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Greater relative impairment of object recognition than of visuospatial abilities in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histological investigation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has indicated that the concentration of neurofibrillary tangles in inferotemporal cortex (IT) is greater than that found in posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Researchers hypothesized that the relative degree of impairment of visual function subserved by each of these cortical areas should reflect the disproportionate distribution of neuropathological changes. Eleven AD patients and 16 elderly

Daniel D. Kurylo; Suzanne Corkin; John H. Growdon



Depressive Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment Predict Greater Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease-Related Regions  

PubMed Central

Background Depression has been associated with higher conversion rates from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and may be a potential clinical marker of prodromal AD that can be used to identify individuals with MCI who are most likely to progress to AD. Using tensor-based morphometry (TBM), we examined the longitudinal neuroanatomical changes associated with depressive symptoms in MCI. Methods 243 MCI subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) who had brain MRI scans at baseline and 2-year follow-up were classified into depressed (DEP, n=44), non-depressed with other neuropsychiatric symptoms (OTHER, n=93), and no-symptom (NOSYMP, n=106) groups based on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire (NPI-Q). TBM was used to create individual 3D-maps of 2-year brain changes that were compared between groups. Results DEP subjects had more frontal (p=0.024), parietal (p=0.030), and temporal (p=0.038) white matter atrophy than NOSYMP subjects. A subset of DEP subjects whose depressive symptoms persisted over 2-years also had higher conversion to AD and more decline on measures of global cognition, language abilities, and executive functioning compared to stable NOSYMP subjects. OTHER and NOSYMP groups exhibited no differences in rates of atrophy. Conclusions Depressive symptoms in MCI subjects were associated with greater atrophy in AD-affected regions, increased cognitive decline, and higher rates of conversion to AD. Depression in individuals with MCI may be associated with underlying neuropathological changes including prodromal AD. Thus, assessment of depressive symptoms may be a potentially useful clinical marker in identifying MCI patients who are most likely to progress to AD.

Lee, Grace J.; Lu, Po H.; Hua, Xue; Lee, Suh; Wu, Stephanie; Nguyen, Ken; Teng, Edmond; Leow, Alex D.; Jack, Clifford R.; Toga, Arthur W.; Weiner, Michael W.; Bartzokis, George; Thompson, Paul M.



Role of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Desensitization in Greater Tetrahydrocannabinol Impairment of Memory in Adolescent Rats  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a well defined developmental period during which marijuana use is common. However, little is known about the response to marijuana in adolescents compared with adults. We have shown previously that adolescent rats are more impaired than adults by ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, in a spatial learning task, but the mechanism responsible for this differential impairment is not understood. We determined the role of THC tolerance and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) regulation in THC-induced spatial learning impairment in adolescent and adult rats. We measured the development of tolerance to THC-induced learning impairment in adolescent (postnatal days 30–35) and adult (postnatal days 70–75) rats. We pretreated them for 5 days with 10 mg/kg THC, and then evaluated the effects of vehicle or THC treatment on learning during training in the Morris water maze. We also determined CB1 number and functional coupling in the hippocampus of adolescents and adults. Finally, we measured the time course of hippocampal CB1 desensitization in adolescents and adults during treatment with 10 mg/kg THC or vehicle. Our results indicate that adults, but not adolescents, become tolerant to the effects of THC during water maze training after 5 days of pretreatment. CB1s in adolescent hippocampus are less functionally coupled to G proteins and desensitize more slowly in response to THC treatment than those of adults. THC may impair learning in adolescents more than in adults because of delayed activation of cellular homeostatic adaptive mechanisms underlying cannabinoid tolerance in the hippocampus.

Moore, Nicole L. T.; Greenleaf, Ashley L. R.; Acheson, Shawn K.; Wilson, Wilkie A.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott



Role of cannabinoid receptor type 1 desensitization in greater tetrahydrocannabinol impairment of memory in adolescent rats.  


Adolescence is a well defined developmental period during which marijuana use is common. However, little is known about the response to marijuana in adolescents compared with adults. We have shown previously that adolescent rats are more impaired than adults by ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, in a spatial learning task, but the mechanism responsible for this differential impairment is not understood. We determined the role of THC tolerance and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) regulation in THC-induced spatial learning impairment in adolescent and adult rats. We measured the development of tolerance to THC-induced learning impairment in adolescent (postnatal days 30-35) and adult (postnatal days 70-75) rats. We pretreated them for 5 days with 10 mg/kg THC, and then evaluated the effects of vehicle or THC treatment on learning during training in the Morris water maze. We also determined CB1 number and functional coupling in the hippocampus of adolescents and adults. Finally, we measured the time course of hippocampal CB1 desensitization in adolescents and adults during treatment with 10 mg/kg THC or vehicle. Our results indicate that adults, but not adolescents, become tolerant to the effects of THC during water maze training after 5 days of pretreatment. CB1s in adolescent hippocampus are less functionally coupled to G proteins and desensitize more slowly in response to THC treatment than those of adults. THC may impair learning in adolescents more than in adults because of delayed activation of cellular homeostatic adaptive mechanisms underlying cannabinoid tolerance in the hippocampus. PMID:20668056

Moore, Nicole L T; Greenleaf, Ashley L R; Acheson, Shawn K; Wilson, Wilkie A; Swartzwelder, H Scott; Kuhn, Cynthia M



Greater Impairment in Negative Emotion Evaluation Ability in Patients with Paranoid Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

To explore whether or not patients with schizophrenia display a more profound impairment of negative emotion processing, we assessed the implicit evaluation of positive and negative emotional stimuli. Twenty patients with schizophrenia (9 paranoid, 11 non-paranoid) and 22 normal controls were instructed to classify emotional pictures according to the intrinsic valence if the pictures were black and white. If the stimuli were color-filtered, participants were instructed to press the positive/negative response key according to the extrinsic valence (assigned valence of color). The error rates of the color-filtered stimuli were used as dependent measures. Normal controls made more errors on trials of the positive pictures when the correct response was the negative response key than when the correct response was the positive response key. The reverse was true on trials of the negative pictures. Patients with schizophrenia, especially paranoid schizophrenia, committed more errors in trials of the positive pictures when the correct response key was the negative response key. However, the reverse was not true on trials of the negative pictures. These findings suggest that patients with paranoid schizophrenia might suffer from an impaired ability to evaluate negative emotions and have a loosening of association within their negative emotional networks.

An, Suk Kyoon; Lee, Eun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kang, Jee In; Jeon, Jong Hee; Seok, Jeong Ho; Choi, Sung Hwan



Impairment in postural control is greater when ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors are fatigued simultaneously than when fatigued separately.  


The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of ankle muscle fatigue on postural control when plantarflexors (PFs) and dorsiflexors (DFs) are fatigued simultaneously compared with separately. This study also investigated the recovery of postural control after fatigue. Sixteen adults (eight women and eight men) performed postural trials before and after an isokinetic fatigue task involving either (i) only PFs (30°s(-1)), (ii) only DFs (120°s(-1)), or (iii) both PFs and DFs simultaneously. The fatigue task involved maximal contractions repeated until the torque produced decreased below 50% of the maximal torque. Postural trials lasted 30s and were performed on one leg with eyes open (EO) or eyes closed (EC). Sway area, medio-lateral (ML) and antero-posterior (AP) positions and velocities were calculated from the center of pressure displacements. With EO, no effect of fatigue was found on postural variables. With EC, sway area and AP velocity increased only when both PFs and DFs were fatigued simultaneously. An effect of fatigue present only when both muscle groups are fatigued simultaneously could be due to impairment in the compensatory activity between agonist and antagonist muscles and/or a greater decrease in proprioception due to a greater number of fatigued muscles. In addition, when PFs and DFs were fatigued simultaneously, sway area and AP velocity returned to pre-fatigue values within 2min, whereas a posterior shift in AP position persisted for 10min. This last result may suggest a longer-lasting change in postural strategy needed for optimal postural control. PMID:21646020

Boyas, Sébastien; Remaud, Anthony; Bisson, Etienne J; Cadieux, Sébastien; Morel, Baptiste; Bilodeau, Martin



Presence and Significant Determinants of Cognitive Impairment in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and to identify clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in MS. Methods 303 patients with MS and 279 healthy controls were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N); measures of pre-morbid verbal competence and neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. Results Patients and healthy controls were matched for age, gender, education and pre-morbid verbal Intelligence Quotient. Patients presenting with cognitive impairment were 108/303 (35.6%). In the overall group of participants, the significant predictors of the most sensitive BRB-N scores were: presence of MS, age, education, and Vocabulary. The significant predictors when considering MS patients only were: course of MS, age, education, vocabulary, and depression. Using logistic regression analyses, significant determinants of the presence of cognitive impairment in relapsing-remitting MS patients were: duration of illness (OR?=?1.053, 95% CI?=?1.010–1.097, p?=?0.015), Expanded Disability Status Scale score (OR?=?1.247, 95% CI?=?1.024–1.517, p?=?0.028), and vocabulary (OR?=?0.960, 95% CI?=?0.936–0.984, p?=?0.001), while in the smaller group of progressive MS patients these predictors did not play a significant role in determining the cognitive outcome. Conclusions Our results corroborate the evidence about the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with MS. Furthermore, our findings identify significant clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in a large sample of MS patients for the first time. Implications for further research and clinical practice were discussed.

Borghi, Martina; Cavallo, Marco; Carletto, Sara; Ostacoli, Luca; Zuffranieri, Marco; Picci, Rocco Luigi; Scavelli, Francesco; Johnston, Harriet; Furlan, Pier Maria; Bertolotto, Antonio; Malucchi, Simona



Autistic Features in Young Children with Significant Cognitive Impairment: Autism or Mental Retardation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses the issues and challenges related to the differential diagnosis of autism in preschool children with significant cognitive impairment. Issues affecting differential diagnosis include the use of traditional diagnostic guidelines for preschoolers with developmental delays, developmental changes in behavioral characteristics, the involvement of cognitive factors in symptom expression, and the overlap between autism and mental retardation in individuals

Susan Vig; Eleonora Jedrysek



Brief Report: Inner Speech Impairment in Children with Autism Is Associated with Greater Nonverbal than Verbal Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin's (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized that children with both autism and a nonverbal greater than verbal (NV greater than V) skills…

Lidstone, Jane S. M.; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.



Impaired ability to give a meaning to personally significant events in patients with schizophrenia.  


Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness affecting sense of identity. Autobiographical memory deficits observed in schizophrenia could contribute to this altered sense of identity. The ability to give a meaning to personally significant events (meaning making) is also critical for identity construction and self-coherence. Twenty-four patients with schizophrenia and 24 control participants were asked to recall five self-defining memories. We assessed meaning making in participants' narratives (spontaneous meaning making) and afterwards asked them explicitly to give a meaning to their memories (cued meaning making). We found that both spontaneous and cued meaning making were impaired in patients with schizophrenia. This impairment was correlated with executive dysfunctions and level of negative symptoms. Our results suggest that patients' difficulties in drawing lessons about past experiences could contribute to explain the lack of coherence observed in their life trajectories and their impaired social adjustment abilities. Implications for psychotherapy are also discussed. PMID:21459619

Berna, Fabrice; Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Verry, Paulina; Conway, Martin A; Danion, Jean-Marie



Alzheimer's disease and memory-monitoring impairment: Alzheimer's patients show a monitoring deficit that is greater than their accuracy deficit  

PubMed Central

We assessed the ability of two groups of patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and two groups of older adults to monitor the likely accuracy of recognition judgments and source identification judgments about who spoke something earlier. Alzheimer’s patients showed worse performance on both memory judgments and were less able to monitor with confidence ratings the likely accuracy of both kinds of memory judgments, as compared to a group of older adults who experienced the identical study and test conditions. Critically, however, when memory performance was made comparable between the AD patients and the older adults (e.g., by giving AD patients extra exposures to the study materials), AD patients were still greatly impaired at monitoring the likely accuracy of their recognition and source judgments. This result indicates that the monitoring impairment in AD patients is actually worse than their memory impairment, as otherwise there would have been no differences between the two groups in monitoring performance when there were no differences in accuracy. We discuss the brain correlates of this memory-monitoring deficit and also propose a Remembrance-Evaluation model of memory-monitoring.

Dodson, Chad S.; Spaniol, Maggie; O'Connor, Maureen K.; Deason, Rebecca G.; Ally, Brandon A.; Budson, Andrew E.



Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production are significantly impaired in striatal cells expressing mutant huntingtin.  


There is significant evidence that energy production impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease. Nonetheless, the specific mitochondrial defects due to the presence of mutant huntingtin have not been fully elucidated. To determine the effects of mutant huntingtin on mitochondrial energy production, a thorough analysis of respiration, ATP production, and functioning of the respiratory complexes was carried out in clonal striatal cells established from Hdh(Q7) (wild-type) and Hdh(Q111) (mutant huntingtin knock-in) mouse embryos. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production were significantly reduced in the mutant striatal cells compared with the wild-type cells when either glutamate/malate or succinate was used as the substrate. However, mitochondrial respiration was similar in the two cell lines when the artificial electron donor TMPD/ascorbate, which feeds into complex IV, was used as the substrate. The attenuation of mitochondrial respiration and ATP production when either glutamate/malate or succinate was used as the substrate was not due to impairment of the respiratory complexes, because their activities were equivalent in both cell lines. Intriguingly, in the striatum of presymptomatic and pathological grade 1 Huntington disease cases there is also no impairment of mitochondrial complexes I-IV (Guidetti, P., Charles, V., Chen, E. Y., Reddy, P. H., Kordower, J. H., Whetsell, W. O., Jr., Schwarcz, R., and Tagle, D. A. (2001) Exp. Neurol. 169, 340-350). To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the effects of physiological levels of mutant huntingtin on mitochondrial respiratory function within an appropriate cellular context. These findings demonstrate that the presence of mutant huntingtin impairs mitochondrial ATP production through one or more mechanisms that do not directly affect the function of the respiration complexes. PMID:15983033

Milakovic, Tamara; Johnson, Gail V W



Quality of life is significantly impaired in long-term survivors of acute liver failure and particularly in acetaminophen-overdose patients.  


Functional outcomes for long-term survivors of acute liver failure (ALF) are not well characterized. The aim of this prospective study was to determine health-related quality of life in long-term adult ALF survivors. Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry participants completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life 14 and Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires at 1- and/or 2-year follow-up study visits. Responses were compared among ALF subgroups and to those for available general US population controls. Among the 282 adult ALF patients, 125 had undergone liver transplantation (LT), whereas 157, including 95 acetaminophen overdose (APAP) patients and 62 non-APAP patients, were spontaneous survivors (SSs). APAP SS patients reported significantly lower general health scores and more days of impaired mental and physical health, activity limitations due to poor health, pain, depression, and anxiety in comparison with the other groups (P???0.001). There were no significant differences in coma grade or in the use of mechanical ventilation or intracranial pressure monitoring among the patient groups during their ALF hospitalization, but APAP SSs had significantly higher rates of psychiatric disease and substance abuse (P?greater proportion of the combined SS patients reported fair or poor health and ?14 days of impaired physical/mental health and activity limitations due to poor health. In addition, a greater proportion of LT recipients reported ?14 days of impaired physical/mental health. Similar results were observed with the SF-36 across the 3 ALF subgroups and in comparison with population controls. In conclusion, long-term adult survivors of ALF reported significantly lower quality of life scores than US population controls. Furthermore, APAP SS patients reported the lowest quality of life scores, possibly because of higher rates of premorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. Liver Transpl 19:991-1000, 2013. © 2013 AASLD. PMID:23780824

Rangnekar, Amol S; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie; McGuire, Brendan; Lee, William M; Fontana, Robert J



Galantamine counteracts development of learning impairment in guinea pigs exposed to the organophosphorus poison soman: clinical significance.  


Galantamine, a drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease, protects guinea pigs against the acute toxicity and lethality of organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including soman. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a single exposure of guinea pigs to 1xLD50 soman triggers cognitive impairments that can be counteracted by galantamine. Thus, animals were injected intramuscularly with saline (0.5 ml/kg) or galantamine (8 mg/kg) and 30 min later injected subcutaneously with soman (26.3 ?g/kg) or saline. Cognitive performance was analyzed in the Morris water maze (MWM) four days or three months after the soman challenge. Fifty percent of the saline-injected animals that were challenged with soman survived with mild-to-moderate signs of acute toxicity that subsided within a few hours. These animals showed no learning impairment and no memory retention deficit, when training in the MWM started four days post-soman challenge. In contrast, animals presented significant learning impairment when testing started three months post-challenge. Though the magnitude of the impairment correlated with the severity of the acute toxicity, animals that presented no or only mild signs of toxicity were also learning impaired. All guinea pigs that were treated with galantamine survived the soman challenge with no signs of acute toxicity and learned the MWM task as control animals, regardless of when testing began. Galantamine also prevented memory extinction in both saline- and soman-challenged animals. In conclusion, learning impairment develops months after a single exposure to 1xLD50 soman, and galantamine prevents both the acute toxicity and the delayed cognitive deficits triggered by this OP poison. PMID:21784098

Mamczarz, Jacek; Kulkarni, Girish S; Pereira, Edna F R; Albuquerque, Edson X



VEGF significantly restores impaired memory behavior in Alzheimer's mice by improvement of vascular survival  

PubMed Central

The functional impact of amyloid peptides (A?s) on the vascular system is less understood despite these pathologic peptides are substantially deposited in the brain vasculature of Alzheimer's patients. Here we show substantial accumulation of A?s 40 and 42 in the brain arterioles of Alzheimer's patients and of transgenic Alzheimer's mice. Purified A?s 1–40 and 1–42 exhibited vascular regression activity in the in vivo animal models and vessel density was reversely correlated with numbers and sizes of amyloid plaques in human patients. A significant high number of vascular cells underwent cellular apoptosis in the brain vasculature of Alzheimer's patients. VEGF significantly prevented A?-induced endothelial apoptosis in vitro. Neuronal expression of VEGF in transgenic mice restored memory behavior of Alzheimer's. These findings provide conceptual implication of improvement of vascular functions as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Religa, Piotr; Cao, Renhai; Religa, Dorota; Xue, Yuan; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Westaway, David; Marti, Hugo H.; Winblad, Bengt; Cao, Yihai



Dexrazoxane significantly impairs the induction of doxorubicin resistance in the human leukaemia line, K562  

PubMed Central

Dexrazoxane combined with doxorubicin (+ 5-fluorouracil?+?cyclophosphamide – the FAC regime) leads to a significant decrease in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and a significant increase in median survival time for patients with advanced breast cancer responsive to FAC. The reason for this increase in survival may be due to interference with the mechanism involved in the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR). In order to test this hypothesis, we induced resistance to doxorubicin in the K562 cell line by growing cells in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (10–30?nM) in the presence and absence of dexrazoxane (20?nM). The doxorubicin sensitivity of all resultant sublines was measured using the MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess the MDR1 phenotype, measuring P-glycoprotein expression with MRK 16 antibody and drug accumulation in the presence and absence of PSC 833 for functional P-glycoprotein. Long-term growth in doxorubicin increased the cellular resistance (IC 50) of K562 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (r2?=?0.908). Doxorubicin resistance was not induced in the presence of dexrazoxane (P< 0.0001) for several months. In parallel, the expression of functional P-glycoprotein was delayed after concomitant addition of dexrazoxane to the selecting medium (P< 0.001). Dexrazoxane did not act as a conventional modulator of P-glycoprotein. These results suggest that dexrazoxane may delay the development of MDR1, thus allowing responders to the FAC regime to continue to respond. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign

Sargent, J M; Williamson, C J; Yardley, C; Taylor, C G; Hellmann, K



Greater India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater India” is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India–Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and\\/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924)

Jason R. Ali; Jonathan C. Aitchison



Sepsis otopathy: experimental sepsis leads to significant hearing impairment due to apoptosis and glutamate excitotoxicity in murine cochlea  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hearing loss is frequent in intensive care patients and can be due to several causes. However, sepsis has not been examined as a possible cause. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of experimental sepsis on hearing thresholds and to evaluate pathological changes in the cochlea. The cecal ligation puncture technique was used to induce sepsis in 18 mice. Results were compared with those from 13 sham-operated and 13 untreated control mice. The hearing thresholds of the animals were evaluated with auditory evoked brainstem responses prior to the induction of sepsis and again at the peak of the disease. Immediately after the second measurement, the mice were sacrificed and the inner ears harvested and prepared for further evaluation. The cochleae were examined with light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2. The mice with sepsis showed a significant hearing loss but not the control groups. Induction of apoptosis could be shown in the supporting cells of the organ of Corti. Furthermore, excitotoxicity could be shown at the basal pole of the inner hair cells. In this murine model, sepsis leads to significant hearing impairment. The physiological alteration could be linked to apoptosis in the supporting cells of the organ of Corti and to a disturbance of the synapses of the inner hair cells.

Schmutzhard, Joachim; Glueckert, Rudolf; Pritz, Christian; Blumer, Michael J. F.; Bitsche, Mario; Lackner, Peter; Fille, Manfred; Riechelmann, Herbert; Harkamp, Matthias; Sitthisak, Thongrong; Schrott-Fischer, Annelies



Sepsis otopathy: experimental sepsis leads to significant hearing impairment due to apoptosis and glutamate excitotoxicity in murine cochlea.  


Hearing loss is frequent in intensive care patients and can be due to several causes. However, sepsis has not been examined as a possible cause. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of experimental sepsis on hearing thresholds and to evaluate pathological changes in the cochlea. The cecal ligation puncture technique was used to induce sepsis in 18 mice. Results were compared with those from 13 sham-operated and 13 untreated control mice. The hearing thresholds of the animals were evaluated with auditory evoked brainstem responses prior to the induction of sepsis and again at the peak of the disease. Immediately after the second measurement, the mice were sacrificed and the inner ears harvested and prepared for further evaluation. The cochleae were examined with light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2. The mice with sepsis showed a significant hearing loss but not the control groups. Induction of apoptosis could be shown in the supporting cells of the organ of Corti. Furthermore, excitotoxicity could be shown at the basal pole of the inner hair cells. In this murine model, sepsis leads to significant hearing impairment. The physiological alteration could be linked to apoptosis in the supporting cells of the organ of Corti and to a disturbance of the synapses of the inner hair cells. PMID:23471916

Schmutzhard, Joachim; Glueckert, Rudolf; Pritz, Christian; Blumer, Michael J F; Bitsche, Mario; Lackner, Peter; Fille, Manfred; Riechelmann, Herbert; Harkamp, Matthias; Sitthisak, Thongrong; Schrott-Fischer, Annelies



Group Therapy for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Their Significant Others: Results of a Waiting-List Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have to deal with an uncertain prognosis and also face a multitude of memory-related problems and psychosocial consequences. A newly developed group programme proved to be feasible, however, it needed confirmation by a controlled study. Aim: This controlled study evaluates this group therapy for MCI patients aimed to help them accept and manage

Liesbeth W. A. Joosten-Weyn Banningh; Judith B. Prins; Myrra J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen; Hugo H. Wijnen; Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert; Roy P. C. Kessels



Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.



Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.



Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the  

SciTech Connect

Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup



A home education program for older adults with hearing impairment and their significant others: a randomized trial evaluating short- and long-term effects.  


This paper addresses the development and effectiveness of a home education program. The program, designed for hearing-impaired elders and their significant others (SO), deals with communication strategies and speech reading. Participants were randomly assigned to a training group (hearing aid fitting+home education program) or a control group (hearing aid fitting). The training group included 24 hearing-impaired subjects and 24 SO's. Controls were 24 affected individuals and 22 SO's. Questionnaires addressing emotional response, communication strategies and the IOI-HA, IOI-AI and IOI-SO were used. A repeated measures analysis of variance was applied to test group differences between pre, post, and 6-months follow-up measures. Increased awareness of benefits of speech reading and improved interaction with the SO were observed in the training group only (p < 0.05). No group difference on 'emotional response' was found. IOI-AI and IOI-SO demonstrated favorable attitudes towards the program. Follow-up measures showed improved quality of life and satisfaction in the training group, while a decrease was observed among the controls (p < 0.05). Some effects differed between first-time and experienced hearing aid users. Addition of services to amplification and involvement of the SO are relevant in aural rehabilitation. PMID:16028788

Kramer, Sophia E; Allessie, G Hella M; Dondorp, Agaath W; Zekveld, Adriana A; Kapteyn, Theo S



Three anomalies: A scythebill in the Greater Antillean Grackle (blackbird), a crown pattern in the Rock Beauty (angelfish), and a double spot in the Butter Hamlet (grouper), and their possible genetic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three anomalies are described: a scythebill in Greater Antillean Grackle, Quiscalus niger (Boddaert) (Passeriformes: Emberizidae), a crown color pattern in Rock Beauty, Holacanthus tricolor (Bloch) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae), and a double-spot color pattern in Butter Hamlet, Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum) (Perciformes: Pomacanthidae). Bill anomalies are generally thought to be genetic in origin and genetic changes in bill shape can occur rapidly in

Ernest H. Williams; Lucy Bunkley-Williams; Caribbean Aquatic


ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.  


We assessed the effects of oral treatments of ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, on learning and memory deficit. The cognition-enhancing effect of ESP-102 was investigated in scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) amnesic mice with both passive avoidance and Morris water maze performance tests. Acute oral treatment (single administration prior to scopolamine treatment) of mice with ESP-102 (doses in the range of 10 to 100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the passive avoidance performance test. Another noteworthy result included the fact that prolonged oral daily treatments of mice with much lower amounts of ESP-102 (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for ten days reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. In the Morris water maze performance test, both acute and prolonged oral treatments with ESP-102 (single administration of 100 mg/kg body weight or prolonged daily administration of 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for ten days, respectively, significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory deficits as indicated by the formation of long-term and/or short-term spatial memory. In addition, we investigated the effects of ESP-102 on neurotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta25-35) or glutamate in primary cultured cortical neurons of rats. Pretreatment of cultures with ESP-102 (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mug/ml) significantly protected neurons from neurotoxicity induced by either glutamate or Abeta25-35. These results suggest that ESP-102 may have some protective characteristics against neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments often observed in Alzheimer's disease, stroke, ischemic injury and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:15698848

Kang, So Young; Lee, Ki Yong; Koo, Kyung Ah; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun



Greater Yellowstone Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Greater Yellowstone Bibliography is a database with over 28,900 bibliographic citations to scholarly, popular, professional, and creative literature about the greater Yellowstone region. It includes citations for journal, magazine, and newspaper articles, as well as books, book chapters, conference papers, government documents, theses, maps, CDs, and other materials. Citations can be searched by author, subject keyword, and geographic location.

William, Van A.; Wyoming, University O.


Cognitive impairments in abstinent alcoholics.  

PubMed Central

Impaired cognitive functioning in alcoholics is widespread during the first months of detoxification. Between half and two thirds of abstinent alcoholics exhibit cognitive impairments during this period, with residual deficits persisting for years after detoxification in some patients. The most severe deficits have been observed in visuospatial abilities, perceptual-motor integration, abstract reasoning, and new learning. The most significant predictors of cognitive dysfunction in persons recovering from alcoholism are the time elapsed since the last drink and the person's age. Surprisingly, the pattern and duration of a patient's alcohol abuse are relatively weak determinants of neuropsychological impairment during abstinence. Research investigating the hypothesis that cognitive impairments may be related to alcoholic persons resuming drinking has yielded mixed results, but a higher level of neuropsychological functioning is associated with increased rates of completing treatment programs and with greater success in the work environment after discharge from treatment. The possibility of cognitive limitations should be taken into account in planning treatment programs for alcoholism.

Fein, G; Bachman, L; Fisher, S; Davenport, L



Toxoplasmosis in Greater Victoria.  

PubMed Central

Titres of antibody to Toxoplasma gondii were determined in 596 inhabitants of Greater Victoria who were either patients at two hospitals or healthy volunteers. The survey included 404 women of childbearing age, 305 of whom had just given birth. The proportion of persons with antibody to T. gondii at a titre of 1:8 or greater as determined by a methylene blue dye test was 28%. Titration of IgM antibody specific to T. gondii by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, performed in the serum samples with a titre of 1:8 or greater by the dye test, indicated that 3% of the 596 patients had recently acquired infection with T. gondii. The proportion of women with antibody to T. gondii among those who had just given birth was 25%, but the proportion among women aged 31 to 35 years who had just given birth was 37%.

Karim, K. A.; Trust, T. J.



Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.  


Pain around the greater trochanter is still a common clinical problem that may be secondary to a variety of either intra-articular or periarticular pathologies. Gluteal tendon pathologies are one of the primary causes of greater trochanteric pain, with attrition of the fasciae latae against the gluteus medius and minimus tendons, and the trochanteric bursa being possible causes. Key sonographic findings of gluteal tendinopathy, bursitis, and differential diagnosis are described in this overview. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is still challenging; therefore ultrasound is helpful to localize the origin of pain, determine underlying pathology, and, based on these findings, to guide local aspiration and/or injection in cases of tendinopathy and/or bursitis. PMID:23487333

Klauser, Andrea S; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto; Bellmann-Weiler, Rosa; Feuchtner, Gudrun M; Wick, Marius; Jaschke, Werner R



Tuberculosis in greater kudu.  


Four greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) died while maintained in captivity at a zoo. Necropsy revealed tuberculous lesions in the lungs, spleen, and thoracic lymph nodes. Histopathologic findings included granulomas with Langhans' giant cells, necrosis, and mineralization. Acid-fast organisms isolated from tissues of each kudu were identified as Mycobacterium bovis. PMID:789313

Himes, E M; LyVere, D B; Thoen, C O; Essey, M A; Lebel, J L; Freiheit, C F



Greater Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a collection of papers and maps about the Yellowstone hotspot by Dr. Ken Pierce of the Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, an expert in the field. Papers on this site address topics such as Yellowstone glaciation, tracking the hotspot, the Yellowstone plume head, and a seven-day field trip guide to the quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Each downloadable paper map is listed with a brief description and a full citation.

Institute, Mountain P.; Infrastructure, National B.


For the Greater Good  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The "For the Greater Good" series is comprised of five featured articles. Each article portrays one author's personal stories of people and animals whose lives have been improved or saved by medical breakthroughs made possible by animal research. The series was edited by Samuel R. Sperry, then Editorial Page Associate Editor at the Seattle P-I newspaper. The articles are contained in the PDF curriculum guide, which includes a 5-lesson unit outlining the use of models in both science and ethics, and provides resources for exploring the use of animals in research. The curriculum guide also includes an assessment involving a letter to the editor.

PhD Carolyn C Landel (Western Washington University Faculty and Research Associate, Science, Math, and Technology Education)



Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI)  


... decline of dementia. It can involve problems with memory, language, thinking and judgment that are greater than ... cognitive impairment, you may be aware that your memory or mental function has "slipped." Your family and ...


Impaired In Vitro Erythropoiesis following Deletion of the Scl (Tal1) +40 Enhancer Is Largely Compensated for In Vivo despite a Significant Reduction in Expression  

PubMed Central

The Scl (Tal1) gene encodes a helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for hematopoietic stem cell and erythroid development. The Scl +40 enhancer is situated downstream of Map17, the 3? flanking gene of Scl, and is active in transgenic mice during primitive and definitive erythropoiesis. To analyze the in vivo function of the Scl +40 enhancer within the Scl/Map17 transcriptional domain, we deleted this element in the germ line. Scl?40/?40 mice were viable with reduced numbers of erythroid CFU in both bone marrow and spleen yet displayed a normal response to stress hematopoiesis. Analysis of Scl?40/?40 embryonic stem (ES) cells revealed impaired erythroid differentiation, which was accompanied by a failure to upregulate Scl when erythropoiesis was initiated. Map17 expression was also reduced in hematopoietic tissues and differentiating ES cells, and the Scl +40 element was able to enhance activity of the Map17 promoter. However, only Scl but not Map17 could rescue the Scl?40/?40 ES phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the Scl +40 enhancer is an erythroid cell-specific enhancer that regulates the expression of both Scl and Map17. Moreover, deletion of the +40 enhancer causes a novel erythroid phenotype, which can be rescued by ectopic expression of Scl but not Map17.

Ferreira, Rita; Spensberger, Dominik; Silber, Yvonne; Dimond, Andrew; Li, Juan



Impaired in vitro erythropoiesis following deletion of the Scl (Tal1) +40 enhancer is largely compensated for in vivo despite a significant reduction in expression.  


The Scl (Tal1) gene encodes a helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for hematopoietic stem cell and erythroid development. The Scl +40 enhancer is situated downstream of Map17, the 3' flanking gene of Scl, and is active in transgenic mice during primitive and definitive erythropoiesis. To analyze the in vivo function of the Scl +40 enhancer within the Scl/Map17 transcriptional domain, we deleted this element in the germ line. Scl(?40/?40) mice were viable with reduced numbers of erythroid CFU in both bone marrow and spleen yet displayed a normal response to stress hematopoiesis. Analysis of Scl(?40/?40) embryonic stem (ES) cells revealed impaired erythroid differentiation, which was accompanied by a failure to upregulate Scl when erythropoiesis was initiated. Map17 expression was also reduced in hematopoietic tissues and differentiating ES cells, and the Scl +40 element was able to enhance activity of the Map17 promoter. However, only Scl but not Map17 could rescue the Scl(?40/?40) ES phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the Scl +40 enhancer is an erythroid cell-specific enhancer that regulates the expression of both Scl and Map17. Moreover, deletion of the +40 enhancer causes a novel erythroid phenotype, which can be rescued by ectopic expression of Scl but not Map17. PMID:23319051

Ferreira, Rita; Spensberger, Dominik; Silber, Yvonne; Dimond, Andrew; Li, Juan; Green, Anthony R; Göttgens, Berthold



Neuropsychiatric symptoms and global functional impairment along the Alzheimer's continuum  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are highly prevalent. We sought to determine whether neuropsychiatric symptoms were related to global functional impairment at baseline and over a 3 year period in normal older control (NC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mild AD dementia subjects. Methods Eight hundred and twelve subjects (229 NC, 395 MCI, 188 AD) from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study underwent 3 years of cognitive and behavioral assessments. Results Greater hallucinations, anxiety, and apathy were associated with greater global functional impairment at baseline, while baseline hallucinations and apathy were associated with greater global functional impairment over time across all subjects. The following neuropsychiatric symptoms were not significantly associated with global functioning: delusions, agitation, depression, euphoria, disinhibition, irritability, aberrant motor behaviors, sleep, and appetite. Conclusions These results suggest that increased baseline hallucinations and apathy are associated with current and future disease progression in AD.

Wadsworth, Lauren P.; Lorius, Natacha; Donovan, Nancy J.; Locascio, Joseph J.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.



Vi-bowling: a tactile spatial exergame for individuals with visual impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of sight forms a significant barrier to participate in physical activity. Consequently, individuals with visual impairments are at greater risk for developing serious health problems, such as obesity. Exergames are video games that provide physical exercise. For individuals with visual impairments, exergames have the potential to reduce health disparities as they may be safer to play and can be

Tony Morelli; John Foley; Eelke Folmer



Three 15-min Bouts of Moderate Postmeal Walking Significantly Improves 24-h Glycemic Control in Older People at Risk for Impaired Glucose Tolerance.  


OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Inactive older (?60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community and were nonsmoking, with a BMI <35 kg/m(2) and a fasting blood glucose concentration between 105 and 125 mg dL(-1). Participants completed three randomly ordered exercise protocols spaced 4 weeks apart. Each protocol comprised a 48-h stay in a whole-room calorimeter, with the first day serving as the control day. On the second day, participants engaged in either 1) postmeal walking for 15 min or 45 min of sustained walking performed at 2) 10:30 a.m. or 3) 4:30 p.m. All walking was on a treadmill at an absolute intensity of 3 METs. Interstitial glucose concentrations were determined over 48 h with a continuous glucose monitor. Substrate utilization was measured continuously by respiratory exchange (VCO2/VO2). RESULTS Both sustained morning walking (127 ± 23 vs. 118 ± 14 mg dL(-1)) and postmeal walking (129 ± 24 vs. 116 ± 13 mg dL(-1)) significantly improved 24-h glycemic control relative to the control day (P < 0.05). Moreover, postmeal walking was significantly (P < 0.01) more effective than 45 min of sustained morning or afternoon walking in lowering 3-h postdinner glucose between the control and experimental day. CONCLUSIONS Short, intermittent bouts of postmeal walking appear to be an effective way to control postprandial hyperglycemia in older people. PMID:23761134

Dipietro, Loretta; Gribok, Andrei; Stevens, Michelle S; Hamm, Larry F; Rumpler, William



BZYX, a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, significantly improved chemicals-induced learning and memory impairments on rodents and protected PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide.  


BZYX was designed as a dual-binding-site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and selected from series of indanone derivatives. The present study was designed to examine the cognition-enhanced, anti-cholinesterase, and neuroprotective effects of BZYX. In the passive avoidance performance and radial arm maze, BZYX showed a comparable effect to donepezil and rivastigmine on memory deficits in different stages induced by scopolamine, NaNO(2) and ethanol, respectively. Ellman's assay indicated BZYX exhibited high inhibition on AChE activity. IC(50) values for BZYX: 0.058+/-0.022 microM; donepezil: 0.019+/-0.004 microM; rivastigmine: 3.81+/-2.81 microM; glantamine: 3.01+/-1.85 microM and huperzine A: 0.053+/-0.016 microM. BZYX also presented great neuroprotecive function from apoptosis induced by hydrogen peroxide(H(2)O(2)) in PC12 cells. MTT assay and Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection showed the viability of PC12 cells remarkably decreased with 400 microM H(2)O(2), while it significantly increased when the cells were pretreated with 0.1-1.0 microM BZYX. BZYX pretreatment remarkably reversed the loss of mitochondria membrane potential (DeltaPsim), scavenged reactive oxygen species formation induced by H(2)O(2) and resulted in up-regulation of procaspase3 and xIAP protein level and down-regulation of phosphorylated JNK protein, p53 protein level and cleavage of caspase 3. It is speculated that the mitochondrial pathway, mediated by Bcl-2 family and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs), might involved in the neuroprotection of BZYX. These results first demonstrated that BZYX had neuroprotective effects as well as cognition enhancement and acetylcholinesterase inhibition. It is hopeful that BZYX becomes a potential candidate for use in the intervention for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19345205

Zhang, Jing; Zhu, Difeng; Sheng, Rong; Wu, Honghai; Hu, Yongzhou; Wang, Feng; Cai, Tianyu; Yang, Bo; He, Qiaojun



Visual Impairment  


... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual problem ... could from 200 feet away. Continue What Causes Visual Impairment? People rarely lose their eyesight during their teen ...


Impaired Driving  


... the Facts Research & Activities Data & Statistics Policy Impact Distracted Driving Pedestrian Safety Get the Facts National Strategies for ... Publications Injury Home Motor Vehicle Safety Impaired Driving Impaired Driving: Get the Facts On this Page How big ...


Greater omentectomy improves insulin sensitivity in nonobese dogs.  


Visceral adiposity is strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, little evidence directly demonstrates that visceral fat per se impairs insulin action. Here, we examine the effects of the surgical removal of the greater omentum and its occupying visceral fat, an omentectomy (OM), on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and beta-cell function in nonobese dogs. Thirteen male mongrel dogs were used in this research study; animals were randomly assigned to surgical treatment with either OM (n = 7), or sham-surgery (SHAM) (n = 6). OM failed to generate measurable changes in body weight (+2%; P = 0.1), or subcutaneous adiposity (+3%; P = 0.83) as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The removal of the greater omentum did not significantly reduce total visceral adipose volume (-7.3 +/- 6.4%; P = 0.29); although primary analysis showed a trend for OM to increase S(I) when compared to sham operated animals (P = 0.078), further statistical analysis revealed that this minor reduction in visceral fat alleviated insulin resistance by augmenting S(I) of the periphery (+67.7 +/- 35.2%; P = 0.03), as determined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Insulin secretory response during the hyperglycemic step clamp was not directly influenced by omental fat removal (presurgery 6.82 +/- 1.4 vs. postsurgery: 6.7 +/- 1.2 pmol/l/mg/dl, P = 0.9). These findings provide new evidence for the deleterious role of visceral fat in insulin resistance, and suggest that a greater OM procedure may effectively improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:19214178

Lottati, Maya; Kolka, Cathryn M; Stefanovski, Darko; Kirkman, Erlinda L; Bergman, Richard N



Impaired Knowledge of Driving Laws Is Associated with Recommended Driving Cessation in Cognitively Impaired Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims The present study examined if knowledge of driving laws independently predicts on-the-road driving performance among cognitively impaired older adults. Methods The current study consisted of retrospective observational analyses on 55 cognitively impaired older adults (77.9 ± 6.4 years) that completed an on-the-road driving evaluation, a 20-item knowledge test of driving laws, and a brief cognitive test battery. Results Logistic regression found poorer performance on the knowledge test was significantly associated with greater likelihood of recommended driving cessation beyond important demographic and cognitive variables (p < 0.05). Conclusion Cognitively impaired patients’ ability to drive may be related to their knowledge regarding common driving laws, in addition to their current level of cognitive functioning.

