Gait was assessed for 13 individuals with WFS (min 6.4?yrs, max 25.8?yrs) and 29 age-matched, typically developing individuals (min 5.6?yrs, max 28.5?yrs) using a GAITRite ® walkway system. Velocity, cadence, step length, base of support and double support time were compared between groups. Results Across all tasks, individuals with WFS walked slower (p = 0.03), took shorter (p ? 0.001) and wider (p ? 0.001) steps and spent a greater proportion of the gait cycle in double support (p = 0.03) compared to TD individuals. Cadence did not differ between groups (p = 0.62). Across all tasks, age was significantly correlated with cadence and double support time in the TD group but only double support time was correlated with age in the WFS group and only during preferred pace forward (rs= 0.564, p = 0.045) and dual task forward walking (rs= 0.720, p = 0.006) tasks. Individuals with WFS also had a greater number of missteps during tandem walking (p ? 0.001). Within the WFS group, spatiotemporal measures of gait did not correlate with measures of visual acuity. Balance measures negatively correlated with normalized gait velocity during fast forward walking (rs = ?0.59, p = 0.03) and percent of gait cycle in double support during backward walking (rs = ?0.64, p = 0.03). Conclusions Quantifiable gait impairments can be detected in individuals with WFS earlier than previous clinical observations suggested. These impairments are not fully accounted for by the visual or balance deficits associated with WFS, and may be a reflection of early cerebellar and/or brainstem abnormalities. Effective patient-centered treatment paradigms could benefit from a more complete understanding of the progression of motor and other neurological symptom presentation in individuals with WFS. PMID:23217193

2012-01-01

171

[Neuropathology of mild cognitive impairment].  

PubMed

The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is clinical condition between normal cognition and dementia. Annual rate of conversion from MCI to dementia is estimated as 10-15%. It must be emphasized that all MCI will not be potential patients of dementing illness. Most studies have been focused on amnestic-MCI as preclinical condition of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Along with the increase number of analyses, MCI is divided in four categories according to clinical presentation such as amnestic-MCI, amnestic-MCI with multiple domains, non amnestic-MCI with single domain and non amnestic-MCI with multiple domains. In general, the underlying disease of amnestic-MCI with multiple domains may be AD, cerebrovascular disorders (CVDs), metabolic disease or depression. Non amnestic-MCI may be frontotemporal dementia, dementia with Lewy body, CVDs and metabolic disorders. In fact, neuropathologic evidence of MCI revealed the presence of various types of pathologic change. Those pathologic changes include an accumulation of tau, amyloid beta, ?-synuclein, TDP-43 and FUS protein with various degrees. It is not unusual condition that several different types of pathology are observed in a single individual. Besides neurodegenerative pathology, CVDs and hippocampus sclerosis significantly contribute the cognitive condition of MCI. To realize the complexity of neuropathologic alterations of MCI is important for early intervention of dementia indivisuals. PMID:23196441

Takao, Masaki

2012-01-01

172

Preventing Impaired Driving Opportunities and Problems  

PubMed Central

Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested. PMID:22330222

Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

2011-01-01

173

Peer Reviewed Movements and Survival of Juvenile Greater  

E-print Network

Peer Reviewed Movements and Survival of Juvenile Greater Sage-Grouse in Southeastern Idaho JEFFREY contributing to declines in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. We evaluated movements and survival of 58 radiomarked juvenile greater sage-grouse from 1 September (!10 weeks of age) to 29 March

Beck, Jeffrey L.

174

Title: Boundary File: GTA (Greater Toronto Area) Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Boundary File: GTA (Greater Toronto Area) Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario Ministry and Single Tier. Polygon of the GTA (Greater Toronto Area). Includes the following single & lower tier): Toronto, Ontario, GTA Keywords (Subject): Boundaries, GTA, Greater Toronto Area Restrictions: Data

175

Title: Boundary File: GTA (Greater Toronto Area) Data Creator /  

E-print Network

Title: Boundary File: GTA (Greater Toronto Area) Data Creator / Copyright Owner: DMTI Spatial Inc of the GTA (Greater Toronto Area). Includes the following municipalities: Ajax, Whitby, Oshawa, Clarington (Subject): Boundaries, GTA, Greater Toronto Area Restrictions: Data is licensed for use to York University

176

Greater Prairie Chicken Nesting Habitat, Sheyenne National Grassland, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater prairie chicken (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) populations and habitats have declined dramatically in the Great Plains. The Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG) has the largest population of greater prairie chickens in North Dakota, but this population has declined over the past 15 years. Lack of nesting habitat has been identified as a signifi- cant factor contributing to the decline in greater

Clinton McCarthy; Tim Pella; Greg Link; Mark A. Rumble

177

Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes  

PubMed Central

We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

178

Less Wiring, More Firing: Low-Performing Older Adults Compensate for Impaired White Matter with Greater Neural Activity  

E-print Network

, Netherlands, 3 Centre for Speech, Language and the Brain, Department of Psychology, University of Cambridge School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02130, USA, 5 Neuroimaging Research for Veterans Center, VA Boston

Cabeza, Roberto

179

Spontaneous Language Production in Bilingual Parkinson's Disease Patients: Evidence of Greater Phonological, Morphological and Syntactic Impairments in Native Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine early non-demented bilingual (L1--Friulian, L2--Italian) patients with Parkinson's disease and nine normal controls matched for age, sex and years of education were studied on a spontaneous language production task. All subjects had acquired L1 from birth in a home environment and L2 at the age of six at school formally. Patients with PD…

Zanini, Sergio; Tavano, Alessandro; Fabbro, Franco

2010-01-01

180

Greater volumes of static and dynamic stretching within a warm-up do not impair star excursion balance performance.  

PubMed

Based on the conflicting static stretching (SS) literature and lack of dynamic stretching (DS) literature regarding the effects of differing volumes of stretching on balance, the present study investigated the effects of 4, 8, and 12 sets of SS and DS following a 5 min aerobic running warm-up on the star excursion balance test (SEBT). The objective was to examine an optimal stretch modality and volume to enhance dynamic balance. A randomized, within-subjects experimental design with repeated measures for stretching (SS and DS) versus no-stretching treatment was used to examine the acute effects of 10 (4 sets), 20 (8 sets), and 30 (12 sets) min, of 15s repetitions per muscle of SS and/or DS following a 5 min aerobic warm-up on the performance of the SEBT. Results indicated that a warm-up employing either SS or DS of any volume generally improves SEBT by a "small" amount with effect sizes ranging from 0.06 to 0.50 (11 of 18 conditions>75% likely to exceed the 1.3-1.9% smallest worthwhile change). Secondly, the difference between static and dynamic warm-up on this observed improvement with warm-up improvement was "trivial" to "moderate" (d=0.04 to 0.57) and generally "unclear" (only two of nine conditions>75% likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change). Finally, the effect of increasing the volume of warm-up on the observed improvement with a warm-up is "trivial" to "small" (d<0.40) and generally "unclear" (only three of 12 conditions>75% likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change). In summary, an aerobic running warm-up with stretching that increases core and muscle temperature whether it involves SS or DS may be expected to provide small improvements in the SEBT. PMID:24739290

Belkhiria-Turki, L; Chaouachi, A; Turki, O; Hammami, R; Chtara, M; Amri, M; Drinkwater, E J; Behm, D G

2014-06-01

181

Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage  

SciTech Connect

The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% (mean +/- S.E.M.) vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury.

Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

1986-12-01

182

Photoreceptor Impairment and Restoration on Optical Coherence Tomographic Image  

PubMed Central

With recent development of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), the pathological changes of retina can be observed in much greater detail. SD-OCT clearly delineates three highly reflective lines in the outer retina, which are external limiting membrane (ELM), photoreceptor inner and outer segment (IS/OS) junction, and cone outer segment tips (COST) in order from inside. These lines can serve as hallmarks for the evaluation of photoreceptor condition. In retinitis pigmentosa (RP) leading to photoreceptor degeneration, the ELM, IS/OS, and COST lines are shortened with the progression of the disease. In addition, shortening of the ELM, IS/OS and COST lines is significantly associated with each other. The line length is longest in the ELM, followed by the IS/OS, and COST, suggesting that retinal layer becomes disorganized first at the COST, followed by the IS/OS and finally the ELM. This finding is consistent with the previous report that the earliest histopathological change in RP is a shortening of the photoreceptor outer segments. On the other hand, retinal layer becomes restored first at the ELM, followed by the IS/OS and finally the COST after macular hole surgery. There may be a directionality of photoreceptor impairment or restoration on optical coherence tomographic image. PMID:23691278

Mitamura-Aizawa, Sayaka; Katome, Takashi; Naito, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Akira; Kumagai, Ken; Yamamoto, Shuichi

2013-01-01

183

Impaired comprehension of alternating syntactic constructions in autism.  

PubMed

Individuals on the higher-functioning end of the autism spectrum have significant impairments in communication. Language delay can occur, particularly in syntactic or structural linguistic knowledge. However, classically observed semantic deficits generally overshadow these structural deficits. This research examined the potential effects on comprehension of dative expressions that exhibited syntactic alternation versus those that were restricted, whether in syntactic construction or through marked semantic differences in construction. Children with autism and matched neurotypical control participants were presented with a sentence battery of dative statements representing these variations in construction and were asked to display basic comprehension of the sentence meaning by identifying the recipient, or indirect object, of the dative verb. Construction, restriction, and semantic differentiation variables were analyzed for potential effects on the rate of accurate comprehension. Both groups performed with greater accuracy when dative expressions used a prepositional phrase than when the dative action was expressed in the syntax. The autism group performed more poorly when the dative expression could syntactically alternate than when it was restricted. These effects improve our knowledge of how children with autism understand alternating grammatical constructions. PMID:24227788

Stockbridge, Melissa D; Happé, Francesca G E; White, Sarah J

2014-06-01

184

Tests of Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

Lacey, Michelle

2008-12-25

185

Experiential Learning for Hearing Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the nature of experiential deficiency pattern to suggest a preliminary model for assessing it and then considers whether and how experiential learning strategies can be accommodated to the experiential deficiencies of hearing impaired students. (Author)

Whitaker, Urban

1983-01-01

186

Management of Functionally Impaired Drivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Older drivers have specific issues that need to be addressed including changes in sensory, motor, and cognitive skills may affect driving ability. Motor impairments include lack of neck and limb mobility, whereas sensory declines primarily involve visual ...

D. Utley, J. D. Edwards, K. M. Leonard

2006-01-01

187

Human skeletal muscle metabolic economy in vivo: effects of contraction intensity, age, and mobility impairment.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that older muscle has greater metabolic economy (ME) in vivo than young, in a manner dependent, in part, on contraction intensity. Twenty young (Y; 24 ± 1 yr, 10 women), 18 older healthy (O; 73 ± 2, 9 women) and 9 older individuals with mild-to-moderate mobility impairment (OI; 74 ± 1, 7 women) received stimulated twitches (2 Hz, 3 min) and performed nonfatiguing voluntary (20, 50, and 100% maximal; 12 s each) isometric dorsiflexion contractions. Torque-time integrals (TTI; Nm·s) were calculated and expressed relative to maximal fat-free muscle cross-sectional area (cm(2)), and torque variability during voluntary contractions was calculated as the coefficient of variation. Total ATP cost of contraction (mM) was determined from flux through the creatine kinase reaction, nonoxidative glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and used to calculate ME (Nm·s·cm(-2)·mM ATP(-1)). While twitch torque relaxation was slower in O and OI compared with Y (P ? 0.001), twitch TTI, ATP cost, and economy were similar across groups (P ? 0.15), indicating comparable intrinsic muscle economy during electrically induced isometric contractions in vivo. During voluntary contractions, normalized TTI and total ATP cost did not differ significantly across groups (P ? 0.20). However, ME was lower in OI than Y or O at 20% and 50% MVC (P ? 0.02), and torque variability was greater in OI than Y or O at 20% MVC (P ? 0.05). These results refute the hypothesis of greater muscle ME in old age, and provide support for lower ME in impaired older adults as a potential mechanism or consequence of age-related reductions in functional mobility. PMID:25163917

Christie, Anita D; Tonson, Anne; Larsen, Ryan G; DeBlois, Jacob P; Kent, Jane A

2014-11-01

188

Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks  

PubMed Central

Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hour) sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years). Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hours) sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR?=?1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P < 0.01). Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension. PMID:23710339

Pandey, A.; Williams, N.; Donat, M.; Ceide, M.; Brimah, P.; Ogedegbe, G.; McFarlane, S. I.; Jean-Louis, G.

2013-01-01

189

Linking sleep to hypertension: greater risk for blacks.  

PubMed

Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hour) sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18-85 years). Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hours) sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR?=?1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P < 0.01). Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension. PMID:23710339

Pandey, A; Williams, N; Donat, M; Ceide, M; Brimah, P; Ogedegbe, G; McFarlane, S I; Jean-Louis, G

2013-01-01

190

Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli  

PubMed Central

Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270) was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37) in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA), and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA). Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22) and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons). PMID:18590546

Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

2008-01-01

191

Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Background:Cognitive impairment,plays a role in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and has important consequences for patient management. However, many aspects of cognitive impairment,in PD remain,unclear because,of the use of different and often invalid measurement instruments. In this study, a reliable and valid instrument, the SCales for Outcomes in PArkinson’s disease-COGnition (SCOPA-COG), was used. Aim:To evaluate cognitive functioning,in a large cohort of

Vânia Lúcia Soares; Cândida Dias Soares; S M van Rooden; A M Stiggelbout; H A M Middelkoop; J J van Hilten

2010-01-01

192

Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department Internship The Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department internships will focus on content development  

E-print Network

Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department Internship The Greater Media, Inc. Interactive creating, editing and presenting newsworthy material for web and social media sites related to the musical Rock, and New Rock Stations. Greater Media, Inc. is the parent company of 22 AM and FM radio stations

Cinabro, David

193

Enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered Attwater's and greater prairie chickens.  

PubMed

Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During August 2004 through May 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian pox, the latter being detected in 7.4% (2 of 27) of all birds submitted for histopathology. A survey for REV was conducted in order to examine its possible role in mortality observed primarily in juvenile and adult specimens of prairie chickens. The investigative procedures included postmortem examinations, histopathology, molecular detection, and virus isolation. In total, 57 Attwater's prairie chickens and two greater prairie chickens were included in the study. REV infection was diagnosed using virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or both in 59.5% (28 of 47) of blood samples and/or tumors from suspect birds. Lymphosarcomas were detected in the tissues of 37% (10 of 27) of the birds submitted for histopathology. Such lymphosarcomas suggestive of RE represented the most frequent morphologic diagnosis on histopathology among 27 separate submissions of naturally dead prairie chickens. Overall, REV was detected or RE diagnosed in 34 of 59 prairie chickens (57.62%). The average death age of all birds diagnosed with lymphosarcomas on histopathology was 2.2 yr, ranging from <1 to 4 yr. Although deaths associated with neoplasia occurred in males and females in equal proportions based on submissions, overall more males were diagnosed as REV infected or RE affected (16 males vs. 7 females, and 11 birds of undetermined gender). Reticuloendotheliosis virus was confirmed as a significant cause of mortality in captive prairie chickens. PMID:17274288

Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Barbosa, Taylor; Haefele, Holly

2006-12-01

194

much higher concentrations. Concentrations of isoprene and terpene emitted from Mango and Eucalyptus were significantly greater than emissions from  

E-print Network

-strains of known nitrogen-fixers (e.g. B. xenovorans) and/or nodulators (e.g. B. phymatum and B. tuberum). However, the Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae are involved in nitrogen-fixing symbioses with rhizobial bacteria. Within

195

Geohelminths: public health significance.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of geohelminths and their unique place in evolutionary biology have attracted research focus. These major soil-transmitted intestinal nematodes that cause human diseases are the nematode roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the two hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), often collectively referred as geohelminths. Studies of geohelminthiasis in poorly nourished children in developing regions report that geohelminths contribute to stunted growth and cognitive impairment. Insights into immunology have shed light on the modulatory role of the parasite on the host immune system and have defined the role of T cells in controlling geohelminthic infection. Recent molecular biological techniques have created an opportunity to analyse the interaction between parasites and their hosts at the molecular level. This paper is a review of the recent literature that examined the prevalence of geohelminthiasis in developing countries, the association between geohelminths in relation to public health, parasitological/diagnostic features, and therapeutic and preventive aspects of these major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) pathogens in humans. PMID:24423707

Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Jaide, Chayannan; Jinawath, Natini; Rotjanapan, Porpon; Baral, Pankaj

2014-01-01

196

Anatomical variation in the position of the greater palatine foramen.  

PubMed

The present study measured the position of the greater palatine foramen relative to adjacent anatomical landmarks in Brazilian skulls. The perpendicular distance of the greater palatine foramen to the midline maxillary suture in Brazilian skulls was about 14 mm and the distance of greater palatine foramen to the incisive foramen was approximately 36 mm. The distance of greater palatine foramen to the posterior border of the hard palate was approximately 3 mm, and the mean angle between the midline maxillary suture and the line from the incisive foramen and the greater palatine foramen was 22.71 degrees . In almost 70% of the cases, the greater palatine foramen opened in an anterior direction. The mean palatine length was approximately 52 mm. In the greater majority of the skulls (93.81%), the greater palatine foramina were opposite or distal to the maxillary third molar. These data will be helpful in comparing these skulls to those from various other regions as well as comparing skulls of different races. It can also provide professionals with anatomical references, in order to block the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve through the greater palatine foramen. Our results would help clinicians locate the greater palatine foramen in patients with and without upper molars. PMID:20339241

Chrcanovic, Bruno R; Custódio, Antônio L N

2010-03-01

197

Detecting Novelty and Significance  

PubMed Central

Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

2013-01-01

198

Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults With Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights. PMID:22230180

Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

2013-01-01

199

Does Depression Impact Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Heart Failure?  

PubMed Central

Prevalence studies have noted the cooccurrence of cognitive decline and depression in persons with heart failure. Cognitive impairment is associated with significant mortality and deteriorated quality of life, likely due to impairments in memory and executive function, which impact a patient's ability to understand and comply with prescribed treatment plans. This is especially true in complex diseases such as heart failure. Evidence from literature supports the possibility of a pathophysiological relationship between cognitive impairment, depression, and heart failure. Yet, very few studies have sought to investigate this relationship. This paper reviews current literature on the association between depression and cognitive impairment in persons with heart failure and explores possible mechanisms explaining this complex triad. PMID:22919538

Sohani, Z. N.; Samaan, Z.

2012-01-01

200

Does depression impact cognitive impairment in patients with heart failure?  

PubMed

Prevalence studies have noted the cooccurrence of cognitive decline and depression in persons with heart failure. Cognitive impairment is associated with significant mortality and deteriorated quality of life, likely due to impairments in memory and executive function, which impact a patient's ability to understand and comply with prescribed treatment plans. This is especially true in complex diseases such as heart failure. Evidence from literature supports the possibility of a pathophysiological relationship between cognitive impairment, depression, and heart failure. Yet, very few studies have sought to investigate this relationship. This paper reviews current literature on the association between depression and cognitive impairment in persons with heart failure and explores possible mechanisms explaining this complex triad. PMID:22919538

Sohani, Z N; Samaan, Z

2012-01-01

201

Inhalation of the nerve gas sarin impairs ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in rats  

SciTech Connect

Sarin, a highly toxic nerve gas, is believed to cause bronchoconstriction and even death primarily through respiratory failure; however, the mechanism underlying the respiratory failure is not fully understood. The goals of this study were to ascertain whether sarin affects baseline ventilation (V{sub E}) and V{sub E} chemoreflexes as well as airway resistance and, if so, whether these changes are reversible. Four groups of F344 rats were exposed to vehicle (VEH) or sarin at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.0 mg h m{sup -3} (SL, SM, and SH, respectively). V{sub E} and V{sub E} responses to hypercapnia (7% CO{sub 2}) or hypoxia (10% O{sub 2}) were measured by plethysmography at 2 h and 1, 2, and 5 days after VEH or sarin exposure. Total pulmonary resistance (R{sub L}) also was measured in anesthetized VEH- and SH-exposed animals 2 h after exposure. Our results showed that within 2 h after exposure 11% of the SM- and 52% of the SH- exposed groups died. Although the SM and SH significantly decreased hypercapnic and hypoxic V{sub E} to similar levels (64 and 69%), SH induced greater respiratory impairment, characterized by lower baseline V{sub E} (30%; P < 0.05), and total loss of the respiratory frequency response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. V{sub E} impairment recovered within 1-2 days after sarin exposure; interestingly, SH did not significantly affect baseline R{sub L}. Moreover, sarin induced body tremors that were unrelated to the changes in the V{sub E} responses. Thus, LC{sub 50} sarin causes a reversible impairment of V{sub E} that is not dependent on the sarin-induced body tremors and not associated with changes in R{sub L}.

Zhuang Jianguo [Immunology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States); Xu Fadi [Immunology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States)], E-mail: fxu@lrri.org; Campen, Matthew J.; Zhang Cancan; Pena-Philippides, Juan C.; Sopori, Mohan L. [Immunology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States)

2008-11-01

202

Protective effect of Ginkgo flavonoids, amifostine, and leuprorelin against platinum-induced ovarian impairment in rats.  

PubMed

Platinum-induced ovarian impairment is a consequence of treatment for malignant ovarian tumors. We compared the protective effects of Ginkgo flavonoids, amifostine, and leuprorelin on ovarian impairment in rats. Fifty rats were randomly divided into the A, B, C, D, and E groups, which were given saline, cisplatin, cisplatin plus Ginkgo flavonoids, cisplatin plus amifostine, and cisplatin plus leuprorelin, respectively. Ovarian weight was significantly greater in groups C and D compared with group B (83.5 ± 6.7 and 86.8 ± 10 vs 56.8 ± 5.4 mg). The total follicle numbers were higher in groups C, D, and E than in group B (60.5 ± 3.9, 63.8 ± 5.1, and 67.7 ± 3.5 vs 49.6 ± 4.5), and the apoptotic index was reduced in groups C, D, and E compared with group B (35.7 ± 2.0, 37.4 ± 1.6, and 30.5 ± 2.9 vs 65.3 ± 2.9%). The ovaries in groups B, C, and D had higher protein and mRNA expression levels of cytoplasmic Cytochrome c (Cyt-c) and apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apf-1) compared to group A; the Cyt-c mRNA expression was five-fold higher. The mRNA expression of Cyt-c and Apf-1 were significantly lower in groups C, D, and E compared with group B. Administration of leuprorelin, flavonoids, or amifostine protected rats against the ovarian impairment induced by prior intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin. The efficacy of leuprorelin was superior to that of Ginkgo flavonoids and amifostine, but there was no difference between the effects of Ginkgo flavonoids and amifostine. PMID:25078583

Chang, Z; Wang, H L; Du, H

2014-01-01

203

Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Epidemiology and Associated Factors  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS); to determine whether GTPS is associated with iliotibial band (ITB) tenderness, knee osteoarthritis (OA), body mass index (BMI), or low back pain (LBP); and to assess whether GTPS is associated with reduced hip internal rotation, physical activity, and mobility. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting Multicenter observational study. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=3026) ages 50 to 79 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip OA or generalized myofascial tenderness. Results The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral GTPS was 15.0% and 8.5% in women and 6.6% and 1.9% men. Odds ratio (OR) for women was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–4.25), but age and race were not significantly associated with GTPS. In a multivariate model, adjusting for age, sex, ITB tenderness, ipsilateral and contralateral knee OA, BMI, and LBP, ITB tenderness (OR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.34–2.19), knee OA ipsilaterally (OR=3.47; 95% CI, 2.72–4.42) and con-tralaterally (OR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.32–2.28), and LBP (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 2.22–3.50) were positively related to GTPS. In this complete model, BMI was not associated with GTPS (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.80–1.52 when comparing ? 30 with <25kg/m2). Hip internal rotation range of motion did not differ based on GTPS status. After multivariate adjustment, GTPS did not alter physical activity score, but bilateal GTPS was significantly associated with a higher 20-meter walk time and chair stand time. Conclusions The higher prevalence of GTPS in women and in adults with ITB pain or knee OA indicates that altered lower-limb biomechanics may be related to GTPS. Slower functional performance in those with GTPS suggests that the study of targeted rehabilitation may be useful. A longitudinal study will be necessary to identify causal factors and outcomes of interventions. PMID:17678660

Segal, Neil A.; Felson, David T.; Torner, James C.; Zhu, Yanyan; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.