Alosco, Michael L.; Ott, Brian R.; Cleveland, Mary Jo; Royle, Kristy; Snyder, Stephanie; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Gunstad, John



Taste - impaired  


... senses Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu Nasal infection, nasal polyps , sinusitis Pharyngitis and ... the diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...


[Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].  


Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang


Physical Impairment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

Trewin, Shari


All Vision Impairment  


Home » Resources » Statistics and Data » Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the best-corrected visual acuity less than 6/12 (‹20/40) in the ...


Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers Predict Lung Function Impairment  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Cross-sectional studies demonstrate an association between metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function. Objectives: To define if metabolic syndrome biomarkers are risk factors for loss of lung function after irritant exposure. Methods: A nested case-control study of Fire Department of New York personnel with normal pre–September 11th FEV1 and who presented for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation before March 10, 2008. We correlated metabolic syndrome biomarkers obtained within 6 months of World Trade Center dust exposure with subsequent FEV1. FEV1 at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation within 6.5 years defined disease status; cases had FEV1 less than lower limit of normal, whereas control subjects had FEV1 greater than or equal to lower limit of normal. Measurements and Main Results: Clinical data and serum sampled at the first monitoring examination within 6 months of September 11, 2001, assessed body mass index, heart rate, serum glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), leptin, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin. Cases and control subjects had significant differences in HDL less than 40 mg/dl with triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dl, heart rate greater than or equal to 66 bpm, and leptin greater than or equal to 10,300 pg/ml. Each increased the odds of abnormal FEV1 at pulmonary evaluation by more than twofold, whereas amylin greater than or equal to 116 pg/ml decreased the odds by 84%, in a multibiomarker model adjusting for age, race, body mass index, and World Trade Center arrival time. This model had a sensitivity of 41%, a specificity of 86%, and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.77. Conclusions: Abnormal triglycerides and HDL and elevated heart rate and leptin are independent risk factors of greater susceptibility to lung function impairment after September 11, 2001, whereas elevated amylin is protective. Metabolic biomarkers are predictors of lung disease, and may be useful for assessing risk of impaired lung function in response to particulate inhalation.

Naveed, Bushra; Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Gracely, Edward J.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Ferrier, Natalia; Kasturiarachchi, Kusali J.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Rom, William N.; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J.



Functional impairment in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease  

PubMed Central

CONTEXT The original mild cognitive impairment (MCI) criteria exclude substantial functional deficits, but recent reports suggest otherwise. Identifying the extent, severity, type, and correlates of functional deficits that occur in MCI and mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) can aid in early detection of incipient dementia and identify potential mechanistic pathways to disrupted instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). OBJECTIVES To examine the number, type, and severity of functional impairments and identify the clinical characteristics associated with functional impairment across individuals with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and those with mild AD. DESIGN The study uses baseline data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. SETTING Data from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative was collected at multiple research sites in the US and Canada. PATIENTS The samples included 229 controls, 394 aMCI, and 193 AD patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The 10-item Pfeffer Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) assessed function. RESULTS Informant-reported FAQ deficits were common in patients with aMCI (72.3%) and AD (97.4%) but were rarely self-reported by controls (7.9%). The average severity per FAQ deficit did not differ between patients with aMCI and controls; both were less impaired than patients with AD (P < .001). Two FAQ items (remembering appointments, family occasions, holidays, and medications; assembling tax records, business affairs, or other papers) were specific (0.95) in differentiating controls from the combined aMCI and AD groups (only 34.0% of patients with aMCI and 3.6% of patients with AD had no difficulty with these 2 items). The severity of FAQ deficits in the combined aMCI and AD group was associated with worse Trailmaking Test A scores and smaller hippocampal volumes (P < .001). Within the aMCI group, functionally intact individuals had greater hippocampal volumes and better Auditory Verbal Learning Test 30-minute delay and Trailmaking Test A (P < .001) scores compared with those with moderate or severe FAQ deficits. Patients with a high number of deficits were more likely to express the APOE ?4 allele (63.8%) compared with patients with no (46.8%) or few (48.4%) functional deficits. CONCLUSIONS Mild IADL deficits are common in individuals with aMCI and should be considered in MCI criteria. Two IADLs, remembering appointments, family occasions, holidays, and medications and assembling tax records, business affairs, or other papers, appear to be characteristic of clinically significant cognitive impairment. In patients with aMCI, impairment in memory and processing speed and greater medial temporal atrophy were associated with greater IADL deficits

Brown, Patrick J.; Devanand, D.P.; Liu, Xinhua; Caccappolo, Elise



[Locomotor and cardiorespiratory impairments after retirement in relation to certain occupational exposures during working life].  


The relationships between locomotor and cardiorespiratory impairments and occupational exposures during working life were examined, using a sample of 627 retired persons in the greater Paris area. Among men, there was a significant statistical association between carrying heavy weights and locomotor impairment. There were also significant associations between exposure to toxic products, tiring postures and vibrations and cardiorespiratory impairment among men. Concerning women, associations between exposure to dust and tiring postures during working life and cardiorespiratory impairment were observed. These results were obtained after adjusting for age, socio-professional status, tobacco use, living alone and after adjusting also for the other occupational exposures. These results are compatible with the hypothesis of long-term effects of occupational exposures on the principal health characteristics of the aged. PMID:3671856

Derriennic, F; Cassou, B; Lecuyer, G; Amphoux, M



Sensory Contributions to Impaired Emotion Processing in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Both emotion and visual processing deficits are documented in schizophrenia, and preferential magnocellular visual pathway dysfunction has been reported in several studies. This study examined the contribution to emotion-processing deficits of magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathway function, based on stimulus properties and shape of contrast response functions. Experiment 1 examined the relationship between contrast sensitivity to magnocellular- and parvocellular-biased stimuli and emotion recognition using the Penn Emotion Recognition (ER-40) and Emotion Differentiation (EMODIFF) tests. Experiment 2 altered the contrast levels of the faces themselves to determine whether emotion detection curves would show a pattern characteristic of magnocellular neurons and whether patients would show a deficit in performance related to early sensory processing stages. Results for experiment 1 showed that patients had impaired emotion processing and a preferential magnocellular deficit on the contrast sensitivity task. Greater deficits in ER-40 and EMODIFF performance correlated with impaired contrast sensitivity to the magnocellular-biased condition, which remained significant for the EMODIFF task even when nonspecific correlations due to group were considered in a step-wise regression. Experiment 2 showed contrast response functions indicative of magnocellular processing for both groups, with patients showing impaired performance. Impaired emotion identification on this task was also correlated with magnocellular-biased visual sensory processing dysfunction. These results provide evidence for a contribution of impaired early-stage visual processing in emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and suggest that a bottom-up approach to remediation may be effective.

Butler, Pamela D.; Abeles, Ilana Y.; Weiskopf, Nicole G.; Tambini, Arielle; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Legatt, Michael E.; Zemon, Vance; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C.; Javitt, Daniel C.



Tuberculous bursitis of the greater trochanter  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   A patient with tuberculous bursitis of the greater trochanter is reported. A 37-year-old woman had experienced persistent\\u000a dull hip pain and noticed diffuse swelling over the greater trochanteric region. Plain radiograph revealed unremarkable osteopenic\\u000a changes in the greater trochanter and faint mineralization in the vicinity of the trochanter. Computed tomogram showed erosion\\u000a of the trochanter and a large soft

Koichiro Ihara; Koichiro Toyoda; Akira Ofuji; Shinya Kawai



Neurocognitive impairment and medication adherence in HIV patients with and without cocaine dependence  

PubMed Central

Cocaine abuse among HIV patients is associated with faster disease progression and mortality. This study examined the relationship between neurocognitive functioning and medication adherence in HIV patients with (n= 25) and without (n= 39) current cocaine dependence. Active users had greater neurocognitive impairment (mean T-score= 35.16 vs. 40.97, p < .05) and worse medication adherence (mean z-score= ?0.44 vs. 0.27, p < .001). In a multiple regression model, neurocognitive functioning (?= .33, p < .01) and cocaine dependence (?= ?.36, p < .01) were predictive of poorer adherence. There was a significant indirect effect of cocaine dependence on medication adherence through neurocognitive impairment (estimate= ?0.15, p < .05), suggesting that neurocognitive impairment partially mediated the relationship between cocaine dependence and poorer adherence. These results confirm that cocaine users are at high risk for poor HIV outcomes and underscore the importance of treating both neurocognitive impairment and cocaine dependence among HIV patients.

Meade, Christina S.; Conn, Nina A.; Skalski, Linda M.; Safren, Steven A.



Drug Impaired Driving Laws  


Drug Impaired Driving Laws While all states have drunk driving laws, only some have enacted laws to address drug impairment. ... in control of the vehicle. Learn More About Impaired Driving Issue Brief 3 states – California, New York and ...


Specific impairments of rule induction in different frontal lobe subgroups.  


The neural correlates of inductive reasoning are still poorly understood. In order to explore them, we administered a revised version of the Brixton test, a rule attainment task, to a group of 40 patients with a focal frontal brain lesion of mixed aetiology and to 43 control subjects. To interpret an impairment on the test as suggesting an inductive reasoning deficit a number of alternative hypotheses need first to be considered, namely whether the Brixton impairment could be explained by: (i) a working memory deficit; (ii) a monitoring deficit; (iii) a difficulty in applying an already induced rule; (iv) greater impulsivity. The patients with left lateral (LL) frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the Brixton test; more importantly they were the only group in which none of the alternative hypotheses we explored proved able to explain the flawed performance. In sharp contrast, right lateral lesion patients did not make significantly more errors on the Brixton test than controls, but they produced three times more capture errors (a sign of impaired monitoring processes). The results were interpreted as suggesting functional dissociations between inductive reasoning, monitoring and working memory and a localisation of key processes for induction in left lateral frontal cortex and in right lateral cortex for monitoring and checking. PMID:15707621

Reverberi, Carlo; Lavaroni, Antonio; Gigli, Gian Luigi; Skrap, Miran; Shallice, Tim



Habitat Suitability Index Models: Greater Sandhill Crane,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field appl...

M. J. Armbruster



Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery from Negative Emotion  

PubMed Central

Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35 - 65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli.

Javaras, Kristin N.; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachhuber, David R.; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D.; Davidson, Richard J.



Greater St. Louis Comprehensive Health Plan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first edition of the Greater St. Louis Comprehensive Health Plan is presented by the Alliance for Regional Community Health, Inc., St. Louis, Missouri. The planning area encompasses three Illinois counties and four Missouri counties, as well as St. Lo...



Improving greater trochanteric reattachment with a novel cable plate system.  


Cable-grip systems are commonly used for greater trochanteric reattachment because they have provided the best fixation performance to date, even though they have a rather high complication rate. A novel reattachment system is proposed with the aim of improving fixation stability. It consists of a Y-shaped fixation plate combined with locking screws and superelastic cables to reduce cable loosening and limit greater trochanter movement. The novel system is compared with a commercially available reattachment system in terms of greater trochanter movement and cable tensions under different greater trochanteric abductor application angles. A factorial design of experiments was used including four independent variables: plate system, cable type, abductor application angle, and femur model. The test procedure included 50 cycles of simultaneous application of an abductor force on the greater trochanter and a hip force on the femoral head. The novel plate reduces the movements of a greater trochanter fragment within a single loading cycle up to 26%. Permanent degradation of the fixation (accumulated movement based on 50-cycle testing) is reduced up to 46%. The use of superelastic cables reduces tension loosening up to 24%. However this last improvement did not result in a significant reduction of the grater trochanter movement. The novel plate and cables present advantages over the commercially available greater trochanter reattachment system. The plate reduces movements generated by the hip abductor. The superelastic cables reduce cable loosening during cycling. Both of these positive effects could decrease the risks related to grater trochanter non-union. PMID:22749768

Baril, Yannick; Bourgeois, Yan; Brailovski, Vladimir; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves; Petit, Yvan



Neural Correlates of True and False Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer’s disease, which has been described as a ‘disconnection syndrome’.

Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M.; Riddell, Patricia M.; Ellis, Judi A.; Freeman, Jayne E.; Nasuto, Slawomir J.



Human Greater and Canine Lateral Saphenous Veins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canine lateral saphenous vein and human greater saphenous vein were studied together to determine similarities and differences. Helical strips of both vessels contracted to norepinephrine with similar sensitivity. Canine veins developed more isometric tension than human veins treated similarly. Histological studies show canine veins to have little connective tissue and a single circular layer of smooth muscle. Human veins have

Michael R. Goldberg; Paul D. Joiner; Albert L. Hyman; Philip J. Kadowitz



Greater Yellowstone Area Fire Situation, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) is made up of parts of six National Forests and two National Parks, totalling nearly 12 million acres, in northwest Wyoming, eastern Idaho, and south-central Montana. Management opportunities in the GYA are coordinated b...

J. Neckels B. Mutch R. Wallace B. Van Zee E. Waldapfel



Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

Rahman, M. H.



Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

Rahman, M. H.



Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This case study documents the activities of the Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative (CPI), a partnership to develop regional, demand driven career pathways for the biotechnology sector in and around Albany, NY. This document is written for three primary audiences. First, it provides a report to the New York State Department of Labor…

Workforce Strategy Center, 2005



Assembly rules for Greater Antillean Anolis lizards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using previously published data, several models were constructed to predict the distribution of Anolis lizard species on a set of sites on Puerto Rico and Jamaica. The models form a series with increasing ecological detail. The simpler “null” models are based on randomly created species-site matrices using progressively greater dependency on the observed matrix. The remaining models hypothesize that competition

J. W. Haefner



Spread of English across Greater China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

Feng, Anwei



Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references)…

McLean, Dulce Didio



Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. (Exxon Exploration Co., Houston, TX (United States)) (and others)



Endocrine disruptors and childhood social impairment.  


Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has the potential to impact early brain development. Neurodevelopmental toxicity in utero may manifest as psychosocial deficits later in childhood. This study investigates prenatal exposure to two ubiquitous endocrine disruptors, the phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA), and social behavior in a sample of adolescent inner-city children. Third trimester urines of women enrolled in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study between 1998 and 2002 (n=404) were analyzed for phthalate metabolites and BPA. Mother-child pairs were asked to return for a follow-up assessment when the child was between the ages of 7 and 9 years. At this visit, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) (n=137), a quantitative scale for measuring the severity of social impairment related to Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in the general population. In adjusted general linear models increasing log-transformed low molecular weight (LMW) phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with greater social deficits (?=1.53, 95% CI 0.25-2.8). Among the subscales, LMWP were also associated with poorer Social Cognition (?=1.40, 95% CI 0.1-2.7); Social Communication (?=1.86, 95% CI 0.5-3.2); and Social Awareness (?=1.25, 95% CI 0.1-2.4), but not for Autistic Mannerisms or Social Motivation. No significant association with BPA was found (?=1.18, 95% CI -0.75, 3.11). Prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with childhood social impairment in a multiethnic urban population. Even mild degrees of impaired social functioning in otherwise healthy individuals can have very important adverse effects over a child's lifetime. These results extend our previous finding of atypical neonatal and early childhood behaviors in relation to prenatal phthalate exposure. PMID:21182865

Miodovnik, Amir; Engel, Stephanie M; Zhu, Chenbo; Ye, Xiaoyun; Soorya, Latha V; Silva, Manori J; Calafat, Antonia M; Wolff, Mary S



Endocrine Disruptors and Childhood Social Impairment  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has the potential to impact early brain development. Neurodevelopmental toxicity in utero may manifest as psychosocial deficits later in childhood. This study investigates prenatal exposure to two ubiquitous endocrine disruptors, the phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA), and social behavior in a sample of adolescent inner-city children. Third trimester urines of women enrolled in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404) were analyzed for phthalate metabolites and BPA. Mother-child pairs were asked to return for a follow-up assessment when the child was between the ages of 7 to 9 years. At this visit, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) (n = 137), a quantitative scale for measuring the severity of social impairment related to Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in the general population. In adjusted general linear models increasing log-transformed low molecular weight phthalate (LMW) metabolite concentrations were associated with greater social deficits (? = 1.53, 95% CI 0.25-2.8). Among the subscales, LMWP were also associated with poorer Social Cognition (? = 1.40, 95% CI 0.1-2.7); Social Communication (? = 1.86, 95% CI 0.5-3.2) and Social Awareness (? = 1.25, 95% CI 0.1-2.4), but not for Autistic Mannerisms or Social Motivation. No significant association with BPA was found (? = 1.18, 95% CI: -0.75, 3.11). Prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with childhood social impairment in a multiethnic urban population. Even mild degrees of impaired social functioning in otherwise healthy individuals can have very important adverse effects over a child's lifetime. These results extend our previous finding of atypical neonatal and early childhood behaviors in relation to prenatal phthalate exposure.

Miodovnik, Amir; Engel, Stephanie M.; Zhu, Chenbo; Ye, Xiaoyun; Soorya, Latha V.; Silva, Manori J.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.



Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the

S. Panova



Habitat Suitability Index Models: Greater Sandhill Crane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Armbruster, Michael J.



The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY outreach project.  


The Greater Sekhukhune-CAPABILITY Outreach Project was undertaken in a rural district in Limpopo, South Africa, as part of the European Union-funded CAPABILITY programme to investigate approaches for capacity building for the translation of genetic knowledge into care and prevention of congenital disorders. Based on previous experience of a clinical genetic outreach programme in Limpopo, it aimed to initiate a district clinical genetic service in Greater Sekhukhune to gain knowledge and experience to assist in the implementation and development of medical genetic services in South Africa. Implementing the service in Greater Sekhukhune was impeded by a developing staff shortage in the province and pressure on the health service from the existing HIV/AIDS and TB epidemics. This situation underscores the need for health needs assessment for developing services for the care and prevention of congenital disorders in middle- and low-income countries. However, these impediments stimulated the pioneering of innovate ways to offer medical genetic services in these circumstances, including tele-teaching of nurses and doctors, using cellular phones to enhance clinical care and adapting and assessing the clinical utility of a laboratory test, QF-PCR, for use in the local circumstances. PMID:23842823

Gregersen, Nerine; Lampret, Julie; Lane, Tony; Christianson, Arnold



Psychosocial and Familial Impairment Among Overweight Youth with Social Problems  

PubMed Central

Objective Emerging research indicates that overweight children with social impairments are less responsive to weight control interventions over the long term. A better understanding of the breadth and psychosocial correlates of social problems among overweight youth is needed to optimize long-term weight outcomes. Methods A total of 201 overweight children, aged 7–12 years, participated in a randomized controlled trial of two weight maintenance interventions following family-based behavioral weight loss treatment. Children with HIGH (T?65) versus LOW (T<65) scores on the Child Behavior Checklist Social Problems subscale were compared on their own and their parents’ pre-treatment levels of psychosocial impairment using multivariate analysis of variance. Hierarchical regression was used to identify parent and child predictors of social problems in the overall sample. Results HIGH (n=71) children evidenced greater eating disorder psychopathology and lower self-worth, as well as a range of interpersonal difficulties, compared to LOW children (n=130; ps<.05). Compared to parents of LOW children, parents of HIGH children reported greater levels of their own general psychopathology (p<.05). Parent psychopathology significantly added to the prediction of social problems in the full sample beyond child sex and z-BMI (ps<.01). Conclusion A substantial minority of overweight youth experience deficits across the social domain, and such deficits appear to be associated with impairment in a broad range of other psychosocial domains. Augmenting weight loss interventions with specialized treatment components to address child and parent psychosocial problems could enhance socially-impaired children’s long-term weight outcomes and decrease risk for later development of psychiatric disturbances.

Goldschmidt, Andrea B.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Aspen, Vandana Passi; Tibbs, Tiffany L.; Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frankel, Fred; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.



Respiratory Impairment and Systemic Inflammation in Cedar Asthmatics Removed from Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research has shown that removing occupational asthmatics from exposure does not routinely lead to significant improvements in respiratory impairment. These studies were of limited duration and factors determining recovery remain obscure. Our objective was to evaluate residual respiratory impairment and associated sputum and blood biomarkers in subjects with Western red cedar asthma after exposure cessation. Methods Subjects previously diagnosed with cedar asthma, and removed from exposure to cedar dust for at least one year, were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire and spirometry. PC20 (methacholine concentration that produces 20% fall in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at 1 second)) sputum cellularity and select Th1/Th2 (T helper cells 1 and 2) cytokine concentrations in peripheral blood were determined. The asthma impairment class was determined and multivariate analyses were performed to determine its relationship with sputum cell counts and serum cytokines. Results 40 non-smoking males (mean age 62) were examined at a mean interval of 25 years from cedar asthma diagnosis and 17 years from last cedar exposure. 40% were in impairment class 2/3. On average, the PC20 had increased by 2.0 mg/ml; the FEV1 decreased by 1.5 L, with greater decrease in those with greater impairment. Higher impairment was associated with serum interferon-gamma (mean?=?1.3 pg/ml in class 2/3 versus 0.62 pg/ml in class 0/1, p?=?0.04), mainly due to the FEV1 component (correlation with interferon-gamma?=??0.46, p?=?0.005). Conclusion Years after exposure cessation, patients with Western red cedar asthma have persistent airflow obstruction and respiratory impairment, associated with systemic inflammation.

Carlsten, Chris; Dybuncio, Anne; Pui, Mandy M.; Chan-Yeung, Moira



Experimental muscle pain impairs descending inhibition  

PubMed Central

In chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions, the balance between supraspinal facilitation and inhibition of pain shifts towards an overall decrease in inhibition. Application of a tonic painful stimulus results in activation of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). The aims of the present experimental human study were (1) to compare DNIC, evoked separately, by hypertonic saline (6%)-induced muscle pain (tibialis anterior) or cold pressor pain; (2) to investigate DNIC evoked by concomitant experimental muscle pain and cold pressor pain, and (3) to analyze for gender differences. Ten males and 10 age matched females participated in two sessions. In the first session unilateral muscle pain or unilateral cold pressor pain were induced separately; in the second session unilateral muscle pain and unilateral cold pressor pain were induced concomitantly. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured around the knee joint before, during, and after DNIC induction. Cold pressor pain increased PPT in both males and females with greater increases in males. Hypertonic saline-evoked muscle pain significantly increased PPT in males but not in females. When cold pressor and muscle pain were applied concomitantly the PPT increases were smaller when compared to the individual sessions. This study showed for the first time that two concurrent conditioning tonic pain stimuli (muscle pain and cold pressor pain) cause less DNIC compared with either of the conditioning stimuli given alone; and males showed greater DNIC than females. This may explain why patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain have impaired DNIC.

Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Nie, Hong Ling



Cognitive impairment in patients with multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.  


This article reports the severity and profile of neuropsychological impairment on a prevalent cohort of patients with a clinical diagnosis of either multiple system atrophy (n=372) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n=311) from the Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndromes cohort. The Dementia Rating Scale and Frontal Assessment Battery were used to assess global cognition and executive dysfunction. For the Dementia Rating Scale impairment was observed in approximately 57% of the progressive supranuclear palsy group and 20% of the multiple system atrophy group. In the former, impairment in a single cognitive domain was observed in 40%, with the same number showing impairment in multiple domains, while in the latter the figures were 28.6 and 13.5%, respectively. On the Frontal Assessment Battery, impairment was observed in 62.0% of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and 31.8% of those with multiple system atrophy. Although the progressive supranuclear palsy group performed worse overall, the cognitive profiles of the two groups on the Dementia Rating Scale subscales were identical, with the main impairment of the Initiation and Perseveration subscale. The impaired patients in the two groups were largely indistinguishable, qualitatively and quantitatively. Impairment was associated with greater age and clinical disability in both groups and was evident even in the early stages (22% in multiple system atrophy and 50% in progressive supranuclear palsy). Where a pathological diagnosis was available, the original clinical diagnosis was confirmed in the majority of cases, including those with significant cognitive impairment. The rate of impairment in those with a confirmed pathological diagnosis was comparable to that of the sample as a whole. These results demonstrate, in the largest prospectively recruited cohort of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy studied to date, the existence of a cognitive profile similar to that previously reported in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results indicate a high level of cognitive impairment associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, but also point to comparable dysfunction in a substantial proportion of the patients with multiple system atrophy. Significant cognitive impairment appears consistent with a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, even early in the disease, with important implications for diagnosis, research and management. PMID:20576697

Brown, Richard G; Lacomblez, Lucette; Landwehrmeyer, Bernard G; Bak, Thomas; Uttner, Ingo; Dubois, Bruno; Agid, Yves; Ludolph, Albert; Bensimon, Gilbert; Payan, Christine; Leigh, Nigel P



Molecular Genetic Analysis of Syndromic Hearing Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hearing loss is an economically and socially significant cause of human morbidity. In the last couple of years with advances in human genetic research our knowledge of genetic bases of hereditary hearing loss has grown, but the availability of routine testing for hereditary hearing impairment has lagged. Pendred syndrome (PS), the most common form of syndromal hearing impairment, is an

A. Albinger; I. Hegyi



Debottleneck delayed cokers for greater profitability  

SciTech Connect

As refiners process heavier crudes, the delayed coker`s capacity must increase to fully load the light ends and conversion units. After the refinery is fully loaded, refiners look for ways to improve the efficiency of all operating units. For the delayed coker, this means more distillate or less coke production per barrel of feed. Unfortunately, the controlling parameters that allow a greater feed capacity conflict with maximum efficiency. The paper discusses incremental debottlenecking, the relationship of operating parameters, capacity increase by cycle time reduction, additional drums, fractionators, and blowdown system modifications.

Stefani, A. [Pace Consultants Inc., Houston, TX (United States)



Exploring the health of women with mobility impairments.  


This study examined health surveys of 109 midwestern women (mean age 44.6 +/- 8.2 years) with impaired mobility to determine whether mobility impairment severity was related to self-reported health, health care use, and engaging in health behaviors. The study also assessed which health factors were associated with pain. Women with severe mobility impairments reported poorer physical functioning, but better mental health than less severely impaired women after controlling for age, disability duration, and/or bodily pain. Degree of mobility impairment level was not significantly related to health behaviors, except having a checkup in the past year; more moderately impaired women reported these visits than mildly impaired women. Furthermore, pain was significantly associated with social functioning, general health, and secondary conditions. The findings suggest that factors beyond impairment level, such as pain, age, and disability duration, are related to the health of mobility-impaired women. PMID:18843838

Froehlich-Grobe, Katherine; Figoni, Stephen F; Thompson, Christian; White, Glen W



Nutrition and cognitive impairment in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of older people is growing rapidly worldwide and the fact that elderly people are also apparently living longer, dementia, the most common cause of cognitive impairment is getting to be a greater public health problem. Nutrition plays a role in the ageing process, but there is still a lack of knowledge about nutrition-related risk factors in cognitive

M. González-Gross; Ascensión Marcos; Klaus Pietrzik



The effect of visual impairment on patients' falls risk.  


When older people fall it can result in injuries and adversely affect quality of life. People with visual impairment are at greater risk of falling. This article explores the risk of falling and preventive assessment in patients with visual impairment, whether they are in long-term care settings or living in their own homes. Five types of visual impairment common to older people are discussed. The importance of assessment for falls prevention and suggestions for practice are highlighted. PMID:24067043

Newton, Mel; Sanderson, Allyson



Impaired reproduction of mallards fed an organic form of selenium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We fed mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) diets supplemented with 0-, 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, or 16-ppm selenium in the form of selenomethionine. We fed another group of mallards a diet containing 16-ppm selenium as selenocystine. Females fed the control diet produced a mean of 8.1 ducklings that survived to 6 days of age, which was significantly greater than the 4.6 young produced by females fed 8-ppm selenium as selenomethionine and the zero surviving young of females fed 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine. Selenocystine did not impair reproduction. Diets containing 8- and 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine caused malformations in 6.8 and 67.9%, respectively, of unhatched eggs compared with 0.6% for controls. The most common malformations were of eyes, bill, legs, and feet. Selenium did not affect the onset or frequency of egg laying, egg size, shell thickness, fertility of eggs, or sex ratio of ducklings. Reduced survival and growth occurred in ducklings hatched from groups whose parents had received 8- or 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine, even though all ducklings were fed a control diet. Concentrations of selenium in eggs and liver of adults could be predicted from dietary concentrations. We conclude that the dietary threshold of selenium as selenomethionine necessary to impair reproduction is between 4 and 8 ppm. It is difficult to identify 1 level of selenium in eggs that will be diagnostic of reproductive impairment in the field because different chemical forms of selenium appear to have different toxicities in eggs. However, when eggs from a wild population contain .gtoreq. 1-ppm selenium on a wet-weight basis, reproductive impairment may be possible and should be evaluated in that population. At 5-ppm selenium in eggs, reproductive impairment is much more likely to occur.

Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gold, L.G.



Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students  

PubMed Central

Background: Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim: To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design: Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods: Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis: Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results: The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Conclusion: Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense.

Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan



The Relationship of Audibility and the Development of Canonical Babbling in Young Children With Hearing Impairment  

PubMed Central

This article investigated the relationship between age at onset of canonical babbling and audibility of amplified speech in children with hearing impairment. Thirteen children with severe–profound hearing impairment and two children with normal hearing participated in a longitudinal investigation of vocalization development. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design was used to analyze vocalization recordings obtained during two phases (hearing aid [HA] and cochlear implant [CI]). Audibility during HA and CI use was calculated using the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII). Earlier ages of canonical babble onset were related to greater audibility of the speech signal during HA use. Children who developed canonical babble had an SII of .35 or greater. SII was a statistically significant predictor of age of onset of canonical babble. Results support the concept of an “essential” level of audibility for onset of canonical babble. Findings are discussed relative to their methodological and clinical implications regarding treatment decision making.

Bass-Ringdahl, Sandie M.



Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.



Planning for greater-confinement disposal  

SciTech Connect

This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references.

Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.



In-hospital acute stress symptoms are associated with impairment in cognition 1 year after intensive care unit admission.  


Rationale: Prior studies have found that cognitive dysfunction is common in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Yet, relatively little is known about potentially modifiable risk factors for longer-term post-ICU cognitive impairment. Objectives: To determine if in-hospital acute stress symptoms were associated with impaired 12-month cognitive functioning among ICU survivors. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 150 nontrauma patients without cognitive impairment or a dementia diagnosis who were admitted to an ICU for more than 24 hours. Patients were interviewed before hospital discharge and again via telephone at 12 months post-ICU. Measurements and Main Results: Demographics and clinical information were obtained through medical record reviews and in-person interviews. In-hospital acute stress symptoms were assessed with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version. Twelve-month post-ICU cognition was assessed with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. Follow-up interviews were completed with 120 (80%) patients. Patients' mean age at hospitalization was 48.2 years (SD, 13.7). In unadjusted analyses, a greater number of in-hospital acute stress symptoms was associated with significantly greater impairment in 12-month cognitive functioning (?, -0.1; 95% confidence interval, -0.2 to -0.004; P = 0.04). After adjusting for patient and clinical factors, in-hospital acute stress symptoms were independently associated with greater impairment in 12-month cognitive functioning (?, -0.1; 95% CI, -0.2 to -0.01; P = 0.03). Conclusions: In-hospital acute stress symptoms may be a potentially modifiable risk factor for greater impairment in cognitive functioning post-ICU. Early interventions for at-risk ICU survivors may improve longer-term outcomes. PMID:23987665

Davydow, Dimitry S; Zatzick, Douglas; Hough, Catherine L; Katon, Wayne J



Depression in cognitive impairment.  


Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common in the elderly. Depression is also a common feature of cognitive impairment although the symptoms of depression in cognitive impairment differ from depression without cognitive impairment. Pre-morbid depression approximately doubles the risk of subsequent dementia. There are two predominant, though not mutually exclusive, constructs linking pre-morbid depression to subsequent cognitive impairment: Alzheimer's pathology and the vascular depression hypothesis. When evaluating a patient with depression and cognitive impairment, it is important to obtain caregiver input and to evaluate for alternative etiologies for depressive symptoms such as delirium. We recommend a sequential approach to the treatment of depression in dementia patients: (1) a period of watchful waiting for milder symptoms, (2) psychosocial treatment program, (3) a medication trial for more severe symptoms or failure of psychosocial interventions, and (4) possible ECT for refractory symptoms. PMID:23933974

Pellegrino, Laurel D; Peters, Matthew E; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Marano, Christopher M



Assisting the radiologist to greater accuracy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method for improving the accuracy of image-based diagnosis by providing the radiologist with image-reading and decision-making aids. The image-reading aid is a checklist of visual features to guide the radiologist through a systematic assessment of the features of a detected abnormality. The decision aid is a computer-based statistical decision rule that accepts the feature assessments made by the radiologist, and returns an advisory estimate of the probability that disease is present. I discuss the steps involved in developing and testing these aids, and present illustrative examples of their successful application in mammography. I describe other possible benefits of a feature-based diagnostic system in improving report standardization, training of radiologists, quality assurance, and automated report-writing. Finally, I discuss potentially greater improvements in diagnostic accuracy that may be realized through the future development of hybrid systems in which a radiologist and computer interact, and systems combining features from multiple tests or sources.

Getty, David J.



Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project  

SciTech Connect

The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.





BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders among individuals presenting with primary CG. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of comorbid CG in bereaved primary anxiety disorder (AD) patients compared to bereaved healthy controls. We also examined the impairment associated with comorbid CG in AD. METHODS: Participants were 242 bereaved adults (mean (SD) age = 41.5 (13.1), 44.2% women) with a primary AD diagnosis, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 57), panic disorder (PD; n = 49), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 29), and generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD; n = 107), as well as 155 bereaved healthy controls with no current DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (mean (SD) age = 43.0 (13.6), 51.0% women). CG symptoms were measured using the 19-item inventory of complicated grief (ICG), with threshold CG defined as an ICG score of ?30. Quality of life and functional impairment were assessed with the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) and the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT), respectively. RESULTS: Participants with primary ADs had significantly higher rates of threshold CG symptoms than bereaved controls (12.0% vs. 0.65%; Fisher's Exact P < 0.001). Rates of threshold CG were significantly elevated for each AD when compared to bereaved controls. After adjustment for age, sex, education, and comorbid major depressive disorder, threshold CG was associated with lower quality of life (? = -0.140, P = 0.023) and greater impairment (? = 0.141, P = 0.035) among individuals with AD. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that threshold CG is of clinical relevance in bereaved individuals with a primary anxiety disorder. Screening for CG in patients with ADs may be warranted. PMID:23495105

Marques, Luana; Bui, Eric; Leblanc, Nicole; Porter, Eliora; Robinaugh, Donald; Dryman, M Taylor; Nadal-Vicens, Mireya; Worthington, John; Simon, Naomi



Vascular cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Vascular cognitive impairment encompasses a spectrum of clinically defined syndromes ranging from vascular cognitive impairment-no\\u000a dementia, to vascular dementia. The underlying cerebrovascular pathology includes both overt infarction as well as rarefaction\\u000a of gray and white matter. Alzheimer’s pathology may coexist with vascular pathology. Diagnosis rests on identifying acquired\\u000a cognitive impairment in the setting of documented cerebrovascular disease, based on

Laura Pedelty; David L. Nyenhuis



The impact of ulcerative colitis is greater in unmarried and young patients  

PubMed Central

GOALS: To determine whether the perceived impact of ulcerative colitis (UC) on activities of living (illness intrusiveness) is greater for people who are not living in a married or common-law relationship. BACKGROUND: In general, social and occupational achievement is not greatly impaired by UC, yet patients, especially young adults, often have interpersonal concerns. METHODS: One hundred fifty-five outpatients with UC were assessed for disease activity, and completed self-reports of marital status, income, social support and illness intrusiveness. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (32.9%) were single, separated or divorced, and 104 patients (67.1%) were married or in common-law relationships. Compared with those who were married or in common-law relationships, single or separated patients were younger, had a lower household income, had lived with UC for fewer years and were less satisfied with social support. Among 135 patients in remission, marital status was significantly associated with illness intrusiveness, controlling for age, income and perceived social support (F=5.73; P=0.02). Low social support (F=4.94; P=0.03) and younger age (F=7.24; P=0.008) were independently associated with illness intrusiveness. Single patients in remission reported illness intrusiveness of similar severity to that reported by patients with active disease. CONCLUSIONS: The perceived impact of UC on the lives of patients is greater in those who are not married or living in common-law relationships. Youth, single status and lower social support commonly coexist, and exert additive effects on the functional impact of UC. Resources to improve social support should be directed toward this group of patients.

Maunder, Robert G; Greenberg, Gordon R; Lancee, William J; Steinhart, A Hillary; Silverberg, Mark S



Psychosocial Impairment in Offspring of Depressed Parents  

PubMed Central

Background Offspring of depressed parents experience impairment in a number of domains of functioning. Few studies have examined the impact of both maternal and paternal depression and comorbid psychopathology on offspring functioning. Method Participants in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project (OADP) were administered diagnostic interviews and completed measures of psychosocial functioning during adolescence and again during young adulthood. Diagnostic interviews were also conducted with the mothers and fathers of the target individual. Results After controlling for relevant demographic characteristics, parental comorbid psychopathology, and offspring psychopathology, maternal depression was associated with greater levels of physical symptoms during adolescence, and with higher levels of minor stressors and a greater risk for using mental health services in young adulthood. Paternal depression was associated with offspring experiencing more major stressors, having lower perceived social competence, and being at greater risk for suicide attempts during adolescence, as well as lower perceived social competence in young adulthood. Conclusions Offspring of depressed parents demonstrate impairment in a variety of domains, regardless of the presence of their own psychopathology. Further research on the mechanisms that lead to these impairments, as well as research that examines the role of these psychosocial impairments in the subsequent development of psychopathology is warranted.

Lewinsohn, Peter M.; Olino, Thomas M.; Klein, Daniel N.



Evaluation of passive transfer in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  


Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) calves can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study, serum samples from neonatal kudu calves were tested for immunoglobulin using different tests validated for domestic ruminants, including measurement of gamma globulin (GG) measured by protein electrophoresis, total solids (TS) measured by calibrated refractometry, total protein (TP) and globulins measured by colorimetry, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the zinc sulfate turbidity test (ZSTT). In a logistic regression model, TP, TS, globulins, and the natural log transform of GGT were the only significant parameters associated with FPT. Various historic parameters related to the dam, as well as calf weight, sex, glucose, and packed cell volume, were not significant. Based on the results, FPT in greater kudu is defined as GG of < 0.5 g/dl, a value lower than that in domestic cattle. TS measured by refractometry has an 80% sensitivity and a 100% specificity for FPT in greater kudu. With FPT defined as GG < 0.5 g/dl, kudu calves with a TS < 4.8 g/dl and a negative ZSTT have an increased probability of requiring medical intervention and additional diagnostics may be warranted. PMID:22204060

Hammond, Elizabeth E; Fiorello, Christine V



Neuropsychological impairment in incest offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-one incest perpetrators were compared to 36 nonviolent nonsex offenders for the presence of neuropsychological impairment. The WAIS-R, Halstead-Reitan battery, and CT scans of the brain were used. The sex offenders were also examined for the presence of substance abuse, violence, pedophilia, and biological relationship to the victim. Incest offenders had significantly lower IQ scores than controls but generally were

R. Langevin; G. Wortzman; R. Dickey; P. Wright; L. Handy



007 Mild cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndromic label for people with informant-corroborated memory problems and evidence of memory impairment on formal testing in the absence of more pervasive deficits in cognition and functional abilities. It is often described as a “risk factor” for dementia though this is misleading; patients with the first signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD) will meet

P J Nestor



Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung



Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung



Generational Differences in the Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

There were significant changes in health and lifestyle throughout the 20th century which may have changed temporal patterns of hearing impairment in adults. In this study, the authors aimed to assess the effect of birth cohort on the prevalence of hearing impairment in an adult population aged 45–94 years, using data collected between 1993 and 2008 from 3 cycles of the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (n?=?3,753; ages 48–92 years at baseline) and a sample of participants from the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (n?=?2,173; ages ?45 years). Hearing impairment was defined as a pure-tone average of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz greater than 25-dB HL [hearing level]. Descriptive analysis, generalized additive models, and alternating logistic regression models were used to examine the birth cohort effect. Controlling for age, with every 5-year increase in birth year, the odds of having hearing impairment were 13% lower in men (odds ratio?=?0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.92) and 6% lower in women (odds ratio?=?0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 0.98). These results suggest that 1) older adults may be retaining good hearing longer than previous generations and 2) modifiable factors contribute to hearing impairment in adults.

Zhan, Weihai; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Huang, Guan-Hua; Pankow, James S.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Tweed, Theodore S.



Appeal for legislation on greater safety.  


An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports. PMID:22053362

Baillie, Jonathan



Plant Oils Were Associated with Low Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Japanese Workers  

PubMed Central

Fatty acid has been suggested to be involved in development of diabetes. However, its association is unclear among Japanese populations, which consume large amounts of fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present cross-sectional study examined the association of individual dietary fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns with abnormal glucose metabolism among 1065 Japanese employees, aged 18–69 years. Impaired glucose metabolism is defined if a person has a history of diabetes, current use of anti-diabetic drug, fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dl (?6.1 mmol/L) or greater, or hemoglobin A1C of 6.0% (?42 mmol/mol) or greater. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary fatty acid patterns were extracted by principal component analysis. Odds ratios of impaired glucose metabolism according to tertile categories of each fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounding variables. A higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend?=?0.03, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively). Alpha-linolenic acid was marginally significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend?=?0.12). Of three fatty acid patterns identified, a higher plant oil pattern score, which characterized by high intake of alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, was associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend?=?0.03). No association was observed for other patterns. In conclusion, plant source fatty acids might be protectively associated with development of diabetes in Japanese adults.

Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Nanri, Akiko; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya



Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin  

SciTech Connect

Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

Al-Laboun, A.A.



Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.  


The phylogeography of the bush habituated African bovid species impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from Southern Africa toward Eastern regions in the greater kudu. Results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. The study reveals a similar pattern, that is a marked divergence of lineages from South-western Africa relative to other regions. This pattern is opposed to previously published findings in other African bovid species. In the impala, the genetically isolated region is consistent with morphology because it is recognized as the subspecies A. m. petersi, the black-faced impala. In contrast, the similar split of South-western mitochondrial lineages was not expected in the greater kudu on the basis of morphology. Both species show a significant population genetic differentiation. Beyond their phylogeographical value, our results should raise conservation concerns about South-western populations of both species. The black-faced impala is categorized as vulnerable and our data show indications of hybridization with common impala A. m. melampus. The previously unrecognized genetic status of the South-western kudus could also imply conservation regulations. PMID:11298982

Nersting, L G; Arctander, P



Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Relationship to Caregiver Burden  

PubMed Central

Background Caregivers of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) need similar levels of support services as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) caregivers, but it is unclear if this translates to increased caregiver burden. Methods 135 participants and their caregivers (40 MCI, 55 AD and 40 normal controls, NC) completed questionnaires, and the patients were administered neuropsychological tests. Results The MCI caregivers reported significantly more overall caregiving burden than the NC, but less than the AD. They showed similar levels of emotional, physical and social burden as the AD caregivers. Among the MCI caregivers, the neuropsychiatric symptoms and executive functioning of the patients were related to a greater burden, and the caregivers with a greater burden reported lower life satisfaction and social support, and a greater need for support services. Conclusion These results indicate that MCI caregivers are at increased risk for caregiver stress, and they require enhanced assistance and/or education in caring for their loved ones.

Ryan, Kelly A.; Weldon, Anne; Persad, Carol; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Barbas, Nancy; Giordani, Bruno



The assessment of cognition in visually impaired older adults.  


Background: visual and cognitive impairments are common in later life. Yet there are very few cognitive screening tests for the visually impaired. Objective: to screen for cognitive impairment in the visually impaired. Methods: case-control study including 150 elderly participants with visual impairment (n = 74) and a control group without visual impairment (n = 76) using vision-independent cognitive tests and cognitive screening tests (MMSE and clock drawing tests (CDT)) which are in part vision dependent. Results: the scoring of the two groups did not differ in the vision-independent cognitive tests. Visually impaired patients performed poorer than controls in the vision-dependent items of the MMSE (T = 7.3; df: 148; P < 0.001) and in CDT (T = 3.1; df: 145; P = 0.003). No group difference was found when vision-independent items were added to MMSE and CDT. The test score gain by the use of vision-independent items correlated with the severity of visual impairment (P < 0.002). Conclusion: visually impaired patients benefit from cognitive tests, which do not rely on vision. The more visually impaired the greater the benefit. PMID:23108164

Killen, Alison; Firbank, Michael J; Collerton, Daniel; Clarke, Michael; Jefferis, Joanna Mary; Taylor, John-Paul; McKeith, Ian G; Mosimann, Urs Peter



Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management.

Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie



Modifiable Determinants of Hearing Impairment in Adults  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify factors contributing to the declining prevalence of hearing impairment in more recent generations. Methods We used data on hearing thresholds and potential risk factors of hearing impairment collected from studies in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (1993-1995, n = 3,753; 1998-2000, n = 2,800 and 2003-2005, n = 2,395), the concurrent Beaver Dam Eye Study on the same cohort, and a subgroup (n = 2,173) of the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (2005-2008). Results Educational attainment significantly reduced the odds ratio (OR) of the birth cohort effect on hearing impairment from 0.90 to 0.93, while a history of ear infection had a reverse effect on the decreasing trend (significantly changing the OR from 0.93 to 0.94). Occupational noise exposure, smoking, and a history of cardiovascular disease, while associated with hearing impairment, did not attenuate the cohort effect. The cohort effect remained significant after known risk factors were adjusted (OR = 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.89-0.97). Conclusion These data provide strong evidence that environmental, lifestyle, or other modifiable factors contribute to the etiology of hearing impairment and add support to the idea that hearing impairment in adults may be prevented or delayed.

Zhan, Weihai; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E.K.; Klein, Ronald; Huang, Guan-Hua; Pankow, James S.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Tweed, Theodore S.



Mild Cognitive Impairment  


Some forgetfulness can be a normal part of aging. However, some people have more memory problems than other people their age. This condition is called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. People with ...


Evaluation of hearing impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hearing impairment is among the most common medical condition presenting to health care professionals. Ear anatomy, physiology,\\u000a and pathology resulting in hearing loss are discussed. A systematic approach to evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment is presented.

Mani H. Zadeh; Samuel H. Selesnick



Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment  


... most important job. [ Return to Steps ] World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...


Design and numerical analyses of the human greater circulatory system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents examinations of human's greater part of the circulatory system, modeled as an electric net. The similarities between human's greater circulation and the electric model have been evolved. The analysis of the greater circulation was performed in PSPICE an environment of electric circuits modeling. The designed model allows to analyze human's greater circulation in physiological and pathological cases.

Pustelny, T.; Struk, P.; Nawrat, Z.; Gawlikowski, M.



Literacy and visual impairment.  


Research supporting specific instructional approaches for young children with visual impairments and blindness is limited. There is, however, a growing body of evidence to support the belief that the critical components of emergent and early conventional literacy for children with visual impairments do not differ markedly from those of their sighted peers. Specifically, infants and toddlers with visual impairments and blindness require interactions that support their oral language development, awareness of print or braille, and opportunities to explore writing. Although these very young children are often delayed in developing emergent literacy understandings, the path of their development is consistent with emergent literacy development of sighted children. The research regarding older children with visual impairments and blindness suggests that they too benefit from instruction that emphasizes the critical elements of early literacy instruction for all children. Research also suggests that specific strategies, such as repeated readings, direct instruction in phonics, and big word decoding that emphasizes morphemes, can benefit school-aged children with visual impairments and blindness. Further research is needed if we are to understand fully the most effective approaches to emergent and early literacy instruction for children with visual impairments and blindness, but there is a solid base from which we can begin. PMID:17340383

Erickson, Karen A; Hatton, Deborah



GP consortia: navigating ambiguity to produce greater public value?  


The UK's NHS is about to be significantly remodelled according to a white paper published in July 2010 that outlines the devolution of commissioning responsibilities away from strategic health authorities and primary care trusts to consortia of GPs, which are to be established at local level. Details of how the new GP consortia will operate are as yet unclear, but in essence they will be strategic alliances and it is likely that they will develop more or less formal arrangements between consortia partners, such as those of a commercial joint venture. This article draws on primary research into strategic alliances between organizations in all sectors. It suggests that there can be significant challenges for those working within strategic alliances, given that these tend to be beset by ambiguity and political tensions. In a context of ever greater transparency and accountability, it will be crucial to attend to the human aspects of strategic alliances since these represent significant risk if neglected. Conversely, alliances also offer the opportunity to develop the synergy of people, organizations and communities to deliver greater public value. Successful collaborations need to get three things right: governance, operations and behaviours. Relationships between consortia partners have a significant bearing on their ability to deliver desired outcomes. They must be able to build and maintain trust. Consortia partners will need sophisticated negotiating and stakeholder management skills and must be able to engage the public in setting the strategic goals for which they will be accountable. They also need strategic and operational management skills and must be able to cope with ambiguity and manage complexity. This paper argues that specific forms of leadership are needed in collaborative arrangements to mobilize people for positive action. People must work together by willingly and effectively pooling their initiative and expertise, and create a product or energy that is greater than the sum of their parts. The nature of leadership required to produce such high performance outcomes is likely to supersede leadership that is the result of structural relationships or of individual action. In particular, distributed leadership is likely to be relevant. PMID:21692401

Holbeche, Linda



Dexter: a tool to facilitate impairment ratings.  


Calculating impairment in burn patients is crucial to understanding outcome. However, it is rarely reported after burns, presumably because the process of calculating impairment ratings is complicated and tedious. Computerized systems have been developed that facilitate the process, but it has not been established in burn patients that these systems reduce the time required to calculate impairment. We evaluated the Dexter Evaluation and Therapy System by Cedaron Medical Inc (Davis, CA). A sample of 10 manually recorded ratings was compared with 10 performed on the Dexter. Mean time for the manual technique was 65 +/- 35 minutes versus 37 +/- 13 minutes for the Dexter (P < .05, Mann-Whitney). The time taken to perform impairment ratings in burn survivors is significantly reduced by the use of the Dexter system. Time saving occurs primarily at three points: (1) electronic data entry directly from the measuring instruments, (2) compilation of data, and (3) rapid generation of reports. PMID:11761391

Moore, M L; Engrav, L H; Vedder, N B; Gibran, N S; Esselman, P; Costa, B A


Schizandrin reverses memory impairment in rats.  


The present study investigated the effect of schizandrin, a component of the fruit of Schizandra chinesis Baill (Fructus Schizandrae), on memory impairment in rats. Scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.), a non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist, markedly impaired spatial memory in an eight-arm radial maze. A higher dose of scopolamine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) also impaired the passive avoidance response. Schizandrin (1 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced impairment of spatial memory. Similarly, schizandrin (1 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reversed the scopolamine-induced impairment of the passive avoidance response. Moreover, in mice, schizandrin (1 and 10 mg/kg, p.o.) enhanced tremors induced by oxotremorine, a muscarinic M(1) receptor agonist. Taken together these findings suggest that schizandrin reverses scopolamine-induced memory impairment, in part, by enhancing cholinergic function, and that schizandrin might be useful for treating memory deficits. PMID:17705144

Egashira, Nobuaki; Kurauchi, Kouji; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Mishima, Kenichi; Orito, Kensuke; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro



Cognitive Impairment in Persons With Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the prevalence and possible predictors of cognitive impairment in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Individuals from a longitudinal cohort study of RA participated in a study visit that included a range of physical, psychosocial, and biologic metrics. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of 12 standardized neuropsychological measures yielding 16 indices. Subjects were classified as “impaired” if they performed 1 SD below age-based population norms on at least 4 of 16 indices. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify which of the following were significant predictors of cognitive impairment: sex, race, income, education, depression, disease duration, disease severity, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, glucocorticoid use, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results A total of 115 subjects with a mean ± SD age of 58.6 ± 10.8 years were included; 64% were women and 81% were white. The proportion of persons who were classified as cognitively impaired was 31%. Education, income, glucocorticoid use, and CVD risk factors independently predicted cognitive impairment, controlling for sex, race, disease duration, disease severity, CRP level, and depression. Individuals with cognitive impairment were more likely to have low education (odds ratio [OR] 6.18, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.6–23.87), have low income (OR 7.12, 95% CI 1.35–37.51), use oral glucocorticoids (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.05–8.12), and have increased CVD risk factors (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17 per risk factor). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the burden of cognitive impairment in RA is significant, and future studies identifying specific etiologic contributors to cognitive impairment are warranted.




Why is greater medication adherence associated with better outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies found an association of greater adherence to placebo medication with better outcomes. The present study tested whether this association was explained by any of the following factors: 1) adherence to other medications, 2) healthcare behaviors, 3) disease risk, or 4) predicted degree of adherence. Data included information on more than 800 risk factors from 27,347 subjects in two randomized controlled trials of hormone therapy in the Women's Health Initiative. Results Greater adherence to placebo was not associated with colon cancer but was substantially and significantly associated with several diverse outcomes: death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and breast cancer. Adherence to hormone therapy was only weakly associated with outcomes. The WHI risk factors only poorly predicted degree of adherence, R2 < 4%. No underlying factors accounted for the association between placebo adherence and outcome. Conclusion The results suggest that adherence to placebo is a marker for important risk factors that were not measured by WHI. Once identified these risk factors may be used to increase the validity of observational studies of medical treatment by reducing unmeasured confounding.



Microbial contamination of artificially incubated Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) eggs.  


1. This paper is a report of biological agents that contaminate Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) eggs during artificial incubation. 2. The cleanliness of eggs when collected, and the period of storage prior to incubation, were investigated to assess their effects on microbial contamination and hatchability. 3. A total of 14 bacteria and 4 fungi species were isolated within the egg in the laboratory. 4. Microbial contamination was higher (24%) in very dirty eggs than in eggs which were clean or dirty (16%). Hatching success was lower (30%) for very dirty eggs, compared with 42% for clean or dirty eggs. 5. The percentage of microbial contamination of stored eggs (10%) did not differ significantly from that of non-stored ones (5%). 6. The extreme lower and upper limits of infection rate estimated for artificially incubated Greater Rhea eggs were 4% and 40%, respectively, being higher than in poultry species. 7. It is concluded that collecting eggs soon after laying will reduce the risk of microbial contamination. PMID:12964617

Lábaque, M C; Navarro, J L; Martella, M B



Vascular cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) has been proposed to encompass all people with cognitive impairment of cerebrovascular origin. VCI is not a single condition, but has several clinical presentations, etiologies, and treatment. VCI forms a spectrum that includes vascular dementia, mixed Alzheimer’s disease with a vascular component, and VCI that does not meet dementia criteria. Multiple pathophysiological mechanisms contribute to VCI, accounting for its heterogeneity. Although main changes in the brain in VCI include cerebral infarcts, vascular cognitive impairment is thought to be due to factors beyond acute infarcts. Cerebral white matter lesions and silent brain infarcts are considered to be risk factors for VCI. The prevalence of VCI is high and this entity is poised to become the silent epidemic of the 21st century. Cognitive impairment due to cerebrovascular disease can to some extent be improved, and VCI prevented, if vascular risk factors are brought under control and strokes do not recur. Therefore, strategies that focus on the prevention and treatment of the cognitive impairment associated with cerebrovascular disease are high priority healthcare objectives.

Suvarna, Alladi



Cognitive impairment and diabetes.  


The aim of this manuscript is to provide a brief review of the link between diabetes mellitus with cognitive impairment, the possible pathophysiology linking the two, and some possible therapeutic interventions for the treatment of this condition. The prevalence of diabetes increases with age, so also dementia increases in later life. As the population ages, type 2 diabetes and AD are increasing. Both diseases are chronic and are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies showed that older people with type 2 diabetes have a higher risk of cognitive decline. The precise mechanism linking the two remains to be found out. Several hypothetical mechanisms have been postulated. Type 2 diabetes is a risk factor for AD and vascular dementia. The association between diabetes and AD is particularly strong among carriers of the APOE ?4. Several studies have linked dementia to diabetes. Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance have also been associated with poor cognitive performance and at risk of developing cognitive impairment. Studies have suggested that metabolic syndrome may be linked to vascular dementia, while contrasting findings showed the role of metabolic syndrome to AD. In this review, how diabetes and cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease are mutually linked, possible mechanism linking the two and some possible therapeutic interventions with some patents that seem to be good therapeutic targets in future are discussed. PMID:23489242

Dash, Sandip K



Driving impairment due to sleepiness is exacerbated by low alcohol intake  

PubMed Central

Methods: Twelve healthy young men drove for two hours in the afternoon, in an instrumented car on a simulated motorway. In a repeated measures, counterbalanced design, they were given alcohol or placebo under conditions of normal sleep or prior sleep restriction. Measurements were: driving impairment (lane drifting), subjective sleepiness, and EEG measures of sleepiness. Results: Whereas sleep restriction and alcohol each caused a significant deterioration in all indices, the combined alcohol and sleep restriction further and significantly worsened lane drifting (which typifies sleep related crashes). This combined effect was also reflected to a significant extent in the EEG, but not with subjective sleepiness. That is, alcohol did not significantly increase subjective sleepiness in combination with sleep loss when compared with sleep loss alone. Conclusions: Modest, and apparently "safe" levels of alcohol intake exacerbate driving impairment due to sleepiness. The sleepy drivers seemed not to have realised that alcohol had increased their sleepiness to an extent that was clearly reflected by a greater driving impairment and in the EEG.

Horne, J; Reyner, L; Barrett, P



Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures: role of cortical slow activity  

PubMed Central

Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered consciousness may occur with bilateral or dominant temporal lobe seizure involvement. However, other bilateral temporal lobe disorders do not impair consciousness. More recent work supports a ‘network inhibition hypothesis’ in which temporal lobe seizures disrupt brainstem–diencephalic arousal systems, leading indirectly to depressed cortical function and impaired consciousness. Indeed, prior studies show subcortical involvement in temporal lobe seizures and bilateral frontoparietal slow wave activity on intracranial electroencephalography. However, the relationships between frontoparietal slow waves and impaired consciousness and between cortical slowing and fast seizure activity have not been directly investigated. We analysed intracranial electroencephalography recordings during 63 partial seizures in 26 patients with surgically confirmed mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Behavioural responsiveness was determined based on blinded review of video during seizures and classified as impaired (complex-partial seizures) or unimpaired (simple-partial seizures). We observed significantly increased delta-range 1–2 Hz slow wave activity in the bilateral frontal and parietal neocortices during complex-partial compared with simple-partial seizures. In addition, we confirmed prior work suggesting that propagation of unilateral mesial temporal fast seizure activity to the bilateral temporal lobes was significantly greater in complex-partial than in simple-partial seizures. Interestingly, we found that the signal power of frontoparietal slow wave activity was significantly correlated with the temporal lobe fast seizure activity in each hemisphere. Finally, we observed that complex-partial seizures were somewhat more common with onset in the language-dominant temporal lobe. These findings provide direct evidence for cortical dysfunction in the form of bilateral frontoparietal slow waves associated with impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures. We hypothesize that bilateral temporal lobe seizures may exert a powerful inhibitory effect on subcortical arousal systems. Further investigations will be needed to fully determine the role of cortical-subcortical networks in ictal neocortical dysfunction and may reveal treatments to prevent this important negative consequence of temporal lobe epilepsy.

Englot, Dario J.; Yang, Li; Hamid, Hamada; Danielson, Nathan; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Marfeo, Anthony; Yu, Lissa; Gordon, Aliza; Purcaro, Michael J.; Motelow, Joshua E.; Agarwal, Ravi; Ellens, Damien J.; Golomb, Julie D.; Shamy, Michel C. F.; Zhang, Heping; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D.; Spencer, Susan S.; Schevon, Catherine; Zaveri, Hitten P.



A prospective assessment investigating the relationship between work productivity and impairment with premenstrual syndrome.  


Our objective was to assess life domain and work-related impairment in patients experiencing premenstrual syndrome (PMS). A sample of women, 18 to 45 years of age, completed the Daily Rating of Severity of Problems Form to record daily symptoms for two consecutive menstrual cycles. In the workplace, women with PMS reported higher absenteeism rates (2.5 days vs. 1.3 days; P = 0.006) and more workdays with 50% or less of typical productivity per month (7.2 days vs. 4.2 days; P < 0.0001). Women with PMS in one of two menstrual cycles reported a greater number of days with impairment in routine work, school, and household activities in comparison with women without PMS. Results indicate that PMS leads to substantial im in normal daily activities and occupational productivity and significantly increased work absenteeism. PMID:15247803

Dean, Bonnie B; Borenstein, Jeff E



Prevalence of smoking in secondary schools in the greater Accra region of Ghana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tobacco smoking is fast becoming a public health problem in Ghana and the youth are at a greater risk of becoming victims of it. A survey of nine secondary (high) schools in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana showed that 31.1% of students have smoked before and that 10.3% smoke cigarettes regularly. A significant number of those who had ever

R. Amonoo-Lartson; Matilda E. Pappoe



Nonindigenous Marine Species in the Greater Tampa Bay Ecosystem.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Literature, internet, and museum resources were surveyed for information on nonindigenous species in the greater Tampa Bay ecosystem, Florida. Field surveys were also conducted for confirmation of some species. The greater Tampa Bay ecosystem is here defi...



Social communication impairments: pragmatics.  


Social communication or pragmatic impairments are characterized and illustrated as involving inappropriate or ineffective use of language and gesture in social contexts. Three clinical vignettes illustrate different pragmatic impairments and the wealth of diagnostic information that can be garnered from observation of a child's social communication behavior. Definitions of, and developmental milestones in, domains of pragmatic competence are provided. Several screening instruments are suggested for use in assessing pragmatic competence within the time-frame of a pediatric examination. Frequent comorbid psychiatric conditions are described and a sample of current neurobiologic research is briefly summarized. PMID:17543906

Russell, Robert L



Striatal degeneration impairs language learning: evidence from Huntington's disease.  


Although the role of the striatum in language processing is still largely unclear, a number of recent proposals have outlined its specific contribution. Different studies report evidence converging to a picture where the striatum may be involved in those aspects of rule-application requiring non-automatized behaviour. This is the main characteristic of the earliest phases of language acquisition that require the online detection of distant dependencies and the creation of syntactic categories by means of rule learning. Learning of sequences and categorization processes in non-language domains has been known to require striatal recruitment. Thus, we hypothesized that the striatum should play a prominent role in the extraction of rules in learning a language. We studied 13 pre-symptomatic gene-carriers and 22 early stage patients of Huntington's disease (pre-HD), both characterized by a progressive degeneration of the striatum and 21 late stage patients Huntington's disease (18 stage II, two stage III and one stage IV) where cortical degeneration accompanies striatal degeneration. When presented with a simplified artificial language where words and rules could be extracted, early stage Huntington's disease patients (stage I) were impaired in the learning test, demonstrating a greater impairment in rule than word learning compared to the 20 age- and education-matched controls. Huntington's disease patients at later stages were impaired both on word and rule learning. While spared in their overall performance, gene-carriers having learned a set of abstract artificial language rules were then impaired in the transfer of those rules to similar artificial language structures. The correlation analyses among several neuropsychological tests assessing executive function showed that rule learning correlated with tests requiring working memory and attentional control, while word learning correlated with a test involving episodic memory. These learning impairments significantly correlated with the bicaudate ratio. The overall results support striatal involvement in rule extraction from speech and suggest that language acquisition requires several aspects of memory and executive functions for word and rule learning. PMID:18842608

De Diego-Balaguer, R; Couette, M; Dolbeau, G; Dürr, A; Youssov, K; Bachoud-Lévi, A-C



Emotion recognition in mild cognitive impairment: relationship to psychosocial disability and caregiver burden.  


Background: Impaired emotion recognition in dementia is associated with increased patient agitation, behavior management difficulties, and caregiver burden. Emerging evidence supports the presence of very early emotion recognition difficulties in mild cognitive impairment (MCI); however, the relationship between these impairments and psychosocial measures is not yet explored. Methods: Emotion recognition abilities of 27 patients with nonamnestic MCI (naMCI), 29 patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI), and 22 control participants were assessed. Self-report measures assessed patient functional disability, while informants rated the degree of burden they experienced. Results: Difficulties in recognizing anger was evident in the amnestic subtype. Although both the patient groups reported greater social functioning disability, compared with the controls, a relationship between social dysfunction and anger recognition was evident only for patients with naMCI. A significant association was found between burden and anger recognition in patients with aMCI. Conclusions: Impaired emotion recognition abilities impact MCI subtypes differentially. Interventions targeted at patients with MCI, and caregivers are warranted. PMID:23752253

McCade, Donna; Savage, Greg; Guastella, Adam; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L



Greater collaboration across the disciplines: challenges and opportunities.  


This paper reports a panel discussion--Opportunities for and Limitations to Greater Collaboration Across the Disciplines--held at the conference. It highlights the need for greater collaboration between demographers and epidemiologists and notes the institutional and disciplinary challenges to and opportunities for promoting greater cooperation. PMID:11797863

Weinstein, M; Hermalin, A I; Stoto, M A; Evans, V J; Ewbank, D; Haaga, J; Ibrahim, M; Madans, J



Cerebral hemodynamics and cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether unihemispheral hemodynamic failure is independently associated with cognitive impairment among participants in the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke–sponsored, multicenter, randomized clinical trial, Randomized Evaluation of Carotid Occlusion and Neurocognition (RECON). Methods: Forty-three patients were randomized into RECON after recent symptomatic carotid artery occlusion and asymmetrically increased oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) by PET (OEF ratio >1.13), indicating stage II hemodynamic failure on the side of occlusion. The PET-positive patients were compared with 28 RECON-enrolled patients who met all clinical and radiographic inclusion/exclusion criteria but had no OEF asymmetry. A multivariable regression compared patients with PET OEF >1.13 or ?1.13, stratifying by TIA vs stroke as the qualifying event. The dependent variable was a composite neurocognitive score derived from averaging age-normalized z scores on a test battery that included global and internal carotid artery (ICA) side-relevant hemisphere-specific tests. Results: There were no differences in demographic, clinical, or radiologic characteristics between the PET-positive and PET-negative patients except for PET OEF asymmetry. The unadjusted average neurocognitive z score was ?1.45 for the PET-positive and ?1.25 for the PET-negative patients, indicating cognitive impairment in both groups but no difference between them (p = 0.641). After adjustment for age, education, side of occlusion, depression, and previous stroke, there was a significant difference between PET-positive and PET-negative patients among those with TIA as a qualifying event (average z score = ?1.41 vs ?0.76, p = 0.040). Older age and right ICA side were also significant in this model. Conclusion: Hemodynamic failure is independently associated with cognitive impairment in patients with carotid occlusion. This finding establishes the physiologic parameter upon which the extracranial-intracranial bypass will be tested. Neurology® 2012;78:250–255

Festa, J.R.; Cheung, Y.K.; Chen, R.; Pavol, M.A.; Derdeyn, C.P.; Clarke, W.R.; Videen, T.O.; Grubb, R.L.; Adams, H.P.; Powers, W.J.; Lazar, R.M.



Neonatal agonism of ER? impairs male reproductive behavior and attractiveness  

PubMed Central

The organization of the developing male rodent brain is profoundly influenced by endogenous steroids, most notably estrogen. This process may be disrupted by estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) resulting in altered sex behavior and the capacity to attract a mate in adulthood. To better understand the relative role each estrogen receptor (ER) subtype (ER? and ER?) plays in mediating these effects, we exposed male Long Evans rats to estradiol benzoate (EB, 10 ?g), vehicle, or agonists specific for ER? (DPN, 1 mg/kg) or ER? (PPT, 1 mg/kg) daily for the first four days of life, and then assessed adult male reproductive behavior and attractiveness via a partner preference paradigm. DPN had a greater adverse impact than PPT on reproductive behavior, suggesting a functional role for ER? in the organization of these male-specific behaviors. Therefore the impact of neonatal ER? agonism was further investigated by repeating the experiment using vehicle, EB and additional DPN doses (0.5 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg bw). Exposure to DPN suppressed male reproductive behavior and attractiveness in a dose dependent manner. Finally, males were exposed to EB or an environmentally relevant dose of genistein (GEN, 10 mg/kg), a naturally occurring xenoestrogen, which has a higher relative binding affinity for ER? than ER?. Sexual performance was impaired by GEN but not attractiveness. In addition to suppressing reproductive behavior and attractiveness, EB exposure significantly lowered the testis to body weight ratio, and circulating testosterone levels. DPN and GEN exposure only impaired behavior, suggesting that disrupted androgen secretion does not underlie the impairment.

Sullivan, Alana W.; Hamilton, Peter; Patisaul, Heather B.



Optimal impairment rules  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the optimal accounting policy of a financially constrained firm that pledges assets to raise debt capital for financing a risky project. The accounting system provides information about the value of the collateral. Absent accounting regulation, the optimal accounting system is conditionally conservative: it recognizes an impairment loss if the asset value is below a certain threshold, but never

Robert F. Göx; Alfred Wagenhofer



Mild Cognitive Impairment Research  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... >> Video & Resources >> Videos and Media Text Size Videos and Media Virtual Library Brain Tour Perspectives in Science Facts & Figures Spotlight on Researchers Web Links Videos and Media Mild Cognitive Impairment Research (approx. 20 min.) Alzheimer's ...


Mainstreaming the Hearing Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 1969, a federally funded program was instituted at Lee College to provide comprehensive educational opportunities for the hearing impaired. The program offers both academic and technical-occupational training, attendant counseling services in personal and social adjustment, housing assistance, and empathetic and cooperative instructors. Its…

Alston, Jerry G.


Greater History of Weight-related Stigmatizing Experience is Associated with Greater Weight Loss in Obesity Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiences of obesity stigmatization and fear of fat, body image and self-esteem, were examined in relation to weight loss and weight maintenance. Participants in obesity treatment (N = 185) with more stigmatizing experiences had poorer body image and greater fear of fat. Higher initial BMI, more stigmatizing experiences, lower body dissatisfaction and greater fear of fat predicted greater weight loss.

Janet D. Latner; G. Terence Wilson; Mary L. Jackson; Albert J. Stunkard



Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J. B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.



Takula oil field and the Greater Takula area, Cabinda, Angola  

SciTech Connect

The Greater Takula area comprises three fields that produce oil predominantly from Upper Cretaceous reservoirs. They are located approximately 40 km west-northwest of the Malongo terminal, offshore Cabinda, Angola, in water depths of 50-75 m. Current production levels are approximately 200,000 bbl/day of 320 API oil. The first well in the Takula area, drilled in 1971, tested 5,600 bbl/day of 32{degrees} API oil from Lower Cretaceous pre-salt Toca carbonates. The prospect was initially defined as a horst structure in the lower Congo presalt sedimentary section. Subsequent delineation drilling indicated updip potential for much more significant hydrocarbon accumulations in younger Cenomanian clastic sediments of the Vermelha Formation. The Vermelha pool, structurally a large rollover anticline bounded by growth faults with an areal closure of 4,856 ha (12,000 ac), was discovered in 1980. Appraisal drilling confirmed the existence of a major oil accumulation in multiple reservoirs within the Vermelha. Additional accumulations were found in the underlying Pinda Formation. In May 1982, the 44-5x well was drilled on a separate structure, immediately north of Takula. This well also tested oil from the Vermelha Formation and is now known as the Wamba field. In August 1982, the 57-5x well uncovered another large oil accumulation immediately southeast of the Takula field. This discovery, separated from Takula by a structural saddle, is in pressure communication with the Takula accumulation and is known as the Numbi field. This complex of structures, known as the Greater Takula area, is now in a mature stage of development, having produced over 250 MMSTB from an original oil in place estimate of 3,300 MMSTB. The integration of geology, geophysics, and reservoir engineering-has led to a progressive development, including both primary and waterflood secondary recovery, of this giant oil field complex.

Dale, C.T.; Lopes, J.R. (Chevron Overseas Petroleum, Inc., San Ramon, CA (USA)); Abilio, S.



Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks  

PubMed Central

Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hour) sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years). Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hours) sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR?=?1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P < 0.01). Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

Pandey, A.; Williams, N.; Donat, M.; Ceide, M.; Brimah, P.; Ogedegbe, G.; McFarlane, S. I.; Jean-Louis, G.



Linking sleep to hypertension: greater risk for blacks.  


Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hour) sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18-85 years). Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hours) sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR?=?1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P < 0.01). Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension. PMID:23710339

Pandey, A; Williams, N; Donat, M; Ceide, M; Brimah, P; Ogedegbe, G; McFarlane, S I; Jean-Louis, G



Greater diaphragm fatigability in individuals with recurrent low back pain.  


The diaphragm plays an important role in spinal control. Increased respiratory demand compromises spinal control, especially in individuals with low back pain (LBP). The objective was to determine whether individuals with LBP exhibit greater diaphragm fatigability compared to healthy controls. Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressures (TwPdi) were recorded in 10 LBP patients and 10 controls, before and 20 and 45 min after inspiratory muscle loading (IML). Individuals with LBP showed a significantly decreased potentiated TwPdi, 20 min (-20%) (p=0.002) and 45 min (-17%) (p=0.006) after IML. No significant decline was observed in healthy individuals, 20 min (-9%) (p=0.662) and 45 min (-5%) (p=0.972) after IML. Diaphragm fatigue (TwPdi fall ? 10%) was present in 80% (20 min after IML) and 70% (45 min after IML) of the LBP patients compared to 40% (p=0.010) and 30% (p=0.005) of the controls, respectively. Individuals with LBP exhibit propensity for diaphragm fatigue, which was not observed in controls. An association with reduced spinal control warrants further study. PMID:23727158

Janssens, Lotte; Brumagne, Simon; McConnell, Alison K; Hermans, Greet; Troosters, Thierry; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine



Everyday Memory Impairment of Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated everyday memory impairment in 24 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) and compared the scores with those of 48 age-, sex- and education-matched normal controls (NC) and 48 age-, sex- and education-matched Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. Overall everyday memory was impaired in MCI patients but the severity was milder than that

Hiroaki Kazui; Akemi Matsuda; Nobutsugu Hirono; Etsuro Mori; Noriko Miyoshi; Atsushi Ogino; Hiromasa Tokunaga; Yoshitaka Ikejiri; Masatoshi Takeda



Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael



Badge3D for Visually Impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducting an independent life is probably the most important issue for visually impaired people. In this paper, we suggest a contribution to the solution of this problem using wearable computer technology. We present a visual support system that provides acoustic information about the objects in the surrounding environment, obtained by remotely reading barcode tags sticked on significant objects and surrounding

G. Iannizzotto; C. Costanzo; P. Lanzafame; F. La Rosa



Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease.  


We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing. PMID:10071058

Lieb, K; Brucker, S; Bach, M; Els, T; Lücking, C H; Greenlee, M W



Homocysteine and Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, and it has also been proposed as an independent risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Its relationship with cognitive impairment, however, remains unclear. We aimed to determine the relationship of tHcy levels with clinical diagnoses and cognitive performance in a sample of outpatients

Isabel Sala; María Belén Sánchez-Saudinós; Laura Molina-Porcel; Estela Lázaro; Ignasi Gich; Jordi Clarimón; Francisco Blanco-Vaca; Rafael Blesa; Teresa Gómez-Isla; Alberto Lleó



Male gamblers have significantly greater salivary cortisol before and after betting on a horse race, than do female gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevalence rates of gambling are influenced by gender. Among normative populations, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress is affected by gender. However, pathological, compared to recreational, gamblers demonstrate perturbations in HPA activation in response to gambling stimuli. We examined whether there were gender differences in HPA response to gambling in a naturalistic setting among horse-race bettors and scratch-off lottery bettors.

C. Franco; J. J. Paris; E. Wulfert; C. A. Frye



Pharmacokinetics of insulin aspart in obesity, renal impairment, or hepatic impairment  

PubMed Central

Aims To assess the effects of body mass index, renal impairment (creatinine clearance), and hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Score) on the pharmacokinetics of insulin aspart. Methods Pharmacokinetics of insulin aspart (injected subcutaneously in the abdomen immediately before a Boost® standardized meal) were characterized in: (1) diabetic subjects with four ranges of BMI values (n = 23); (2) diabetic subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment (normal, n = 6 vs two ranges of impairment, n = 12); and (3) nondiabetic patients with varying degrees of hepatic impairment (normal, n = 6 vs three ranges of impairment, n = 18). Results There was no correlation between any pharmacokinetic variable and the degree of renal or hepatic impairment. Increasing obesity was associated with a decreased apparent clearance per kg body weight (? = ?0.0005, SE = 0.0001; P = 0.002), an increased t½ (? = 3.513, SE = 1.636; P = 0.044), and an increased ln(AUC0–360) and ln(AUC0–1440) (? = 0.030, SE = 0.013; P = 0.032 and ?= 0.039, SE = 0.0132; P = 0.006, respectively). However, obesity-related changes were smaller than individual variations in parameters. Conclusions Renal impairment, hepatic impairment, or BMI do not affect the pharmacokinetics of insulin aspart in a clinically significant manner. Abbreviations AUC0–1440, area under the plasma concentration curve; BMI, body-mass index; CLcr, renal clearance of creatinine; CL/F, apparent clearance; CL/F/kg, body weight-adjusted apparent clearance; Cmax, maximal plasma concentration; FBG, fasting blood glucose; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; HI, human insulin; MRT, mean residence time; PK, pharmacokinetics; t½, half life; tmax, time to maximum concentration; Vz/F, apparent volume of distribution.

Holmes, Gregory; Galitz, Lawrence; Hu, Peter; Lyness, William



[Pragmatic language impairment in children].  


When a child's language development does not follow the normal developmental course for no known reasons specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed. In contrast, pragmatic language impairment (PLI) refers to children who experience significant difficulties with the use of language. Clinical accounts of PLI have suggested that unlike children with more typical SLI, children with PLI have adequate syntax and phonology and are often verbally fluent. However, they may exhibit a range of linguistic and communicative deficits such as comprehension deficits for connected speech, conversational inadequacies, poor turn-taking, atypical word choices, literal interpretation of figurative language, and poor topic maintenance. There also may be fundamental deficits in social cognition, such as appreciating the thoughts and feelings of others. PLI may be found in SLI children, children with learning disabilities, autism and traumatic brain injuries. Here we review aspects of pragmatic communication skills, the development of emotion recognition, and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Otolaryngologists have to be aware of PLI in case children with communication problems are referred to them. This may enable a timely diagnosis and early intervention. PMID:15909145

Ptok, M



Pragmatic impairments in adults with childhood diagnoses of autism or developmental receptive language disorder.  


Audiotaped conversational samples from adults diagnosed as having autistic disorders (n = 15) or developmental receptive language disorders (n = 17) in childhood were transcribed and analyzed using methods based on those of Bishop and Adams (1989). Subjects with autism showed substantially greater pragmatic impairment not explicable by generalized impairment of verbal skills. This was mainly due to autistic subjects' greater difficulty in forming context-relevant communicative intentions; in contrast, pragmatic impairments arising from failures in translating intentions into spoken utterances (i.e., impairments at the level of execution) did not distinguish between the groups. In both diagnostic groups, impairment in forming appropriate communicative intentions was closely related to more generalized impairment of reciprocal social behavior. PMID:8106302

Eales, M J



Mediating haptic exploratory strategies in children who have visual impairment and intellectual disabilities.  


This article provides a synthesis of literature pertaining to the development of haptic exploratory strategies in children who have visual impairment and intellectual disabilities. The information received through such strategies assumes particular significance for these children, given the restricted information available through their visual modality, often in combination with additional sensory and/or physical impairments. The literature reviewed from early child development highlights the importance of independent activity in the development of exploratory strategies, as well as the pivotal role of vision in 'mediating' information received through the haptic modality. In translating these findings to children who have visual impairment and intellectual disabilities, the role of the child's learning partner assumes greater significance in ensuring that haptic information is appropriately 'mediated' to meet the child's individual needs. The implications for developing appropriate developmentally paced intervention approaches are considered. A framework is outlined that seeks to account for the role of the child's adult partner in mediating haptic learning experiences to ensure they are appropriately structured and progressive. PMID:21668804

McLinden, M



Spontaneous Language Production in Bilingual Parkinson's Disease Patients: Evidence of Greater Phonological, Morphological and Syntactic Impairments in Native Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine early non-demented bilingual (L1--Friulian, L2--Italian) patients with Parkinson's disease and nine normal controls matched for age, sex and years of education were studied on a spontaneous language production task. All subjects had acquired L1 from birth in a home environment and L2 at the age of six at school formally. Patients with PD…

Zanini, Sergio; Tavano, Alessandro; Fabbro, Franco



Exhausting stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise causes greater impairment in SSC performance than in pure concentric performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The purpose of the present study was to investigate the fatigue effect of repeated exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC)\\u000a exercise on concentric muscle function. Ten healthy male subjects performed SSC exercise [92 (30) jumps] on a special sledge\\u000a apparatus. Exhaustion occurred on average within 3 min. A squat jump (SJ) test utilizing a concentric-only action was performed\\u000a immediately before and after

T. Horita; P. Komi; I. Hämäläinen; J. Avela



Impairment in postural control is greater when ankle plantarflexors and dorsiflexors are fatigued simultaneously than when fatigued separately  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of ankle muscle fatigue on postural control when plantarflexors (PFs) and dorsiflexors (DFs) are fatigued simultaneously compared with separately. This study also investigated the recovery of postural control after fatigue. Sixteen adults (eight women and eight men) performed postural trials before and after an isokinetic fatigue task involving either

Sébastien Boyas; Anthony Remaud; Etienne J. Bisson; Sébastien Cadieux; Baptiste Morel; Martin Bilodeau



Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage  

SciTech Connect

The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% (mean +/- S.E.M.) vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury.

Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.



Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights…

Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008



Greater Financial Disclosures in Singapore: Boon or Curse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paper presents arguments for and against greater financial disclosure in Singapore. The arguments for greater financial disclosure center around meeting the diverse needs of an increasingly sophisticated pool of investors. Another argument for voluntarily increasing financial disclosure is the potential threat of government intervention in the setting of financial disclosure requirements that may even be more stringent. These arguments

Teck Min Choo; TAN Hock Neo Pearl



Dictators and Purses: Altruism and Support for Greater Public Spending  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Does altruism play a role in citizens’ support for greater public spending? Using a dictator game embedded in a large online survey, I show that those who reveal a higher level of altruism are also more supportive of greater public spending, even when it comes at an expressed cost to themselves. The eects,of this altruism are robust to controls

Peter John Loewen


Impaired action knowledge in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Background: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative condition affecting the motor system, but recent work also shows more widespread cognitive impairment. This study examined performance on measures requiring knowledge of actions, and related performance to MRI cortical atrophy in ALS. Methods: A total of 34 patients with ALS performed measures requiring word-description matching and associativity judgments with actions and objects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to relate these measures to cortical atrophy using high resolution structural MRI. Results: Patients with ALS were significantly more impaired on measures requiring knowledge of actions than measures requiring knowledge of objects. Difficulty on measures requiring action knowledge correlated with cortical atrophy in motor cortex, implicating degraded knowledge of action features represented in motor cortex of patients with ALS. Performance on measures requiring object knowledge did not correlate with motor cortex atrophy. Several areas correlated with difficulty for both actions and objects, implicating these brain areas in components of semantic memory that are not dedicated to a specific category of knowledge. Conclusion: Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are impaired on measures involving action knowledge, and this appears to be due to at least two sources of impairment: degradation of knowledge about action features represented in motor cortex and impairment on multicategory cognitive components contributing more generally to semantic memory. GLOSSARY ALS = amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALSFRS-R = ALS Functional Rating Scale–Revised; FTLD = frontotemporal lobar degeneration; VBM = voxel-based morphometry.

Grossman, M; Anderson, C; Khan, A; Avants, B; Elman, L; McCluskey, L



Epidemiology of specific language impairment: Prenatal and perinatal risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prenatal and perinatal risk factors likely to be associated with specific language impairment (SLI) were examined in this study. A review of existing research showed that there have been few studies on this topic. Among children with SLI, greater rates of near relatives with language learning problems has been found. Data obtained from a case-control study of 177 children

Xuyang Zhang



JAMA Patient Page: Causes of Visual Impairment  


... American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Causes of Visual Impairment V isual impairment can happen to children ... causes of visual impairment. CONDITIONS THAT MAY CAUSE VISUAL IMPAIRMENT FOR MORE INFORMATION • National Eye Institute 301/ ...


The visually impaired child.  


This article discusses the causes of childhood blindness and how the primary care provider may begin the appropriate steps toward diagnosing and managing the visually impaired child. Community resources (see Box 3) and low-vision programs in schools should be used so that parents do not need to reinvent strategies to raise a blind child. Worldwide, childhood blindness, which places is a tremendous burden on families and communities of the third world, is mostly preventable with improved hygiene, diet, and immunization. PMID:12713115

Thompson, Lisa; Kaufman, Lawrence M



Cognitive impairment associated with toxigenic fungal exposure: a replication and extension of previous findings.  


In this study, neuropsychological data and symptom reports from 31 individuals exposed to toxic mold were examined. Most participants were found to have reduced cognitive functioning in multiple domains, with memory and executive functions the most commonly affected areas. Rates of dysfunction were significantly greater than chance on more than half of the tests. Number of cognitive impairments was found to be related to depression, although few neuropsychological test scores were correlated with depression. Results also indicated that symptom report of the mold-exposed participants was not significantly different from that of matched groups of 65 persons with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 26 individuals with moderate TBI. The mold-exposed participants reported significantly more symptoms than 47 people with no disability. This study adds to a growing body of literature (e.g., Baldo, Ahmad, & Ruff, 2002; Gordon, Johanning, & Haddad, 1999) relating exposure to mycotoxins to cognitive dysfunction. PMID:15477176

Gordon, Wayne A; Cantor, Joshua B; Johanning, Eckardt; Charatz, Heather J; Ashman, Teresa A; Breeze, Janis L; Haddad, Lisa; Abramowitz, Steven



Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

SciTech Connect

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

Not Available



Passengers of Impaired Drivers  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aims of this study are (a) to estimate the prevalence of passengers riding with alcohol-impaired drivers; (b) to investigate the role of demographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational status) and relevant driving conditions (time of the day, trip origin, vehicle ownership) on shaping the likelihood of alcohol-impaired driving; (c) to identify and estimate the prevalence of passengers as alternative drivers (PADs); and (d) to examine the role that vehicle ownership plays in shaping the occurrence of PADs. Method Data came from a unique convenience sample of passengers obtained from the 2007 National Roadside Survey, a random sample of drivers from the 48 contiguous states. Results The prevalence of PADs in the targeted population (mostly weekend night vehicles) was higher with drivers at .00

Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John



[Mild cognitive impairment].  


Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy. PMID:19764601

Pavlovi?, Dragan M; Pavlovi?, Aleksandra M


Headache impairs attentional performance.  


Attentional disruption has been demonstrated using laboratory-induced pain, but has not been reliably established in everyday pain conditions. This study is the first to examine the effect of everyday acute headache on attention. Seventy-five frequent headache sufferers completed a flanker task, n-back task, attentional switching task, and dual task. Participants completed this battery of tasks twice: once when experiencing an episode of tension-type headache, and once when pain free. Headache impaired performance on the n-back task, retarded general responding on the flanker task, and produced more errors on the attentional switching task. Headache did not, however, alter performance on the dual task, or the size of the attentional switching effect or result in a flanker effect. It must therefore be emphasised that headache pain appears to impair general task performance, irrespective of task complexity, rather than specific attentional mechanisms. Headache pain has an effect on the core cognitive components necessary for the successful completion of tasks, and in particular those involving the updating of the cognitive system. PMID:23748118

Moore, David J; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher



Possibility of a light pulse with speed greater than c  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a model it is shown that a light pulse propagates from a vacuum into certain media with velocity greater than that of a light in a vacuum (c). By numerical calculation propagation of such a light is given.

Xian-jian Zhou



Nurse leaders need greater support transferring from practice to academia.  


Nursing school deans and faculty heads should be given greater support by universities to develop their academic leadership skills and aid transition from clinical practice, research has concluded. PMID:24107016



Report on Regional Educational Facilities Serving the Greater Lowell Area.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is concerned with educational facilities which provide services on a regional basis and are located within or in close proximity to the Greater Lowell Area. These facilities generally include facilities for vocational-technical education, highe...

G. B. Johnson



Route Learning Impairment in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Memory impairment on neuropsychological tests is relatively common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. But memory rarely has been evaluated in more naturalistic settings. This study assessed TLE (n = 19) and control (n = 32) groups on a real-world route learning (RL) test. Compared to the controls, the TLE group committed significantly more total errors across the three RL test trials. RL errors correlated significantly with standardized auditory and visual memory and visual-perceptual test scores in the TLE group. In the TLE subset for whom hippocampal data were available (n = 14), RL errors also correlated significantly with left hippocampal volume. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate real-world memory impairment in TLE patients and its association with both mesial temporal lobe integrity and standardized memory test performance. The results support the ecological validity of clinical neuropsychological assessment.

Bell, Brian D.



Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning: at the lower levels (up to 1500 m) they are recorded for a longer period and higher than 2000 m only 2-3 months. In terms of genesis the following types of debris flows are registered: rain, glacial and mixed. Rain mudflows are formed due to intensive rains (the daily amount is about 25 U 100 mm). A critical norm of precipitation forming debris 1 flows varies from west to east. In the western part it is 75-100 mm, central U 50-75 mm and eastern U 25-50 mm. Also the norm varies from north to south, in particular on advanced ridges it is higher but on the Glavny and Bokovoy ridges it is less. The difference is about 2 times. Glacial mudflows are observed only in the areas of modern glaciation. They form under high air temperature (20 U 25°C) leading to an intensive melting of snow and ice on glaciers. High air temperature should be recorded not less than 5-10 days. Mixed mudflows form under high air temperature in the glaciers area and significant rainstorms in the glacial zone. Rainstorms cause debris flow formation in focal points. Frontal precipitation with a significant amount of rain cause debris flows at vast territories often covering several kilometers. In total rain mudflows prevail on the Greater Caucasus northern slope and equal 60 - 80% of all the mudflows. Glacial mudflows constitute 30-40% and mixed mudflows U 10-20%. In the western and eastern parts rain mudflows are the principal and their share is 80-90% of all the mudflows. In the central part glacial mudflows prevail (60- 0%). Technogenic mudflows are recorded in the areas with developed mining industry, highways, forestry, and pastures. In the given region debris flows distribute from north to south depending on genesis and volume. On advanced ridges (Lesisty, Pastbishny, Skalisty) only rain mudflows are registered with the volume up to 100,000 m3. Eluvial-deluvial, alluvial-proluvial and eolian-proluvial deposits compose their solid constituents. This is a zone of weak mudflow hazard. The most often are mudflows with volume up to 5000-10,000 m3. More powerful mudflows are less frequent (once

Panova, S.


Surgical treatment of high-standing greater trochanter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven patients with high-standing greater trochanter (13 joints) aged 13-36 years underwent surgery. Distal transfer of the greater trochanter (group T) was performed in 4 patients (5 joints) and lateral displacement osteotomy (group L) in 7 (8 joints). The average follow-up duration was 13.4 years in group T and 5.9 years in group L. Clinical results were evaluated by the

K. Takata; S. Maniwa; M. Ochi



The first 5 minutes after greater occipital nerve block.  


We performed greater occipital nerve blocks on 24 migraineurs with unilateral migraine and trigeminal nerve distribution allodynia. Using a visual analog scale for migraine pain, brush allodynia in the trigeminal nerve distribution and photophobia were reduced 64%, 75%, and 67%, respectively, after 5 minutes. Allodynia improved faster than headache. The results of this study suggest that greater occipital nerve blocks initiate an inhibitory process that shuts down several symptom generators. PMID:18549410

Young, William; Cook, Brianna; Malik, Shahram; Shaw, James; Oshinsky, Michael




Microsoft Academic Search

We report the parasites, infectious diseases, and non-infectious diseases related to toxicants found in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across its range. Documentation of population-level effects is rare although researchers have responded to the recent emergence of West Nile virus with rigorous efforts. West Nile virus shows greater virulence and potential population level effects than any infectious agent detected in



Cognitive impairment in methadone maintenance patients.  


Few well-controlled studies have examined psychomotor and cognitive performance in methadone maintenance patients (MMP). In the present study, performance of 18 opioid-dependent MMP was evaluated relative to that of 21 control participants without substance abuse histories. The MMP and control groups were balanced with respect to gender, race, age, years of education, current employment status, current reading level, and estimated IQ score. Recent drug abstinence was verified by urine testing. Participants with a urine screen positive for benzodiazepines or a breathalyzer test positive for alcohol prior to performance testing were excluded. To avoid testing under conditions of acute heroin or cocaine intoxication, but without testing under conditions of acute withdrawal, participants with current use of heroin or cocaine were only required to abstain for 24 h prior to performance testing. MMP exhibited impairment relative to controls in psychomotor speed (digit symbol substitution and trail-making tests), working memory (two-back task), decision making (gambling task), and metamemory (confidence ratings on a recognition memory test); results also suggested possible impairment in inhibitory mechanisms (Stroop color-word paradigm). MMP did not exhibit impairment in time estimation, conceptual flexibility or long-term memory. The wide range of impaired functions is striking, and may have important implications for daily functioning in MMP. Further research is necessary to determine the clinical significance of the impairments in laboratory-based tests for daily performance in the natural environment, as well as to differentiate impairments due to acute methadone dosing, chronic methadone maintenance, chronic poly-drug abuse, and other factors. PMID:12062778

Mintzer, Miriam Z; Stitzer, Maxine L



Comparing participation in out of school activities between children with visual impairments, children with hearing impairments and typical peers.  


Hearing or visual impairments may negatively affect child's development and participation. Yet the literature about participation of children with hearing or visual impairments is insufficient. The present study aimed to compare participation patterns of children with visual impairments to those of children with hearing impairments and to typical peers and to examine the correlations between participation and socio-demographic parameters in each group. Participants were 70 children between the ages of 6-11: 25 with hearing impairments, 20 with visual impairments and 25 typical peers. All children filled the Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment (CAPE). This self-report refers to participation in daily out of school activities. Children with hearing or visual impairments showed significant limited participation compared to typical peers, expressed in lower number of activities, lower participation intensity; more activities performed at home and with someone else. The limited participation was more emphasized among children with visual impairments. Socio-demographic variables (age, mother's education and socio-economic level) correlated with participation dimensions in both study groups. In conclusion, children with hearing or visual impairments may have restricted participation in out of school activities. Socio-demographic parameters may play a role in encouraging child's participation. Participation among these populations should be further studied in order to assist service providers to create intervention programs together with the child, for enhancing his/her inclusion in the community. PMID:23880031

Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hamed-Daher, Shaima



HMGB1 Mediates Cognitive Impairment in Sepsis Survivors  

PubMed Central

Severe sepsis, a syndrome that complicates infection and injury, affects 750,000 annually in the United States. The acute mortality rate is approximately 30%, but, strikingly, sepsis survivors have a significant disability burden: up to 25% of survivors are cognitively and physically impaired. To investigate the mechanisms underlying persistent cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors, here we developed a murine model of severe sepsis survivors following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to study cognitive impairments. We observed that serum levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a critical mediator of acute sepsis pathophysiology, are increased in sepsis survivors. Significantly, these levels remain elevated for at least 4 wks after CLP. Sepsis survivors develop significant, persistent impairments in learning and memory, and anatomic changes in the hippocampus associated with a loss of synaptic plasticity. Administration of neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibody to survivors, beginning 1 wk after onset of peritonitis, significantly improved memory impairments and brain pathology. Administration of recombinant HMGB1 to naïve mice recapitulated the memory impairments. Together, these findings indicate that elevated HMGB1 levels mediate cognitive decline in sepsis survivors, and suggest that it may be possible to prevent or reverse cognitive impairments in sepsis survivors by administration of anti-HMGB1 antibodies.

Chavan, Sangeeta S; Huerta, Patricio T; Robbiati, Sergio; Valdes-Ferrer, SI; Ochani, Mahendar; Dancho, Meghan; Frankfurt, Maya; Volpe, Bruce T; Tracey, Kevin J; Diamond, Betty



From the prodrome to chronic schizophrenia: the neurobiology underlying psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairments.  


Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder that remains a considerable cause of global disease burden. Cognitive impairments are common and contribute significantly to the morbidity of the disorder. Over the last two decades or so molecular imaging studies have refined understanding of the pathophysiology underlying the development of psychosis and cognitive impairments. Firstly they have consistently implicated presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in the disorder, finding that dopamine synthesis capacity, dopamine release and baseline dopamine levels are increased in the illness. Secondly recent findings show that dopamine synthesis capacity is elevated in those that go on to develop psychosis in the following year, but not in those that do not, and appears to increase further with the development of psychosis. Thirdly evidence links greater dopamine synthesis capacity to poorer cognitive performance and altered frontal cortical function measured using functional imaging during cognitive tasks. Finally they have provided data on the nature of other neurofunctional alterations in the disorder, in particular in the serotonergic system and neuroinflammation. We review these findings and discuss their implications for understanding the neurobiology of psychosis and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:22239576

Howes, O D; Fusar-Poli, P; Bloomfield, M; Selvaraj, S; McGuire, P



Comparison of the relation between renal impairment, angiographic coronary artery disease, and long-term mortality in women versus men.  


Mild to moderate renal impairment has recently been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. However, gender differences in the association of mild to moderate renal impairment with the presence of angiographic coronary artery disease and long-term mortality remain unknown. We examined a prospective cohort of consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography from the ACRE study in the Royal Hospitals Trust (London, United Kingdom) with referral from 5 contiguous health authorities. Among 1,609 patients (465 women) who had angiographic and serum creatinine measurements at baseline, renal impairment at modification of diet in renal disease glomerular filtration rates of 45 to 59, 30 to 44, and <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) was more common in women than in men and was significantly associated with the presence of angiographic coronary artery disease in women but not in men. At each level of glomerular filtration rate, multivariate adjusted hazard ratios of 7-year all-cause mortality for women compared with men were higher: 2.64 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.21 to 5.73) versus 1.34 (95% CI 0.995 to 1.79); 2.62 (95% CI 1.12 to 16.12) versus 2.35 (95% CI 1.60 to 3.43); and 10.42 (95% CI 3.97 to 27.39) versus 4.77 (95% CI 2.95 to 7.70), respectively. Similar patterns were observed in cardiovascular and coronary deaths. In conclusion, mild to moderate renal impairment may be a marker for unmeasured proatherogenic factors for women only, and women may bear a greater mortality burden that is attributable to renal impairment compared with men. Gender may influence the prognostic effect of renal impairment in coronary disease. PMID:16490426

Chen, Ruoling; Kumar, Sanjeev; Timmis, Adam; Feder, Gene; Yaqoob, Muhammed M; Hemingway, Harry



Tests of Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

Lacey, Michelle



Cognitive impairment 3 years after neurological Varicella-zoster virus infection: a long-term case control study.  


Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of the most common viruses causing central nervous system (CNS) infection, sometimes with severe neurological complications and sequelae despite appropriate antiviral treatment. Whether the neurological sequelae of VZV CNS infections include long-term cognitive impairment and how this impairment might affect the patients is still largely unknown. In this study, 14 patients with predominant CNS manifestations caused by VZV infection underwent cognitive testing 3 years (median 39.5 months, range 31-52 months) after acute disease. The results were compared with those for 28 controls, matched for age and gender. The tests covered the cognitive domains of speed and attention, memory and learning, visuospatial function, language and executive function. To further assess the cognitive dysfunction caused by neurological VZV infection, patients were classified into the concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is associated with development of dementia in other pathologies. The VZV patients performed significantly worse than controls on four tests covering the domains of speed and attention, memory and learning and executive function. The cut-off was set at 1.5 SD below mean age. In addition, a greater proportion of VZV patients were classified with MCI as compared with controls. In conclusion, patients with previous VZV infection affecting the brain had signs of long-term cognitive impairment in the domains of speed and attention, memory and learning and executive function. However, larger study populations are needed to confirm these results. PMID:23900759

Grahn, Anna; Nilsson, Staffan; Nordlund, Arto; Lindén, Thomas; Studahl, Marie



Time course of hippocampal IL-1 beta and memory consolidation impairments in aging rats following peripheral infection  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that aging BNXF344 rats are more vulnerable to disruptions of memory consolidation processes following an injection of E. coli than are young rats. Furthermore, this disruption was specific to hippocampal-dependent memory. In the present study we examined the time course of the level of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1? in young and old rats following a peripheral injection of E. coli. Compared to young rats, aging rats treated with E. coli showed an exaggerated and prolonged up-regulation of IL-1? protein in the hippocampus, but not in hypothalamus, parietal cortex, prefrontal cortex, serum or spleen. Aging rats showed greater hippocampal IL-1? protein levels than their young counterparts 4h after E. coli, and these levels remained significantly elevated for 8 but not 14 days after E. coli. In a second experiment, aging rats exhibited anterograde memory consolidation impairments 4 and 8 days after an E. coli injection, but not after 14 days. A third experiment revealed that following an E. coli injection, bacterial clearance from the spleen and peritoneum was not impaired in aged rats, suggesting that elevations in hippocampal IL-1? were not mediated by impaired clearance in the periphery in aging rats. These data suggest that the exaggerated and prolonged elevation of IL-1?, specifically in the hippocampus, may be responsible for hippocampal-dependent memory impairments observed in aging rats following a bacterial infection.

Barrientos, Ruth M.; Frank, Matthew G.; Hein, Amy M.; Higgins, Emily A.; Watkins, Linda R.; Rudy, Jerry W.; Maier, Steven F.



Differences in Socialization between Visually Impaired Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to…

Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh



Analysis of the sensory innervations of the greater trochanter for improving the treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome.  


In medical practice, greater trochanteric pain syndrome has an incidence of 5.6 per 1,000 adults per year, and affects up to 25% of patients with knee osteoarthritis and low back pain in industrialized nations. It also occurs as a complication after total hip arthroplasty. Different etiologies of the pain syndrome have been discussed, but an exact cause remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the sensory innervations of the greater trochanter in attempt to improve the treatment of this syndrome. Therefore, we dissected the gluteal region of seven adult and one fetal formalin fixed cadavers, and both macroscopic and microscopic examination was performed. We found a small sensory nerve supply to the periosteum and bursae of the greater trochanter. This nerve is a branch of the n. femoralis and accompanies the arteria and vena circumflexa femoris medialis and their trochanteric branches to the greater trochanter. This nerve enters the periosteum of the greater trochanter directly caudal to the tendon of the inferior gemellus muscle. This new anatomical information may be helpful in improving therapy, such as interventional denervation of the greater trochanter or anatomically guided injections with corticosteroids and local anesthetics. PMID:22374737

Genth, Birthe; Von Düring, Monika; Von Engelhardt, Lars Victor; Ludwig, Jörn; Teske, Wolfram; Von Schulze-Pellengahr, Christoph



Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof



[Drowsiness--greater traffic hazard than alcohol. Causes, risks and treatment].  


Stress and shortage of sleep may cause daytime somnolence and impaired vigilance at the wheel, especially among those suffering from sleep disturbances. According to the international consensus meeting in Stockholm in May of 2000 on "The sleepy driver and pilot--causes, risks and countermeasures", drowsy driving is an underestimated risk factor in official statistics, and as many as 15-30 percent of today's traffic accidents are related to drowsiness; thus it is an even greater risk factor than alcohol. Drowsy drivers suffer from inattention, impaired concentration and may even fall asleep at the wheel. Accidents during dozing result in three times as many fatalities as other accidents. There are a number of reasons for habitual drowsiness at the wheel aside from sleep deprivation, including rhonchopathy, shift work and jet lag, mental depression, insomnia, narcolepsy, endocrinological diseases, periodic limb movement disorder, medication, pain-disordered sleep, and heart disease. Among the most active drivers, i.e. middle aged men, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been found to be the most common reason for habitually drowsy driving. OSAS causes a 2-3 fold increased risk of traffic accidents, and it impairs simulated driving. Palatoplasty as well as nasal CPAP have been shown to improve vigilance and driving performance to an extent that the increase in risk is eliminated. Drivers suffering from habitual drowsiness and micro-sleep attacks forcing them to take repeated rests are at special risk. Even if they are as dangerous as drivers with unlawful blood alcohol levels they cannot be caught in a police checkpoint. However they often seek medial advice, and properly treated they may often return safely to traffic. If not, there could be a need to report them to the authorities so as to limit or prohibit their driving. PMID:11462875

Haraldsson, P O; Akerstedt, T



meteorological conditions leading to air-pollution episodes in greater cairo city (egypt)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different air-pollution episodes prevailed during autumn seasons of the years 1998 to 2002 in greater Cairo City. During those severe pollution episodes, referred to as “dark cloud” characterizing the serious impairment in visibility, many citizens experienced health problems such as difficulty in breathing and eye irritations. Pollutant concentrations often exceeded the air quality standards for alert criteria pollutants identified in the Egyptian law. The present study includes analysis of different weather patterns, during such episodes, with special reference to those that characterize stagnation conditions. Among the main findings is the frequent prevalence of upper air high pressure or ridge over Nile delta. Also nighttime cloudless skies contributed to unusual excessive decrease in surface temperature leading to a steep thermal temperature inversion. The emissions from power plants, traffics, and enterprises usually consist the background of the city pollution. These are usually accompanied with an increased city and agricultural open- air wastes burning pollution during episodic events.

El-Shahawy, M.; Hanna, A.



Recognition of facial emotional expression in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  


We examined whether recognition of facial emotional expression would be affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A total of 50 elderly persons met the initial inclusion criteria; 10 were subsequently excluded (Geriatric Depression Score > 5). 22 subjects were classified with aMCI based on published criteria (single domain aMCI [SD-aMCI], n = 10; multiple domain aMCI [MD-aMCI], n = 12); 18 subjects were cognitively normal. All underwent standard neurological and neuropsychological evaluations as well as tests of facial emotion recognition (FER) and famous faces identification (FFI). Among normal controls, FFI was negatively correlated with Mini-Mental Status Examination scores and positively correlated with executive function. Among patients with aMCI, FER was correlated with attention/speed of processing. No other correlations were significant. In a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, and education, a poorer score on FER, but not on FFI, was associated with greater odds of being classified as MD-aMCI (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-13.91; p = 0.042). This association was not explained by memory or global cognitive score. There was no association between FER or FFI and SD-aMCI (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.36-3.57; p = 0.836). Therefore, FER, but not FFI, may be impaired in MD-aMCI. This implies that in MD-aMCI, the tasks of FER and FFI may involve segregated neurocognitive networks. PMID:22954669

Varjassyová, Alexandra; Ho?ínek, Daniel; Andel, Ross; Amlerova, Jana; Laczó, Jan; Sheardová, Kate?ina; Magerová, Hana; Holmerová, Iva; Vyhnálek, Martin; Bradá?, Ond?ej; Geda, Yonas E; Hort, Jakub



Executive attention impairment in first-episode schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background We compared the attention abilities of a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and a group of healthy participants using the Attention Network Test (ANT), a standard procedure that estimates the functional state of three neural networks controlling the efficiency of three different attentional behaviors, i.e., alerting (achieving and maintaining a state of high sensitivity to incoming stimuli), orienting (ability to select information from sensory input), and executive attention (mechanisms for resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and actions). Methods We evaluated 22 FES patients from 17 to 29?years of age with a recent history of a single psychotic episode treated only with atypical neuroleptics, and 20 healthy persons matched with FES patients by sex, age, and educational level as the control group. Attention was estimated using the ANT in which participants indicate whether a central horizontal arrow is pointing to the left or the right. The central arrow may be preceded by spatial or temporal cues denoting where and when the arrow will appear, and may be flanked by other arrows (hereafter, flankers) pointing in the same or the opposite direction. Results The efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive networks was estimated by measuring how reaction time was influenced by congruency between temporal, spatial, and flanker cues. We found that the control group only demonstrated significantly greater attention efficiency than FES patients in the executive attention network. Conclusions FES patients are impaired in executive attention but not in alerting or orienting attention, suggesting that executive attention deficit may be a primary impairment during the progression of the disease.



Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  


Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species. PMID:15207051

Cunningham, Andrew A; Kirkwood, James K; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I; Green, Robert B; Wells, Gerald A H



Neurocognitive Impairment and HIV Risk Factors: A Reciprocal Relationship  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairment among populations at risk for HIV poses a significant barrier to managing risk behaviors. The impact of HIV and several cofactors, including substance abuse and mental illness, on cognitive function is discussed in the context of HIV risk behaviors, medication adherence, and risk-reduction interventions. Literature suggests that cognitive impairment is intertwined in a close, reciprocal relationship with both risk behaviors and medication adherence. Not only do increased risk behaviors and suboptimal adherence exacerbate cognitive impairment, but cognitive impairment also reduces the effectiveness of interventions aimed at optimizing medication adherence and reducing risk. In order to be effective, risk-reduction interventions must therefore take into account the impact of cognitive impairment on learning and behavior.

Anand, Pria; Springer, Sandra A.; Copenhaver, Michael M.



Impaired odor recognition memory in patients with hippocampal lesions  

PubMed Central

In humans, impaired recognition memory following lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region has been demonstrated for a wide variety of tasks. However, the importance of the human hippocampus for olfactory recognition memory has scarcely been explored. We evaluated the ability of memory-impaired patients with damage thought to be limited to the hippocampal region to recognize a list of odors. The patients were significantly impaired after a retention delay of 1 h. Olfactory sensitivity was intact. This finding is in agreement with earlier reports that rats with hippocampal lesions exhibited memory impairment on an odor delayed nonmatching to sample task (after 30 min and 1 h) and that patients with damage thought to be limited to the hippocampal region were impaired on an odor span memory task. Olfactory recognition memory, similar to recognition memory in other sensory modalities, depends on the integrity of the hippocampal region.

Levy, Daniel A.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.



Crustal Structure and Seismicity in the Greater Toronto Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake activity in southern Ontario is mainly concentrated in western Lake Ontario and environs. Although this region is not as seismically active as other areas of eastern Canada, the seismic risk remains a significant social and economic issue due to its high population density and concentration of critical facilities. Beneath major population centres such as the greater Toronto area (GTA), the deep structural framework of the crust has not been previously studied in detail. We have obtained initial results from a new 75-km seismic-reflection profile, acquired northeast of the GTA as part of a 340-km crustal seismic program. We have interpreted the seismic profile in conjunction with recent aeromagnetic data and revised earthquake hypocentre information. The seismic section provides a clear image of the Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary zone (CMBbz), a major tectonic boundary that formed 1.08 - 1.03 billion years ago. This zone appears to dip toward the southeast to a depth of at least 21 km (7 seconds two-way time), at a moderate angle (<40°). We have recalculated hypocentres of earthquakes recorded since 1991 by the Southern Ontario Seismograph Network (SOSN), to reduce positional uncertainty to smaller than a few km. Most of the seismicity occurs at less than 20 km depth. There is some evidence that at least one cluster of microearthquakes in western Lake Ontario may occur along a southeast-dipping plane, albeit with a steeper dip (~70°) than the CMBbz. On the basis of correlation of our seismic image and aeromagnetic maps, we propose a revised location for the subsurface trace of the western limit of the CMBbz. In our interpretation, this boundary follows a SW-NE trending magnetic low near the western shore of Lake Ontario. Our hypothesis reconciles the location of the CMBbz with a geochronologic drillcore measurement near Hamilton, and helps to resolve discrepancies from previous workers at the Canada-U.S. border. According to our model, the CMBbz also coincides approximately with the western limit of Lake Ontario seismicity. Since most of the seismicity is confined to areas under the lake, the circulation of water below Lake Ontario may be playing a major role in reactivating the CMBbz faults. The apparent contrast in level of seismicity on either side of the CMBbz, in our interpretation, may have important implications for understanding whether Precambrian structures influence the location of present-day earthquake activity.

Eaton, D.; O'Dowd, C.; Dineva, S.; Mereu, R.; Asmis, H.



Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.  


Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits. PMID:23213030

Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A



'Everyday memory' impairments in autism spectrum disorders.  


'Everyday memory' is conceptualised as memory within the context of day-to-day life and, despite its functional relevance, has been little studied in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the first study of its kind, 94 adolescents with an ASD and 55 without an ASD completed measures of everyday memory from the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) and a standard word recall task (Children's Auditory Verbal Learning Test-2: CAVLT-2). The ASD group showed significant impairments on the RBMT, including in prospective memory, alongside impaired performance on the CAVLT-2. Social and communication ability was significantly associated with prospective remembering in an everyday memory context but not with the CAVLT-2. The complex nature of everyday memory and its relevance to ASD is discussed. PMID:20635196

Jones, Catherine R G; Happé, Francesca; Pickles, Andrew; Marsden, Anita J S; Tregay, Jenifer; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Charman, Tony



Pharmacokinetics of amlodipine in renal impairment.  


The pharmacokinetics of amlodipine was studied in 27 subjects with renal function ranging from normal to dialysis-dependent. Amlodipine (as a single 5-mg capsule) was administered once daily for 14 days and its plasma concentrations were measured by gas chromatography during and after treatment. Renal impairment had little or no effect on the pharmacokinetics of amlodipine. The elimination half-life was of the order of 50 h, similar to previously observed values, and did not vary with differences in renal function. Steady-state predose concentrations were observed after the ninth dose. Accumulation of amlodipine to steady-state levels was not significantly different from that expected on theoretical grounds and did not significantly change with renal function. These results suggest that once-daily administration of amlodipine is suitable for all degrees of renal function and that dosage adjustment is not necessary in renal impairment. PMID:2467131

Laher, M S; Kelly, J G; Doyle, G D; Carmody, M; Donohoe, J F; Greb, H; Volz, M



Peripheral vision enhancement for the AMD impaired  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Image Jittering was explored as a way of enhancing the peripheral vision of the AMD-Impaired. In the experiments conducted we studied the visual response of 4 normal subjects to the jittering of a grating image. Results of this study indicate an enhancement in angular resolution of about 40% (14 cpd Vs. 10 cpd) upon image jittering with amplitudes varying between 5 and 10 pixels and temporal frequency varying between 0 to 15 Hz. No significant difference in enhancement was found between orthogonal and parallel jittering motion relative to the grating direction. There was also no significant difference between the 5 and 10 pixel amplitude used. These result suggest that image jittering can be used to enhance the impaired vision of AMD inflicted patients.

Weyl, Michael; Efron, Uzi



How impaired are children and adolescents by mental health problems? Results of the BELLA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The consideration of impairment plays a crucial role in detecting significant mental health problems in children whose symptoms\\u000a do not meet diagnostic criteria. The assessment of impairment may be particularly relevant when only short screening instruments\\u000a are applied in epidemiological surveys. Furthermore, differences between childrens’ and parents’ perceptions of present impairment\\u000a and impairing symptoms are of interest with respect to

Nora Wille; Susanne Bettge; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen; Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer



Profile of Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson Disease  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairment (CI) is a common non-motor complication of Parkinson disease (PD) and is associated with significant disability for patients and burden for caregivers. Similar to motor symptoms, the characteristics of CI in PD can be quite variable, both in terms of what cognitive domains are impaired and the timing of onset and rate of progression. This review will examine the profile of cognitive domain impairments observed in PD, with a focus on early CI (without dementia). We will also discuss possible relationships between specific cognitive domain impairments in PD and pathologic processes such as Lewy related pathology and Alzheimer’s disease. It is our hypothesis that the specific characteristics of CI observed in individual PD patients provides clues to the underlying pathologic processes and that understanding the biologic basis of this clinical phenomenon will assist in directing disease-specific treatments. Given the high lifetime risk for CI in PD it is imperative that we improve our understanding and treatments for this common and disabling problem in PD.

Watson, G. Stennis; Leverenz, James B.



Cognitive impairment and self-care in heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent chronic disease in older adults that requires extensive self-care to prevent decompensation and hospitalization. Cognitive impairment may impact the ability to perform HF self-care activities. We examined the association between cognitive impairment and adherence to self-care in patients hospitalized for acute HF. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants A total of 577 patients (mean age = 71 years, 44% female) hospitalized for HF at five medical centers in the United States and Canada. Measurements and methods Participants were interviewed for information on self-reported adherence to self-care using the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale. We assessed cognitive impairment in three domains (memory, processing speed, and executive function) using standardized measures. Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained through medical record review. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between cognitive impairment and self-care practices adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results A total of 453 patients (79%) were impaired in at least one cognitive domain. Average adherence to self-care activities among patients with global cognitive impairment did not differ significantly from those without cognitive impairment (30.5 versus 29.6; 45-point scale). However, impaired memory was associated with lower self-care scores (P = 0.006) in multivariable models. Conclusion Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent among older patients hospitalized for HF. Memory impairment is associated with poorer adherence to self-care practices. Screening for memory impairment in patients with HF may help to identify patients at risk for poor self-care who may benefit from tailored disease management programs.

Hajduk, Alexandra M; Lemon, Stephenie C; McManus, David D; Lessard, Darleen M; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Spencer, Frederick A; Goldberg, Robert J; Saczynski, Jane S




Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey



Thermal evolution of the Greater Himalaya, Garhwal, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hanging wall of the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Garhwal, India (roughly 79°N-80°E; 30°N-31°N), exhibits an inverted metamorphic gradient: sillimanite ± potassium feldspar assemblages near the top of the hanging wall, or Greater Himalayan sequence, are underlain by kyanite grade rocks near the fault. Textural relationships in pelitic samples from the Alaknanda and Dhauli river valleys indicate that the "inversion" is the product of two distinct metamorphic events: an early Harrovian event (M1), which affected the entire Greater, Himalayan sequence and a later Buchan event (M2), the effects of which are most obvious in the upper part of the sequence. Rim thermobarometry, garnet inclusion thermobarometry, and thermodynamic modeling of garnet zoning reveal that the basal portions of the metamorphic sequence experienced peak M1 conditions of >900 K and >960 MPa (roughly 36 km depth) before following an "erosion controlled" uplift path (e.g., England and Richardson, 1977). M2 metamorphic temperatures in the upper part of the sequence also exceeded 900 K, but maximum pressures (317-523 MPa) indicate paleodepths of only 12-19 km. Calculated pressure-temperature paths indicate that M2 was characterized by temperature increases of >80 K and roughly 5 km of tectonic burial We attribute M1 to tectonic burial of the Greater Himalayan sequence during the early stages of India-Eurasia collision. We believe that the uplift and cooling path of the sequence was interrupted in late Oligocene(?) - Miocene time by a second burial and heating event (M2) related to thrust imbrications in southern Tibet. This burial was coincident with the generation of leucogranites, which are abundant near the top of the Greater Himalayan sequence but are virtually absent near the MCT. Field relations do not constrain whether the leucogranites were derived from some presently unexposed portion of the Greater Himalayan sequence and were injected at their present structural level, or were melted in situ. If the granites were injected, then they may have provided some of the heat necessary for M2 metamorphism. Although our data suggest no direct relationship between the Main Central Thrust (as mapped in Garhwal) and metamorphism in the Greater Himalaya, anatectic melting of an unexposed portion of the Greater Himalayan sequence could have been associated with movement along a blind thrust with characteristics similar to the mapped MCT in central Nepal (cf. Le Fort, 1981). If the granites were produced by in situ M2 melting, then we must appeal to a heat source within the upper part of the Greater Himalayan sequence such as locally high concentrations of heat-producing elements (cf. Pinet and Jaupart, 1987).

Hodges, K. V.; Silverberg, David Scott



Detecting Novelty and Significance  

PubMed Central

Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance.

Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.



Response conflict as an environmental determinant of gender differences in sensitivity to alcohol impairment.  


The majority of research examining gender differences in alcohol impairment has found greater impairment in women. However, some studies report greater responsivity in men, particularly in situations involving competing response tendencies (e.g., inhibitory control and aggression tasks), suggesting that response conflict could account for these contradictory findings. Drawing on data from previous experiments conducted in our laboratory, the current study examined this hypothesis by comparing the alcohol sensitivity of gender groups on a broad range of behavioral tasks. Tasks were categorized as high or low conflict based on whether tasks involved competing response tendencies. Results showed that women displayed greater impairment from alcohol than men on low conflict tasks, and men were more impaired than women on high conflict tasks. These findings suggest that response conflict might play an important role in the occasional and contradictory observations in which men demonstrate more intense behavioral reactions to alcohol than women. PMID:20500155

Weafer, J; Miller, M A; Fillmore, M T



Perceptual and associative knowledge in category specific impairment of semantic memory: a study of two cases.  


We report two head-injured patients whose knowledge of living things was selectively disrupted. Their semantic knowledge was tested with naming and verbal comprehension tasks and a verbal questionnaire. In all of them there was consistent evidence that knowledge of living things was impaired and that of non-living things was relatively preserved. The living things deficit emerged irrespective of whether the question tapped associative or perceptual knowledge or required visual or non visual information. In all tasks the category effect was still significant after the influence on the performance of the following variables was partialled out: word frequency, concept familiarity, prototypicality, name agreement, image agreement and visual complexity. In the verbal questionnaire dissociations were still significant even after adjustment for the difficulty of questions for normals, that had proven greater for living things. Besides diffuse brain damage, both patients presented with a left posterior temporo-parietal lesion. PMID:8124946

Laiacona, M; Barbarotto, R; Capitani, E



Late life depression with cognitive impairment: Evaluation and treatment  

PubMed Central

Older adults with depression often present with signs and symptoms indicative of functional or cognitive impairment. These somatic symptoms make evaluating and treating depression in older adults more complex. Late life depression (LLD), depression in adults over the age of 65, is more frequently associated with cognitive changes. Cognitive impairment in LLD may be a result of the depressive disorder or an underlying dementing condition. Memory complaints are also common in older adults with depression. There is a wide range of cognitive impairment in LLD including decreased central processing speed, executive dysfunction, and impaired short-term memory. The etiology of cognitive impairment in LLD may include cerebrovascular disease, a significant risk factor for LLD, which likely interrupts key pathways between frontal white matter and subcortical structures important in mood regulation. Because depressive symptoms often coexist with dementia, it is important to determine the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive change. If depressive symptoms pre-date the cognitive impairment and cognitive symptoms are mild and temporary, LLD is the likely etiology of the cognitive impairment. If cognitive changes appear prior to depressive symptoms and persist after LLD is successfully treated, an underlying dementia is more likely. Clinicians should be exclude common conditions such as thyroid disease which can contribute to depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment prior to treating LLD. Both antidepressants and psychotherapy can be effective in treating LLD. Subsequent evaluations following treatment should also reassess cognition.