2010-01-01

204

Motor impairment and its relationship to fitness in children  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this work was to explore the physiological and perceptual limits to exercise in children with varying degrees of motor impairment, and the relationships to measures of health. Design and methods In a group comparison design, 35 boys aged 12–15?years completed the Movement ABC test for the assessment of motor impairment, followed by an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten participants classified as having either high or no motor impairment also performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the assessment of lower limb extensor strength. Results 18 boys were classified as having high motor impairment. There was a significant difference in peak (34.9 vs 48.5?mL?kg/min), workload (12.5 vs 10.0?mL?W), maximal HR (176 vs 188?bpm), maximal oxygen pulse (12.1 vs 15.9?mL?beat) and MVIC (5.7 vs 9.1?Nm?kg) between the high and non-motor impaired participants, respectively, (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the RER or RPE between groups. Conclusions When performing cycling ergometry, perceived exertion was not a limiting factor in children with high motor impairment. The lower maximal HR, coupled with reduced movement efficiency and muscle strength reported in this group, suggests that exercise is limited by impairment at the muscular level. This finding was supported by high RER values despite low maximal HR values attained at exercise cessation and reduced maximal strength. Perception of effort is not heightened in children with high motor impairment and future-exercise interventions should be focused on improving muscular condition in these participants to enable them to be better prepared to engage in physical activity for health. PMID:23847266

Morris, Martyn; Dawes, Helen; Howells, Ken; Janssen, Roel

2013-01-01

205

Selenium concentrations in greater scaup and dreissenid mussels during winter on Western lake ontario.  

PubMed

One hypothesis for the decline of the North American greater (Aythya marila) and lesser (A. affinis) scaup population is that contaminant burdens acquired on wintering or staging areas impair reproduction or cause lethal or sublethal health effects. Recent studies have found increased selenium (Se) concentrations in scaup but have focused on the fall and spring staging periods. From January to March 2006 and December to March 2006 and 2007, we analyzed liver tissues collected from greater scaup wintering in western Lake Ontario for 16 trace elements. We also measured Se concentrations in greater scaup blood and Dreissenid mussel tissue. Se was the only trace element that occurred at increased concentrations (>10 ?g/g liver dry weight) in a substantial proportion (99%) of greater scaup livers. We also found that hepatic Se concentrations increased throughout winter and were increased in nearly all birds from January to March, suggesting that accumulation of this trace element occurred soon after their arrival in fall. Se concentrations were similar in male and female birds, but juvenile birds had higher concentrations than did adults. Blood Se concentrations were correlated to liver Se concentrations in 2006 only, suggesting that blood Se concentration is an unreliable predictor of liver concentration. Se in Dreissenid mussels generally decreased with mussel size and did not change throughout winter. Overall, our results suggest that greater scaup wintering on western Lake Ontario acquire sufficiently high Se concentrations to potentially impact their health. Thus, several indicators of health and survival should be examined in relation to Se concentrations in wintering scaup. PMID:21120462

Ware, L L; Petrie, S A; Badzinski, S S; Bailey, R C

2011-08-01

206

Earthquake Dynamics in the Greater Antilles Subduction Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greater Antilles subduction zone lies north of the densely populated islands of Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. A large earthquake on this subduction zone could cause significant structural damage and human suffering, and could furthermore trigger a large tsunami with equally devastating effects. The near-shore hanging wall of the subduction zone is cut by at least two major left-lateral strike-slip faults (the Septentrional Fault and Bunce Fault), which may have earthquakes both independently and in conjunction with the main plate boundary thrust. Further complicating matters, the subduction zone has a roughly 23 degree change in strike at the eastern edge of Hispaniola. To better understand the earthquake and tsunami hazard in this region, we use the 3D finite element method to perform dynamic spontaneous rupture models on this complex fault system. We find that the regional stress field is resolved quite differently on the various thrust and strike-slip fault segments, leading to large differences in the ability of rupture to propagate on the different segments. Static stress differences and dynamic stress interactions lead to asymmetrical behavior between the fault segments. In particular, rupture propagation from the strike-slip faults to the plate boundary thrust seems unlikely, but rupture propagation from the plate boundary thrust to the strike-slip faults appears more possible. We will discuss these results in the context of potential tsunamis in the region.

Oglesby, D. D.; Geist, E. L.; ten Brink, U. S.

2009-12-01

207

Ecologically Significant Wetlands  

E-print Network

habitat for wildlife and rare plants and animals. The quality and significance of each site was ranked of concentrations of rare plants or animals, and intact uplands. Of the approximately 100 potential wetlands

208

Assessing the Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive growth of aquatic plants causes significant water quality\\/beneficial-use problems, including low dissolved oxygen, impairment of domestic water supplies' water quality, impairment of recreation, etc. The growth of aquatic plants to excessive levels is driven by nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from a variety of sources, including agricultural stormwater runoff, tail water and subsurface drain water discharges. Because of the significance

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

209

ORIGINAL PAPER Pup guarding by greater spear-nosed bats  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Pup guarding by greater spear-nosed bats Kirsten M. Bohn & Cynthia F. Moss & Gerald to either mistaken identity, (i.e., recognition errors) or active cooperation. In greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus), reproductive females roost together in stable long-term social groups in cave ceilings

Wilkinson, Gerald S.

210

West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse  

E-print Network

REPORT West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse David E. Naugle,1 * Cameron L. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse% in four radio-marked populations in the western US and Canada. Serum from 112 sage-grouse collected after

Naugle, Dave

211

COMPLETION REPORT Identifying Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse Population  

E-print Network

COMPLETION REPORT Identifying Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse Population Persistence within-Central Local Sage-Grouse Work Group, and Wyoming Game and Fish Department 23 January 2012 Christopher P. Kirol habitat quality and source and sink habitats for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the 1

Beck, Jeffrey L.

212

Anisotropic polyurethane foam with Poisson's ratio greater than 1  

E-print Network

Anisotropic polyurethane foam with Poisson's ratio greater than 1 Lee, T. and Lakes, R. S., "Anisotropic polyurethane foam with Poisson's ratio greater than 1", Journal of Materials Science , 32, 2397-cell polyurethane foam, heating above the softening point, followed by cooling under axial strain. 1. Introduction

Lakes, Roderic

213

Discrepancies between standardized measures of cognitive level and Halstead-Reitan impairment indices as inferences of brain damage following head injuries.  

PubMed

z scores for measures of intelligence, memory, educational achievement, and neuropsychological impairment were obtained for 193 patients who had sustained impacts of mechanical energy to their skulls. Two sets of normative data, adjusted for age and sex and not adjusted for these variables, were employed to compute indices of neurocognitive proficiency (the inverse of impairment). 80% or 76 of the 96 patients whose Halstead-Reitan Indices were greater than 0.4 displayed scores for neurocognitive proficiency that were two or more standard deviations below the averages of their scores for intelligence, memory, and educational achievement. None of the patents whose Impairment Indices were 0.4 or less displayed this discrepancy. There were no statistically significant differences between these two groups of patients with respect to the presence of unconsciousness following the injury or the duration of posttraumatic memory disruptions. The results indicate that quantitative scores for neuropsychological impairments are still the most accurate criteria to discern brain dysfunction within the mild to moderate range. PMID:10597599

Persinger, M A

1999-10-01

214

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Use by Older Adults Is Associated with Greater Functional Responses to Exercise  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To assess the association between angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and improvements in the physical function of older adults in response to chronic exercise training. DESIGN Secondary analysis of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) study, a multisite randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effects of chronic exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for mobility disability. SETTING Four academic research centers within the United States. PARTICIPANTS Four hundred twenty-four individuals aged 70 to 89 with mild to moderate functional impairments categorized for this analysis as ACEi users, users of other antihypertensive drugs, or antihypertensive nonusers. INTERVENTION A 12-month intervention of structured physical activity (PA) or health education promoting successful aging (SA). MEASUREMENTS Change in walking speed during a 400-m test and performance on a battery of short-duration mobility tasks (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)). RESULTS Physical activity significantly improved the adjusted walking speed of ACEi users (P < .001) but did not of nonusers. PA improved the adjusted SPPB score of ACEi users (P < .001) and of persons who used other antihypertensive drugs (P = .005) but not of antihypertensive nonusers (P = .91). The percentage of ACEi users deriving clinically significant benefit from exercise training for walking speed (30%) and SPPB score (48%) was dramatically higher than for nonusers (14% and 12%, respectively). CONCLUSION For older adults at risk for disability, exercise-derived improvements in physical function were greater for ACEi users than users of other antihypertensive drugs and antihypertensive nonusers. PMID:22726232

Buford, Thomas W.; Manini, Todd M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Cesari, Matteo; Anton, Stephen D.; Nayfield, Susan; Stafford, Randall S.; Church, Timothy S.; Pahor, Marco; Carter, Christy S.

2013-01-01

215

Impaired pressor sensitivity to noradrenaline in septic shock patients with and without impaired adrenal function reserve  

PubMed Central

Aims To investigate the relationship between adrenal gland function and pressor response to noradrenaline in septic shock. Methods Basal cortisol level, noradrenaline—mean arterial pressure dose-response curve and cortisol response to intravenous corticotrophin bolus were obtained in nine patients fulfilling usual criteria for septic shock and in six normal volunteers. In patients with septic shock, dose-response curve to noradrenaline was determined a second time 60 min after a 50 mg intravenous hydrocortisone bolus. Results As compared with controls, patients with septic shock had increased basal cortisol levels (mean±s.d.: 1564±818 vs 378±104 nmol l?1, P = 0.002, 95% confidence interval for difference in means: [452, 1920]) and a blunted cortisol response to corticotrophin (403±461 vs 1132±195 nmol l?1, P = 0.008, [?1163, ?295]). Five patients had impaired adrenal function reserve. As compared with controls, septic patients displayed a moderate and non significant decrease in pressor sensitivity to noradrenaline (P = 0.112). As compared with patients with adequate adrenal response, patients with impaired adrenal function reserve showed a significant decrease in pressor sensitivity to noradrenaline (P = 0.038). In septic patients, hydrocortisone improved pressor response to noradrenaline (P = 0.032). This effect was more marked in patients with impaired adrenal function reserve so that, as compared with patients with adequate response, the difference was no longer significant (P = 0.123). Conclusions In septic shock, impaired adrenal function reserve may partly be accounted for by the depressed pressor sensitivity to noradrenaline. The latter may be substantially improved by physiological doses of hydrocortisone. PMID:9862249

Annane, D; Bellissant, E; Sebille, V; Lesieur, O; Mathieu, B; Raphael, JC; Gajdos, P

1998-01-01

216

Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation for Bilateral Greater Occipital Neuralgia  

PubMed Central

This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the suboccipital region and radiated into her vertex. She was diagnosed with bilateral greater occipital neuralgia. She underwent cooled radiofrequency ablation of bilateral greater occipital nerves with minimal side effects and 75% pain reduction. Cooled radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerve in challenging cases is an alternative to pulsed and continuous RFA to alleviate pain with less side effects and potential for long-term efficacy. PMID:24716017

Chhatre, Akhil

2014-01-01

217

Mechanism of Impaired Water Excretion in the Hypothyroid Rat  

PubMed Central

The ability to excrete an oral water load and the renal diluting mechanism were studied in hypothyroid rats and in age-matched euthyroid controls. Hypothyroid animals excreted a significantly smaller fraction of a 50-ml/kg oral water load than controls, demonstrating the same limited ability to excrete free water as thyroid-deficient man. During hypotonic (0.45%) saline infusion, absolute sodium delivery to the diluting segment and free water clearance were markedly lower in hypothyroid rats. However, both fractional distal sodium delivery and fractional free water clearance were similar in hypothyroid and control animals, suggesting that the reduced absolute free water formation in hypothyroid rats was due to decreased net distal delivery. In support of this hypothesis was the observation that fractional distal sodium reabsorption was equal or higher in thyroid-deficient rats, which indicates that the sodium reabsorptive capacity of the diluting segment was preserved in these animals. The results cannot be attributed to incomplete suppression of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) since they were identical in diabetes insipidus rats, nor to different rates of non-ADH-dependent backflux of filtrate since tissue osmolality and solute concentrations in the cortex, medulla, and papilla were similar in hypothyroid and control rats of both Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro strains. The functional integrity of the diluting segment in hypothyroid rats was further demonstrated in experiments in which distal delivery was increased by contralateral nephrectomy or by administration of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which decrease proximal sodium reabsorption. In both studies, fractional free water clearance increased markedly reaching levels significantly greater than in euthyroid controls. These results demonstrate that the impaired ability of the hypothyroid rat to excrete a water load is not due to incomplete suppression of ADH or decreased reabsorptive capacity of the diluting segment but results from decreased filtrate delivery to this site secondary to reduced GFR. Images PMID:4430722

Emmanouel, Dimitrios S.; Lindheimer, Marshall D.; Katz, Adrian I.

1974-01-01

218

Phonological processing skills in specific language impairment.  

PubMed

In order to provide effective intervention for children with specific language impairment (SLI), it is crucial that there is an understanding of the underlying deficit in SLI. This study utilized a battery of phonological processing tasks to compare the phonological processing skills of children with SLI to typically-developing peers matched for age or language. The children with SLI had significantly poorer performance than age-matched peers on measures of phonological representations, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, phonological short-term memory, and one measure of working memory. Of particular significance, the SLI group also demonstrated significantly weaker performance than language-matched peers on one measure of phonological representations, and one measure of working memory. The findings provide some support for a phonological processing account of SLI and highlight the utility of using tasks that draw on a comprehensive model of speech processing to profile and consider children's phonological processing skills in detail. PMID:23327452

Claessen, Mary; Leitão, Suze; Kane, Robert; Williams, Cori

2013-10-01

219

Visitation arrangements for impaired parents.  

PubMed

Forensic mental health professionals are frequently asked to evaluate the parenting skills of divorcing parents because the court seeks help in determining the custody, visitation, and parenting time arrangements for the children. When one of the parents is impaired, the court wants to know the way to help the children have a good relationship with that parent and keep the children safe. There is little empirical research to answer such questions. In this article, the authors describe their methodology for providing useful clinical information to the court to help guide their decisions regarding visitation with impaired parents. PMID:21683915

Montgomery, Stephen A; Street, David F

2011-07-01

220

Oceanography for the Visually Impaired  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States, students have the unique opportunity to learn from a practicing research scientist who shares their particular disability. This article describes their collaborative project called OceanInsight, which provides visually impaired students with an interactive way to study oceanography, including field trips to Woods Hole and school visits by Bower and other WHOI scientists.

Fraser, Kate

2008-03-01

221

Driving Simulator Performance Remains Impaired In Patients With Severe OSA after CPAP Treatment  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in improving 90-minute driving simulator performance in severe OSA patients compared to age/gender matched controls. Design: Driving simulator performance was assessed at baseline and 3 months later, with OSA patients treated with CPAP during the interval. Setting: University Teaching Hospital. Participants: Patients with severe OSA (n = 11) and control subjects without OSA (n = 9). Interventions: CPAP Measurements and Results: Simulator driving parameters of steering deviation, braking reaction time and crashes were measured at baseline and ?3 months follow-up. At baseline, OSA subjects demonstrated significantly greater steering deviation compared to controls (mean [95% CI], OSA group, 49.9 cm [43.7 to 56.0 cm] vs control group, 34.9 cm [28.1 to 41.7 cm], p = 0.003). Following ?3 months of CPAP treatment (mean ± SD 6.0 ± 1.4 h/night), steering deviation in OSA subjects improved by an average of 3.1 cm (CI, 1.4 to 4.9), p < 0.001, while no significant steering changes were observed in the control group. Despite the improvement, steering deviation in the OSA group remained significantly higher than in controls (OSA group, 46.7 cm [CI, 40.6 to 52.8 cm] vs control group, 36.1 cm [CI, 29.3 to 42.9 cm], p = 0.025). Conclusions: While driving simulator performance improved after ?3 months of CPAP treatment with high adherence in patients with severe OSA, performance remained impaired compared to control subjects. These results add to the growing body of evidence that some neurobehavioral deficits in patients with severe OSA are not fully reversed by treatment. Further studies are needed to assess causes of residual driving simulator impairment and to determine whether this is associated with persistent elevated real-life accident risk. Trial Registration: Data presented in this manuscript was collected as part of a clinical trial “Experimental Investigations of Driving Impairment in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea” ACTRN12610000009011, http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=334979 Citation: Vakulin A; Baulk SD; Catcheside PG; Antic NA; van den Heuvel CJ; Dorrian J; McEvoy RD. Driving simulator performance remains impaired in patients with severe OSA after CPAP treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(3):246-253. PMID:21677893

Vakulin, Andrew; Baulk, Stuart D.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Antic, Nick A.; van den Heuvel, Cameron J.; Dorrian, Jillian; McEvoy, R. Doug

2011-01-01

222

Significant lexical relationships  

SciTech Connect

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

223

Impaired thyrotrophin secretion following the administration of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone in type II diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed Central

Serum thyrotrophin has been measured before and after the intravenous administration of 200 micrograms of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone in 91 white subjects (33 stable diabetic patients and 58 healthy controls), none of whom had any clinical evidence of thyroid or pituitary dysfunction. Seven of the diabetic subjects failed to achieve a rise of serum thyrotrophin of greater than 2 mU/l above basal concentrations, as compared with only one of the control subjects (P = 0.006). The difference in response between diabetics and controls was confined to patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes: thus 5 of 13 Type II patients and 2 of 20 Type I (insulin-dependent) patients failed to show a normal response to thyrotrophin releasing hormone injection. No significant effect of glycaemic control on thyrotrophin responses was noted. These results suggest that Type II diabetes mellitus may be a cause of impaired thyrotrophin secretion in patients with no clinical evidence of pituitary disease. The mechanism for this impaired pituitary hormone release remains to be clarified. PMID:3095820

Small, M.; Cohen, H. N.; MacLean, J. A.; Beastall, G. H.; MacCuish, A. C.

1986-01-01

224

Brain Volumes, Cognitive Impairment, and Conjugated Equine Estrogens  

PubMed Central

Background Postmenopausal conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) therapies increase the risk of cognitive impairment in women aged 65 years or older and are associated with smaller regional brain volumes; however, the link between these two phenomena has not been established. Methods Standardized magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 1,403 women, 1–4 years after they had participated in randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of CEE-based therapies. Women included in this report were aged 65–80 years and free of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) when originally enrolled in the trials, which lasted an average of 4–6 years and were conducted at 14 academic U.S. medical centers. The associations that regional brain volumes and ischemic lesion volumes had with the development of cognitive impairment (i.e., dementia or MCI) were contrasted between treatment groups using analyses of covariance. Results Fifty-three women developed MCI or probable dementia during follow-up. Among women who had been prescribed CEE-based therapies, cognitive impairment was associated with relatively smaller hippocampal (p = .0002) and total brain volumes (p = .03). Qualitatively, these associations appeared to be independent of their level of pretreatment cognitive function. Among women who had been prescribed placebo, these relationships were not evident; instead, cognitive impairment was associated with greater ischemic lesion volume in the frontal lobe (p = .007) and overall (p = .02). Conclusion A mechanism by which CEE-based postmenopausal hormone therapy induces cognitive impairment appears to be through increased brain atrophy. PMID:19729392

Tindle, Hilary A.; Bushnell, Cheryl A.; Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Margolis, Karen L.; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Melhem, Elias R.; Resnick, Susan M.

2009-01-01

225

Hearing Impairment and Dual Sensory Impairment Are Associated with Increased Mortality in Older Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Impairment are Associated with Increased Mortality in Older Men Researchers from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ... impairment (vision and hearing impairment combined) in older men are associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease ( ...

226

Differences in socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n=51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n=56) with ages ranging from 13 to 19 years enrolled in academic year 2009–2010. Socialization was measured with the

Ahmadreza Movahedi; Hossein Mojtahedi; Fateh Farazyani

2011-01-01

227

Impaired magnocellular/dorsal stream activation predicts impaired reading ability in schizophrenia?  

PubMed Central

In healthy humans, passage reading depends upon a critical organizing role played by the magnocellular/dorsal visual pathway. In a recent study, we found a significant correlation between orthographic reading deficits in schizophrenia and deficits in contrast sensitivity to low spatial frequency stimuli, suggesting an underlying magnocellular processing abnormality. The interrelationship between magnocellular dysfunction and passage reading impairments in schizophrenia was investigated in 21 patients with schizophrenia and 17 healthy control volunteers using behavioral and functional MRI (fMRI) based measures. fMRI activation patterns during passage- and single-word reading were evaluated in relation to cortical areas with differential sensitivity to low versus high spatial frequency cortical regions indentified using a phase-encoded fMRI paradigm. On average, patients with schizophrenia read at the 6th grade level, despite completion of more than 12 years of education and estimated normal pre-morbid IQ. Schizophrenia patients also showed significantly impaired contrast sensitivity to low spatial frequencies and abnormal neural activity in response to stimulation with low spatial frequencies, consistent with dysfunction of magnocellular processing. Further, these magnocellular deficits were predictive of poor performance on a standardized psychoeducational test of passage reading. These findings suggest that reading is an important index of cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia and highlight the contribution of magnocellular dysfunction to overall cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:24179753

Martinez, Antigona; Revheim, Nadine; Butler, Pamela D.; Guilfoyle, David N.; Dias, Elisa C.; Javitt, Daniel C.

2012-01-01

228

PTSD subclusters and functional impairment in Kosovo peacekeepers.  

PubMed

Peacekeepers deployed to Kosovo (N = 203) were evaluated prospectively, before the mission (August 2000) and at postdeployment, on a number of mental health and functional impairment variables. We examined the association between PTSD symptom subclusters and three indicators of functional impairment using hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for PTSD symptoms before the mission, and history of prior trauma. In the first model, avoidance and hyperarousal symptoms uniquely predicted a conglomerate of functional impact outcomes (e.g., employment, family relationships, social functioning). In the second model, emotional numbing was the only significant predictor of violent behaviors. In the third model, re-experiencing symptoms were the only significant predictor of alcohol abuse problems. Overall, the four PTSD subclusters are differentially associated with varying functional impairment outcomes, which is important to note for evaluation and treatment purposes for veterans returning from overseas deployments. PMID:19743730

Maguen, Shira; Stalnaker, Mark; McCaslin, Shannon; Litz, Brett T

2009-08-01

229

Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance?  