Wilkins, Consuelo H; Mathews, Jose; Sheline, Yvette I



The Cyclic Behavior of the Greater London Office Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies structural econometric methodology to estimating and forecasting the greater London office market. We assemble a time series covering the 1970–1995 period and estimate equations for net space absorption, movements in rents, and new building orders. Together with two identities, calculating the stock and vacancy, these form a complete model. We estimate a generally inelastic supply and demand




Gender Differences in Responses to Friends' Hypothetical Greater Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on previous findings in which the dynamics off friendships of girls and boys were shown to vary, it was believed that girls and boys would differ in their caring about their friends `hypothetical greater success. A questionnaire was completed by 18 girls and 23 boys from 7th and 8th grades about how much those adolescents cared about being successful

Joyce F. Benenson; Deborah Benarroch



Spar technology takes oil exploration to greater depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf is the hottest exploration site in the world. How has this geological expanse, once considered in its declining years of oil and gas production, reawakened as a giant in drilling and exploration activity? Technological advances in deep-water drilling and recovery are the answer. Tension leg platforms have pioneered the path to greater depths with capabilities to 7,000 ft,





Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the various elements that enter into the relation between higher education expansion and income distribution. Contrary to the prevailing ideology, the paper suggests that under certain conditions the mass expansion of higher education can contribute to greater income inequality. These conditions are related to three important variables not usually considered in the education-income distribution model: rising returns

Martin Carnoy



Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by




External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

Beachler, Judith


Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.




Microsoft Academic Search

China has an expanding body of strategic interests in the greater Middle East region. This is manifested in its security relationships with Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Pakistan, which entail WMD and ballistic missile cooperation. Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Pakistan are pivotal states in the region. They are increasingly likely to view China in coming years as an alternate source of

Richard L. Russell



Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand temporal variations in species diversity and composition, ecological attributes, and environmental influences for the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale community, we studied 50,900 fossil specimens belonging to 158 genera (mostly monospecific and non-biomineralized) representing 17 major taxonomic groups and 17 ecological categories. Fossils were collected in situ from within 26 massive siliciclastic mudstone beds of the Greater Phyllopod

Jean-Bernard Caron; Donald A. Jackson



Creating Communities of Learning: Public Education in Greater Boston.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper asserts that central to the debate over excellence and equity in education is the shifting nature of authority over public education in the schools and school districts of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, noting that the autonomy that local school districts have historically exercised is fading, if not gone. The 1993 Massachusetts…

Portz, John


The Greater Yellowstone policy debate: What is the policy problem?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yellowstone National Park and the surrounding mountainous region comprise the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), a 19 million acre area that is one of the few relatively intact ecosystems in the lower 48 states. Conservationists believe that continuation of present land management practices in the region will disrupt the ecological integrity of the GYE. Many authors have identified and described these

Steven A. Primm; Tim W. Clark



The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

Gardner, Philip



The greater than twofold cost of integration for retroviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual reproduction, typically conceived of as a puzzling feature of eukaryotes, has posed an extraordinary evolutionary challenge in terms of the twofold replicative advantage of asexual over sexual organisms. Here we show mathematically that a greater than twofold cost is paid by retroviruses such as HIV during reverse transcription. For a retrovirus, replication is achieved through RNA reverse transcription and

David C. Krakauer; Akira Sasaki



The Greater London Authority - a Clash of Organisational Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The creation of the new Greater London Authority, with effect from June 2000, has provoked considerable interest in policy and academic circles. It stands as an innovation in London governance, an experiment with the mayoral system in British politics and yet another example of the New Labour programme of modernisation and constitutional reform. For all these reasons, the GLA provides

Yvonne Rydin; Andy Thornley; Kath Scanlon; Karen West


Slimness is Associated with Greater Intercourse and Lesser Masturbation Frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19–38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with




Restaurants in the greater Athens area: a service for all?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eating (especially dining) in restaurants as a form of entertainment constitutes a practice that has been intensely developed, and socially broadened, in recent decades in most of the developed countries. The conditions in the labour market and the changing demographic structures have created much greater needs for consuming meals outside the home. At the same time, the growth of tourism,

Alex M. Deffner; Thomas Maloutas



Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.


Solvent shows greater efficiency in sweetening of gas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Owing to their availability and good solubility characteristics, physical solvents are growing in use for the removal of acid components from natural gas and coal-gasification products, report West Germany's Wintershall AG and BASF AG. Particularly when the hydrogen sulfide partial pressure is greater than 14.5 psi (1 bar), physical solvents offer substantial advantages over chemical methods; the amount of dissolved

W. Wolfer; E. Schwartz; W. Vodrazka; K. Volkamer



Multiple Task Interference is Greater in Children With ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is considerable lay discussion that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased difficulty with multitasking, but there are few experimental data. In the current study, we examine the simultaneous processing of two stimulus–response tasks using the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) effect. We hypothesized that children with ADHD would show a greater PRP effect, suggesting a prolonged “bottleneck”

Joshua B. Ewen; Jeffrey S. Moher; Balaji M. Lakshmanan; Matthew Ryan; Priya Xavier; Nathan E. Crone; Martha B. Denckla; Howard Egeth; E. Mark Mahone



Greater orthostatic tolerance in young black compared to white women  

PubMed Central

We hypothesized that orthostatic tolerance is higher in young, healthy black compared to white women. To determine orthostatic tolerance, twenty-two women (11 black, 11 white) underwent graded lower body negative pressure to presyncope. We measured blood pressure, heart rate, and R-R interval (ECG) continuously at baseline and through all levels of lower body negative pressure. Blood samples were taken at baseline and presyncope for the measurement of plasma catecholamine concentrations, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity. Cumulative stress index (CSI), the sum of the product of time and lower body negative pressure, was the indicator of orthostatic tolerance. Orthostatic tolerance in the black women was greater than in the white women [CSI=-1003 (375) vs. -476 (197) P < 0.05]. While P[NE] increased in both groups at presyncope, the increase was greater in black [? P[NE] 167 (123)] versus white women [86 (64), P < 0.05], as were the increases in PRA [? PRA 2.6 (1.0) versus 0.6 (0.9) ng ANG II·ml-1 ·hr-1, P < 0.05, for black and white women, respectively). Although heart rate increased and R-R interval decreased to a greater extent during lower body negative pressure in black women compared to white women [ANOVA, P < 0.05)], baroreflex function (i.e. slope R-R interval vs. systolic blood pressure) was unaffected by race. These data indicate that orthostatic tolerance is greater in black compared to white women, which appears to be a function of greater sympathetic nervous system responses to orthostatic challenges.

Hinds, Kumba; Stachenfeld, Nina



Renal impairment in a rural African antiretroviral programme  

PubMed Central

Background There is little knowledge regarding the prevalence and nature of renal impairment in African populations initiating antiretroviral treatment, nor evidence to inform the most cost effective methods of screening for renal impairment. With the increasing availability of the potentially nephrotixic drug, tenofovir, such information is important for the planning of antiretroviral programmes Methods (i) Retrospective review of the prevalence and risk factors for impaired renal function in 2189 individuals initiating antiretroviral treatment in a rural African setting between 2004 and 2007 (ii) A prospective study of 149 consecutive patients initiating antiretrovirals to assess the utility of urine analysis for the detection of impaired renal function. Severe renal and moderately impaired renal function were defined as an estimated GFR of ? 30 mls/min/1.73 m2 and 30–60 mls/min/1.73 m2 respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratio (OR) of significantly impaired renal function (combining severe and moderate impairment). Co-variates for analysis were age, sex and CD4 count at initiation. Results (i) There was a low prevalence of severe renal impairment (29/2189, 1.3% 95% C.I. 0.8–1.8) whereas moderate renal impairment was more frequent (287/2189, 13.1% 95% C.I. 11.6–14.5) with many patients having advanced immunosuppression at treatment initiation (median CD4 120 cells/?l). In multivariable logistic regression age over 40 (aOR 4.65, 95% C.I. 3.54–6.1), male gender (aOR 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.39–2.56) and CD4<100 cells/ul (aOR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.07–1.82) were associated with risk of significant renal impairment (ii) In 149 consecutive patients, urine analysis had poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting impaired renal function. Conclusion In this rural African setting, significant renal impairment is uncommon in patients initiating antiretrovirals. Urine analysis alone may be inadequate for identification of those with impaired renal function where resources for biochemistry are limited.



Correlates of cognitive impairment in older Vietnamese.  


Objectives: This study examined correlates of cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment among older adults living in Da Nang, Vietnam and surrounding rural areas. Methods: The analytic sample consisted of 489 adults, 55 and older stratified by gender, age, and residence in a rural or urban area. The sample was 46% rural, 44% women, with a mean age of 69.04. Interviews were conducted in individuals' homes by trained interviewers. The dependent variable was a Vietnamese version of the mini mental status examination (MMSE). A multiple linear regression was run with the MMSE continuous scores reflecting cognitive functioning, while a binary logistic regression was conducted with an education-adjusted cut-off score reflecting possible cognitive impairment. Age, gender, education, material hardship, depressive symptoms Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale, war injury, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease conditions served as correlates, controlling for marital status and rural/urban residence. Results: About 33% of the sample scored below the standard cutoff of 23 on the MMSE. However, only 12.9% of the sample would be considered impaired using the education-adjusted cut-off score. Cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment as indicated by MMSE scores were significantly associated with being older, completing fewer years of education, and material hardship. Gender, depressive symptoms, and cerebrovascular disease were associated with cognitive functioning, but not cognitive impairment. Conclusion: These results show that social characteristics, physical illness, and mental health are associated with cognitive functioning. The study also raises questions about the need for standardization of screening measures on Vietnamese populations. PMID:23697847

Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H; Hoang, Chuong N; Nguyen, Ha T



Multiple sclerosis with predominant, severe cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe the characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) presenting with severe cognitive impairment as its primary disabling manifestation. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tertiary referral center. Patients Patients were identified through the Mayo Clinic data retrieval system (1996–2008) with definite MS (McDonald criteria) and severe cognitive impairment as their primary neurological symptom without accompanying significant MS-related impairment or alternative diagnosis for cognitive dysfunction. Twenty-three patients meeting inclusion criteria were compared regarding demographics, clinical course and radiological features. Main Outcome Measures Demographic, clinical, and radiological characteristics of the disease. Results Twelve patients were men. The median age of the first clinical symptom suggestive of CNS demyelination was 33 years, and severe MS-related cognitive impairment developed at a median of 39 years. Cognitive impairment could be dichotomized as subacute fulminant (n=9) or chronic progressive (n=14) in presentation, which corresponded to subsequent relapsing or progressive MS courses. Study patients commonly exhibited psychiatric (65%), mild cerebellar (57%) and cortical symptoms and signs (e.g. seizure, aphasia, apraxia) (39%). Fourteen of 21 (67%), where documented, smoked cigarettes. Brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cerebral atrophy in 16 and gadolinium enhancing lesions in 11. Asymptomatic spinal cord MRI lesions were present in 12 of 16 patients (75%). Immunomodulatory therapies were generally ineffective in improving these patients. Conclusions We describe patients with MS whose clinical phenotype is characterized by severe cognitive dysfunction and prominent cortical and psychiatric signs presenting as a subacute fulminant or chronic progressive clinical course. Cigarette smokers may be over represented in this phenotype.

Staff, Nathan P.; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Keegan, B. Mark



Do psychiatric patients need greater protection than medical patients when they consent to treatment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is commonly assumed that psychiatric patients require greater protection than medical patients when they make health care decisions. A review of the literature reveals that there is meager evidence for this belief and that both groups have significant capacity problems. Many factors other than psychiatric illness have been shown to impede understanding of informed consent information in health care

Francine Cournos



A Greater Society: The Transformation of the Federal Role in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The federal role in education will soon be transformed in ways that could produce an even greater society than President Lyndon B. Johnson envisioned. The authors identify underlying principles of this new role and describe how it represents a significant departure from the past. Historically, for example, the federal government has been…

Wise, Bob; Rothman, Robert



Challenges and prospects for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite significant improvement in the malaria situation of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), malaria control for the region continues to face a multitude of challenges. The extremely patchy malaria distribution, especially along international borders, makes disease surveillance and targeted control difficult. The vector systems are also diverse with dramatic differences in habitat ecology, biting behavior, and vectorial capacity, and there

Liwang Cui; Guiyun Yan; Jetsumon Sattabongkot; Bin Chen; Yaming Cao; Qi Fan; Daniel Parker; Jeeraphat Sirichaisinthop; Xin-zhuan Su; Henglin Yang; Zhaoqing Yang; Baomin Wang; Guofa Zhou


Children with unexplained chronic pain: substantial impairment in everyday life  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe and quantify impairment in an outpatient population of children with chronic pain of unknown origin (UCP). Methods: A total of 149 children who presented with pain of at least three months' duration and without a satisfactory explanation at presentation were studied. Number of somatic complaints (Children's Somatisation Inventory, CSI), pain intensity (VAS, 0–10 cm), functional disability (Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-CF) and clinical history), and general health perceptions (CHQ) were determined. Results: Mean age of the children was 11.8 years; 73% were girls. Overall, 72% suffered impairment in sports activities, 51% reported absence from school, 40% experienced limitations in social functioning, and 34% had problems with sleeping. Mean number of somatic symptoms differed significantly between boys (8.4) and girls (10.7). The CHQ-CF scores for physical functioning, role/social functioning, and general health perceptions were 76.4, 70.7, and 57.5, respectively, indicating substantial impairment on all domains. The mean pain intensity was 4.7 for current and 7.1 for worst pain. Children solely evaluated by a general practitioner prior to referral reported less, though still substantial, impairment. Low general health perceptions, impaired role/social functioning, high pain intensity, and having headache or musculoskeletal pain were independent predictors of having significant impairment. Conclusions: Referred children with UCP show substantial impairment on multiple domains in daily life.

Konijnenberg, A; Uiterwaal, C; Kimpen, J; van der Hoeven, J; Buitelaar, J; de Graeff-Meeder, E R



Subcutaneous Interferon ?-1a May Protect against Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: 5-Year Follow-up of the COGIMUS Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effects of subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) -1a on cognition over 5 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods Patients aged 18–50 years with RRMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ?4.0) who had completed the 3-year COGIMUS study underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging, neurological examination, and neuropsychological testing at years 4 and 5. Predictors of cognitive impairment at year 5 were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Of 331 patients who completed the 3-year COGIMUS study, 265 participated in the 2-year extension study, 201 of whom (75.8%; sc IFN ?-1a three times weekly: 44 µg, n?=?108; 22 µg, n?=?93) completed 5 years' follow-up. The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment in the study population overall remained stable between baseline (18.0%) and year 5 (22.6%). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment also remained stable in both treatment groups between baseline and year 5, and between year 3 and year 5. However, a significantly higher proportion of men than women had cognitive impairment at year 5 (26.5% vs 14.4%, p?=?0.046). Treatment with the 22 versus 44 µg dose was predictive of cognitive impairment at year 5 (hazard ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.48–0.97). Conclusions This study suggests that sc IFN ?-1a dose-dependently stabilizes or delays cognitive impairment over a 5-year period in most patients with mild RRMS. Women seem to be more protected against developing cognitive impairment, which may indicate greater response to therapy or the inherently better prognosis associated with female sex in MS.

Patti, Francesco; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Amato, Maria Pia; Trojano, Maria; Bastianello, Stefano; Tola, Maria Rosalia; Cottone, Salvatore; Plant, Andrea; Picconi, Orietta



Nursing management of hearing impairment in nursing facility residents.  


This article has described the key points in the evidence-based practice guideline entitled Nursing Management of Hearing Impairment in Nursing Facility Residents. The guideline outlining the nursing management of nursing facility residents with hearing impairment is supported by 175 articles: 94 research articles (both experimental and descriptive) and 81 nonresearch articles (expert opinion). The full guideline includes the significance of hearing impairment, key definitions, individuals at risk, assessment criteria and tools, description of practice, and steps for evaluation and outcomes. We believe the implementation of this evidence-based practice guideline will improve the quality of life and quality of care of nursing facility residents. PMID:19024425

Adams-Wendling, Linda; Pimple, Cathy; Adams, Susan; Titler, Marita G



Cognitive impairment and hospital use.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND. An increasing number of older people are at higher risk of developing Alzheimer's Disease or another dementias. The resultant cognitive impairment has been well identified as one of the risk factors for nursing home placement but it has not been well studied as a risk for hospitalization. METHODS. To study the association between cognitive impairment and hospital use, this study examined data from a randomly selected cohort of community dwelling California elderly (California Senior Survey). The cohort was followed for one year (N = 940). RESULTS. Only about 17 percent of the study population was in the mildly or moderately/severe impaired category. Those participants with cognitive impairment were almost twice as likely as those without any impairment to be hospitalized and to be hospitalized for six days or more. CONCLUSIONS. Although the cause of the cognitive impairment and hospitalization was not determined in this study, the data support the importance of cognitive impairment as a risk factor for hospital use even after controlling for age, ADL, IADL, and prior hospitalizations. The causes for this need to be further examined so the burden of such care can be reduced.

Weiler, P G; Lubben, J E; Chi, I



The Significance of Replication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much has been made of an apparent lack of reproducibility in so called ``cold fusion'' experiments. In this paper we will demonstrate that this failure, while real, was the result of inability to meet critical threshold criteria: a thermodynamic loading, dynamic flux and disequilibrium trigger. Recent experiments, performed independently at SRI and ENEA, have successfully replicated powerful excess heat results obtained initially by Energetics in Israel. This success and high levels of experiment reproducibility are attributed to two critical factors that allow these threshold barriers to be surpassed: i)achievement and maintenance of a high level of control of the metallurgy of the bulk palladium metal host and the cathode surface morphology, guided by initial studies at ENEA and the University of Rome,ii) use of a novel non steady-state cathode current stimulus, proposed and developed by Energetics. With simultaneous high deuterium loading and high flux, excess heat effects were measured in both Isoperibolic and Mass Flow calorimeters at factors several times greater than the electrical input power and several orders of magnitude larger than the sum of all conceivable chemical reactions.

McKrubre, Michael C. H.; Tanzella, Francis L.; Violante, Vittorio



Harlequin ichthyosis in two greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).  


Two greater kudu calves (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) born 7 years apart were found with fissures and thickened, scaly, cutaneous plates covering over 80% of their bodies. One was dead at presentation, and the other was euthanized shortly after birth. Both animals shared a common sire. On necropsy, chemosis, ectropion, eclabium, and bilateral valgus deformities of the tarsal joints were observed in one calf, presumed to be secondary to the plates restricting normal fetal development. The principal microscopic lesion was severe lamellar orthokeratosis, with focal mild parakeratosis. Ultrastructural epidermal lesions included the absence of normal lamellar granules, large dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and abnormal retention of organelles and vesicles. Gross, histopathologic, and electron microscopic findings in both kudu calves were consistent with those of harlequin ichthyosis, a rare dermatosis of humans believed to have an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. The underlying genetic and molecular abnormality and heritability of this condition in this greater kudu herd were not determined. PMID:12450210

Chittick, E J; Olivry, T; Dalldorf, F; Wright, J; Dale, B A; Wolfe, B A



The relationship between diabetic retinopathy and cognitive impairment.  


OBJECTIVE Recent studies have shown an increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with diabetes. An association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal microvasculature disease and cognitive impairment has been reported as potential evidence for a microvascular component to the cognitive impairment. It was hypothesized that severity of DR would be associated with cognitive impairment in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Three hundred eighty patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a population-based eye screening program and grouped by severity of DR as follows: no/mild DR (n = 252) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 128). Each participant underwent psychosocial assessment; depression screening; ophthalmic and physical examination, including blood assays; and cognitive assessment with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Mini-Cog. General linear modeling was used to examine severity of DR and cognitive impairment, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS Severity of DR demonstrated an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment (fully adjusted R(2) = 0.415, P < 0.001). Ethnicity contributed most to the variance observed (16%) followed by education (7.3%) and retinopathy status (6.8%). The no/mild DR group had lower cognitive impairment scores on ACE-R (adjusted mean ± SE 77.0 ± 1.9) compared with the PDR group (82.5 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). The MMSE cutoff scores showed that 12% of the no/mild DR group (n = 31) had positive screening results for dementia or significant cognitive impairment compared with 5% in the PDR group (n = 6). CONCLUSIONS Patients with minimal DR demonstrated more cognitive impairment than those with advanced DR. Therefore, the increased prevalence of cognitive impairment in diabetes may be associated with factors other than evident retinal microvascular disease. PMID:23633523

Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne R; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Amiel, Stephanie; Forbes, Angus



[Mild cognitive impairment: imaging data].  


The diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) as defined by Petersen et al. (1997), is based uniquely on clinical observations. Cerebral imaging, both morphological and functional, may in fact facilitate diagnosis, particularly with regard to the differentiation of sub-types of MCI and the identification of prodromal AD (MCI-AD). Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imagery (MRI) examination of structures affected early in AD such as entorhinal cortex, the temporal lobe and, above all, the hippocampus, are especially useful. Hypoactivity within these regions, especially of the temporal lobe and posterior cingulate gyrus by Positon Emission Tomography, and more recently monophotonic emission tomoscintigraphy, also appears to have diagnostic utility. Studies of cholinergic system activity by functional imaging may also be of future value in MCI-AD diagnosis. MRI used in conjunction with other techniques may be of significant value, in particular the use of spectro-MRI and functional MRI. This latter technique, leading to the development of cognitive activation paradigms, is particularly promising. PMID:12529582

Touchon, J; Portet, F



Impaired Performance in Commercial Drivers  

PubMed Central

Sleepiness plays an important role in major crashes of commercial vehicles. Because determinants are likely to include inadequate sleep and sleep apnea, we evaluated the role of short sleep durations over 1 wk at home and sleep apnea in subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), objective sleepiness (reduced sleep latency as determined by the Multiple Sleep Latency Test), and neurobehavioral functioning (lapses in performance, tracking error in Divided Attention Driving Task) in commercial drivers. Studies were conducted in 247 of 551 drivers at higher risk for apnea and in 159 of 778 drivers at lower risk. A multivariate linear association between the sets of outcomes and risk factors was confirmed (p < 0.0001). Increases in subjective sleepiness were associated with shorter sleep durations but not with increases in severity of apnea. Increases in objective sleepiness and performance lapses, as well as poorer lane tracking, were associated with shorter sleep durations. Associations with sleep apnea severity were not as robust and not strictly monotonic. A significant linear association with sleep apnea was demonstrated only for reduced sleep latency. The effects of severe apnea (apnea–hypopnea index, at least 30 episodes/h), which occurred in 4.7%, and of sleep duration less than 5 h/night, which occurred in 13.5%, were similar in terms of their impact on objective sleepiness. Thus, addressing impairment in commercial drivers requires addressing both insufficient sleep and sleep apnea, the former being more common.

Pack, Allan I.; Maislin, Greg; Staley, Bethany; Pack, Frances M.; Rogers, William C.; George, Charles F. P.; Dinges, David F.



O felix culpa, redemption, and the Greater-Good Defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common to Alvin Platinga's Free-Will Defense, John Hick's Soul-Growth Theodicy, and Keith Yandell's Growth-to-Moral_Maturity Specification of his Greater-Good Defense, is a concept that almost gets lost in labyrinthine discussions of possible-worlds ontology, epistemic distance, and justification patterns. The concept is redemption, and in the following I argue the concept in question should be given a more central role in the

Melville Stewart



Urbanization and green space dynamics in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green space is particularly indispensable for proper functioning of the ecosystem in an urban environment. This study was\\u000a an attempt to dynamically map and monitor green spaces in Greater Dhaka of Bangladesh. Both primary and secondary data were\\u000a acquired to document the spatial–temporal dynamics of green spaces in the study area. Using a supervised classification algorithm,\\u000a multi-temporal land use\\/cover data

Talukder Byomkesh; Nobukazu Nakagoshi; Ashraf M. Dewan


Greater forearm venous compliance in resistance-trained men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater venous compliance is associated with attenuation of the tolerance response to orthostatic stress and reduced incidence\\u000a of venous diseases. Resistance training induces tolerance to orthostatic challenge and the growth of capillaries, which may\\u000a lead to negative and positive effects on venous compliance, respectively. It has not been confirmed, however, whether habitual\\u000a resistance training positively or negatively affects venous compliance.

Hiroshi Kawano; Michiya Tanimoto; Kenta Yamamoto; Yuko Gando; Kiyoshi Sanada; Izumi Tabata; Mitsuru Higuchi; Motohiko Miyachi



Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different

L. E. Trevorrow; T. L. Gilbert; C. Luner; P. A. Merry-Libby; N. K. Meshkov; C. Yu



Nevada test site experience with greater confinement disposal  

SciTech Connect

At the NTS, we consider Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) to be a good waste management practice rather than a disposal technology. This is an important distinction because it redefines the nature of GCD. All disposal facilities operate under the principal of ''as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) in reducing personnel and public exposures. ALARA is not a technology or method but a principal put into practice. We view GCD in the same manner.

Dickman, P.T.; Boland, J.R.



Social calls coordinate foraging in greater spear-nosed bats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of social calls emitted by foraging bats has received little study. Here we use observations of free-ranging greater spear-nosed bats,Phyllostomus hastatus, and field playbacks to determine whether audible, broad-band ‘screech’ calls attract mates, warn conspecifics or influence access to food. Five lines of evidence suggest that screech calls enable adult females from the same roosting group to fly




Atmospheric Formaldehyde Monitoring in the Greater Houston Area in 2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laser spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) was deployed for real-time long-term monitoring of HCHO concen- trations at an environmental monitoring site located at Deer Park, Texas, in the Greater Houston area. Three HCHO concentration measurements were made during the periods of July 20-31 (period I), August 2-14 (period II), and August 24-September 25 (period III), 2002. In

Jinhai Chen; Stephen So; Hoason Lee; Matthew P. Fraser; Robert F. Curl; Thomas Harman; Frank K. Tittel



Tips for Runners with Visual Impairments  


... Runners with Visual Impairments Tips for Runners with Visual Impairments If you're a runner, or would like ... Petition Share: Email Print Tips for Runners with Visual Impairments Back to : Recreation Directory of Services Find Local ...


Drowsiness, impaired performance and tricyclic antidepressants drugs.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of amitriptyline, protriptyline, protriptyline, and a chemically related potential antidepressant, BW247, on performance tests and subjective ratings were studied. 2. Two groups of twelve healthy subjects received drugs and lactose dummy in identical capsules at weekly intervals according to a balanced design, under double-blind conditions, and with standarized tests and environment. 3. Amitriptyline produced the most marked effects, with significant (P less than 0.05) impairment in auditory vigilance after 6.25 mg. Auditory reaction time, tapping rate, arithmetic, and digit symbol substitutions were impaired by amitriptyline 12.5 and 25 mg and all doses produced increased ratings of mental sedation. The effects began 1.5 h after drug and lasted approximately 5 h. 4. Nortriptyline produced fewer effects which were later in onset. Tapping at 1.8 h and auditory vigilance at 3.5 to 4.5 h were impaired by nortriptyline 25 mg whereas reaction time was prolonged by both doses at 5 h. No change in rating of mental sedation occurred. 5. No significant change in performance or subjective ratings followed protriptyline 10 mg or BW247, 12.5 and 25 mg. 6. The findings are discussed in relation to the presence of secondary and tertiary amines on the side chain of the compounds, and their relative abilities to block neuronal uptake of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine.

Bye, C; Clubley, M; Peck, A W



Necrotizing fasciitis following endoscopic harvesting of the greater saphenous vein for coronary artery bypass graft.  


The greater saphenous vein (GSV) remains the most commonly harvested conduit for revascularization in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Published literature shows that minimally invasive vein harvesting techniques have a significantly lower incidence of wound infection rates than conventional open vein harvesting techniques have. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis, an infection with a mortality rate of 30% to 50%, after endoscopic harvesting of the greater saphenous vein to be used as a conduit in a CABG procedure. Though minimally invasive vein harvesting techniques have advantages of smaller incisions and a decreased overall rate of wound infection, clinicians should be aware of this potentially lethal infection that may occur. PMID:21902951

Liliav, Benjamin; Yakoub, Danny; Kasabian, Armen


Preventing impaired driving opportunities and problems.  


Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested. PMID:22330222

Voas, Robert B; Fell, James C



Photoreceptor impairment and restoration on optical coherence tomographic image.  


With recent development of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), the pathological changes of retina can be observed in much greater detail. SD-OCT clearly delineates three highly reflective lines in the outer retina, which are external limiting membrane (ELM), photoreceptor inner and outer segment (IS/OS) junction, and cone outer segment tips (COST) in order from inside. These lines can serve as hallmarks for the evaluation of photoreceptor condition. In retinitis pigmentosa (RP) leading to photoreceptor degeneration, the ELM, IS/OS, and COST lines are shortened with the progression of the disease. In addition, shortening of the ELM, IS/OS and COST lines is significantly associated with each other. The line length is longest in the ELM, followed by the IS/OS, and COST, suggesting that retinal layer becomes disorganized first at the COST, followed by the IS/OS and finally the ELM. This finding is consistent with the previous report that the earliest histopathological change in RP is a shortening of the photoreceptor outer segments. On the other hand, retinal layer becomes restored first at the ELM, followed by the IS/OS and finally the COST after macular hole surgery. There may be a directionality of photoreceptor impairment or restoration on optical coherence tomographic image. PMID:23691278

Mitamura, Yoshinori; Mitamura-Aizawa, Sayaka; Katome, Takashi; Naito, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Akira; Kumagai, Ken; Yamamoto, Shuichi



Contextual Social Cognition Impairments in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. Methodology/Principal Findings This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge) that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients’ depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. Conclusions/Significance Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed.

Villarin, Lilian; Theil, Donna; Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Gomez, Pedro; Mosquera, Marcela; Huepe, David; Strejilevich, Sergio; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Matthaus, Franziska; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin M.



Perfluorochemical (PFC) Exposure in Children: Associations with Impaired Response Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used widely in consumer products since the 1950s and are currently found at detectable levels in the blood of humans and animals across the globe. In stark contrast to this widespread exposure to PFCs, there is relatively little research on potential adverse health effects of exposure to these chemicals. Objectives We performed this cross-sectional study to determine if specific blood PFC levels are associated with impaired response inhibition in children. Methods Blood levels of 11 PFCs were measured in children (N = 83) and 6 PFCs: perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) – were found at detectable levels in most children (87.5% or greater had detectable levels). These levels were analyzed in relation to the differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) task. This task rewards delays between responses (i.e., longer inter-response times; IRTs) and therefore constitutes a measure of response inhibition. Results Higher levels of blood PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, and PFOSA were associated with significantly shorter IRTs during the DRL task. The magnitude of these associations was such that IRTs during the task decreased by 29–34% for every 1 SD increase in the corresponding blood PFC. Conclusions This study suggests an association between PFC exposure and children’s impulsivity. Although intriguing, there is a need for further investigation and replication with a larger sample of children.

Gump, Brooks B.; Wu, Qian; Dumas, Amy K.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam



Neurocognitive Impairment and HIV Risk Factors: A Reciprocal Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairment among populations at risk for HIV poses a significant barrier to managing risk behaviors. The impact\\u000a of HIV and several cofactors, including substance abuse and mental illness, on cognitive function is discussed in the context\\u000a of HIV risk behaviors, medication adherence, and risk-reduction interventions. Literature suggests that cognitive impairment\\u000a is intertwined in a close, reciprocal relationship with both

Pria Anand; Sandra A. Springer; Michael M. Copenhaver; Frederick L. Altice



Impairment of echocardiographic acoustic window caused by breast implants.  


Cosmetic breast implants are increasing in popularity. The presence of a breast implant overlying the anterior mediastinal space as a cause of impairment of the echocardiographic acoustic window has not been described previously. Here, we report three cases with significant impairment of echocardiographic acoustic window caused by breast implants. Clinicians should be aware of this interference and women should be informed of this dilemma before considering this cosmetic surgery. PMID:17157073

Movahed, Mohammad-Reza



The significance of beauty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discusses the conception of beauty and its importance for the preservation of the race and the species. The conditions of beauty are partly positive and partly negative. The negative conditions are: (1) Signs of race (2) Signs of disease, deformity or weakness (3) Significant deviations from the average (4) Misplaced sex characteristics. The positive condition are: (1) Posture (2) Bodily

Knight Dunlap



Acromial impression fracture of the greater tuberosity with massive rotator cuff tear: this need not be a nightmare!  

Microsoft Academic Search

An avulsion fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus with associated rotator cuff tear is rare. The authors describe the unusual case of a shoulder injury with an isolated, displaced greater tuberosity fracture associated with a massive rotator cuff tear. Due to the rotator cuff dysfunction, this patient presented with significant functional loss.

Amr Fahmy; Nick Antonakopoulos; Amer Khan



Impaired Reflex Vasoconstriction in Chronically Hypoxemic Patients  

PubMed Central

Acute hypoxia impairs vasoconstrictor responses in normal men. The present study was done to determine whether reflex vasoconstriction is impaired in chronically hypoxemic patients and whether correction of hypoxemia in these patients improves their cardiovascular reflexes. In eight chronically hypoxemic patients, arterial PO2 was increased from an average of 45 mm Hg while breathing room air to 161 mm Hg while breathing 40-100% oxygen, with minimal changes in arterial PCO2 or pH. Correction of hypoxemia did not cause changes in resting arterial pressure or in forearm vascular resistance, but it caused a small increase in resting heart rate. Reflex responses to lower body negative pressure, which causes pooling of blood in the lower part of the body, were observed. When the patients were hypoxemic, lower body negative pressure caused a fall in arterial pressure, slight constriction of forearm vessels, and a small increase in heart rate. When hypoxemia was corrected, the same intervention caused marked vasoconstriction and a greater increase in heart rate, and there was no decrease in arterial pressure. The results indicate that reflex vasoconstrictor responses are depressed in chronic hypoxemia, indicating that adaptive mechanisms which occur in chronic hypoxemia do not include preservation of sympathetic reflexes. Images

Heistad, Donald D.; Abboud, Francois M.; Mark, Allyn L.; Schmid, Phillip G.



Exercise training and impaired glucose tolerance in obese humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at greater risk of developing diabetes than in normoglycaemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 12-weeks exercise training in obese humans with IGT. Eleven participants (6 males and 5 females; 49±9 years; mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 32.4 kg · m), completed a 12-week brisk walking intervention (30 min per

Andrea Margaret McNeilly; Conor McClean; Marie Murphy; Jane McEneny; Tom Trinick; George Burke; Ellie Duly; James McLaughlin; Gareth Davison



Stability of Early Identified Aggressive Victim Status in Elementary School and Associations with Later Mental Health Problems and Functional Impairments  

PubMed Central

Aggressive victims – children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression – experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim subgroups have focused on preadolescents and/or adolescents. Further, whether children who exhibit early and persistent patterns of aggression and victimization continue to experience greater mental health problems and functional impairments through the transition to adolescence is not known. This study followed 344 children (180 girls) previously identified as socially adjusted, victims, aggressors, or aggressive victims at Grade 1 (Burk et al., 2008) to investigate their involvement in peer bullying through Grade 5. The children, their mothers, and teachers reported on children’s involvement in peer aggression and victimization at Grades 1, 3, and 5; and reported on internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, inattention and impulsivity, as well as academic functioning, physical health, and service use at Grades 5, 7, and 9. Most children categorized as aggressive victims in Grade 1 continued to be significantly involved in peer bullying across elementary school. Children with recurrent aggressive victim status exhibited higher levels of some mental health problems and greater school impairments across the adolescent transition when compared to other longitudinal peer status groups. This study suggests screening for aggressive victim status at Grade 1 is potentially beneficial. Further early interventions may need to be carefully tailored to prevent and/or attenuate later psychological, academic, and physical health problems.

Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.



Cognitive Impairments in Cerebellar Infarcts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the cerebellum on cognitive functions (CF) are poorly known and inadequately studied. Neurological, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies were performed on 25 non-random patients (14 female, 11 male, mean age 51.8 ± 18.0 years) with isolated cerebellar infarcts. Cognitive impairments (CI) were seen in 22 patients (88%). These included impairments of attention, planning, control, abstract thought, memory, and

L. A. Kalashnikova; Yu. V. Zueva; O. V. Pugacheva; N. K. Korsakova



A human alcohol self-administration paradigm to model individual differences in impaired control over alcohol use.  


We developed an alcohol self-administration paradigm to model individual differences in impaired control. The paradigm includes moderate drinking guidelines meant to model limits on alcohol consumption, which are typically exceeded by people with impaired control. Possible payment reductions provided a disincentive for excessive drinking. Alcohol use above the guideline, despite possible pay reductions, was considered to be indicative of impaired control. Heavy-drinking 21- to 25-year-olds (n = 39) were randomized to an experimental condition including the elements of the impaired control paradigm or to a free-drinking condition without these elements. Alcohol self-administration was compared between these two conditions to establish the internal validity of the experimental paradigm. In both conditions, participants self-administered beer and nonalcoholic beverages for 3 hours in a bar setting with 1-3 other participants. Experimental condition participants self-administered significantly fewer beers and drank to lower blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) on average than those in the free-drinking condition. Experimental condition participants were more likely than free-drinking condition participants to intersperse nonalcoholic beverages with beer and to drink at a slower pace. Although experimental condition participants drank more moderately than those in the free-drinking condition overall, their range of drinking was considerable (BAC range = .024-.097), with several participants drinking excessively. A lower initial subjective response to alcohol and earlier age of alcohol use onset were associated with greater alcohol self-administration in the experimental condition. Given the variability in response, the impaired control laboratory paradigm may have utility for preliminary tests of novel interventions in future studies and for identifying individual differences in problem-drinking risk. PMID:23937598

Leeman, Robert F; Corbin, William R; Nogueira, Christine; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N; O'Malley, Stephanie S



Impaired oxygenation of gastric mucosa in portal hypertension. The basis for increased susceptibility to injury.  


Increased susceptibility to mucosal damage is a prominent feature of portal hypertensive gastropathy. Since the portal hypertensive gastric mucosa has extensive microvascular changes, we postulated that the increased sensitivity to mucosal damage could have an ischemic basis. We measured distribution of gastric serosal and mucosal oxygenation in a group of portal hypertensive and sham-operated rats, and then studied the effects of intragastric aspirin. In the basal state, gastric mucosa of portal hypertensive rats had significantly reduced oxygenation compared to controls (24 +/- 5 vs 45 +/- 7 mm Hg PO2, P less than 0.02), while serosal oxygenation was similar between the two groups. Intragastric aspirin produced significantly greater mucosal damage to portal hypertensive rats and mucosal oxygenation was almost one third that of sham-operated controls. Systemic arterial pressures and oxygenation were similar between the two groups. We conclude that there is impairment of gastric mucosal oxygenation and increased mucosal damage by aspirin in portal hypertensive rats compared with sham-operated controls. These results support our hypothesis that the increased sensitivity of the portal hypertensive mucosa to damage is a consequence of impaired mucosal oxygenation. PMID:2914542

Sarfeh, I J; Soliman, H; Waxman, K; Coccia, M; Rypins, E B; Bui, H X; Tarnawski, A



Significance of Phi bodies in acute leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Material from 39 patients with acute leukaemia was investigated with the peroxidase cytochemical reaction using 3,3'diaminobenzidine (DAB) and other substrates in order to test their sensitivity in detecting myeloid differentiation. The proportion of positive blasts and of cases with Auer rods in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) was significantly greater with DAB than with benzidine. In addition, Phi bodies were demonstrated

L de S Cardullo; R Morilla; D Catovsky



Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002.  

PubMed Central

This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma.

Resnikoff, Serge; Pascolini, Donatella; Etya'ale, Daniel; Kocur, Ivo; Pararajasegaram, Ramachandra; Pokharel, Gopal P.; Mariotti, Silvio P.



Effect of hepatic or renal impairment on eltrombopag pharmacokinetics.  