PubMed Central

A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized. PMID:21450966

Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

2011-01-01

230

Connecting impairment, disability, and handicap in immune mediated polyneuropathies  

PubMed Central

Background: In the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH), it is suggested that various levels of outcome are associated with one another. However, the ICIDH has been criticised on the grounds that it only represents a general, non-specific relation between its entities. Objective: To examine the significance of the ICIDH in immune mediated polyneuropathies. Methods: Four impairment measures (fatigue severity scale, MRC sum score, "INCAT" sensory sum score, grip strength with the Vigorimeter), five disability scales (nine hole peg test, 10 metres walking test, an overall disability sum score (ODSS), Hughes functional grading scale, Rankin scale), and a handicap scale (Rotterdam nine items handicap scale (RIHS9)) were assessed in 113 clinically stable patients (83 with Guillain–Barré syndrome, 22 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, eight with a gammopathy related polyneuropathy). Regression analyses with backward and forward stepwise strategies were undertaken to determine the correlation between the various levels of outcome (impairment on disability, impairment on handicap, disability leading to handicap, and impairment plus disability on handicap). Results: Impairment measures explained a substantial part of disability (R2 = 0.64) and about half of the variance in handicap (R2 = 0.52). Disability measures showed a stronger association with handicap (R2 = 0.76). Combining impairment and disability scales accounted for 77% of the variance in handicap (RIHS9) scores. Conclusions: In contrast to some suggestions, support for the ICIDH model is found in the current study because significant associations were shown between its various levels in patients with immune mediated polyneuropathies. Further studies are required to examine other possible contributors to deficits in daily life and social functioning in these conditions. PMID:12486276

Merkies, I; Schmitz, P; van der Meche, F G A; Samijn, J; van Doorn, P A

2003-01-01

231

Original article Soybean impairs Na  

E-print Network

Original article Soybean impairs Na + -dependent glucose absorption and Cl ­ secretion in porcine -- Recent evidence indicates that soybean, which is widely used in animal nutrition, could directly alter of the study was to investigate the effect of three differently treated soybean prod- ucts on the glucose

Boyer, Edmond

232

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?  

E-print Network

between nonword reading deficits and phonological impairment. Following focal brain lesions, not only may routes to derive the sound of written words (see Figure 1). Following the initial processing of the visual characteristics of a word, along one route a word's sound is retrieved from the lexicon by first

233

Epigenetic Treatments for Cognitive Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic mechanisms integrate signals from diverse intracellular transduction cascades and in turn regulate genetic readout. Accumulating evidence has revealed that these mechanisms are critical components of ongoing physiology and function in the adult nervous system, and are essential for many cognitive processes, including learning and memory. Moreover, a number of psychiatric disorders and syndromes that involve cognitive impairments are associated

Jeremy J Day; J David Sweatt

2012-01-01

234

Coincidence to significance.  

PubMed

This article will describe the author's entrepreneurial experiences related to challenges of initiating, negotiating and completing a health promotion project for a Fortune 500 company. The events described begin with her casual meeting of a director of the health promotion section of an international food company and wncludes with the author's final development of a significant employee injury prevention program. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate professional challenges an occupational therapist may encounter to successfully complete a corporate project. PMID:23931009

Herring, C

1989-01-01

235

A Study of Impairing Injuries in Real World Crashes Using the Injury Impairment Scale (IIS) and the Predicted Functional Capacity Index (PFCI-AIS)  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict impairment outcomes in large databases using a simplified technique allows researchers to focus attention on preventing costly impairing injuries. The dilemma that exists for researchers is to determine which method is the most reliable and valid. This study examines available methods to predict impairment and explores the differences between the IIS and pFCI applied to real world crash injury data. Occupant injury data from the UK Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database have been coded using AIS 1990 and AIS 2005. The data have subsequently been recoded using the associated impairment scales namely the Injury Impairment Scale (IIS) and the predicted Functional Capacity Index (pFCI) to determine the predicted impairment levels of injuries at one year post crash. Comparisons between the levels of impairment were made and any differences further explored. Injury data for the period February 2006 to September 2008 from the CCIS database were used in the analysis which involved a dataset of 2,437 occcupants who sustained over 8000 injuries. This study found some differences between the impairment scales for injuries coded to the AIS 1990 and AIS 2005 coding dictionaries. The pFCI predicts 31.5% of injuries to be impairing in AIS 2005, less than the IIS (38.5%) using AIS 1990. Using CCIS data the pFCI predicted that only 6% of the occupants with a coded injury would have an impairing injury compared to 24% of occupants using the IIS. The main body regions identified as having the major differences between the two impairment scales for car occupants were the head and spine. Follow up data were then used for a small number of cases (n=31, lower extremity and whiplash injuries) to examine any differences in predicted impairment versus perceived impairment. These data were selected from a previous study conducted between 2003 and 2006 and identified the discrepancy between predicted impairment and actual perceived impairment as defined by the participant. Overall the work highlights the variaton between the pFCI and IIS and emphasises the importance and need for a single validated impairment scale that can be universally applied. This would allow emphasis to be directed towards preventing injuries that are associated with the most significant impairment outcomes. PMID:20184844

Barnes, Jo; Morris, Andrew

2009-01-01

236

Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

2013-01-01

237

Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning: at the lower levels (up to 1500 m) they are recorded for a longer period and higher than 2000 m only 2-3 months. In terms of genesis the following types of debris flows are registered: rain, glacial and mixed. Rain mudflows are formed due to intensive rains (the daily amount is about 25 U 100 mm). A critical norm of precipitation forming debris 1 flows varies from west to east. In the western part it is 75-100 mm, central U 50-75 mm and eastern U 25-50 mm. Also the norm varies from north to south, in particular on advanced ridges it is higher but on the Glavny and Bokovoy ridges it is less. The difference is about 2 times. Glacial mudflows are observed only in the areas of modern glaciation. They form under high air temperature (20 U 25°C) leading to an intensive melting of snow and ice on glaciers. High air temperature should be recorded not less than 5-10 days. Mixed mudflows form under high air temperature in the glaciers area and significant rainstorms in the glacial zone. Rainstorms cause debris flow formation in focal points. Frontal precipitation with a significant amount of rain cause debris flows at vast territories often covering several kilometers. In total rain mudflows prevail on the Greater Caucasus northern slope and equal 60 - 80% of all the mudflows. Glacial mudflows constitute 30-40% and mixed mudflows U 10-20%. In the western and eastern parts rain mudflows are the principal and their share is 80-90% of all the mudflows. In the central part glacial mudflows prevail (60- 0%). Technogenic mudflows are recorded in the areas with developed mining industry, highways, forestry, and pastures. In the given region debris flows distribute from north to south depending on genesis and volume. On advanced ridges (Lesisty, Pastbishny, Skalisty) only rain mudflows are registered with the volume up to 100,000 m3. Eluvial-deluvial, alluvial-proluvial and eolian-proluvial deposits compose their solid constituents. This is a zone of weak mudflow hazard. The most often are mudflows with volume up to 5000-10,000 m3. More powerful mudflows are less frequent (once

Panova, S.

238

ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE  

PubMed Central

Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

2011-01-01

239

Children Are at Greater Risks from Pesticide Exposure  

MedlinePLUS

Children Are at Greater Risks from Pesticide Exposure January, 2002 Resources Questions On Pesticides? National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) 1-800-858-7378 The 1996, Food Quality Protection Act, ...

240

Concentration of ozone in surface air over greater Boston  

E-print Network

Surface ozone concentrations were measured in the Greater Boston area from November, 1964 to December, 1965. Ozone was monitored continuosly using a Mast microcoulombmetric sensor. A chromium trioxide filter was fitted to ...

Widen, Donald Allen

1966-01-01

241

Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape

Cameron L. Aldridge; Scott E. Nielsen; Hawthorne L. Beyer; Mark S. Boyce; John W. Connelly; Steven T. Knick; Michael A. Schroeder

2008-01-01

242

Runx1 deficiency permits granulocyte lineage commitment but impairs subsequent maturation  

PubMed Central

First-hits in the multi-hit process of leukemogenesis originate in germline or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), yet leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) usually have a lineage-committed phenotype. The molecular mechanisms underlying this compartment shift during leukemia evolution have not been a major focus of investigation and remain poorly understood. Here a mechanism underlying this shift was examined in the context of Runx1 deficiency, a frequent leukemia-initiating event. Lineage-negative cells isolated from the bone marrow of Runx1-haploinsufficient and wild-type control mice were cultured in granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor to force lineage commitment. Runx1-haploinsufficient cells demonstrated significantly greater and persistent exponential cell growth than wild-type controls. Not surprisingly, the Runx1-haploinsufficient cells were differentiation-impaired, by morphology and by flow-cytometric evaluation for granulocyte differentiation markers. Interestingly, however, this impaired differentiation was not because of decreased granulocyte lineage commitment, as RNA and protein upregulation of the master granulocyte lineage-commitment transcription factor Cebpa, and Hoxb4 repression, was similar in wild-type and Runx1-haploinsufficient cells. Instead, RNA and protein expression of Cebpe, a key driver of progressive maturation after lineage commitment, were significantly decreased in Runx1-haploinsufficient cells. Primary acute myeloid leukemia cells with normal cytogenetics and RUNX1 mutation also demonstrated this phenotype of very high CEBPA mRNA expression but paradoxically low expression of CEBPE, a CEBPA target gene. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analyses suggested a molecular mechanism for this phenotype: in wild-type cells, Runx1 binding was substantially greater at the Cebpe than at the Cebpa enhancer. Furthermore, Runx1 deficiency substantially diminished high-level Runx1 binding at the Cebpe enhancer, but lower-level binding at the Cebpa enhancer was relatively preserved. Thus, Runx1-deficiency permits Cebpa upregulation and the exponential cell growth that accompanies lineage commitment, but by impairing activation of Cebpe, a key proliferation-terminating maturation gene, extends this exponential growth. These mechanisms facilitate germline cell or HSC of origin, yet evolution into LIC with lineage-committed phenotype. PMID:24189977

Ng, K P; Hu, Z; Ebrahem, Q; Negrotto, S; Lausen, J; Saunthararajah, Y

2013-01-01

243

Factors contributing to impaired self-awareness of cognitive functioning in an HIV positive and at-risk population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the association between self-awareness of cognitive impairment and age, selected mood disorders, and type and severity of cognitive impairment in a sample of individuals with HIV/AIDS and at risk for HIV. Method 75 subjects, 52 HIV+ and 23 at risk for HIV completed a psychosocial interview, the Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning (PAOF) questionnaire, and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Based upon the differences between their clinical impairment and self-reported impairment, subjects were classified as being “Underestimators”, “Good Awareness”, or “Impaired Awareness” with regard to self-awareness. Results Those with more severe cognitive impairment were less aware than those with normal or borderline cognitive impairment. A one-way ANOVA suggested that the Impaired Awareness group differed significantly from the Underestimators on the Rey Figure Immediate and Delayed Recall tasks, and from both the Underestimators and Good Awarenesss groups on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. There were significant differences among all awareness groups on the test of Simple Reaction Time. Furthermore there is some suggestion that age may contribute to impaired self-awareness. The role of HIV in self-awareness remains unclear, as both, individuals with HIV and at risk, demonstrated impaired self-awareness. Conclusions Overall, impaired awareness was associated with poorer test performance, suggesting a relationship between awareness and sustained complex attention and visual spatial processing. This research has implications for understanding factors contributing to poor awareness among individuals with cognitive impairment. PMID:21870997

Juengst, Shannon; Skidmore, Elizabeth; Pramuka, Michael; McCue, Michael; Becker, James

2012-01-01

244

Dyslexia: Verbal impairments in the absence of magnocellular impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensitivity to dynamic visual and auditory stimuli was assessed in dyslexic children (Grade 7) who at school entrance had su¡ered from the well-established double-de¢cit of impaired phonological sensitivity and de¢cient rapid naming performance. A visual mag- nocellular de¢cit was assessed by the coherent motion detection task of the Oxford group. An auditory magnocellular de¢cit was assessed by the illusory sound

Martin Kronbichler; Florian Hutzler; Heinz Wimmer

2002-01-01

245

Differential Patterns of Hypoperfusion in Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) pattern of three Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) sub- types was measured with SPECT in 60 patients (nineteen with an amnestic deficit, sixteen with disexecutive deficits, and twenty five with mild multidomain deficits) and compared with that of 15 healthy matched older adults. The amnestic MCI subgroup showed significant hypoperfusion in the

Paolo Caffarra; Caterina Ghetti; Letizia Concari; Annalena Venneri

2008-01-01

246

Lifelogging memory appliance for people with episodic memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifelogging technologies have the potential to prov ide memory cues for people who struggle with episodic memory impairment (EMI). These memory cues enable the recollection of significant experiences, which is i mportant for people with EMI to regain a sense of normalcy i n their lives. However, lifelogging technologies often coll ect an overwhelmingly large amount of data to review.

Matthew L. Lee; Anind K. Dey

2008-01-01

247

Listening to Children with Communication Impairment Talking through Their Drawings  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Including children as research participants is an important new direction in early childhood research. However, it is rare for such studies to include the voices of children with significant communication impairment. This article suggests that drawing may be an appropriate non-verbal method for "listening" to these children's ideas and recording…

Holliday, Erin L.; Harrison, Linda J.; McLeod, Sharynne

2009-01-01

248

Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

2005-01-01

249

Siblings of Children with Speech Impairment: Cavalry on the Hill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the experiences of siblings of children with speech impairment, an underresearched area of family-centered practice. Method: Using naturalistic inquiry, we interviewed 6 siblings and 15 significant others. Interview transcripts were analyzed for meaning statements, and meaning statements were…

Barr, Jacqueline; McLeod, Sharynne; Daniel, Graham

2008-01-01

250

Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

251

Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.  

PubMed

The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations. PMID:803884

Saugstad, L F

1975-01-01

252

Impaired conscious and preserved unconscious inhibitory processing in recent onset schizophrenia  

E-print Network

are specifically impaired in people with schizophrenia. Method. The subjects were 33 patients presenting. Results. Patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls showed significantly increased duration conditions. It is well established that patients with schizophrenia have impaired working memory, which holds

Aron, Adam

253

Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Disorders: The Consequences of Severity and Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the adolescent consequences of clinical and threshold-level psychiatric disorders, with and without significant functional impairment; to predict serious emotional disturbance (SED: clinical-level diagnosis with impairment); and to examine sex differences in the consequences of emotional and behavioral disorders.

E. JANE COSTELLO; ADRIAN ANGOLD; GORDON P. KEELER

1999-01-01

254

Speech Impairment in Down Syndrome: A Review Ray D. Kent and Houri K. Vorperian  

E-print Network

Speech Impairment in Down Syndrome: A Review Ray D. Kent and Houri K. Vorperian Waisman Center production in Down Syndrome (DS) for the purposes of informing clinical services and guiding future research production in Down Syndrome (DS) is associated with significant impairments in spoken language (Fawcett

Vorperian, Houri K.

255

Neural Processing of Spoken Words in Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition…

Helenius, Paivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

2009-01-01

256

Relation between renal calcium content and renal impairment in 246 human renal biopsies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relation between renal calcium content and renal impairment in 246 human renal biopsies. Tissue calcium content from 246 diagnostic human renal biopsies was measured to assess whether elevated tissue calcium concentration could be demonstrated to exist early during the course of human renal disease or was only a manifestation of advanced renal impairment. Renal calcium content correlated significantly with serum

Luis F Gimenez; Kim Solez; W Gordon Walker

1987-01-01

257

Student Attitudes toward Impairment: An Assessment of Passive and Active Learning Methods in Urban Planning Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing for the needs of people with impairments has rarely been a significant feature of urban planning theory and education. Given the role of urban planners as shapers of the built environment and public policy, the prevalence of negative and misinformed attitudes among planners toward impaired populations has been highlighted as requiring…

Lewis, John L.

2011-01-01

258

Triazolam Impairs Delayed Recall but Not Acquisition of Various Everyday Memory Tasks in Humans  

E-print Network

. Although the drug re- duced immediate psychomotor performance, it did not impair recall of previously learned information, nor did it significantly impair encoding of new informa- tion. The drug enhanced was administered to 24 human subjects (8 control, 16 drug) to assess the effects of 0.125 mg triazolam (oral

Granger, Richard H.

259

Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351. PMID:23450499

Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

2013-01-01

260

Impaired fasting glucose, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease mortality.  

PubMed

Impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L [110 to 125 mg/dL]) is a common glycemic disorder which usually progress to diabetes mellitus. The relationships between impaired fasting glucose, other risk factors including blood pressure, and mortality have never been clearly investigated. We studied 63 443 consecutive men (ages 21 to 60 years), each of whom had a routine health examination with a fasting plasma glucose measurement. Men with known ischemic cardiac disease and treatment for diabetes or hypertension were excluded. Impaired fasting glucose was found in 10 773 (17.0%) of these men. Mean body mass index, serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and systolic, diastolic, and pulse blood pressure were significantly higher for men with impaired fasting glucose compared with those men with normal fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose 3.9 to 6.0 mmol/L). When adjusted for confounding variables, relative risk of 8-year cardiovascular mortality associated with impaired fasting glucose was dependent on systolic blood pressure level (1.02 [95% CI: 0.62 to 1.70] when <140 mm Hg and 2.10 [95% CI: 1.16 to 3.80] between 140 and 160 mm Hg). Inversely, relative risk of 8-year cardiovascular mortality associated with moderate systolic hypertension (140 to 159 mm Hg) compared with normal systolic blood pressure (<140 mm Hg) was highly dependent on the glycemic status (2.97 [95% CI: 1.58 to 5.55] for men with impaired fasting glucose compared with 1.35 [95% CI: 0.84 to 2.18] in those with normal fasting glucose). Similar results were found concerning overall mortality. In conclusion, the presence of moderate systolic hypertension can identify subjects with impaired fasting glucose who are at risk of cardiovascular and overall mortality, and vice versa, probably through the metabolic syndrome. PMID:12364347

Henry, Patrick; Thomas, Frédérique; Benetos, Athanase; Guize, Louis

2002-10-01

261

FIRE PROTECTION IMPAIRMENTS University Fire Marshal  

E-print Network

FIRE PROTECTION IMPAIRMENTS University Fire Marshal Guidance Document Approved by: R. Flynn Last revised by: R. Flynn Revision date: 08/18/2012 Fire Protection Impairments Page 1 of 1 This document contains excerpts from the Fire Code of New York State that pertain to the impairment of a fire protection

Pawlowski, Wojtek

262

Alcohol and the Physically Impaired: Special Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired Persons"…

Boros, Alexander, Ed.

1989-01-01

263

Cognitive impairment with and without depression history: an analysis of white matter microstructure  

PubMed Central

Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and late-life depression are clinical syndromes that often co-occur and may represent an early manifestation of neurodegenerative disease. The present study examined white matter microstructure in patients with MCI with and without a history of major depression compared with healthy controls. Methods Older adults with MCI and no history of major depression (MCI), adults with MCI and euthymic major depression (MCI-MD) and healthy controls underwent comprehensive medical, psychiatric and neuropsychological assessments. Participants also underwent diffusion tensor imaging, which was analyzed using tract-based spatial statistics. White matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and medical burden were also quantified. Results We enrolled 30 participants in the MCI group, 36 in the MCI-MD group and 22 in the control group. Compared with controls, participants in the MCI group had significantly reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), corona radiata and posterior thalamic radiation. Participants in the MCI-MD group had significantly reduced FA in the corpus callosum, internal capsule, external capsule, corona radiata, posterior thalamic radiation, sagittal striatum, fornix, SLF, uncinate fasciculus and right cingulum compared with controls. No significant differences in FA were observed between the MCI and MCI-MD groups. Participants in the MCI-MD group had greater medical burden (p = 0.020) and WMH burden than controls (p = 0.013). Limitations Study limitations include the cross-sectional design and antidepressant medication use. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study is the first to compare white matter microstructure in patients with MCI with and without a history of major depression and suggests that a common underlying structural white matter change may underpin cognitive impairment in both MCI groups. Further research is needed to delineate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these microstructural changes. PMID:24359878

Duffy, Shantel L.; Paradise, Matt; Hickie, Ian B.; Lewis, Simon J.G.; Naismith, Sharon L.; Lagopoulos, Jim

2014-01-01

264

Extended normobaric hyperoxia therapy yields greater neuroprotection for focal transient ischemia-reperfusion in rats  

PubMed Central

Background Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO) therapy is neuroprotective in acute ischemic stroke. However, how long the NBO should last to obtain optimal outcome is still unclear. Reports show that ischemic penumbra blood supply may remain compromised for a long period after ischemia-reperfusion, which would impair tissue oxygenation in ischemic penumbra. Therefore, we hypothesized that longer-lasting NBO may yield greater neuroprotection. Methods The relationship between treatment outcome and NBO duration was examined in this study. Rats were subjected to 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by reperfusion for 22.5 hours. NBO started at 30 min post ischemia and lasted for 2, 4 or 8 h. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by measuring infarction volume, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Results Among 2 h, 4 h and 8 h NBO, 8 h NBO offered the greatest efficacy in reducing 24-hour infarction volume, attenuating oxidative stress that was indicated by decreased production of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and NADPH oxidase catalytic subunit gp91phox, and alleviating apoptosis that was associated with reduced production of DNA fragment and caspase-3 activity in cortex penumbra. Conclusions Under our experimental conditions, longer duration of NBO treatment produced greater benefits in focal transient cerebral ischemia-reperfusion rats. PMID:25177481

2014-01-01

265

Shared decision making and behavioral impairment: a national study among children with special health care needs  

PubMed Central

Background The Institute of Medicine has prioritized shared decision making (SDM), yet little is known about the impact of SDM over time on behavioral outcomes for children. This study examined the longitudinal association of SDM with behavioral impairment among children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Method CSHCN aged 5-17?years in the 2002-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were followed for 2?years. The validated Columbia Impairment Scale measured impairment. SDM was measured with 7 items addressing the 4 components of SDM. The main exposures were (1) the mean level of SDM across the 2 study years and (2) the change in SDM over the 2?years. Using linear regression, we measured the association of SDM and behavioral impairment. Results Among 2,454 subjects representing 10.2 million CSHCN, SDM increased among 37% of the population, decreased among 36% and remained unchanged among 27%. For CSHCN impaired at baseline, the change in SDM was significant with each 1-point increase in SDM over time associated with a 2-point decrease in impairment (95% CI: 0.5, 3.4), whereas the mean level of SDM was not associated with impairment. In contrast, among those below the impairment threshold, the mean level of SDM was significant with each one point increase in the mean level of SDM associated with a 1.1-point decrease in impairment (0.4, 1.7), but the change was not associated with impairment. Conclusion Although the change in SDM may be more important for children with behavioral impairment and the mean level over time for those below the impairment threshold, results suggest that both the change in SDM and the mean level may impact behavioral health for CSHCN. PMID:22998626

2012-01-01

266

Impaired musical ability in people with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of the musical ability of people with schizophrenia has attracted little interest despite the diverse and substantive findings of impairments in sound perception and processing and the therapeutic effect of music in people with the illness. The present study investigated the musical ability of people with schizophrenia and the association with psychiatric symptoms and cognition. Methods We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls for participation in our study. To measure musical ability and cognitive function, we used the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). We carried out a mediation analysis to investigate a possible pathway to a deficit in musical ability. Results We enrolled 50 patients and 58 controls in the study. The MBEA global score in patients with schizophrenia was significantly lower than that in controls (p < 0.001), and was strongly associated with both the composite cognitive function score (r = 0.645, p < 0.001) and the negative symptom score (r = ?0.504, p < 0.001). Further analyses revealed direct and indirect effects of negative symptoms on musical ability. The indirect effects were mediated through cognitive impairment. Limitations The relatively small sample size did not permit full evaluation of the possible effects of age, sex, education, medication and cultural influences on the results. Conclusion Examining the associations between musical deficits, negative symptoms and cognitive imapirment in patients with schizophrenia may identify shared biological mechanisms. PMID:24119791

Hatada, Sanae; Sawada, Ken; Akamatsu, Masanori; Doi, Erina; Minese, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Motoshi; Thornton, Allen E.; Honer, William G.; Inoue, Shimpei

2014-01-01

267

Rumination and Impaired Resource Allocation in Depression  

PubMed Central

Depression is characterized by a range of cognitive deficits that theorists posit are due to the resource capturing properties of rumination. The present study was designed to examine the relation between rumination and resource allocation in depression. Twenty-five depressed and 25 nondepressed participants completed a modified dual-task version of the recency-probes task, which assesses the controlled allocation of cognitive resources by comparing performance across low- and high-interference conditions. In low-interference conditions, participants performed either the recency-probes task or a tracking task, which required participants to track specific stimuli across trials (i.e., no dual-task interference). In the high-interference condition, participants performed both the recency-probes task and the tracking task, which required the controlled allocation of resources to resolve dual-task interference. Depressed participants performed significantly worse than did their nondepressed counterparts in only the high-interference condition; performance of the 2 groups was comparable in the low-interference conditions. Furthermore, the degree to which depressed participants were impaired in the high-interference condition was correlated .74 with rumination. These findings suggest that an association between rumination and impairments in resource allocation underlies the cognitive difficulties experienced by depressed individuals. PMID:19899845

Levens, Sara M.; Muhtadie, Luma; Gotlib, Ian H.