Eltrombopag, an oral, small-molecule, nonpeptide thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of thrombocytopenia, is highly protein bound and primarily eliminated via metabolism in the liver and gastrointestinal tract. Single-dose eltrombopag pharmacokinetics were evaluated in participants with hepatic or renal impairment given possible changes in systemic exposure due to reduced plasma protein binding or reduced metabolism. All participants received a single 50-mg dose of eltrombopag. The adverse event profile was similar across groups, with headache, nausea, and back pain most frequently reported. Compared with healthy participants, participants with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment had mean increases in AUC(0-?) of 41%, 93%, and 80%, and participants with mild, moderate, or severe renal impairment had mean decreases in AUC(0-?) of 32%, 36%, and 60%. There was high pharmacokinetic variability and significant overlap in exposures between participants with hepatic or renal impairment and healthy participants. Results suggest that patients with renal impairment may initiate eltrombopag with the standard 50-mg once-daily starting regimen, whereas patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment should consider a lower 25-mg once-daily regimen. Patients with hepatic or renal impairment should be closely monitored for platelet response and safety, and eltrombopag doses should be adjusted accordingly. PMID:20663991

Bauman, John W; Vincent, Carolyn T; Peng, Bin; Wire, Mary B; Williams, Daphne D; Park, Jung Wook



Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.  


In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. PMID:20184654

Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P



Multiple Task Interference is Greater in Children with ADHD  

PubMed Central

There is considerable lay discussion that children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have increased difficult with multitasking, but there are few experimental data. In the current study, we examine the simultaneous processing of two stimulus-response tasks using the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect. We hypothesized that children with ADHD would show a greater PRP effect, suggesting a prolonged “bottleneck” in stimulus-response processing. A total of 19 school-aged children with ADHD showed a prolonged PRP effect compared with 25 control children, suggesting a higher cognitive cost in ADHD for multi-tasking.

Ewen, Joshua B.; Moher, Jeffrey S.; Lakshmanan, Balaji M.; Ryan, Matthew; Xavier, Priya; Crone, Nathan E.; Denckla, Martha B.; Egeth, Howard; Mahone, E. Mark



Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

Thormodsgard, June M.



Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.



Greater effort boosts the affective taste properties of food  

PubMed Central

Actions can create preferences, increasing the value ascribed to commodities acquired at greater cost. This behavioural finding has been observed in a variety of species; however, the causal factors underlying the phenomenon are relatively unknown. We sought to develop a behavioural platform to examine the relationship between effort and reinforcer value in mice trained under demanding or lenient schedules of reinforcement to obtain food. In the initial experiment, expenditure of effort enhanced the value of the associated food via relatively lasting changes in its hedonic attributes, promoting an acquired preference for these reinforcers when tested outside of the training environment. Moreover, otherwise neutral cues associated with those reinforcers during training similarly acquired greater reinforcing value, as assessed under conditioned reinforcement. In a separate experiment, expenditure of effort was also capable of enhancing the value of less-preferred low-caloric reinforcers. Analysis of licking microstructure revealed the basis for this increased valuation was, in part, due to increased palatability of the associated reinforcer. This change in the hedonic taste properties of the food can not only serve as a basis for preference, but also guide decision-making and foraging behaviour by coordinating a potentially adaptive repertoire of incentive motivation, goal-directed action and consumption.

Johnson, Alexander W.; Gallagher, Michela



Thiafentanil-dexmedetomidine-telazol anesthesia in greater rheas (Rhea americana).  


Ratite anesthetic events are often dangerous because these birds use their powerful legs and clawed feet as a defense, and physical restraint can result in self-trauma or injury to handlers. Although various combinations of opioids, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, and dissociative agents have been employed in ratites, few effective chemical immobilization protocols have been documented for rheas (Rhea spp.). An intramuscular, remote-delivered combination of thiafentanil (0.30 +/- 0.08 mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (7.31 +/- 2.72 microg/kg), and tiletamine-zolazepam (5.09 +/- 2.31 mg/kg) was utilized in eight adult (four male, four female) greater rheas (Rhea americana). Smooth inductions were observed. During clinical procedures, birds were intubated and maintained on isoflurane gas, and atipamezole was administered to antagonize the dexmedetomidine. At recovery, naltrexone was administered to antagonize the thiafentanil, and midazolam was administered to smooth crate recoveries until release. This low-volume, high-potency, reversible drug combination demonstrated safe inductions and smooth recoveries and proved to be a reliable anesthetic regimen for greater rheas. PMID:23272347

Ter Beest, Julia; McClean, Modesto; Cushing, Andrew; Bildfell, Robert



Greater effort boosts the affective taste properties of food.  


Actions can create preferences, increasing the value ascribed to commodities acquired at greater cost. This behavioural finding has been observed in a variety of species; however, the causal factors underlying the phenomenon are relatively unknown. We sought to develop a behavioural platform to examine the relationship between effort and reinforcer value in mice trained under demanding or lenient schedules of reinforcement to obtain food. In the initial experiment, expenditure of effort enhanced the value of the associated food via relatively lasting changes in its hedonic attributes, promoting an acquired preference for these reinforcers when tested outside of the training environment. Moreover, otherwise neutral cues associated with those reinforcers during training similarly acquired greater reinforcing value, as assessed under conditioned reinforcement. In a separate experiment, expenditure of effort was also capable of enhancing the value of less-preferred low-caloric reinforcers. Analysis of licking microstructure revealed the basis for this increased valuation was, in part, due to increased palatability of the associated reinforcer. This change in the hedonic taste properties of the food can not only serve as a basis for preference, but also guide decision-making and foraging behaviour by coordinating a potentially adaptive repertoire of incentive motivation, goal-directed action and consumption. PMID:21047860

Johnson, Alexander W; Gallagher, Michela



Amyloid-??? is associated with cognitive impairment in healthy elderly and subjective cognitive impairment.  


The aim of this study was to predict cognitive performance on the basis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers total tau (T-tau) and amyloid-??? (A???) in controls and patients at various impairment levels. Previous studies have found an association of CSF T-tau levels with cognitive symptoms, but it has been difficult to relate A? to cognition, and it has thus been hypothesized that A? reaches a plateau level prior to cognitive symptoms. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was subjected to factor analysis to yield aggregated cognitive domains. Linear regression models were performed for the total sample of the Gothenburg MCI study (n = 435) and for each level of impairment. A??? and T-tau accounted for a significant proportion of performance in all cognitive domains in the total sample. In controls (n = 60) and patients with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 105), A??? predicted a significant proportion of semantic and working memory performance. For patients with mild cognitive impairment (n = 170), T-tau had the most pronounced impact across cognitive domains, and more specifically on episodic memory, visuospatial, and speed/executive performance. For patients with dementia (n = 100), the most pronounced impacts of A??? were found in episodic memory and visuospatial functioning, while T-tau was substantially associated with episodic memory. Our results suggest that cognition is related to CSF biomarkers regardless of impairment level. A??? is associated with cognitive functions from a potentially early to a later disease phase, and T-tau is more indicative of performance in a later disease phase. PMID:21593572

Rolstad, Sindre; Berg, Anne Ingeborg; Bjerke, Maria; Blennow, Kaj; Johansson, Boo; Zetterberg, Henrik; Wallin, Anders



Acquired 'theory of mind' impairments following stroke.  


The ability to attribute thoughts and feelings to self and others ('theory of mind') has been hypothesised to have an innate neural basis and a dedicated cognitive mechanism. Evidence in favour of this proposal has come from autism; a brain-based developmental disorder which appears to be characterised by impaired theory of mind, despite sometimes good general reasoning skills/IQ. To date no case of specific acquired theory of mind impairment has been reported. The present study examined theory of mind in adults who had suffered right hemisphere stroke, a group known to show pragmatic and social difficulties. In one study using story materials and two using cartoons, patients' understanding of materials requiring attribution of mental states (e.g. ignorance, false belief) was significantly worse than their understanding of non-mental control materials. Data from healthy elderly subjects, and a small group of left hemisphere patients (who received the tasks in modified form), suggest that this impairment on mental state tasks is not a function of task difficulty. The findings support the notion of a dedicated cognitive system for theory of mind, and suggest a role for the healthy right hemisphere in the attribution of mental states. PMID:10384736

Happé, F; Brownell, H; Winner, E



New regulations to minimize water impairment from animals rely on management practices.  


Water pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) led to revised federal regulations in the United States. The regulations provide for the greater management of potential sources of agricultural contamination and impose additional financial costs on producers. Along with a duty to secure a permit, significant changes address coverage of pollutants, separation of production and land application areas, effluent limitation guidelines, and differentiating agricultural storm water discharges from other discharges. The revised provisions require more producers to secure National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits and mandate that large CAFOs develop technology-based effluent discharge limitations involving best management practices. Medium- and small-sized CAFOs need to adopt technology-based effluent discharge requirements employing best professional judgment. For farms raising animals that are not CAFOs, voluntary management practices may be employed to intercept pollutants before they enter waterbodies. Additional educational efforts promoting the implementation of further management practices that address the agricultural impairment of water resources may be needed. PMID:15031014

Centner, Terence J



Inhalation of the Nerve Gas Sarin Impairs Ventilatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in Rats  

PubMed Central

Sarin, a highly toxic nerve gas, is believed to cause bronchoconstriction and even death primarily through respiratory failure; however, the mechanism underlying the respiratory failure is not fully understood. The goals of this study were to ascertain whether sarin affects baseline ventilation (VE) and VE chemoreflexes as well as airway resistance and, if so, whether these changes are reversible. Four groups of F344 rats were exposed to vehicle (VEH) or sarin at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.0 mg h m?3 (SL, SM, and SH, respectively). VE and VE responses to hypercapnia (7% CO2) or hypoxia (10% O2) were measured by plethysmography at 2 h and 1, 2, and 5 days after VEH or sarin exposure. Total pulmonary resistance (RL) also was measured in anesthetized VEH- and SH-exposed animals 2 h after exposure. Our results showed that within 2 h after exposure 11% of the SM- and 52% of the SH-exposed groups died. Although the SM and SH significantly decreased hypercapnic and hypoxic VE to similar levels (64 and 69%), SH induced greater respiratory impairment, characterized by lower baseline VE (30%; P < 0.05), and total loss of the respiratory frequency response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. VE impairment recovered within 1–2 days after sarin exposure; interestingly, SH did not significantly affect baseline RL. Moreover, sarin induced body tremors that were unrelated to the changes in the VE responses. Thus, LC50 sarin causes a reversible impairment of VE that is not dependent on the sarin-induced body tremors and not associated with changes in RL.

Zhuang, Jianguo; Xu, Fadi; Campen, Matthew J.; Zhang, Cancan; Pena-Philippides, Juan C.; Sopori, Mohan L.



Inhalation of the nerve gas sarin impairs ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in rats  

SciTech Connect

Sarin, a highly toxic nerve gas, is believed to cause bronchoconstriction and even death primarily through respiratory failure; however, the mechanism underlying the respiratory failure is not fully understood. The goals of this study were to ascertain whether sarin affects baseline ventilation (V{sub E}) and V{sub E} chemoreflexes as well as airway resistance and, if so, whether these changes are reversible. Four groups of F344 rats were exposed to vehicle (VEH) or sarin at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.0 mg h m{sup -3} (SL, SM, and SH, respectively). V{sub E} and V{sub E} responses to hypercapnia (7% CO{sub 2}) or hypoxia (10% O{sub 2}) were measured by plethysmography at 2 h and 1, 2, and 5 days after VEH or sarin exposure. Total pulmonary resistance (R{sub L}) also was measured in anesthetized VEH- and SH-exposed animals 2 h after exposure. Our results showed that within 2 h after exposure 11% of the SM- and 52% of the SH- exposed groups died. Although the SM and SH significantly decreased hypercapnic and hypoxic V{sub E} to similar levels (64 and 69%), SH induced greater respiratory impairment, characterized by lower baseline V{sub E} (30%; P < 0.05), and total loss of the respiratory frequency response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. V{sub E} impairment recovered within 1-2 days after sarin exposure; interestingly, SH did not significantly affect baseline R{sub L}. Moreover, sarin induced body tremors that were unrelated to the changes in the V{sub E} responses. Thus, LC{sub 50} sarin causes a reversible impairment of V{sub E} that is not dependent on the sarin-induced body tremors and not associated with changes in R{sub L}.

Zhuang Jianguo [Immunology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States); Xu Fadi [Immunology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States)], E-mail:; Campen, Matthew J.; Zhang Cancan; Pena-Philippides, Juan C.; Sopori, Mohan L. [Immunology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States)



Which Measures of Physical Function and Motor Impairment Best Predict Quality of Life in Parkinson's Disease?  

PubMed Central

Introduction Our objective was to compare the relative value of elements of the motor system in predicting the physical mobility domain of health related quality of life in patients with Parkinson’s disease in order to specify targets for intervention. Methods In this cross-sectional study, the Parkinson’s Disease Questionnaire-39 was administered to 263 subjects with Parkinson’s disease to assess health related quality of life. Demographics, motor impairments and physical function were assessed using the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, 10-meter walk test, 6-minute walk test, Freezing of Gait Questionnaire, Timed Up & Go, Functional Gait Assessment, Berg Balance Test, Functional Reach and 9-Hole Peg Test. Results The results revealed that demographic factors accounted for 19.7% of the variance in Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 mobility score. When motor impairments were added to the model, the bradykinesia composite score contributed a significant portion of the variance (R2 change = 0.12, p<0.001). The tremor and rigidity composite scores did not contribute significantly. The Freezing of Gait Questionnaire was the strongest predictor (R2 change = 0.23, p<0.001) of the physical function tests followed by Functional Gait Assessment (R2 change = 0.06, p<0.001) and 6-minute walk test (R2 change = 0.01, p=0.01). Collectively, 61% of the variance in Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39 mobility score and 41.5% of the Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39total score was accounted for. Discussion These results suggest greater value of physical function tests, and not tests of motor impairments, in predicting health related quality of life.

Ellis, T.; Cavanaugh, J.T.; Earhart, G.M.; Ford, M.P.; Foreman, K.B.; Dibble, L.E.



Impaired Executive Function Is Associated with Delirium After Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To determine the extent to which preoperative performance on tests of executive function and memory was associated with delirium after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. DESIGN Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING Two academic medical centers and one Department of Veterans Affairs medical center in Massachusetts. PARTICIPANTS Eighty subjects without preoperative delirium undergoing CABG or CABG-valve surgery completed baseline neuropsychological assessments with validated measures of memory and executive function. MEASUREMENTS Beginning on postoperative Day 2, a battery to diagnose delirium was administered daily. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to define two cognitive domain composites (memory and executive function). The loading pattern of neuropsychological measures onto the latent cognitive domains was determined a priori. Poisson regression was used to model the association between neuropsychological performance and cognitive domain composite scores and risk of postoperative delirium. The association was expressed as the difference between impaired (0.5 standard deviations (SDs) below mean) and nonimpaired (0.5 SDs above mean) performers. RESULTS Forty subjects (50%) developed delirium. Measures of memory function were not significantly related to delirium. Of the executive function measures, verbal fluency, category fluency, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test learning, and backward recounting of days and months were significantly related to delirium. Preoperative mental status was a strong predictor of postoperative delirium. After controlling for age, sex, education, medical comorbidity, mental status, and the other cognitive domain, CFA cognitive domain composites suggest that risk for delirium is specific for executive functioning impairment (relative risk (RR) = 2.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12–6.87) but not for memory impairment (RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.19–1.25). CONCLUSION Worse preoperative performance in executive function was independently associated with greater risk of developing delirium after CABG.

Rudolph, James L.; Jones, Richard N.; Grande, Laura J.; Milberg, William P.; King, Emily G.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Levkoff, Sue E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.



Broad-band visual capacities are not selectively impaired in Alzheimer's disease.  


Histological examination of the optic nerves of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients has revealed a selective degeneration of large axon ganglion cells. This morphological abnormality raises the possibility of a selective impairment of broad-band channel visual function. To test this hypothesis, we administered visual psychophysical tests associated with either the color-opponent or the broad-band retinocortical channel to 14 AD patients and 29 elderly control subjects (ECS). In previous studies in monkeys, these tests had been sensitive to the effects of either parvocellular or magnocellular LGN lesions. In the present study, the color-opponent channel was assessed by tests of texture and color discrimination; the broad-band channel was assessed by tests of flicker and motion detection. Logistic regression analysis indicated that all tests collectively discriminated diagnostic groups at a borderline level of significance (p = 0.09). ANOVA also indicated a trend towards overall depressed function for AD patients on some capacities tested. Analyses comparing the prevalence of deficits in the AD and ECS groups showed that a significantly greater number of AD patients than ECS had deficits on texture discrimination, blue-violet discrimination, and 4.72 degrees/s motion detection. No individual subject demonstrated a selective impairment of broad-band channel function. The visual deficits in AD did not resemble those caused by lesions of magnocellular LGN in monkeys, indicating that the visual impairment in AD is not a functional reflection of damage limited to the broad-band channel.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7936054

Kurylo, D D; Corkin, S; Dolan, R P; Rizzo, J F; Parker, S W; Growdon, J H


Impairment rating ambiguity in the United States: the Utah Impairment Guides for calculating workers' compensation impairments.  


Since the implementation of workers' compensation, accurately and consistently rating impairment has been a concern for the employee and employer, as well as rating physicians. In an attempt to standardize and classify impairments, the American Medical Association (AMA) publishes the AMA Guides ("Guides"), and recently published its 6th edition of the AMA Guides. Common critiques of the AMA Guides 6th edition are that they are too complex, lacking in evidence-based methods, and rarely yield consistent ratings. Many states mandate use of some edition of the AMA Guides, but few states are adopting the current edition due to the increasing difficulty and frustration with their implementation. A clearer, simpler approach is needed. Some states have begun to develop their own supplemental guides to combat problems in complexity and validity. Likewise studies in Korea show that past methods for rating impairment are outdated and inconsistent, and call for measures to adapt current methods to Korea's specific needs. The Utah Supplemental Guides to the AMA Guides have been effective in increasing consistency in rating impairment. It is estimated that litigation of permanent impairment has fallen below 1% and Utah is now one of the least costly states for obtaining workers' compensation insurance, while maintaining a medical fee schedule above the national average. Utah's guides serve as a model for national or international impairment guides. PMID:19503678

Colledge, Alan; Hunter, Bradley; Bunkall, Larry D; Holmes, Edward B



Predicting children's speech, language and reading impairment over time  

PubMed Central

Prospective population based longitudinal studies are highly informative for understanding developmental trajectories in speech, language and reading impairment. These studies contribute to our knowledge about the onset and trajectories of these disorders and to our understanding of the factors that influence these trajectories over the life course. Epidemiological research in speech, language and reading impairment shares some of the challenges inherent in studying any developmental impairment that persists yet changes over time. Not only do the speech, language and reading impairment phenotypes change over time but the proximal and distal factors associated with these phenotypes vary in magnitude at different epochs in development. The notion that phenotypes and the factors that influences them change is a positive one because it allows for the possibility of improvement and recovery. Clearly, the phenomenology of these developmental disorders makes the practical enterprise of identifying children at risk for these disorders and predicting their outcomes a significant challenge.

Taylor, Catherine L.; Zubrick, Stephen R.



Visual impairment in stroke patients--a review.  


Approximately 30% of all stroke patients suffer from post-stroke visual impairment. Hemianopia is the most common symptom, but also neglect, diplopia, reduced visual acuity, ptosis, anisocoria, and nystagmus are frequent. Partial or complete recovery of visual disorders can occur, but many patients suffer permanent disability. This disability is often less evident than impairment of motor and speech functions, but is negatively correlated with rehabilitation outcome and can lead to a significant reduction in day-to-day functioning. To be visually impaired after stroke reduces quality of life and causes social isolation because of difficulties in navigating/orientating in the surroundings. A thorough diagnosis including targeted examination and later follow-up with eye examination and perimetry is essential in order to establish the extent of the visual impairment and to select the best rehabilitation strategy. Patients seem to profit from visual rehabilitation focused on coping strategies. PMID:23190292

Sand, K M; Midelfart, A; Thomassen, L; Melms, A; Wilhelm, H; Hoff, J M



Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults With Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights.

Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.



Impaired attention and network connectivity in childhood absence epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) often demonstrate impaired interictal attention, even with control of their seizures. No previous study has investigated the brain networks involved in this impairment. We used the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) of attentional vigilance and the Repetitive Tapping Task (RTT), a control motor task, to examine interictal attention in 26 children with CAE and 22 matched healthy controls. Each subject underwent simultaneous 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging-electroencephalography (fMRI-EEG) and CPT/RTT testing. Areas of activation on fMRI during the CPT task were correlated with behavioral performance and used as seed regions for resting functional connectivity analysis. All behavioral measures reflecting inattention were significantly higher in patients. Correlation analysis revealed that impairment on all measures of inattention on the CPT task was associated with decreased medial frontal cortex (MFC) activation during CPT. In addition, analysis of resting functional connectivity revealed an overall decrease within an ‘attention network’ in patients relative to controls. Patients demonstrated significantly impaired connectivity between the right anterior insula/frontal operculum (In/FO) and MFC relative to controls. Our results suggest that there is impaired function in an attention network comprising anterior In/FO and MFC in patients with CAE. These findings provide an anatomical and functional basis for impaired interictal attention in CAE, which may allow the development of improved treatments targeted at these networks.

Killory, Brendan D; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Negishi, Michiro; Vega, Clemente; Spann, Marisa N; Vestal, Matthew; Guo, Jennifer; Berman, Rachel; Danielson, Nathan; Trejo, Gerardo; Shisler, David; Novotny, Edward J; Constable, R Todd; Blumenfeld, Hal



Hearing Impairment in Congenitally Hypothyroid Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Thyroid hormone is necessary for normal development of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of hearing impairment in congenitally hypothyroid (CH) patients, and its relation with factors such as CH severity and age at starting treatment, during CH screening program in Isfahan. Methods Hearing acuity was assessed in two groups of children with (94 patients aged 4 months – 3 years) and without CH (450), between 2000-2006. Otoacostic emission (OAE) was performed by a two step method. After two tests without OAE signals bilaterally, they were referred for auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. Subjects with both OAE and ABR abnormal test results were considered to have hearing problem. Obtained data was compared in case and control group and also CH patients with and without hearing impairment. Findings Three (3.2%) of patients and 1 of control group (0.2%) were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss. The rate of hearing loss was not different significantly in two studied groups (P>0.05). There was no difference between age of starting treatment and first T4 and TSH level in CH patients with and without hearing loss (P>0.05). CH neonates with hearing impairment had thyroid dyshormonogenesis according to the follow up results. Conclusion The rate of hearing loss was low among our studied CH patients. It may be due to proper management of CH patients. In view of the fact that all CH neonates were dyshormonogentic and considering the relation between certain gene mutations and hearing impairment in CH patients, further studies with larger sample size, with regard to different etiologies of CH should be investigated to indicate the possible gene mutations related to hearing loss in CH.

Hashemipour, Mahin; Hovsepian, Silva; Hashemi, Mostafa; Amini, Massoud; Kelishadi, Roya; Sadeghi, Somaye



Mild cognitive impairment in clinical care  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess how neurologists view mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a clinical diagnosis and how they treat patients with mild cognitive symptoms. Methods: Members of the American Academy of Neurology with an aging, dementia, or behavioral neurology practice focus were surveyed by self-administered questionnaire. Results: Survey respondents were 420 providers (response rate 48%), and 88% reported at least monthly encounters with patients experiencing mild cognitive symptoms. Most respondents recognize MCI as a clinical diagnosis (90%) and use its diagnostic code for billing purposes (70%). When seeing these patients, most respondents routinely provide counseling on physical (78%) and mental exercise (75%) and communicate about dementia risk (63%); fewer provide information on support services (27%) or a written summary of findings (15%). Most (70%) prescribe cholinesterase inhibitors at least sometimes for this population, with memantine (39%) and other agents (e.g., vitamin E) prescribed less frequently. Respondents endorsed several benefits of a diagnosis of MCI: 1) involving the patient in planning for the future (87%); 2) motivating risk reduction activities (85%); 3) helping with financial planning (72%); and 4) prescribing medications (65%). Some respondents noted drawbacks, including 1) too difficult to diagnose (23%); 2) better described as early Alzheimer disease (21%); and 3) diagnosis can cause unnecessary worry (20%). Conclusions: Patients with mild cognitive symptoms are commonly seen by neurologists, who view MCI as a useful diagnostic category. Information and treatments provided to patients with MCI vary significantly, suggesting a need for practice guidelines and further research on clinical decision-making with this population. GLOSSARY AAMI = age-associated memory impairment; AAN = American Academy of Neurology; AD = Alzheimer disease; CIND = cognitive impairment, no dementia; DSM-V = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; NOS = not otherwise specified.

Roberts, J.S.; Karlawish, J.H.; Uhlmann, W.R.; Petersen, R.C.; Green, R.C.



Assessing the Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive growth of aquatic plants causes significant water quality\\/beneficial-use problems, including low dissolved oxygen, impairment of domestic water supplies' water quality, impairment of recreation, etc. The growth of aquatic plants to excessive levels is driven by nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from a variety of sources, including agricultural stormwater runoff, tail water and subsurface drain water discharges. Because of the significance

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee


Impaired wound healing.  


Nonhealing wounds represent a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for a large portion of the population. One of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the failure of chronic wounds to heal is an out-of-control inflammatory response that is self-sustaining. Underappreciation of the inherent complexity of the healing wound has led to the failure of monotherapies, with no significant reduction in wound healing times. A model of the inflammatory profile of a nonhealing wound is one in which the equilibrium between synthesis and degradation has been shifted toward degradation. This review summarizes the current information regarding acute wound healing responses as contrasted to the delayed response characteristic of chronic wounds. In addition, some initial complexity theoretical models are proposed to define and explain the underlying pathophysiology. PMID:17276197

Menke, Nathan B; Ward, Kevin R; Witten, Tarynn M; Bonchev, Danail G; Diegelmann, Robert F


Plasmas with index of refraction greater than one  

SciTech Connect

Over the last decade, X-ray lasers in the wavelength range14 - 47 nm have been used to do interferometry of plasmas. Just as for optical interferometry of plasmas, the experimental analysis assumed that the index of refraction is due only to the free electrons. This makes the index of refraction less then one. Recent experiments in Al plasmas have observed fringe lines bend the wrong way as though the electron density is negative. We show how the bound electrons can dominate the index of refraction in many plasmas and make the index greater than one or enhance the index such that one would greatly overestimate the density of the plasma using interferometry.

Nilsen, J; Scofield, J H



Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis  

SciTech Connect

Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.



Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items. 2 figures, 1 table.

Cook, J R; Towler, O A; Peterson, D L; Johnson, G M; Helton, B D



Solvent shows greater efficiency in sweetening of gas  

SciTech Connect

Owing to their availability and good solubility characteristics, physical solvents are growing in use for the removal of acid components from natural gas and coal-gasification products, report West Germany's Wintershall AG and BASF AG. Particularly when the hydrogen sulfide partial pressure is greater than 14.5 psi (1 bar), physical solvents offer substantial advantages over chemical methods; the amount of dissolved gas increases almost linearly with pressure. This results in lower amounts of circulating solvent and substantially lower energy consumption, even when the final washed gas contains only a few parts per million of hydrogen sulfide. Chemically acting solvents are preferable only when the hydrogen sulfide partial pressure is less than 14.5 psi (1 bar).

Wolfer, W.; Schwartz, E.; Vodrazka, W.; Volkamer, K.



Institution animal care and use committees need greater ethical diversity  

PubMed Central

In response to public outrage stemming from exposés of animal abuse in research laboratories, the US Congress in 1985 mandated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) to oversee animal use at institutions receiving federal grants. IACUCs were enjoined to respect public concern about the treatment of animals in research, but they were not specifically instructed whether or not to perform ethical cost-benefit analyses of animal research protocols that IACUCs have chosen, with approval contingent upon a balancing of animal pain and suffering against a reasonable expectation of resultant human benefit. IACUCs have chosen not to make such ethical judgments but, rather, restrict themselves to an advisory role, often tweaking the details of animal-use protocols, but eventually approving all of them. This disinclination by IACUCs to take a broader ethical view of their authority and responsibilities may reflect a membership composition highly skewed towards animal researchers themselves (67%) and institutional veterinarians (15%), both with vested interests in continuing animal research. The resultant ethical monoculture may impair IACUC's ability to meet public concern for laboratory animal welfare. Psychological research has established that unconscious bias affects us all, that deliberations among the like-minded lead to adapting extremist positions, and that groupthink blinds organisations to alternatives that might be obvious to outsiders. Taken together, skewed IACUC membership composition and psychological research insights into unconscious bias and groupthink suggest that an infusion of ethical diversity by increasing the percentage of institutionally unaffiliated members on IACUCs would broaden their ethical perspectives and enable them to better address public concerns about laboratory animal welfare.

Hansen, Lawrence Arthur



Motor impairment and its relationship to fitness in children  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this work was to explore the physiological and perceptual limits to exercise in children with varying degrees of motor impairment, and the relationships to measures of health. Design and methods In a group comparison design, 35 boys aged 12–15?years completed the Movement ABC test for the assessment of motor impairment, followed by an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten participants classified as having either high or no motor impairment also performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the assessment of lower limb extensor strength. Results 18 boys were classified as having high motor impairment. There was a significant difference in peak (34.9 vs 48.5?mL?kg/min), workload (12.5 vs 10.0?mL?W), maximal HR (176 vs 188?bpm), maximal oxygen pulse (12.1 vs 15.9?mL?beat) and MVIC (5.7 vs 9.1?Nm?kg) between the high and non-motor impaired participants, respectively, (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the RER or RPE between groups. Conclusions When performing cycling ergometry, perceived exertion was not a limiting factor in children with high motor impairment. The lower maximal HR, coupled with reduced movement efficiency and muscle strength reported in this group, suggests that exercise is limited by impairment at the muscular level. This finding was supported by high RER values despite low maximal HR values attained at exercise cessation and reduced maximal strength. Perception of effort is not heightened in children with high motor impairment and future-exercise interventions should be focused on improving muscular condition in these participants to enable them to be better prepared to engage in physical activity for health.

Morris, Martyn; Dawes, Helen; Howells, Ken; Janssen, Roel



Contrast nephropathy in patients with impaired renal function: High versus low osmolar media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrast nephropathy in patients with impaired renal function: High versus low osmolar media. Prescription of low osmolar contrast to prevent nephrotoxicity in subjects with pre-existing renal impairment is costly and has not been clearly shown to be effective. We entered 249 subjects with a pre-contrast serum creatinine greater than 120 \\/xmol\\/liter (1.35 mg\\/dl) having cardiac catheterization or intravenous contrast into

Brendan J Barrett; Patrick S Parfrey; Hilary M Vavasour; Jackie McDonald; Gloria Kent; Donna Hefferton; Frank O'Dea; Eric Stone; Raj Reddy; Patrick J McManamon



Contextual strategy instruction: Socially\\/emotionally maladjusted adolescents with language impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten socially\\/emotionally maladjusted adolescents with language impairments (SEM\\/LI) and ten non-impaired adolescents received four treatment sessions in the use of a “context clues strategy” for facilitating comprehension of unfamiliar words in four sentence types. Both groups improved their ability to use a context clues strategy following direct instruction. The SEM\\/LI subjects exhibited greater difficulty with the appositive sentence type than

Betty Z. Liles; Steven V. Owen



A combined cycle designed to achieve greater than 60 percent efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

In cooperation with the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center, Westinghouse is working on Phase 2 of an 8-year Advanced Turbine Systems Program to develop the technologies required to provide a significant increase in natural gas-fired combined cycle power generation plant efficiency. In this paper, the technologies required to yield an energy conversion efficiency greater than the Advanced

M. S. Briesch; R. L. Bannister; I. S. Diakunchak; D. J. Huber



Chinese and non?Chinese scholars’ contributions to communication research on greater China, 1978–98  

Microsoft Academic Search

This content?analytical study investigates, over a two?decade period, the contribution of ethnic and non?ethnic scholars to communication research on Greater China. Although its findings show a significant increase in research publications on China over the years by both Chinese and non?Chinese scholars, Chinese scholars are much more productive than non?Chinese scholars. In addition, mixed ethnicity scholars have published more comparative

Louisa Ha; Cornelius B. Pratt



Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.  


Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193



Memory impairment associated with chronic hypoxia.  

PubMed Central

A series of mental tests was administered to a group of patients who were chronically hypoxic as a result of chronic obstructive lung disease. The oxygen tension from arterialised ear lobe blood samples was correlated with scores on the mental tests. Hypoxia had a significant effect on the results of memory tests but not on the results of other tests of mental function. The same pattern of results has been reported in hypoxic animals. This finding has implications for the treatment of chronic hypoxia--including the very mild hypoxia that is relatively common in the elderly; if this were treated possibly memory impairment would no longer be an inevitable accompaniment of aging.

Huppert, F A



[Assessment of hearing impairment in workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents in the paint and lacquer industry].  


Clinical and experimental studies indicate a possible harmful effect of chemicals, especially organic solvents, on the hearing system. In combined exposure to noise and solvents, very common in industry, it is most likely that a synergetic action of these factors enhances the traumatising effect of exposure to noise. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and the risk of hearing impairment in 117 paint and lacquer factory workers exposed to a mixture of organic solvents. An analysis of organic solvent mixtures reveals that xylene and ethyl acetate are their major components whose concentrations depend on individual workposts. The control group consisted of 76 workers exposed to noise exceeding, Threshold Limit Value and 125 healthy subjects exposed neither to noise nor to solvents in their occupational setting. Pure tone audiometry revealed the highest hearing thresholds in workers exposed to solvents, lower thresholds in those exposed to noise, and the lowest ones in the non-exposed individuals. Hearing loss was found in 30% of workers exposed to organic solvents, in 20% of noise-exposed subjects, and in only 6% of non-exposed subjects. The comparison of relative risk values also indicated significantly enhanced probability of hearing impairment in workers of the paint and lacquer factory (9.6; 3.2-25.6), which is even more strongly pronounced than in the group of subjects exposed to noise (4.2; 1.2-13.2). An analysis of hearing impairment risk in particular frequencies suggests that organic solvents may damage the inner ear in much greater extent than noise. The results of the study show that exposure to organic solvents may create a significant risk of hearing impairment. Therefore, further steps should be taken to include the exposed population into effective preventive programmes. PMID:10857071

Sliwi?ska-Kowalska, M; Zamys?owska-Szmytke, E; Koty?o, P; Weso?owski, W; Dudarewicz, A; Fiszer, M; Pawlaczyk-Luszczy?ska, M; Polita?ski, P; Kucharska, M; Bilski, B



Integrated diode circuits for greater than 1 THz  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terahertz frequency band, spanning from roughly 100 GHz to 10 THz, forms the transition from electronics to photonics. This band is often referred to as the "terahertz technology gap" because it lacks typical microwave and optical components. The deficit of terahertz devices makes it difficult to conduct important scientific measurements that are exclusive to this band in fields such as radio astronomy and chemical spectroscopy. In addition, a number of scientific, military and commercial applications will become more practical when a suitable terahertz technology is developed. UVa's Applied Electrophysics Laboratory has extended non-linear microwave diode technology into the terahertz region. Initial success was achieved with whisker-contacted diodes and then discrete planar Schottky diodes soldered onto quartz circuits. Work at UVa and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory succeeded in integrating this diode technology onto low dielectric substrates, thereby producing more practical components with greater yield and improved performance. However, the development of circuit integration technologies for greater than 1 THz and the development of broadly tunable sources of terahertz power remain as major research goals. Meeting these critical needs is the primary motivation for this research. To achieve this goal and demonstrate a useful prototype for one of our sponsors, this research project has focused on the development of a Sideband Generator at 1.6 THz. This component allows use of a fixed narrow band source as a tunable power source for terahertz spectroscopy and compact range radar. To prove the new fabrication and circuit technologies, initial devices were fabricated and tested at 200 and 600 GHz. These circuits included non-ohmic cathodes, air-bridged fingers, oxideless anode formation, and improved quartz integration processes. The excellent performance of these components validated these new concepts. The prototype process was then further optimized to produce a substantially increased yield and to maintain excellent performance at 1.6 THz. The successful fabrication of integrated 1.6 THz SBG circuits establishes the viability of the new processes for terahertz applications. Additionally, this new technology can also be applied to other components, such as mixers, multipliers, and direct detectors thereby helping to close the terahertz technology gap.

Schoenthal, Gerhard Siegbert


A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo.  


Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M approximately 8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M > or = 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9 g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of expected shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking is ca 35% in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama and ca 10% in Chiba for an average 30 year period, in good agreement with our independent estimate, and thus bolstering our view that Tokyo's hazard looms large. Given 1 trillion US dollars estimates for the cost of an M approximately 7.3 shock beneath Tokyo, our probability implies a 13 billion US dollars annual probable loss. PMID:16844644

Stein, Ross S; Toda, Shinji; Parsons, Tom; Grunewald, Elliot



Type 2 Diabetes Restricts Multipotency of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Impairs Their Capacity to Augment Postischemic Neovascularization in db/db Mice  

PubMed Central

Background This study tested the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes restricts multipotency of db/db mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), promotes their terminal differentiation into adipocytes rather than endothelial cells, thereby promotes adipocytic infiltration into ischemic muscles, and reduces their capacity to participate in postischemic neovascularization. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis, we transplanted MSCs from db/db or wild-type (WT) mice into WT recipients after induction of hind limb ischemia. WT recipients of db/db MSCs demonstrated adipocyte infiltration of ischemic muscle and impaired neovascularization; WT recipients of WT MSCs showed no intramuscular adipocyte infiltration and had significantly enhanced neovascularization (P<0.05; n=6). Confocal microscopy showed that the percentage of MSCs that differentiated into an adipocyte phenotype was greater and into an endothelial cell was less in WT recipients transplanted with db/db MSCs than those transplanted with WT MSCs (P<0.05; n=6). In vitro, db/db MSCs exhibited greater oxidant stress, greater adipocyte differentiation, and less endothelial differentiation than WT MSCs, and these differences were reversed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine or Nox4 siRNA (P<0.05; n=6). Insulin increased Nox4 expression, oxidant stress, and adipocyte differentiation in WT MSCs, and these insulin-induced effects were reversed by Nox4 siRNA (P<0.05; n=6). Reversal of db/db MSC oxidant stress by in vivo pretreatment with Nox4 siRNA before transplantation reversed their impaired capacity to augment postischemic neovascularization. Conclusions Type 2 diabetes–induced oxidant stress restricts the multipotency of MSCs and impairs their capacity to increase blood flow recovery after the induction of hind-limb ischemia. Reversal of MSC oxidant stress might permit greater leverage of the therapeutic potential of MSC transplantation in the setting of diabetes.

Yan, Jinglian; Tie, Guodong; Wang, Shouying; Messina, Katharine E.; DiDato, Sebastian; Guo, Sujuan; Messina, Louis M.



Renal impairment in multiple myelomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The aim of the study was to investigate the clinic manifestation, diagnosis and treatment on multiple myeloma (MM) with the\\u000a onset of renal impairment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The 27 cases of multiple myeloma with the onset of renal impairment were collected in Department of Nephrology, Wuhan General\\u000a Hospital of Guangzhou Command, China, from January 2007 to January 2011. All cases were divided into

Cheng Yang; Tianbiao Lan; Yi Cheng



My Speech Problem, Your Listening Problem, and My Frustration: The Experience of Living with Childhood Speech Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: The purpose of this article was to understand the experience of speech impairment (speech sound disorders) in everyday life as described by children with speech impairment and their communication partners. Method: Interviews were undertaken with 13 preschool children with speech impairment (mild to severe) and 21 significant others…

McCormack, Jane; McLeod, Sharynne; McAllister, Lindy; Harrison, Linda J.



Exploring the recollective experience during autobiographical memory retrieval in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  


Autonoetic consciousness refers to the ability to mentally transport oneself back in subjective time to relive elements of, or all, of a past event, and is compromised in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigate autobiographical memory (ABM) and the recollective experience in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). aMCI participants exhibited significant deficits compared with healthy elderly controls for both personal semantic and event detail components of ABM. These decrements were evident across all life epochs for episodic recall. Recall of an event that occurred 1 week previously, was tested in the same spatiotemporal context, and provided the greatest group dissociation, with elderly controls benefitting from a context-dependent memory effect. This reinstantiation of context did not ameliorate the anterograde deficits in the aMCI cohort, nor did it facilitate the mental reliving of these memories for either participant group. Whereas reliving judgments were comparable in both groups, aMCI participants exhibited a compromised capacity to generate vivid, self-referential visual imagery and to re-experience the original emotion of events. These contextual and experiential deficits extended beyond recently encountered events into remote epochs, and suggest a greater level of ABM impairment in aMCI than previously assumed. PMID:20298640

Irish, Muireann; Lawlor, Brian A; O'Mara, Shane M; Coen, Robert F



Galectin-9 Functionally Impairs Natural Killer Cells in Humans and Mice  

PubMed Central

Galectin-9 is a pleiotropic immune modulator affecting numerous cell types of innate and adaptive immunity. Patients with chronic infection with either hepatitis C virus (HCV) or HIV have elevated circulating levels. Limited data exist on the regulation of natural killer (NK) cell function through interaction with galectin-9. We found that galectin-9 ligation downregulates multiple immune-activating genes, including eight involved in the NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathway, impairs lymphokine-activated killing, and decreases the proportion of gamma interferon (IFN-?)-producing NK cells that had been stimulated with interleukin-12 (IL-12)/IL-15. We demonstrate that the transcriptional and functional changes induced by galectin-9 are independent of Tim-3. Consistent with these results for humans, we find that the genetic absence of galectin-9 in mice is associated with greater IFN-? production by NK cells and enhanced degranulation. We also show that in the setting of a short-term (4-day) murine cytomegalovirus infection, terminally differentiated NKs accumulate in the livers of galectin-9 knockout mice, and that hepatic NKs spontaneously produce significantly more IFN-? in this setting. Taken together, our results indicate that galectin-9 engagement impairs the function of NK cells, including cytotoxicity and cytokine production.

Golden-Mason, Lucy; McMahan, Rachel H.; Strong, Michael; Reisdorph, Richard; Mahaffey, Spencer; Palmer, Brent E.; Cheng, Linling; Kulesza, Caroline; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Niki, Toshiro



Reduction of hippocampal hyperactivity improves cognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  


Elevated hippocampal activation is observed in conditions that confer risk for Alzheimer's disease, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Studies in relevant animal models have indicated that overactivity in selective hippocampal circuits contributes to cognitive impairment. Here, we tested the effect of reducing hippocampal activation in aMCI. Under placebo treatment, hippocampal activation in the dentate gyrus/CA3 was elevated in aMCI patients compared to a healthy control group. By using a low dose of the antiepileptic levetiracetam hippocampal activation in aMCI was reduced to a level that did not differ from the control group. Compared to aMCI memory performance under placebo, performance in the scanning task was significantly improved under drug treatment. Contrary to the view that greater hippocampal activation might serve a beneficial function, these results support the view that increased hippocampal activation in aMCI is a dysfunctional condition and that targeting excess hippocampal activity has therapeutic potential. PMID:22578498

Bakker, Arnold; Krauss, Gregory L; Albert, Marilyn S; Speck, Caroline L; Jones, Lauren R; Stark, Craig E; Yassa, Michael A; Bassett, Susan S; Shelton, Amy L; Gallagher, Michela



Impaired Sensorimotor Gating in Unmedicated Adults with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder  

PubMed Central

Functional and structural imaging studies suggest that obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms arise from dysfunction in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. It has therefore been hypothesized that neurophysiological tasks subserved by these circuits should be abnormal in OCD patients. One neurocognitive probe associated with this circuitry is prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. PPI deficits are thought to reflect abnormalities in processing and integration of sensory and motor information. Two prior studies found that OCD patients had PPI deficits at single prepulse (PP) intensities. However, most patients in these studies were taking psychotropic medications at the time of PPI testing, and preclinical studies have demonstrated effects of psychotropic medications on PPI. We examined PPI in 22 unmedicated OCD patients and 22 matched healthy controls at three different PP intensities (74, 78, and 86?dB). OCD patients had significantly less PPI across all three PP intensities compared with controls. Exploratory analyses indicated that OCD patients with a history of tics had lower levels of PPI. Our results demonstrate that unmedicated OCD patients have impaired sensorimotor gating as measured by PPI. This indicates that PPI deficits are present in OCD patients and are not the result of medication effects. Our findings also suggest that OCD patients with a history of tics may have greater impairment in sensorimotor gating than the general OCD population. Future studies should be designed to examine whether PPI deficits characterize tic-related OCD.

Ahmari, Susanne E; Risbrough, Victoria B; Geyer, Mark A; Simpson, H Blair



Primary Progressive Aphasia: Relationship Between Gender and Severity of Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Factors influencing the course and severity of symptoms in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a language-based dementia, have not been fully elucidated. The current study examined the influence of gender on performance on tests of naming and verbal fluency in patients with PPA. Comparisons were also made within a group of probable Alzheimer disease (AD) patients to determine whether gender differences were present in the most common form of neurodegenerative dementia. Methods Performance was compared by gender within each diagnostic group on 3 language measures: the Boston Naming Test, category fluency (animals), and lexical fluency (FAS). Scores were compared at baseline (Visit 1) and in a subset of participants 6 to 15 months later (Visit 2). Results Compared to men, women with PPA demonstrated significantly greater impairment on word fluency tests at both visits and also had a more aggressive rate of decline between visits. AD patients showed no differences by gender on any measure. Conclusions The results suggest gender-based vulnerability in PPA where women express more severe language impairments than men given a similar duration of illness.

Rogalski, Emily; Rademaker, Alfred; Weintraub, Sandra



Road Test and Naturalistic Driving Performance in Healthy and Cognitively Impaired Older Adults: Does Environment Matter?  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives The road test is regarded as the gold standard for determining driving competence in older adults, but it is unclear how well the road test relates to naturalistic driving. The study objective was to relate the standardized road test to video recordings of naturalistic driving in older adults with a range of cognitive impairment. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Academic medical center memory disorders clinic. Participants 103 older drivers (44 healthy and 59 with cognitive impairment) who passed a road test. Measurements Error rate and global ratings of safety (pass with and without recommendations, marginal with restrictions or training, or fail) made by a professional driving instructor. Results There was fair agreement between global ratings on the road test and naturalistic driving. More errors were detected in the naturalistic environment, but this did not impact global ratings. Error scores between settings were significantly correlated, and the types of errors made were similar. History of crashes corrected for miles driven per week was related to road test error scores, but not naturalistic driving error scores. Global cognition (MMSE) was correlated with both road test and naturalistic driving errors. In the healthy older adults, younger age was correlated with fewer errors on the road test and greater errors in naturalistic driving. Conclusion Road test performance is a reasonable proxy for estimating fitness to drive in older individuals’ typical driving environments. The differences between performance assessed by these two methods, however, remain poorly understood and deserve further study.

Davis, Jennifer D.; Papandonatos, George D.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Hewitt, Scott D.; Festa, Elena K.; Heindel, William C.; Ott, Brian R.



Cognitive impairment in patients with a schizoaffective disorder: a comparison with bipolar patients in euthymia  

PubMed Central

Objectives Several studies have shown persistent neurocognitive impairment in patients with a bipolar affective disorder (BD) even in euthymia as well as in patients with a schizoaffective disorder (SAD). The aim of our study was to compare the neuropsychological performance between these two groups. Confounding variables were controlled to enhance our understanding of cognitive dysfunction in both BD and SAD. Methods Several domains of neurocognitive function, executive function, memory, attention, concentration and perceptuomotor function were examined in 28 euthymic SAD patients and 32 BD patients by using a neuropsychological test battery. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD), Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate the patients' clinical status. Data analysis was performed by using a multivariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA/MANCOVA). Results Euthymic SAD patients showed greater cognitive impairment than euthymic BD patients in the tested domains including declarative memory and attention. Putative significant group differences concerning cognitive flexibility vanished when controlled for demographic and clinical variables. Age and medication were robust predictors to cognitive performance of both SAD and BD patients. Conclusions Our results point out the worse cognitive outcome of SAD compared to BD patients in remission. Remarkably, the variance is higher for some of the test results between the groups than within each group, this being discussed in light of the contradictive concept of SAD.



Reduction of hippocampal hyperactivity improves cognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Summary Elevated hippocampal activation is observed in conditions that confer risk for Alzheimer's disease, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Studies in relevant animal models have indicated that over-activity in selective hippocampal circuits contributes to cognitive impairment. Here we tested the effect of reducing hippocampal activation in aMCI. Under placebo treatment, hippocampal activation in the dentate gyrus/CA3 was elevated in aMCI patients compared to a healthy control group. By using a low dose of the antiepileptic levetiracetam hippocampal activation in aMCI was reduced to a level that did not differ from the control group. Compared to aMCI memory performance under placebo, performance in the scanning task was significantly improved under drug treatment. Contrary to the view that greater hippocampal activation might serve a beneficial function, these results support the view that increased hippocampal activation in aMCI is a dysfunctional condition and that targeting excess hippocampal activity has therapeutic potential.

Bakker, Arnold; Krauss, Gregory L.; Albert, Marilyn S.; Speck, Caroline L.; Jones, Lauren R.; Stark, Craig E.; Yassa, Michael A.; Bassett, Susan S.; Shelton, Amy L.; Gallagher, Michela



Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.  


The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility. PMID:22580983

Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce



Risks of Brucella abortus spillover in the Greater Yellowstone area.  


Recurrent spillover of Brucella abortus from wildlife reservoirs to domestic cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) has prevented the United States from completely eradicating bovine brucellosis. Risks to cattle are a function of the size and location of wildlife and livestock populations, the degree and nature of spatio-temporal interactions between the various hosts, the level of disease in wildlife, and the susceptibility of livestock herds. While the brucellosis prevalence in wild, free-ranging GYA bison (Bison bison) is high, current management actions have successfully limited contact between bison and cattle. Under current management practices, the risks to cattle in the GYA are predominantly from wild elk (Cervus elaphus). Intra- and inter-species transmission events, while uncommon, are nevertheless crucial for the maintenance of brucellosis in the GYA. Future management actions should focus on decreasing elk herd densities and group sizes and on understanding the behavioural and environmental drivers that result in co-mingling that makes transmission possible. PMID:23837366

Schumaker, B



Outbreak of Philophthalmus gralli in four greater rheas (Rhea americana).  


Using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, conjunctival biopsy, and morphological identification, a flock of four Greater rheas (Rhea americana) in Arizona were diagnosed with conjunctivitis secondary to Philophthalmus gralli (P. gralli) infection. Aquatic snails from the exhibit's water source were identified as Melanoides tuberculatus, a known vector for P. gralli. Comparison of partial sequences of DNA regions from P. gralli adults removed from the rheas and metacercariae from the aquatic snails demonstrated a 100% match, confirming the source of infection. The flock was divided into two treatment groups: the most severely affected rheas received both manual removal of trematodes and praziquantel 1% ointment OU q12?h and the least severely affected rheas were only given praziquantel 1% ointment OU q12?h. The rheas were permanently relocated away from the infected water source and aquatic snails. Initial resolution was seen at 17?weeks in the most severely affected rhea, which had 675 adult P. gralli removed and topical praziquantel. The two rheas that only received topical praziquantel showed resolution within 3 and 15?weeks. Current recommendations for treating P. gralli include: manual removal of trematodes, topical praziquantel 1% ointment, and relocation away from infected water sources and aquatic snails. PMID:22429741

Church, Melanie L; Barrett, Paul M; Swenson, Julie; Kinsella, John M; Tkach, Vasyl V



Greater Emotional Empathy and Prosocial Behavior in Late Life  

PubMed Central

Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-related linear increases were found for both emotional empathy (self-reported empathic concern and cardiac and electrodermal responding) and prosocial behavior (size of contribution) across both films and in self-reported personal distress to the distressing film. Empathic concern and cardiac reactivity to both films, along with personal distress to the distressing film only, were associated with greater prosocial behavior. Empathic concern partially mediated the age-related differences in prosocial behavior. Results are discussed in terms of our understanding both of adult development and of the nature of these vital aspects of human emotion.

Sze, Jocelyn A.; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Levenson, Robert W.



Spar technology takes oil exploration to greater depths  

SciTech Connect

The Gulf is the hottest exploration site in the world. How has this geological expanse, once considered in its declining years of oil and gas production, reawakened as a giant in drilling and exploration activity? Technological advances in deep-water drilling and recovery are the answer. Tension leg platforms have pioneered the path to greater depths with capabilities to 7,000 ft, but now there is technology that boasts of a future where oil recovery at depths of 10,000 ft is no engineer`s fantasy. The technology is the spar hull platform. The spar hull is basically a long, large-diameter pipe that floats vertically in the water, anchored by a number of mooring lines in the sea floor. The structure itself is very simple, but its great appeal is its stability in deep water. The structure floats so deeply in the water that the wave action at the surface is dampened by the counterbalance effect of the structure`s weight. Fin-like structures, called strakes, attached in a helical fashion around the exterior of the cylinder, act to break the water flow against the structure, further enhancing stability. The first spar hull platform to make its appearance in the Gulf of Mexico became operational this year. This paper discusses the fabrication of the platform.

Cullison, A.



Greater neuronal responses during automatic semantic processing in schizophrenia.  


A core feature of schizophrenia is a disturbance of associative processes. To date, no functional MRI studies have investigated semantic priming in schizophrenia under experimental conditions that measure automatic, as opposed to strategic, processing. The present study's focus was to investigate hemodynamic responses during indirect semantic priming at a short stimulus onset asynchrony (i.e., 350 ms), conditions which are considered to be a particularly sensitive measure of automatic spreading activation during semantic processing and of the associative disturbances in schizophrenia. Seventeen individuals with DSM-IV, schizophrenia and 15 comparison participants underwent functional scanning while performing a lexical decision task on directly related, indirectly related, unrelated, and word/nonword pairs. A random-effects region of interest analysis within a priori temporal and frontal regions was performed. Whereas comparison individuals exhibited hemodynamic suppression in response to priming, individuals with schizophrenia exhibited hemodynamic enhancement. Relative to the comparison group, these enhancements were observed in the left fusiform and superior temporal gyri for indirectly related word pairs relative to unrelated pairs. Greater priming-related responses within temporal regions may reflect increased and prolonged automatic spreading activation during semantic processing in schizophrenia. PMID:23399997

Wilson, Lisa B; Rojas, Donald C; Shatti, Shireen; Tregellas, Jason R



Impaired skeletal muscle microcirculation in systemic sclerosis.  


ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Muscle symptoms in systemic sclerosis (SSc) may originate from altered skeletal muscle microcirculation, which can be investigated by means of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: After ethics committee approval and written consent, 11 consecutive SSc patients (5 men, mean age 52.6 years, mean SSc disease duration 5.4 years) and 12 healthy volunteers (4 men, mean age 45.1 years) were included. Subjects with peripheral arterial occlusive disease were excluded. BOLD MRI was performed on calf muscles during cuff-induced ischemia and reactive hyperemia, using a 3-T whole-body scanner (Verio, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) and fat-suppressed single-short multi-echo echo planar imaging (EPI) with four different effective echo times. Muscle BOLD signal time courses were obtained for gastrocnemius and soleus muscles: minimal hemoglobin oxygen saturation (T2*min) and maximal T2* values (T2*max), time to T2* peak (TTP), and slopes of oxygen normalization after T2* peaking. RESULTS: The vast majority of SSc patients lacked skeletal muscle atrophy, weakness or serum creatine kinase elevation. Nevertheless, more intense oxygen desaturation during ischemia was observed in calf muscles of SSc patients (mean T2*min -15.0%), compared with controls (-9.1%, P = 0.02). SSc patients also had impaired oxygenation during hyperemia (median T2*max 9.2% vs. 20.1%, respectively, P = 0.007). The slope of muscle oxygen normalization was significantly less steep and prolonged (TTP) in SSc patients (P<0.001 for both). Similar differences were found at a separate analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, with most pronounced impairment in the gastrocnemius. CONCLUSIONS: BOLD MRI demonstrates a significant impairment of skeletal muscle microcirculation in SSc. PMID:23036642

Partovi, Sasan; Schulte, Anja-Carina; Aschwanden, Markus; Staub, Daniel; Benz, Daniela; Imfeld, Stephan; Jacobi, Björn; Broz, Pavel; Jäger, Kurt A; Takes, Martin; Huegli, Rolf W; Bilecen, Deniz; Walker, Ulrich A



Visual Impairment and Eye Care among Alaska Native People  

PubMed Central

Purpose To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment, eye disease and eye care in the Alaska Native (AN) population, by demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods Population-based cross-sectional study of 3,793 Alaska Native (AN) adults aged 18-94 years enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study from March 2004-March 2006. Data on self-reported visual impairment, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease and previous dilated eye examinations were collected using audio computer-assisted self-administered questionnaires. Results The unadjusted prevalence of self-reported visual impairment was 8.7% (95% CI: 7.9-9.7), cataract 5.9% (95% CI: 5.2-6.7), glaucoma 2.5% (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) and diabetic eye disease 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9-1.7). In all cases, age-sex adjusted prevalence estimates for the AN population were greater than available estimates for the general U.S. population. Prevalence of visual impairment and each eye disease increased with age (P < 0.01). Additional factors associated with visual impairment were education and annual household income. Overall, 70.0% (95% CI: 68.5-71.6) of participants reported a dilated eye examination within the previous two years. Dilated eye examination within the previous two years was associated with increasing age (P < 0.001). However, men and participants with lower formal education were less likely to report recent dilated eye examination. Among those with diabetes, only 67.7% (95% CI: 60.8-74.1) reported a dilated eye examination within the recommended previous one year. Conclusions Self-reported visual impairment, cataract, glaucoma and diabetic eye disease are prevalent in the AN population. These data may be useful in healthcare planning and education programs.

Haymes, Sharon A.; Leston, Jessica D.; Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Schumacher, Mary Catherine; Etzel, Ruth A.; Lanier, Anne P.



The 'hidden' burden of malaria: cognitive impairment following infection  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of post-malaria cognitive impairment is often overlooked. Given the large number of infections occurring worldwide, the magnitude of the problem is likely to be substantial. The objectives of this paper are; (i) to assess the evidence on post malarial cognitive impairment or impact on school education; (ii) to assess the possible positive impact of malaria drug prophylaxis on cognition; and (iii) to suggest recommendations on minimizing the burden of post-malarial cognitive impairment Methods PUBMED and SCOPUS were searched for all articles with the key word 'Malaria' in the title field and 'cognitive impairment' in any field. Google Scholar was searched for the same keywords anywhere in the article. The search was restricted to articles published in English within the last 15 years (1995-2010). After filtering of abstracts from the initial search, 44 papers had research evidence on this topic. Results & Discussion Cognitive abilities and school performance were shown to be impaired in sub-groups of patients (with either cerebral malaria or uncomplicated malaria) when compared with healthy controls. Studies comparing cognitive functions before and after treatment for acute malarial illness continued to show significantly impaired school performance and cognitive abilities even after recovery. Malaria prophylaxis was shown to improve cognitive function and school performance in clinical trials when compared to placebo groups. The implications of these findings are discussed.



Greater years of maternal schooling and higher scores on academic achievement tests are independently associated with improved management of child diarrhea by rural Guatemalan mothers.  


Appropriate home management can alleviate many of the consequences of diarrhea including malnutrition, impaired development, growth faltering, and mortality. Maternal cognitive ability, years of schooling, and acquired academic skills are hypothesized to improve child health by improving maternal child care practices, such as illness management. Using information collected longitudinally in 1996-1999 from 466 rural Guatemalan women with children <36 months, we examined the independent associations between maternal years of schooling, academic skills, and scores on the Raven's Progressive Matrices and an illness management index (IMI). Women scoring in the lowest and middle tertiles of academic skills scored lower on the IMI compared to women in the highest tertile (-0.24 [95% CI: -0.54, 0.07]; -0.30 [95% CI: -0.54, -0.06], respectively) independent of sociodemographic factors, schooling, and Raven's scores. Among mothers with less than 1 year of schooling, scoring in the lowest tertile on the Raven's Progressive Matrices compared to the highest was significantly associated with scoring one point lower on the IMI (-1.18 [95% CI: -2.20, -0.17]). Greater academic skills were independently associated with maternal care during episodes of infant diarrhea. Schooling of young girls and/or community based programs that provide women with academic skills such as literacy, numeracy and knowledge could potentially improve mothers' care giving practices. PMID:19685178

Webb, Aimee L; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Stein, Aryeh D; Sellen, Daniel W; Merchant, Moeza; Martorell, Reynaldo



Learning-based recovery from perceptual impairment in salt discrimination after permanently altered peripheral gustatory input  

PubMed Central

Rats lacking input to the chorda tympani (CT) nerve, a facial nerve branch innervating anterior tongue taste buds, show robust impairments in salt discrimination demonstrating its necessity. We tested the sufficiency of the CT for salt taste discrimination and whether the remaining input provided by the greater superficial petrosal (GSP) nerve, a facial nerve branch innervating palatal taste buds, or by the glossopharyngeal (GL) nerve, innervating posterior tongue taste buds, could support performance after extended postsurgical testing. Rats presurgically trained and tested in a two-response operant task to discriminate NaCl from KCl were subjected to sham surgery or transection of the CT (CTx), GL (GLx), or GSP (GSPx), alone or in combination. While initially reduced postsurgically, performance by rats with an intact GSP after CTx + GLx increased to normal over 6 wk of testing. Rats with CTx + GSPx consistently performed near chance levels. In contrast, rats with GSPx + GLx were behaviorally normal. A subset of rats subjected to sham surgery and exposed to lower concentrations during postsurgical testing emulating decreased stimulus intensity after neurotomy showed no significant impairment. These results demonstrate that CTx changes the perceptual nature of NaCl and/or KCl, leading to severe initial postsurgical impairments in discriminability, but a “new” discrimination can be relearned based on the input of the GSP. Despite losing ?75% of their taste buds, rats are unaffected after GSPx + GLx, demonstrating that the CT is not only necessary, but also sufficient, for maintaining salt taste discrimination, notwithstanding the unlikely contribution of the small percentage of taste receptors innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve.

Blonde, Ginger; Jiang, Enshe; Garcea, Mircea



Deficits in Cue Detection and Intention Retrieval Underlie Prospective Memory Impairment in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) may exhibit deficits in prospective memory (ProM), a dissociable and ecologically important aspect of episodic memory entailing the formation, maintenance, and execution of future intentions. The present study aimed to elucidate the component processes of ProM impairment in 41 individuals with SCZ relative to 41 demographically similar healthy comparison (HC) participants. Results revealed that the SCZ group performed worse than HCs on overall ProM, with comparable deficits on time- and event-based ProM trials. In the SCZ cohort, better ProM performance was associated with younger age and less severe negative symptoms. Although a significantly greater number of task substitution and loss of time errors were evident in the SCZ group as compared to HCs, the most prevalent error type in SCZ was characterized by a complete failure to respond to the ProM cue. Importantly, the SCZ and HC groups did not differ on a post-test multiple-choice recognition trial, suggesting adequate formation and maintenance (i.e., retention) of the ProM cue-intention pairing when self-directed monitoring and retrieval demands were minimized. Findings indicate that SCZ is associated with impairment in the cue detection and self-initiated retrieval components of executing future intentions, which is consistent with a possible prefrontostriatal loop neuropathogenesis. Further studies are needed to explore the neurobiological mechanisms of SCZ-associated ProM impairment and the impact of such deficits on daily functioning (e.g., medication compliance).

Woods, Steven Paul; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Narvaez, Jenille M.; Jeste, Dilip V.



Naturalistic action impairments in dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturalistic actions are everyday tasks (e.g. cooking) that require one to use multiple objects and sequence steps to achieve a goal. Naturalistic action impairment has been attributed to executive dysfunction [Higher cortical functions in man. New York: Basic Books, 1966], semantic knowledge degradation [Brain 111 (1988) 1173], and, more recently, general limitations in cognitive resources [Neuropsychology 12 (1998) 13]. Action

Tania Giovannetti; David J. Libon; Laurel J. Buxbaum; Myrna F. Schwartz



Unrecognised and unregistered visual impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent community based studies have shown that only a minority of visually impaired people who are eligible to be registered as partially sighted or blind are actually registered as such. To determine how many unregistered but eligible people are attending ophthalmic clinics a prospective study was undertaken of all patients (n = 1543) attending ophthalmic outpatient departments, at a single

R Robinson; J Deutsch; H S Jones; S Youngson-Reilly; D M Hamlin; L Dhurjon; A R Fielder




Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Prior studies indicate that alcohol-dependent patients have impaired olfactory sensitivity, odor quality discrimination and identification ability. However, olfactory functioning with regard to the immediate, perception driven odor associations is unknown. Therefore, this study assessed olfactory judgements in nonamnesic and nondemented patients with alcohol dependence. Methods: Thirty alcohol-dependent patients and 30 healthy control subjects, well matched for gender, age and



Cerebral visual impairment in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the brain is devoted to vision. Damage causes visual problems ranging from profound impairment, to cognitive visual problems only. A child with cerebral blindness may have intact perception of movement. The principal cognitive visual pathways comprise the dorsal and the ventral streams. The dorsal stream runs between the occipital lobes (which process incoming visual data), the posterior parietal

Gordon N. Dutton; Lena K. Jacobson



Oceanography for the Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

Fraser, Kate



Oceanography for the Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

Fraser, Kate



Banknote recognition for visually impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recognition of banknotes is a prevalent problem for blind and visually impaired people. The bionic eyeglass is a mobile platform that integrates several common visual detection and recognition functions. Relevant shapes are extracted from the image flow of the banknote shown to the mobile camera using adaptive thresholding and morphological shape filters. In a two- level classification scheme different classifiers

Zora Solymar; Attila Stubendek; Mihaly Radvanyi; Kristof Karacs



[Alzheimer's disease and visual impairment].  


Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent cause of cognitive decline in older adults. The typical presentation of Alzheimer disease is memory dysfunction, however, presentations with impairment in other domains may occur. Visual symptoms may be the first manifestation of Alzheimer disease. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of visual system disturbances found in Alzheimer disease. PMID:22243653

Leruez, S; Annweiler, C; Annweiller, C; Etcharry-Bouyx, F; Verny, C; Beauchet, O; Milea, D



Arthroscopic management of occult greater tuberosity fracture of the shoulder.  


PURPOSE: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the early results of arthroscopic treatment in patients with missed occult greater tuberosity (GT) fracture of the humerus using the arthroscopic suture-bridge fixation technique. METHODS: Between January 2007 and August 2010, we used arthroscopic suture-bridge fixation in 15 cases of missed occult GT fractures, which were referred to our department with persistent symptoms following trauma, despite physical therapy. Occult GT fracture was diagnosed with bone marrow edema seen on magnetic resonance imaging in all patients. There were 13 male and 2 female patients with a mean age of 45 years (range 31-67 years). Mean time period until the surgery following the initial trauma was 4 months (1.5-12 months). For the measurement of clinical outcomes, we assessed the range of motion and evaluated the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores and simple shoulder test (SST). RESULTS: The early clinical results were evaluated in these patients at a mean of 24 months (range 14-36 months) after surgery. All the patients were satisfied with the surgery. The mean UCLA, ASES, and SST scores improved from preoperative 15, 39, and 2 to postoperative 33, 91, and 11, respectively (P < .05). Mean forward flexion, abduction, external rotation at the neutral position, and internal rotation were improved to 159°, 155°, 24°, and L1, respectively, at the final follow-up. CONCLUSION: In the occult GT fracture with persistent shoulder symptoms, arthroscopic suture-bridge fixation and early rehabilitation showed excellent clinical outcomes on a short-term follow-up study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Retrospective review, Level IV. PMID:23558662

Park, Sang-Eun; Ji, Jong-Hun; Shafi, Mohamed; Jung, Jae Jung; Gil, Ho-Jin; Lee, Hwan-Hee



Seismic Wave Attenuation in the Greater Cairo Region, Egypt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, a digital waveform dataset of 216 local earthquakes recorded by the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) was used to estimate the attenuation of seismic wave energy in the greater Cairo region. The quality factor and the frequency dependence for Coda waves and S-waves were estimated and clarified. The Coda waves ( Q c) and S-waves ( Q d) quality factor were estimated by applying the single scattering model and Coda Normalization method, respectively, to bandpass-filtered seismograms of frequency bands centering at 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 Hz. Lapse time dependence was also studied for the area, with the Coda waves analyzed through four lapse time windows (10, 20, 30 and 40 s). The average quality factor as function of frequency is found to be Q c = 35 ± 9 f 0.9±0.02 and Q d = 10 ± 2 f 0.9±0.02 for Coda and S-waves, respectively. This behavior is usually correlated with the degree of tectonic complexity and the presence of heterogeneities at several scales. The variation of Q c with frequency and lapse time shows that the lithosphere becomes more homogeneous with depth. In fact, by using the Coda Normalization method we obtained low Q d values as expected for a heterogeneous and active zone. The intrinsic quality factor ( Q {i/-1}) was separated from the scattering quality factor ( Q {s/-1}) by applying the Multiple Lapse Time Domain Window Analysis (MLTWA) method under the assumption of multiple isotropic scattering with uniform distribution of scatters. The obtained results suggest that the contribution of the intrinsic attenuation ( Q {i/-1}) prevails on the scattering attenuation ( Q {s/-1}) at frequencies higher than 3 Hz.

Badawy, Ahmed; Morsy, Mamdouh A.



Should living kidney donor candidates with impaired fasting glucose donate?  


As the kidney transplant waiting list grows, the willingness of transplant centers to accept complex donors increases. Guidelines for the evaluation of living kidney donors exist but do not provide clear guidance when evaluating the complex donor. Although few transplant centers will approve donor candidates with impaired glucose tolerance and most, if not all, will deny candidates with diabetes, many will approve candidates with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). Furthermore, the demographic of living donors has changed in the past 10 years to increasingly include more nonwhite and Hispanic individuals who are at greater risk for future diabetes and hypertension. IFG may be more of a concern in potential donors whose nonwhite and Hispanic ethnicity already places them at greater risk. We review the definition of diabetes, diabetes prediction tools, and transplant guidelines for donor screening and exclusion as it pertains to impaired glucose metabolism, and additional ethnic and nonethnic factors to consider. We offer an algorithm to aid in evaluation of potential living donors with IFG in which ethnicity, age, and features of the metabolic syndrome play a role in the decision making. PMID:21784837

Vigneault, Christine Buchek; Asch, William Stuart; Dahl, Neera Kanhouwa; Bia, Margaret Johnson



Pain and impairment beliefs in chronic low back pain: validation of the Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (PAIRS).  


Few validated instruments are available to assess beliefs and attitudes that patients have regarding pain, or ability to function despite discomfort. The Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (PAIRS) was developed to tap these important beliefs and attitudes in chronic pain patients. Preliminary data indicate that the PAIRS is internally consistent and significantly related to impairment in a highly selected pain clinic sample of patients, including some chronic low back pain patients. The present study was designed to extend the validation of the PAIRS to a more general sample of chronic benign low back pain patients. Furthermore, additional tests supported the discriminant, convergent and divergent validity, as well as the reliability and relative independence from favorable self-report response bias of the PAIRS, by respectively demonstrating that: (1) the impairment beliefs assessed with the PAIRS were more prominent in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients than in matched non-pain, healthy controls; (2) scores on the PAIRS were significantly related to measures of physical impairment, but not to physicians ratings of disease severity; (3) the impairment beliefs assessed with the PAIRS are readily distinguishable from cognitive distortions and emotional distress; (4) PAIRS scores for chronic low back pain patients are relatively consistent over time; and (5) PAIRS scores are not significantly associated with measures of favorable self-report response bias. We conclude that the PAIRS has demonstrated at least preliminary utility for applications by researchers and clinicians interested in chronic pain. PMID:1828111

Slater, M A; Hall, H F; Atkinson, J H; Garfin, S R



Greater Cortical Gray Matter Density in Lithium-Treated Patients with Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The neurobiological underpinnings of bipolar disorder are not well understood. Previous neuroimaging findings have been inconsistent; however, new methods for three-dimensional (3-D) computational image analysis may better characterize neuroanatomic changes than standard volumetric measures. Methods We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching methods to map gray matter differences in 28 adults with bipolar disorder, 70% of whom were lithium-treated (mean age = 36.1 ± 10.5; 13 female subject), and 28 healthy control subjects (mean age = 35.9 ± 8.5; 11 female subjects). Detailed spatial analyses of gray matter density (GMD) were conducted by measuring local proportions of gray matter at thousands of homologous cortical locations. Results Gray matter density was significantly greater in bipolar patients relative to control subjects in diffuse cortical regions. Greatest differences were found in bilateral cingulate and paralimbic cortices, brain regions critical for attentional, motivational, and emotional modulation. Secondary region of interest (ROI) analyses indicated significantly greater GMD in the right anterior cingulate among lithium-treated bipolar patients (n = 20) relative to those not taking lithium (n = 8). Conclusions These brain maps are consistent with previous voxel-based morphometry reports of greater GMD in portions of the anterior limbic network in bipolar patients and suggest neurotrophic effects of lithium as a possible etiology of these neuroanatomic differences.

Bearden, Carrie E.; Thompson, Paul M.; Dalwani, Manish; Hayashi, Kiralee M.; Lee, Agatha D.; Nicoletti, Mark; Trakhtenbroit, Michael; Glahn, David C.; Brambilla, Paolo; Sassi, Roberto B.; Mallinger, Alan G.; Frank, Ellen; Kupfer, David J.; Soares, Jair C.



Warfarin Dosing in Patients With Impaired Kidney Function  

PubMed Central

Background Warfarin, a drug primarily metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, is initiated at similar doses and managed similarly in patients with kidney impairment as in the general medical population. Unfortunately, few data exist to guide dose adjustment in patients with reduced kidney function. Herein we determine the degree of warfarin dose reduction associated with kidney impairment and make recommendations for warfarin dosing. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting & Participants Chronic warfarin users followed at anticoagulation clinics (n=980); 708 participants from the University of Alabama (UAB) and 272 participants from the University of Chicago (UIC). Predictor No/mild (eGFR?60ml/min/1.73 m2), moderate (eGFR=30–59ml/min/1.73 m2) and severe (eGFR<30ml/min/1.73 m2) kidney impairment, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype, age, race, gender, body mass, socio-demographic factors, smoking status, alcohol, vitamin K intake, comorbid conditions (e.g. CHF, etc.) and drug interactions (e.g. amiodarone, statins, etc.). Outcome & Measurement Warfarin dose (mg/day) was evaluated using linear regression after adjustment for clinical demographic and genetic factors. Results The prevalence of moderate kidney impairment (31.8% and 27.6%) and severe kidney impairment (8.9% and 6.6%) was similar in the UAB and UIC cohorts. Warfarin dose requirements were significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe kidney impairment compared to those with none/mild kidney impairment in the UAB (p<0.001) and UIC (p<0.001) cohorts. Compared to patients with no/mild kidney impairment, patients with moderate kidney impairment required 9.5% lower doses (p<0.001) and patients with severe kidney impairment required 19% lower doses (p<0.001). Limitations No measurement of warfarin, serum albumin, vitamin K and clotting factor levels, no evaluation of other markers (e.g. cystatin). Conclusion Moderate and severe kidney impairment were associated with a reduction in warfarin dose requirements.

Limdi, Nita A; Limdi, Mohit A; Cavallari, Larisa; Anderson, Aaron M; Crowley, Michael R; Baird, Melissa F; Allon, Michael; Beasley, T.Mark




PubMed Central

Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults.

Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.



The Effect of Early Confirmation of Hearing Loss on the Behaviour in Middle Childhood of Children with Bilateral Hearing Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: To determine if the benefit of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on children's receptive language development is associated with fewer behavioural problems. Method: Follow-up of a total population cohort of 120 children with PCHI of moderate or greater severity (greater than or equal to 40 decibels relative…

Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna C.; Law, Catherine M.; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho M.; Kennedy, Colin R.



Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity  

PubMed Central

The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is severely undermined due to high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in target human populations. In the GMS, the dramatically different ecologies, diverse vector systems, and insecticide resistance render traditional mosquito control less efficient. Here we attempt to review the changing malaria epidemiology in the GMS, analyze the vector systems and patterns of malaria transmission, and identify the major challenges the malaria control community faces on its way to malaria elimination.

Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa



A Study of Impairing Injuries in Real World Crashes Using the Injury Impairment Scale (IIS) and the Predicted Functional Capacity Index (PFCI-AIS)  

PubMed Central

The ability to predict impairment outcomes in large databases using a simplified technique allows researchers to focus attention on preventing costly impairing injuries. The dilemma that exists for researchers is to determine which method is the most reliable and valid. This study examines available methods to predict impairment and explores the differences between the IIS and pFCI applied to real world crash injury data. Occupant injury data from the UK Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database have been coded using AIS 1990 and AIS 2005. The data have subsequently been recoded using the associated impairment scales namely the Injury Impairment Scale (IIS) and the predicted Functional Capacity Index (pFCI) to determine the predicted impairment levels of injuries at one year post crash. Comparisons between the levels of impairment were made and any differences further explored. Injury data for the period February 2006 to September 2008 from the CCIS database were used in the analysis which involved a dataset of 2,437 occcupants who sustained over 8000 injuries. This study found some differences between the impairment scales for injuries coded to the AIS 1990 and AIS 2005 coding dictionaries. The pFCI predicts 31.5% of injuries to be impairing in AIS 2005, less than the IIS (38.5%) using AIS 1990. Using CCIS data the pFCI predicted that only 6% of the occupants with a coded injury would have an impairing injury compared to 24% of occupants using the IIS. The main body regions identified as having the major differences between the two impairment scales for car occupants were the head and spine. Follow up data were then used for a small number of cases (n=31, lower extremity and whiplash injuries) to examine any differences in predicted impairment versus perceived impairment. These data were selected from a previous study conducted between 2003 and 2006 and identified the discrepancy between predicted impairment and actual perceived impairment as defined by the participant. Overall the work highlights the variaton between the pFCI and IIS and emphasises the importance and need for a single validated impairment scale that can be universally applied. This would allow emphasis to be directed towards preventing injuries that are associated with the most significant impairment outcomes.

Barnes, Jo; Morris, Andrew



Objective and subjective cognitive impairment following chemotherapy for cancer: a systematic review.  


Evidence suggests that some cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy. However, perceived or subjective cognitive impairment is more frequently reported than prevalence revealed by objective assessments. The aim of this review was to examine the relationship between subjective and objective measures of cognitive impairment following treatment for cancer and to determine the number of studies that found a significant relationship between these measures of cognition. A comprehensive search for articles, published between 1980 and 2012, comparing subjective and objective cognition in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy was conducted. Of 818 potentially relevant articles, 23 studies met the inclusion criteria for the current review and one article was sourced from reference lists of included studies. Only eight of 24 included studies found a significant relationship between objective and subjective measures of cognitive performance. These studies were more likely to involve breast cancer patients and to assess the relationship between memory and perceived cognitive impairment. The failure to consistently find an association between subjective and objective measures of cognition could be explained by variations in assessment methods or the definition of impairment. Alternatively, objective and perceived cognitive impairment may be unrelated because perceived impairment may be an indicator of psychological distress rather than cognitive impairment. Despite these discrepancies, patients' perceptions of impairment are important due to its significant impact on quality of life. Further research is required to explore whether objective measures of everyday functioning better predict the impact of chemotherapy related cognitive impairment on daily functioning. PMID:22658913

Hutchinson, Amanda D; Hosking, Jessica R; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Mattiske, Julie K; Wilson, Carlene



Beyond mild cognitive impairment: vascular cognitive impairment, no dementia (VCIND)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying the causes of dementia is important in the search for effective preventative and treatment strategies. The concept\\u000a of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), as prodromal dementia, has been useful but remains controversial since in population-based\\u000a studies it appears to be a limited predictor of progression to dementia. Recognising the relative contribution of neurodegenerative\\u000a and vascular causes, as well as their

Blossom CM Stephan; Fiona E Matthews; Kay-Tee Khaw; Carole Dufouil; Carol Brayne



The greater seedling high-light tolerance of Quercus robur over Fagus sylvatica is linked to a greater physiological plasticity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The responses of Quercus robur (oak) and Fagus sylvatica (beech) seedlings to four different light environments (full, 50%, 40% and 15% sunlight) and to a rapid increase in irradiance were explored during the summer, after 2 years of growth in a forest nursery at Nancy (France). Significant differences between the two species were found for most variables. Phenotypic plasticity for

Fernando Valladares; José Manuel Chico; Ismael Aranda; Luis Balaguer; Pierre Dizengremel; Esteban Manrique; Erwin Dreyer



Learning impairments following postnatal exposure to benzene.  


Two groups of male hooded rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain were administered 550 mg/kg of benzene in corn oil or pure corn oil on Days 9, 11, and 13 postpartum. When tested on problems of the Hebb-Williams closed-field maze-learning task, the rats previously exposed to benzene manifest significantly impaired learning ability when compared to control rats in the total number of error zones entered over the 12 test problems. No significant differences were found in food consumption, water consumption, or weight gain. Moreover, none of the overt manifestations characteristic of acute or chronic benzene exposure were observed. Learning deficits were exhibited at levels of exposure previously considered subtoxic. PMID:6664789

Geist, C R; Drew, K L; Schoenheit, C M; Praed, J E



Selective neurocognitive impairments in adolescents with major depressive disorder.  