2010-01-01

268

A Greater Society: The Transformation of the Federal Role in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal role in education will soon be transformed in ways that could produce an even greater society than President Lyndon B. Johnson envisioned. The authors identify underlying principles of this new role and describe how it represents a significant departure from the past. Historically, for example, the federal government has been…

Wise, Bob; Rothman, Robert

2010-01-01

269

GNOMO: Greater-than-NOMinal Vdd Operation for BTI Mitigation Saket Gupta and Sachin S. Sapatnekar  

E-print Network

GNOMO: Greater-than-NOMinal Vdd Operation for BTI Mitigation Saket Gupta and Sachin S. Sapatnekar. Abstract--This paper presents a novel scheme for mitigating delay degradations in digital circuits due, that this approach can significantly mitigate aging for a small performance penalty. I. INTRODUCTION A major

Sapatnekar, Sachin

270

Greater Athens PM pollution: Local or regional origin;  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last decades, the Particulate Matter (PM) pollution has become one of most challenging environmental problems worldwide. Along with their impact on global climate change and ecosystems, particles, especially for the smaller one, are indicated by numerous epidemiological studies to pose a great risk to human health with acute or long-term effects. Being located at the intersection of air masses circulating among three continents, the Mediterranean Basin is one of the areas heavily affected by aerosols with both natural and anthropogenic origin. Furthermore, the complex prevailing meteorology favours the aging of polluted air masses and induces high level of PM and photooxidant gases. In line with such scientific demands, the aim of the specific work is to elucidate the main characteristics of PM2.5 and PM1 nature (mass and chemical composition (Cl-, , SO , , K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, OC, EC)) of the Greater Athens Area (GAA) to elucidate the factors controlling the PM pollution and enable the policy makers to develop effective air quality remediation plans. Taking into consideration that PM measured at a specific site is the result of combined features and processes, at a local or a larger scale, as well as the air quality degradation by particulate matter over polluted areas which is often characterized by high levels of regional background aerosols, the main goal of this study is the identification and estimation of the local or regional contribution to the PM burden at GAA during different meteorological driven scenarios. Focusing on the changes in the prevailing atmospheric circulation patterns (mesoscale/synoptic wind regimes), a mass closure study of the available chemical species in conjunction with the observed PM mass is also attempted, in order to differentiate the relative contributions of the constituents. Special attention is also given to the high PM concentration (exceedances) days. The experimental campaign was held in parallel, during the period of 2008, at three sites of GAA. The monitoring stations were selected and positioned carefully, along the central axis (S-N) of the GAA representing rural background, roadside-industrialized and coastal/rural background locations. Our results indicate a significant contribution of regional pollution on PM levels measured at GAA.

Pateraki, Stella; Maggos, Thomas; Assimakopoulos, Demosthenis; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Vasilakos, Christos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

2013-04-01

271

Microstructural analysis of Greater Himalayan rocks in northern Bhutan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Across the Himalayan fold-thrust belt, high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Greater Himalayan (GH) zone are juxtaposed between low-grade metasedimentary rocks structurally above and below. In Bhutan, the higher-grade GH rocks lie structurally over lower-grade Lesser Himalayan rocks and are separated by the Main Central Thrust. However, many aspects of the deformation path, deformation conditions, and the emplacement mechanism that led to the exhumation of GH rocks are poorly understood. In this study geologic mapping and quantitative microstructural analysis are utilized to gain insight into the deformation history of GH rocks in Bhutan, and to test the applicability of end-member emplacement models. Microstructural datasets include characterization of kinematic indicators, determination of deformation temperatures through analysis of quartz deformation microstructures and quartz crystal-preferred orientation (CPO) data, and classification of strain and shear type using CPO and kinematic vorticity data. Semi-quantitative deformation-temperature estimates obtained from cataloguing quartz-recrystallization mechanisms, combined with quantitative temperature estimates from CPO plot opening angles, suggest that GH rocks were deformed at temperatures of ca. 500 to 750°C at both structurally-lower and higher levels, and were later overprinted by a lower-temperature recrystallization event around that occurred at conditions of ca. 400--500°C. The higher-temperature recrystallization event is interpreted to be associated with earlier slip (˜22--15 Ma) along the Main Central Thrust, at or near peak metamorphic temperature conditions. The lower-temperature overprint is interpreted to have occurred at a higher point along the pressure-temperature-deformation path as GH rocks were passively translated and structurally elevated southward, concurrent with duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (˜18--10 Ma). Internal deformation within structurally-lower and higher GH rocks consisted of components of both coaxial (pure shear) and non-coaxial (simple shear) strain, as indicated by localities with opposite shear-sense kinematics, type-I cross-girdle CPO patterns and kinematic vorticity, which suggests that exhumation of GH rocks was accompanied by significant flattening in north-central and northeast Bhutan.

Penfold, Melissa L.

272

Vascular cognitive impairment in dementia.  

PubMed

Vascular risk factors and cerebrovascular disease are common causes of dementia. Shared risk factors for vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease, as well as frequent coexistence of these pathologies in cognitively impaired older people, suggests convergence of the aetiology, prevention and management of the commonest dementias affecting older people. In light of this understanding, the cognitive impairment associated with cerebrovascular disease is an increasingly important and recognised area of the medicine of older people. Although the incidence of cerebrovascular events is declining in many populations, the overall burden associated with brain vascular disease will continue to increase associated with population ageing. A spectrum of cognitive disorders related to cerebrovascular disease is now recognised. Cerebrovascular disease in older people is associated with specific clinical and imaging findings. Although prevention remains the cornerstone of management, the diagnosis of brain vascular disease is important because of the potential to improve clinical outcomes through clear diagnosis, enhanced control of risk factors, lifestyle interventions and secondary prevention. Specific pharmacological intervention may also be indicated for some patients with cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular disease. However the evidence base to guide intervention remains relatively sparse. PMID:25011396

Etherton-Beer, Christopher D

2014-10-01

273

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

PubMed

Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species. PMID:15207051

Cunningham, Andrew A; Kirkwood, James K; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I; Green, Robert B; Wells, Gerald A H

2004-06-01

274

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros)  

PubMed Central

Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species. PMID:15207051

Kirkwood, James K.; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I.; Green, Robert B.; Wells, Gerald A.H.

2004-01-01

275

Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193

2012-01-01

276

Reticuloendotheliosis in captive greater and Attwater's prairie chickens.  

PubMed

Reticuloendotheliosis in captive greater (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's (T. cupido attwateri) prairie chickens is reported for the first time. Between September 1993 and August 1994, two adult female wild-caught greater prairie chickens housed at Texas A&M University (College Station, Texas, USA) were observed with multiple subcutaneous nodules. Both birds were euthanatized. Complete necropsy examinations revealed lesions limited to the skin of each bird. Histopathologic examination of lesions revealed pleomorphic lymphoreticular cells suggestive of reticuloendotheliosis and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was demonstrated in tumor tissue by polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation. Between September 1994 and June 1995, five additional greater prairie chickens and two Attwater's prairie chickens were euthanatized or found dead with evidence of lymphoreticular neoplasia in multiple organ systems. Initial testing of the captive flock in December 1994 for evidence of viremia and antibody to reticuloendotheliosis virus revealed over 50% of the tested birds were viremic, but none developed antibodies. Subsequent testing between January 1995 and January 1996 indicated that once infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus, Attwater's prairie chickens tended to remain outwardly healthy despite persistent viremia compared to infected greater prairie chickens which had higher morbidity and mortality rates within 60 to 90 days after initial detection of viremia and did not usually develop persistent viremia. Antibodies to REV were detected in only three captive greater prairie chickens and only in 1995. Six of the nine birds that were euthanatized or found dead due to reticuloendotheliosis developed viremia prior to death; three birds were not tested prior to death. Testing of free-ranging greater and Attwater's prairie chickens for reticuloendotheliosis is recommended prior to translocation or release. PMID:9813849

Drew, M L; Wigle, W L; Graham, D L; Griffin, C P; Silvy, N J; Fadly, A M; Witter, R L

1998-10-01

277

Brain areas impaired in oral and verbal apraxic patients  

PubMed Central

Background: As both oral and verbal apraxia are related to vocal orofacial musculature, this study aimed at identifying brain regions impaired in cases with oral and verbal apraxia. Methods: In this non-experimental study, 46 left brain damaged subjects (17 females) aged 23–84 years, were examined by oral and verbal apraxia tasks. Impaired and spared Broca’s area, insula, and middle frontal gyrus in the left hemisphere were checked from magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans utilizing Talairach Atlas. Data were analyzed using chi-square test. Results: Insula was significantly impaired in both forms of oral and verbal apraxia and different severities and prominent forms of both apraxias (P < 0.05). Broca’s area was slightly less involved than insula in two forms of apraxia. Conclusion: As the damage of insula was more prominent in both forms of apraxias, it seems that oral and verbal apraxia may have commonalities regarding their underlying brain lesions.

Yadegari, Fariba; Azimian, Mojtaba; Rahgozar, Mahdi; Shekarchi, Babak

2014-01-01

278

Reduced Acute Recovery from Alcohol Impairment in Adults with ADHD  

PubMed Central

Rationale Prior research has found that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show increased sensitivity to the impairing effects of alcohol (Weafer et al. 2009). However, these studies have focused exclusively on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, and it is unclear whether these adults continue to show increased sensitivity during the later phase of the dose as BAC is declining. Objective This study tested the hypothesis that those with ADHD would display increased response to alcohol during the ascending limb of the BAC curve and less recovery from the impairing effects during the descending limb. Methods Adult social drinkers with ADHD and control adults completed measures of motor coordination, reaction time, and subjective intoxication twice following 0.64 g/kg alcohol and placebo. The measures were administered during the ascending limb of the BAC curve and again during the descending limb. Results During the ascending limb, alcohol reduced motor coordination, slowed reaction time (RT), and increased self-reports of subjective intoxication. Those with ADHD displayed greater impairment of motor coordination compared with controls. During the descending limb, controls reported diminished subjective intoxication and showed recovery from the impairing effects of alcohol on both their motor coordination and their RT. Those with ADHD showed reduced subjective intoxication and faster RT during this time, but they did not recover motor control. Conclusions The protracted time course of motor impairment in adults with ADHD despite reductions in subjective intoxication may contribute to poor decision making and diminished behavioral control in this group. PMID:23430161

Roberts, Walter; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

2013-01-01

279

Cognitive impairment in fatigue and sleepiness associated conditions.  

PubMed

Although relating to very different concepts, sleepiness and fatigue are often confounded. However, both fatigue-associated conditions such as the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and sleepiness-associated conditions such as the sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) are associated with cognitive impairment with impaired attention, concentration and memory performances. Fifteen pure CFS patients, without primary sleep disorders or clinically relevant sleepiness, were compared to 15 untreated SAHS patients, without clinically relevant fatigue, and to 16 healthy controls of similar age. The auditory verbal learning test (AVLT), digit span, digit symbol and finger tapping test (FTT) were used as cognitive and behavioural measures. In addition we assessed daytime EEG spectral power and P300 evoked potentials. With exception for the digit span, all tests showed lower performances in patient groups. Recall on the AVLT did not differ between the two patient groups, but the digit and symbol spans showed more severe impairment in SAHS patients. Psychomotor performance on the FTT presented with slower hit rates in SAHS than in CFS. EEG theta power was highest in CFS patients. P300 latencies and amplitudes did not differ between groups. Fatigue- and sleepiness-associated conditions can both present with significant and objective impairment of cognitive functioning and behavioural motor performance. In our sample cognitive impairment and psychomotor performance were worse when associated to sleepiness in SAHS than with fatigue in CFS. PMID:21196050

Neu, Daniel; Kajosch, Hendrik; Peigneux, Philippe; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul; Le Bon, Olivier

2011-08-30

280

Physiological mechanisms of post-exercise balance impairment.  

PubMed

This review focuses on investigations into postural sway response to different forms of exercise, and particularly those dealing with physiological mechanisms of post-exercise balance impairment. The findings of relevant studies combined with our research results show that postural sway response to exercise depends on its type, intensity, duration and intensity of proprioceptive stimulation. Differences in postural sway were also observed after exercise with different forms of muscle contraction and those with different activation of muscle fibres. In general, fatigue is associated with post-exercise balance impairment. Such an effect is usually a consequence of prolonged exercise. However, findings proved that after short-term intensive exercises, hyperventilation, rather than fatigue, is responsible for increased postural sway. Significant differences in balance impairment were also found after exercises that induced the same ventilation but with a different intensity of muscle contractions eliciting a different level of proprioceptive stimulation, such as calf rises versus jumps and cycling versus running. Thus, in addition to fatigue and hyperventilation, impairment of somatosensory inputs also very likely plays a role in increased post-exercise postural sway. Based on this literature review, possible physiological mechanisms of post-exercise balance impairment identified so far may be fatigue, hyperventilation, deterioration of functions of mechanoreceptors, proprioceptors, vestibular apparatus and visual cues, muscle damage, dehydration, hyperthermia and dizziness. These findings can be explored in a more practical setting in the field of sport, clinical medicine and rehabilitation. PMID:24264058

Zemková, Erika; Hamar, Dušan

2014-04-01

281

Recurrent Tuberculosis of Greater Trochanter and Its Bursa  

PubMed Central

A 65-year-old female had a history of tuberculosis of the left greater trochanter 30 years ago. She underwent 6 months of chemotherapy after which the disease healed completely. Currently she presented to us with pain and swelling on the lateral aspect of left hip of 2-month duration. Clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of a recurrence. Biopsy was conclusive for tuberculosis. She was successfully treated with debridement and curettage with chemotherapy for 1 year. Recurrent tuberculosis of the greater trochanter is rare and should be aggressively treated. PMID:23997971

Shenoy, Keshav S.; Jeevannavar, Santosh S.; Baindoor, Prasanna; Mannual, Sunil; Shetty, Savith V.

2013-01-01

282

Impaired glucose tolerance in midlife and longitudinal changes in brain function during aging.  

PubMed

We investigated whether individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in midlife subsequently show regionally specific longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) relative to those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Sixty-four cognitively normal participants in the neuroimaging substudy of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging underwent serial (15)O-water positron emission tomography scans (age at first scan, 69.6 ± 7.5 years) and oral glucose tolerance tests 12 years earlier (age at first oral glucose tolerance test, 57.2 ± 11.1 years). Using voxel-based analysis, we compared changes in rCBF over an 8-year period between 15 participants with IGT in midlife and 49 with NGT. Significant differences were observed in longitudinal change in rCBF between the IGT and NGT groups. The predominant pattern was greater rCBF decline in the IGT group in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices. Some brain regions in the frontal and temporal cortices also showed greater longitudinal increments in rCBF in the IGT group. Our findings suggest that IGT in midlife is associated with subsequent longitudinal changes in brain function during aging even in cognitively normal older individuals. PMID:23608110

Thambisetty, Madhav; Beason-Held, Lori L; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael; Metter, Jeffrey; Egan, Josephine; Ferrucci, Luigi; O'Brien, Richard; Resnick, Susan M

2013-10-01

283

Rumination and perceived impairment associated with depressive symptoms in a verbal adolescent-adult ASD sample.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and several psychosocial constructs (insight into autism symptoms, rumination, desire for social interaction, and satisfaction with social support) that may play a role in the development or maintenance of depression in verbally fluent adolescents and adults with ASD. Participants included 50 individuals with ASD and verbal IQ???70, aged 16-35 (sample size varied by measure). Elevated depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II), were associated with greater self-perceived, autism-related impairments (n?=?48), greater rumination (n?=?21), and lower perceived social support (n?=?37). Rumination tended to moderate the association between self-perceived autism symptoms and BDI-II scores (n?=?21), and was significantly associated with ASD-related insistence on sameness behaviors (n?=?18). An unexpected relationship between depressive features and social participation and motivation will need to be clarified by longitudinal research. These and similar findings contribute to our understanding of the phenomenology of depression in ASD, which is critical to the development of practical prevention and treatment. PMID:24802136

Gotham, Katherine; Bishop, Somer L; Brunwasser, Steven; Lord, Catherine

2014-06-01

284

Optical spectroscopic assessment of free flap circulatory impairment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Free flaps are used to reconstruct tissue damaged by injury. Circulatory impairment of the free flap is the leading cause of a failed flap surgery. This study demonstrates that optical spectroscopy can detect early signs of circulatory impairment and distinguish between arterial or venous blockage. An epigastric flap model is used to mimic conditions of both arterial and venous circulatory impairment. Animals were divided into three groups 1.) arterial occlusion (n=5), 2.) venous occlusion (n=4), and 3.) control (n=5). A classifier was applied to the reflectance data to determine whether there were consistent differences between the three study groups. The classifier was able to distinguish between arterial occlusion, venous occlusion and healthy flaps with a 95% accuracy. Measures of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and blood volume were derived from the same reflectance data. Oxygenation of the flap was significantly lower during venous or arterial occlusion compared to control flaps. Blood volume of the free flap went up significantly following venous blockage while blockage of the artery cause a significant drop in blood volume. Combining the predictions of the classifier and examining the oxygenation and blood volume parameters reliably detected circulatory impairment of the free flap.

Sowa, Michael G.; Payette, Jeri R.; Kohlenberg, Elicia; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Pabbies, Arone; Kerr, Paul

2004-10-01

285

Short-term recognition memory impairment is associated with decreased expression of FK506 binding protein 51 in the aged mouse brain.  

PubMed

Evidence suggests that increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling may contribute to cognitive decline with age. We hypothesized that alterations in GR signaling pathway molecules, FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 and FKBP52, were associated with memory impairment in aged mice. We used the single-trial object recognition test to measure short-term memory in 18 aged mice compared to 22 young mice, and employed quantitative immunohistochemistry to assess cellular expression of those three proteins in the frontal cortex, hippocampal CA1, and dentate gyrus. Values of the discrimination ratio (DR, a measure of novelty preference) in aged mice were significantly lower than those in young mice (mean 0.54 vs. 0.67, p = 0.003, t test). Aged mice with DR below 0.54 were considered impaired (n = 9). In the three neuroanatomic regions studied, the immunoreactivity normalized to the area measured (IRn) for GR was significantly increased in aged mice regardless of their task performance compared to young mice (p < 0.005), as was the FKBP52 IRn (p < 0.007, U test). In the frontal cortex and CA1, the FKBP51 IRn was significantly lower in impaired aged mice than in unimpaired aged mice (p < 0.01 and <0.05, respectively) and in young mice (p < 0.05 and <0.01, respectively, Dunn's post hoc test). In aged mice, the frontal cortex FKBP51 IRn correlated directly with DR (r (s) = 0.68, p = 0.002, Spearman rank correlation). These observations suggest that recognition memory impairment in aged mice is associated with decreased FKBP51 expression that may promote GR-mediated glucocorticoid signaling to a greater extent than in unimpaired aged mice. PMID:20422297

Soontornniyomkij, Virawudh; Risbrough, Victoria B; Young, Jared W; Wallace, Chelsea K; Soontornniyomkij, Benchawanna; Jeste, Dilip V; Achim, Cristian L

2010-09-01

286

Daily or weekly? The role of treatment frequency in the effectiveness of grammar treatment for children with specific language impairment.  

PubMed

This study compared the effectiveness of a school-based treatment for expressive grammar in 5-year-olds with specific language impairment delivered in two different dose frequencies: eight sessions delivered daily over 8 consecutive school days or eight sessions delivered weekly over 8 consecutive weeks. Eighteen children received treatment daily and 13 children received treatment weekly. In both groups, treatment consisted of eight 1-hour sessions of small group activities in a classroom setting. Techniques included explicit instruction, focused stimulation, recasting, and imitation. Results were analysed at the group level and as a case series with each child as their own control in a single-subject design. The 8-weeks group showed significantly greater gain in test scores over the treatment period than in an equal time period prior to treatment, whereas the 8-days group did not (Cohen's d = 1.64 for 8-weeks group). Single-subject analyses indicated that 46% of children in the 8-week group and 17% of children in the 8-day group showed a significant treatment effect. It is concluded that expressive grammar treatment was most effective when dose frequency was weekly over 8 weeks rather than daily over 8 days for 5-year-old children with specific language impairment. PMID:23586584

Smith-Lock, Karen; Leitão, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Prior, Polly; Dunn, Anne; Cronje, Julia; Newhouse, Sara; Nickels, Lyndsey

2013-06-01

287

COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING  

E-print Network

Chapter GQ COAL QUALITY AND GEOCHEMISTRY, GREATER GREEN RIVER BASIN, WYOMING By G.D. Stricker and M coal beds and zones in the Northern RockyMountains and Great Plains region, U.S. Geological Survey of selected Tertiary coal beds and zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, U

288

Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

289

Variables Associated with Producing Greater Percentages of Minority Earned Doctorates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The yearly percentage of minority earned doctorates in psychology has not increased appreciably since 1978. An attempt to discover departmental variables associated with the production of greater percentage rates involved 13 institutions drawn from the population of college and university psychology departments offering the Ph.D. degree. The…

Flores, Isidore, III

290

Assessment of Community Noise Problem in Greater Beirut Area, Lebanon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last two decades, urban noise has been increasingrapidly, primarily in urban areas, due to population growthand the increase of certain noise sources. The main objectiveof this paper is to assess the sources and possible impactsof the community noise problems in Lebanese urban areas,particularly the Greater Beirut Area. The causes and effectsof community noise pollution are briefly presented. Soundpressure

Samira Ibrahim Korfali; May Massoud

2003-01-01

291

Population Ecology Demography of Greater Prairie-Chickens  

E-print Network

Population Ecology Demography of Greater Prairie-Chickens: Regional Variation in Vital Rates gradient of human landscape alteration and land use. We observed regional differences in reproductive different land management practices, 3) human land-use patterns may affect the relative influences of vital

Sandercock, Brett K.

292

PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District  

E-print Network

PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District by Andrew K. Doi B. A (BMPs) for water conservation are used as evaluative criteria. These BMPs were drawn from California's urban water conservation system. This researched examines 4 case study municipalities from the GVRD

293

Greater sciatic notch morphology: Sex, age, and population differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of a method for visually scoring sex differences in the greater sciatic notch was tested on 296 skeletons of known age and sex. The pro- portion of correct sex assignments is 80% when all speci- mens are classified, and 89% when os coxae assigned the score in which the sexes show the greatest overlap are excluded. Although many

Phillip L. Walker

2005-01-01

294

Habitat Relations Greater Sage-Grouse Winter Habitat Use on  

E-print Network

Habitat Relations Greater Sage-Grouse Winter Habitat Use on the Eastern Edge of Their Range sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) at the western edge of the Dakotas occur in the transition zone from those habitats that comprise the central portions of the sage-grouse range; yet, no information

295

Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface  

E-print Network

Ice Storm Damage Greater Along the Terrestrial-Aquatic Interface in Forested Landscapes Andrew A ABSTRACT Ice storms are an important and recurring ecologi- cal disturbance in many temperate forest ecosys- tems. In 1998, a severe ice storm damaged over ten million hectares of forest across northern New York

Kraft, Clifford E.

296

Energetics of reproduction in female and male greater snow geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic-nesting geese are classified as “capital” breeders (i.e., birds that rely largely on endogenous reserves to meet the high nutrient requirement of clutch formation) as opposed to “income” breeders (those that rely directly on ingested food). However, some evidence has suggested that energy reserves of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) are not sufficient to meet these costs. We tested

Line Choinière; Gilles Gauthier

1995-01-01

297

Molluscan Mariculture in the Greater Caribbean: An Overview  

E-print Network

oysters, Crassostrea virginica, and mangrove oysters, C. rhyzophorae, exist in Jamaica, Cuba, J-shelf potential yield and demand for marine protein in the Caribbean which revealed that: 1) Only a few----f------+--------'I. Figure I.-Map of greater Caribbean region. 47(4), 1985 1 #12;Figure 2.-Mangrove oyster culture system

298

Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional, national,…

Labi, Aisha

2007-01-01

299

Job satisfaction: what is its true meaning in Greater China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Previously, researchers have performed studies on job satisfaction and organizational behavior outcomes in Western contexts. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether economic prosperity or cultural perspective may explain why job satisfaction may not be an effective predictor of organizational outcomes in Greater China. Researchers need more empirical evidence to understand the nature of the relationship

Yong Han; Nada K. Kakabadse

2009-01-01

300

Slimness is Associated with Greater Intercourse and Lesser Masturbation Frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19–38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with

STUART BRODY

2004-01-01

301

Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA.

JOHN CLARK SUTHERLAND; KATHLEEN PIETRUSZKA GRIFFIN

1981-01-01

302

2100Greater Phoenix www.gp2100.org  

E-print Network

available a wide variety of scientific and technical data on the past, present, and possible futures in their understanding of natural and social processes. In short, Greater Phoenix 2100 will be a strong, scientific disruption. Looking back over a hundred or more years, we can see and understand the mistakes and triumphs

Hall, Sharon J.

303

CHAPTER TWO Hierarchical Modeling of Lek Habitats of Greater  

E-print Network

prairie, Tympanuchus cupido. Gregory, A. J., L. B. McNew, T. J. Prebyl, B. K. Sandercock, and S. M. Wisely-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, hereafter "prairie-chickens") are a prairie grouse that are native to the grasslands, Lance B. McNew, Thomas J. Prebyl, Brett K. Sandercock, and Samantha M. Wisely Abstract. GreaterPrairie-Chickens(Tympanuchus

Sandercock, Brett K.

304

Minority Neighborhoods Face Greater Exposure to Air Pollution  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Minority Neighborhoods Face Greater Exposure to Air Pollution Researchers tracked areas in 6 states to find ... Dallas Thursday, September 11, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Air Pollution Health Disparities THURSDAY, Sept. 11, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

305

College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

Gaultney, Jane F.

2014-01-01

306

THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM  

E-print Network

THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM VERSION 2.0 VOLUME III: USER'S MANUAL Eric J. Miller Bahen-Tanenbaum Professor Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto Joint by the then Metropolitan Toronto Planning Department and the Ministry of Transportation, Ontario. Support and advice

Toronto, University of

307

Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

2013-01-01

308

Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

2012-01-01

309

Hospitalization of Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairments: The Influence of Organizational Features and State Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of specific nursing home features and state Medicaid policies on the risk of hospitalization among cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Design and Methods: We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate the odds of hospitalization among long-stay (greater than 90 days)…

Gruneir, Andrea; Miller, Susan C.; Intrator, Orna; Mor, Vincent

2007-01-01

310

Trends Affecting the Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Demand for Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the prevalence of people with visual impairment and trends affecting prevalence, including increased overall populations and a growth in the older population, greater ability to preserve lives of high-risk populations, improved fitness, medical advances in prevention, expanding role of computers among other increasing visual demands, and…

Kirchner, Corinne

1999-01-01

311

Pentagon copying is more impaired in dementia with Lewy bodies than in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESIn many cases the clinical differentiation of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been difficult. Because many neuropsychological studies have reported greater visuospatial\\/constructional impairment in DLB than in AD, it was determined whether accuracy in copying the interlocking pentagons item on the mini mental state examination (MMSE) may be helpful in distinguishing

T A Ala; L F Hughes; G A Kyrouac; M W Ghobrial; R J Elble

2001-01-01

312

An Overview of Dual Sensory Impairment in Older Adults: Perspectives for Rehabilitation  

PubMed Central

Dual sensory impairment (DSI) refers to the presence of both hearing loss and vision loss. The occurrence of DSI is particularly prevalent among the aging population, with studies showing between 9% and 21% of adults older than 70 years having some degree of DSI. Despite this, there is little direction regarding recommended clinical practice and rehabilitation of individuals with DSI. It is assumed that the problems encountered by individuals with DSI are considerably greater than the effects of vision impairment or hearing impairment alone, because when these two sensory impairments are combined, the individual is seriously deprived of compensatory strategies that make use of the nonimpaired sense. In this article, the literature available regarding DSI is summarized, and research needs regarding rehabilitation strategies are outlined and discussed. Simple suggestions for addressing DSI are provided that use available tools and technology. PMID:18003868

Saunders, Gabrielle H.; Echt, Katharina V.

2007-01-01

313

Symptoms, impairment and illness intrusiveness-their relationship with depression in women with CFS/ME.  

PubMed

Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is an illness in which physiological and psychological factors are believed to interact to cause and maintain CFS/ME in an individual predisposed to it. The various symptoms and impairments associated with CFS/ME have a large impact on quality of life. The purpose of the present study was to identify the extent to which the core symptoms and impairments associated with CFS/ME relate to depression in women with CFS/ME, and to discover whether these relationships were mediated by illness intrusiveness. CFS/ME was found to be a highly intrusive illness, intruding into more life domains and to a greater degree than other illnesses. The effects of both symptoms and impairment on depression were, in part, mediated by illness intrusiveness. Although symptoms severity and impairment had both direct and indirect effects on depression, illness intrusiveness was the strongest predictor of depression. PMID:25160923

Dancey, Christine P; Friend, Julie

2008-01-01

314

Cognitive impairments after surgical repair of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To determine the frequency and severity of neuropsychological impairments associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage, and associated with repair of intracerebral aneurysms.?METHODS—Two groups of patients who underwent repair of intracerebral aneurysms were studied: patients with unruptured aneurysms (n=20) and patients with ruptured aneurysms (n=27). All patients were administered a battery of standardised neuropsychological tests about 3 months after surgery. A subset of 12 patients with unruptured aneurysms were administered the battery both before and after elective repair of the aneurysm(s). A subset of six patients with ruptured aneurysms were given the test at both 3 months and 1year after surgery.?RESULTS—As previously reported for patients with ruptured aneurysms, patients with both ruptured and unruptured aneurysms performed, as a group, significantly below published norms on many of the neuropsychological tests after surgery. However, there were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative performance in the unruptured aneurysm group only on a few tests: measures of word fluency, verbal recall, and frontal lobe function. Performance of patients with ruptured aneurysms was significantly below that of patients with unruptured aneurysms only on a few tests of verbal and visual memory. In addition, group differences compared with published norms reflected severely impaired performance by a minority of patients, rather than moderately impaired performance in a majority of patients.?CONCLUSIONS—Although patients who undergo repair of ruptured aneursyms perform, as a group, below published norms on many neuropsychological tests, significant impairments are seen in a minority of patients. Some of the impairments are associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage, whereas others (found in patients who underwent repair of unruptured aneurysms) are due to general effects of neurosurgery and perioperative management. Finally, some of the postoperative deficits are merely a reflection of premorbid weaknesses.?? PMID:11032612

Hillis, A.; Anderson, N.; Sampath, P.; Rigamonti, D.

2000-01-01

315

An association between systolic blood pressure and stroke among patients with impaired consciousness in out-of-hospital emergency settings  

PubMed Central

Background Stroke is difficult to diagnose when consciousness is disturbed. However few reports have discussed the clinical predictors of stroke in out-of-hospital emergency settings. This study aims to evaluate the association between initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) value measured by emergency medical service (EMS) and diagnosis of stroke among impaired consciousness patients. Methods We included all patients aged 18 years or older who were treated and transported by EMS, and had impaired consciousness (Japan Coma Scale ? 1) in Osaka City (2.7 million), Japan from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2007. Data were prospectively collected by EMS personnel using a study-specific case report form. Multiple logistic regressions assessed the relationship between initial SBP and stroke and its subtypes adjusted for possible confounding factors. Results During these 10 years, a total of 1,840,784 emergency patients who were treated and transported by EMS were documented during the study period in Osaka City. Out of 128,678 with impaired consciousness, 106,706 who had prehospital SBP measurements in the field were eligible for our analyses. The proportion of patients with severe impaired consciousness significantly increased from 14.5% in the <100 mmHg SBP group to 27.6% in the?>?=200 mmHg SBP group (P for trend <0.001). The occurrence of stroke significantly increased with increasing SBP (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] 1.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33 to 1.35), and the AOR of the SBP?>?=200 mmHg group versus the SBP 101-120 mmHg group was 5.26 (95% CI 4.93 to 5.60). The AOR of the SBP?>?=200 mmHg group versus the SBP 101-120 mmHg group was 9.76 in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 16.16 in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and 1.52 in ischemic stroke (IS), and the AOR of SAH and ICH was greater than that of IS. Conclusions Elevated SBP among emergency patients with impaired consciousness in the field was associated with increased diagnosis of stroke. PMID:24341562

2013-01-01

316

Small airway impairment in moderate to severe asthmatics without significant proximal airway obstruction.  

PubMed

Asthma is a disease characterized by inflammation which affects both proximal and distal airways. We evaluated the prevalence of small airway obstruction (SAO) in a group of clinically stable asthmatics with both normal forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and normal FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and treated with an association of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long acting ?2-agonists (LABAs). Clinical evaluation included the measurement of dyspnea, asthma control test and drug compliance. The prevalence of SAO was estimated by spirometry and plethysmography and defined by the presence of one or more of the following criteria: functional residual capacity (FRC) > 120% predicted (pred), residual volume (RV) > pred + 1.64 residual standard deviation (RSD), RV/total lung capacity (TLC) > pred + 1.64 RSD, forced expiratory flow (FEF)25-75% < pred - 1.64 RSD, FEF50% < pred - 1.64 RSD, slow vital capacity (SVC) - FVC > 10%. Among the 441 patients who were included, 222 had normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. At least one criteria of SAO was found in 115 (52%) mainly lung hyperinflation (39% based on high FRC, RV or RV/TLC) and more rarely distal airflow limitation (15% based on FEF25-75% or FEF50%) or expiratory trapping (10% based on increased SVC - FVC). In the patients with only SAO (no PAO), there was no relationship between SAO, asthma history and the scores of dyspnea, asthma control or drug compliance. These results suggest that in asthmatics with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, treated with ICSs and LABAs, SAO is found in more than half of the patients indicating that the routinely used lung function tests can underestimate dysfunctions occurring in the small airways. PMID:24025779

Perez, Thierry; Chanez, Pascal; Dusser, Daniel; Devillier, Philippe

2013-11-01

317

Clinical significance of knowledge about the structure, function, and impairments of working memory  

PubMed Central

A review of contemporary research on the working memory system (WMS) is important, both due to the need to focus the discussion on further necessary investigations on the structure and function of this key part of the human brain, as well as to share this knowledge with clinicians. In our introduction we try to clarify the actual terminology and provide an intuitively understandable model for 3 basic cognitive operations: perception, recognition, imagery, and manipulation of recalled mental images. We emphasize the importance of knowledge of the structure and function of the WMS for the possibility to demonstrate the links between genetic polymorphisms and the prevalence to some mental disorders. We also review current knowledge of working memory dysfunction in the most common diseases and specific clinical situations such as maturation and aging. Finally, we briefly discuss methods for assessment of WMS capacity. This article establishes a kind of compendium of knowledge for clinicians who are not familiar with the structure and operation of the WMS. PMID:23645218

Brodziak, Andrzej; Brewczynski, Adam; Bajor, Grzegorz

2013-01-01

318

Neurocognition, functional competence and self-reported functional impairment in psychometrically defined schizotypy.  

PubMed

Introduction. Schizotypy is phenologically and genetically related to schizophrenia-spectrum illness. Previous studies find cognitive function to be mildly impaired, but specific impairments and their relationship to functioning are not well understood. In this study, we sought to examine how cognitive load affects performance in schizotypy and to examine whether impairments might manifest in functional capacity and quality of life. Methods. Undergraduate students were screened for abnormally high levels of schizotypy (N = 72) and compared to those without psychopathology (N = 80) on a standard battery of neuropsychological tests, cognitive tests with varying cognitive load, functional capacity measures and quality of life. Results. The high schizotypy group did not differ from controls on traditional measures of neuropsychological functioning, but an interaction of group by cognitive load was observed, where those with schizotypy manifested a greater decline in performance as information processing load was parametrically increased. Differences in functioning were observed and cognitive impairment was associated with impaired functioning. Conclusions. Cognitive and functional impairment can be observed in those with high schizotypal traits who are non-treatment seeking. The sensitivity of cognitive tests to impairment in this population might be a function of their ability to parametrically increase cognitive load. PMID:25341444

Xavier, Shannon; Best, Michael W; Schorr, Emily; Bowie, Christopher R

2015-01-01

319

Meta-analysis of depression and substance use and impairment among cocaine users*  

PubMed Central

Background The study evaluated, among cocaine users, the hypothesized positive association of depression and concurrent cocaine use and impairment, alcohol use and impairment, and general drug use and impairment. The hypothesis that gender would moderate these associations, with women showing a stronger correlation between depression and measures of substance use and impairment, was also tested. Also examined was the association of depression with future cocaine use and impairment and substance use treatment participation. Methods Empirical reports on adult cocaine users published in English in peer-reviewed journals since 1986 that contained data on depression and substance use outcome(s) were obtained using a systematic search. Studies that placed restrictions on range of depression scores to select the sample, experiments that administered cocaine to subjects, and trials of antidepressant medications were excluded. The search yielded 60 studies for the analysis including 53 reports that collected data from clinical venues and 7 that were community-based. Results As hypothesized, the analyses showed that depression is associated with concurrent cocaine-, alcohol-, and general drug use and impairment. Effect sizes were small. Hypothesized moderating effects of gender were not supported. Depression was not associated, at a statistically significant level, with treatment participation or future cocaine use and impairment. Conclusions Depression is consistently but modestly associated with measures of cocaine-, alcohol-, and general drug use and impairment among cocaine users. Associations of depression with treatment participation and with future cocaine use and impairment are not immediately evident, although limitations of data warrant cautious interpretation. PMID:18585871

Conner, Kenneth R.; Pinquart, Martin; Holbrook, Amanda P.

2008-01-01

320

The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the properties of the Greater Indian lithosphere and in the mechanism of its descent beneath different parts of the plateau. In the west, cratonic Indian lithosphere underthrusts the Tibetan crust and collides with the Tarim Craton to the north of it. In the central part of the plateau, Indian lithosphere underthrusts Tibet form the Himalayas up to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then, further north, subducts at a relatively steep angle. Indian lithosphere now under the east-central Himalayas is not cratonic (not as thick and cold as in the west). Beneath eastern Tibet, the Indian lithosphere has subducted, at a shallow angle, hundreds of kilometers northwards to under the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi Terranes. The detailed new seismic images provide new constraints on the size of the Greater India continent and on lateral variations in the properties of its lithosphere. The size and shape of the Greater India as evidenced by the seismic data are consistent with the recent plate-tectonic models in which the India-Asia hard continental collision commences more recently than previously thought. References Agius, M. R., S. Lebedev. Tibetan and Indian lithospheres in the upper mantle beneath Tibet: Evidence from broadband surface-wave dispersion. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, doi:10.1002/ggge.20274, 2013. Schaeffer, A. J., S. Lebedev. Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int. 194, 417-449, 2013. Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., et al., Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 7659-64, 2012. Zahirovic, S., et al., Insights on the kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision from global geodynamic models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, doi:10.1029/2011GC003883, 2012.

Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

2014-05-01

321

The role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype in early mild cognitive impairment (E-MCI)  

PubMed Central

Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the association of APOE with amyloid deposition, cerebrospinal fluid levels (CSF) of A?, tau, and p-tau, brain atrophy, cognition and cognitive complaints in E-MCI patients and cognitively healthy older adults (HC) in the ADNI-2 cohort. Methods: Two-hundred and nine E-MCI and 123 HC participants from the ADNI-2 cohort were included. We evaluated the impact of diagnostic status (E-MCI vs. HC) and APOE ?4 status (?4 positive vs. ?4 negative) on cortical amyloid deposition (AV-45/Florbetapir SUVR PET scans), brain atrophy (structural MRI scans processed using voxel-based morphometry and Freesurfer version 5.1), CSF levels of A?, tau, and p-tau, and cognitive performance and complaints. Results: E-MCI participants showed significantly impaired cognition, higher levels of cognitive complaints, greater levels of tau and p-tau, and subcortical and cortical atrophy relative to HC participants (p < 0.05). Cortical amyloid deposition and CSF levels of A? were significantly associated with APOE ?4 status but not E-MCI diagnosis, with ?4 positive participants showing more amyloid deposition and lower levels of CSF A? than ?4 negative participants. Other effects of APOE ?4 status on cognition and CSF tau levels were also observed. Conclusions: APOE ?4 status is associated with amyloid accumulation and lower CSF A?, as well as increased CSF tau levels in early prodromal stages of AD (E-MCI) and HC. Alternatively, neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment, and increased complaints are primarily associated with a diagnosis of E-MCI. These findings underscore the importance of considering APOE genotype when evaluating biomarkers in early stages of disease. PMID:23554593

Risacher, Shannon L.; Kim, Sungeun; Shen, Li; Nho, Kwangsik; Foroud, Tatiana; Green, Robert C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Aisen, Paul S.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Jagust, William J.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Weiner, Michael W.; Saykin, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

322

DTI correlates of distinct cognitive impairments in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

The spectrum of cognitive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) can span various domains, including executive function, language, attention, memory and visuospatial skills. These symptoms may be attributable to the degradation of projection fibers associated with the underlying neurodegenerative process. The primary purpose of this study is to find microstructural correlates of impairments across these cognitive domains in PD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Sixteen PD patients with comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation and DTI data were retrospectively studied. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values were calculated for 40 regions of interest (ROIs) and were regressed against neurocognitive scores in each domain. Executive function directly correlated with FA and inversely correlated with MD in mostly frontal white matter tracts, especially the anterior limb of the internal capsule and genu of the corpus callosum. Likewise, language and attentional performance demonstrated correlations with DTI parameters in the frontal regions, but the attention domain additionally recruited regions widespread throughout the brain, with the most significant correlation identified in cingulate gyrus (cingulum). Lastly, memory impairment mainly involved MD alterations within the fornix. No significant correlations were found between visuospatial skills and DTI measures. Despite some overlap, unique patterns of white matter diffusivity underlie impairments in distinct cognitive domains in patients with PD. DTI combined with neurocognitive tests may be a valuable biomarker for identifying cognitive impairments in PD. PMID:23417856

Zheng, Zhong; Shemmassian, Shirag; Wijekoon, Christopher; Kim, Won; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Pouratian, Nader

2013-01-01

323

Does severe traumatic closed head injury impair sense of humour?  

PubMed

It is now known that closed head injury (CHI) impairs interpersonal skills, disturbs and/or blunts mood and compromises emotional discriminativeness. This study tried to test whether sense of humour is also impaired or disturbed following CHI. Subjects were 42 CHI patients and 42 normal controls, matched for age, education and paternal occupation. Humour performance measures included time taken to rank jokes according to funniness and to classify them, stability of funniness rankings at re-test and ability to correctly classify jokes into 'mutilated' and 'intact' categories. Non-performance measures included total number of non-verbal vocalizations, and mean percentage of appreciation of the jokes. The CHI patients were highly significantly impaired on all aspects of performance but did not differ from the normals on non-performance measures. However, when vocabulary (WAIS-R) was co-varied out of the analyses only time to rank funniness remained significant. The results were interpreted to suggest a severe impairment of sense of humour, an important cause of which is a narrow lexicon, poor lexical semantic processing, or some other reading dysfunction, some of which probably antedated the CHI. It was concluded that measures of humour, vocabulary, and of pure affective performance such as prosodic and/or facial emotion discrimination could contribute to the rehabilitation process in severe CHI. PMID:2819315

Braun, C M; Lussier, F; Baribeau, J M; Ethier, M

1989-01-01

324

An index of reservoir habitat impairment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

2011-01-01

325

Tactile and Proprioceptive Temporal Discrimination Are Impaired in Functional Tremor  

PubMed Central

Background and Methods In order to obtain further information on the pathophysiology of functional tremor, we assessed tactile discrimination threshold and proprioceptive temporal discrimination motor threshold values in 11 patients with functional tremor, 11 age- and sex-matched patients with essential tremor and 13 healthy controls. Results Tactile discrimination threshold in both the right and left side was significantly higher in patients with functional tremor than in the other groups. Proprioceptive temporal discrimination threshold for both right and left side was significantly higher in patients with functional and essential tremor than in healthy controls. No significant correlation between discrimination thresholds and duration or severity of tremor was found. Conclusions Temporal processing of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli is impaired in patients with functional tremor. The mechanisms underlying this impaired somatosensory processing and possible ways to apply these findings clinically merit further research. PMID:25051180

Peretti, Alessia; Bove, Francesco; Conte, Antonella; Dall'Occhio, Carlo; Arbasino, Carla; Defazio, Giovanni; Fiorio, Mirta; Berardelli, Alfredo

2014-01-01

326

Harlequin ichthyosis in two greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  

PubMed

Two greater kudu calves (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) born 7 years apart were found with fissures and thickened, scaly, cutaneous plates covering over 80% of their bodies. One was dead at presentation, and the other was euthanized shortly after birth. Both animals shared a common sire. On necropsy, chemosis, ectropion, eclabium, and bilateral valgus deformities of the tarsal joints were observed in one calf, presumed to be secondary to the plates restricting normal fetal development. The principal microscopic lesion was severe lamellar orthokeratosis, with focal mild parakeratosis. Ultrastructural epidermal lesions included the absence of normal lamellar granules, large dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and abnormal retention of organelles and vesicles. Gross, histopathologic, and electron microscopic findings in both kudu calves were consistent with those of harlequin ichthyosis, a rare dermatosis of humans believed to have an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. The underlying genetic and molecular abnormality and heritability of this condition in this greater kudu herd were not determined. PMID:12450210

Chittick, E J; Olivry, T; Dalldorf, F; Wright, J; Dale, B A; Wolfe, B A

2002-11-01

327

Cognitive impairment among children at-risk for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Adults with schizophrenia present cognitive impairments, as do individuals at ultra-high risk for the disorder, youth with relatives with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and children with antecedents of schizophrenia. The present study aimed to determine if impairments in childhood differed depending on the definition of risk and/or on the degree of relatedness to an affected individual, and if impairments were explained by IQ. Four groups of children aged 9-12 years were studied: (1) 13 children with ?1 first-degree or ?2 second-degree affected relatives (high familial loading: FHx(H)); (2) 14 with ?1 affected second-degree relative (lower familial loading: FHx(L)); (3) 32 with well-replicated antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz); and (4) 45 typically-developing (TD) children with neither a positive family history nor antecedents. Compared to TD children, both FHx(H) and ASz children exhibited significantly poorer verbal comprehension, scholastic achievement, and verbal working memory, while FHx(H) children additionally displayed significantly lower full-scale IQ, and verbal memory and executive function impairments. After adjusting statistical analyses for IQ, group differences were attenuated. Relative to TD children, FHx(L) children showed no significant differences in performance. The results imply that impairments in verbal comprehension, scholastic achievement, and verbal working memory may index vulnerability for schizophrenia among children with affected relatives with the disorder and among those with multiple antecedents of the disorder who have no affected relatives. More accurate identification of children at-risk for schizophrenia and the specific deficits that they present provides opportunities for interventions such as cognitive remediation that may impact the development of the illness. PMID:24373930

Dickson, Hannah; Cullen, Alexis E; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Campbell, Desmond D; Morris, Robin G; Laurens, Kristin R

2014-03-01

328

Smokers Report Greater Demand for Alcohol on a Behavioral Economic Purchase Task  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cigarette smokers have higher levels of alcohol consumption than nonsmokers and poorer response to alcohol treatment. It is possible that the greater severity of alcohol problems observed in smokers reflects a greater susceptibility to alcohol-related reinforcement. The present study used a behavioral economic purchase task to investigate whether heavy drinking smokers would have greater demand for alcohol than heavy drinking nonsmokers. Method: Participants were 207 college students who reported at least one heavy drinking episode in the past month. Of the 207 participants, 33.2% (n = 67) reported smoking cigarettes at least 1 day in the past month. Participants completed the hypothetical alcohol purchase task, a simulation task that asked them to report how many drinks they would purchase at varying price increments. Results: After the participants’ reported alcohol consumption, gender, alcohol problems, and depression were controlled for, analyses of covariance revealed that heavy drinking smokers had significantly greater reported maximum alcohol expenditures (Omax), greater maximum inelastic price (Pmax), and higher breakpoint values (first price suppressing consumption to zero). Conclusions: College student heavy drinkers who also smoke cigarettes exhibit increased demand for alcohol. Smokers in this high-risk developmental stage may thus be less sensitive to price and other contingencies that would otherwise serve to modulate drinking and may require more intensive intervention approaches. PMID:23739028

Yurasek, Ali M.; Murphy, James G.; Clawson, Ashley Hum; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Mackillop, James

2013-01-01

329

Urbanization and green space dynamics in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green space is particularly indispensable for proper functioning of the ecosystem in an urban environment. This study was\\u000a an attempt to dynamically map and monitor green spaces in Greater Dhaka of Bangladesh. Both primary and secondary data were\\u000a acquired to document the spatial–temporal dynamics of green spaces in the study area. Using a supervised classification algorithm,\\u000a multi-temporal land use\\/cover data

Talukder Byomkesh; Nobukazu Nakagoshi; Ashraf M. Dewan

330

The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Challenges for Regional Ecosystem Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive management approach is necessary but not sufficient to address the long-term challenges of the Greater Yellowstone\\u000a Ecosystem (GYE). Adaptive management, in turn, has its own particular challenges, of which we focus on two: science input, and stakeholder engagement. In order to frame our discussion and subsequent recommendations, we place the current management difficulties into their\\u000a historical context, with

Heather J. Lynch; Stephanie Hodge; Christian Albert; Molly Dunham

2008-01-01

331

Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

Banks, Richard C.

2011-01-01

332

Social calls coordinate foraging in greater spear-nosed bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of social calls emitted by foraging bats has received little study. Here we use observations of free-ranging greater spear-nosed bats,Phyllostomus hastatus, and field playbacks to determine whether audible, broad-band ‘screech’ calls attract mates, warn conspecifics or influence access to food. Five lines of evidence suggest that screech calls enable adult females from the same roosting group to fly

GERALD S. WILKINSON; JANETTE WENRICK BOUGHMAN

1998-01-01

333

Seismic Wave Attenuation in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, a digital waveform dataset of 216 local earthquakes recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network\\u000a (ENSN) was used to estimate the attenuation of seismic wave energy in the greater Cairo region. The quality factor and the\\u000a frequency dependence for Coda waves and S-waves were estimated and clarified. The Coda waves (Q\\u000a c) and S-waves (Q\\u000a d)

Ahmed Badawy; Mamdouh A. Morsy

2011-01-01

334

An observation of Clostridium perfringens in Greater Sage-Grouse.  

PubMed

Mortality due to infectious diseases is seldom reported in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). A case of necrotic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A is described in a free-ranging adult male sage-grouse in eastern Oregon. Clostridial enteritis is known to cause outbreaks of mortality in various domestic and wild birds, and should be considered as a potential cause of mortality in sage-grouse populations. PMID:17699098

Hagen, Christian A; Bildfell, Robert J

2007-07-01

335

West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species that has declined 45-80% and is endangered in Canada and under current consideration for federal listing in the US.

David E. Naugle; Cameron L. Aldridge; Brett L. Walker; Todd E. Cornish; Brendan J. Moynahan; Matt J. Holloran; Kimberly Brown; Gregory D. Johnson; Edward T. Schmidtmann; Richard T. Mayer; Cecilia Y. Kato; Marc R. Matchett; Thomas J. Christiansen; Walter E. Cook; Terry Creekmore; Roxanne D. Falise; E. Thomas Rinkes; Mark S. Boyce

2004-01-01

336

Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the

Kevin E. Doherty; David E. Naugle; Brett L. Walker; Jon M. Graham

2008-01-01

337

O felix culpa, redemption, and the Greater-Good Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common to Alvin Platinga's Free-Will Defense, John Hick's Soul-Growth Theodicy, and Keith Yandell's Growth-to-Moral_Maturity Specification of his Greater-Good Defense, is a concept that almost gets lost in labyrinthine discussions of possible-worlds ontology, epistemic distance, and justification patterns. The concept is redemption, and in the following I argue the concept in question should be given a more central role in the

Melville Stewart

1986-01-01

338

Cognitive impairment and 1-year outcome in elderly patients with hip fracture.  

PubMed

Background Hip fracture is common in elderly patients. However, few effective studies had linked cognitive impairment to patient clinical outcome. Material and Methods A total of 244 elderly hip fracture patients were prospectively followed up for 12 months. At 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year after hip repair surgery, patients and/or primary caregivers were interviewed by phone by trained, blinded interviewers. Functional evaluation, from pre-injury through 1 year after the operation, was assessed using the Barthel Index. Results Among 244 patients, 43 were diagnosed as having cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score <24). Compared to those without cognitive impairment, the 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year mortalities in the impaired patients were significantly higher than that of the cognitively intact patients. Six months after hip repair surgery, the cognitively intact patients presented significantly higher activities of daily living (ADL) scores than the cognitively impaired patients, and only 38.5% of impaired patients returned to their pre-operation baseline levels afterwards. The ADL scores in the impaired patients were similar to the intact ones at 1 year after the operation. Conclusions Although they had a higher risk of mortality in hip fracture, functional gain in the cognitively impaired patients was similar to that in the cognitively intact patients at 1-year follow-up. PMID:25323014

Guo, Yongzhi; Sun, Tiansheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Shaoguang; Liu, Zhi

2014-01-01

339

Cognitive Impairment and 1-Year Outcome in Elderly Patients with Hip Fracture  

PubMed Central

Background Hip fracture is common in elderly patients. However, few effective studies had linked cognitive impairment to patient clinical outcome. Material/Methods A total of 244 elderly hip fracture patients were prospectively followed up for 12 months. At 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year after hip repair surgery, patients and/or primary caregivers were interviewed by phone by trained, blinded interviewers. Functional evaluation, from pre-injury through 1 year after the operation, was assessed using the Barthel Index. Results Among 244 patients, 43 were diagnosed as having cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score <24). Compared to those without cognitive impairment, the 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year mortalities in the impaired patients were significantly higher than that of the cognitively intact patients. Six months after hip repair surgery, the cognitively intact patients presented significantly higher activities of daily living (ADL) scores than the cognitively impaired patients, and only 38.5% of impaired patients returned to their pre-operation baseline levels afterwards. The ADL scores in the impaired patients were similar to the intact ones at 1 year after the operation. Conclusions Although they had a higher risk of mortality in hip fracture, functional gain in the cognitively impaired patients was similar to that in the cognitively intact patients at 1-year follow-up. PMID:25323014

Guo, Yongzhi; Sun, Tiansheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Shaoguang; Liu, Zhi

2014-01-01

340

Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning attenuates postoperative cognitive impairment in aged rats.  

PubMed

Cognitive decline after surgery in the elderly population is a major clinical problem with high morbidity. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning can induce significant neuroprotection against acute neurological injury. We hypothesized that HBO preconditioning would prevent the development of postoperative cognitive impairment. Elderly male rats (20 months old) underwent stabilized tibial fracture operation under general anesthesia after HBO preconditioning (once a day for 5 days). Separate cohorts of animals were tested for cognitive function with fear conditioning and Y-maze tests, or euthanized at different times to assess the blood-brain barrier integrity, systemic and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines, and caspase-3 activity. Animals exhibited significant cognitive impairment evidenced by a decreased percentage of freezing time and an increased number of learning trials on days 1, 3, and 7 after surgery, which were significantly prevented by HBO preconditioning. Furthermore, HBO preconditioning significantly ameliorated the increase in serum and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1 ? (IL-1?), IL-6, and high-mobility group protein 1 in surgery-challenged animals. Moreover, HBO preconditioning markedly improved blood-brain barrier integrity and caspase-3 activity in the hippocampus of surgery-challenged animals. These findings suggest that HBO preconditioning could significantly mitigate surgery-induced cognitive impairment, which is strongly associated with the reduction of systemic and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines and caspase-3 activity. PMID:24870985

Sun, Li; Xie, Keliang; Zhang, Changsheng; Song, Rui; Zhang, Hong

2014-06-18

341

P300 Evoked Potential in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Aim The aim of this study is to present differences of amplitude and latency of P300 wave between examinees with mild cognitive impairment and examinees from the control group. Methods A cross-section study was performed between April 1st and July 10th 2012, with the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment as the main criterion for inclusion. In the twenty-two examinees who participated in the research, mild cognitive impairment was confirmed by neuropsychological testing, following which they were subjected to the examination of auditory evoked potentials. The control group consisting of 22 examinees, for which the lack of the same diagnosis was previously ascertained, was also subjected to the examination of auditory evoked potentials. The main findings were the differences in the latency and amplitude size of P300 wave targeted and non-targeted stimuli. Results The latency of P300 wave targeted stimuli in patients with mild cognitive impairment has, in statistical terms, proven to be significantly longer when compared to the control group. The average latency length in those with MCI amounted to 306.18 ms, whereas the latency in the control group came to 295.95 ms. Similarly, the latency length of non-targeted stimuli turned out to be statistically higher, with the length of 320.00 ms in the former group, and 301.36 ms in the latter. Amplitudes in patients with mild cognitive impairment were lower in comparison to the control group, with extremely low amplitudes recorded in 36.36% of patients. Conclusion In patients with mild cognitive impairment extended latency and lower amplitude of P300 wave are recorded. PMID:24039332

Medvidovic, Stipe; Titlic, Marina; Maras-Simunic, Marina

2013-01-01

342

Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

2002-12-01

343

Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

344

Impaired glucose tolerance: qualitative and quantitative study of general practitioners' knowledge and perceptions  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate general practitioners' knowledge of and attitudes to impaired glucose tolerance. Design Mixed methodology qualitative and quantitative study with semistructured interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires. Setting 34 general practitioners in five primary care groups in the north east of England. Results All the general practitioners had knowledge of impaired glucose tolerance as a clinical entity, but they had little awareness of the clinical significance of impaired glucose tolerance and were uncertain about managing and following up these patients. Attitudes to screening were mixed and were associated with reservations about increased workload, concern about lack of resources, and pessimism about the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions. Some general practitioners felt strongly that screening patients for impaired glucose tolerance and subsequent lifestyle intervention medicalised an essentially social problem and that a health educational approach, involving schools and the media, should be adopted instead. A minority expressed a positive attitude towards a pharmacological approach. Conclusion Awareness of impaired glucose tolerance needs to be raised, and guidelines for management are needed. General practitioners remain to be convinced that they have a role in attempting to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes by targeting interventions at patients with impaired glucose tolerance. What is already known on this topicImpaired glucose tolerance is common and carries a 50% risk of progression to type 2 diabetes within 10 years of diagnosis and a doubling of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseaseLifestyle intervention can significantly reduce the progression to diabetes, although the evidence for reduction in cardiovascular disease is less compellingWhat this study addsAwareness of the clinical significance of impaired glucose tolerance among general practitioners is lowGeneral practitioners are uncertain how best to manage and follow up patients with established impaired glucose toleranceGeneral practitioners are reluctant to screen patients for impaired glucose tolerance for a variety of reasons PMID:12016185

Wylie, Graeme; Hungin, A Pali S; Neely, Joanne

2002-01-01

345

Structural integrity of corticospinal motor fibers predicts motor impairment in chronic stroke  

PubMed Central

Objective: Motor impairment after stroke has been related to infarct size, infarct location, and integrity of motor tracts. To determine the value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a predictor of motor outcome and its role as a structural surrogate marker of impairment in chronic stroke, we tested correlations between motor impairment and DTI-derived measures of motor tract integrity. Methods: Thirty-five chronic stroke patients with varying degrees of recovery underwent DTI and motor impairment assessments. Fibers originating from the precentral gyrus were traced and separated into pyramidal tract (PT) and alternate motor fibers (aMF). Asymmetry indices of fiber number and regional fractional anisotropy (FA) values comparing lesional with nonlesional hemispheres were correlated with motor impairment scores and compared to an age-matched control group. Results: Fiber number and regional FA value asymmetry significantly differed between the groups with lower values in the patients' lesional hemispheres. Both measures significantly predicted motor impairment with stronger predictions when all motor tracts were combined as compared to predictions using only the PT. The pattern of motor tract damage (PT only vs PT and aMF) led to a classification of mild, moderate, or severe impairment with significant between-group differences in motor impairment scores. Conclusions: Diffusion tensor imaging-derived measures are valid structural markers of motor impairment. The integrity of all descending motor tracts, not merely the pyramidal tract, appears to account for stroke recovery. A 3-tier, hierarchical classification of impairment categories based on the pattern of motor tract damage is proposed that might be helpful in predicting recovery potential. GLOSSARY aMF = alternate motor fibers; DTI = diffusion tensor imaging; FA = fractional anisotropy; FLAIR = fluid-attenuated inversion recovery; MCA = middle cerebral artery; MRC = Medical Research Council; PLIC = posterior limb of the internal capsule; PT = pyramidal tract; ROI = region of interest; TMS = transcranial magnetic stimulation; UE-FM = Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer assessment; WMFT = Wolf Motor Function Test. PMID:20101033

Lindenberg, R; Renga, V; Zhu, L L.; Betzler, F; Alsop, D; Schlaug, G

2010-01-01

346

Impaired Biomechanical Properties of Diabetic Skin  

PubMed Central

Diabetic skin is known to have deficient wound healing properties, but little is known of its intrinsic biomechanical properties. We hypothesize that diabetic skin possesses inferior biomechanical properties at baseline, rendering it more prone to injury. Skin from diabetic and nondiabetic mice and humans underwent biomechanical testing. Real-time PCR was performed for genes integral to collagen synthesis and degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9, and TIMP-1 protein levels were assessed by ELISA and zymography. Collagen I and III content was assessed using Western blot analysis. At baseline, both murine and human diabetic skin was biomechanically inferior compared to nondiabetic skin, with decreased maximum stress and decreased modulus (P < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in collagen synthesis were significantly up-regulated, and genes involved in collagen degradation were significantly down-regulated in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.01). In addition, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 protein ratios were significantly lower in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.05). Collagen I levels and I:III ratios were lower in diabetic skin (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the predisposition of diabetics to wounds may be the result of impaired tissue integrity at baseline, and are due, in part, to a defect in the regulation of collagen protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21514435

Bermudez, Dustin M.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Lind, Robert; Beason, David P.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

2011-01-01

347

The cognitive and neural expression of semantic memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment and early Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Semantic deficits in Alzheimer's disease have been widely documented, but little is known about the integrity of semantic memory in the prodromal stage of the illness. The aims of the present study were to: (i) investigate naming abilities and semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), early Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared to healthy older subjects; (ii) investigate the association between naming and semantic knowledge in aMCI and AD; (iii) examine if the semantic impairment was present in different modalities; and (iv) study the relationship between semantic performance and grey matter volume using voxel-based morphometry. Results indicate that both naming and semantic knowledge of objects and famous people were impaired in aMCI and early AD groups, when compared to healthy age- and education-matched controls. Item-by-item analyses showed that anomia in aMCI and early AD was significantly associated with underlying semantic knowledge of famous people but not with semantic knowledge of objects. Moreover, semantic knowledge of the same concepts was impaired in both the visual and the verbal modalities. Finally, voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that semantic impairment in aMCI and AD was associated with cortical atrophy in the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) region as well as in the inferior prefrontal cortex (IPC), some of the key regions of the semantic cognition network. These findings suggest that the semantic impairment in aMCI may result from a breakdown of semantic knowledge of famous people and objects, combined with difficulties in the selection, manipulation and retrieval of this knowledge. PMID:19954747

Joubert, Sven; Brambati, Simona M; Ansado, Jennyfer; Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Felician, Olivier; Didic, Mira; Lacombe, Jacinthe; Goldstein, Rachel; Chayer, Céline; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne

2010-03-01

348

Protracted impairment of impulse control under an acute dose of alcohol: a time-course analysis.  

PubMed

Alcohol is well-known for impairing impulse control as well as its disruptive effects on other aspects of behavioral functioning, such as motor control. Time-course analyses during a single dose show rapid development of acute tolerance to impairment of motor coordination, reaction time, and levels of subjective intoxication, but no acute tolerance to impairment of the ability to inhibit responses. Evidence for a possible lag in tolerance development to the impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control suggests that, as drinkers' blood alcohol concentration (BAC) declines, they might exhibit prolonged impulsivity despite having an unimpaired ability to initiate action. The present study extended the time-course analysis to examine the recovery of inhibitory control under a dose of alcohol as drinkers' BAC descended from a peak of 80 mg/100ml to a zero level. Twenty-four healthy adults were tested following 0.65 g/kg alcohol and a placebo in a counterbalanced order. They performed a cued go/no-go task that measured response inhibition. They also performed tasks that assessed reaction time, motor coordination, and completed ratings of their subjective levels of intoxication. Alcohol initially impaired inhibitory control, response time, and motor coordination and increased subjective ratings of intoxication. However, acute tolerance to the impairing effects of alcohol was observed for measures of response time, motor coordination, and ratings of intoxication and these measures returned to sober (i.e., placebo) levels by the time BAC fell to near zero. By contrast, impairment of inhibitory control showed no acute tolerance and remained impaired even when drinkers' BAC returned to near zero. Taken together, these results indicate that the disinhibiting effects of alcohol are present even when the impairing effects of alcohol on other aspects of behavior have diminished under the dose. These findings could provide a greater understanding of impulsive behaviors during the descending limb of intoxication. PMID:24286706

Miller, Melissa A; Fillmore, Mark T

2014-11-01

349

Functional significance of cortical NMDA receptors in somatosensory information processing.  

PubMed

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated activity is required for whisker-related neural patterning in the rodent brain. Deletion of the essential NMDAR subunit NR1 gene in excitatory cortical neurons prevents whisker-specific barrel formation and impairs thalamocortical afferent patterning. We used electrophysiological and voltage-sensitive dye imaging methods to assess synaptic and sensory evoked cortical activity and immunohistochemistry to examine immediate early gene expression following whisker stimulation in cortex-specific NR1 knockout (CxNR1KO) mice. In mutant mice, layer IV neurons lacked NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents, and temporal summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) was impaired. Barrel neurons showed both phasic and tonic responses to whisker deflection. The averaged tonic response in CxNR1KO mice was significantly less than that in control mice due to impaired EPSP temporal summation. Electrophysiological estimation of the number of thalamic neurons innervating single barrel neurons indicated a significant increase in CxNR1KO mice. Similarly, voltage-sensitive dye optical signals in response to whisker stimulation were widespread. Immediate early gene expression following whisker stimulation also showed a diffuse expression pattern in the CxNR1KO cortex compared with whisker-specific expression patterns in controls. Thus, when NMDAR function is impaired, spatial discrimination of whisker inputs is severely compromised, and sensory stimulation evokes diffuse, topographically misaligned activity in the barrel cortex. PMID:24047907

Lo, Fu-Sun; Akkentli, Fatih; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Erzurumlu, Reha S

2013-12-01

350

Obesity impairs apoptotic cell clearance in asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma in obese adults is typically more severe and less responsive to glucocorticoids than asthma in nonobese adults. Objective We sought to determine whether the clearance of apoptotic inflammatory cells (efferocytosis) by airway macrophages was associated with altered inflammation and reduced glucocorticoid sensitivity in obese asthmatic patients. Methods We investigated the relationship of efferocytosis by airway (induced sputum) macrophages and blood monocytes to markers of monocyte programming, in vitro glucocorticoid response, and systemic oxidative stress in a cohort of adults with persistent asthma. Results Efferocytosis by airway macrophages was assessed in obese (n = 14) and nonobese (n = 19) asthmatic patients. Efferocytosis by macrophages was 40% lower in obese than nonobese subjects, with a mean efferocytic index of 1.77 (SD, 1.07) versus 3.00 (SD, 1.25; P < .01). A similar reduction of efferocytic function was observed in blood monocytes of obese participants. In these monocytes there was also a relative decrease in expression of markers of alternative (M2) programming associated with efferocytosis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and CX3 chemokine receptor 1. Macrophage efferocytic index was significantly correlated with dexamethasone-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 expression (? = 0.46, P < .02) and baseline glucocorticoid receptor ? expression (? = 0.44, P < .02) in PBMCs. Plasma 4-hydroxynonenal levels were increased in obese asthmatic patients at 0.33 ng/mL (SD, 0.15 ng/mL) versus 0.16 ng/mL (SD, 0.08 ng/mL) in nonobese patients (P = .006) and was inversely correlated with macrophage efferocytic index (? = ?0.67, P = .02). Conclusions Asthma in obese adults is associated with impaired macrophage/monocyte efferocytosis. Impairment of this anti-inflammatory process is associated with altered monocyte/macrophage programming, reduced glucocorticoid responsiveness, and systemic oxidative stress. PMID:23154082

Fernandez-Boyanapalli, Ruby; Goleva, Elena; Kolakowski, Christena; Min, Elysia; Day, Brian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; Riches, David W. H.; Bratton, Donna L.; Sutherland, E. Rand

2014-01-01

351

Patterns of word-list generation in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been described as exhibiting greater impairment on tests of category fluency than letter fluency. This has been offered as evidence that this condition represents pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that this pattern of differential impairment is dependent on the specific semantic categories and initial letters selected, and is not specific to AD and aMCI. A total of 40 cognitively normal older adults, 74 MCI patients-25 "amnestic single domain" (aMCI), 27 "amnestic multiple domain", and 22 non-amnestic-and 29 AD patients were tested with multiple forms of semantic-category and initial-letter fluency tasks. The pattern of deficits within and across groups was highly dependent on the specific categories and letters chosen. Overall, aMCI patients did not demonstrate greater impairment in category than letter fluency. In fact, the level and pattern of their performance resembled that of cognitively normal older adults much more than AD patients. MCI patients with deficits in multiple cognitive domains performed most like AD patients. These findings indicate that verbal fluency performance is highly influenced by the specific tasks used, and impairment on semantic fluency is not characteristic of pure amnestic MCI. PMID:19301196

Brandt, Jason; Manning, Kevin J

2009-07-01

352

Impaired Limb Shortening following Stroke: What's in a Name?  

PubMed Central

Background Difficulty advancing the paretic limb during the swing phase of gait is a prominent manifestation of walking dysfunction following stroke. This clinically observable sign, frequently referred to as ‘foot drop’, ostensibly results from dorsiflexor weakness. Objective Here we investigated the extent to which hip, knee, and ankle motions contribute to impaired paretic limb advancement. We hypothesized that neither: 1) minimal toe clearance and maximal limb shortening during swing nor, 2) the pattern of multiple joint contributions to toe clearance and limb shortening would differ between post-stroke and non-disabled control groups. Methods We studied 16 individuals post-stroke during overground walking at self-selected speed and nine non-disabled controls who walked at matched speeds using 3D motion analysis. Results No differences were detected with respect to the ankle dorsiflexion contribution to toe clearance post-stroke. Rather, hip flexion had a greater relative influence, while the knee flexion influence on producing toe clearance was reduced. Conclusions Similarity in the ankle dorsiflexion, but differences in the hip and knee, contributions to toe clearance between groups argues strongly against dorsiflexion dysfunction as the fundamental impairment of limb advancement post-stroke. Marked reversal in the roles of hip and knee flexion indicates disruption of inter-joint coordination, which most likely results from impairment of the dynamic contribution to knee flexion by the gastrocnemius muscle in preparation for swing. These findings suggest the need to reconsider the notion of foot drop in persons post-stroke. Redirecting the focus of rehabilitation and restoration of hemiparetic walking dysfunction appropriately, towards contributory neuromechanical impairments, will improve outcomes and reduce disability. PMID:25329317

Little, Virginia L.; McGuirk, Theresa E.; Patten, Carolynn

2014-01-01

353

Recognition of patient-reported impairment in oral aesthetics.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of effective recognition by professionals of patient-estimated oral aesthetic impairment and the most reliable aspects in such recognition. Participants consisted of 95 patients with partial dentition in need of prosthodontic replacements. The oral aesthetics was professionally evaluated using the Prosthetic Esthetic Index (PEI), compiling 13 aesthetic aspects and an overall evaluation. The patient-reported impairment was evaluated using the Oral Health Impact Profile Aesthetic (OHIP-Aes) and the Oral Esthetic Scale (OES). Background variables were as follows: gender, age, work situation, education level, marital status, number and location of teeth, wearing a removable dental prosthesis (RDP) and smile line. A significant correlation was found between the overall professional evaluation and the OHIP-Aes score (R = 0·43, P < 0·05), the OES score (R = 0·46, P < 0·05) and the overall patient evaluation (0·35, P < 0·05). Correlations of the 13 specific aspects of the PEI with the patient-reported evaluations were generally small to moderate: the aspect 'discoloration of the teeth' showed the highest correlation. The multivariate analyses showed that up to 57% of the patient-reported impairment could be explained by the professionally evaluated oral aesthetic in combination with background variables. Discoloration of the teeth was the greatest explanatory variable, but also dental arch symmetry, and position and colour of the teeth were significant aspects. A high percentage of the patient-reported aesthetic impairment can be recognised by the professionals. The most reliable aspect is discoloration of the teeth, but also dental arch symmetry, and the position and colour of the teeth are important for recognising the aesthetic impairment. PMID:24836917

Dannemand, K; Ozhayat, E B

2014-09-01

354

Impairment of Bone Health in Pediatric Patients with Hemolytic Anemia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia result in impaired bone health in both adults and youths. Children with other types of chronic hemolytic anemia may also display impaired bone health. Study Design To assess bone health in pediatric patients with chronic hemolytic anemia, a cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 patients with different forms of hemolytic anemia (i.e., 17 homozygous sickle cell disease and 14 hereditary spherocytosis patients). Biochemical, radiographic and anamnestic parameters of bone health were assessed. Results Vitamin D deficiency with 25 OH-vitamin D serum levels below 20 ng/ml was a common finding (80.5%) in this cohort. Bone pain was present in 31% of patients. Analysis of RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin levels indicated an alteration in bone modeling with significantly elevated RANKL/OPG ratios (control: 0.08+0.07; patients: 0.26+0.2, P?=?0.0007). Osteocalcin levels were found to be lower in patients compared with healthy controls (68.5+39.0 ng/ml vs. 118.0+36.6 ng/ml, P?=?0.0001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant (P<0.025) influence of LDH (partial r2?=?0.29), diagnosis of hemolytic anemia (partial r2?=?0.05) and age (partial r2?=?0.03) on osteocalcin levels. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were more frequently and more severely affected by impaired bone health than patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Conclusion Bone health is impaired in pediatric patients with hemolytic anemia. In addition to endocrine alterations, an imbalance in the RANKL/OPG system and low levels of osteocalcin may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25299063

Schundeln, Michael M.; Goretzki, Sarah C.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Wieland, Regina; Bauer, Jens; Baeder, Lena; Eggert, Angelika; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

2014-01-01

355

The PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone prevents cognitive impairment by inhibiting astrocyte activation and oxidative stress following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.  

PubMed

Epilepsy is commonly associated with cognitive impairment. Astrocyte activation and oxidative stress occur following seizures, and play a role in the pathological injury of epilepsy with cognitive impairment. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective and antioxidative effects in CNS diseases. Thus, we hypothesized that rosiglitazone, a PPAR? agonist, would prevent cognitive impairment by inhibiting astrocyte activation and regulating glutathione (GSH) homeostasis after status epilepticus (SE). Using a lithium pilocarpine-induced SE model, we found that rosiglitazone significantly prevented cognitive impairment induced by SE, and potently inhibited astrocyte activation with maintenance of GSH homeostasis in the hippocampus after SE. These protective effects were significantly reversed by co-treatment with the PPAR? antagonist T0070907. These data suggest that rosiglitazone can improve cognitive impairment, and inhibit astrocyte activation and oxidative damage following SE. Rosiglitazone may be a promising agent for treatment of epilepsy involving SE-induced cognitive impairment. PMID:21915647

Hong, Sun; Xin, Yu; HaiQin, Wu; GuiLian, Zhang; Ru, Zhang; ShuQin, Zhan; HuQing, Wang; Li, Yao; Yun, Du

2012-06-01

356

Predictors of posttraumatic stress-related impairment in victims of terrorism and ongoing conflict in Israel.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of self-reported impairment (Criterion F) as part of a probable DSM-IV diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within a sample of 1001 Israeli Jews subjected to direct and indirect exposure to rocket attacks. Further, the present study aimed to investigate predictors of endorsing posttraumatic stress (PTS)-related impairment, with specific attention to the influence of resources and resource loss. Data were collected via phone surveys. Twenty-nine percent of the sample reported impairment; however, only 19% of those reporting impairment met criteria for probable PTSD. Logistic regression results indicated that psychosocial resource losses, experiencing personal injury or injury to a family member or close friend, experiencing other major life stressors in the past year, having poorer health, having significant sleep difficulty, and having traditional (moderate) religious practices, significantly predicted PTS-related impairment. Results suggest that addressing impairment only within the context of full PTSD misses many individuals experiencing significant PTS-related impairment. PMID:20865587

Chipman, Katie J; Palmieri, Patrick A; Canetti, Daphna; Johnson, Robert J; Hobfoll, Stevan E

2011-05-01

357

Gold deposits and occurrences of the Greater Caucasus, Georgia Republic: Their genesis and prospecting criteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The south-central part of the Greater Caucasus region, Georgia Republic, represents an extremely prospective region for significant orogenic gold deposits. Gold-bearing quartz veins are concentrated in two extensive WNW-trending belts, the Mestia-Racha and Svaneti districts, within the northern margin of the Southern Slope Zone of the Great Caucasus orogen. This metalliferous region is dominated by Early to Middle Jurassic slates,

Sergo A. Kekelia; Maren A. Kekelia; Simon I. Kuloshvili; Nino G. Sadradze; Nona E. Gagnidze; Vladimir Z. Yaroshevich; George G. Asatiani; Jeff L. Doebrich; Richard J. Goldfarb; Erin E. Marsh

2008-01-01

358

Grammatical impairment in developmental aphasia.  

PubMed

The language production of a 23 year old patient with developmental aphasia caused by birth injury was analyzed in detail within the framework of Chomsky's generative grammar. It was shown that different stages of grammatical development occur simultaneously, without the predominance of those grammatical forms which are identical with or close to adult grammar. Thus the language of this patient with developmental aphasia is quite comparable to the language of children from 3 to 6, and shares many features with grammatical impairment well known from agrammatism and paragrammatism in adult aphasia. It was suggested that in developmental aphasia incomplete linguistic generalizations are related to an incomplete maturation of inhibitory functions during language acquisition, whereas in adult aphasia comparable forms of less advanced grammars are set free by dissolution of function. PMID:1204367

Kerschensteiner, M; Huber, W

1975-09-01

359

Hearing Impairment in the Elderly  

PubMed Central

Hearing impairment is a common but not inevitable accompaniment of aging. It is partly due to the natural involution of irreplaceable neurones; environment also plays a large role. Although they may have difficulty in hearing all frequencies of sound, elderly people have particular difficulty with high-pitched sounds. They find it hard to focus on sounds, and serious social problems may arise as a result. Elderly people with hearing losses are particularly vulnerable to psychological sequelae, many of which are serious, but may also be correctable. Unfortunately, there is limited understanding of the causes of hearing handicaps, their prevalence, incidence and implications for the elderly, health professionals and the health care system. PMID:21279080

Skelton, David

1984-01-01

360

Upper extremity impairments in women with or without lymphedema following breast cancer treatment  

PubMed Central

Introduction Breast-cancer-related lymphedema affects ?25% of breast cancer (BC) survivors and may impact use of the upper limb during activity. The purpose of this study is to compare upper extremity (UE) impairment and activity between women with and without lymphedema after BC treatment. Methods 144 women post BC treatment completed demographic, symptom, and Disability of Arm-Shoulder-Hand (DASH) questionnaires. Objective measures included Purdue pegboard, finger-tapper, Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, vibration perception threshold, strength, range of motion (ROM), and volume. Results Women with lymphedema had more lymph nodes removed (p?greater limitation) (p?greater in women with lymphedema, particularly in shoulder abduction ROM (p?impairments are found in women following treatment for BC. Women with lymphedema have greater UE impairment and limitation in activities than women without. Many of these impairments are amenable to prevention measures or treatment, so early detection by health care providers is essential. PMID:20373044

Wong, Josephine; Cooper, Bruce; Wanek, Linda; Topp, Kimberly; Byl, Nancy; Dodd, Marylin

2010-01-01

361

Acute predator stress impairs the consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in male and female rats  

PubMed Central

We have studied the effects of an acute predator stress experience on spatial learning and memory in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. All rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. In the control (non-stress) condition, female rats were superior to the males in the accuracy and consistency of their spatial memory performance tested over multiple days of training. In the stress condition, rats were exposed to the cat for 30 min immediately before or after learning, or before the 24-h memory test. Predator stress dramatically increased corticosterone levels in males and females, with females exhibiting greater baseline and stress-evoked responses than males. Despite these sex differences in the overall magnitudes of corticosterone levels, there were significant sex-independent correlations involving basal and stress-evoked corticosterone levels, and memory performance. Most importantly, predator stress impaired short-term memory, as well as processes involved in memory consolidation and retrieval, in male and female rats. Overall, we have found that an intense, ethologically relevant stressor produced a largely equivalent impairment of memory in male and female rats, and sex-independent corticosterone-memory correlations. These findings may provide insight into commonalities in how traumatic stress affects the brain and memory in men and women. PMID:18391188

Park, Collin R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M.

2008-01-01

362

Language learning in Down syndrome: the speech and language profile compared to adolescents with cognitive impairment of unknown origin.  

PubMed

Children and adolescents with Down syndrome show an emerging profile of speech and language characteristics that is typical of the syndrome (Chapman & Hesketh, 2000; Chapman, 2003; Abbeduto & Chapman, 2005) and different from typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age, including expressive language deficits relative to comprehension that are most severe for syntax, and, in adolescence, strengths in comprehension vocabulary, improvements in expressive syntax, but losses in comprehension of syntax (Chapman, Hesketh & Kistler, 2002). Here we compare 20 adolescents with Down syndrome to 16 individuals with cognitive impairment of unknown origin, statistically matched for age and nonverbal mental age, to show that the age-related strengths in vocabulary comprehension are not limited to the Down syndrome phenotype, but are limited to a certain type of vocabulary test: for both groups, performance on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-3 is significantly greater than performance on the vocabulary subtest of the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language-3, which does not differ from the syntax comprehension subtests. Vocabulary size, but not conceptual level, is a strength for adolescents with cognitive impairment. In contrast, deficits in auditory-verbal working memory, syntax and vocabulary comprehension, and narration of picture-books without an opportunity to preview them are all specific to the adolescent group with Down syndrome. The expressive language deficit disappears when a preview opportunity and picture support is given. PMID:16869363

Chapman, Robin S

2006-07-01

363

Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.  

PubMed

Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

2014-01-01

364

Ego Depletion Impairs Implicit Learning  

PubMed Central

Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

Thompson, Kelsey R.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Wesley, Abigail H.; Reber, Paul J.

2014-01-01

365

Working memory contributions to reinforcement learning impairments in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in reinforcement learning tasks. However, behavioral learning curves in such tasks originate from the interaction of multiple neural processes, including the basal ganglia- and dopamine-dependent reinforcement learning (RL) system, but also prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive strategies involving working memory (WM). Thus, it is unclear which specific system induces impairments in schizophrenia. We recently developed a task and computational model allowing us to separately assess the roles of RL (slow, cumulative learning) mechanisms versus WM (fast but capacity-limited) mechanisms in healthy adult human subjects. Here, we used this task to assess patients' specific sources of impairments in learning. In 15 separate blocks, subjects learned to pick one of three actions for stimuli. The number of stimuli to learn in each block varied from two to six, allowing us to separate influences of capacity-limited WM from the incremental RL system. As expected, both patients (n = 49) and healthy controls (n = 36) showed effects of set size and delay between stimulus repetitions, confirming the presence of working memory effects. Patients performed significantly worse than controls overall, but computational model fits and behavioral analyses indicate that these deficits could be entirely accounted for by changes in WM parameters (capacity and reliability), whereas RL processes were spared. These results suggest that the working memory system contributes strongly to learning impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25297101

Collins, Anne G E; Brown, Jaime K; Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Frank, Michael J

2014-10-01

366

Impaired emotion recognition in music in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Music has the potential to evoke strong emotions and plays a significant role in the lives of many people. Music might therefore be an ideal medium to assess emotion recognition. We investigated emotion recognition in music in 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) and 20 matched healthy volunteers. The role of cognitive dysfunction and other disease characteristics in emotion recognition was also evaluated. We used 32 musical excerpts that expressed happiness, sadness, fear or anger. PD patients were impaired in recognizing fear and anger in music. Fear recognition was associated with executive functions in PD patients and in healthy controls, but the emotion recognition impairments of PD patients persisted after adjusting for executive functioning. We found no differences in the recognition of happy or sad music. Emotion recognition was not related to depressive symptoms, disease duration or severity of motor symptoms. We conclude that PD patients are impaired in recognizing complex emotions in music. Although this impairment is related to executive dysfunction, our findings most likely reflect an additional primary deficit in emotional processing. PMID:20633975

van Tricht, Mirjam J; Smeding, Harriet M M; Speelman, Johannes D; Schmand, Ben A

2010-10-01

367

Greater effort boosts the affective taste properties of food  

PubMed Central

Actions can create preferences, increasing the value ascribed to commodities acquired at greater cost. This behavioural finding has been observed in a variety of species; however, the causal factors underlying the phenomenon are relatively unknown. We sought to develop a behavioural platform to examine the relationship between effort and reinforcer value in mice trained under demanding or lenient schedules of reinforcement to obtain food. In the initial experiment, expenditure of effort enhanced the value of the associated food via relatively lasting changes in its hedonic attributes, promoting an acquired preference for these reinforcers when tested outside of the training environment. Moreover, otherwise neutral cues associated with those reinforcers during training similarly acquired greater reinforcing value, as assessed under conditioned reinforcement. In a separate experiment, expenditure of effort was also capable of enhancing the value of less-preferred low-caloric reinforcers. Analysis of licking microstructure revealed the basis for this increased valuation was, in part, due to increased palatability of the associated reinforcer. This change in the hedonic taste properties of the food can not only serve as a basis for preference, but also guide decision-making and foraging behaviour by coordinating a potentially adaptive repertoire of incentive motivation, goal-directed action and consumption. PMID:21047860

Johnson, Alexander W.; Gallagher, Michela

2011-01-01

368

Increased preventive practices lead to greater tooth retention.  

PubMed

Prior research has rarely examined the impact of ADA-recommended preventive practices on tooth retention. We hypothesized that better oral hygiene leads to increased tooth retention. We examined the association of cross-sectional and long-term assessments of preventive practices, as well as various combinations of hygiene practices, with tooth retention. Among 736 male participants in the VA Dental Longitudinal Study, we utilized cross-sectional and longitudinal self-reports of toothbrushing, dental floss use, annual prophylaxis, and combinations of such behaviors, and examined their association with clinically assessed numbers of teeth. Baseline and long-term hygiene behaviors (except brushing) were associated with an increased baseline number of teeth and decreased subsequent tooth loss. Use of multiple hygiene behaviors was associated with greater tooth retention, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Adherence to ADA recommendations for preventive care leads to better oral health, and consistently practicing preventive behaviors over the long term confers greater benefits than doing so over the short term. PMID:12598553

Kressin, N R; Boehmer, U; Nunn, M E; Spiro, A

2003-03-01

369

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure  

PubMed Central

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramon A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

2012-01-01

370

Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

Thormodsgard, June M.

2009-01-01

371

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.  

PubMed

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

2012-04-24

372

Impaired development of intrinsic connectivity networks in children with medically intractable localization-related epilepsy.  

PubMed

Typical childhood development is characterized by the emergence of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) by way of internetwork segregation and intranetwork integration. The impact of childhood epilepsy on the maturation of ICNs is, however, poorly understood. The developmental trajectory of ICNs in 26 children (8-17 years) with localization-related epilepsy and 28 propensity-score matched controls was evaluated using graph theoretical analysis of whole brain connectomes from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired development of regional hubs in nodes of the salience and default mode networks (DMN). Seed-based connectivity and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed significantly decreased intranetwork connections, and greater internetwork connectivity in children with epilepsy compared to controls. Significant interactions were identified between epilepsy duration and the expected developmental trajectory of ICNs, indicating that prolonged epilepsy may cause progressive alternations in large-scale networks throughout childhood. DMN integration was also associated with better working memory, whereas internetwork segregation was associated with higher full-scale intelligence quotient scores. Furthermore, subgroup analyses revealed the thalamus, hippocampus, and caudate were weaker hubs in children with secondarily generalized seizures, relative to other patient subgroups. Our findings underscore that epilepsy interferes with the developmental trajectory of brain networks underlying cognition, providing evidence supporting the early treatment of affected children. Hum Brain Mapp 35:5686-5700, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24976288

Ibrahim, George M; Morgan, Benjamin R; Lee, Wayne; Smith, Mary Lou; Donner, Elizabeth J; Wang, Frank; Beers, Craig A; Federico, Paolo; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M; Rutka, James T; Carter Snead, O

2014-11-01

373

Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Aims This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years) and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years). The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p < 0.001), using a bus or a train (p < 0.001), and MCI. After adjusting for covariates, cognitive activity of any type remained significantly associated with MCI (p < 0.005) but not with the implementation of IADLs. Conclusions Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required. PMID:24348501

Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Uemura, Kazuki; Yoshida, Daisuke; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

2013-01-01

374

Engagement in Social Activities and Progression from Mild to Severe Cognitive Impairment: The MYHAT Study  

PubMed Central

Background It is of considerable public health importance to prevent or delay the progression of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to more severely impaired cognitive states. This study examines the risk of progression from mild to severe cognitive impairment in relation to engagement in social activities while mildly impaired and the concurrence of subsequent change in engagement with MCI progression. Methods Participants were 816 older adults with cognitively defined MCI (mean age 78.0 [SD = 7.4] years) from the Monongahela-Youghiogheny Healthy Aging Team (MYHAT) Study - a prospective cohort study of MCI in the community. Over three years of follow-up, 78 individuals progressed from MCI severe cognitive impairment while 738 did not progress. Risk of progression was estimated using discrete time survival analyses. The main predictors were standardized composite measures of the variety of and frequency of engagement in social activities. Results Lower risk of progression from mild to severe cognitive impairment was associated with both a greater level of frequency of engagement in social activities while mildly impaired (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.55–0.93, p = 0.01), and also with a slower rate of decline in the variety of activities over time (OR = 0.01, 95% CI: <0.001–0.38, p = 0.02). Conclusions Greater engagement in social activities may potentially be beneficial for preventing or delaying further cognitive decline among older adults with MCI. Alternatively, lesser engagement in social activities may be a marker of impending cognitive decline in MCI. PMID:23257280

Hughes, Tiffany F.; Flatt, Jason D.; Fu, Bo; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Ganguli, Mary

2012-01-01

375

Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson Patients  

E-print Network

Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson. Gluck, PhDw Abstract: In a study of acquired equivalence in Parkinson disease (PD), in which patients that anticholinergic drugs may particularly impair cognitive abilities that depend on the MT lobe. Key Words: Parkinson

Gluck, Mark

376

Multiple Impairments among Non-Institutionalized Blind and Visually Impaired Persons. Statistical Brief No. 7.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through the use of surveys, the article discusses the number of noninstitutionalized visually impaired individuals who also have other disabilities. The main finding is that, even excluding many chronic conditions, a majority of severely visually impaired persons have one or more additional impairments. (PHR)

Kirchner, Corinne; Peterson, Richard

1980-01-01

377

Disruption of retinoblastoma protein expression in the intestinal epithelium impairs lipid absorption.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated increased villus height following genetic deletion, or knockout, of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) in the intestinal epithelium (Rb-IKO). Here we determined the functional consequences of augmented mucosal growth on intestinal fat absorption and following a 50% small bowel resection (SBR). Mice with constitutively disrupted Rb expression in the intestinal epithelium (Rb-IKO) along with their floxed (wild-type, WT) littermates were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD, 42% kcal fat) for 54 wk. Mice were weighed weekly, and fat absorption, indirect calorimetry, and MRI body composition were measured. Rb-IKO mice were also subjected to a 50% SBR, followed by HFD feeding for 33 wk. In separate experiments, we examined intestinal fat absorption in mice with conditional (tamoxifen-inducible) intestinal Rb (inducible Rb-IKO) deletion. Microarray revealed that the transcriptional expression of lipid absorption/transport genes was significantly reduced in constitutive Rb-IKO mice. These mice demonstrated greater mucosal surface area yet manifested paradoxically impaired intestinal long-chain triglyceride absorption and decreased cholesterol absorption. Despite attenuated lipid absorption, there were no differences in metabolic rate, body composition, and weight gain in Rb-IKO and WT mice at baseline and following SBR. We also confirmed fat malabsorption in inducible Rb-IKO mice. We concluded that, despite an expanded mucosal surface area, Rb-IKO mice demonstrate impaired lipid absorption without compensatory alterations in energy homeostasis or body composition. These findings underscore the importance of delineating structural/functional relationships in the gut and suggest a previously unknown role for Rb in the regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. PMID:24742992

Choi, Pamela M; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R; Wandu, Wambui S; Leinicke, Jennifer A; Xie, Yan; Davidson, Nicholas O; Warner, Brad W

2014-05-15

378

The nitric oxide redox sibling nitroxyl partially circumvents impairment of platelet nitric oxide responsiveness.  

PubMed

Impaired platelet responsiveness to nitric oxide (NO resistance) is a common characteristic of many cardiovascular disease states and represents an independent risk factor for cardiac events and mortality. NO resistance reflects both scavenging of NO by superoxide (O2(-)), and impairment of the NO receptor, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). There is thus an urgent need for circumvention of NO resistance in order to improve clinical outcomes. Nitroxyl (HNO), like NO, produces vasodilator and anti-aggregatory effects, largely via sGC activation, but is not inactivated by O2(-). We tested the hypothesis that HNO circumvents NO resistance in human platelets. In 57 subjects with or without ischemic heart disease, platelet responses to the HNO donor isopropylamine NONOate (IPA/NO) and the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were compared. While SNP (10?M) induced 29±3% (p<0.001) inhibition of platelet aggregation, IPA/NO (10?M) caused 75±4% inhibition (p<0.001). In NO-resistant subjects (n=28), the IPA/NO:SNP response ratio was markedly increased (p<0.01), consistent with partial circumvention of NO resistance. Similarly, cGMP accumulation in platelets was greater (p<0.001) with IPA/NO than with SNP stimulation. The NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO (CPTIO, 200?M) inhibited SNP and IPA/NO responses by 92±7% and 17±4% respectively (p<0.001 for differential inhibition), suggesting that effects of IPA/NO are only partially NO-mediated. ODQ (10?M) inhibited IPA/NO responses by 36±8% (p<0.001), consistent with a contribution of sGC/haem to IPA/NO inhibition of aggregation. There was no significant relationship between whole blood ROS content and IPA/NO responses. Thus the HNO donor IPA/NO substantially circumvents platelet NO resistance while acting, at least partially, as a haem-mediated sGC activator. PMID:24012721

Dautov, R F; Ngo, D T M; Licari, G; Liu, S; Sverdlov, A L; Ritchie, R H; Kemp-Harper, B K; Horowitz, J D; Chirkov, Y Y

2013-11-30

379

Simvastatin impairs ADP-stimulated respiration and increases mitochondrial oxidative stress in primary human skeletal myotubes  

PubMed Central

Statins, the widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, cause adverse skeletal muscle side effects ranging from fatigue to fatal rhabdomyolysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of simvastatin on mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, and cell death in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells (i.e. myotubes). Simvastatin induced a dose dependent decrease in viability of proliferating and differentiating primary human muscle precursor cells, and a similar dose-dependent effect was noted in differentiated myoblasts and myotubes. Additionally, there were decreases in myotube number and size following 48 h of simvastatin treatment (5 µM). In permeabilized myotubes, maximal ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption, supported by palmitoyl-carnitine + malate (PCM, complex I and II substrates) and glutamate + malate (GM, complex I substrates), was 32–37% lower (P<0.05) in simvastatin treated (5 µM) vs. control myotubes, providing evidence of impaired respiration at complex I. Mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation were significantly greater in the simvastatin treated human skeletal myotube cultures compared to control. In addition, simvastatin markedly increased protein levels of Bax (pro-apoptotic, +53%) and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic, +100%, P<0.05), mitochondrial PTP opening (+44%, P<0.05), and TUNEL-positive nuclei in human skeletal myotubes, demonstrating up-regulation of mitochondrial-mediated myonuclear apoptotic mechanisms. These data demonstrate that simvastatin induces myotube atrophy and cell loss associated with impaired ADP-stimulated maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and apoptosis in primary human skeletal myotubes, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie human statin-induced myopathy. PMID:22080086

Kwak, Hyo-Bum; Thalacker-Mercer, Anna; Anderson, Ethan J.; Lin, Chien-Te; Kane, Daniel A.; Lee, Nam-Sihk; Cortright, Ronald N.; Bamman, Marcas M.; Neufer, P. Darrell

2012-01-01

380

Meniscal root tears: significance, diagnosis, and treatment.  

PubMed

Meniscal root tears, less common than meniscal body tears and frequently unrecognized, are a subset of meniscal injuries that often result in significant knee joint disorders. The meniscus root attachment aids meniscal function by securing the meniscus in place and allowing for optimal shock-absorbing function in the knee. With root tears, meniscal extrusion often occurs, and the transmission of circumferential hoop stresses is impaired. This alters knee biomechanics and kinematics and significantly increases tibiofemoral contact pressure. In recent years, meniscal root tears, which by definition include direct avulsions off the tibial plateau or radial tears adjacent to the root itself, have attracted attention because of concerns that significant meniscal extrusion dramatically inhibits normal meniscal function, leading to a condition biomechanically similar to a total meniscectomy. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of early diagnosis and treatment; fortunately, these processes have been vastly improved by advances in magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant anatomic, biomechanical, and functional descriptions of the meniscus root attachments, as well as current strategies for accurate diagnosis and treatment of common injuries to these meniscus root attachments. PMID:24623276

Bhatia, Sanjeev; LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; LaPrade, Robert F

2014-12-01

381

Patent Foramen Ovale Is Not Associated with Hypoxemia in Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Does Not Impair Exercise Performance  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) may be disadvantageous in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown whether right-to-left shunting through PFO increases during exercise impairing exercise performance. Objectives: To determine whether (1) PFO prevalence is greater in hypoxemic versus less hypoxemic patients with COPD, (2) PFO is associated with clinically relevant impairment, and (3) right-to-left shunting increases during exercise and impairs exercise performance. Methods: Patients with COPD and age-matched control subjects underwent contrast transthoracic echocardiography and transcranial Doppler to identify PFO. Patients with COPD with no shunt and patients with large PFO underwent cardiopulmonary exercise tests with contrast transcranial Doppler, esophageal, and gastric balloon catheters. Measurements and Main Results: PFO prevalence was similar in 50 patients with COPD and 50 healthy control subjects (46% vs. 30%; P = 0.15). Large shunts were more common in patients with COPD (26% vs. 6%; P = 0.01). In an expanded COPD cohort, PFO prevalence was similar in 31 hypoxemic (Pao2 ? 7.3 kPa) and 63 less hypoxemic (Pao2 > 8.0 kPa) patients with COPD (39% vs. 52%; P = 0.27). Patients with intrapulmonary shunting had lower Pao2 than both patients with PFO and those with no right-to-left shunt (7.7 vs. 8.6 vs. 9.3 kPa, respectively; P = 0.002). Shunting significantly increased during exercise in patients with COPD with PFO. Endurance time at 60% Vo2max was 574 (178) seconds for patients with PFO and 534 (279) seconds for those without (P = ns). Conclusions: Hypoxemic patients with COPD do not have a higher prevalence of PFO. Patients with COPD with PFO do not perform less well either on a 6-minute walk or submaximal exercise testing despite increased right-to-left shunting during exercise. PMID:24450410

Shaikh, Zarrin F.; Kelly, Julia L.; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; de Villa, Manuel; Mullen, Michael J.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Morrell, Mary J.

2014-01-01

382

Cognitive Impairment Assessment through Visuospatial Memory Can Be Performed with a Modified Walking Corsi Test Using the 'Magic Carpet'  

PubMed Central

Background Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have disturbances in their spatial navigation abilities and exhibit early deficits in visuospatial short-term memory. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a quantitative (span score) and qualitative (evaluating navigation strategies used) analysis of the Corsi test (usual condition and complex navigation task) would be useful to reveal cognitive decline. Methods We evaluated the performance of 15 young adults, 21 healthy elderly subjects and 15 subjects with MCI using the electronic version of the Corsi test (the Modified Corsi Block-Tapping Test, MCBT) and the complex navigation task (the Modified Walking Corsi Test, MWCT). The MWCT, which is an adaptation of the Corsi test, assesses spatial memory when the subject walks in a complex environment. We used Richard et al.'s model [Cogn Sci 1993;17:497-529] to investigate problem-solving strategies during the Corsi tests. Results The span scores obtained on the MCBT and the MWCT were significantly lower in the healthy elderly subjects (MCBT = 5.0 ± 0.7; MWCT = 4.0 ± 0.7) and the subjects with MCI (MCBT = 4.7 ± 0.8; MWCT = 4.1 ± 0.9) than in the younger adults (MCBT = 6.2 ± 0.6; MWCT = 5.3 ± 1.0). The visuospatial working memory was more impaired in the complex navigation task (MWCT = 4.3 ± 0.9) than in the modified Corsi test (MCBT = 5.3 ± 0.8). Finally, the subjects with greater cognitive impairment were more likely to have inadequate or absence of problem-solving strategies. Conclusions Investigating the problem-solving strategies used during the MWCT appears to be a promising way to differentiate between the subjects with MCI and the healthy elderly subjects. PMID:24575112

Perrochon, Anaick; Kemoun, Gilles; Dugue, Benoit; Berthoz, Alain

2014-01-01

383

Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairment in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalous (iNPH) has not been clearly documented. We performed standardized neuropsychological assessments of 21 patients with iNPH and of 42 patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) matched to the patients with iNPH 2:1 by age, sex, and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Compared with the AD group, the iNPH group scored significantly higher on

Atsushi Ogino; Hiroaki Kazui; Noriko Miyoshi; Mamoru Hashimoto; Shingo Ohkawa; Hiromasa Tokunaga; Yoshitaka Ikejiri; Masatoshi Takeda

2006-01-01

384

Hyperglycemia contributes to impaired insulin response in GK rat islets  

Microsoft Academic Search

min -1 · islet -1 at 16.7 mmol\\/l glucose; P < 0.001). Islet glu- cose-6-phosphatase activity was significantly higher in GK rats than in control rats; phlorizin treatment signi- ficantly decreased this activity. These findings demon- strate that hyperglycemia per se constitutes an important factor for impaired insulin release in GK rats. Correction of hyperglycemia normalizes islet glucose-6-phosphatase activity, which

Zong-Chao Ling; Cao Hong-Lie; C. stenson; Suad Efendic; Akhtar Khan

2001-01-01

385

The relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo and impairment in children with and without ADHD.  

PubMed

This study examined impairment in multiple domains of functioning in children with and without ADHD who present with high or low levels of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) while taking into account the total symptom ratings of ADHD. Participants were 584 children in kindergarten through eighth grade (55.7 % male, 91.7 % Caucasian), drawn from five archival datasets. Two, 2 (SCT groups: high and low) x 3 (ADHD Status: ADHD-I, ADHD-C, and non-ADHD) MANCOVAs were conducted with the total ADHD symptom ratings and child age as covariates. One MANCOVA was conducted on scores on the teacher Impairment Rating Scale (IRS; Fabiano et al. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 35:369-385, 2006) and the other on the 6 scores on the parent IRS. The results indicated that the presence of SCT symptoms was associated with greater functional impairment at home according to parent report while it was associated with less functional impairment at school according to teacher report. Thus, the relationship between SCT symptoms and impairment differs depending on the informant and the context in which impairment is evaluated. PMID:23820732

Watabe, Yuko; Owens, Julie Sarno; Evans, Steven W; Brandt, Nicole Evangelista

2014-01-01

386

KATP channel knockout worsens myocardial calcium stress load in vivo and impairs recovery in stunned heart.  

PubMed

Gene knockout of the KCNJ11-encoded Kir6.2 ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel implicates this stress-response element in the safeguard of cardiac homeostasis under imposed demand. K(ATP) channels are abundant in ventricular sarcolemma, where subunit expression appears to vary between the sexes. A limitation, however, in establishing the full significance of K(ATP) channels in the intact organism has been the inability to monitor in vivo the contribution of the channel to intracellular calcium handling and the superimposed effect of sex that ultimately defines heart function. Here, in vivo manganese-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance imaging revealed, under dobutamine stress, a significantly greater accumulation of calcium in both male and female K(ATP) channel knockout (Kir6.2-KO) mice compared with sex- and age-matched wild-type (WT) counterparts, with greatest calcium load in Kir6.2-KO females. This translated, poststress, into a sustained contracture manifested by reduced end-diastolic volumes in K(ATP) channel-deficient mice. In response to ischemia-induced stunning, male and female Kir6.2-KO hearts demonstrated accelerated time to contracture and increased peak contracture compared with WT. The outcome on reperfusion, in both male and female Kir6.2-KO hearts, was a transient reduction in systolic performance, measured as rate-pressure product compared with WT, with protracted increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, exaggerated in female knockout hearts, despite comparable leakage of creatine kinase across groups. Kir6.2-KO hearts were rescued from diastolic dysfunction by agents that target alternative pathways of calcium handling. Thus K(ATP) channel deficit confers a greater susceptibility to calcium overload in vivo, accentuated in female hearts, impairing contractile recovery under various conditions of high metabolic demand. PMID:17189350

Gumina, Richard J; O'Cochlain, D Fearghas; Kurtz, Christopher E; Bast, Peter; Pucar, Darko; Mishra, Prasanna; Miki, Takashi; Seino, Susumu; Macura, Slobodan; Terzic, Andre

2007-04-01

387

Institution animal care and use committees need greater ethical diversity.  

PubMed

In response to public outrage stemming from exposés of animal abuse in research laboratories, the US Congress in 1985 mandated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) to oversee animal use at institutions receiving federal grants. IACUCs were enjoined to respect public concern about the treatment of animals in research, but they were not specifically instructed whether or not to perform ethical cost-benefit analyses of animal research protocols that IACUCs have chosen, with approval contingent upon a balancing of animal pain and suffering against a reasonable expectation of resultant human benefit. IACUCs have chosen not to make such ethical judgments but, rather, restrict themselves to an advisory role, often tweaking the details of animal-use protocols, but eventually approving all of them. This disinclination by IACUCs to take a broader ethical view of their authority and responsibilities may reflect a membership composition highly skewed towards animal researchers themselves (67%) and institutional veterinarians (15%), both with vested interests in continuing animal research. The resultant ethical monoculture may impair IACUC's ability to meet public concern for laboratory animal welfare. Psychological research has established that unconscious bias affects us all, that deliberations among the like-minded lead to adapting extremist positions, and that groupthink blinds organisations to alternatives that might be obvious to outsiders. Taken together, skewed IACUC membership composition and psychological research insights into unconscious bias and groupthink suggest that an infusion of ethical diversity by increasing the percentage of institutionally unaffiliated members on IACUCs would broaden their ethical perspectives and enable them to better address public concerns about laboratory animal welfare. PMID:23131895

Hansen, Lawrence Arthur

2013-03-01

388

Impaired generation of new subcategories and switching in a semantic verbal fluency test in older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

The semantic verbal fluency task is broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects. Even some studies have identified differences in verbal fluency clustering and switching measures between subjects with normal aging and a clinical condition such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease, the results are not always consistent. This study aimed to compare clustering and switching measures of an animal's semantic verbal fluency task among normal controls (NC, n = 25), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 25), amnestic multiple domain Mild Cognitive Impairment (a+mdMCI; n = 25) and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 25) Brazilian subjects. The analyses were executed considering three (unifying the MCI subtypes) and four groups. As the data were not normally distributed, we carried out non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests) to evaluate the differences in performance in the measures of the verbal fluency test among the groups. The comparison demonstrated that the groups differed in the total of correct words produced, number of clusters and switching but the measure of new subcategories was the only with significant difference among the NC and all the clinical groups. The measure of new subcategories is the number of original subcategories inside the higher category of animals that the subject produced, such as farm, domestic, African animals. Our results indicate that semantic memory impairment is a visible and recent deficit that occurs even in non-demented subjects with very MCI and the implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25071550

Bertola, Laiss; Cunha Lima, Maria Luiza; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

2014-01-01

389

Students with hearing impairment in inclusive classrooms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of the education of children with special needs in Pakistan dates back to the British Colonial period. The first special school was established in 1906 at Lahore to cater for the educational and vocational needs of children with visual impairment. Another school, Ida Rieu, for children with visual and hearing impairment was established in Karachi in 1920. The

Rukhsana Bashir

390

Counseling the Chronically Health Impaired Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of counselors in working with chronically health impaired students is examined, and illustrations of the Chronic Health Impaired/Sickle Cell Anemia Program in Baltimore (MD) are presented. The importance of setting goals with the student is underlined, as is the necessity for counselors to have proper flexibility and time to devote to…

Dale, Brian, Comp.; And Others

391

Improving Web Access for Visually Impaired Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology advances and the continuing convergence of computing and telecommunications have made an unprecedented amount of information available to the public. For many people with disabilities, however, accessibility issues limit the impact of such widespread availability. Of the many types of disabilities-mobility, hearing, and learning impairments, for example-vision impairments are most pervasive in the general population, especially among seniors. The

Simon Liu; Wei Ma; Dale Schalow; Kevin Spruill

2004-01-01

392

Minimal hepatic encephalopathy impairs fitness to drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that the ability to drive a car is impaired in patients with cirrhosis of the liver and minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). However, the only study using an on-road driving test did not reveal such an impairment. In a prospective controlled study, we evaluated patients with cirrhosis of the liver for MHE and the ability to drive

Christian Wein; Horst Koch; Birthe Popp; Gerd Oehler; Peter Schauder

2004-01-01

393

Correctable visual impairment in stroke rehabilitation patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: after stroke, visual impairment may exacerbate the impact of other impairments on overall disability and negatively influence rehabilitation. Objective: to examine the visual status of patients after stroke and determine whether this can be improved by simple interventions. Design: prospective study. Setting: stroke rehabilitation unit in a Belfast teaching hospital. Subjects: 77 consecutive patients admitted for rehabilitation after acute

ANDREW J. LOTERY; M. I VAN WIGGAM; A. J ONATHAN JACKSON; G UILIANA SILVESTRI; KATHLENE REFSON; K ENNETH J. FULLERTON; D AVID H. GILMORE; T IMOTHY R. O. BERINGER

394

Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is an understudied problem in frail elderly patients, especially those with cognitive impairment, delirium, or dementia. The focus of this study was to describe the pain experienced by patients in skilled nursing homes, which have a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. A random sample of 325 subjects was selected from ten community skilled nursing homes. Subjects underwent a cross-sectional

Bruce A. Ferrell; Betty R. Ferrell; Lynne Rivera

1995-01-01

395

Statistics on Children with Visual Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes statistical data relating to children with visual impairments, including incidence, causes, and education. Data include: (1) prevalence estimates that indicate 1 percent of persons under the age of 18 in the United States have a visual impairment that cannot be corrected with glasses; (2) the leading cause of childhood…

Viisola, Michelle

396

Perianesthesia communications with hearing-impaired patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prospect of having surgery can be a frightening experience for anyone, especially someone who suffers a sensory deficit such as hearing impairment. For the millions of people who are hearing impaired, there are some simple steps that perianesthesia nurses can take to identify hearing problems and to facilitate accurate communications. Such steps on the part of the staff often

Mary C. Redmond

1996-01-01

397

Identifying Language Comprehension Impairment in Preschool Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined the validity of 3 dis- course comprehension measures for preschool children and the ability of a combination of them to classify children with and without language impairment. Method: Thirty-seven children with typical language and 12 children with language impairment completed 3 measures of oral story comprehension: the Joint Story Retell task, the Expectancy Violation Detection task,

Elizabeth Skarakis-Doyle; Lynn Dempsey; Christopher Lee

2008-01-01

398

Pragmatic Language Impairment and Associated Behavioural Problems  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when a child shows isolated structural language problems. The diagnosis of pragmatic language impairment (PLI) is given to children who show difficulties with the use of language in context. Unlike children with SLI, these children tend to show relatively intact structural language skills…

Ketelaars, Mieke P.; Cuperus, Juliane; Jansonius, Kino; Verhoeven, Ludo

2010-01-01

399

Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

2011-01-01

400

Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Function Impairments in Primary Breast Cancer  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine differences in prefrontal-executive function between breast cancer (BC) survivors with and without a history of chemotherapy treatment compared with healthy control women and to determine the associations between prefrontal cortex deficits and behavioral impairments, as well as certain demographic and disease variables. Design Observational study. Setting University-based research facility. Participants Twenty-five women with BC who had received chemotherapy, 19 women with BC who had not received chemotherapy, and 18 healthy female controls, all matched for age and other demographic variables. Results Women with BC demonstrated significantly reduced activation in the left middle dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and premotor cortex compared with healthy controls. The chemotherapy group also demonstrated significantly reduced left caudal lateral prefrontal cortex activation and increased perseverative errors and reduced processing speed compared with the other 2 groups. Reduced left caudal lateral prefrontal cortex activation was significantly correlated with higher disease severity and elevated subjective executive dysfunction in the chemotherapy-treated women. Older age and lower educational level were associated with increased executive function impairment in the chemotherapy group. Conclusions These findings provide further evidence of neurological impairment associated with primary BC irrespective of treatment history. The left caudal lateral prefrontal region may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of chemotherapy and/or disease severity and may represent a novel biomarker of subjective executive dysfunction in chemotherapy-treated women. Furthermore, negative effects of chemotherapy on brain function may be exacerbated by such factors as increased age and lower educational level. PMID:22084128

Kesler, Shelli R.; Kent, Jamie S.; O'Hara, Ruth

2011-01-01

401

Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.  

PubMed

The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

2013-09-01

402

Is all cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease "mild cognitive impairment"?  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment can be demonstrated in Parkinson's disease (PD) from the very beginning of the disease. Clinical manifestations range from slight deficits, only demonstrable by means of neuropsychological testing, up to dementia. If a linear involution is supposed for the cognitive worsening in PD, then the relatively subtle cognitive defects should be taken as the earliest signs of dementia implying that PD-MCI concept would be thoroughly equivalent to that used for the early prediction of other dementias among healthy population. Cognitive defects in PD, however, may not follow a normal distribution. While fronto-striatal deficits, such as working memory, set-shifting and free-recall verbal memory appear altered in most patients during long periods of time, certain functions depending on more posterior-cortical regions, such as copying or naming, usually characterize patients with dementia. Fronto-striatal and posterior-cortical cognitive defects may have a different pathophysiological substrates, evolution and prognosis. While fronto-striatal defects appear more related to dopaminergic defects, posterior-cortical defects may obey multiple neurotransmitter failure. Designing criteria to accurately diagnose PD-MCI is highly relevant for clinical treatment, research, care-giving and decision-making. Besides quantitative defects, an operative definition of MCI in PD should clearly distinguish a "risky cognitive profile" among the broad cognitive defects intrinsic to PD. Thus, along with other possible biological markers, from a neuropsychological point of view, posterior-cortical defects probably represent the very syndrome of MCI in PD. PMID:21695418

Martínez-Horta, Saül; Kulisevsky, Jaime

2011-08-01

403

Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

2014-04-29

404

Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.  

PubMed

We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5). PMID:24549296

Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

2014-04-01

405

Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples  

PubMed Central

Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

Bushman, Brad J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond, Richard S.; Hanus, Michael D.

2014-01-01

406

Reproductive Health Problems in the Greater Athens Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of reproductive health parameters have been evaluated in people living in the Greater Athens area. These include:\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a changes in important seminal characters of men investigated for subfertility,\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a the ratio of male to female newborn infants delivered in a busy maternity hospital over a period of 35 years,\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a the incidence of premature menopause in a large

D. A. Adamopoulos; E. Koukkou

407

Production of centrifugal fields greater than 100 million times gravity.  

PubMed

A high-speed rotation instrument to produce centrifugal fields greater than 100 million times gravity has been constructed. Small, solid, spherical high-carbon chromium steel rotors are suspended magnetically in high vacuum and spun by a rotating magnetic field. It is found that the spinning rotor explodes when the calculated average value of stress in the meridian plane reaches about 1.2 times the tensile strength of the material. The maximum speed of rotation so far achieved for more than a few days without bursting was obtained with a rotor of 1.50 mm diameter. The speed of 2.11 x 10(5) rev/s corresponded to a centrifugal field of 1.34 x 10(8) times gravity. Our instrument will find application in the study of nuclear atomic phenomena. PMID:18699609

Katano, R; Shimizu, S

1979-07-01