This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network Test, the Iowa Gambling Task, the Emotional Go-NoGo Task, and the Face Go-NoGo Task were administered to adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (n = 31) and psychiatric diagnosis free controls (n = 30). Findings indicated that compared with controls, depressed adolescents exhibited impaired sustained attention; a gender by group interaction on affective decision making such that depressed males tended to make less advantageous choices on the IGT; and an inverse pattern of correlations between depressive symptom counts and reaction time to affective stimuli, characterizing greater affective reactivity in depressed adolescents. Findings demonstrate that adolescents with MDD display selective neurocognitive impairments on tasks capturing 'cool' and 'hot' executive functioning. PMID:21782233

Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn



Clinical significance of knowledge about the structure, function, and impairments of working memory  

PubMed Central

A review of contemporary research on the working memory system (WMS) is important, both due to the need to focus the discussion on further necessary investigations on the structure and function of this key part of the human brain, as well as to share this knowledge with clinicians. In our introduction we try to clarify the actual terminology and provide an intuitively understandable model for 3 basic cognitive operations: perception, recognition, imagery, and manipulation of recalled mental images. We emphasize the importance of knowledge of the structure and function of the WMS for the possibility to demonstrate the links between genetic polymorphisms and the prevalence to some mental disorders. We also review current knowledge of working memory dysfunction in the most common diseases and specific clinical situations such as maturation and aging. Finally, we briefly discuss methods for assessment of WMS capacity. This article establishes a kind of compendium of knowledge for clinicians who are not familiar with the structure and operation of the WMS.

Brodziak, Andrzej; Brewczynski, Adam; Bajor, Grzegorz



Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351.

Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves



Diagnosis and management of vascular cognitive impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate diagnosis of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) is important but may be difficult. VCI diagnoses depend on determinations\\u000a of the presence of both cognitive impairment and cerebrovascular disease (CVD), temporal causal links between cognitive impairment\\u000a and CVD, and the presence or absence of other potential contributors to cognitive impairment, such as Alzheimer’s disease\\u000a (AD). Diagnostic criteria differ across currently utilized

David L. Nyenhuis; Philip B. Gorelick



Visual impairment in Northern Ireland.  

PubMed Central

Statistics on the registration of blind and partially-sighted patients in Northern Ireland underestimate the true extent of visual impairment within our community. In comparison to other UK regions, where between 0.53% and 0.59% of the population avail of blind or partial sight registration, only 0.35% of residents in Northern Ireland appear on the respective registers. Most patients on the combined registers are in the older age groups and many also suffer from other disabilities. Regional discrepancies may be attributed to a combination of factors including: patient attitudes to the registration process, medical attitudes to registration and local anomalies in the way in which social services departments both record and present annual registration returns. Better liaison is necessary between the community, hospital and voluntary sector providers to improve identification and support services for the visually impaired in the future.

Canavan, Y. M.; Jackson, A. J.; Stewart, A.



Epigenetic Treatments for Cognitive Impairments  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic mechanisms integrate signals from diverse intracellular transduction cascades and in turn regulate genetic readout. Accumulating evidence has revealed that these mechanisms are critical components of ongoing physiology and function in the adult nervous system, and are essential for many cognitive processes, including learning and memory. Moreover, a number of psychiatric disorders and syndromes that involve cognitive impairments are associated with altered epigenetic function. In this review, we will examine how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to cognition, consider how changes in these mechanisms may lead to cognitive impairments in a range of disorders and discuss the potential utility of therapeutic treatments that target epigenetic machinery. Finally, we will comment on a number of caveats associated with interpreting epigenetic changes and using epigenetic treatments, and suggest future directions for research in this area that will expand our understanding of the epigenetic changes underlying cognitive disorders.

Day, Jeremy J; Sweatt, J David



Developing inclusive outreach activities for students with visual impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Despite advances in assistive technology, relatively few visually impaired,students ,participate in university-level ,computing courses. Significant factors in this under representation include lack of relevant precollege preparation, lack of role models, access to resources, and the highly visual nature of modern computing. This paper describes the ,development ,of inclusive activities and ,materials for use ,in a ,summer ,workshop ,for precollege

Stephanie Ludi; Thomas Reichlmayr



Impaired synaptic plasticity in mice carrying the Huntington's disease mutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairment is an early symptom of Huntington's disease (HD). Mice engineered to carry the HD mutation in the endogenous huntingtin gene showed a significant reduction in long-term potentia- tion (LTP), a measure of synaptic plasticity often thought to be involved in memory. However, LTP could be induced in mutant slices by an 'enhanced' tetanic stimulus, implying that the LTP-producing

Martine T. Usdin; Peggy F. Shelbourne; Richard M. Myers; Daniel V. Madison



Regional Lobar Atrophy Predicts Memory Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In recent studies, measures of whole brain atrophy were strongly correlated with neuropsychological testing, explaining more variance than measures of lesion burden in patients with multiple sclerosis. The relationship between regional lobar atrophy and cognitive impairment is yet to be examined. We endeavored to assess the clinical significance of regional lobar atrophy in multiple sclerosis. METHODS: In

Ralph H. B. Benedict; Robert Zivadinov; Dominic A. Carone; Bianca Weinstock-Guttman; Jeff Gaines; Cosimo Maggiore; Jitendra Sharma; Maria-Antonietta Tomassi; Rohit Bakshi



Persistence of Neuropsychological Testing Deficits in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The significant variability across studies of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in rates of progression to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and reversion to normal cognition may be due to differences in specific neuropsychological tests and thresholds used to define MCI. Methods: We assessed 115 subjects with amnestic (AMN) or non-amnestic (NON) MCI on a standardized neuropsychological battery at baseline and after

Edmond Teng; Kathleen D. Tingus; Po H. Lu; Jeffrey L. Cummings



Lifelogging memory appliance for people with episodic memory impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifelogging technologies have the potential to prov ide memory cues for people who struggle with episodic memory impairment (EMI). These memory cues enable the recollection of significant experiences, which is i mportant for people with EMI to regain a sense of normalcy i n their lives. However, lifelogging technologies often coll ect an overwhelmingly large amount of data to review.

Matthew L. Lee; Anind K. Dey



Comprehension of Nine Syntactic Structures by Hearing-Impaired Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A comic book format was used to test comprehension of nine previously uninvestigated syntactic structures by 187 hearing impaired students (7-23 years old). Results indicated a significant improvement across reading levels and demonstrated order of difficulty of the structures. (Author/CL)|

Wilbur, Ronnie; And Others



Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others


Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others


Further aspects of male-on-male rape and sexual assault in greater Manchester.  


The purpose of this paper is to describe pertinent non-medical circumstances around male-on-male sexual assault, and supplements the earlier article in this journal regarding forensic medical aspects of this population. As services (medical, policing and judicial) see more males they will need to adapt themselves to their needs as well as those of their female clients. St. Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre (Greater Manchester, UK) opened in October 1986. Up to May 2003 it had seen 376 male (370 individual clients) and 7,789 female cases (7,403 clients). Of these, significantly fewer males reported to the police than females, although this difference has disappeared in recent years. There were also significant differences between the sexes regarding relationship, number of assailants, and assault location. There were no statistically significant differences between the sexes for age of the client, and presence in the assault of weapons or additional violence. PMID:16117283

McLean, Iain A; Balding, Val; White, Cath



Screening for cognitive impairment in older adults attending an eye clinic.  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE: We conducted a cross-sectional study examining potentially modifiable factors associated with cognitive impairments (mild or severe) in older whites, African Americans and Hispanics attending an outpatient eye clinic. METHODS: In-clinic interviews and physical examinations assessed social, demographic and health information from 100 consecutive Hispanic, African-American and white adults aged > or = 55. Our primary outcome was presence of any cognitive impairment (mild or severe) using the St. Louis University Mental Status Examination (SLUMS) scale. RESULTS: Of the 100 subjects, 65 screened positive for cognitive impairments on the SLUMS cognitive instrument: 46 with mild cognitive impairment and 19 with severe impairment (possible dementia). African-American and Hispanic adults (nonwhites) were significantly more likely to have cognitive impairment compared to white adults (OR 2.80: 95% CI = 1.05-7.44), independent of age, years of education and systolic blood pressure. Subjects with diabetes also had increased odds of cognitive impairments (OR 3.28, 95% CI = 1.21-8.90) even after adjusting for relevant confounders. There was a nonsignificant trend between visual acuity impairment and cognitive impairment (p = 0.059). CONCLUSIONS: Sixty-five percent of adults aged > or = 55 attending the eye clinic screened positive for cognitive impairments, with higher rates among nonwhites and adults living with diabetes.

Raji, Mukaila A.; Tang, Rosa A.; Heyn, Patricia C.; Kuo, Yong-Fang; Owen, Steven V.; Singh, Sonali; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.



Simvastatin impairs murine melanoma growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Statins induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, reduction of angiogenic factors, inhibition of the endothelial growth factor, impairing tissue adhesion and attenuation of the resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was evaluate the anti-tumoral activity of simvastatin in a B16F10 melanoma-mouse model. METHODS: Melanoma cells were treated with different concentrations of simvastatin and assessed by viability methods. Melanoma cells

Giovani M Favero; Michel F Otuki; Karen A Oliveira; Milton S Bohatch Jr; Primavera Borelli; Francisco E Barros; Durvanei A Maria; Daniel Fernandes; Sergio P Bydlowski



Factors contributing to impaired self-awareness of cognitive functioning in an HIV positive and at-risk population  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the association between self-awareness of cognitive impairment and age, selected mood disorders, and type and severity of cognitive impairment in a sample of individuals with HIV/AIDS and at risk for HIV. Method 75 subjects, 52 HIV+ and 23 at risk for HIV completed a psychosocial interview, the Patient’s Assessment of Own Functioning (PAOF) questionnaire, and a battery of neuropsychological tests. Based upon the differences between their clinical impairment and self-reported impairment, subjects were classified as being “Underestimators”, “Good Awareness”, or “Impaired Awareness” with regard to self-awareness. Results Those with more severe cognitive impairment were less aware than those with normal or borderline cognitive impairment. A one-way ANOVA suggested that the Impaired Awareness group differed significantly from the Underestimators on the Rey Figure Immediate and Delayed Recall tasks, and from both the Underestimators and Good Awarenesss groups on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. There were significant differences among all awareness groups on the test of Simple Reaction Time. Furthermore there is some suggestion that age may contribute to impaired self-awareness. The role of HIV in self-awareness remains unclear, as both, individuals with HIV and at risk, demonstrated impaired self-awareness. Conclusions Overall, impaired awareness was associated with poorer test performance, suggesting a relationship between awareness and sustained complex attention and visual spatial processing. This research has implications for understanding factors contributing to poor awareness among individuals with cognitive impairment.

Juengst, Shannon; Skidmore, Elizabeth; Pramuka, Michael; McCue, Michael; Becker, James



Corticosterone stress response of Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) during short-term road transport.  


The effect of transport stress on blood corticosterone levels in captive Greater Rheas was investigated. Twelve adult individuals (7 males; 5 females) were loaded in pairs inside wooden crates and transported along a paved road for 30 min. Blood samples were taken before the individuals were introduced into the crate (baseline value) and immediately after they were unloaded (30 min after capture). To assess whether corticosterone levels were affected by the blood sampling procedure per se, another 6 (nontransport) control birds (3 males; 3 females) were also captured and sampled at the same times as their transported counterparts. Plasma corticosterone concentrations were measured using a commercially available corticosterone (125)I radio-immunoassay kit. Baseline corticosterone levels were similar in the control and transported birds (9.0 ± 1.6 and 10.4 ± 0.8 ng/mL, respectively). Transportation induced a highly significant (P < 0.001), more than 40-fold increase in the corticosterone levels (433.6 ± 35.4 ng/mL) that was about 5 times higher (P < 0.001) than in their nontransported counterparts (88.4 ± 14.8 ng/mL). The present findings suggest that Greater Rhea is a species highly sensitive to stressful manipulations. Both blood sampling and transportation induced highly significant adrenocortical responses. Considering that transportation is one of the unavoidable common practices in the management of Greater Rheas and, as shown in the present study, that it induces a significant 40-fold corticosterone stress response, efforts should focus on helping to generate management transport standards for optimization of the welfare of this ratite. PMID:23243231

Lèche, A; Della Costa, N S; Hansen, C; Navarro, J L; Marin, R H; Martella, M B



Preventing Impaired Driving Using Alcohol Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable progress has been made in the reduction of impaired driving crashes during the last two decades. Much of this progress is attributable to strengthening laws against impaired driving along with vigorous enforcement efforts aimed at deterring impaired driving. In addition, many useful strategies can also be applied that focus on the control of alcohol availability, use, and promotion. Alcohol




Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

Schwartz, Jonathan R.


Memory impairment among primary care veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory impairment is the most frequent cognitive dysfunction for older patients. Though studies have shown that dementia is often overlooked in primary care settings, there has been minimal focus specifically on memory impairment, on patients’ concerns about memory, or their desire to address these concerns. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the prevalence of memory impairment among

Joshua Chodosh; David L. Sultzer; Martin L. Lee; Theodore J. Hahn; David B. Reuben; Elizabeth M. Yano; Brian S. Mittman; Laurence Z. Rubenstein



Depression and Academic Impairment in College Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impairment from depression and its impact on productivity are of profound societal importance. We report the results of an evaluation of depression and academic impairment in university students, using standardized measures. Sixty-three students completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the work role section from the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report. Academic impairment, manifested as missed time from class, decreased academic productivity,

Eric Heiligenstein; Greta Guenther; Ken Hsu; Kris Herman



Effective Speech Processing for Various Impaired Listeners  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal hearing listeners are able to understand speech with different types of degradation, because speech has redundancy in the spectro-temporal domains. On the other hand, hearing impaired listeners have less such capability. Because of this, speech signal processing for hearing impairment needs to preserve important landmarks when enhancing a speech signal. The hearing impairments are characterized by high-frequency hearing loss,

Takayuki Arai; Keiichi Yasu; Nao Hodoshima


Hearing impairment among ‘at risk’ children  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey was carried out to identify the prevalence and the aetiology of hearing impairment among infants and children at risk based on the criteria. Out of 6421 surveyed children, 1256 (19.6%) were found ‘at risk’ for hearing impairment. Children with hearing impairment in this study were found to be 494 which represent 39.3% of the ‘at risk’ children. We

Hamad S. Al-Muhaimeed



Relation of elevated levels of plasma myeloperoxidase to impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction.  


Previous studies have shown that oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are related to impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion. Moreover, elevated myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Plasma MPO levels were measured in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (n = 160) who had undergone percutaneous coronary stenting within 12 hours of symptom onset. We investigated whether the plasma MPO level at admission was associated with impaired myocardial microcirculation, as indicated by ST-segment resolution and myocardial blush grade after reperfusion, and left ventricular ejection fraction and remodeling at 6 months. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median MPO value for the entire cohort (low-MPO group < or =50 ng/ml, n = 80; high-MPO group >50 ng/ml, n = 80). ST-segment resolution and the myocardial blush grade were significantly lower in the high-MPO than in the low-MPO group (48 +/- 27% vs 61 +/- 24%, p <0.005; and 2.1 +/- 0.8 vs 2.4 +/- 0.7, p <0.01; respectively). Moreover, the percentage of increase in the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index was significantly greater and the left ventricular ejection fraction at 6 months was significantly lower in the high-MPO group than in the low-MPO group (8.2 +/- 24.7% vs -1.9 +/- 23.5%, p <0.05; and 46 +/- 9% vs 54 +/- 9%, p <0.0001, respectively). Multiple regression analysis showed that the plasma MPO level was an independent predictor of incomplete ST-segment resolution (odds ratio 6.94, 95% confidence interval 2.10 to 22.9, p = 0.0015). In conclusion, elevated plasma MPO levels at admission were associated with impaired myocardial microcirculation after reperfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction. PMID:20346307

Yunoki, Kei; Naruko, Takahiko; Komatsu, Ryushi; Shirai, Nobuyuki; Nakagawa, Masashi; Sugioka, Kenichi; Ikura, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Kengo Fukushima; Itoh, Akira; Haze, Kazuo; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Becker, Anton E; Ueda, Makiko



Relatedness and nesting dispersion within breeding populations of greater white-fronted geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We studied patterns of relatedness and nesting dispersion in female Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons frontalis) in Alaska. Female Greater White-fronted Geese are thought to be strongly philopatric and are often observed nesting in close association with other females. Analysis of the distribution of nests on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in 1998 indicated that nests were significantly clumped. We tested the hypothesis that females in the same nest cluster would be closely related using estimates of genetic relatedness based on six microsatellite DNA loci. There was no difference in the mean relatedness of females in the same cluster compared to females found in different clusters. However, relatedness among females was negatively correlated with distance between their nests, and geese nesting within 50 m of one another tended to be more closely related than those nesting farther apart. Randomization tests revealed that pairs of related individuals (R > 0.45) were more likely to occur in the same cluster when analyzed at the scale of the entire study site. However, the pattern did not hold when restricted to pairs found within 500 m of each other. Our results indicate that nest clusters are not composed primarily of closely related females, but Greater White-fronted Geese appear to be sufficiently philopatric to promote nonrandom patterns of relatedness at a local scale.

Fowler, A. C.; Eadie, J. M.; Ely, C. R.



40 CFR 81.22 - Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region... § 81.22 Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Air Quality...



40 CFR 81.22 - Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region... § 81.22 Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Greater Metropolitan Cleveland Intrastate Air Quality...



Balance impairment in individuals with Wolfram syndrome  

PubMed Central

AIM Wolfram syndrome (WFS), a rare neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities. Although previously unreported, we hypothesized that neurological complications may be detectable in relatively early stages of the disease. As the cerebellum and brainstem seem particularly vulnerable in WFS, we focused on balance functions critically dependent on these regions. The primary goal of this investigation was to compare balance in young individuals with WFS, in relatively early stages of the disease, to an age-matched cohort using a clinically applicable test. METHOD Balance was assessed via the mini-BESTest in 13 children, adolescents and young adults with WFS and 30 typically developing age-matched individuals. RESULTS A significant difference was observed between groups in balance as well as in three of four subcomponents of the mini-BESTest and in two timed tasks related to balance. Mini-BESTest scores were correlated with age (p < 0.001, rs = 0.59) among typically developing individuals. In the WFS group, mini-BESTest scores were related to overall motor dysfunction, but not age. INTERPRETATION Impairments in balance in WFS may occur earlier in the disease process than previously recognized and appear to be related to overall neurological progression rather than chronological age. Recognizing balance impairments and understanding which balance systems contribute to balance deficits in those with WFS may allow for development of effective patient-centered treatment paradigms.

Pickett, Kristen A.; Duncan, Ryan P.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Permutt, Alan; Marshall, Bess; Hershey, Tamara; Earhart, Gammon M.



Physical characteristics and chemical composition of Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) eggs from wild and captive populations.  


1. Eggs from wild and captive populations of Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) were studied to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. 2. Significant differences were found among populations in almost all chemical parameters studied, whereas within physical parameters only shell weight (as a proportion of the entire egg) and density showed differences. 3. Eggs from wild populations had the highest protein and linolenic acid and the lowest total lipid contents, while cholesterol levels of these eggs and of those from the largest captive area were the lowest. PMID:11811919

Navarro, J L; López, M L; Maestri, D M; Labuckas, D O



Disturbed visual processing contributes to impaired reading in Alzheimer’s disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between visual processing dysfunction and oral reading impairment was investigated in 17 patients with probable or possible Alzheimer’s disease (AD). When dementia severity was controlled, a significant relationship was found between single word oral reading impairments and difficulties discriminating words written in different fonts and photographs of objects in different orientations, which are all functions believed to be

Guila Glosser; Krista M. Baker; Jeroen J. de Vries; Abass Alavi; Murray Grossmana; Christopher M. Clark



Visual Attention Deficits are Associated with Driving Accidents in Cognitively-Impaired HIV-Infected Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found HIV-associated neuropsychological (NP) dysfunction to be associated with impaired driving skills. To determine whether specific impairments in visual attention impart an increased accident risk, we assessed 21 HIV seronegative (HIV-) and 42 seropositive (HIV+) participants on NP tests and the Useful Field of View (UFOV), a computerized test of visual attention. HIV+ participants performed significantly worse

Thomas D. Marcotte; Deborah Lazzaretto; J. Cobb Scott; Erica Roberts; Steven P. Woods; Scott Letendre




Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium: risk factors, pathophysiology and management Soilemezi E, Konstantinidis P, Georgiadou Th. A significant number of patients exhibit impairment in cognitive function immediately following surgery or later; the impact of this postoperative cognitive dysfunction on the recovery and quality of life of the patient but also on the necessity for supportive and rehabilitation care is

Konstantinidis A. Panagiotis; Georgiadou Theodora



Application of the Strange Situation Attachment Paradigm to a Neurologically Impaired Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines 24 mother/impaired infant dyads to study the quality of interaction using the Ainsworth-Wittig attachment paradigm. Measures of general development and degree of child impairment significantly differentiated "classifiability" of attachment in the Ainsworth scheme. Infants rated higher on a social responsiveness measure were more likely…

Stahlecker, James E.; Cohen, Marlene Cresci



A Comparison of Psychometric Functions for Detection in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Psychometric functions (PFD) for the detection of pure tones were obtained from 10 adolescent and young adult listeners with normal hearing and 10 adult listeners with sensorineural impairments of presumed cochlear origin. The slopes of the PFDs were abnormally steep in some of the hearing-impaired listeners but were statistically significant

Arehart, Kathryn Hoberg; And Others



Impaired Attribution of Emotion to Facial Expressions in Anxiety and Major Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRecognition of others' emotions is an important aspect of interpersonal communication. In major depression, a significant emotion recognition impairment has been reported. It remains unclear whether the ability to recognize emotion from facial expressions is also impaired in anxiety disorders. There is a need to review and integrate the published literature on emotional expression recognition in anxiety disorders and major

Liliana R. Demenescu; Rudie Kortekaas; Johan A. den Boer; André Aleman; Ben J. Harrison



Errorless learning and the cognitive rehabilitation of memory-impaired schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In recent years, evidence has accumulated that a significant proportion of schizophrenic patients have severe memory impairment, which cannot be attributed to the eects of medication, chronicity or institutionalization. Our group has demonstrated that memory impairment is associated with poor psychosocial outcome and treatment resistance. Work on the classical amnesic syndrome has suggested that memory training is facilitated by




Residential Differences in the Composition of the Helping Networks of Impaired Elders.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used data from 1984 Supplement on Aging to National Health Interview Survey to examine residential differences in helping network composition of 3,761 impaired elders. Severely impaired elders in nonmetropolitan communities were less apt than metropolitan counterparts to receive aid from formal providers and were significantly more likely to…

Coward, Raymond T.; And Others



Human Serial Learning: Enhancement with Arecholine and Choline and Impairment with Scopolamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arecholine (4 milligrams), a cholinergic agonist, and choline (10 grams), a precursor of acetylcholine, significantly enhanced serial learning in normal human subjects. The subjects received methscopolamine prior to both arecholine and placebo injections. Conversely, scopolamine (0.5 milligram), a cholinergic antagonist, impaired learning and this impairment was reversed by a subsequent injection of arecholine. The degree of enhancement produced by arecholine

N. Sitaram; Herbert Weingartner; J. Christian Gillin



Psychopathology and functional impairment among patients attending an adolescent health clinic: Implications for healthcare model reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In developing countries, primary health care facilities, such as adolescent health clinics, are frequently the first contact for an adolescent with a health professional for a myriad of health problems including mental health issues. Psychopathology is prevalent among adolescents, and causes significant educational, occupational and social impairment. The presence of psychopathology with impairment requires the development of treatment models

Sushila Russell; Balakrishnan Subramanian; Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar Russell



Generational Differences in the Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

There were significant changes in health and lifestyle throughout the 20th century which may have changed temporal patterns of hearing impairment in adults. In this study, the authors aimed to assess the effect of birth cohort on the prevalence of hearing impairment in an adult population aged 45-94 years, using data collected between 1993 and 2008 from 3 cycles of

Weihai Zhan; Karen J. Cruickshanks; Barbara E. K. Klein; Ronald Klein; Guan-Hua Huang; James S. Pankow; Ronald E. Gangnon; Theodore S. Tweed



Perceptual/Motor Profiles of Reading Impaired Children with or without Concomitant Oral Language Deficits.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Results showed that the 22 reading impaired seven- to nine-year-olds, none of whom had oral language deficits, showed no significant differences on most perceptual/motor tasks tested, suggesting that previous evidence indicating poor temporal integration in reading impaired children was due to inclusion of children with oral language deficits. (CL)

Tallal, Paula; Stark, Rachel E.



Key Neurological Impairments Influence Function-Related Group Outcomes After Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The function-related group (FRG) classification is based on functional assessment and has been assumed to encompass the effects of different patterns and severity of neurological impairments. This assumption may not be correct. It has been proposed as a means of comparing rehabilitation outcome across institutions. If neurological impairments significantly affect FRG outcome, then higher FRG outcome scores may

Lu Han; Diane Law-Gibson; Michael Reding


Folate depletion impairs DNA excision repair in the colon of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims—Diminished folate status appears to promote colonic carcinogenesis by, as of yet, undefined mechanisms. Impaired DNA repair plays a significant role in the evolution of many colon cancers. Since folate is essential for thede novo synthesis of nucleotides and since folate depletion has previously been associated with excessive DNA strand breaks, it was hypothesised that folate depletion may impair DNA

S-W Choi; Y-I Kim; J N Weitzel; J B Mason



Intact first- and second-order false belief reasoning in a patient with severely impaired grammar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The retention of first-order theory of mind (ToM) despite severe loss of grammar has been reported in two patients with left hemisphere brain damage (Varley & Siegal, 2000; Varley, Siegal, & Want, 2001). We report a third, and more detailed, case study. Patient PH shows significant general language impairment, and severe grammatical impairment similar to that reported in previous studies.

Ian A. Apperly; Dana Samson; Naomi Carroll; Shazia Hussain; Glyn Humphreys



Serum Cystatin C is a Potential Endogenous Marker for the Estimation of Renal Function in Male Gout Patients with Renal Impairment  

PubMed Central

Serum creatinine level is the most commonly used indices for assessment of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), even though these indices have been shown to have some limitations in clinical practice. We investigated the diagnostic efficacy of serum cystatin C compared to that of serum creatinine levels and identified the relating factors associated with changes in serum cystatin C levels in gout patients with renal impairment. A total of 68 gouty patients with renal impairment were enrolled in this study. Diagnostic efficacy of serum cystatin C levels was evaluated through non-parametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The risk factors for changes in serum cystatin C levels were confirmed using multivariate regression analysis. With 24-hr urine creatinine clearance (Ccr) as the reference for GFR, 1/cystatin C (r=0.702, P<0.001) showed a significantly higher correlation with Ccr than 1/creatinine (r=0.665, P<0.001). Multivariate correlation analysis demonstrated that the clinical parameters for increased serum cystatin C are a higher stage of chronic kidney disease, older age, use of allopurinol, and lower high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. The area under the curve (AUC) at ROC plots identified that of serum cystatin C was significantly greater than that of serum creatinine (AUC 0.804 of cystatin C and AUC 0.745 of creatinine). The study suggests that serum cystatin C is a reliable endogenous marker for the assessment of renal function or GFR in gout patients with renal impairment.

Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Sung-Hoon



Short-lived ants take greater risks during food collection.  


Life-history theory predicts that organisms should alter their behavior if life expectancy declines. Recent theoretical work has focused on worker life expectancy as an ultimate factor in allocating risk-related tasks among the workforce in social insects. A key prediction of this evolutionary model is that workers with shorter life expectancy should perform riskier tasks. We tested this hypothesis, using laboratory colonies of the ant Myrmica scabrinodis. We modified foraging so that it differed in level of risk by manipulating distances, temperatures, and the presence of competitors on foraging patches. The life expectancies of foragers were shortened by poisoning with carbon dioxide or by injury through removal of their propodeal spines. Both treatments significantly shortened worker life expectancy in comparison with untreated ants. We show, for the first time, that foragers with a shorter life expectancy foraged under risk more often than foragers in the control group. Thus, a worker's strategy of foraging under risky circumstances appears to be fine-tuned to its life expectancy. PMID:23149399

Moro?, Dawid; Lenda, Magdalena; Skórka, Piotr; Woyciechowski, Micha?



Circumpolar variation in morphological characteristics of Greater White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Capsule: Greater White-fronted Geese show significant variation in body size from sampling locations throughout their circumpolar breeding range. Aims: To determine the degree of geographical variation in body size of Greater White-fronted Geese and identify factors contributing to any apparent patterns in variation. Methods: Structural measures of >3000 geese from 16 breeding areas throughout the Holarctic breeding range of the species were compared statistically. Results: Palearctic forms varied clinally, and increased in size from the smallest forms on the Kanin and Taimyr peninsulas in western Eurasia to the largest forms breeding in the Anadyr Lowlands of eastern Chukotka. Clinal variation was less apparent in the Nearctic, as both the smallest form in the Nearctic and the largest form overall (the Tule Goose) were from different breeding areas in Alaska. The Tule Goose was 25% larger than the smallest form. Birds from Greenland (A. a. flavirostris) were the second largest, although only slightly larger than geese from several North American populations. Body size was not correlated with breeding latitude but was positively correlated with temperature on the breeding grounds, breeding habitat, and migration distance. Body mass of Greater White-fronted Geese from all populations remained relatively constant during the period of wing moult. Morphological distinctness of eastern and western Palearctic forms concurs with earlier findings of complete range disjunction. Conclusions: Patterns of morphological variation in Greater White-fronted Geese across the Holarctic can be generally attributed to adaptation to variable breeding environments, migration requirements, and phylo-geographical histories. ?? 2005 British Trust for Ornithology.

Ely, C. R.; Fox, A. D.; Alisauskas, R. T.; Andreev, A.; Bromley, R. G.; Degtyarev, A. G.; Ebbinge, B.; Gurtovaya, E. N.; Kerbes, R.; Kondratyev, A. V.; Kostin, I.; Krechmar, A. V.; Litvin, K. E.; Miyabayashi, Y.; Moou, J. H.; Oates, R. M.; Orthmeyer, D. L.; Sabano, Y.; Simpson, S. G.; Solovieva, D. V.; Spindler, M. A.; Syroechkovsky, Y. V.; Takekawa, J. Y.; Walsh, A.



The impairment of true glomerular filtration rate in long-term cyclosporine-treated pediatric allograft recipients  

SciTech Connect

We performed indium-111-DTPA plasma clearance studies in 61 pediatric kidney and liver recipients treated with cyclosporine to compare true glomerular filtration rate with calculated GFR (cGFR). The mean true GFR of 61.9 +/- 36.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 indicated renal impairment. The mean cGFR of 85.2 +/- 22.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 was significantly higher (P less than 0.001), and overestimated GFR by 38%. cGFR alone did not accurately reflect the degree of renal dysfunction. A group of 48 pediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients was studied in more detail: 73% of these patients had a true GFR less than 70 ml/min/1.73 m2, while 85% had a true GFR below 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, the lower limit for normal GFR in children. The mean true GFR for patients treated more than 24 months with CsA was lower (P = 0.02) than patients treated with CsA for 12 to 24 months. OLT patients with normal true GFR (greater than 90 ml/min/1.73 m2) had significantly lower plasma CsA levels, and 50% of patients with a true GFR less than or equal to 50 ml/min/1.73 m2 had hypertension. There was no effect on true GFR of age, liver function, azathioprine use, or peritransplant treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs. We conclude that true GFR is significantly impaired in long-term CsA-treated allograft pediatric recipients. Calculations of GFR underestimate the degree of renal dysfunction. As patients treated greater than 24 months had the lowest true GFRs, the fall in GFR may be progressive.

McDiarmid, S.V.; Ettenger, R.B.; Hawkins, R.A.; Senguttvan, P.; Busuttil, R.W.; Vargas, J.; Berquist, W.E.; Ament, M.E.



The tectonic evolution of the greater South China Sea  

SciTech Connect

The South China Sea (SCS) basin is composed of two major subbasins. The eastern subbasin was formed by seafloor spreading in the middle Tertiary and is associated with roughly E-W-trending magnetic lineations. The southwestern subbasin of the South China Sea is characterized by NE-SW tectonic and magnetic trends and is considerably narrower than the eastern subbasin. There is no obvious structural discontinuity between the two subbasins; hence the initial opening of the eastern subbasin was likely accommodated to the west by a prolonged period of extension of the continental crust that was not accompanied by the formation of normal oceanic crust. The southwest subbasin was eventually also formed by seafloor spreading processes. Although the sequence of magnetic lineations recorded there is relatively short, these data coupled with heatflow and crustal depth data strongly suggest that the southwestern subbasin was not formed until the early-middle Miocene, coincident with the last phase of spreading in the adjacent eastern subbasin. It is still unclear whether or not a significant change in spreading direction occurred within the SCS basin during the early Miocene. The geometry of the deep SCS basin as defined by the seaward limit of the continent-ocean boundary zone provides important constraints on the east-to-west variations in the total crustal extension manifested in the rifted margins of the South China Sea. The amount of new oceanic crust created by seafloor spreading plus the amount of crustal extension accommodated within the continental crust must be nearly the same for all points along the rifted margins. Because the amount of oceanic crust present is quite variable, it follows that the amount of crustal extension must be similarly variable and in a predictable way.

Hayes, D.E. (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, NY (USA))



Lifetime Discrimination Associated with Greater Likelihood of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder  

PubMed Central

Abstract Objectives To evaluate whether the stressor of perceived discrimination was associated with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and premenstrual symptoms among minority women. This study builds on previous research that found perceived discrimination was positively associated with other psychiatric illnesses. Methods Participants were 2718 Asian, Latina, and black premenopausal women aged 18–40 years who completed the World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview for the National Latino and Asian American Survey or the National Survey of American Life. Perceived discrimination was assessed with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. DSM-IV-based diagnostic algorithms generated a provisional lifetime diagnosis of PMDD. Results Eighty-three percent of the participants reported experiencing discrimination (due to race, gender, age, height or weight, or other reasons) in their lifetimes. The frequency of perceived discrimination was positively associated with PMDD (odds ratio [OR] 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.10) and premenstrual symptoms (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.05), independent of demographic covariates and social desirability. Women reporting gender discrimination (OR 5.18, 95% CI 1.80-14.90), race discrimination (OR 4.14, 95% CI 1.54-11.11), and other forms of discrimination (OR 6.43, 95% CI 2.11-19.65) were significantly more likely than women without experiences of discrimination to have PMDD. Subtle discrimination was more strongly associated with PMDD (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.23) than was blatant discrimination (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.94-1.15). Conclusions This study is the first to demonstrate that perceived discrimination is associated with PMDD and premenstrual symptoms. These findings suggest that the prevalence of these conditions may be lessened by reducing discrimination in women's lives.

Desai, Rani; Kasl, Stanislav; Levy, Becca R.



HIV Infection Is Associated With Diffusing Capacity Impairment in Women.  


: Respiratory dysfunction is common with HIV infection, but few studies have directly assessed whether HIV remains an independent risk factor for pulmonary function abnormalities in the antiretroviral therapy era. Additionally, few studies have focused on pulmonary outcomes in HIV+ women. We tested associations between risk factors for respiratory dysfunction and pulmonary outcomes in 63 HIV+ and 36 HIV-uninfected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Diffusing capacity (DLCO) was significantly lower in HIV+ women (65.5% predicted vs. 72.7% predicted, P = 0.01), and self-reported dyspnea in HIV+ participants was associated with both DLCO impairment and airflow obstruction. Providers should be aware that DLCO impairment is common in HIV infection, and that either DLCO impairment or airflow obstruction may cause respiratory symptoms in this population. PMID:23979000

Fitzpatrick, Meghan E; Gingo, Matthew R; Kessinger, Cathy; Lucht, Lorrie; Kleerup, Eric; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Claman, David; Ponath, Claudia; Fong, Serena; Huang, Laurence; Morris, Alison



Atherosclerotic risk factors, vascular cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer disease.  


The involvement of vascular factors in Alzheimer dementia was first appreciated over 100 years ago. Recently, significant advances in our understanding of these brain-vascular relationships have taken place. Vascular cognitive impairment is now recognized as a distinct group of interrelated vascular-based neurological insults that can accumulate and lead to dementia. Importantly, the pathology of vascular cognitive impairment extends far beyond brain destruction wrought by major stroke. Other subtle changes may also arise that contribute to vascular cognitive impairment and dementia, including subclinical stroke, white-matter changes such as hyperintensities and lipohyalinosis, small lacunar infarcts, cerebral hypoperfusion, and compromise of the blood-brain barrier. In this review we critically examine the emerging body of evidence that relates atherosclerotic risk factors, brain functioning, and Alzheimer disease. PMID:23239205

Kovacic, Jason C; Fuster, Valentin


Effect of hepatic or renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of casopitant, a NK-1 receptor antagonist.  


Two studies were conducted in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic or renal impairment and subjects with normal organ function to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of casopitant and to assess its safety in these populations. A total of 26 subjects were enrolled in the hepatic impairment study and 18 subjects in the renal impairment study. All subjects received oral casopitant 100 mg once-daily for 5 days. Casopitant area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) increased 11% and 24% in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment, respectively, on Day 1, compared with subjects with normal hepatic function; a similar increase was observed on Day 5. The AUC of the active major metabolite, GSK525060, was reduced 29% and 19% on Days 1 and 5, respectively, in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, but not altered by mild hepatic impairment. Casopitant AUC increased 34% and 22% on Day 1 in subjects with mild or moderate renal impairment, respectively, and 28% and 11% on Day 5, respectively, compared with subjects with normal renal function. GSK525060 AUC was increased 17% and 24% on Days 1 and 5, respectively, in subjects with mild renal impairment; but did not significantly change in subjects with moderate renal impairment. Further age-adjusted analysis showed no meaningful effect of renal impairment on casopitant or GSK525060 AUC. Plasma protein binding of casopitant and GSK525060 was similar in all subjects. The pharmacokinetics of casopitant is not altered to a clinically significant extent in subjects with mild or moderate, hepatic or renal impairment. The impact of severe hepatic or renal impairment was not evaluated. PMID:21188466

Bauman, John W; Antal, Joyce M; Adams, Laurel M; Johnson, Brendan M; Murray, Sharon C; Peng, Bin; Kirby, Lyndon C; Lebowitz, Peter F; Marbury, Thomas C; Swan, Suzanne; Gutierrez, Maria



Are empathic abilities impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder?  


Trauma survivors with PTSD show social interaction and relationship impairments. It is hypothesized that traumatic experiences lead to known PTSD symptoms, empathic ability impairment, and difficulties in sharing affective, emotional, or cognitive states. A PTSD group (N=16) and a nontraumatized Control group (N=16) were compared on empathic abilities, namely the Empathic Resonance Test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, and Faux Pas Test. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index as a self-report measure of empathy and measures of non-social cognitive functions, namely the Verbal Fluency Test, the Five-Point Test, and the Stroop Test, were also administered. The PTSD group showed lower empathic resonance. No clear indications of other impairments in social cognitive functions were found. The PTSD group had significantly higher personal distress. Empathic resonance impairments did not correlate with subjective severity of PTSD symptomatology. This article discusses whether impaired empathic resonance in PTSD trauma survivors is a consequence of trauma itself or a protective coping strategy. PMID:20712172

Nietlisbach, Gabriela; Maercker, Andreas; Rössler, Wulf; Haker, Helene



Aspects of grammar sensitive to procedural memory deficits in children with specific language impairment.  


Procedural deficit hypothesis claims that language deficit in children with specific language impairment is affiliated to sequence learning problems. However, studies did not explore on aspects of grammar vulnerable to sequence learning deficits. The present study makes predictions for aspects of grammar that could be sensitive to procedural deficits based on core ideas of procedural deficit hypothesis. The hypothesis for the present study was that the grammatical operations that require greater sequencing abilities (such as inflectional operations) would be more affected in children with language impairment. Further, the influence of sequencing difficulties would be even greater in agglutinating inflectional languages. An adapted serial reaction time task for sequence learning measurements along with grammatical tasks on derivation, inflection, and sentence complexity were examined on typically developing and language impaired children. Results were in favor of procedural deficit hypothesis and its close relation to non-adjacent grammatical operations. The findings were discussed using procedural deficits, declarative compensatory mechanism, and statistical learning deficits. PMID:23911642

Sengottuvel, Kuppuraj; Rao, Prema K S



Therapeutic Riding for a Student with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 9-year-old with multiple disabilities and visual impairments was the focus of a 10-week developmental therapeutic riding program incorporating hippotherapy. The program has led to increased mobility, an increase in visual attention span and fixation time, signs of greater verbal communication, and the acquisition of new functional signs.…

Lehrman, Jennifer; Ross, David B.



The Effect of Spatial Tasks on Visually Impaired Peoples' Wayfinding Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Thirty-eight people with visual impairments learned a 483-meter novel route through a university campus in four groups: verbalization, modeling, pointing, and control. The performance of all four groups improved with greater experience of the route, but the modeling group improved more than the control group. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)|

Blades, Mark; Lippa, Yvonne; Golledge, Reginald G.; Jacobson, R. Daniel; Kitchin, Robert M.



Trends Affecting the Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Demand for Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the prevalence of people with visual impairment and trends affecting prevalence, including increased overall populations and a growth in the older population, greater ability to preserve lives of high-risk populations, improved fitness, medical advances in prevention, expanding role of computers among other increasing visual demands,…

Kirchner, Corinne



Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten



Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten