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Sample records for significantly greater impairment

  1. Depressive Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment Predict Greater Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease-

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    Depressive Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment Predict Greater Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease, and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Background: Depression has been associated with higher conversion rates from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may be a marker

  2. Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Insomnia: Clinical Significance and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Morin, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the nature of cognitive impairment in individuals with insomnia, (2) document their clinical significance, (3) examine their correlates, and (4) explore differences among individuals with insomnia with and without cognitive complaints. Design: Participants underwent 3 consecutive nights of polysomnography. On the morning following the third night, they completed a battery of questionnaires and neuropsychological tests. Participants: The sample included 25 adults with primary insomnia (mean age: 44.4 ± 11.5 y, 56% women) and 16 controls (mean age: 42.8 ± 12.9 y, 50% women) matched for sex, age, and education. Intervention: N/A. Measurement and Results: Participants completed neuropsychological tests covering attention, memory, working memory, and executive functions, as well as questionnaires assessing the subjective perception of performance, depression, anxiety, fatigue, sleepiness, and hyperarousal. There were significant group differences for the attention and episodic memory domains. Clinically significant deficits were more frequent in the insomnia group. Within the insomnia group, individuals with cognitive complaints exhibited significantly poorer performance on a larger number of neuropsychological variables. All impaired aspects of performance were significantly associated with either subjective or objective sleep continuity, and some were also independently related to sleep microstructure (i.e., relative power for alpha frequencies) or selected psychological variables (i.e., beliefs or arousal). Conclusions: These findings suggest clinically significant alterations in attention and episodic memory in individuals with insomnia. Objective deficits were more pronounced and involved more aspects of performance in a subgroup of individuals with cognitive complaints. These deficits appear associated with sleep continuity, and may also be related to sleep microstructure and dysfunctional beliefs. Citation: Fortier-Brochu É, Morin CM. Cognitive impairment in individuals with insomnia: clinical significance and correlates. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1787-1798. PMID:25364074

  3. Frequent Amyloid Deposition Without Significant Cognitive Impairment Among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Aizenstein, Howard Jay; Nebes, Robert D.; Saxton, Judith A.; Price, Julie C.; Mathis, Chester A.; Tsopelas, Nicholas D.; Ziolko, Scott K.; James, Jeffrey A.; Snitz, Beth E.; Houck, Patricia R.; Bi, Wenzhu; Cohen, Ann D.; Lopresti, Brian J.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Halligan, Edythe M.; Klunk, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the prevalence of amyloid deposition in a clinically unimpaired elderly population, as assessed by Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, and its relationship to cognitive function, measured with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Design Subjects underwent cognitive testing and PiB PET imaging (15 mCi for 90 minutes with an ECAT HR + scanner). Logan graphical analysis was applied to estimate regional PiB retention distribution volume, normalized to a cerebellar reference region volume, to yield distribution volume ratios (DVRs). Setting University medical center. Participants From a community-based sample of volunteers, 43 participants aged 65 to 88 years who did not meet diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment were included. Main Outcome Measures Regional PiB retention and cognitive test performance. Results Of 43 clinically unimpaired elderly persons imaged, 9 (21%) showed evidence of early amyloid deposition in at least 1 brain area using an objectively determined DVR cutoff. Demographic characteristics did not differ significantly between amyloid-positive and amyloid-negative participants, and neurocognitive performance was not significantly worse among amyloid-positive compared with amyloid-negative participants. Conclusions Amyloid deposition can be identified among cognitively normal elderly persons during life, and the prevalence of asymptomatic amyloid deposition may be similar to that of symptomatic amyloid deposition. In this group of participants without clinically significant impairment, amyloid deposition was not associated with worse cognitive function, suggesting that an elderly person with a significant amyloid burden can remain cognitively normal. However, this finding is based on relatively small numbers and needs to be replicated in larger cohorts. Longitudinal follow-up of these subjects will be required to support the potential of PiB imaging to identify preclinical Alzheimer disease, or, alternatively, to show that amyloid deposition is not sufficient to cause Alzheimer disease within some specified period. PMID:19001171

  4. Functional Literacy for Students with Visual Impairments and Significant Cognitive Disabilities: The Perspective of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports opinions and practices of teachers of students with visual impairments (TSVIs) in 34 states regarding functional literacy for students with visual impairments (VIs) and significant cognitive disabilities (SCDs). The survey asked TSVIs to select a definition of functional literacy, indicate agreement with a series of literacy…

  5. Impaired Fas-Fas Ligand Interactions Result in Greater Recurrent Herpetic Stromal Keratitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiao-Tang; Keadle, Tammie L.; Hard, Jessicah; Herndon, John; Potter, Chloe A.; Del Rosso, Chelsea R.; Ferguson, Thomas A.; Stuart, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea leads to a potentially blinding condition termed herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). Clinical studies have indicated that disease is primarily associated with recurrent HSK following reactivation of a latent viral infection of the trigeminal ganglia. One of the key factors that limit inflammation of the cornea is the expression of Fas ligand (FasL). We demonstrate that infection of the cornea with HSV-1 results in increased functional expression of FasL and that mice expressing mutations in Fas (lpr) and FasL (gld) display increased recurrent HSK following reactivation compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, both gld and lpr mice took longer to clear their corneas of infectious virus and the reactivation rate for these strains was significantly greater than that seen with wild-type mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that the interaction of Fas with FasL in the cornea restricts the development of recurrent HSK. PMID:26504854

  6. Prefrontal Recruitment During Social Rejection Predicts Greater Subsequent Self-Regulatory Imbalance and Impairment: Neural and Longitudinal Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Chester, David S.; DeWall, C. Nathan

    2014-01-01

    Social rejection impairs self-regulation, yet the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. The right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) facilitates self-regulation and plays a robust role in regulating the distress of social rejection. However, recruiting this region’s inhibitory function during social rejection may come at a self-regulatory cost. As supported by prominent theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized that greater rVLPFC recruitment during rejection would predict a subsequent self-regulatory imbalance that favored reflexive impulses (i.e., cravings), which would then impair self-regulation. Supporting our hypotheses, rVLPFC activation during social rejection was associated with greater subsequent nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation and lesser functional connectivity between the NAcc and rVLPFC to appetitive cues. Over seven days, the effect of daily felt rejection on daily self-regulatory impairment was exacerbated among participants who showed a stronger rVLPFC response to social rejection. This interactive effect was mirrored in the effect of daily felt rejection on heightened daily alcohol cravings. Our findings suggest that social rejection likely impairs self-regulation by recruiting the rVLPFC, which then tips the regulatory balance towards reward-based impulses. PMID:25094019

  7. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  8. Autistic Features in Young Children with Significant Cognitive Impairment: Autism or Mental Retardation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vig, Susan; Jedrysek, Eleonora

    1999-01-01

    Examines issues in the differential diagnosis of autism in preschool children with significant cognitive impairment, including the use of traditional diagnostic guidelines for preschoolers with developmental delays, developmental changes in behavioral characteristics, involvement of cognitive factors in symptom expression, overlap between autism…

  9. Impaired respiration discloses the physiological significance of state transitions in Chlamydomonas

    E-print Network

    Impaired respiration discloses the physiological significance of state transitions in Chlamydomonas- sitions and/or mitochondrial respiration, we show that photosyn- thetic growth, and therefore biomass cannot be provided by respiration, enhanced photosystem I turnover elicited by transition to state 2

  10. Neuropsychological impairment in major depression: its nature, origin and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Porter, Richard J; Bourke, Cecilia; Gallagher, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Neuropsychological impairment is well established as a feature of major depressive disorder (MDD) but studies have shown a variable pattern of impairment. This paper seeks first to clarify this by examining methodological and clinical factors that give rise to variability in study findings. Second, it examines theories of the origin of these neuropsychological abnormalities. Third, it reviews evidence regarding the clinical significance of different patterns of deficit. A selective review was undertaken of the literature with a particular emphasis on methodological factors, the influence of clinical subtypes and prevalent theories of neuropsychological abnormality. Methodological issues and the heterogeneity of MDD account for considerable variability in results. Specific investigation of the subtypes of psychotic MDD, melancholic MDD and bipolar depression reduces this heterogeneity and results are more consistent in the elderly. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction is associated with neuropsychological dysfunction in MDD although evidence of direct causation is not definitive at present. Impairment of executive and psychomotor function is a consistent finding, particularly in the elderly, and may reflect frontostriatal-limbic dysfunction. There is growing evidence that this may have clinical significance. It is suggested that future research take very careful account of the exact phenotype of MDD. Classification based on neuropsychological profile may, in fact, be useful. Further research should examine further the clinical importance of patterns of neuropsychological impairment. PMID:17464689

  11. Significant bone microarchitecture impairment in premenopausal women with active celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Zanchetta, María Belén; Costa, Florencia; Longobardi, Vanesa; Longarini, Gabriela; Mazure, Roberto Martín; Moreno, María Laura; Vázquez, Horacio; Silveira, Fernando; Niveloni, Sonia; Smecuol, Edgardo; Temprano, María de la Paz; Hwang, Hui Jer; González, Andrea; Mauriño, Eduardo César; Bogado, Cesar; Zanchetta, Jose R; Bai, Julio César

    2015-07-01

    Patients with active celiac disease (CD) are more likely to have osteoporosis and increased risk of fractures. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) permits three-dimensional exploration of bone microarchitectural characteristics measuring separately cortical and trabecular compartments, and giving a more profound insight into bone disease pathophysiology and fracture. We aimed to determine the volumetric and microarchitectural characteristics of peripheral bones-distal radius and tibia-in an adult premenopausal cohort with active CD assessed at diagnosis. We prospectively enrolled 31 consecutive premenopausal women with newly diagnosed CD (median age 29 years, range: 18-49) and 22 healthy women of similar age (median age 30 years, range 21-41) and body mass index. Compared with controls, peripheral bones of CD patients were significantly lower in terms of total volumetric density mg/cm(3) (mean ± SD: 274.7 ± 51.7 vs. 324.7 ± 45.8, p 0.0006 at the radius; 264.4 ± 48.7 vs. 307 ± 40.7, p 0.002 at the tibia), trabecular density mg/cm(3) (118.6 ± 31.5 vs. 161.9 ± 33.6, p<0.0001 at the radius; 127.9 ± 28.7 vs. 157.6 ± 15.6, p < 0.0001 at the tibia); bone volume/trabecular volume ratio % (9.9 ± 2.6 vs. 13.5 ± 2.8, p<0.0001 at the radius; 10.6 ± 2.4 vs. 13.1 ± 1.3, p < 0.0001 at the tibia); number of trabeculae 1/mm (1.69 ± 0.27 vs. 1.89 ± 0.26, p 0.009 at the radius; 1.53 ± 0.32 vs. 1.80 ± 0.26, p 0.002 at the tibia); and trabecular thickness mm (0.058 ± 0.010 vs. 0.071 ± 0.008, p < 0.0001 at the radius with no significant difference at the tibia). Cortical density was significantly lower in both regions (D comp mg/cm(3) 860 ± 57.2 vs. 893.9 ± 43, p 0.02; 902.7 ± 48.7 vs. 932.6 ± 32.6, p 0.01 in radius and tibia respectively). Although cortical thickness was lower in CD patients, it failed to show any significant inter-group difference (a-8% decay with p 0.11 in both bones). Patients with symptomatic CD (n = 22) had a greater bone microarchitectural deficit than those with subclinical CD. HR-pQCT was used to successfully identify significant deterioration in the microarchitecture of trabecular and cortical compartments of peripheral bones. Impairment was characterized by lower trabecular number and thickness-which increased trabecular network heterogeneity-and lower cortical density and thickness. In the prospective follow-up of this group of patients we expect to be able to assess whether bone microarchitecture recovers and to what extend after gluten-free diet. PMID:25779933

  12. Significantly shorter Fe-S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krest, Courtney M.; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; Yosca, Timothy H.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Calixto, Julio C.; Green, Michael T.

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate-ligated haem proteins that catalyse the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C-H bonds. To provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I using variable-temperature Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe-S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe-S bond lengths can be understood in terms of variations in the hydrogen-bonding patterns within the ‘cys-pocket’ (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe-S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial thiolate ligand. This observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C-H bond activation.

  13. Significantly shorter Fe-S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Krest, Courtney M; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; Yosca, Timothy H; Onderko, Elizabeth L; Calixto, Julio C; Green, Michael T

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate-ligated haem proteins that catalyse the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C-H bonds. To provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I using variable-temperature Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe-S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe-S bond lengths can be understood in terms of variations in the hydrogen-bonding patterns within the 'cys-pocket' (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe-S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial thiolate ligand. This observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C-H bond activation. PMID:26291940

  14. Brief Report: Inner Speech Impairment in Children with Autism Is Associated with Greater Nonverbal than Verbal Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, Jane S. M.; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin's (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized that children with both autism and a nonverbal greater than verbal (NV greater than V) skills…

  15. Brief report: Inner speech impairment in children with autism is associated with greater nonverbal than verbal skills.

    PubMed

    Lidstone, Jane S M; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

    2009-08-01

    We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin's (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized that children with both autism and a nonverbal > verbal (NV > V) skills profile would show the greatest inner speech impairment. CWA and typically developing controls (n = 23 in each group) undertook a timed mathematical task-switching test, known to benefit from inner speech use. Participants completed the task with and without articulatory suppression (AS), which disrupts inner speech. The hypothesis was supported: AS interference varied with cognitive profile among CWA but not among controls. Only the NV > V autism group showed no AS interference, indicating an inner speech impairment. PMID:19330432

  16. Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the olfactory bulb impairs olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-08-30

    Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We examined two important examples of these, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95, in regard to the functional role of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) in regulation of olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). To test whether activation of egr-1 in the olfactory bulb (OB) is required for olfactory memory of these bats, bilaterally canulated individuals were infused with antisense (AS) or non-sense (NS)-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of egr-1, or with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), 2h before the olfactory training. Our results showed that behavioral training significantly up-regulates immediate early gene (IEG) EGR-1 and key synaptic proteins Synaptotagmin-1(SYT-1), CaMKII and PSD-95, and phosphorylation of CaMKII in the OB at the protein level per se. Subsequently, we observed that egr-1 antisense-ODN infusion in the OB impaired olfactory memory and down regulates the expression of CaMKII and PSD-95, and the phosphorylation of CaMKII but not SYT-1. In contrast, NS-ODN or PBS had no effect on the expression of the PSDs CaMKII or PSD-95, or on the phosphorylation of CaMKII. When the egr-1 NS-ODN was infused in the OB after training for the novel odor there was no effect on olfactory memory. These findings suggest that egr-1 control the activation of CaMKII and PSD-95 during the process of olfactory memory formation. PMID:22796292

  17. Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

  18. Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Brittany; Page, Stephen J.; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale's (NIHSS's) association with upper extremity (UE) impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM), and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant (P = ?0.204; p = 0.014) but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant (P = ?0.141; p = 0.089). Subjects scoring a “zero” on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity. PMID:24772367

  19. Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation.

    PubMed

    Hand, Brittany; Page, Stephen J; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale's (NIHSS's) association with upper extremity (UE) impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM), and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant (P = -0.204; p = 0.014) but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant (P = -0.141; p = 0.089). Subjects scoring a "zero" on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity. PMID:24772367

  20. Increasing Comprehension of Students with Significant Intellectual Disabilities and Visual Impairments during Shared Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Pamela J.; Browder, Diane M.; Baker, Joshua N.; Lee, Angel; Spooner, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Shared stories have been shown to help increase emerging literacy skills in students with significant intellectual disabilities. One important literacy skill is the development of listening comprehension. In this study, least-to-most prompt system was used to promote listening comprehension during shared stories for two students with significant

  1. Palmoplantar psoriasis is associated with greater impairment of health-related quality of life compared to moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jina; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Takeshita, Junko; Shin, Daniel B.; Krueger, Gerald G.; Robertson, Andrew D.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Van Voorhees, Abby S.; Edson-Heredia, Emily; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of palmoplantar psoriasis on health-related quality of life (QoL) is largely unknown. Objective To compare clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes between patients with palmoplantar psoriasis and moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with plaque psoriasis (N=1,153) and palmoplantar psoriasis (N=66) currently receiving systemic or light treatment for psoriasis. Results Patients with palmoplantar psoriasis were more likely to report Dermatology Life Quality Index scores that correspond to at least a moderate impact on QoL (odds ratio [OR] 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.61); problems with mobility (OR 1.98; 95% CI, 1.10-3.58), self-care (OR 3.12; 95% CI, 1.24-7.86), and usual activities (OR 2.47; 95% CI, 1.44-4.22) on the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaire; and heavy topical prescription use of at least twice daily in the preceding week (OR 2.81; 95% CI, 1.63-4.85) than those with plaque psoriasis. Limitations Our assessment tools may not account for all dimensions of health-related QoL affected by palmoplantar disease, and these results may not be generalizable to patients with milder forms of psoriasis. Conclusion Patients with palmoplantar psoriasis suffer from greater health-related QoL impairment and are more likely to report heavy use of topical prescriptions than those with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. PMID:24894455

  2. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Michelle B.; Schier, Lindsey A.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Spector, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC) lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX) and in sham-operated controls (SHAM). Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p.), but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA) even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average). For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (?EC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001) in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (?EC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006) in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and/or perceptual features of the stimulus. PMID:26599914

  3. Partners met via sex parties present significantly greater odds for condomless anal sex among MSM: An event-level analysis of venues where male partners are met

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    N=147 MSM completed time-line follow-back interviews about the venues where they met their male partners (n=1,180 sexual events with first-time partners, < 30 days). We ran multivariate models to determine the association between venues and condomless anal sex (CAS). After adjusting for known correlates of CAS, partners met at sex parties presented significantly greater odds for CAS, compared to meeting a partner at a gay bar/club (AOR=.44), online (AOR=.42), bathhouse (AOR=.35), or via “other” venues (AOR=.35), all p < .01. These findings highlight the need to develop innovative HIV/STI prevention initiatives for men who attend sex parties. PMID:25226209

  4. Reducing hazard related falls in people 75 years and older with significant visual impairment: how did a successful program work?

    PubMed Central

    Grow, S J La; Robertson, M C; Campbell, A J; Clarke, G A; Kerse, N M

    2006-01-01

    Background In a randomized controlled trial testing a home safety program designed to prevent falls in older people with severe visual impairment, it was shown that the program, delivered by an experienced occupational therapist, significantly reduced the numbers of falls both at home and away from home. Objectives To investigate whether the success of the home safety assessment and modification intervention in reducing falls resulted directly from modification of home hazards or from behavioral modifications, or both. Methods Participants were 391 community living women and men aged 75 years and older with visual acuity 6/24 meters or worse; 92% (361 of 391) completed one year of follow up. Main outcome measures were type and number of hazards and risky behavior identified in the home and garden of those receiving the home safety program, compliance with home safety recommendations reported at six months, location of all falls for all study participants during the trial, and environmental hazards associated with each fall. Results The numbers of falls at home related to an environmental hazard and those with no hazard involved were both reduced by the home safety program (n?=?100 participants) compared with the group receiving social visits (n?=?96) (incidence rate ratios?=?0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.21 to 0.74) and 0.43 (0.21 to 0.90), respectively). Conclusions The overall reduction in falls by the home safety program must result from some mechanism in addition to the removal or modification of hazards or provision of new equipment. PMID:17018669

  5. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  6. Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

  7. Recumbent Cross-Training Is a Feasible and Safe Mode of Physical Activity for Significantly Motor-Impaired Adults With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Lukasik, Leah; Muth, Timothy; Esposito, Phil; Haapala, Heidi; Gordon, Paul M.; IglayReger, Heidi; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of using recumbent cross-training for nonambulatory adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Design Observational. Setting Clinical center for CP treatment and rehabilitation. Participants Significantly motor-impaired adults with CP (NZ = 11) with a mean age ± SD of 36.3 ± 13.2 years and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) III and IV. Interventions Participants completed a 40-minute session of aerobic exercise using the NuStep Recumbent Cross Trainer, in which resistance was progressively increased at 5-minute intervals. Main Outcome Measures Every 5 minutes during the exercise session, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption (V.O2), energy expenditure, and respiratory exchange ratios (RERs) were recorded along with rating of perceived exertion. Immediately after, and 24 hours postexercise, participants received a standard survey to assess levels of pain and discomfort. Results All participants were able to complete the 40-minute exercise protocol. Five of the 11 participants achieved a heart rate of at least 60% maximum throughout the duration, 10 participants had a significant elevation in V.O2 from baseline, and all participants had elevated RER values. Six participants reported pain during exercise, but only 2 reported pain after exercise was over. Conclusions The NuStep Recumbent Cross Trainer is a feasible exercise modality for significantly motor-impaired adults with CP, GMFCS III and IV. Moreover, this mode was sufficient to stimulate a significant cardiorespiratory response in all participants, and thus it and similar devices may serve as a viable option for aerobic exercise interventions in this population, to prevent obesity and related cardiometabolic consequences. PMID:23063881

  8. Apolipoprotein ?4-allele as a significant risk factor for conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ma; Jianhua, Wang

    2013-06-01

    Recent studies of the relationship between progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer disease (AD) and APOE ?4-allele revealed inconsistent results. To estimate the risk posed by APOE ?4-allele for developing AD in MCI subjects using meta-analysis and identify possible sources of heterogeneity between studies, we reviewed longitudinal epidemiological studies of the presence of APOE ?4-allele on risk for progression to dementia in MCI subjects, and conducted meta-analyses of the results from these studies. Our study was derived from 315 positive-outcome events and 461 negative-outcome events from 8 prospective studies. The pooled RR was statistically significant (pooled RR?=?2.09; 95 % CI, 1.52-2.88). The Q statistics indicated high heterogeneity across studies (Q?=?14.21, p?=?0.003). RR were significantly related to the ethnicity of the sample (z?=?3.58, p?=?0.024). No significant heterogeneity was observed after stratification in four European-population studies (?²?=?0.67, p?=?0.880), but it remained in four American-population studies (?²?=?18.52, p?=?0.003). Heterogeneity markedly reduced after excluding one specific study (Q?=?4.9, p?=?0.009; I²?=?39 %). APOE ?4-allele conferred increased risk for progression to dementia in MCI subjects. Ethnicity is a critical factor to yield heterogeneity. Further studies using larger sample sizes are required. PMID:23242623

  9. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  10. A Combination Supplement of Fructo- and Xylo-Oligosaccharides Significantly Abrogates Oxidative Impairments and Neurotoxicity in Maternal/Fetal Milieu Following Gestational Exposure to Acrylamide in Rat.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gokul; Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, S G; Muralidhara

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are demonstrated to confer a wide spectrum of physiological benefits during pregnancy. In view of this, focused attempts are being directed towards understanding their role as modulators of brain chemistry and behavior. Epidemiological studies have identified that exposure to neurotoxins during prenatal/early life can profoundly impact neurodevelopment/function. In this context, we have tested the hypothesis that a combination of prebiotic supplements during gestation has the propensity to attenuate acrylamide (ACR) induced oxidative impairments, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. To achieve this, pregnant dams given oral supplements of a combination of fructo- and xylooligosaccharides (FOS + XOS, 3 g/kg/day) during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200 ppm in drinking water, GD 6-19). The behavioral analysis revealed that ACR dams fed prebiotics displayed higher exploratory behavior in the open field test. The prenatal evaluation showed that ACR-induced decrements of placental/fetal weights were markedly restored with prebiotic feeding. Prebiotics significantly offset markers of oxidative stress, restored enzymic antioxidants, cholinergic and mitochondrial function in the maternal and fetal brain. Concomitantly, prebiotics restored ACR-induced depletion in the levels of dopamine and ?-aminobutyric acid in the maternal cortex that positively correlated with cecal bacterial numbers. Collectively, these data suggest that prenatal prebiotic oligosaccharide supplements protect developing brain against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity. While the underlying mechanism/s by which prebiotics abrogate the impact of neurotoxicants in the developing brain merits further studies, we speculate that it may be mediated predominantly through attenuation of oxidative stress and proliferation of enteric microbiota. PMID:26248513

  11. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiushi; Müller, Juliane S.; Pang, Poh-Choo; Laval, Steve H.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed “limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates”. CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells. PMID:26501342

  12. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiushi; Müller, Juliane S; Pang, Poh-Choo; Laval, Steve H; Haslam, Stuart M; Lochmüller, Hanns; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed "limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates". CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells. PMID:26501342

  13. Impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: inter-rater reliability and factor structure of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in patients, significant others and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Brian E.; Morrison, Todd G.; Barker, Lynne A.; Morton, Nicholas; McBrinn, Judith; Caldwell, Sheena; Wilson, Colin F.; McCann, John; Carton, Simone; Delargy, Mark; Walsh, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study sought to address two questions: (1) what is the inter-rater reliability of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) when completed by patients, their significant others, and clinicians; and (2) does the factor structure of the DEX vary for these three groups? Methods: We obtained DEX ratings for 113 patients with an acquired brain injury from two brain injury services in the UK and two services in Ireland. We gathered data from two groups of raters—“significant others” (DEX-SO) such as partners and close family members and “clinicians” (DEX-C), who were psychologists or rehabilitation physicians working closely with the patient and who were able to provide an opinion about the patient’s level of everyday executive functioning. Intra-class correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated between each of the three groups (self, significant other, clinician). Principal axis factor (PAF) analyses were also conducted for each of the three groups. Results: The factor analysis revealed a consistent one-factor model for each of the three groups of raters. However, the inter-rater reliability analyses showed a low level of agreement between the self-ratings and the ratings of the two groups of independent raters. We also found low agreement between the significant others and the clinicians. Conclusion: Although there was a consistent finding of a single factor solution for each of the three groups, the low level of agreement between significant others and clinicians raises a question about the reliability of the DEX. PMID:25346668

  14. The Experience of Cognitive Impairment in People with Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen; Cupitt, Caroline; Lavender, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment has been widely studied in people with psychosis. However, research is lacking into the subjective experience of cognitive impairment, its impact and ways in which individuals cope. This study aimed to provide an account of the experience of cognitive impairment in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, including what difficulties people experience, how these difficulties are understood, how people respond to these difficulties and how they perceive others' views of these difficulties. A semi-structured interview was carried out with eight participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia focusing on participants' experiences of difficulties with cognitive functioning. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse interview transcripts. Experience of cognitive impairment was understood in terms of six master themes: impaired controlled thinking, physical sensations and impaired movement, explanations for the impairment and comparisons to the past, managing the impairment, how others see the impairment and anticipating the future. This study is the first rigorous qualitative study of the subjective experience of cognitive impairment in people with psychosis, and it provides greater context for empirical findings. The results have significant implications for clinical psychology, including education about cognitive difficulties and the importance of cognitive functioning to formulation. New areas for research include coping strategies in relation to functioning and future perspectives, ascertaining staff understanding of cognitive impairment, and reflective conversation style as an intervention for metacognitive difficulties. Key Practitioner Message Difficulties with cognitive functioning should be considered in clinical practitioners' formulations of clients' difficulties in the context of psychosis. Services should consider providing service user and carer education about cognitive impairment in psychosis. Staff may need further training in order to support people with psychosis who have difficulties with cognitive functioning. PMID:24281753

  15. Greater arch injuries.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Deepak; Manjunath, Dayanand; Amaravathi, Rajkumar

    2014-12-01

    Dislocations and fracture dislocations of carpal bones are uncommon injuries which invariably poses challenges in the management. Perilunate fracture dislocations are the combination of ligamentous and osseous injury that involve the "greater arc" of the perilunate associated instability. Despite their severity, these injuries often go unrecognized in the emergency department leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. A Prospective study was done from June 2008 to December 2013 in 15 cases of complex wrist injuries which included of greater arch injuries, perilunate fracture dislocation and one dorsal dislocation of Scaphoid. 10 cases of perilunate fracture dislocation underwent open reduction and internal fixation with Herbert screw and k-wire, 4 cases of greater arch injury underwent closed reduction and kwire fixation and one case of neglected dorsal dislocation underwent proximal row carpectomy. One patient had Sudecks osteodystrophy 1 had Scaphoid nonunion and 6 had median nerve compression. Overall outcome according to Mayo wrist score was 53 % excellent, 33 % good and 14 % fair. Greater arch injuries are difficult to treat because injuries to many ligaments are involved and failure to recognize early leads to persistent pain, disability and early onset of arthritis. Prompt recognition requires CT scan and MRI. Management requires reduction and multiple K-Wiring according to merits of the case. PMID:25414554

  16. Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

  17. More features, greater connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'. PMID:26548128

  18. Taste - impaired

    MedlinePLUS

    ... longer. Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu and other viral infections Nasal infection, nasal ... your diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

  19. 13 CFR 108.1830 - NMVC Company's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false NMVC Company's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements. 108.1830 Section...1830 NMVC Company's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements. (a) Significance of Capital Impairment...

  20. 13 CFR 108.1830 - NMVC Company's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false NMVC Company's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements. 108.1830 Section...1830 NMVC Company's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements. (a) Significance of Capital Impairment...

  1. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs All Vision Impairment Listen Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  2. Familial Aggregation in Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallal, Paula; Hirsch, Linda S.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Miller, Steve; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher; Flax, Judy F.

    2001-01-01

    A case-control family study design examined the current language-related abilities of all biological, primary relatives of probands (N=22) with specific language impairment (SLI) and of matched controls. Impairment rates for family members of SLI probands was significantly higher than for controls. Also, impairment rates estimated from a family…

  3. Impairments in Fine-Motor Coordination and Speed of Information Processing Predict Declines in Everyday Functioning in Hepatitis C Infection

    PubMed Central

    Vigil, Ofilio; Posada, Carolina; Woods, Steven Paul; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Heaton, Robert K.; Perry, William; Hassanein, Tarek I.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.

    2008-01-01

    Research increasingly supports the neurovirulence of chronic infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). For example, HCV infection has been associated with neuropsychological impairment in several ability areas, including psychomotor skills. This study aimed to examine whether HCV-associated neuropsychological impairment is predictive of declines in the independent performance of physical (PADLs) and instrumental (IADLs) activities of daily living. One-hundred and six volunteers with HCV infection completed a comprehensive neuropsychological, medical, and psychiatric research evaluation. As compared to 30 HCV seronegative comparison subjects, the HCV-infected group reported significantly greater declines in both PADLs and IADLs. Within the HCV cohort, individuals with impaired speed of information processing reported significantly greater IADL declines, whereas impaired fine-motor coordination was associated with declines in both IADLs and PADLs. In a series of regression analyses, impaired speed of information processing and depressive symptoms (as measured by the Beck Depression Inventory) were the only independent predictors of IADL declines, whereas general affective distress (as measured by the Profile of Mood States), sex, and fine-motor coordination impairment were predictive of declines in PADLs. Although the clinical assessment of HCV typically emphasizes both affective (e.g., depression) and physical factors, findings from the present study suggest that cognitive impairment is an important contributor to everyday functioning in persons living with HCV infection and therefore warrants consideration in clinical and research evaluations. PMID:18608687

  4. Facial emotion recognition impairments are associated with brain volume abnormalities in individuals with HIV.

    PubMed

    Clark, Uraina S; Walker, Keenan A; Cohen, Ronald A; Devlin, Kathryn N; Folkers, Anna M; Pina, Matthew J; Tashima, Karen T

    2015-04-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV-associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities. PMID:25744868

  5. The association between disability and cognitive impairment in an elderly Tanzanian population.

    PubMed

    Dotchin, Catherine L; Paddick, Stella-Maria; Gray, William K; Kisoli, Aloyce; Orega, Golda; Longdon, Anna R; Chaote, Paul; Dewhurst, Felicity; Dewhurst, Matthew; Walker, Richard W

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is thought to be a major cause of disability worldwide, though data from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are sparse. This study aimed to investigate the association between cognitive impairment and disability in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults living in Tanzania. The study cohort of 296 people aged 70years and over was recruited as part of a dementia prevalence study. Subjects were diagnosed as having dementia or mild cognitive impairment according to the DSM-IV criteria. Disability level was assessed according to the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule, version 2.0 (WHODAS). A higher WHODAS score indicates greater disability. The median WHODAS in the background population was 25.0; in those with dementia and in those with mild cognitive impairment, 72 of 78 (92.3%) and 41 of 46 (89.1%), respectively, had a WHODAS score above this level. The presence of dementia, mild cognitive impairment, hearing impairment, being unable to walk without an aid and not having attended school were independent predictors of having a WHODAS score above 25.0, though age and gender were not. In summary, cognitive impairment is a significant predictor of disability in elderly Tanzanians. Screening for early signs of cognitive decline would allow management strategies to be put in place that may reduce the associated disability burden. PMID:25700924

  6. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Mild Cognitive Impairment Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition ... organizing or poor judgment. NIA Information on Mild Cognitive Impairment Understanding Memory Loss: What To Do When ...

  7. Neural Correlates of True and False Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M.; Riddell, Patricia M.; Ellis, Judi A.; Freeman, Jayne E.; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer’s disease, which has been described as a ‘disconnection syndrome’. PMID:23118992

  8. Objective and subjective memory impairment in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brindle, P M; Brown, M W; Brown, J; Griffith, H B; Turner, G M

    1991-08-01

    Pregnant subjects rated their memories as worse than normal and their ratings differed significantly from controls. Explicit memory tested by both recognition and recall was unimpaired. In contrast, implicit memory was significantly impaired in primigravidae. Impairment in implicit memory correlated with the subjective memory ratings. The dissociation of explicit and implicit memory is discussed. PMID:1946853

  9. Impaired Financial Abilities in Parkinson’s Disease Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Roy C.; Triebel, Kristen; Kennedy, Richard E.; Nicholas, Anthony P.; Watts, Ray L.; Stover, Natividad; Brandon, Mariko; Marson, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Financial capacity (FC) is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) critical to independent functioning and sensitive to cognitive impairment in dementia. Little is known about FC in cognitively impaired patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The present study investigated FC in PD patients with prodromal and clinical dementia. Methods Participants were 20 older controls and 35 PD patients who met consensus criteria for either mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n=18) or PD dementia (PDD, n=17). FC was assessed using a standardized performance based measure consisting of 9 domain and two global scores (Financial Capacity Instrument; FCI)(1). FCI domain and global performance scores were compared across groups. Capacity impairment ratings (no impairment, mild/moderate impairment, severe impairment) were calculated for each PD patient’s domain and global scores. Results Relative to controls, PD-MCI patients were impaired on both FCI global scores and domains of basic monetary skills, financial concepts, and investment decision-making. Relative to both controls and PD-MCI patients, PDD patients were impaired on virtually all FCI variables. With respect to impairment ratings, greater than 50% of PD-MCI patients and greater than 90% of PDD patients were classified as either mild/moderate or severely impaired on the two FCI global scores. Conclusions Impairment of financial capacity is already present in PD-MCI and is advanced in PDD. Complex cognitively-mediated IADLs such as financial capacity appear to be impaired early in the course of PD dementia. PMID:23899743

  10. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  11. Impairments in hearing and vision impact on mortality in older people: the AGES-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Diana; Li, Chuan-Ming; Chiu, May S.; Themann, Christa L.; Petersen, Hannes; Jónasson, Friðbert; Jónsson, Pálmi V.; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Garcia, Melissa; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hoffman, Howard J.; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to examine the relationships between impairments in hearing and vision and mortality from all-causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among older people. Design: population-based cohort study. Participants: the study population included 4,926 Icelandic individuals, aged ?67 years, 43.4% male, who completed vision and hearing examinations between 2002 and 2006 in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study (AGES-RS) and were followed prospectively for mortality through 2009. Methods: participants were classified as having ‘moderate or greater’ degree of impairment for vision only (VI), hearing only (HI), and both vision and hearing (dual sensory impairment, DSI). Cox proportional hazard regression, with age as the time scale, was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) associated with impairment and mortality due to all-causes and specifically CVD after a median follow-up of 5.3 years. Results: the prevalence of HI, VI and DSI were 25.4, 9.2 and 7.0%, respectively. After adjusting for age, significantly (P < 0.01) increased mortality from all causes, and CVD was observed for HI and DSI, especially among men. After further adjustment for established mortality risk factors, people with HI remained at higher risk for CVD mortality [HR: 1.70 (1.27–2.27)], whereas people with DSI remained at higher risk of all-cause mortality [HR: 1.43 (1.11–1.85)] and CVD mortality [HR: 1.78 (1.18–2.69)]. Mortality rates were significantly higher in men with HI and DSI and were elevated, although not significantly, among women with HI. Conclusions: older men with HI or DSI had a greater risk of dying from any cause and particularly cardiovascular causes within a median 5-year follow-up. Women with hearing impairment had a non-significantly elevated risk. Vision impairment alone was not associated with increased mortality. PMID:23996030

  12. Impairment of Endothelial Function by Little Cigar Secondhand Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaoyin; Narayan, Shilpa; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Springer, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little cigars and cigarillos are gaining in popularity as cigarette use wanes, mainly due to relaxed regulatory standards that make them cheaper, easier to buy individually, and available in a variety of flavors not allowed in cigarettes. To address whether they should be regulated as strictly as cigarettes, we investigated whether little cigar secondhand smoke (SHS) decreases vascular endothelial function like that of cigarettes. Methods We exposed rats to SHS from little cigars, cigarettes, or chamber air, for 10 minutes and measured the resulting acute impairment of arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Results SHS from both little cigars and cigarettes impaired FMD. Impairment was greater after exposure to little cigar SHS than by cigarette SHS relative to pre-exposure values, although the post-exposure FMD values were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions Exposure to little cigar SHS leads to impairment of FMD that is at least equal to that resulting from similar levels of cigarette SHS. Our findings support the need to prevent even brief exposure to little cigar SHS, and support tobacco control policies that regulate little cigars as strictly as cigarettes.

  13. Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Transposition of Greater Arteries (TGA) Transposition of Greater Arteries (TGA) What is Transposition of Greater Arteries? Why ... Long-term prognosis What is Transposition of Greater Arteries? Illustration by Steven P. Goldberg, MD Copyright © 2012 ...

  14. The pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone in subjects with normal and impaired renal function

    PubMed Central

    Aweeka, F; Jayesekara, D; Horton, M; Swan, S; Lambrecht, L; Wilner, K D; Sherwood, J; Anziano, R J; Smolarek, T A; Turncliff, R Z

    2000-01-01

    Aims To assess whether renal impairment influences the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone, and to determine whether ziprasidone is cleared via haemodialysis. Methods Thirty-nine subjects with varying degrees of renal impairment were enrolled into an open-label, multicentre, multiple-dose study and assigned to four groups according to their renal function: normal (group 1, creatinine clearance > 70 ml min?1); mildly impaired (group 2, creatinine clearance 30–60 ml min?1); moderately impaired (group 3, creatinine clearance 10–29 ml min?1), and severely impaired (group 4, requiring haemodialysis three times-a-week). Subjects received ziprasidone 40 mg day?1, given orally with food, as two divided daily doses for 7 days and a single 20 mg dose on the morning of day 8. Pharmacokinetic variables were determined from multiple venous blood samples collected on days 1 and 8 (haemodialysis day for subjects with severe renal impairment). Additional samples were collected from subjects with severe renal impairment on day 7 (nonhaemodialysis day). Results On day 1 there were no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics (AUC(0, 12 h), Cmax, tmax) of ziprasidone among subjects with normal renal function and those with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment. The AUC(0,12 h) and Cmax in subjects with mildly impaired renal function were statistically significantly greater than in those with moderately impaired renal function (P = 0.0163–0.0385). The mean AUC(0,12 h) was 272, 370, 250 and 297 ng ml?1 h in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Corresponding mean Cmax values were 47, 61, 41 and 50 ng ml?1 and corresponding mean tmax values were 5, 6, 5 and 5 h. On day 8 there were no statistically significant differences in the pharmacokinetics (AUC(0, 12 h), Cmax, tmax, ?z, Fb) of ziprasidone among subjects with normal renal function and those with moderate or severe renal impairment. The AUC(0,12 h) in subjects with mild renal impairment was statistically significantly greater than those in the other three groups (P =0.0025–0.0221), but this was not considered clinically significant. The mean AUC(0,12 h) were 446, 650, 389 and 427 ng ml ?1h in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Corresponding mean Cmax values were 68, 93, 54 and 70 ng ml?1, corresponding mean tmax values were 4, 5, 4 and 5 h and corresponding mean ?z were 0.14, 0.11, 0.14 and 0.17 h?1. The mean percentage Fb was 99.84–99.88% across all groups and the mean t½,z ranged from 4.2 to 6.4 h. Comparison of the mean AUC(0,12 h) and Cmax values in subjects with severe renal impairment on day 7 with those on day 8 suggested that haemodialysis does not have a clinically significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of ziprasidone. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that mild-to-moderate impairment of renal function does not result in clinically significant alteration of ziprasidone pharmacokinetics and therefore does not necessitate dose adjustment. PMID:10771451

  15. The Tree-Drawing Test (Koch's Baum Test): A Useful Aid to Diagnose Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani Maserati, Michelangelo; Matacena, Corrado; Sambati, Luisa; Oppi, Federico; Poda, Roberto; De Matteis, Maddalena; Gallassi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the Tree-Drawing Test in a group of demented patients and compare it with a group of mild cognitively impaired patients (MCI) and controls. Methods. Consecutive outpatients were classified as affected by dementia (Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VD)) or by MCI. Patients and controls underwent the Tree-Drawing Test and MMSE. Results. 118 AD, 19 FTD, 46 VD, and 132 MCI patients and 90 controls were enrolled. AD patients draw trees globally smaller than other patients and controls. FTD patients draw trees with a wider space occupation than AD and MCI patients but smaller than controls as well as VD patients. Trees drawn by MCI patients are intermediate in size between AD patients and controls. The trunk-to-crown ratio of trees drawn by cognitive impaired patients is greater than controls while the tree size-relative-to-page space index is significantly smaller. The tree size-relative-to-page space index of trees drawn by AD patients is smaller than that of the other cognitively impaired patients. Tree height and the trunk-to-crown ratio are independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Trees drawn by cognitively impaired patients are different from those drawn by healthy subjects with a progressive differentiation from mild to more relevant degrees of cognitive impairment. PMID:26175548

  16. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  17. Association between alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Sanem, Julia R; Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-05-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  18. Tinnitus impairs cognitive efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hallam, R S; McKenna, L; Shurlock, L

    2004-04-01

    Many people who complain of tinnitus say that the noises impair their mental concentration. This complaint was investigated by self-report (primarily the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire) and by means of five cognitive tasks, four presented via laptop computer and one given manually. The tasks measured performance under single- and dual-task conditions and included tests of sustained attention, reaction time, verbal fluency and immediate and delayed memory. Two groups of outpatients attending audiological clinics (tinnitus, n = 43; hearing impairment, n = 17) were compared with non-clinical volunteers (n = 32). The results replicated earlier findings that tinnitus outpatients report significantly more everyday cognitive failures than do controls. The tinnitus group responded significantly more slowly than the two control groups on the variable fore-period reaction time task under dual-task conditions. In general, comparisons between the groups on other tasks showed equivalent performance, but both clinical groups performed more poorly than non-clinical controls on verbal fluency. We conclude that cognitive inefficiency in tinnitus participants is related to the control of attentional processes, consistent with our earlier theoretical speculation about the nature of tinnitus complaint and with published findings on the effects of chronic pain on cognitive processes. PMID:15250126

  19. Use of renal risk drugs in patients with renal impairment.

    PubMed

    Holm, Hilde; Bjerke, Kirsti; Holst, Lone; Mathiesen, Liv

    2015-12-01

    Background Renal impairment often goes unrecognised until the most advanced stages. Patients with renal impairment use a variety of drugs and the pharmacokinetics and drug effects are prone to change. Objective Describe drug related problems in a population of patients with renal impairment, investigate possible risk factors, and investigate whether the clinical pharmacist can propose relevant measures to solve the problems. Setting The internal medicine department at Innlandet Hospital Trust Gjøvik, Norway. Method A prospective study enrolling patients (?18 years) with moderate and severe renal impairment, i.e. with glomerular filtration rate of 30-59 and 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m(2), respectively, and using at least one drug. The clinical pharmacist reviewed the patients' drug regimen with focus on drug related problems, related to renal function. Problems identified were discussed with the multidisciplinary team, or directly with the physician. Main outcome measure The number of drug related problems. Results The results are based on data from 79 patients, 21 with severe and 58 with moderate renal impairment. Most patients, 92.4 %, used 5 or more drugs; in average 10.2 (range 2-27). In total, 88 drug related problems were identified in 49 patients, i.e. in 62 %. The most frequently occurring problems were incorrect dose (45.5 %) and inappropriate drug (41.0 %). There was a significant correlation between both the degree of renal impairment and the number of drugs, and the number of drug related problems. The acceptance rate of the clinical pharmacist's interventions was 95.7 %. The drugs most frequently associated with drug related problems were metformin, benzylpenicillin and furosemide. Conclusion Drug related problems often occur in patients with renal impairment. Incorrect drug dose and inappropriate drug choice according to the patients' renal function were the most common problems. Patients with the most complex drug treatment, i.e. with increasing degree of renal impairment and increasing number of drugs, are at greater risk of drug related problems. The high acceptance rate for the pharmacist's interventions supports the inclusion of a clinical pharmacist in the multidisciplinary treatment team to increase awareness and optimisation of the drug treatment in this patient group. PMID:26280885

  20. 7 CFR 4290.1830 - RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements. 4290.1830 Section...4290.1830 RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements. (a) Significance of Capital Impairment...

  1. 7 CFR 4290.1830 - RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements. 4290.1830 Section...4290.1830 RBIC's Capital Impairment definition and general requirements. (a) Significance of Capital Impairment...

  2. Facial emotion recognition impairments in individuals with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Westbrook, Michelle L.; Devlin, Kathryn N.; Tashima, Karen T.

    2011-01-01

    HIV is characterized by frontostriatal dysfunction, and is associated with cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. Several studies have noted impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in patient pollutions that demonstrate frontostriatal dysfunction; however, facial emotion recognition abilities have not been systematically examined in HIV patients. The current study investigated facial emotion recognition in 50 non-demented HIV-seropositive adults and 50 control participants relative to their performance on a non-emotional landscape categorization control task. We examined the relation of HIV-disease factors (nadir and current CD4 levels) to emotion recognition abilities, and assessed the psychosocial impact of emotion recognition abnormalities. Compared to control participants, HIV patients performed normally on the control task but demonstrated significant impairments in facial emotion recognition, specifically for fear. HIV patients reported greater psychosocial impairments, which correlated with increased emotion recognition difficulties. Lower current CD4 counts were associated with poorer anger recognition. In summary, our results indicate that chronic HIV infection may contribute to emotion processing problems among HIV patients. We suggest that disruptions of frontostriatal structures and their connections with cortico-limbic networks may contribute to emotion recognition abnormalities in HIV. Our findings also highlight the significant psychosocial impact that emotion recognition abnormalities have on individuals with HIV. PMID:20961470

  3. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  4. Impaired reproduction of mallards fed an organic form of selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gold, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    We fed mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) diets supplemented with 0-, 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, or 16-ppm selenium in the form of selenomethionine. We fed another group of mallards a diet containing 16-ppm selenium as selenocystine. Females fed the control diet produced a mean of 8.1 ducklings that survived to 6 days of age, which was significantly greater than the 4.6 young produced by females fed 8-ppm selenium as selenomethionine and the zero surviving young of females fed 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine. Selenocystine did not impair reproduction. Diets containing 8- and 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine caused malformations in 6.8 and 67.9%, respectively, of unhatched eggs compared with 0.6% for controls. The most common malformations were of eyes, bill, legs, and feet. Selenium did not affect the onset or frequency of egg laying, egg size, shell thickness, fertility of eggs, or sex ratio of ducklings. Reduced survival and growth occurred in ducklings hatched from groups whose parents had received 8- or 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine, even though all ducklings were fed a control diet. Concentrations of selenium in eggs and liver of adults could be predicted from dietary concentrations. We conclude that the dietary threshold of selenium as selenomethionine necessary to impair reproduction is between 4 and 8 ppm. It is difficult to identify 1 level of selenium in eggs that will be diagnostic of reproductive impairment in the field because different chemical forms of selenium appear to have different toxicities in eggs. However, when eggs from a wild population contain .gtoreq. 1-ppm selenium on a wet-weight basis, reproductive impairment may be possible and should be evaluated in that population. At 5-ppm selenium in eggs, reproductive impairment is much more likely to occur.

  5. Driver Compensation: Impairment or Improvement?

    PubMed

    Young, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Strayer et al.'s conclusion that their "cognitive distraction scale" for auditory-vocal tasks indicates "significant impairments to driving" is not supported by their data. Additional analysis demonstrates that slower brake reaction times during auditory-vocal tasks were fully compensated for by longer following distances to the lead car. Naturalistic driving data demonstrate that cellular conversation decreases crash risk, the opposite of the article's assumption. Hence, the scale's internal and external validities for indicating driving impairment are highly questionable. PMID:26534851

  6. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePLUS

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... Common speech and language disorders include: APHASIA Aphasia is ... understand or express spoken or written language. It commonly ...

  7. Gender Differences in Reading Impairment and in the Identification of Impaired Readers: Results from a Large-Scale Study of At-Risk Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Reading impairment is more common in males, but the magnitude and origin of this gender difference are debated. In a large-scale study of reading impairment among 491,103 beginning second-graders, gender differences increased with greater severity of reading impairment, peaking at a ratio of 2.4:1 for a broad measure of fluency and a ratio of…

  8. In-Hospital Acute Stress Symptoms Are Associated with Impairment in Cognition 1 Year after Intensive Care Unit Admission

    PubMed Central

    Zatzick, Douglas; Hough, Catherine L.; Katon, Wayne J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Prior studies have found that cognitive dysfunction is common in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Yet, relatively little is known about potentially modifiable risk factors for longer-term post-ICU cognitive impairment. Objectives: To determine if in-hospital acute stress symptoms were associated with impaired 12-month cognitive functioning among ICU survivors. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 150 nontrauma patients without cognitive impairment or a dementia diagnosis who were admitted to an ICU for more than 24 hours. Patients were interviewed before hospital discharge and again via telephone at 12 months post-ICU. Measurements and Main Results: Demographics and clinical information were obtained through medical record reviews and in-person interviews. In-hospital acute stress symptoms were assessed with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version. Twelve-month post-ICU cognition was assessed with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. Follow-up interviews were completed with 120 (80%) patients. Patients’ mean age at hospitalization was 48.2 years (SD, 13.7). In unadjusted analyses, a greater number of in-hospital acute stress symptoms was associated with significantly greater impairment in 12-month cognitive functioning (?, ?0.1; 95% confidence interval, ?0.2 to ?0.004; P = 0.04). After adjusting for patient and clinical factors, in-hospital acute stress symptoms were independently associated with greater impairment in 12-month cognitive functioning (?, ?0.1; 95% CI, ?0.2 to ?0.01; P = 0.03). Conclusions: In-hospital acute stress symptoms may be a potentially modifiable risk factor for greater impairment in cognitive functioning post-ICU. Early interventions for at-risk ICU survivors may improve longer-term outcomes. PMID:23987665

  9. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy impairs quality of life.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Umapathy, Sridharan; Dhiman, Radha K

    2015-03-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of the spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. It is a frequent occurrence in patients of cirrhosis and is detectable only by specialized neurocognitive testing. MHE is a clinically significant disorder which impairs daily functioning, driving performance, work capability and learning ability. It also predisposes to the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, increased falls and increased mortality. This results in impaired quality of life for the patient as well as significant social and economic burden for health providers and care givers. Early detection and treatment of MHE with ammonia lowering therapy can reverse MHE and improve quality of life. PMID:26041957

  10. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    PubMed Central

    Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim: To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design: Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods: Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis: Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results: The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Conclusion: Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense. PMID:19861747

  11. Sandflies in the Greater Athens region, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, B; Tselentis, Y

    1994-06-01

    During the period from May to October 1992, a survey of phlebotomine sandflies was conducted in the Greater Athens region where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis occur. Using castor-oil paper traps, a total of 3015 sandflies were caught. Of the identified specimens, 1002 (34.1%) were Phlebotomus neglectus, 541 (18.4%) were P. papatasi, 182 (6.2%) were P. tobbi, 50 (1.7%) were P. simici, 30 (1.0%) were P. alexandri, 3(0.4%) were P. sergenti and 1122 (38.2%) were Sergentomyia minuta. The seasonal activity of most Phlebotomus species was bimodal, while that of S. minuta was unimodal. The population density of sandflies varied significantly in different localities; it was low in most of the stations and high in some stations in the outskirts. Among the potential vectors of Leishmania spp., P. neglectus and P. Papatasi were the most widespread species. The former species showed high density in 12 of the 70 sampled stations, while the latter in only 4. Hence, the risk of transmission of sandfly-borne diseases is still present in the Greater Athens region. PMID:9140480

  12. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

  13. Early diagnosis of diabetic vascular complications: impairment of red blood cell deformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sehyun; Ku, Yunhee; Park, Cheol-Woo; Suh, Jang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Reduced deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) may play an important role on the pathogenesis of chronic vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. However, available techniques for measuring RBC deformability often require washing process after each measurement, which is not optimal for day-to-day clinical use at point of care. The objectives of the present study are to develop a device and to delineate the correlation of impaired RBC deformability with diabetic nephropathy. We developed a disposable ektacytometry to measure RBC deformability, which adopted a laser diffraction technique and slit rheometry. The essential features of this design are its simplicity (ease of operation and no moving parts) and a disposable element which is in contact with the blood sample. We studied adult diabetic patients divided into three groups according to diabetic complications. Group I comprised 57 diabetic patients with normal renal function. Group II comprised 26 diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Group III consisted of 30 diabetic subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. According to the renal function for the diabetic groups, matched non-diabetic groups were served as control. We found substantially impaired red blood cell deformability in those with normal renal function (group I) compared to non-diabetic control (P = 0.0005). As renal function decreases, an increased impairment in RBC deformability was found. Diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (group II) when compared to non-diabetic controls (CRF) had an apparently greater impairment in RBC deformability (P = 0.07). The non-diabetic cohort (CRF), on the other hand, manifested significant impairment in red blood cell deformability compared to healthy control (P = 0.0001). The newly developed slit ektacytometer can measure the RBC deformability with ease and accuracy. In addition, progressive impairment in cell deformability is associated with renal function loss in all patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. In diabetic patients, early impairment in RBC deformability appears in patients with normal renal function.

  14. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  15. New Refinements in Greater Omentum Free Flap Transfer for Severe Secondary Lymphedema Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, Carmen; Castellano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Lymphedema is a chronic debilitating disease, affecting a considerable part of the population; it results from impairment of the lymphatic system. It is highly prevalent among patients subjected to axillary and groin nodal dissection after surgery for breast cancer, abdominopelvic surgery, and lymphadenectomy after melanoma surgery. Interestingly, among the surgical treatment options for lymphedema, groin lymph node transfer is gaining popularity; however, in some cases, dissection at this site can cause significant morbidity, including possible development of iatrogenic lymphedema. To avoid these complications, new donor nodal groups are being proposed (eg, submental or supraclavicular). We have used the greater omentum as a lymph node and lymph vessel donor site. Dissection of the omentum is easy to perform and can even be done in patients who have undergone previous abdominal surgeries. We present refinements in the surgical technique for free omentum transfer in the management of secondary lymphedema: the first free omental flap dissection performed laparoscopically and the use of a primary flap as the recipient pedicle of a free greater omentum flap for anatomical repair after chest osteoradionecrosis and simultaneous functional repair of chronic lymphedema. PMID:26090277

  16. Deficits in retrospective and prospective components underlying prospective memory tasks in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives By use of purer indices of PM and RM components than previous studies and adoption of three PM task types, the present study aimed to investigate the deficits of these two components underlying global impairment at a PM task in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods Nineteen aMCI patients and 22 normal controls were examined on event-, time- and activity-based PM tasks. Separate scores were obtained for initiation of intentions (i.e. PM component) and for the content of the intentions (i.e. RM component). Results Individuals with aMCI achieved lower PM component (but not RM component) scores than NCs across all three PM tasks. Furthermore, there was a trend for greater impairment on activity-based than time-based and event-based PM tasks, but which did not reach significance. In addition, a significant association between PM component and an executive function test was observed in aMCI group. PM task performance, especially activity-based PM task performance and PM component performance, successfully discriminated between aMCI and NC and was able to do so above and beyond the executive function tests. Conclusions Our finding suggested that the deficits in PM component, related to a disrupted executive control processes, were responsible for the impaired ability of individuals with aMCI to realize delayed intentions. PMID:22888762

  17. Cognitive impairments may mimic delusions.

    PubMed

    Eterovi?, Marija; Kozari?-Kova?i?, Dragica

    2015-12-01

    Delusions are often recognized as key to the concept of psychosis. What is delusion is one of the basic questions of psychopathology. The common denominator of definitions of delusions is the divergence between the strong conviction in the delusional belief and superior evidences to the contrary which are continually ignored. An implicit, sustainably unspoken assumption is that the person with delusional belief has cognitive capacities to process the (counter-)arguments relevant to their delusion. However, individual's cognitive capacities are not being emphasized when delusions are evaluated. Moreover, the impact of cognitive decline on formation of delusions is neglected, both in theory and practice. We elaborate that cognitive deficits may facilitate, oppose, or mimic delusions. We focus on the last, which can lead to diagnosing as delusion what could be explained by cognitive decline and better called pseudo-delusion. The risk is significant when cognition is impaired, as in demented people; an issue which has not yet been debated. True delusions are incompatible with person's cognitive capacities, i.e., if we take into account person's cognitive status, we still cannot understand how the person holds the strange belief with an extraordinary conviction. Pseudo-delusions would be beliefs, thoughts or judgments that at first seem delusional (they are false, subculturally atypical beliefs that are strongly maintained in the face of counterargument), but lose the essence of delusions after we take cognitive impairment into account. Pseudo-delusions could actually be explained or understood by person's cognitive impairments, they "fit into" them. The reported reality-based contents of delusions in the elderly, poor response to antipsychotics and lack of association with early or family history of psychiatric disorders could in part be accounted for by the bias of misdiagnosing the cognitive impairment as the delusion. Not recognizing that the cognitive impairment underlies formation of pseudo-delusions and misdiagnosing it as delusions may lead to focusing on antipsychotic treatment, instead on treatment of the underlying cognitive deficit. PMID:26428906

  18. Development or Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Joanne Paradis' Keynote Article on bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI) is an impressive overview of research in language acquisition and language impairment. Studying different populations is crucial both for theorizing about language acquisition mechanisms, and for practical purposes of diagnosing and supporting children with…

  19. Education for the Hearing Impaired (Auditorily Impaired).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Education for the hearing impaired is discussed in nine conference papers. J. N. Howarth describes "The Education of Deaf Children in Schools for Hearing Pupils in the United Kingdom" and A.I.Dyachkov of the U.S.S.R. outlines Didactical Principles of Educating the Deaf in the Light of their Rehabilitation Goal." Seven papers from Poland are also…

  20. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association -- www.asha.org/public Center for Parent Information ...

  1. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  2. Aided and Unaided Speech Perception by Older Hearing Impaired Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Arbogast, Tanya; Doss, Zoe; Younus, Masood; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    The most common complaint of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners is difficulty understanding speech in the presence of noise. However, tests of consonant-identification and sentence reception threshold (SeRT) provide different perspectives on the magnitude of impairment. Here we quantified speech perception difficulties in 24 OHI listeners in unaided and aided conditions by analyzing (1) consonant-identification thresholds and consonant confusions for 20 onset and 20 coda consonants in consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables presented at consonant-specific signal-to-noise (SNR) levels, and (2) SeRTs obtained with the Quick Speech in Noise Test (QSIN) and the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). Compared to older normal hearing (ONH) listeners, nearly all unaided OHI listeners showed abnormal consonant-identification thresholds, abnormal consonant confusions, and reduced psychometric function slopes. Average elevations in consonant-identification thresholds exceeded 35 dB, correlated strongly with impairments in mid-frequency hearing, and were greater for hard-to-identify consonants. Advanced digital hearing aids (HAs) improved average consonant-identification thresholds by more than 17 dB, with significant HA benefit seen in 83% of OHI listeners. HAs partially normalized consonant-identification thresholds, reduced abnormal consonant confusions, and increased the slope of psychometric functions. Unaided OHI listeners showed much smaller elevations in SeRTs (mean 6.9 dB) than in consonant-identification thresholds and SeRTs in unaided listening conditions correlated strongly (r = 0.91) with identification thresholds of easily identified consonants. HAs produced minimal SeRT benefit (2.0 dB), with only 38% of OHI listeners showing significant improvement. HA benefit on SeRTs was accurately predicted (r = 0.86) by HA benefit on easily identified consonants. Consonant-identification tests can accurately predict sentence processing deficits and HA benefit in OHI listeners. PMID:25730423

  3. The Impaired Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Ranjan; Seymour, Keri

    2016-02-01

    Impaired physicians are unable to manage professional activities safely. Impairment can be the result of physical or mental disorders, but impaired physicians commonly refers to those suffering from substance use disorders. These disorders are at least as common in physicians as they are in the general population, and physician health programs have been established in each state to provide expeditious and detailed evaluation, referral to treatment facilities, and post-treatment monitoring to ensure compliance. These programs protect participants against sanctions and safeguard patients. The prognosis for participants is excellent, with more than 70% able to practice medicine at 5 years. PMID:26612022

  4. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs. PMID:18817002

  5. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

  6. Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-grouse

    E-print Network

    Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-grouse and Sagebrush Habitats J. W. Connelly S. T. Knick M CONSERVATION ASSESSMENT OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE and SAGEBRUSH HABITATS John W. Connelly Idaho Department Fish@vib.tv San J. Stiver Wildlife Coordinator, National Sage-Grouse Conservation Framework Planning Team 2184

  7. Muscle Impairments in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Alnahdi, Ali H.; Zeni, Joseph A.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Context: Muscle impairments associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are the primary underlying cause of functional limitations. Understanding the extent of muscle impairments, its relationship with physical function and disease progression, and the evidence behind exercise therapy that targets muscle impairments is crucial. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic search for relevant articles using MEDLINE and CINHAL databases up to September 2011 was performed. In addition to the electronic search, retrieved articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Results: Quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip muscles are significantly impaired in subjects with knee OA compared with age-matched controls. Muscle strength, especially quadriceps, is a major determinant of both performance-based and self-reported physical function. Whether stronger quadriceps is protective against knee OA onset and progression is not clear. Exercise therapy, including global and targeted resistance training, is effective in reducing pain and improving function in subjects with knee OA. Conclusions: Subjects with knee OA have significant muscle impairments. These muscle impairments affect physical function and should be targeted in therapy. Further research is needed to explore the relationship between quadriceps strength and knee OA initiation and progression and to determine the optimal exercise prescription that augments outcomes in this patient population. PMID:23016099

  8. IMPAIRED FASTING BLOOD GLUCOSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED ENDOTHELIN-1 VASOCONSTRICTOR TONE

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Kyle J.; Templeton, Danielle L.; Ma, Julie; Weil, Brian R.; Greiner, Jared J.; Stauffer, Brian L.; DeSouza, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim/Hypothesis The experimental aim of this study was to determine whether ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in adult humans with impaired fasting blood glucose concentrations, independent of other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Forearm blood flow (FBF: plethysmography) responses to intra-arterial infusion of selective ETA receptor blockade (BQ-123: 100 nmol/min for 60 min) and non-selective ETA/B blockade (BQ-123 + BQ-788: 50 nmol/min for 60 min) were determined in 28 middle-aged, sedentary adults (17 M/11 F): 14 with normal fasting blood glucose (age: 57±2 yr; 6F/8M; BMI: 29.2±0.9 kg/m2; glucose: 4.9±0.1 mmol/L) and 14 impaired fasting blood glucose (58±1 yr; 5F/9M; 29.6±1.1 kg/m2; 5.8±0.1 mmol/L) concentrations. Results Selective ETA receptor blockade elicited a significantly greater (~20%) increase in FBF in the impaired fasting glucose adults compared with the normoglycemia controls. ETA/B blockade resulted in a further 2-fold increase (P<0.05) in FBF above that elicited by ETA receptor antagonism in the impaired fasting glucose but not normal fasting glucose adults. There was a positive correlation between fasting blood glucose levels and the peak vascular responses to ETA (r=0.44; P<0.05) and ETA/B (r=0.62; P<0.05) blockade. No other anthropometric, hemodynamic or metabolic variable was correlated with the blood flow responses to ET-1 receptor blockade. Conclusions/Interpretation ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in adults with impaired fasting blood glucose concentrations, independent of other cardiometabolic risk factors. Enhanced ET-1 system activity may underlie endothelial vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk in adults with impaired fasting blood glucose concentrations. PMID:23643051

  9. Impaired Decision Making is Associated with Poor Inhibition Control in Nonpathological Lottery Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaolong; Zheng, Lili; Li, Xianchun

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies by questionnaires have demonstrated that lottery gamblers who have not meet the criteria of pathological gambler show greater gambling acceptability. However, few empirical evidence of whether such nonpathological lottery gamblers (NPLGs) display the same impairments of decision making with pathological gamblers has been found so far. In present study, NPLGs and matched controls (MCs) were asked to perform the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and inter-temporal choice task (ICT). We found that compared to MCs, NPLGs displayed much lower IGT scores, net gains and proportions of advantageous decks in the IGT task and much higher percentages of trials during which smaller-but-sooner rewards were chosen in the ICT. These findings indicate that NPLGs display much more risky and impulsive decision makings, just like pathological gamblers in the previous studies. Next, the Go/NoGo task was employed to explore the role of response inhibition in the impairment of decision making in NPLGs. We found that NPLGs did show much higher commission errors compared to MCs. Moreover, IGT scores, net gain and proportions of advantageous decks were significantly negatively correlated with commission errors, which indicates that poor response inhibition might be involved in the impairments of decision making in NPLGs. To our knowledge, we provided the first empirical evidence of impairment of decision making and its cognitive mechanisms in NPLGs. PMID:25348253

  10. Posterior Cingulate Lactate as a Metabolic Biomarker in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Kurt E.; Richards, Todd L.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McGough, Ellen L.; Minoshima, Satoshi; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; McCurry, Susan M.; Teri, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a central factor within the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum. We hypothesized that in vivo measurements of lactate (lac), a by-product of glycolysis, would correlate with functional impairment and measures of brain health in a cohort of 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) individuals. Lac was quantified from the precuneus/posterior cingulate (PPC) using 2-dimensional J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Additionally, standard behavioral and imaging markers of aMCI disease progression were acquired. PPC lac was negatively correlated with performance on the Wechsler logical memory tests and on the minimental state examination even after accounting for gray matter, cerebral spinal fluid volume, and age. No such relationships were observed between lac and performance on nonmemory tests. Significant negative relationships were also noted between PPC lac and hippocampal volume and PPC functional connectivity. Together, these results reveal that aMCI individuals with a greater disease progression have increased concentrations of PPC lac. Because lac is upregulated as a compensatory response to mitochondrial impairment, we propose that J-resolved MRS of lac is a noninvasive, surrogate biomarker of impaired metabolic function and would provide a useful means of tracking mitochondrial function during therapeutic trials targeting brain metabolism. PMID:26417597

  11. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli; O'Rourke, Linda; Woodhouse, Emma; Ashwood, Karen; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip

    2015-12-15

    This study examines the rate of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). One hundred and thirty-one male MDOs with a primary diagnosis of either severe mental illness (SMI) or personality disorder (PD) completed screening questionnaires for ADHD. If positive, they were invited for a comprehensive diagnostic interview. Additional data pertaining to self-rated impairments, and objective records of critical incidents and episodes of seclusion were obtained from patient records. Twenty-six patients screened positive (7 with SMI, 19 with PD). On further assessment, no SMI patients met criteria for ADHD. Four PD patients met criteria for persistent 'syndromatic' ADHD, whereas six met 'symptomatic' ADHD criteria, giving overall prevalence estimates of 8.6% and 12.9% respectively. Greater functional impairments were self-reported by the PD+ADHD screener positive group, compared with screener negative peers, with large effect sizes. A significant but small effect was found for spending longer in seclusion. Compared with population norms, a high rate of ADHD and associated impairments are present in MDO's with a primary diagnosis of PD. These individuals have complex needs and both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are required for their rehabilitation. PMID:26410772

  12. Posterior Cingulate Lactate as a Metabolic Biomarker in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Kurt E; Richards, Todd L; Logsdon, Rebecca G; McGough, Ellen L; Minoshima, Satoshi; Aylward, Elizabeth H; Kleinhans, Natalia M; Grabowski, Thomas J; McCurry, Susan M; Teri, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a central factor within the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum. We hypothesized that in vivo measurements of lactate (lac), a by-product of glycolysis, would correlate with functional impairment and measures of brain health in a cohort of 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) individuals. Lac was quantified from the precuneus/posterior cingulate (PPC) using 2-dimensional J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Additionally, standard behavioral and imaging markers of aMCI disease progression were acquired. PPC lac was negatively correlated with performance on the Wechsler logical memory tests and on the minimental state examination even after accounting for gray matter, cerebral spinal fluid volume, and age. No such relationships were observed between lac and performance on nonmemory tests. Significant negative relationships were also noted between PPC lac and hippocampal volume and PPC functional connectivity. Together, these results reveal that aMCI individuals with a greater disease progression have increased concentrations of PPC lac. Because lac is upregulated as a compensatory response to mitochondrial impairment, we propose that J-resolved MRS of lac is a noninvasive, surrogate biomarker of impaired metabolic function and would provide a useful means of tracking mitochondrial function during therapeutic trials targeting brain metabolism. PMID:26417597

  13. Cognitive Impairment in Persons With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, So Young; Katz, Patricia; Wallhagen, Margaret; Julian, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the prevalence and possible predictors of cognitive impairment in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Individuals from a longitudinal cohort study of RA participated in a study visit that included a range of physical, psychosocial, and biologic metrics. Cognitive function was assessed using a battery of 12 standardized neuropsychological measures yielding 16 indices. Subjects were classified as “impaired” if they performed 1 SD below age-based population norms on at least 4 of 16 indices. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify which of the following were significant predictors of cognitive impairment: sex, race, income, education, depression, disease duration, disease severity, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, glucocorticoid use, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results A total of 115 subjects with a mean ± SD age of 58.6 ± 10.8 years were included; 64% were women and 81% were white. The proportion of persons who were classified as cognitively impaired was 31%. Education, income, glucocorticoid use, and CVD risk factors independently predicted cognitive impairment, controlling for sex, race, disease duration, disease severity, CRP level, and depression. Individuals with cognitive impairment were more likely to have low education (odds ratio [OR] 6.18, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.6 –23.87), have low income (OR 7.12, 95% CI 1.35–37.51), use oral glucocorticoids (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.05–8.12), and have increased CVD risk factors (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.19–2.17 per risk factor). Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the burden of cognitive impairment in RA is significant, and future studies identifying specific etiologic contributors to cognitive impairment are warranted. PMID:23322467

  14. Psychological wellbeing, physical impairments and rural aging in a developing country setting

    PubMed Central

    Abas, Melanie A; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Jirapramupitak, Tawanchai; Tangchonlatip, Kanchana; Leese, Morven

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. Methods A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Results Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p < 0.001) but after adjusting for disability the coefficient fell and was non-significant. The parsimonious model for wellbeing included age, wealth, social support, disability and impairment due to paralysis (the effect of paralysis was -2.97, p = 0.001). In this Thai setting, received support from children and from others and perceived good support from and to children were all independently associated with greater wellbeing whereas actual support to children was associated with lower wellbeing. Low received support from children interacted with paralysis in being especially associated with low wellbeing. Conclusion In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability services for older people and optimizing received social support will be vital in rural areas in developing countries. PMID:19607711

  15. Binaural speech discrimination under noise in hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Rao, A. B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of speech discrimination by hearing-impaired listeners (sensori-neural, conductive, and mixed groups) under binaural free-field listening in the presence of background noise. Subjects with pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz were presented with a version of the W-22 list of phonetically balanced words under three conditions: (1) 'quiet', with the chamber noise below 28 dB and speech at 60 dB; (2) at a constant S/N ratio of +10 dB, and with a background white noise at 70 dB; and (3) same as condition (2), but with the background noise at 80 dB. The mean speech discrimination scores decreased significantly with noise in all groups. However, the decrease in binaural speech discrimination scores with an increase in hearing impairment was less for material presented under the noise conditions than for the material presented in quiet.

  16. Factors Associated with Greater Pain Intensity.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Mariano E; Ring, David

    2016-02-01

    The intensity of pain reported for a given nociception is highly variable. Variation in pain intensity is best accounted for by stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies. Among orthopedic surgery patients, greater intake of opioids is associated with greater pain intensity and decreased satisfaction with pain control, no matter the pathophysiology or nociception. The single most effective pain reliever is self-efficacy (the sense that one can manage and that everything will be okay). PMID:26611386

  17. Cognitive speed of processing training in older adults with visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Amanda F.; O’Connor, Melissa L.; Edwards, Jerri D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether older adults with vision impairment differentially benefit from cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) relative to healthy older adults. Methods Secondary data analyses were conducted from a randomised trial on the effects of SPT among older adults. The effects of vision impairment as indicated by (1) near visual acuity, (2) contrast sensitivity, (3) self-reported cataracts and (4) self-reported other eye conditions (e.g., glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, optic neuritis, and retinopathy) among participants randomised to either SPT or a social- and computer-contact control group was assessed. The primary outcome was Useful Field of View Test (UFOV) performance. Results Mixed repeated-measures ancovas demonstrated that those randomized to SPT experienced greater baseline to post-test improvements in UFOV performance relative to controls (p’s < 0.001), regardless of impairments in near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity or presence of cataracts. Those with other eye conditions significantly benefitted from training (p = 0.044), but to a lesser degree than those without such conditions. Covariates included age and baseline measures of balance and depressive symptoms, which were significantly correlated with baseline UFOV performance. Conclusions Among a community-based sample of older adults with and without visual impairment and eye disease, the SPT intervention was effective in enhancing participants’ UFOV performance. The analyses presented here indicate the potential for SPT to enhance UFOV performance among a community-based sample of older adults with visual impairment and potentially for some with self-reported eye disease; further research to explore this area is warranted, particularly to determine the effects of eye diseases on SPT benefits. PMID:25160890

  18. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial...or cause irreparable harm to animal or plant life could be determined...significant. Significant beneficial effects also occur and must be...

  19. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial...or cause irreparable harm to animal or plant life could be determined...significant. Significant beneficial effects also occur and must be...

  20. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial...or cause irreparable harm to animal or plant life could be determined...significant. Significant beneficial effects also occur and must be...

  1. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional connectivity in mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Catherine E.; Donovan, Nancy J.; Guercio, Brendan J.; Wigman, Sarah E.; Schultz, Aaron P.; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), such as apathy and depression, commonly accompany cognitive and functional decline in early Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prior studies have shown associations between affective NPS symptoms and neurodegeneration of medial frontal and inferior temporal regions in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD dementia. Objective To investigate the association between functional connectivity in four brain networks and NPS in elderly with MCI. Methods NPS were assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory in 42 subjects with MCI. Resting-state functional connectivity in four networks (default mode network, fronto-parietal control network (FPCN), dorsal attention network, and ventral attention network) was assessed using seed-based magnetic resonance imaging. Factor analysis was used to identify two factors of NPS: Affective and Hyperactivity. Linear regression models were utilized with the neuropsychiatric factors as the dependent variable and the four networks as the predictors of interest. Covariates included age, sex, premorbid intelligence, processing speed, memory, head movement, and signal-to-noise ratio. These analyses were repeated with the individual items of the Affective factor, using the same predictors. Results There was a significant association between greater Affective factor symptoms and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.03). There was no association between the Hyperactivity factor and any of the networks. Secondary analyses revealed an association between greater apathy and reduced FPCN connectivity (p=0.005), but none in other networks. Conclusions Decreased connectivity in the FPCN may be associated with greater affective symptoms, particularly apathy, early in AD. These findings extend prior studies, using different functional imaging modalities in individuals with greater disease severity. PMID:25854929

  2. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability and future climate change have been briefly discussed.

  3. Right hemisphere brain damage impairs strategy updating.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Stöttinger, Elisabeth; Quehl, Nadine; Anderson, Britt

    2012-12-01

    Our behavior is predicated on mental models of the environment that must be updated to accommodate incoming information. We had 13 right-brain-damaged (RBD) patients and 10 left-brain-damaged (LBD) patients play the children's game "rock, paper, scissors" against a computer opponent that covertly altered its strategy. Healthy age-matched controls and LBD patients quickly detected extreme departures from uniform play ("paper" chosen on 80% of trials), but the RBD patient group did not. Seven RBD patients presented with neglect and although this was associated with greater impairment in strategy updating, there were exceptions: 2 of 7 neglect patients performed above the median of the patient group and 1 of the 6 nonneglect participants was severely impaired. Although speculative, lesion analyses contrasting high and low performing patients showed that severe impairments were associated with insula and putamen lesions. Interestingly, relative to the controls, the LBD group tended to "maximize" choices in the strongly biased condition (i.e., optimal strategy chosen on 100% of the trials), whereas controls "matched" the computer's strategy (i.e., optimal strategy chosen on 80% of the trials). We conclude that RBD leads to impaired updating of mental models to exploit environmental changes. PMID:22178711

  4. Do greater mouse-eared bats experience a trade-off between energy conservation and learning?

    PubMed

    Ruczy?ski, Ireneusz; Clarin, Theresa M A; Siemers, Bjoern M

    2014-11-15

    Bats, some species of rodents and some birds are able to save energy during the summer period by decreasing their body temperature and falling into torpor. Some studies indicate that torpor prevents sleeping and causes effects similar to sleep deprivation. Impairment of processes stabilizing memory slows down learning accuracy and speed. We conducted two experiments to test whether greater mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis, which commonly use torpor during the summer period, experience a trade-off between energy savings and learning abilities. We compared learning speed and accuracy in bats that were exposed to low (7°C) and higher ambient temperatures (22°C) between training and experimental sessions. Tests were conducted in experiments with food reward (food search) and without food reward (perch search). Time spent with the skin temperature above 30°C was significantly longer for bats exposed to 22°C than for those exposed to 7°C, and longer in experiments with food reward than without food reward. We observed only a very weak tendency for better accuracy and shorter search times in bats exposed to 22°C than in those exposed to 7°C. Our data indicate that memory consolidation of bats under natural conditions is not affected by daily torpor when bats are in good condition and may therefore defend against a rapid fall into torpor. We suggest that homeostatic processes connected with the circadian rhythm allow protection of the consolidation of memory for relatively simple tasks despite time spent in torpor. PMID:25392460

  5. A possible contributory mechanism for impaired idiom perception in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sela, Tal; Lavidor, Michal; Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2015-09-30

    In this review, we focus on the ability of people with schizophrenia to correctly perceive the meaning of idioms; figurative language expressions in which intended meaning is not derived from the meaning of constituent words. We collate evidence on how idiom perception is impaired, ascertain the clinical relevance of this impairment, and consider possible psychological and neural mechanisms behind the impairment. In reviewing extant literature, we searched the PubMed database, from 1975-2014, focussing on articles that directly concerned schizophrenia and idioms, with follow up searches to explore the viability of possible underlying mechanisms. We learn that there is clear evidence of impairment, with a tendency to err towards literal interpretations unless the figurative meaning is salient, and despite contextual cues to figurative interpretations. Given the importance of idioms in everyday language, the potential impact is significant. Clinically, impaired idiom perception primarily relates to positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but also to negative symptoms. The origins of the impairment remain speculation, with impaired executive function, impaired semantic functions, and impaired context processing all proposed to explain the phenomenon. We conclude that a possible contributory mechanism at the neural level is an impaired dorsolateral prefrontal cortex system for cognitive control over semantic processing. PMID:26216166

  6. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  7. TRANSPORTATION TRENDS 1991 -2006 Greater Toronto Area

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    TRANSPORTATION TRENDS 1991 - 2006 Greater Toronto Area CORDON COUNT PROGRAM Executive Summary #12;#12;GTA Cordon Count Program Transportation Trends 1991-2006 Executive Summary 1 1.0 INTRODUCTION patterns in the GTA · Information on persons and vehicles for various modes of transportation · Over 1000

  8. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  9. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  10. THE CROCODILIAN INDICATOR IN THE GREATER EVERGLADES

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    THE CROCODILIAN INDICATOR IN THE GREATER EVERGLADES 2006 ASSESSMENT REPORT American crocodile Center FISC-Gainesville 7920 NW 71st Street Gainesville, FL 32605 #12;AMERICAN ALLIGATOR AND CROCODILE i that If conditions remain constant, status will remain below restoration objectives. American Crocodile Everglades

  11. THE CROCODILIAN INDICATOR IN THE GREATER EVERGLADES

    E-print Network

    Mazzotti, Frank

    THE CROCODILIAN INDICATOR IN THE GREATER EVERGLADES 2006 ASSESSMENT REPORT American crocodile-Gainesville 7920 NW 71st Street Gainesville, FL 32605 #12;AMERICAN ALLIGATOR AND CROCODILE i LOCATION LAST STATUS, status will remain below restoration objectives. American Crocodile Everglades National Park Juvenile

  12. Hearing Impaired: Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    The curriculum guide is intended to assist families, school administrators, and teachers providing educational services to hearing impaired (HI) children in regular and special classes in Alberta, Canada. Explained in the introduction are such curriculum aspects as goals and purpose, population to be served, eligibility criteria, three…

  13. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N?=?13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N?=?22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55 dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception-temporal resolution-in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties. PMID:26197871

  14. Functional Disability and Cognitive Impairment after Hospitalization for Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Deborah A.; Davydow, Dimitry S.; Hough, Catherine L.; Langa, Kenneth M.; Rogers, Mary A.M.; Iwashyna, Theodore J.

    2014-01-01

    Background We assessed the acute and long-term impact of MI and stroke on post-event functional disability and cognition while controlling for survivors’ changes in functioning over the years before the event. Methods and Results Among participants in the nationally-representative Health and Retirement Study with linked Medicare data (1998-2010), we determined within-person changes in functional limitations (basic and instrumental activities of daily living) and cognitive impairment after hospitalization for stroke (n=432) and MI (n=450), controlling for pre-morbid functioning using fixed-effects regression. In persons without baseline impairments, an acute MI yielded a mean increase of 0.41 functional limitations (95% CI, 0.18-0.63) with a linear increase of 0.14 limitations/year in the following decade. These increases were 0.65 limitations (95% CI, 0.07-1.23) and 0.27 limitations/year afterwards for those with mild-to-moderate impairment at baseline. Stroke resulted in an increase of 2.07 (95% CI, 1.51-2.63) limitations due to the acute event and an increase of 0.15 limitations/year afterwards for those unimpaired at baseline. There were 2.65 new limitations (95% CI, 1.86-3.44) and 0.19/year afterwards for those with baseline mild-to-moderate impairment. Stroke hospitalization was associated with greater odds of moderate-to-severe cognitive impairment (odds ratio, 3.86; 95% CI, 2.10-7.11) at the time of the event, after adjustment for premorbid cognition but MI hospitalization was not. Conclusions In this population-based cohort, most MI and stroke hospitalizations were associated with significant increases in functional disability at the time of the event and in the decade afterwards. Survivors of MI and stroke warrant screening for functional disability over the long-term. PMID:25387772

  15. Health impairments and labour market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Drydakis, Nick

    2010-10-01

    Our analysis is based on the 2008 Athens Area Study and exploits detailed information regarding health impairments and labour market outcomes for Greek males. Distinguishing between healthy and heath-impaired employees who have or do not have work limitations, the unobserved productivity effect of health is separated from discrimination. We then estimate a regression model that includes terms to correct for employment selection and endogenous stratification of self-reported health condition. A penalty for productivity limitation exists. Evidence of wage discrimination is also found. Both findings are statistically significant and highlight the necessity for instituting active policies against unequal treatment. PMID:19771458

  16. Chemistry for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Judy L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses modifications to general education or introductory chemistry courses that allow visually impaired students to participate productively. Describes a strategy for teaching about elements and density, and the construction of a conductivity tester for visually impaired students. (JRH)

  17. Aging, muscle activity, and balance control: physiologic changes associated with balance impairment

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    increases in muscle activity preclude greater postural instability or if increased muscle activity: Fallers; Postural control; Muscle activity; Stabilogram-diffusion analysis 1. Introduction IncreasedAging, muscle activity, and balance control: physiologic changes associated with balance impairment

  18. Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Older Vietnamese

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H.; Hoang, Chuong N.; Nguyen, Ha T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined correlates of cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment among older adults living in Da Nang, Vietnam and surrounding rural areas. Methods The analytic sample consisted of 489 adults 55 and older stratified by gender, age, and rural/urban status. The sample was 46% rural, 44% women, with a mean age of 69.04. Interviews were conducted in individuals’ homes by trained interviewers. The dependent variable was a Vietnamese version of the MMSE. A multiple linear regression was run with the MMSE continuous scores reflecting cognitive functioning, while a binary logistic regression was conducted with an education-adjusted cut-off score reflecting possible cognitive impairment. Age, gender, education, material hardship, depressive symptoms (CES-D), war injury, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease conditions served as correlates, controlling for marital status and rural/urban residence. Results About 33% of the sample scored below the standard cutoff of 23 on the MMSE. However only 12.9% of the sample would be considered impaired using the education-adjusted cutoff score. Cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment as indicated by MMSE scores were significantly associated with being older, completing fewer years of education, and material hardship. Gender, depressive symptoms, and cerebrovascular disease were associated with cognitive functioning, but not cognitive impairment. Conclusion These results show that social characteristics, physical illness, and mental health are associated with cognitive functioning. The study also raises questions about the need for standardization of screening measures on Vietnamese populations. PMID:23697847

  19. Grammatical Impairments in PPA

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Mack, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Grammatical impairments are commonly observed in the agrammatic subtype of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G), whereas grammatical processing is relatively preserved in logopenic (PPA-L) and semantic (PPA-S) subtypes. Aims We review research on grammatical deficits in PPA and associated neural mechanisms, with discussion focused on production and comprehension of four aspects of morphosyntactic structure: grammatical morphology, functional categories, verbs and verb argument structure, and complex syntactic structures. We also address assessment of grammatical deficits in PPA, with emphasis on behavioral tests of grammatical processing. Finally, we address research examining the effects of treatment for progressive grammatical impairments. Main Contribution PPA-G is associated with grammatical deficits that are evident across linguistic domains in both production and comprehension. PPA-G is associated with damage to regions including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and dorsal white matter tracts, which have been linked to impaired comprehension and production of complex sentences. Detailing grammatical deficits in PPA is important for estimating the trajectory of language decline and associated neuropathology. We, therefore, highlight several new assessment tools for examining different aspects of morphosyntactic processing in PPA. Conclusions Individuals with PPA-G present with agrammatic deficit patterns distinct from those associated with PPA-L and PPA-S, but similar to those seen in agrammatism resulting from stroke, and patterns of cortical atrophy and white matter changes associated with PPA-G have been identified. Methods for clinical evaluation of agrammatism, focusing on comprehension and production of grammatical morphology, functional categories, verbs and verb argument structure, and complex syntactic structures are recommended and tools for this are emerging in the literature. Further research is needed to investigate the real-time processes underlying grammatical impairments in PPA, as well as the structural and functional neural correlates of grammatical impairments across linguistic domains. Few studies have examined the effects of treatment for grammatical impairments in PPA; research in this area is needed to better understand how (or if) grammatical processing ability can be improved, the potential for spared neural tissue to be recruited to support this, and whether the neural connections within areas of dysfunctional tissue required for grammatical processing can be enhanced using cortical stimulation. PMID:25642014

  20. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hugo; Dermody, Brian; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin; Eppinga, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems in South Florida (USA) remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy datasets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the non-linear processes involved in peat production and decomposition in combination with the local drainage conditions of Southern Florida. The model results suggest that RSL-rise alone cannot predict the onset of peat initiation in the Greater Everglades using our model setup. The model also implies that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr BP. The two-phased character of peat land initiation may be explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly non-linear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleo-ecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  1. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

  2. Color synesthesia improves color but impairs motion perception.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2014-05-01

    A recent study showed that color synesthetes have increased color sensitivity but impaired motion perception. This is exciting because little research has examined how synesthesia affects basic perceptual processes outside the context of synesthetic experiences. The results suggest that synesthesia broadly impacts perception with greater neural implications than previously considered. PMID:24581557

  3. Color synesthesia improves color but impairs motion perception

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed that color synesthetes have increased color sensitivity but impaired motion perception. This is exciting because little research examines how synesthesia affects basic perceptual processes outside the context of the synesthetic experiences. The results suggest that synesthesia broadly impacts perception with greater neural implications than previously considered. PMID:24581557

  4. Greater sciatic notch in sex determination.

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S; Potturi, B R

    1978-01-01

    Various measurements of the greater sciatic notch, e.g. width, depth and length of the posterior segment (of width) were measured, and indices I and II calculated, in 200 adult hip bones (120 males and 80 females). Total and posterior angles were measured after construction of a triangle from the above measurements in each case. Demarking points for sexing of hip bones were calculated for the above seven parameters on the lines of Jit & Singh (1966). Width and depth of the greater sciatic notch were found to be useless criteria for sexing purposes while the posterior angle was found to be the best parameter, which identified 75% of left and 88% of right male hip bones and 92% of left and 100% of right female bones. Length of the posterior segment and Index II also assigned sex to a high percentage of hip bones, especially to the female ones (95-97%), which suggests that the widening of the greater sciatic notch found in females has occurred primarily in its posterior part. The demarking points identify sex with 100% accuracy. PMID:640963

  5. Specific Language Impairments in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Ruth V., Ed.; Rice, Mabel L., Ed.

    The fourth volume in a series on communication and language intervention focuses on specific language impairments in children, and contains papers presented at a 1992 conference. Papers include the following: "Specific Language Impairments in Children: An Introduction" (Ruth V. Watkins); "Studies of Genetics of Specific Language Impairment" (J.…

  6. Assessment of Hearing Impaired Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The issue of Directions contains 11 articles on assessment of hearing impaired individuals. Entries have the following titles and authors: "Classroom Assessment Techniques for Hearing Impaired Students--A Literature Review" (B. McKee, M. Hausknecht); "Informal Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students In the Classroom" (B. Culhane, R. Hein);…

  7. Significant sequelae after bacterial meningitis in Niger: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beside high mortality, acute bacterial meningitis may lead to a high frequency of neuropsychological sequelae. The Sahelian countries belonging to the meningitis belt experience approximately 50% of the meningitis cases occurring in the world. Studies in Africa have shown that N. meningitidis could cause hearing loss in up to 30% of the cases, exceeding sometimes measles. The situation is similar in Niger which experiences yearly meningitis epidemics and where rehabilitation wards are rare and hearing aids remain unaffordable. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of neuropsychological sequelae after acute bacterial meningitis in four of the eight regions of Niger. Methods Subjects exposed to acute bacterial meningitis were enrolled into a cohort with non exposed subjects matched on age and gender. Consenting subjects were interviewed during inclusion and at a control visit two months later. If clinical symptoms or psychological troubles persisted at both visits among the exposed subjects with a frequency significantly greater than that observed among the non exposed subjects, a sequelae was retained. The comparison of the frequency of sequelae between non exposed and exposed subjects to bacterial meningitis was also calculated using the Fisher exact test. Results Three persisting functional symptoms were registered: headaches, asthenia, and vertigo among 31.3, 36.9, and 22.4% respectively of the exposed subjects. A significant motor impairment was retrieved among 12.3% of the exposed versus 1.6% of the non exposed subjects. Hearing loss significantly disabled 31.3% of the exposed subjects and 10.4% exhibited a serious deafness. Conclusions This study carried out in Niger confirms two serious neurological sequelae occurring at high frequencies after bacterial meningitis: severe and profound hearing loss and motor impairment. Cochlear implantation and hearing aids are too expensive for populations living in developing countries. Neurological sequelae occurring after meningitis should sensitize African public health authorities on the development of rehabilitation centers. All these challenges can be met through existing strategies and guidelines. PMID:23687976

  8. Phonological processing skills in speech and language impaired children.

    PubMed

    Leitão, S; Hogben, J; Fletcher, J

    1997-01-01

    Phonological processing has been shown by many researchers to be strongly related to the acquisition of reading and spelling skills. Children with speech and language impairment appear to be at increased risk for phonological processing problems and hence literary difficulties. However, not all children with speech and language impairment experience difficulties: the literature is not clear as to which groups of speech and language impaired children are most severely affected nor which aspects of phonological processing are most likely to be impaired. Rigorous subject selection was employed to compare the performance of four groups of 20 children, aged approximately 6 years: speech-impaired (Speech); language-impaired (Language); speech and language impaired (Mixed); and children with normally developing language (Normal), by use of a battery of phonological processing tasks. The results supported the research that has shown speech and language impaired children to have weaker phonological processing skills than the general population. All the subjects in this sample appeared to be at risk: the Mixed children demonstrated the most difficulty, followed by the Language group, with the Normal group performing the best. Whilst the Speech group as a whole performed significantly more poorly than the Normal group, it consisted of two levels of performance which, on post hoc analysis were shown to relate to the pattern of speech impairment exhibited by the child. PMID:9279429

  9. Structural Impairment Detection Using Arrays of Competitive Artificial Neural Networks 

    E-print Network

    Story, Brett

    2012-07-16

    indicative of specific structural impairments. Heel trunnion bascule bridges experience significant stress ranges in critical truss members. Finite element modeling of the Salmon Bay Bridge testbed provided an estimate of nominal structural behavior...

  10. Muscle weakness and cocontraction in upper limb hemiparesis: relationship to motor impairment and physical disability.

    PubMed

    Chae, John; Yang, Guang; Park, Byung Kyu; Labatia, Ihab

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the relationship between poststroke upper limb muscle weakness and cocontraction, and clinical measures of upper limb motor impairment and physical disability. Electrormyographic (EMG) activity of the paretic and nonparetic wrist flexors and extensors of 26 chronic stroke survivors were recorded during isometric wrist flexion and extension. The root mean square (RMS) of the EMG signal was used as a measure of strength of contraction. A ratio of RMS of antagonist and agonist muscles was used as a measure of cocontraction. Upper limb motor impairment and physical disability were assessed with the Fugl-Meyer motor assessment (FMA) and the arm motor ability test (AMAT), respectively. The strength of muscle contraction was significantly stronger in the nonparetic limb (P < 0.001). The degree of cocontraction was significantly greater in the paretic limb (P < 0.001). The strength of muscle contraction in the paretic limb correlated significantly with FMA (r = 0.62 to 0.87, P < or = 0.001) and AMAT (r = 0.66 to 0.80, P < or = 0.001) scores. Similarly, the degree of cocontraction correlated significantly with FMA (r = -0. 70 to -0.64, P < or = 0.001) and AMAT (r = -0. 72 to -0.62, P < or = 0.001) scores. Muscle weakness and degree of cocontraction correlate significantly with motor impairment and physical disability in upper limb hemiplegia. This relationship may provide insights toward development of specific interventions. However, additional studies are needed to demonstrate a cause and effect relationship. PMID:12234087

  11. Neonatal hypoxia, hippocampal atrophy, and memory impairment: evidence of a causal sequence.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Jentschke, Sebastian; Goldman, Allan; Munoz, Monica; Pitts, Georgia; Banks, Tina; Chong, W Kling; Hoskote, Aparna; Deanfield, John; Baldeweg, Torsten; de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-06-01

    Neonates treated for acute respiratory failure experience episodes of hypoxia. The hippocampus, a structure essential for memory, is particularly vulnerable to such insults. Hence, some neonates undergoing treatment for acute respiratory failure might sustain bilateral hippocampal pathology early in life and memory problems later in childhood. We investigated this possibility in a cohort of 40 children who had been treated neonatally for acute respiratory failure but were free of overt neurological impairment. The cohort had mean hippocampal volumes (HVs) significantly below normal control values, memory scores significantly below the standard population means, and memory quotients significantly below those predicted by their full scale IQs. Brain white matter volume also fell below the volume of the controls, but brain gray matter volumes and scores on nonmnemonic neuropsychological tests were within the normal range. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that the cohort's HVs were predictive of degree of memory impairment, and gestational age at treatment was predictive of HVs: the younger the age, the greater the atrophy. We conclude that many neonates treated for acute respiratory failure sustain significant hippocampal atrophy as a result of the associated hypoxia and, consequently, show deficient memory later in life. PMID:24343890

  12. Neonatal Hypoxia, Hippocampal Atrophy, and Memory Impairment: Evidence of a Causal Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Janine M.; Gadian, David G.; Jentschke, Sebastian; Goldman, Allan; Munoz, Monica; Pitts, Georgia; Banks, Tina; Chong, W. Kling; Hoskote, Aparna; Deanfield, John; Baldeweg, Torsten; de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    Neonates treated for acute respiratory failure experience episodes of hypoxia. The hippocampus, a structure essential for memory, is particularly vulnerable to such insults. Hence, some neonates undergoing treatment for acute respiratory failure might sustain bilateral hippocampal pathology early in life and memory problems later in childhood. We investigated this possibility in a cohort of 40 children who had been treated neonatally for acute respiratory failure but were free of overt neurological impairment. The cohort had mean hippocampal volumes (HVs) significantly below normal control values, memory scores significantly below the standard population means, and memory quotients significantly below those predicted by their full scale IQs. Brain white matter volume also fell below the volume of the controls, but brain gray matter volumes and scores on nonmnemonic neuropsychological tests were within the normal range. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that the cohort's HVs were predictive of degree of memory impairment, and gestational age at treatment was predictive of HVs: the younger the age, the greater the atrophy. We conclude that many neonates treated for acute respiratory failure sustain significant hippocampal atrophy as a result of the associated hypoxia and, consequently, show deficient memory later in life. PMID:24343890

  13. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Boer, Hugo J.; Dermody, Brian J.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we first present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy data sets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene, (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL, and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the nonlinear processes involved in peat production and decomposition. The model results suggest that RSL rise could explain the onset of peatland initiation and imply that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr B.P. The two-phased character of peatland initiation maybe explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly nonlinear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleoecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  14. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  15. Effects of late visual impairment on mental representations activated by visual and tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2007-05-01

    Similarly to sighted people, individuals congenitally affected by a severe visual impairment can maintain and mentally manipulate spatial information about tactile stimuli [Vecchi, T., Cattaneo, Z., Monegato, M., Pece, A., Cornoldi, C., Pietrini, P., 2006. Why Cyclops could not compete with Ulysses: monocular vision and mental images. NeuroReport 17, 723-726]. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the onset timing of a severe (but not total) sight loss may influence spatial imagery abilities based on haptic input. To this purpose, a group of late severe visually impaired people and a matched group of normally sighted participants (all blindfolded) were presented with an imagery task requiring to memorize and retrieve a number of locations presented on tactile matrices. Results indicate that a severe visual deficit occurring later in life significantly impairs spatial imagery abilities to a greater extent than in the case of congenital blindness, probably as a consequence of a modest development of specific compensatory mechanisms associated with congenital deficits. PMID:17368576

  16. [Multiple myeloma and renal impairment].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Renal impairment (RI) is a common complication and it impacts on a survival of patients with systemic multiple myeloma (MM). In a cohort study in Akita, about 20-26% patients with MM showed RI at diagnosis and it was independently associated with overall survival. Cast nephropathy, amyloidosis, and monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (Randall type) are known as three pathological findings of kidney in MM patients with RI. Recently, the term monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) was proposed because of a causal relationship between the monoclonal gammopathy and the renal damage. Bortezomib-based regimens may improve renal function in the majority of MM patients with RI. We discussed an epidemiology, clinic-pathological findings and treatments of MM with RI in this review. PMID:25626301

  17. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. There is significantly elevated risk of cognitive decline and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dementia may develop insidiously several years after manifestation of Parkinson motor symptoms (dementia associated with Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia) or in close temporal relationship (within one year) after onset of motor symptoms (Dementia with Lewy bodies). There are clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic similarities between these two conditions. Men are more frequently affected than women. Risk factor or indicators are advanced age at disease onset, disease duration, rigidity, akinesia and posture and gait impairment and falls as opposed to tremor dominance, and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, apathy, hallucinosis, delirium). Dementia is treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil), memantine, and adjustment of the pharmacological regimen of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Concomitant autonomic nervous system symptoms and neuropsychiatric complications warrant early clinical awareness and are accessible to pharmacological therapy. PMID:26609664

  18. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile. PMID:24906427

  19. Differences in Socialization between Visually Impaired Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to…

  20. Aberrant intra- and inter-network connectivity architectures in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Hongxiang; Zhan, Yafeng; Zhang, Zengqiang; Cui, Yue; Xu, Kaibin; Ma, Jianhua; Wang, Luning; An, Ningyu; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and those with high-risk mild cognitive impairment are increasingly considered to have dysfunction syndromes. Large-scale network studies based on neuroimaging techniques may provide additional insight into AD pathophysiology. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impaired network functional connectivity with the disease progression. For this purpose, we explored altered functional connectivities based on previously well-defined brain areas that comprise the five key functional systems [the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL), sensorimotor network (SMN)] in 35 with AD and 27 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, compared with 27 normal cognitive subjects. Based on three levels of analysis, we found that intra- and inter-network connectivity were impaired in AD. Importantly, the interaction between the sensorimotor and attention functions was first attacked at the MCI stage and then extended to the key functional systems in the AD individuals. Lower cognitive ability (lower MMSE scores) was significantly associated with greater reductions in intra- and inter-network connectivity across all patient groups. These profiles indicate that aberrant intra- and inter-network dysfunctions might be potential biomarkers or predictors of AD progression and provide new insight into AD pathophysiology. PMID:26439278

  1. Six lessons learned for greater success.

    PubMed

    Leander, W J

    1993-01-01

    These six lessons learned for greater success with your Patient Focused communications can help keep your cultural change process in sync with your operational change process. Of course, there are other key elements of the former, including: formal Patient Focused educational programs; restructured Human Resources "systems" (e.g., job descriptions and compensation programs); and migration toward greater organizational empowerment and more self-directed work teams. Still, your Patient Focused communications campaign will spearhead the cultural change process. As such, it will have the opportunity to make the very first impact. Basically, your communications can make or break your Patient Focused Care program from Day One. It's up to you--learn the lessons learned by others and your organization may follow the words of Marx rather than those of Brand: "Workers of the world, unite (on behalf of your Patient Focused Care program)!" Karl Marx.p6 "Workers of the world, fan out (in formation against your Patient Focused Care program)!" Stewart Brand. PMID:10133393

  2. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome of the hip].

    PubMed

    Haviv, Barak; Bronak, Shlomo; Thein, Rafael

    2014-02-01

    Lateral pain of the hip with point tenderness at the Greater Trochanter is a common musculoskeletal complaint. It is frequently diagnosed as trochanteric bursitis; however, this term is inaccurate because of evident non-inflammatory pathologies, particularly of the abductor tendons of the hip. It is important to differentiate this extra-articular source from an intra-articular or a lower back source of pain. Imaging is useful in cases of trauma, prolonged pain or uncertain diagnosis. Non-operative treatment that involves modifying activities, physiotherapy, analgesics, steroid injections and shock wave therapy is usually helpful. Nevertheless, despite the above treatments, about one third of the patients suffer from chronic pain and disability. These patients may be candidates for operative intervention. Currently, there are endoscopic surgical techniques for local decompression, bursectomy and suture of torn tendons similar to surgery used in the shoulder. PMID:24716427

  3. Depressive symptoms in Chinese Americans with Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Steven Z.; Matthews, Brandy R.; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Betty Lai, Ngan; Ong, Hilary; Tse, Marian; Yuan, Runfen Frances; Lin, Amy; Kramer, Joel; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of geriatric depression in Chinese American patients with cognitive impairment and to compare the prevalence to that of cognitively normal elderly Chinese Americans and Caucasians. Design We compared rates of depressive symptomatology in elderly Chinese Americans to a matched group of Caucasians, with and without dementia, and assessed rates of treatment for depression across all groups. Setting Academic subspecialty referral clinic. Participants Participants included a total of 137 elderly, cognitively impaired and cognitively normal Chinese Americans and 140 Caucasians with and without cognitive impairment. Measurements Demographic (e.g. age, education, race, language ability), cognitive (MMSE score), medical (e.g. cardiovascular morbidity) and functional (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale) risk factors were assessed for association with depressive symptomatology as measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Depression (GDS score ? 6 out of 15) was significantly more common in cognitively impaired Chinese Americans (35%) versus cognitively impaired Caucasians (15%, ?2 = 33.8, p<0.05), and Chinese Americans were less likely to be on treatment for depression (12%) than Caucasians (37%, ?2 = 41, p<0.05). Cognitive and functional impairment, age and education were all independent predictors of GDS score. Rates of depression were not significantly different in cognitively normal Chinese American (6%) and Caucasian (0%) groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that elderly Chinese Americans with cognitive impairment are at significantly increased risk for unrecognized depression and that education, and/or other cultural factors associated with education may contribute to this risk. PMID:24021225

  4. The Effect of Virtual Reality and Tetra-Ataxiometric Posturography Programs on Stroke Patients With Impaired Standing Balance

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoon Bum; Kim, Won; Lee, Sook Joung; Yi, Jin Hwa; Park, Dae Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of virtual reality (VR) and a tetra-ataxiometric posturography (Tetrax) program on stroke patients with impaired standing balance. Methods Thirty acute stroke patients with impaired standing balance were recruited and randomly assigned to a VR, Tetrax, or control group. All patients received conventional balance training as a baseline; and VR and Tetrax patients received VR or Tetrax treatment, in addition. The primary outcome measures to evaluate the overall standing balance were the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the falling index (FI). The secondary outcome measures were the stability index (SI) and the weight distribution index (WDI), which were used to evaluate the balance status according to specific body positions. The FI, SI, and WDI were measured using the Tetrax instrument. Results The BBS and FI scores were improved in all groups, with no significant differences between groups. In open-eyed positions, the VR group showed significantly greater improvement in SI and WDI scores than the control group (p<0.017). In closed-eyed positions, the Tetrax group showed significantly greater improvement in SI and WDI scores than the control group (p<0.017). Conclusion The inclusion of VR and Tetrax programs did not lead to an overall benefit in balance. VR and Tetrax did, however, demonstrate a benefit in specific positions. A Tetrax program may benefit patients with abnormal proprioceptive function, whereas a VR program may benefit patients with normal sensory function. PMID:24855609

  5. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  6. Subcutaneous Interferon ?-1a May Protect against Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: 5-Year Follow-up of the COGIMUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Francesco; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Amato, Maria Pia; Trojano, Maria; Bastianello, Stefano; Tola, Maria Rosalia; Cottone, Salvatore; Plant, Andrea; Picconi, Orietta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) -1a on cognition over 5 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods Patients aged 18–50 years with RRMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ?4.0) who had completed the 3-year COGIMUS study underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging, neurological examination, and neuropsychological testing at years 4 and 5. Predictors of cognitive impairment at year 5 were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Of 331 patients who completed the 3-year COGIMUS study, 265 participated in the 2-year extension study, 201 of whom (75.8%; sc IFN ?-1a three times weekly: 44 µg, n?=?108; 22 µg, n?=?93) completed 5 years' follow-up. The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment in the study population overall remained stable between baseline (18.0%) and year 5 (22.6%). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment also remained stable in both treatment groups between baseline and year 5, and between year 3 and year 5. However, a significantly higher proportion of men than women had cognitive impairment at year 5 (26.5% vs 14.4%, p?=?0.046). Treatment with the 22 versus 44 µg dose was predictive of cognitive impairment at year 5 (hazard ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.48–0.97). Conclusions This study suggests that sc IFN ?-1a dose-dependently stabilizes or delays cognitive impairment over a 5-year period in most patients with mild RRMS. Women seem to be more protected against developing cognitive impairment, which may indicate greater response to therapy or the inherently better prognosis associated with female sex in MS. PMID:24137499

  7. Neurologists? accuracy in predicting cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Romero, Kristoffer; Shammi, Prathiba; Feinstein, Anthony

    2015-07-01

    Cognitive impairment affects approximately 40-70% of MS patients. As management of MS typically begins with, and is co-ordinated by neurologists, they are often the first to raise concerns about a patient's cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how accurate the neurological examination is in identifying cognitive impairment. To this end, we conducted a retrospective chart review of 97 MS patients referred by neurologists for neuropsychological assessment based on suspected cognitive impairment. Patients were classified as globally-impaired or intact according to failure on 2 or more of 11 cognitive indices comprising the MACFIMS, a recommended neuropsychological battery for MS. Neurologists' accuracy was not significantly different from chance, ?(2)=1.25, p=0.26, with 44.3% of patients with suspected cognitive impairment showing global impairment on objective testing. Cognitively intact patients when compared to those who were impaired had higher levels of education and were less likely to have mood disturbances. These findings indicate the clinical interview and standard neurological examination are not sufficiently sensitive to detect cognitive impairment in MS, and suggest the need for a brief, accurate cognitive screen to complement routine clinical evaluation. PMID:26195045

  8. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  9. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and exercise impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bridenstine, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2013-01-01

    Limitations in physical fitness, a consistent finding in individuals with both type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus, correlate strongly with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These limitations may significantly contribute to the persistent excess cardiovascular mortality affecting this group. Exercise impairments in VO2 peak and VO2 kinetics manifest early on in diabetes, even with good glycemic control and in the absence of clinically apparent complications. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction is often present but does not fully explain the observed defect in exercise capacity in persons with diabetes. In part, the cardiac limitations are secondary to decreased perfusion with exercise challenge. This is a reversible defect. Similarly, in the skeletal muscle, impairments in nutritive blood flow correlate with slowed (or inefficient) exercise kinetics and decreased exercise capacity. Several correlations highlight the likelihood of endothelial-specific impairments as mediators of exercise dysfunction in diabetes, including insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, decreased myocardial perfusion, slowed tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and impairment in mitochondrial function. Both exercise training and therapies targeted at improving insulin sensitivity and endothelial function improve physical fitness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Optimization of exercise functions in people with diabetes has implications for diabetes prevention and reductions in mortality risk. Understanding the molecular details of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may provide specific therapeutic targets for the remediation of this defect. Rat models to test this hypothesis are under study. PMID:23299658

  10. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that approximate each other sufficiently closely to constitute a majority for the purpose of quantifying reliability. This criterion is, simply, that if there do not exist at least three sensors having weights greater than a prescribed minimum acceptable value, then the array as a whole is deemed to have failed.

  11. Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) for Older Adults with Major Depression and Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Ravdin, Lisa D.; Gross, James J; Raue, Patrick; Kotbi, Nabil; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) is a treatment for older adults with major depression, cognitive impairment (from mild cognitive deficits to moderate dementia) and disability. Antidepressants have limited efficacy in this population and psychosocial interventions are inadequately investigated. Objective To test the efficacy of 12-week PATH vs. Supportive Therapy for Cognitively Impaired patients (ST-CI) in reducing depression and disability in 74 older adults with major depression, cognitive impairment and disability. Design Randomized Controlled Trial from April 1, 2006 until September 31, 2011. Setting Weill-Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry; interventions were administered at participants’ homes. Participants Seventy-four older participants (age?65 years) with major depression and cognitive impairment up to the level of moderate dementia were recruited through collaborating community agencies of Weill-Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry and were randomly assigned to 12 weekly sessions of PATH or ST-CI (14.8% attrition rate). Interventions Home-delivered PATH vs. home-delivered ST-CI. PATH integrates a problem solving approach with compensatory strategies, environmental adaptations, and caregiver participation to improve patients’ emotion regulation. ST-CI focuses on expression of affect, understanding and empathy. Main Outcome Measures Mixed-effects models for longitudinal data compared the efficacy of PATH to that of ST-CI in reducing depression (MADRS) and disability (WHODAS-II) over 12 weeks of treatment. Results PATH participants had significantly greater reduction in depression (treatment X time: F[1,179]=8.03, p=0.0051; Cohen’s D at 12 weeks: 0.60) and disability (treatment X time: F[1,169]=14.86, p=0.0002; Cohen’s D at 12 weeks: 0.67) than ST-CI participants over the 12-week period (primary outcomes). Further, PATH participants had significantly greater depression remission rates than ST-CI participants (37.84% vs. 13.51%; Chi-square: 5.74, df=1, p=0.0174; Number Needed to Treat (NNT)=4.11) (secondary outcome). Exploratory analysis showed that PATH led to greater reduction in depression than ST-CI even in the subgroup of participants with drug treatment resistant depression (F[1,72.7]=6.01, p=0.0166; Cohen’s d: week 12: 0.95). Conclusions and Relevance PATH was more efficacious than ST-CI in reducing depression and disability. PATH may provide relief to a large group of depressed, cognitively impaired older adults with few treatment options. PMID:25372657

  12. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  13. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  14. Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

  15. Telomerase deficiency delays renal recovery in mice after ischemia-reperfusion injury by impairing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huifang; Fan, Xiaofeng; Lawson, William E; Paueksakon, Paisit; Harris, Raymond C

    2015-07-01

    The aged population suffers increased morbidity and higher mortality in response to episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI). Aging is associated with telomere shortening, and both telomerase reverse transcriptase (TerT) and RNA (TerC) are essential to maintain telomere length. To define a role of telomerase deficiency in susceptibility to AKI, we used ischemia/reperfusion injury in wild-type mice or mice with either TerC or TerT deletion. Injury induced similar renal impairment at day 1 in each genotype, as assessed by azotemia, proteinuria, acute tubular injury score, and apoptotic tubular epithelial cell index. However, either TerC or TerT knockout significantly delayed recovery compared with wild-type mice. Electron microscopy showed increased autophagosome formation in renal tubular epithelial cells in wild-type mice but a significant delay of their development in TerC and TerT knockout mice. There were also impeded increases in the expression of the autophagosome marker LC3 II, prolonged accumulation of the autophagosome protein P62, an increase of the cell cycle regulator p16, and greater activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. The mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, partially restored the ischemia/reperfusion-induced autophagy response, without a significant effect on either p16 induction or tubule epithelial cell proliferation. Thus, muting the maintenance of normal telomere length in mice impaired recovery from AKI, owing to an increase in tubule cell senescence and impairment of mTOR-mediated autophagy. PMID:25760322

  16. Taurine improves the spatial learning and memory ability impaired by sub-chronic manganese exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive manganese exposure induced cognitive deficit. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that taurine improves cognitive impairment induced by numerous neurotoxins. However, the role of taurine on manganese-induced damages in learning and memory is still elusive. This goal of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of taurine on learning and memory capacity impairment by manganese exposure in an animal model. Results The escape latency in the Morris Water Maze test was significantly longer in the rats injected with manganese than that in the rats received both taurine and manganese. Similarly, the probe trial showed that the annulus crossings were significantly greater in the taurine plus manganese treated rats than those in the manganese-treated rats. However, the blood level of manganese was not altered by the taurine treatment. Interestingly, the exposure of manganese led to a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity and an evidently decrease in the choline acetyltransferase activity, which were partially restored by the addition of taurine. Additionally, we identified 9 differentially expressed proteins between the rat hippocampus treated by manganese and the control or the manganese plus taurine in the proteomic analysis using the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Most of these proteins play a role in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and neuron synapse. Conclusions In summary, taurine restores the activity of AChE and ChAT, which are critical for the regulation of acetylcholine. We have identified seven differentially expressed proteins specifically induced by manganese and two proteins induced by taurine from the rat hippocampus. Our results support that taurine improves the impaired learning and memory ability caused by excessive exposure of manganese. PMID:24885898

  17. Drebrin and cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lina; Li, Yun; Wang, Rong

    2015-12-01

    The kinetics of cytoskeletal networks, with actin as a key factor, play a key role in regulating the morphology and function of dendritic spines. Drebrin is a neuron growth and brain development-related actin-binding protein and is present in 70% of the dendritic spines of excitatory synapses. It regulates the development and formation of dendritic spines and well-developed dendritic spines pave the way for presynaptic elements. Well-developed and mature synapses are prerequisite for maintaining nervous system physiology. Abnormal morphology of dendritic spines and loss of synapses are seen in many neurologic diseases associated with cognitive decline. However, the mechanisms governing these pathologic changes and their correlation with drebrin remain unclear. Exploring the relationship between drebrin and cognitive function may provide insight into the early prevention of cognitive impairment and in the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26123582

  18. The Relationship Between Diabetic Retinopathy and Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne R.; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Amiel, Stephanie; Forbes, Angus

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have shown an increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with diabetes. An association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal microvasculature disease and cognitive impairment has been reported as potential evidence for a microvascular component to the cognitive impairment. It was hypothesized that severity of DR would be associated with cognitive impairment in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Three hundred eighty patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a population-based eye screening program and grouped by severity of DR as follows: no/mild DR (n = 252) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 128). Each participant underwent psychosocial assessment; depression screening; ophthalmic and physical examination, including blood assays; and cognitive assessment with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Mini-Cog. General linear modeling was used to examine severity of DR and cognitive impairment, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS Severity of DR demonstrated an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment (fully adjusted R2 = 0.415, P < 0.001). Ethnicity contributed most to the variance observed (16%) followed by education (7.3%) and retinopathy status (6.8%). The no/mild DR group had lower cognitive impairment scores on ACE-R (adjusted mean ± SE 77.0 ± 1.9) compared with the PDR group (82.5 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). The MMSE cutoff scores showed that 12% of the no/mild DR group (n = 31) had positive screening results for dementia or significant cognitive impairment compared with 5% in the PDR group (n = 6). CONCLUSIONS Patients with minimal DR demonstrated more cognitive impairment than those with advanced DR. Therefore, the increased prevalence of cognitive impairment in diabetes may be associated with factors other than evident retinal microvascular disease. PMID:23633523

  19. Hearing aid fitting in older persons with hearing impairment: the influence of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss on hearing aid benefit

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Hartmut; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin; Margolf-Hackl, Sabine; Kießling, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss with clinically assessed hearing aid benefit in older hearing-impaired persons. Methods Hearing aid benefit was assessed using objective measures regarding speech recognition in quiet and noisy environments as well as a subjective measure reflecting everyday situations captured using a standardized questionnaire. A broad range of general cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and intelligence were determined using different neuropsychological tests. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the outcome of the neuropsychological tests as well as age and hearing loss as independent variables and the benefit measures as dependent variables. Thirty experienced older hearing aid users with typical age-related hearing impairment participated. Results Most of the benefit measures revealed that the participants obtained significant improvement with their hearing aids. Regression models showed a significant relationship between a fluid intelligence measure and objective hearing aid benefit. When individual hearing thresholds were considered as an additional independent variable, hearing loss was the only significant contributor to the benefit models. Lower cognitive capacity – as determined by the fluid intelligence measure – was significantly associated with greater hearing loss. Subjective benefit could not be predicted by any of the variables considered. Conclusion The present study does not give evidence that hearing aid benefit is critically associated with cognitive function in experienced hearing aid users. However, it was found that lower fluid intelligence scores were related to higher hearing thresholds. Since greater hearing loss was associated with a greater objective benefit, these results strongly support the advice of using hearing aids regardless of age and cognitive function to counter hearing loss and the adverse effects of age-related hearing impairment. Still, individual cognitive capacity might be relevant for hearing aid benefit during an initial phase of hearing aid provision if acclimatization has not yet taken place. PMID:25709417

  20. A Meta-Analysis of the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity.

    PubMed

    Diener, Marc J; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Shaffer, Seth A; Sexton, James E

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity. Search procedures yielded 13 independent samples (total N = 1402, average n = 108, standard deviation = 90) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Inter-rater reliability analyses demonstrated that coding of effect sizes and moderator variables was completed with good to excellent reliability. Results indicated that higher EII scores were associated with greater psychiatric severity, with an overall weighted effect size of r = 0.29, p = 0.000002 (95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.40), supporting the EII's validity as a measure of psychological impairment. Publication bias analyses did not indicate any significant cause for concern regarding the results. The data were demonstrably heterogeneous (Q = 56.82, p = 0.0000001), and results of post-hoc tests indicated that effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via researcher ratings were significantly larger than any of the following: effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via clinician ratings, informant ratings, information about level of treatment or placement status or self-report ratings (p's = 0.0005, 0.003, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). In addition, there was a trend for effect sizes based on performance-based measures to be larger than those based on information about level of treatment or placement status (p = 0.098) as well as those based on self-report measures (p = 0.076). Other moderator analyses were non-significant (p 's > 0.10). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: • The Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) demonstrated validity in measuring psychiatric severity across a range of normative, outpatient, residential, and inpatient samples. • The degree of the EII's validity in assessing psychiatric severity compared favorably to the overall validity of the Rorschach and the MMPI. • The EII appears to be most valid in capturing psychiatric severity as measured by researcher ratings of social competency or estimated ego impairment. PMID:20941796

  1. A Human Alcohol Self-Administration Paradigm to Model Individual Differences in Impaired Control over Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Nogueira, Christine; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an alcohol self-administration paradigm to model individual differences in impaired control. The paradigm includes moderate drinking guidelines meant to model limits on alcohol consumption, which are typically exceeded by people with impaired control. Possible payment reductions provided a disincentive for excessive drinking. Alcohol use above the guideline, despite possible pay reductions, was considered to be indicative of impaired control. Heavy-drinking 21–25 year-olds (N = 39) were randomized to an experimental condition including the elements of the impaired control paradigm or to a free-drinking condition without these elements. Alcohol self-administration was compared between these two conditions to establish the internal validity of the experimental paradigm. In both conditions, participants self-administered beer and non-alcoholic beverages for 3 hours in a bar setting with 1–3 other participants. Experimental condition participants self-administered significantly fewer beers and drank to lower blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) on average than those in the free-drinking condition. Experimental condition participants were more likely than free-drinking condition participants to intersperse non-alcoholic beverages with beer and to drink at a slower pace. Although experimental condition participants drank more moderately than those in the free-drinking condition overall, their range of drinking was considerable (BAC range = .024–.097) with several participants drinking excessively. A lower initial subjective response to alcohol and earlier age of alcohol use onset were associated with greater alcohol self-administration in the experimental condition. Given the variability in response, the impaired control laboratory paradigm may have utility for preliminary tests of novel interventions in future studies and for identifying individual differences in problem-drinking risk. PMID:23937598

  2. Human skeletal muscle metabolic economy in vivo: effects of contraction intensity, age, and mobility impairment

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Anita D.; Tonson, Anne; Larsen, Ryan G.; DeBlois, Jacob P.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that older muscle has greater metabolic economy (ME) in vivo than young, in a manner dependent, in part, on contraction intensity. Twenty young (Y; 24 ± 1 yr, 10 women), 18 older healthy (O; 73 ± 2, 9 women) and 9 older individuals with mild-to-moderate mobility impairment (OI; 74 ± 1, 7 women) received stimulated twitches (2 Hz, 3 min) and performed nonfatiguing voluntary (20, 50, and 100% maximal; 12 s each) isometric dorsiflexion contractions. Torque-time integrals (TTI; Nm·s) were calculated and expressed relative to maximal fat-free muscle cross-sectional area (cm2), and torque variability during voluntary contractions was calculated as the coefficient of variation. Total ATP cost of contraction (mM) was determined from flux through the creatine kinase reaction, nonoxidative glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and used to calculate ME (Nm·s·cm?2·mM ATP?1). While twitch torque relaxation was slower in O and OI compared with Y (P ? 0.001), twitch TTI, ATP cost, and economy were similar across groups (P ? 0.15), indicating comparable intrinsic muscle economy during electrically induced isometric contractions in vivo. During voluntary contractions, normalized TTI and total ATP cost did not differ significantly across groups (P ? 0.20). However, ME was lower in OI than Y or O at 20% and 50% MVC (P ? 0.02), and torque variability was greater in OI than Y or O at 20% MVC (P ? 0.05). These results refute the hypothesis of greater muscle ME in old age, and provide support for lower ME in impaired older adults as a potential mechanism or consequence of age-related reductions in functional mobility. PMID:25163917

  3. Voice onset time in Swedish children with phonological impairment.

    PubMed

    Lundeborg, Inger; Nordin, Elin; Zeipel-Stjerna, Marie; McAllister, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Mastering spatial and temporal co-ordination in speech production is a challenge for children. Voice onset time (VOT) reflects timing in speech. The objective was to study VOT in Swedish children with a diagnosed phonological impairment and compare results with normative data. Thus 38 children, aged 4-11 years, in three age-groups were audio-recorded when producing minimal pairs with the plosives /p b t d k g/. Waveforms and spectrograms were analysed. Results show that children with phonological impairment produced plosives with deviant VOT values and greater variability compared to normative data. No developmental trend was seen with increasing age. Also, no relationship was found between VOT values and degree of impairment measured by percentage phonemes correct. Furthermore no relation was found between number of errors on auditory discrimination of nine minimal pairs with the different plosives and number of deviant VOT. Findings were interpreted as displaying motor co-ordination difficulties. PMID:24992946

  4. Chronic stress impairs collateral blood flow recovery in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Sood, Subeena; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Jhamnani, Sunny; Aghili, Nima; Nashin, Hajra; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Epstein, Stephen E; Burnett, Mary Susan

    2014-11-01

    Chronic stress is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Aging is also associated with vascular dysfunction. We hypothesize that chronic stress accelerates collateral dysfunction in old mice. Mice were subjected to either chronic social defeat (CSD) or chronic cold stress (CCS). The CSD mice were housed in a box inside an aggressor's cage and exposed to the aggressor. The CCS group was placed in iced water. After chronic stress, mice underwent femoral artery ligation (FAL) and flow recovery was measured. For the CSD group, appearance and use scores of the foot and a behavioral test were performed. CSD impaired collateral flow recovery after FAL. Further, stressed mice had greater ischemic damage, impaired foot function, and altered behavior. The CCS mice also showed impaired collateral flow recovery. Chronic stress causes hind limb collateral dysfunction in old mice, a conclusion reinforced by the fact that two types of stress produced similar changes. PMID:25315467

  5. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  6. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  7. Preventing Impaired Driving Opportunities and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested. PMID:22330222

  8. Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence with Reading Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Two family aggregation studies involving 25 children (ages 5-10) with specific language impairment (SLI) report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments and reading impairments. Results indicate that when language impairments occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with reading impairments.…

  9. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, Serge; Pascolini, Donatella; Etya'ale, Daniel; Kocur, Ivo; Pararajasegaram, Ramachandra; Pokharel, Gopal P.; Mariotti, Silvio P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma. PMID:15640920

  10. Inter-Individual Differences in Neurobehavioural Impairment following Sleep Restriction Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm Phase

    PubMed Central

    Sletten, Tracey L.; Segal, Ahuva Y.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sleep restriction is associated with decrements in daytime alertness and neurobehavioural performance, there are considerable inter-individual differences in the degree of impairment. This study examined the effects of short-term sleep restriction on neurobehavioural performance and sleepiness, and the associations between individual differences in impairments and circadian rhythm phase. Healthy adults (n = 43; 22 M) aged 22.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD) years maintained a regular 8:16 h sleep:wake routine for at least three weeks prior to laboratory admission. Sleep opportunity was restricted to 5 hours time-in-bed at home the night before admission and 3 hours time-in-bed in the laboratory, aligned by wake time. Hourly saliva samples were collected from 5.5 h before until 5 h after the pre-laboratory scheduled bedtime to assess dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) as a marker of circadian phase. Participants completed a 10-min auditory Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and had slow eye movements (SEM) measured by electrooculography two hours after waking. We observed substantial inter-individual variability in neurobehavioural performance, particularly in the number of PVT lapses. Increased PVT lapses (r = -0.468, p < 0.01), greater sleepiness (r = 0.510, p < 0.0001), and more slow eye movements (r = 0.375, p = 0.022) were significantly associated with later DLMO, consistent with participants waking at an earlier circadian phase. When the difference between DLMO and sleep onset was less than 2 hours, individuals were significantly more likely to have at least three attentional lapses the following morning. This study demonstrates that the phase of an individual’s circadian system is an important variable in predicting the degree of neurobehavioural performance impairment in the hours after waking following sleep restriction, and confirms that other factors influencing performance decrements require further investigation. PMID:26043207

  11. Inhalation of the nerve gas sarin impairs ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Jianguo; Xu Fadi Campen, Matthew J.; Zhang Cancan; Pena-Philippides, Juan C.; Sopori, Mohan L.

    2008-11-01

    Sarin, a highly toxic nerve gas, is believed to cause bronchoconstriction and even death primarily through respiratory failure; however, the mechanism underlying the respiratory failure is not fully understood. The goals of this study were to ascertain whether sarin affects baseline ventilation (V{sub E}) and V{sub E} chemoreflexes as well as airway resistance and, if so, whether these changes are reversible. Four groups of F344 rats were exposed to vehicle (VEH) or sarin at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.0 mg h m{sup -3} (SL, SM, and SH, respectively). V{sub E} and V{sub E} responses to hypercapnia (7% CO{sub 2}) or hypoxia (10% O{sub 2}) were measured by plethysmography at 2 h and 1, 2, and 5 days after VEH or sarin exposure. Total pulmonary resistance (R{sub L}) also was measured in anesthetized VEH- and SH-exposed animals 2 h after exposure. Our results showed that within 2 h after exposure 11% of the SM- and 52% of the SH- exposed groups died. Although the SM and SH significantly decreased hypercapnic and hypoxic V{sub E} to similar levels (64 and 69%), SH induced greater respiratory impairment, characterized by lower baseline V{sub E} (30%; P < 0.05), and total loss of the respiratory frequency response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. V{sub E} impairment recovered within 1-2 days after sarin exposure; interestingly, SH did not significantly affect baseline R{sub L}. Moreover, sarin induced body tremors that were unrelated to the changes in the V{sub E} responses. Thus, LC{sub 50} sarin causes a reversible impairment of V{sub E} that is not dependent on the sarin-induced body tremors and not associated with changes in R{sub L}.

  12. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  13. Why is greater medication adherence associated with better outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies found an association of greater adherence to placebo medication with better outcomes. The present study tested whether this association was explained by any of the following factors: 1) adherence to other medications, 2) healthcare behaviors, 3) disease risk, or 4) predicted degree of adherence. Data included information on more than 800 risk factors from 27,347 subjects in two randomized controlled trials of hormone therapy in the Women's Health Initiative. Results Greater adherence to placebo was not associated with colon cancer but was substantially and significantly associated with several diverse outcomes: death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and breast cancer. Adherence to hormone therapy was only weakly associated with outcomes. The WHI risk factors only poorly predicted degree of adherence, R2 < 4%. No underlying factors accounted for the association between placebo adherence and outcome. Conclusion The results suggest that adherence to placebo is a marker for important risk factors that were not measured by WHI. Once identified these risk factors may be used to increase the validity of observational studies of medical treatment by reducing unmeasured confounding. PMID:23375106

  14. The role of carotid stenosis in vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Rao, R

    2002-11-15

    As the contribution of carotid stenosis to cognitive impairment still remains unclear, neuropsychological function and soft neurological signs were examined in patients aged 65 and over. Twenty-five patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (CS) of 75% or more were compared with 25 patients with first anterior circulation stroke, 25 with peripheral vascular disease and 25 healthy controls. All patients were assessed using CAMCOG (Cambridge Cognitive Examination), tests examining frontal lobe function (Behavioural Dyscontrol Scale [BDYS], Trail-Making Tests A and B, Controlled Word Association Test) and a scale for primitive reflexes (Frontal Release Signs Scale). Patients with symptomatic CS showed greater global impairment on CAMCOG and more severe impairment in frontal lobe function than controls. Those patients scoring less than 15 on the BDYS were more likely to have experienced transient ischemic attacks (TIA) for 5 or more years. Frontal lobe dysfunction, suicidal thinking and age were all independent predictors of global cognitive impairment. Mean number of frontal release signs was higher in patients with CS than in controls, with a higher proportion of patients showing all release signs except glabellar, paratonia and snout reflexes. The study is limited by small numbers and the absence of brain imaging, but provides some evidence for an association between severe carotid stenosis and neuropsychological impairment. The presence of clinically 'silent' cerebrovascular disease affecting frontal lobe function may be missed in routine clinical practice. PMID:12417366

  15. Genetic Risk Score Predicts Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wollam, Mariegold E.; Weinstein, Andrea M.; Saxton, Judith A.; Morrow, Lisa; Snitz, Beth; Fowler, Nicole R.; Suever Erickson, Barbara L.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. A family history of Alzheimer's disease is a significant risk factor for its onset, but the genetic risk associated with possessing multiple risk alleles is still poorly understood. Methods. In a sample of 95 older adults (Mean age = 75.1, 64.2% female), we constructed a genetic risk score based on the accumulation of risk alleles in BDNF, COMT, and APOE. A neuropsychological evaluation and consensus determined cognitive status (44 nonimpaired, 51 impaired). Logistic regression was performed to determine whether the genetic risk score predicted cognitive impairment above and beyond that associated with each gene. Results. An increased genetic risk score was associated with a nearly 4-fold increased risk of cognitive impairment (OR = 3.824, P = .013) when including the individual gene polymorphisms as covariates in the model. Discussion. A risk score combining multiple genetic influences may be more useful in predicting late-life cognitive impairment than individual polymorphisms. PMID:26366299

  16. Increased apoptotic neuronal cell death and cognitive impairment at early phase after traumatic brain injury in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Nishida, Shozo; Tsubaki, Masahiro; Mizuguchi, Nobuyuki; Hashimoto, Shigeo; Ito, Akihiko; Satou, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Progressive age-associated increases in cerebral dysfunction have been shown to occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Moreover, levels of neuronal mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes in the aged brain are reduced, resulting in free radical-induced cell death. It was hypothesized that cognitive impairment after TBI in the aged progresses to a greater degree than in younger individuals, and that damage involves neuronal degeneration and death by free radicals. In this study, we investigated the effects of free radicals on neuronal degeneration, cell death, and cognitive impairment in 10-week-old (young group) and 24-month-old rats (aged group) subjected to TBI. Young and aged rats received TBI with a pneumatic controlled injury device. At 1, 3 and 7 days after TBI, immunohistochemistry, lipid peroxidation and behavioral studies were performed. At 1, 3 and 7 days post-TBI, the number of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine-, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-positive cells, and the levels of malondialdehyde around the damaged area after TBI significantly increased in the aged group when compared with the young group (P < 0.05). In addition, the majority of ssDNA-positive cells in both groups co-localized with neuronal cells around the damaged area. There was a significant decrease in the number of surviving neurons and an increase in cognitive impairment after TBI in the aged group when compared with the young group (P < 0.05). These results indicate that following TBI, high levels of free radicals are produced in the aged rat brain, which induces neuronal degeneration and apoptotic cell death around the damaged area, resulting in cognitive impairment. PMID:22374222

  17. Relationship between linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate and impairment of lung function in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuco, Adriana; Medeiros, Wladimir Musetti; Sperling, Milena Pelosi Rizk; de Souza, Aline Soares; Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Arbex, Flávio Ferlin; Neder, José Alberto; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Background In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), functional and structural impairment of lung function can negatively impact heart rate variability (HRV); however, it is unknown if static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity negatively impacts HRV responses. We investigated whether impairment of static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity could be related to HRV indices in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods Sixteen sedentary males with COPD were enrolled in this study. Resting blood gases, static lung volumes, and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were measured. The RR interval (RRi) was registered in the supine, standing, and seated positions (10 minutes each) and during 4 minutes of a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (M-RSA). Delta changes (?supine-standing and ?supine-M-RSA) of the standard deviation of normal RRi, low frequency (LF, normalized units [nu]) and high frequency (HF [nu]), SD1, SD2, alpha1, alpha2, and approximate entropy (ApEn) indices were calculated. Results HF, LF, SD1, SD2, and alpha1 deltas significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, DLCO, airway resistance, residual volume, inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity ratio, and residual volume/total lung capacity ratio. Significant and moderate associations were also observed between LF/HF ratio versus total gas volume (%), r=0.53; LF/HF ratio versus residual volume, %, r=0.52; and HF versus total gas volume (%), r=?0.53 (P<0.05). Linear regression analysis revealed that ?RRi supine-M-RSA was independently related to DLCO (r=?0.77, r2=0.43, P<0.05). Conclusion Responses of HRV indices were more prominent during M-RSA in moderate to severe COPD. Moreover, greater lung function impairment was related to poorer heart rate dynamics. Finally, impaired lung diffusion capacity was related to an altered parasympathetic response in these patients. PMID:26316739

  18. Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. The Pakistan national blindness and visual impairment survey

    PubMed Central

    Dineen, B; Bourne, R R A; Jadoon, Z; Shah, S P; Khan, M A; Foster, A; Gilbert, C E; Khan, M D

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the causes of blindness and visual impairment in adults (?30 years old) in Pakistan, and to explore socio?demographic variations in cause. Methods A multi?stage, stratified, cluster random sampling survey was used to select a nationally representative sample of adults. Each subject was interviewed, had their visual acuity measured and underwent autorefraction and fundus/optic disc examination. Those with a visual acuity of <6/12 in either eye underwent a more detailed ophthalmic examination. Causes of visual impairment were classified according to the accepted World Health Organization (WHO) methodology. An exploration of demographic variables was conducted using regression modeling. Results A sample of 16?507 adults (95.5% of those enumerated) was examined. Cataract was the most common cause of blindness (51.5%; defined as <3/60 in the better eye on presentation) followed by corneal opacity (11.8%), uncorrected aphakia (8.6%) and glaucoma (7.1%). Posterior capsular opacification accounted for 3.6% of blindness. Among the moderately visually impaired (<6/18 to ?6/60), refractive error was the most common cause (43%), followed by cataract (42%). Refractive error as a cause of severe visual impairment/blindness was significantly higher in rural dwellers than in urban dwellers (odds ratio (OR) 3.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 11.7). Significant provincial differences were also identified. Overall we estimate that 85.5% of causes were avoidable and that 904?000 adults in Pakistan have cataract (<6/60) requiring surgical intervention. Conclusions This comprehensive survey provides reliable estimates of the causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. Despite expanded surgical services, cataract still accounts for over half of the cases of blindness in Pakistan. One in eight blind adults has visual loss from sequelae of cataract surgery. Services for refractive errors need to be further expanded and integrated into eye care services, particularly those serving rural populations. PMID:17229806

  19. Mediators and moderators of functional impairment in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Storch, Eric A; Wu, Monica S; Small, Brent J; Crawford, Erika A; Lewin, Adam B; Horng, Betty; Murphy, Tanya K

    2014-04-01

    The current study examined correlates, moderators, and mediators of functional impairment in 98 treatment-seeking adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants completed or were administered measures assessing obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, functional impairment, resistance against symptoms, interference due to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms, insight, and anxiety sensitivity. Results indicated that all factors, except insight into symptoms, were significantly correlated with functional impairment. The relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and functional impairment was not moderated by patient insight, resistance against obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or anxiety sensitivity. Mediational analyses indicated that obsessive-compulsive symptom severity mediated the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and obsessive-compulsive related impairment. Indeed, anxiety sensitivity may play an important contributory role in exacerbating impairment through increases in obsessive-compulsive symptom severity. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and obsessive-compulsive related impairment. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:24342055

  20. Psychiatric Issues in Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aarsland, Dag; Taylor, John-Paul; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as depression, hallucinations and apathy commonly occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and have major clinical consequences including a negative impact on quality of life. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and treatment issues of NPS in PD and related disorders in the perspective of cognitive impairment, focusing on depression, anxiety, visual hallucinations, apathy, sleep disturbances, impulse control disorder and non-motor fluctuations. The majority of NPS are more common in PD patients with dementia, possibly related to shared underlying pathologies. Recent studies also suggest that NPS are associated with mild cognitive impairment in PD, in particular with the amnestic type. Accurate diagnosis of NPS is important but can be difficult, due to overlapping symptoms and similar appearance of symptoms of motor symptoms of parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, mood disorders and apathy. There are few systematic studies focusing on the management of NPS in PD with cognitive impairment. PMID:24757113

  1. Language Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis 

    E-print Network

    Stahl, Hillary

    2011-11-23

    There is little research on language involvement in MS, though the studies that do exist indicate a wide variety of language impairments. No comprehensive study has yet been done investigating MS abilities in all the major ...

  2. Short-term urinary flow impairment deregulates PAX2 and PCNA expression and cell survival in fetal sheep kidneys.

    PubMed Central

    Attar, R.; Quinn, F.; Winyard, P. J.; Mouriquand, P. D.; Foxall, P.; Hanson, M. A.; Woolf, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    Renal malformations account for most children with chronic renal failure and are often associated with urinary tract anatomical obstruction. We examined cellular and molecular events after experimental urinary flow impairment in fetal sheep. Ovine gestation lasts 144 to 150 days with the metanephros appearing at 27 to 30 days. We generated complete unilateral ureteric anatomical obstruction at 90 days when a few layers of glomeruli had formed. After 10 days, we recorded ureteric and pelvic dilatation with renal parenchymal weight greater than contralateral organs or those from unoperated fetuses. The nephrogenic cortex was replaced by disorganized cells separated by edema and prominent vascular spaces. Cortical histology was dominated by cysts associated with malformed glomerular tufts. Cystic epithelia expressed PAX2, a growth-stimulating transcription factor down-regulated during normal maturation, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a surrogate marker of cycling cells. Detection of apoptosis using propidium iodide and in situ end labeling showed a significant increase of the point prevalence of death in the obstructed cortex. Hence, PAX2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression as well as death were deregulated, as we previously reported in human kidney malformations. Medullary collecting ducts and loops of Henle were also disrupted, correlating with impaired urinary dilution and sodium reabsorption. Therefore, complex aberrations of morphogenesis, gene expression, cell turnover, and urine composition occur relatively early after experimental impairment of fetal urinary flow. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:9588891

  3. My Speech Problem, Your Listening Problem, and My Frustration: The Experience of Living with Childhood Speech Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Jane; McLeod, Sharynne; McAllister, Lindy; Harrison, Linda J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to understand the experience of speech impairment (speech sound disorders) in everyday life as described by children with speech impairment and their communication partners. Method: Interviews were undertaken with 13 preschool children with speech impairment (mild to severe) and 21 significant others…

  4. Mediated and Moderated Effects of Neurocognitive Impairment on Outcomes of Treatment for Substance Dependence and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Matthew J.; Tate, Susan R.; Granholm, Eric; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurocognitive impairment has not consistently predicted substance use treatment outcomes but has been linked to proximal mediators of outcome. These indirect effects have not been examined in adults with substance dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. We examined mediators and moderators of the effects of neurocognitive impairment on substance use among adults in treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression (MDD). Method Participants were veterans (N =197, mean age = 49.3 years, 90% male, 75% Caucasian) in a trial of two group interventions for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD. Measures examined here included intake neurocognitive assessments and percent days drinking (PDD), percent days using drugs (PDDRG), self-efficacy, 12-step affiliation, and depressive symptoms measured every 3 months from intake to the 18-month follow-up. Results Greater intake neurocognitive impairment predicted lower self-efficacy, lower 12-step affiliation, and greater depression severity, and these time-varying variables mediated the effects of impairment on future PDD and PDDRG. The prospective effects of 12-step affiliation on future PDD were greater for those with greater neurocognitive impairment. Impairment also interacted with depression to moderate the effects of 12-step affiliation and self-efficacy on PDD. Adults with greater impairment and currently severe depression had the strongest associations between 12-step affiliation/self-efficacy and future drinking. Conclusions Greater neurocognitive impairment may lead to poorer outcomes from group therapy for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD due to compromised change in therapeutic processes. Distal factors such as neurocognitive impairment can interact with dynamic risk factors to modulate the association between therapeutic processes and future drinking outcomes. PMID:24588403

  5. Neurocognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Lal, Chitra; Strange, Charlie; Bachman, David

    2012-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder with far-reaching health implications. One of the major consequences of OSAS is an impact on neurocognitive functioning. Several studies have shown that OSAS has an adverse effect on inductive and deductive reasoning, attention, vigilance, learning, and memory. Neurocognitive impairment can be measured objectively with tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, the Steer Clear Performance Test, and tests of repetitive finger tapping. In children, OSAS may cause attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in addition to behavioral problems and learning disabilities. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include increasing age, male sex, apolipoprotein E ?4 allele positivity, current cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, Down syndrome, hypothyroidism, significant alcohol consumption, stroke, and the use of psychoactive medications. At a cellular level, OSAS likely causes cognitive impairment through intermittent hypoxia, hormonal imbalance, and/or systemic inflammation, either independently or via the resultant endothelial dysfunction that occurs. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be measured and minimized in all studies of neurocognitive impairment. Recent studies have used functional and structural neuroimaging to delineate the brain areas affected in patients with OSAS with neurocognitive dysfunction. A common finding in several of these studies is decreased hippocampal volume. Other affected brain areas include the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain, which show focal reductions in gray matter. These changes can be reversed at least partially with the use of CPAP, which highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment of OSAS. The currently available data in this field are quite limited, and more research is needed. PMID:22670023

  6. Mild cognitive impairment in clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J.S.; Karlawish, J.H.; Uhlmann, W.R.; Petersen, R.C.; Green, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess how neurologists view mild cognitive impairment (MCI) as a clinical diagnosis and how they treat patients with mild cognitive symptoms. Methods: Members of the American Academy of Neurology with an aging, dementia, or behavioral neurology practice focus were surveyed by self-administered questionnaire. Results: Survey respondents were 420 providers (response rate 48%), and 88% reported at least monthly encounters with patients experiencing mild cognitive symptoms. Most respondents recognize MCI as a clinical diagnosis (90%) and use its diagnostic code for billing purposes (70%). When seeing these patients, most respondents routinely provide counseling on physical (78%) and mental exercise (75%) and communicate about dementia risk (63%); fewer provide information on support services (27%) or a written summary of findings (15%). Most (70%) prescribe cholinesterase inhibitors at least sometimes for this population, with memantine (39%) and other agents (e.g., vitamin E) prescribed less frequently. Respondents endorsed several benefits of a diagnosis of MCI: 1) involving the patient in planning for the future (87%); 2) motivating risk reduction activities (85%); 3) helping with financial planning (72%); and 4) prescribing medications (65%). Some respondents noted drawbacks, including 1) too difficult to diagnose (23%); 2) better described as early Alzheimer disease (21%); and 3) diagnosis can cause unnecessary worry (20%). Conclusions: Patients with mild cognitive symptoms are commonly seen by neurologists, who view MCI as a useful diagnostic category. Information and treatments provided to patients with MCI vary significantly, suggesting a need for practice guidelines and further research on clinical decision-making with this population. GLOSSARY AAMI = age-associated memory impairment; AAN = American Academy of Neurology; AD = Alzheimer disease; CIND = cognitive impairment, no dementia; DSM-V = Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition; MCI = mild cognitive impairment; NOS = not otherwise specified. PMID:20679636

  7. Smoking Linked to Greater Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Smoking Linked to Greater Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Study also found continual exposure to secondhand smoke ... have a much greater risk for type 2 diabetes than those who never smoked, and the same ...

  8. Loss of molars early in life develops behavioral lateralization and impairs hippocampus-dependent recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Using senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), we examined whether reduced mastication from a young age affects hippocampal-dependent cognitive function. We anesthetized male SAMP8 mice at 8 weeks of age and extracted all maxillary molar teeth of half the animals. The other animals were treated similarly, except that molar teeth were not extracted. At 12 and 24 weeks of age, their general behavior and their ability to recognize novel objects were tested using the open-field test (OFT) and the object-recognition test (ORT), respectively. Results The body weight of molarless mice was reduced significantly compared to that of molar-intact mice after the extraction and did not recover to the weight of age-matched molar-intact mice throughout the experimental period. At 12 weeks of age, molarless mice showed significantly greater locomotor activity in the OFT than molar-intact mice. However, the ability of molarless mice to discriminate a novel object in the ORT was impaired compared to that of molar-intact mice. The ability of both molarless and molar-intact SAMP8 mice to recognize objects was impaired at 24 weeks of age. These results suggest that molarless SAMP8 mice develop a deficit of cognitive function earlier than molar-intact SAMP8 mice. Interestingly, both at 12 and 24 weeks of age, molarless mice showed a lateralized preference of object location in the encoding session of the ORT, in which two identical objects were presented. Their lateralized preference of object location was positively correlated with the rightward turning-direction preference, which reached statistical significance at 24 weeks of age. Conclusions Loss of masticatory function in early life causes malnutrition and chronic stress and impairs the ability to recognize novel objects. Hyperactivation and lateralized rotational behavior are commonly observed with dysfunction of the dopaminergic system, therefore, reduced masticatory function may deplete the mesolimbic and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems to impair the cognitive functions of selective attention and recognition memory in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. PMID:24387332

  9. Specific sleepiness symptoms are indicators of performance impairment during sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mark E; Jackson, Melinda L; Berlowitz, David; O'Donoghue, Fergal; Swann, Philip; Westlake, Justine; Wilkinson, Vanessa; Pierce, Rob J

    2014-01-01

    Drivers are not always aware that they are becoming impaired as a result of sleepiness. Using specific symptoms of sleepiness might assist with recognition of drowsiness related impairment and help drivers judge whether they are safe to drive a vehicle, however this has not been evaluated. In this study, 20 healthy volunteer professional drivers completed two randomized sessions in the laboratory - one under 24h of acute sleep deprivation, and one with alcohol. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and a 30min simulated driving task (AusEdTM) were performed every 3-4h in the sleep deprivation session, and at a BAC of 0.00% and 0.05% in the alcohol session, while electroencephalography (EEG) and eye movements were recorded. After each test session, drivers completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the Sleepiness Symptoms Questionnaire (SSQ), which includes eight specific sleepiness and driving performance symptoms. A second baseline session was completed on a separate day by the professional drivers and in an additional 20 non-professional drivers for test-retest reliability. There was moderate test-retest agreement on the SSQ (r=0.59). Significant correlations were identified between individual sleepiness symptoms and the KSS score (r values 0.50-0.74, p<0.01 for all symptoms). The frequency of all SSQ items increased during sleep deprivation (?(2) values of 28.4-80.2, p<0.01 for all symptoms) and symptoms were related to increased subjective sleepiness and performance deterioration. The symptoms "struggling to keep your eyes open", "difficulty maintaining correct speed", "reactions were slow" and "head dropping down" were most closely related to increased alpha and theta activity on EEG (r values 0.49-0.59, p<0.001) and "nodding off to sleep" and "struggling to keep your eyes open" were related to slow eye movements (r values 0.67 and 0.64, p<0.001). Symptoms related to visual disturbance and impaired driving performance were most accurate at detecting severely impaired driving performance (AUC on ROC curve of 0.86-0.91 for detecting change in lateral lane position greater than the change at a BAC of 0.05%). Individual sleepiness symptoms are related to impairment during acute sleep deprivation and might be able to assist drivers in recognizing their own sleepiness and ability to drive safely. PMID:24125802

  10. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements....

  11. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements....

  12. Aalborg Universitet When Value is Greater than Money

    E-print Network

    Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    Aalborg Universitet When Value is Greater than Money Prentow, Rasmus Veiergang; Steiniche, Rasmus is Greater than Money: a Micropayment System in Uganda. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference from vbn.aau.dk on: november 29, 2015 #12;When Value is Greater than Money: a Micropayment System

  13. Could language deficits really differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from mild Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Tsantali, E; Economidis, D; Tsolaki, M

    2013-01-01

    Naming abilities seem to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, though MCI individuals tend to exhibit greater impairments in category fluency. In this study we: (1) detect language deficits of amnestic MCIs (aMCIs) and mild AD (mAD) participants and present their language performance (the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination - BDAE scores) according to educational level, (2) study the diagnostic value of language deficits according to the cognitive state of the participants. One hundred nineteen participants, 38 normal controls (NC), 28 aMCIs and 53 mADs, were recruited randomly as outpatients of 2 clinical departments and administered clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging assessment. Language abilities were assessed by the adapted Greek edition of the BDAE (2nd edition). Our results indicate that verbal fluency, auditory, reading comprehension and narrative ability are the main language abilities to be affected in mADs, although they are almost intact in NCs and less vulnerable in aMCIs. Narrative ability seems to be significantly impaired in mADs but not so in aMCIs. Six language subtests of the BDAE assess safely the above deficits. This brief version of the BDAE discriminated mADs from the other 2 groups 92.5% of the time, NCs 86.8% and aMCI 67.9% of the time in order to save time and to be accurate in clinical practice. PMID:23628238

  14. Impaired sensorimotor gating in unmedicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ahmari, Susanne E; Risbrough, Victoria B; Geyer, Mark A; Simpson, H Blair

    2012-04-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms arise from dysfunction in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. It has therefore been hypothesized that neurophysiological tasks subserved by these circuits should be abnormal in OCD patients. One neurocognitive probe associated with this circuitry is prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. PPI deficits are thought to reflect abnormalities in processing and integration of sensory and motor information. Two prior studies found that OCD patients had PPI deficits at single prepulse (PP) intensities. However, most patients in these studies were taking psychotropic medications at the time of PPI testing, and preclinical studies have demonstrated effects of psychotropic medications on PPI. We examined PPI in 22 unmedicated OCD patients and 22 matched healthy controls at three different PP intensities (74, 78, and 86 dB). OCD patients had significantly less PPI across all three PP intensities compared with controls. Exploratory analyses indicated that OCD patients with a history of tics had lower levels of PPI. Our results demonstrate that unmedicated OCD patients have impaired sensorimotor gating as measured by PPI. This indicates that PPI deficits are present in OCD patients and are not the result of medication effects. Our findings also suggest that OCD patients with a history of tics may have greater impairment in sensorimotor gating than the general OCD population. Future studies should be designed to examine whether PPI deficits characterize tic-related OCD. PMID:22218093

  15. Measurement of Consensual Accommodation in Vision-impaired Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Veerendranath, Pesala; Donovan, Les; Taneja, Mukesh; Naduvilath, Thomas John; Garrett, Qian; Delgado, Stephanie; Sangwana, Virender S.; Ho, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To measure the accommodative response in unsighted or profoundly vision impaired (PVI) eyes when accommodation is elicited in the fellow, sighted eye. Methods 88 unilaterally unsighted (UPS) and 97 binocularly-sighted (BSS) subjects (10-45 years) were enrolled. Subjects had clear ocular media for auto-refraction and could steadily fixate targets with the sighted eye. For BSS subjects, a long-pass filter was placed in front of one eye to simulate unilateral blindness. Both eyes were measured with a Shin-Nippon auto-refractor while fixating a 4/40 letter at 4 meters and then a N8 letter at 40 cm and at 33 cm. Accommodation was calculated as the difference between distance and near refraction. Results Only subjects with repeatable alignment between measurements were included in the analyses (64 UPS; 95 BSS). Results were analyzed using t-test and a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) including age, sightedness, distance spherical equivalent and accommodation as factors. The t-test found no significant difference between eyes for UPS (p=0.981 at 40 cm and p=0.663 at 33 cm). For BSS, the sighting eye produced statistically significant, but only slightly greater amounts of accommodation than the filtered eye (0.098 D, p=0.002 at 40 cm and 0.189 D, p<0.001 at 33 cm). The GLMM found no difference between BSS and UPS subjects in terms of difference in accommodation between eyes (p=0.128 at 40 cm and p=0.157 at 33 cm). Conclusions The PVI eyes of unilaterally PVI individuals display similar accommodative response to their fellow sighted eyes when accommodation is elicited by near target of up to 3 D to the fellow eye. But the difference in accommodative response between PVI and fellow sighted eye is related to the amount of accommodation elicited. PMID:24901484

  16. Impaired competence for pretense in children with autism: exploring potential cognitive predictors.

    PubMed

    Bigham, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Lack of pretense in children with autism has been explained by a number of theoretical explanations, including impaired mentalising, impaired response inhibition, and weak central coherence. This study aimed to empirically test each of these theories. Children with autism (n = 60) were significantly impaired relative to controls (n = 65) when interpreting pretense, thereby supporting a competence deficit hypothesis. They also showed impaired mentalising and response inhibition, but superior local processing indicating weak central coherence. Regression analyses revealed that mentalising significantly and independently predicted pretense. The results are interpreted as supporting the impaired mentalising theory and evidence against competing theories invoking impaired response inhibition or a local processing bias. The results of this study have important implications for treatment and intervention. PMID:19633941

  17. Impairments in Negative Facial Emotion Recognition in Chinese Schizophrenia Patients Detected With a Newly Designed Task.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuqing; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Huang, Yueqin; Wang, Xiangqun; Wang, Xilin; Zhang, Fuquan; Kwan, Johnny Sheung Him; Chan, Oi Chi; Wang, Zhiren; Ungvari, Gabor S; Correll, Christoph U; Zaroff, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Facial emotion recognition has been found to be impaired in schizophrenia, although overall results have been inconclusive. A new set of facial emotion stimuli with Chinese faces was developed, using static and dynamic avatars, the identification of which were subsequently validated in 562 healthy control subjects. This test was then used to identify facial emotion recognition accuracy in 44 patients with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Overall, patients identified facial emotions significantly worse than healthy controls (p = 0.018) with a significant main effect for type of emotion (p = 0.016). Patients performed significantly worse in fear (p = 0.029) and sadness (p = 0.037), and marginally worse in anger (p = 0.052). No significant differences were evident in contempt (p = 0.254) or happiness (p = 0.943). Regarding error rates of misattribution, patients overidentified contempt (p = 0.035) and sadness (p = 0.01), but not anger, fear, or happiness. Conclusion, patients of Chinese ethnicity with schizophrenia may have significantly greater difficulties identifying negative, but not positive emotions. PMID:26252822

  18. Spontaneous Language Production in Bilingual Parkinson's Disease Patients: Evidence of Greater Phonological, Morphological and Syntactic Impairments in Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Sergio; Tavano, Alessandro; Fabbro, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Nine early non-demented bilingual (L1--Friulian, L2--Italian) patients with Parkinson's disease and nine normal controls matched for age, sex and years of education were studied on a spontaneous language production task. All subjects had acquired L1 from birth in a home environment and L2 at the age of six at school formally. Patients with PD…

  19. Learning-based recovery from perceptual impairment in salt discrimination after permanently altered peripheral gustatory input.

    PubMed

    Blonde, Ginger; Jiang, Enshe; Garcea, Mircea; Spector, Alan C

    2010-10-01

    Rats lacking input to the chorda tympani (CT) nerve, a facial nerve branch innervating anterior tongue taste buds, show robust impairments in salt discrimination demonstrating its necessity. We tested the sufficiency of the CT for salt taste discrimination and whether the remaining input provided by the greater superficial petrosal (GSP) nerve, a facial nerve branch innervating palatal taste buds, or by the glossopharyngeal (GL) nerve, innervating posterior tongue taste buds, could support performance after extended postsurgical testing. Rats presurgically trained and tested in a two-response operant task to discriminate NaCl from KCl were subjected to sham surgery or transection of the CT (CTx), GL (GLx), or GSP (GSPx), alone or in combination. While initially reduced postsurgically, performance by rats with an intact GSP after CTx + GLx increased to normal over 6 wk of testing. Rats with CTx + GSPx consistently performed near chance levels. In contrast, rats with GSPx + GLx were behaviorally normal. A subset of rats subjected to sham surgery and exposed to lower concentrations during postsurgical testing emulating decreased stimulus intensity after neurotomy showed no significant impairment. These results demonstrate that CTx changes the perceptual nature of NaCl and/or KCl, leading to severe initial postsurgical impairments in discriminability, but a "new" discrimination can be relearned based on the input of the GSP. Despite losing ?75% of their taste buds, rats are unaffected after GSPx + GLx, demonstrating that the CT is not only necessary, but also sufficient, for maintaining salt taste discrimination, notwithstanding the unlikely contribution of the small percentage of taste receptors innervated by the superior laryngeal nerve. PMID:20554935

  20. Recognition memory impairments caused by false recognition of novel objects.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Lok-Kin; Ryan, Jennifer D; Cowell, Rosemary A; Barense, Morgan D

    2013-11-01

    A fundamental assumption underlying most current theories of amnesia is that memory impairments arise because previously studied information either is lost rapidly or is made inaccessible (i.e., the old information appears to be new). Recent studies in rodents have challenged this view, suggesting instead that under conditions of high interference, recognition memory impairments following medial temporal lobe damage arise because novel information appears as though it has been previously seen. Here, we developed a new object recognition memory paradigm that distinguished whether object recognition memory impairments were driven by previously viewed objects being treated as if they were novel or by novel objects falsely recognized as though they were previously seen. In this indirect, eyetracking-based passive viewing task, older adults at risk for mild cognitive impairment showed false recognition to high-interference novel items (with a significant degree of feature overlap with previously studied items) but normal novelty responses to low-interference novel items (with a lower degree of feature overlap). The indirect nature of the task minimized the effects of response bias and other memory-based decision processes, suggesting that these factors cannot solely account for false recognition. These findings support the counterintuitive notion that recognition memory impairments in this memory-impaired population are not characterized by forgetting but rather are driven by the failure to differentiate perceptually similar objects, leading to the false recognition of novel objects as having been seen before. PMID:23937183

  1. Phonological processing skills in specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Mary; Leitão, Suze; Kane, Robert; Williams, Cori

    2013-10-01

    In order to provide effective intervention for children with specific language impairment (SLI), it is crucial that there is an understanding of the underlying deficit in SLI. This study utilized a battery of phonological processing tasks to compare the phonological processing skills of children with SLI to typically-developing peers matched for age or language. The children with SLI had significantly poorer performance than age-matched peers on measures of phonological representations, phonological awareness, rapid automatized naming, phonological short-term memory, and one measure of working memory. Of particular significance, the SLI group also demonstrated significantly weaker performance than language-matched peers on one measure of phonological representations, and one measure of working memory. The findings provide some support for a phonological processing account of SLI and highlight the utility of using tasks that draw on a comprehensive model of speech processing to profile and consider children's phonological processing skills in detail. PMID:23327452

  2. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  3. Cognitive impairment and driving safety.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J

    2012-11-01

    As the populations of many countries continue to age, cognitive impairment will likely become more common. Individuals with cognitive impairment pose special challenges for families, health professionals, driving safety professionals, and the larger community, particularly if these older adults depend on driving as their primary means of community mobility. It is vital that we continue to extend our knowledge about the driving behavior of individuals' with cognitive impairment, as well as try to develop effective means of screening and assessing these individuals for fitness to drive and help facilitate their transition to non-driving when appropriate. This special issue is intended to provide researchers and practitioners an opportunity to present the most recent research findings on driving-related issues among older adults with cognitive impairment. The issue contains 11 original contributions from seven countries. The topics covered by these papers are: crash risks; screening, assessment, and fitness to drive; driving performance using a driving simulator; and driving behaviors and driving-related decisions of people with cognitive impairments. PMID:22766131

  4. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Signatures of Benzodiazepine-Related Driving Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Bradly T.; Correa, Kelly A.; Brown, Timothy L.; Spurgin, Andrew L.; Stikic, Maja; Johnson, Robin R.; Berka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem worldwide; estimates show that 18–23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; Walsh et al., 2004; NHTSA, 2010). Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one’s driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009). Currently, drug recognition experts (DREs; law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugged driving), have the most difficult time with identifying drivers potentially impaired on central nervous system (CNS) depressants (Smith et al., 2002). The fact that the use of benzodiazepines, a type of CNS depressant, is also associated with the greatest likelihood of causing accidents (Dassanayake et al., 2011), further emphasizes the need to improve research tools in this area which can facilitate the refinement of, or additions to, current assessments of impaired driving. Our laboratories collaborated to evaluate both the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a benzodiazepine, alprazolam, in a driving simulation (miniSimTM). This drive was combined with a neurocognitive assessment utilizing time synched neurophysiology (electroencephalography, ECG). While the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines are well characterized (Rapoport et al., 2009), we hypothesized that, with the addition of real-time neurophysiology and the utilization of simulation and neurocognitive assessment, we could find objective assessments of drug impairment that could improve the detection capabilities of DREs. Our analyses revealed that (1) specific driving conditions were significantly more difficult for benzodiazepine impaired drivers and (2) the neurocognitive tasks’ metrics were able to classify “impaired” vs. “unimpaired” with up to 80% accuracy based on lane position deviation and lane departures. While this work requires replication in larger studies, our results not only identified criteria that could potentially improve the identification of benzodiazepine intoxication by DREs, but also demonstrated the promise for future studies using this approach to improve upon current, real-world assessments of impaired driving. PMID:26635697

  5. Advances in the treatment of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent complication, with significant interindividual variability in clinical symptoms, severity, timing, and neural substrates. Recent studies have focused not only on understanding PD dementia, but also mild cognitive impairment in PD, which may represent a prodromal stage for dementia. In recent years, there have been important advances regarding clinical characterizations, definitions, associated biomarkers, and risk factors for both mild cognitive impairment in PD and PD dementia. However, there is a paucity of effective therapies for cognitive impairment in PD, whether for mild symptoms or for moderate to severe dementia. At present, only rivastigmine is U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for PD dementia, an indication received nearly a decade ago. Given the frequency of PD cognitive impairment and its substantial impact on both patients and families, the lack of available and effective treatments represents a striking gap in the field, especially when compared to the large number of available therapies for PD motor symptoms and complications. Improved symptomatic therapies, as well as potential disease-modifying agents, for PD cognitive impairment are needed. Most therapeutic trials for PD dementia and mild cognitive impairment in PD have focused on drugs developed for and tested in Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, though recent and ongoing trials examine the effects of pharmacological agents affecting other neurotransmitters, as well as nonpharmacological therapies, including mental and physical exercise and neurostimulation. This review summarizes the design and outcomes of trials for PD cognitive impairment published since 2013 and highlights future therapeutic research opportunities and challenges. PMID:26297863

  6. The relationship between greater tuberosity osteopenia and the chronicity of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Cadet, Edwin R; Hsu, Jennifer W; Levine, William N; Bigliani, Louis U; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether a relationship exists between greater tuberosity osteopenia and chronicity of rotator cuff tears. In a retrospective study, anteroposterior radiographs of 28 shoulders in 27 patients who had undergone surgical repair for rotator cuff tears were reviewed. Greater tuberosity osteopenia scores were created using National Institutes of Health digital image software. There was no significant difference in the mean age between patients with minimal to mild rotator cuff tear retraction (63.1 +/- 6.14 years) and patients with moderate to severe rotator cuff tear retraction (63.4 +/- 9.76 years; P = .77). Of the 13 patients with minimal to mild rotator cuff tear retraction, 10 (77%) were women and 3 (23%) were men. Of 14 patients (50%) with moderate to severe rotator cuff tear retraction, 7 were men and 7 were women. The mean greater tuberosity osteopenia score in the 15 patients with moderate to severe retraction (0.48 +/- 0.095) was significantly less than the greater tuberosity osteopenia score in the 13 patients with minimal to mild retraction (0.58 +/- 0.135; P < .05). Furthermore, the mean greater tuberosity osteopenia score in 6 patients with chronic retracted rotator cuff tears (0.48 +/- 0.125) was significantly less than in the 6 patients with acute minimally retracted tears (0.64 +/- 0.119, P < .05). There were significantly greater osteopenic changes in the greater tuberosity in patients with chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. The greater tuberosity osteopenia may affect anchor pullout strength and the healing biology that influences overall rotator cuff repair healing rates. PMID:18036841

  7. Sex-Related Differences in Self-Reported Neurocognitive Impairment among High-Risk Cocaine Users in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Copenhaver, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous research has suggested possible sex-related differences in executive functioning among cocaine users; however, no studies specifically explain sex-related differences in neurocognitive impairment (NCI) among cocaine users receiving clinical care. Knowledge about this association can aid in the development of targeted prevention strategies to reduce adverse health outcomes. This study was designed to examine the sex-related differences in NCI among high-risk cocaine users receiving substance-abuse treatment. METHODS The Neuropsychological Impairment Scale (NIS) was administered to 199 cocaine users (98 men; 101 women), receiving methadone maintainance treatment, to assess self-reported NCI by identifying the patients’ awareness of neuropsychological symptoms. We used T-test comparison to find differences in NCI between men and women and multiple regression analysis to explore the relative contribution of sex to NCI. RESULTS Consistent with prior work, high NCI was evident within this sample, as indicated by high scores on most of the NIS subscales. Women reported greater impairment than men, as evidenced by significantly higher scores on several NIS subscales, after controlling for demographic and other confounding variables. Interestingly, cocaine craving significantly predicted NCI among men but not among women, as suggested by the significant association between cocaine craving and all except one of the NIS subscales. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that cocaine users enter into treatment with a range of NCI – with women having significantly more neurocognitive deficits than men – that may contribute to differential treatment outcomes. This highlights the need to include additional services such as neuropsychological screening and sex-specific treatment programs to optimally reduce adverse health outcomes in these high-risk, cognitively impaired patients. PMID:25861219

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Impairment and Decline Associated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Miyuki; Ogilvie, James M.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Green, Heather J.; Chambers, Suzanne K.; Ownsworth, Tamara; Shum, David H. K.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to quantify the magnitude and nature of the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and performance on a range of cognitive domains among breast cancer patients. A total of 27 studies (14 cross-sectional, 8 both cross-sectional and prospective, and 5 prospective) were included in the analyses, involving 1562 breast cancer patients who had undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and 2799 controls that included breast cancer patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 737 effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies separately and classified into eight cognitive domains. The mean effect sizes varied across cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from ?1.12 to 0.62 and ?0.29 to 1.12, respectively). Each cognitive domain produced small effect sizes for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from ?0.25 to 0.41). Results from cross-sectional studies indicated a significant association between adjuvant chemotherapy and cognitive impairment that held across studies with varied methodological approaches. For prospective studies, results generally indicated that cognitive functioning improved over time after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Greater cognitive impairment was reported in cross-sectional studies comparing chemotherapy groups with healthy control groups. Results suggested that cognitive impairment is present among breast cancer patients irrespective of a history of chemotherapy. Prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of cognitive impairment present both before and after chemotherapy, with comparisons made to participants’ cognitive function prior to diagnosis. Accurate understanding of the effects of chemotherapy is essential to enable informed decisions regarding treatment and to improve quality of life among breast cancer patients. PMID:25806355

  9. The Effect of Early Confirmation of Hearing Loss on the Behaviour in Middle Childhood of Children with Bilateral Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna C.; Law, Catherine M.; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho M.; Kennedy, Colin R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine if the benefit of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on children's receptive language development is associated with fewer behavioural problems. Method: Follow-up of a total population cohort of 120 children with PCHI of moderate or greater severity (greater than or equal to 40 decibels relative…

  10. Validity of Clinically Derived Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index for the lower limbs and evaluate its construct validity for discriminating relevant groups and predictive validity for predicting global postural control over time. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based cohort. Participants InCHIANTI (“Invecchiare in Chianti” or aging in the Chianti area) study participants (N=960; age, 21–91y, 51.8% women). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was derived from baseline performance on clinical tests of pressure sensitivity, vibration sensitivity, proprioception, and graphesthesia. Global postural control was assessed using Frailty and Injuries Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test, time to complete 5 repeated chair stands, and fast walking speed, at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Results In participants without neurologic conditions (n=799), the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was significantly different in age groups classified by decades (P<.001). Compared with participants without prevalent conditions, the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was significantly higher in persons with diabetes (P=.017), peripheral arterial disease (P=.006), and a history of stroke (P<.001). In the overall population (N=960), in the fully adjusted multiple regression models, the Cumulative Somato-sensory Impairment Index independently predicted deterioration in FICSIT scores (P=.002), time for 5 repeated chair stands (P<.001), and fast gait speed (P=.003) at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions The Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index is a valid measure that detects relevant group differences in lower limb somatosensory impairment and is an independent predictor of decline in postural control over 3 years. PMID:20159126

  11. Quality of life and impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Isaksson, A; Ahlstrom, G; Gunnarsson, L

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to describe the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) given immunological treatment and in those not given immunological treatment and to investigate the relationship between impairment and quality of life. Methods: Twenty nine patients given immunological treatment were matched with the same number of patients not given such treatment. Matching variables were sex, Kurtzke's Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), years since diagnosis, and age (total n = 58). The patients were interviewed using the self-reported impairment checklist and they answered two questionnaires on quality of life, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Subjective Estimation of Quality of Life (SQoL). Results: The self-reported impairment checklist captured a more differentiated picture of the patients' symptoms of MS than the EDSS. Health related quality of life was markedly reduced, while the subjective quality of life was less affected. There was a stronger association between self-reported ratings of impairment and health related quality of life on the SF-36 than between impairment and global ratings of quality of life on the SQoL. Subjective quality of life on the SQoL was not directly dependent on impairment expressed in physical limitations. There were no statistically significant differences between the treated and untreated groups. A non-significant trend towards better health related quality of life was found in favour of the treated group with respect to emotional role, physical role, and social function on the SF-36. Conclusions: The self-reported impairment checklist and SF-36 proved to be valuable complements to the well established EDSS in describing the diverse symptoms of MS. Measuring both health related quality of life and subjective wellbeing provides valuable knowledge about the consequences of MS. PMID:15607997

  12. A Study of Impairing Injuries in Real World Crashes Using the Injury Impairment Scale (IIS) and the Predicted Functional Capacity Index (PFCI-AIS)

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Jo; Morris, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The ability to predict impairment outcomes in large databases using a simplified technique allows researchers to focus attention on preventing costly impairing injuries. The dilemma that exists for researchers is to determine which method is the most reliable and valid. This study examines available methods to predict impairment and explores the differences between the IIS and pFCI applied to real world crash injury data. Occupant injury data from the UK Co-operative Crash Injury Study (CCIS) database have been coded using AIS 1990 and AIS 2005. The data have subsequently been recoded using the associated impairment scales namely the Injury Impairment Scale (IIS) and the predicted Functional Capacity Index (pFCI) to determine the predicted impairment levels of injuries at one year post crash. Comparisons between the levels of impairment were made and any differences further explored. Injury data for the period February 2006 to September 2008 from the CCIS database were used in the analysis which involved a dataset of 2,437 occcupants who sustained over 8000 injuries. This study found some differences between the impairment scales for injuries coded to the AIS 1990 and AIS 2005 coding dictionaries. The pFCI predicts 31.5% of injuries to be impairing in AIS 2005, less than the IIS (38.5%) using AIS 1990. Using CCIS data the pFCI predicted that only 6% of the occupants with a coded injury would have an impairing injury compared to 24% of occupants using the IIS. The main body regions identified as having the major differences between the two impairment scales for car occupants were the head and spine. Follow up data were then used for a small number of cases (n=31, lower extremity and whiplash injuries) to examine any differences in predicted impairment versus perceived impairment. These data were selected from a previous study conducted between 2003 and 2006 and identified the discrepancy between predicted impairment and actual perceived impairment as defined by the participant. Overall the work highlights the variaton between the pFCI and IIS and emphasises the importance and need for a single validated impairment scale that can be universally applied. This would allow emphasis to be directed towards preventing injuries that are associated with the most significant impairment outcomes. PMID:20184844

  13. Selenium concentrations in greater scaup and dreissenid mussels during winter on Western lake ontario.

    PubMed

    Ware, L L; Petrie, S A; Badzinski, S S; Bailey, R C

    2011-08-01

    One hypothesis for the decline of the North American greater (Aythya marila) and lesser (A. affinis) scaup population is that contaminant burdens acquired on wintering or staging areas impair reproduction or cause lethal or sublethal health effects. Recent studies have found increased selenium (Se) concentrations in scaup but have focused on the fall and spring staging periods. From January to March 2006 and December to March 2006 and 2007, we analyzed liver tissues collected from greater scaup wintering in western Lake Ontario for 16 trace elements. We also measured Se concentrations in greater scaup blood and Dreissenid mussel tissue. Se was the only trace element that occurred at increased concentrations (>10 ?g/g liver dry weight) in a substantial proportion (99%) of greater scaup livers. We also found that hepatic Se concentrations increased throughout winter and were increased in nearly all birds from January to March, suggesting that accumulation of this trace element occurred soon after their arrival in fall. Se concentrations were similar in male and female birds, but juvenile birds had higher concentrations than did adults. Blood Se concentrations were correlated to liver Se concentrations in 2006 only, suggesting that blood Se concentration is an unreliable predictor of liver concentration. Se in Dreissenid mussels generally decreased with mussel size and did not change throughout winter. Overall, our results suggest that greater scaup wintering on western Lake Ontario acquire sufficiently high Se concentrations to potentially impact their health. Thus, several indicators of health and survival should be examined in relation to Se concentrations in wintering scaup. PMID:21120462

  14. Sulforaphane alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siyoung; Kim, Jisung; Seo, Sang Gwon; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Han, Jung-Soo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jiyoung

    2014-07-01

    Sulforaphane, an organosulfur compound present in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. To determine whether sulforaphane can preserve cognitive function, we examined its effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze test. Sulforaphane (10 or 50mg/kg) was administered to C57BL/6 mice by oral gavage for 14 days (days 1-14), and memory impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (1mg/kg) for 7 days (days 8-14). Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, as indicated by a decreased acetylcholine (ACh) level and an increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Sulforaphane significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment and improved cholinergic system reactivity, as indicated by an increased ACh level, decreased AChE activity, and increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. These effects of sulforaphane on cholinergic system reactivity were confirmed in vitro. Sulforaphane (10 or 20?M) increased the ACh level, decreased the AChE activity, and increased ChAT expression in scopolamine-treated primary cortical neurons. These observations suggest that sulforaphane might exert a significant neuroprotective effect on cholinergic deficit and cognitive impairment. PMID:24836869

  15. Impaired Statistical Learning in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Developmental dyslexia (DD) is commonly thought to arise from phonological impairments. However, an emerging perspective is that a more general procedural learning deficit, not specific to phonological processing, may underlie DD. The current study examined if individuals with DD are capable of extracting statistical regularities across sequences of passively experienced speech and nonspeech sounds. Such statistical learning is believed to be domain-general, to draw upon procedural learning systems, and to relate to language outcomes. Method DD and control groups were familiarized with a continuous stream of syllables or sine-wave tones, the ordering of which was defined by high or low transitional probabilities across adjacent stimulus pairs. Participants subsequently judged two 3-stimulus test items with either high or low statistical coherence as being the most similar to the sounds heard during familiarization. Results As with control participants, the DD group was sensitive to the transitional probability structure of the familiarization materials as evidenced by above-chance performance. However, the performance of participants with DD was significantly poorer than controls across linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. In addition, reading-related measures were significantly correlated with statistical learning performance of both speech and nonspeech material. Conclusion Results are discussed in light of procedural learning impairments among participants with DD. PMID:25860795

  16. Velocity Drives Greater Power Observed During Back Squat Using Cluster Sets.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Kreutzer, Andreas; Jenke, Shane C; Phillips, Melody D; Mitchell, Joel B; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    Oliver, JM, Kreutzer, A, Jenke, SC, Phillips, MD, Mitchell, JB, and Jones, MT. Velocity drives greater power observed during back squat using cluster sets. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 235-243, 2016-This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 179.1 ± 2.2 cm, 84.6 ± 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 ± 1 year, 180.1 ± 1.8 cm, 85.4 ± 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 × 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 × (2 × 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1-3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 ± 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 ± 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power. PMID:26121432

  17. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  18. Self-reported nonrestorative sleep in fibromyalgia – relationship to impairments of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Liedberg, Gunilla M; Björk, Mathilda; Börsbo, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was: 1) to determine variables that might characterize good or bad sleep; and 2) to describe the relationship between sleep, impairment of body functions, personal function factors, and quality of life based on quality of sleep in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods This cross-sectional descriptive study included 224 consecutive patients diagnosed at a specialist center. These patients were mailed a questionnaire concerning sleep, body functions, personal factors, and health-related quality of life. In total, 145 completed questionnaires were collected. Results Using sleep variables (sleep quality, waking up unrefreshed, and tiredness when getting up), we identified two subgroups – the good sleep subgroup and the bad sleep subgroup – of women with FM. These subgroups exhibited significantly different characteristics concerning pain intensity, psychological variables (depressed mood, anxiety, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy), impairments of body functions, and generic and health-related quality of life. The good sleep subgroup reported a significantly better situation, including higher employment/study rate. The bad sleep subgroup reported a greater use of sleep medication. Five variables determined inclusion into either a good sleep or a bad sleep subgroup: pain in the evening, self-efficacy, anxiety, and according to the Short Form health survey role emotional and physical functioning. Conclusion This study found that it was possible to identify two subgroups of women with FM based on quality of sleep variables. The two subgroups differed significantly with respect to pain, psychological factors, impairments of body functions, and perceived quality of life, where the subgroup with bad sleep had a worse situation. PMID:26300656

  19. Correlation between degree of subvoxel spinal cord compression measured with super-resolution tract density imaging and neurological impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Salamon, Noriko; Woodworth, Davis C; Holly, Langston T

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to explore the use of super-resolution tract density images derived from probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography of the spinal cord as an imaging surrogate for microstructural integrity and functional impairment in patients with cervical spondylosis. METHODS Structural MRI and DTI images were collected for 27 patients with cervical spondylosis with (n= 21) and without (n= 6) functional impairment as defined by the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale (mJOA). DTI was performed axially through the site of compression in a total of 20 directions with 10 averages. Probabilistic tractography was performed at 0.5-mm isotropic spatial resolution using the streamline technique combined with constrained spherical deconvolution. The following measurements were calculated for each patient: maximum tract density at the site of compression, average tract density in rostral normal-appearing spinal cord, and the ratio of maximum density to normal density. RESULTS Compared with normal tissue, the site of compression exhibited elevated fiber tract density in all patients, and a higher fiber tract density was also noted in focal areas at the site of compression in patients with functional impairment. There was a strong negative correlation between maximum tract density and mJOA score (R(2)= 0.6324, p < 0.0001) and the ratio of maximum tract density to normal tract density (R(2)= 0.6647, p < 0.0001). When grouped according to severity of neurological impairment (asymptomatic, mJOA score of 18; mild, mJOA score of 15-17; moderate, mJOA score of 11-14; and severe, mJOA score < 11), the results showed a significant difference in the ratio between severe and both no impairment (p= 0.0009) and any impairment (p= 0.036). A ratio of maximum fiber tract density at the site of compression to fiber tract density at C-2 greater than 1.45 had 82% sensitivity and 70% specificity for identifying patients with moderate to severe impairment (ROC AUC= 0.8882, p= 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS These results support the use of DTI as a surrogate for determining spinal cord integrity in patients with cervical spondylosis. Probabilistic tractography provides spinal cord microstructural information that can help discern clinical status in cervical spondylosis patients with varying degrees of neurological impairment. PMID:25746116

  20. Hippocampal ProNGF Signaling Pathways and ?-Amyloid Levels in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mufson, Elliott J.; He, Bin; Nadeem, Muhammad; Perez, Sylvia E.; Counts, Scott E.; Leurgans, Sue; Fritz, Jason; Lah, James; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Wuu, Joanne; Scheff, Stephen W.

    2012-01-01

    Hippocampal precursor of nerve growth factor (proNGF)/NGF signaling occurs in conjunction with ?-amyloid (A?) accumulations in Alzheimer disease (AD). To assess the involvement of this pathway in AD progression, we quantified these proteins and their downstream pathway activators in postmortem tissues from the brains of subjects with no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD using immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hippocampal proNGF was significantly greater in AD compared to NCI and MCI cases. TrkA was significantly reduced in MCI compared to NCI and AD, whereas p75NTR, sortilin, and neurotrophin receptor homolog-2 remained stable. Akt decreased from NCI to MCI to AD, whereas phospho-Akt and phosphor-Akt to Akt ratio were elevated in AD compared to MCI and NCI. No differences were found in phospho-Erk, Erk or their ratio across groups. c-jun kinase (JNK) remained stable across groups, while phospho-JNK and the phospho-JNK to JNK ratio increased significantly in AD compared to NCI and MCI. Expression levels of A?1-40, A?1-42 and A?40/42 ratio were stable. Statistical analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between proNGF and phospho-JNK, though only proNGF was negatively correlated with cognitive function and only TrkA was negatively associated with pathologic criteria. These findings suggest that alterations in the hippocampal NGF signaling pathway in MCI and AD favor proNGF-mediated pro-apoptotic pathways, and that this is independent of A? accumulation during AD progression. PMID:23095849

  1. Use of Noun Morphology by Children with Language Impairment: The Case of Hungarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukacs, Agnes; Leonard, Laurence B.; Kas, Bence

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with language impairment often exhibit significant difficulty in the use of grammatical morphology. Although English-speaking children with language impairment have special difficulties with verb morphology, noun morphology can also be problematic in languages of a different typology. Aims: Hungarian is an agglutinating…

  2. Hippocampal Damage Equally Impairs Memory for Single Items and Memory for Conjunctions

    E-print Network

    Squire, Larry R.

    Hippocampal Damage Equally Impairs Memory for Single Items and Memory for Conjunctions Craig E that hippocampal damage selectively (or disproportionately) impaired the as- sociative or conjunctive component, the hippocampus plays an especially significant role in "asso- ciative" or "conjunctive" memory (Sutherland

  3. Student Attitudes toward Impairment: An Assessment of Passive and Active Learning Methods in Urban Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Designing for the needs of people with impairments has rarely been a significant feature of urban planning theory and education. Given the role of urban planners as shapers of the built environment and public policy, the prevalence of negative and misinformed attitudes among planners toward impaired populations has been highlighted as requiring…

  4. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  5. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  6. Emotion Regulation in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; Clarke, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Teachers were asked to rate the emotion regulation behaviors of 41 children (ages 6-13) with specific language impairment (SLI) and 41 typical peers. Overall, children with SLI received significantly lower ratings than typical children. Sex differences were also found, with boys with SLI having notably lower ratings than other groups on the…

  7. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  8. Contextual Social Cognition Impairments in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Villarin, Lilian; Theil, Donna; Gonzalez-Gadea, María Luz; Gomez, Pedro; Mosquera, Marcela; Huepe, David; Strejilevich, Sergio; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Matthäus, Franziska; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. Methodology/Principal Findings This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge) that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients’ depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. Conclusions/Significance Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed. PMID:23520477

  9. Fears of Visually Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiemer, S. A.; Kratochwill, T. R.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of the number, content, and intensity of fears of 42 visually impaired children, aged 5-18, found more fears of potentially physically dangerous situations than of psychologically harmful ones and little difference between the number of mild and severe fears. Counselors' estimations of children's fears generally disagreed with the…

  10. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  11. Home range dynamics, habitat selection, and survival of Greater Roadrunners

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelley, S.W.; Ransom, D., Jr.; Butcher, J.A.; Schulz, G.G.; Surber, B.W.; Pinchak, W.E.; Santamaria, C.A.; Hurtado, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Greater Roadrunners (Geococcyx californianus) are common, poorly studied birds of arid and semi-arid ecosystems in the southwestern United States. Conservation of this avian predator requires a detailed understanding of their movements and spatial requirements that is currently lacking. From 2006 to 2009, we quantified home-range and core area sizes and overlap, habitat selection, and survival of roadrunners (N= 14 males and 20 females) in north-central Texas using radio-telemetry and fixed kernel estimators. Median home-range and core-area sizes were 90.4 ha and 19.2 ha for males and 80.1 ha and 16.7 ha for females, respectively. The size of home range and core areas did not differ significantly by either sex or season. Our home range estimates were twice as large (x??= 108.9 ha) as earlier published estimates based on visual observations (x??= 28-50 ha). Mean percent overlap was 38.4% for home ranges and 13.7% for core areas. Male roadrunners preferred mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna cover types, and avoided the grass-forb cover type. Female roadrunners preferred mesquite savanna and riparian woodland cover types, and avoided grass-forb habitat. Kaplan-Meier annual survival probabilities for females (0.452 ?? 0.118[SE]) were twice that estimated for males (0.210 ?? 0.108), but this difference was not significant. Mortality rates of male roadrunners were higher than those of females during the spring when males call from elevated perches, court females, and chase competing males. Current land use practices that target woody-shrub removal to enhance livestock forage production could be detrimental to roadrunner populations by reducing availability of mesquite woodland and mesquite savanna habitat required for nesting and roosting and increasing the amount of grass-forb habitat that roadrunners avoid. ??2011 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ??2011 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  12. Impairment of auditory spatial localization in congenitally blind human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Monica; Sandini, Giulio; Martinoli, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated enhanced auditory processing in the blind, suggesting that they compensate their visual impairment in part with greater sensitivity of the other senses. However, several physiological studies show that early visual deprivation can impact negatively on auditory spatial localization. Here we report for the first time severely impaired auditory localization in the congenitally blind: thresholds for spatially bisecting three consecutive, spatially-distributed sound sources were seriously compromised, on average 4.2-fold typical thresholds, and half performing at random. In agreement with previous studies, these subjects showed no deficits on simpler auditory spatial tasks or with auditory temporal bisection, suggesting that the encoding of Euclidean auditory relationships is specifically compromised in the congenitally blind. It points to the importance of visual experience in the construction and calibration of auditory spatial maps, with implications for rehabilitation strategies for the congenitally blind. PMID:24271326

  13. Rumination and Perceived Impairment Associated with Depressive Symptoms in a Verbal Adolescent-Adult ASD Sample

    PubMed Central

    Gotham, Katherine; Bishop, Somer L.; Brunwasser, Steven; Lord, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and several psychosocial constructs (insight into autism symptoms, rumination, desire for social interaction, and satisfaction with social support) that may play a role in the development or maintenance of depression in verbally fluent adolescents and adults with ASD. Participants included 50 individuals with ASD and verbal IQ >= 70, aged 16-35 (sample size varied by measure). Elevated depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition, were associated with greater self-perceived autism-related impairments (n=48), greater rumination (n=21), and lower perceived social support (n=37). Rumination tended to moderate the association between self-perceived autism symptoms and BDI-II scores (n=21), and was significantly associated with ASD-related Insistence on Sameness behaviors (n=18). An unexpected relationship between depressive features and social participation and motivation will need to be clarified by longitudinal research. These and similar findings contribute to our understanding of the phenomenology of depression in ASD, which is critical to the development of practical prevention and treatment. PMID:24802136

  14. Daily or weekly? The role of treatment frequency in the effectiveness of grammar treatment for children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Smith-Lock, Karen; Leitão, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Prior, Polly; Dunn, Anne; Cronje, Julia; Newhouse, Sara; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a school-based treatment for expressive grammar in 5-year-olds with specific language impairment delivered in two different dose frequencies: eight sessions delivered daily over 8 consecutive school days or eight sessions delivered weekly over 8 consecutive weeks. Eighteen children received treatment daily and 13 children received treatment weekly. In both groups, treatment consisted of eight 1-hour sessions of small group activities in a classroom setting. Techniques included explicit instruction, focused stimulation, recasting, and imitation. Results were analysed at the group level and as a case series with each child as their own control in a single-subject design. The 8-weeks group showed significantly greater gain in test scores over the treatment period than in an equal time period prior to treatment, whereas the 8-days group did not (Cohen's d = 1.64 for 8-weeks group). Single-subject analyses indicated that 46% of children in the 8-week group and 17% of children in the 8-day group showed a significant treatment effect. It is concluded that expressive grammar treatment was most effective when dose frequency was weekly over 8 weeks rather than daily over 8 days for 5-year-old children with specific language impairment. PMID:23586584

  15. Population Ecology Demography of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    E-print Network

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    Population Ecology Demography of Greater Prairie-Chickens: Regional Variation in Vital Rates prairie in North America, although causes of declines remain unknown. We modeled population dynamics that is an indicator species for tallgrass prairie, the greater prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), during a 4-year

  16. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights…

  17. COMPLETION REPORT Identifying Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse Population

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    COMPLETION REPORT Identifying Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse Population Persistence within-Central Local Sage-Grouse Work Group, and Wyoming Game and Fish Department 23 January 2012 Christopher P. Kirol habitat quality and source and sink habitats for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the 1

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE Recovery of Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Features

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Recovery of Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Features in Wyoming Big Sagebrush of prescribed fire to enhance habitat features for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming evaluated recovery of habitat features important to wintering, nesting, and early brood-rearing Sage

  19. West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse

    E-print Network

    Naugle, Dave

    REPORT West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse David E. Naugle,1 * Cameron L. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage% in four radio-marked populations in the western US and Canada. Serum from 112 sage-grouse collected after

  20. Molluscan Mariculture in the Greater Caribbean: An Overview

    E-print Network

    mariculture in the greater Caribbean area (Fig. 1). Sea- food is and has been a staple for Carib- bean peopleMolluscan Mariculture in the Greater Caribbean: An Overview DARRYL E. JORY and EDWIN S. IVERSEN since pre-Columbian times. ABSIRACF-Marine mollusks suitable for mariculture in the Caribbean area have

  1. Birth synchrony in greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus)

    E-print Network

    Wilkinson, Gerald S.

    INTRODUCTION With a few exceptions, such as common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus (Wimsatt & Trapido, 1952Birth synchrony in greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus) T. A. Porter* and G. S was examined in greater spear-nosed bats Phyllostomus hastatus. Births were observed or dated from pup growth

  2. PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District

    E-print Network

    . #12;ii APPROVAL #12;iii ABSTRACT Instances of water scarcity are recurring with greater frequencyPLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District by Andrew K. Doi B. A in urban areas around the globe, yet per capita water consumption continues to increase. Faced

  3. [Drowsiness--greater traffic hazard than alcohol. Causes, risks and treatment].

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, P O; Akerstedt, T

    2001-06-20

    Stress and shortage of sleep may cause daytime somnolence and impaired vigilance at the wheel, especially among those suffering from sleep disturbances. According to the international consensus meeting in Stockholm in May of 2000 on "The sleepy driver and pilot--causes, risks and countermeasures", drowsy driving is an underestimated risk factor in official statistics, and as many as 15-30 percent of today's traffic accidents are related to drowsiness; thus it is an even greater risk factor than alcohol. Drowsy drivers suffer from inattention, impaired concentration and may even fall asleep at the wheel. Accidents during dozing result in three times as many fatalities as other accidents. There are a number of reasons for habitual drowsiness at the wheel aside from sleep deprivation, including rhonchopathy, shift work and jet lag, mental depression, insomnia, narcolepsy, endocrinological diseases, periodic limb movement disorder, medication, pain-disordered sleep, and heart disease. Among the most active drivers, i.e. middle aged men, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been found to be the most common reason for habitually drowsy driving. OSAS causes a 2-3 fold increased risk of traffic accidents, and it impairs simulated driving. Palatoplasty as well as nasal CPAP have been shown to improve vigilance and driving performance to an extent that the increase in risk is eliminated. Drivers suffering from habitual drowsiness and micro-sleep attacks forcing them to take repeated rests are at special risk. Even if they are as dangerous as drivers with unlawful blood alcohol levels they cannot be caught in a police checkpoint. However they often seek medial advice, and properly treated they may often return safely to traffic. If not, there could be a need to report them to the authorities so as to limit or prohibit their driving. PMID:11462875

  4. Impaired fasting glucose, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease mortality.

    PubMed

    Henry, Patrick; Thomas, Frédérique; Benetos, Athanase; Guize, Louis

    2002-10-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose 6.1 to 6.9 mmol/L [110 to 125 mg/dL]) is a common glycemic disorder which usually progress to diabetes mellitus. The relationships between impaired fasting glucose, other risk factors including blood pressure, and mortality have never been clearly investigated. We studied 63 443 consecutive men (ages 21 to 60 years), each of whom had a routine health examination with a fasting plasma glucose measurement. Men with known ischemic cardiac disease and treatment for diabetes or hypertension were excluded. Impaired fasting glucose was found in 10 773 (17.0%) of these men. Mean body mass index, serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels, and systolic, diastolic, and pulse blood pressure were significantly higher for men with impaired fasting glucose compared with those men with normal fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose 3.9 to 6.0 mmol/L). When adjusted for confounding variables, relative risk of 8-year cardiovascular mortality associated with impaired fasting glucose was dependent on systolic blood pressure level (1.02 [95% CI: 0.62 to 1.70] when <140 mm Hg and 2.10 [95% CI: 1.16 to 3.80] between 140 and 160 mm Hg). Inversely, relative risk of 8-year cardiovascular mortality associated with moderate systolic hypertension (140 to 159 mm Hg) compared with normal systolic blood pressure (<140 mm Hg) was highly dependent on the glycemic status (2.97 [95% CI: 1.58 to 5.55] for men with impaired fasting glucose compared with 1.35 [95% CI: 0.84 to 2.18] in those with normal fasting glucose). Similar results were found concerning overall mortality. In conclusion, the presence of moderate systolic hypertension can identify subjects with impaired fasting glucose who are at risk of cardiovascular and overall mortality, and vice versa, probably through the metabolic syndrome. PMID:12364347

  5. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March ... methamphetamine use, such as tobacco smoking. Can the Brain Recover? The UCLA study’s findings underscore the importance ...

  6. Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for cognitive impairment is getting older. Other risk factors include diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco use, alcohol use, depression, and diet and exercise. Mild cognitive impairment involves ...

  7. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  8. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

  9. Visuoconstructional Impairment in Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samrah; Brennan, Laura; Eppig, Joel; Price, Catherine C; Lamar, Melissa; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bangen, Katherine J; Edmonds, Emily C; Clark, Lindsey; Nation, Daniel A; Jak, Amy; Au, Rhoda; Swenson, Rodney; Bondi, Mark W; Libon, David J

    2016-01-01

    Clock Drawing Test performance was examined alongside other neuropsychological tests in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We tested the hypothesis that clock-drawing errors are related to executive impairment. The current research examined 86 patients with MCI for whom, in prior research, cluster analysis was used to sort patients into dysexecutive (dMCI, n = 22), amnestic (aMCI, n = 13), and multidomain (mMCI, n = 51) subtypes. First, principal components analysis (PCA) and linear regression examined relations between clock-drawing errors and neuropsychological test performance independent of MCI subtype. Second, between-group differences were assessed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) where MCI subgroups were compared to normal controls (NC). PCA yielded a 3-group solution. Contrary to expectations, clock-drawing errors loaded with lower performance on naming/lexical retrieval, rather than with executive tests. Regression analyses found increasing clock-drawing errors to command were associated with worse performance only on naming/lexical retrieval tests. ANOVAs revealed no differences in clock-drawing errors between dMCI versus mMCI or aMCI versus NCs. Both the dMCI and mMCI groups generated more clock-drawing errors than the aMCI and NC groups in the command condition. In MCI, language-related skills contribute to clock-drawing impairment. PMID:26397732

  10. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits. PMID:23213030

  11. Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

  12. Therapeutic Riding for a Student with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrman, Jennifer; Ross, David B.

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old with multiple disabilities and visual impairments was the focus of a 10-week developmental therapeutic riding program incorporating hippotherapy. The program has led to increased mobility, an increase in visual attention span and fixation time, signs of greater verbal communication, and the acquisition of new functional signs.…

  13. Accessibility and Mobility of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Historical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasch, B. B.; Stuckey, K. A.

    1995-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of two movements to improve the mobility of people with visual impairments--environmental modifications to increase accessibility, and orientation and mobility training. It also notes how changes in attitudes, effected to a large degree by the introduction of dog guides, have led to greater acceptance…

  14. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  15. Alcohol and the Physically Impaired: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Alexander, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired Persons"…

  16. Mobile Device Impairment ... Similar Problems, Similar Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz; Chen, Tianyi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained…

  17. Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jonathan R.

    Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

  18. Variations in Sleep Characteristics and Sleep-Related Impairment in At-Risk College Drinkers: A Latent Profile Analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Fucito, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep disturbance and heavy drinking increase risk of negative consequences in college students. Limited research exists on how they act synergistically, and the overall nature of sleep and sleep-related impairment in college student drinkers is poorly understood. A latent profile analysis was conducted on the sleep characteristics and daytime sleep-related consequences of college student drinkers who were at-risk based on Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption scores. Methods Participants (N = 312, mean age = 18.90 (0.97) years) consumed a mean (SD) of 20.93 (13.04) drinks per week. Scores on the ten items of the Sleep/Wake Behavior Problems Scale (SWPS) were the class indicators. Results Four classes best described the sleep and sleep-related consequences of at-risk college drinkers. Classes represented different gradients and types of sleep patterns and sleep-related impairment; nearly half the sample reported late bedtimes and daytime consequences of insufficient sleep. Subsequent validation analyses indicated that these classes were directly correspondent with severity of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences illicit substance use, and perceived health. Conclusions These findings indicate the presence of significant heterogeneity in college drinkers’ sleep patterns and experiences of sleep-related impairment. Class differences significantly impact the level of alcohol and drug use and the consequences members experience. Greater alcohol use and sleep/wake problems are associated with increased risk for negative consequences for certain classes. These results suggest that college drinking interventions could benefit from the incorporation of sleep-related content and the value in adding brief alcohol assessments and interventions to other college health treatments. PMID:25133844

  19. Displacement as a predictor of functional impairment in tsunami-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher; Du, Ye Beverly; Christina, Desy; Palfrey, Judith; O'Rourke, Edward; Belfer, Myron

    2015-01-01

    Thirty months after the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, thousands of families in Aceh Province, Indonesia, remained in temporary barracks while sanitation conditions and non-governmental organisation support deteriorated. This study sought to determine the factors associated with functional impairment in a sample of 138 displaced and non-displaced Acehnese children. Using multivariate linear regression models, it was found that displacement distance was a consistent predictor of impairment using the Brief Impairment Scale. Exposure to tsunami-related trauma markers was not significantly linked with impairment in the model. Paternal employment was a consistent protective factor for child functioning. These findings suggest that post-disaster displacement and the subsequent familial economic disruption are significant predictors of impaired functioning in children's daily activities. Post-disaster interventions should consider the disruption of familiar environments for families and children when relocating vulnerable populations to avoid deleterious impacts on children's functioning. PMID:25231556

  20. Psychopathology among a sample of hearing impaired adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mosaku, Kolawole; Akinpelu, Victoria; Ogunniyi, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Hearing impairment is a recognized cause of emotional and psychological disturbances worldwide, however little is known about this condition in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of psychopathology between hearing impaired adolescents and healthy adolescents. Students attending two special schools for the hearing impaired were assessed for psychopathology with the help of a trained signer and their teacher, using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria (ICD 10). Fifty two hearing impaired students and 52 age and sex matched controls from the same school were also interviewed using the same instrument. The mean age of the hearing impaired students was 16 (sd=3.8), while for the controls the mean age was 16 (sd=2.5). Psychopathology was present in 10 (19%) of the hearing impaired adolescents compared to 2 (4%) among the control group, this difference was statistically significant (?(2)=4.62 p=0.03). The most common diagnosis was generalized anxiety disorder 4 (8%), followed by depression 2 (4%). Years spent in school (t=4.81, p=0.001), primary guardian (?(2)=18.3, p=0.001) and mean income of guardian (t=7.10, p=0.001) were all significantly different between the two groups. Psychopathology is relatively common in this population. Proper assessment and treatment should be made available for this population group. A limitation to this study is communication difficulty which made only a third party assessment possible; this may affect the generalizability of the findings. PMID:26514446

  1. An Overview of Dual Sensory Impairment in Older Adults: Perspectives for Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Gabrielle H.; Echt, Katharina V.

    2007-01-01

    Dual sensory impairment (DSI) refers to the presence of both hearing loss and vision loss. The occurrence of DSI is particularly prevalent among the aging population, with studies showing between 9% and 21% of adults older than 70 years having some degree of DSI. Despite this, there is little direction regarding recommended clinical practice and rehabilitation of individuals with DSI. It is assumed that the problems encountered by individuals with DSI are considerably greater than the effects of vision impairment or hearing impairment alone, because when these two sensory impairments are combined, the individual is seriously deprived of compensatory strategies that make use of the nonimpaired sense. In this article, the literature available regarding DSI is summarized, and research needs regarding rehabilitation strategies are outlined and discussed. Simple suggestions for addressing DSI are provided that use available tools and technology. PMID:18003868

  2. Recent research about mild cognitive impairment in China

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Yan; XIAO, Shifu

    2014-01-01

    Summary: The rapid aging of the Chinese population has spurred interest in research about the cause and prevention of dementia and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This review summarizes the last decade of research in China about MCI. Extensive research about the epidemiology, neuropsychological characteristics, diagnosis, genetic etiology, neuroimaging and electrophysiological changes, and treatment of MCI has provided some new insights but few breakthroughs. Further advances in the prevention and treatment of MCI will require a greater emphasis on multi-disciplinary prospective studies with large, representative samples that use standardized methods to assess and monitor changes in cognitive functioning over time. PMID:25114476

  3. Impairment in Proverb Interpretation as an Executive Function Deficit in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leyhe, Thomas; Saur, Ralf; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Milian, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Proverb interpretation is assumed to reflect executive functions. We hypothesized that proverb interpretation is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) diagnosed as single-domain impairment by common neuropsychological testing. Methods We compared performance in a proverb interpretation test in single-domain aMCI patients and patients with early Alzheimer's disease (EAD). Results The groups with aMCI and EAD performed significantly worse than healthy controls. Both patient groups gave concrete answers with a similar frequency. However, patients with EAD tended to give senseless answers more frequently. Conclusions Our data suggest that in patients diagnosed as single-domain aMCI, deterioration of executive functions is detectable with subtle and appropriate neuropsychological testing. Implementation of these procedures may improve the early prediction of AD. PMID:22163233

  4. Relevance theory and pragmatic impairment.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, E; Kerbel, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes aspects of relevance theory that are useful for exploring impairment of pragmatic comprehension in children. It explores data from three children with pragmatic language difficulties within this framework. Relevance theory is seen to provide a means of explaining why, in a given context, a particular utterance is problematic. It thus enables one to move on from mere description of problematic behaviours towards their explanation. The theory provides a clearer delineation between the explicit and the implicit, and hence between semantics and pragmatics. This enables one to place certain difficulties more firmly within semantics and others within pragmatics. Relevance, and its maximization in communication, are squarely placed within human cognition, which suggests a close connection between pragmatic and cognitive (dis)functioning. Relevance theory thus emerges as a powerful tool in the exploration and understanding of pragmatic language difficulties in children and offers therapeutically valuable insight into the nature of interactions involving individuals with such impairments. PMID:10884907

  5. Factors That Impair Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristin; Hamm, Rose L.

    2014-01-01

    The body's response to tissue injury in a healthy individual is an intricate, sequential physiologic process that results in timely healing with full re-epithelialization, resolution of drainage, and return of function to the affected tissue. Chronic wounds, however, do not follow this sequence of events and can challenge the most experienced clinician if the underlying factors that are impairing wound healing are not identified. The purpose of this article is to present recent information about factors that impair wound healing with the underlying pathophysiological mechanism that interferes with the response to tissue injury. These factors include co-morbidities (diabetes, obesity, protein energy malnutrition), medications (steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, anti-rejection medications), oncology interventions (radiation, chemotherapy), and life style habits (smoking, alcohol abuse). Successful treatment of any chronic wound depends upon identification and management of the factors for each individual. PMID:26199879

  6. Neuropsychological Outcomes of Preterm Birth in Children With No Major Neurodevelopmental Impairments in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Ji Woon; Choi, Ja Young; Rha, Dong-wook; Kwak, Eun Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate cognition, social adaptive functioning, behavior, and emotional development in the preschool period and to determine the effects of the age of onset of walking on those developmental areas in children who were born preterm without major neurodevelopmental impairments (NDI) early in life. Methods Fifty-eight children who were born preterm without major NDI early in life participated in this study. The Korean versions of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence or the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, the social maturity scale, the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Conners' abbreviated parent/teacher rating scale, the Childhood Autism Rating Scale, and a speech developmental test were administered. The participants were divided into two groups: early walkers (group A) and late walkers (group B). Results The full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and performance IQ were significantly lower in group B than in group A, while the verbal IQ did not differ significantly between the groups. The children in group B had greater risks of cognitive deficits than did the children in group A, especially in performance skills. The social quotient (SQ) was significantly lower in group B than in group A (p<0.05). The rates of mild or significant deficits based on SQ and the CBCL did not differ significantly between the groups. Four children in group A and one child in group B had attention/hyperactivity problems. One child in group A had autistic behavior. Only one child in group B showed a significant speech developmental delay. Conclusions Problems in cognition, social adaptive functioning, and emotional and behavioral development can occur in children without major NDI early in life. Late walkers had significantly lower scores in cognition and social adaptive functioning than did early walkers. PMID:26605165

  7. Lancet Dynamics in Greater Horseshoe Bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

    PubMed Central

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C.; Gupta, Anupam K.; Simmons, James A.; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages (‘noseleaves’) that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that—in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna—horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information. PMID:25853738

  8. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  9. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  10. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  11. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  12. Landscape-scale patterns of forest pest and pathogen damage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    E-print Network

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    Landscape-scale patterns of forest pest and pathogen damage in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem rust, a fungal pathogen, and mountain pine beetle, an insect pest, are two dominant sources of stress rust by examining changes in the spatial scale of significant stress and mortality clusters computed

  13. A Greater Society: The Transformation of the Federal Role in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Bob; Rothman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The federal role in education will soon be transformed in ways that could produce an even greater society than President Lyndon B. Johnson envisioned. The authors identify underlying principles of this new role and describe how it represents a significant departure from the past. Historically, for example, the federal government has been…

  14. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning: at the lower levels (up to 1500 m) they are recorded for a longer period and higher than 2000 m only 2-3 months. In terms of genesis the following types of debris flows are registered: rain, glacial and mixed. Rain mudflows are formed due to intensive rains (the daily amount is about 25 U 100 mm). A critical norm of precipitation forming debris 1 flows varies from west to east. In the western part it is 75-100 mm, central U 50-75 mm and eastern U 25-50 mm. Also the norm varies from north to south, in particular on advanced ridges it is higher but on the Glavny and Bokovoy ridges it is less. The difference is about 2 times. Glacial mudflows are observed only in the areas of modern glaciation. They form under high air temperature (20 U 25°C) leading to an intensive melting of snow and ice on glaciers. High air temperature should be recorded not less than 5-10 days. Mixed mudflows form under high air temperature in the glaciers area and significant rainstorms in the glacial zone. Rainstorms cause debris flow formation in focal points. Frontal precipitation with a significant amount of rain cause debris flows at vast territories often covering several kilometers. In total rain mudflows prevail on the Greater Caucasus northern slope and equal 60 - 80% of all the mudflows. Glacial mudflows constitute 30-40% and mixed mudflows U 10-20%. In the western and eastern parts rain mudflows are the principal and their share is 80-90% of all the mudflows. In the central part glacial mudflows prevail (60- 0%). Technogenic mudflows are recorded in the areas with developed mining industry, highways, forestry, and pastures. In the given region debris flows distribute from north to south depending on genesis and volume. On advanced ridges (Lesisty, Pastbishny, Skalisty) only rain mudflows are registered with the volume up to 100,000 m3. Eluvial-deluvial, alluvial-proluvial and eolian-proluvial deposits compose their solid constituents. This is a zone of weak mudflow hazard. The most often are mudflows with volume up to 5000-10,000 m3. More powerful mudflows are less frequent (once

  15. Mandatory notification of impaired doctors.

    PubMed

    Beran, R G

    2014-12-01

    Mandatory reporting of impaired doctors is compulsory in Australasia. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency guidelines for notification claim high benchmark though the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians suggest they still obstruct doctors seeking help. Western Australia excludes mandatory reporting of practitioner-patients. This study examines reporting, consequences and international experiences with notification. Depressed doctors avoid diagnosis and treatment, fearing consequences, yet are more prone to marital problems, substance dependence and needing psychotherapy. South African research confirms isolation of impaired doctors and delayed seeking help with definable characteristics of those at risk. New Zealand data acknowledge: errors occur; questionable contribution from mandatory reporting; issues concerning competence assessment; favouring reporting to senior colleagues or self-intervention to compliance with mandatory reporting. UK found an anaesthetist guilty of professional misconduct for not reporting and sanctioned doctors regarding Harold Shipman. Australians are reluctant to report, fearing legalistic intrusion into care. Australian research confirmed definable characteristics for doctors with psychiatric illness or alcohol abuse. Exposure to legal medicine evokes personal disenchantment for doctors involved. Medicine poses barriers for impaired doctors. Spanish and UK doctors do not use general practitioners and may have suboptimal care. US and European doctors self-medicate using samples. US drug-dependent doctors also prescribe for spouses. Junior doctors are losing empathy with the profession. UK doctors favour private care, avoiding public scrutiny. NZ and Brazil created specific services for doctors, which appear effective. Mandatory reporting may be counterproductive requiring reappraisal. PMID:25442756

  16. 4.9 NON-POINT SOURCE CONTAMINATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT OF GREATER VANCOUVER by Kenneth J. Hall

    E-print Network

    109 4.9 NON-POINT SOURCE CONTAMINATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT OF GREATER VANCOUVER 4.9 by Kenneth, Vancouver, B.C. NON-POINT SOURCE CONTAMINATION IN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT OF GREATER VANCOUVER: A CASE STUDY- nity about the significant impacts of non-point sources of pollution on their urban waterways. #12

  17. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility.

    PubMed

    Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W C; Behm, David G

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ? 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (? 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key pointsThe duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ? 0.001).No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions.The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects.The short duration (? 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  18. The impact of individual depressive symptoms on impairment of psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Fried, Eiko I; Nesse, Randolph M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships). We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia) to 20.9% (sad mood). Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms. PMID:24587318

  19. Marine Fisheries Industry Outlook for Greater Utilization of Hake Products

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W Articles Industry Outlook for Greater Utilization of Hake Products Names Utilization of Red Hake Evaluation of a Prototype Fish Cleaning Machine With Proposals for a Commercial

  20. Surgical Treatment of Displaced Greater Tuberosity Fractures of the Humerus.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Dominique M; Mutch, Jennifer; Laflamme, Georges-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Greater tuberosity fractures of the humerus can be successfully treated nonsurgically in most patients. However, as little as 3 to 5 mm of superior greater tuberosity displacement may adversely affect rotator cuff biomechanics and lead to subacromial impingement in patients who are active. In these cases, surgical treatment is recommended. Multiple surgical techniques include open and arthroscopic options tailored to fracture morphology, and strategies for repair include the use of suture anchors, transosseous sutures, tension bands, and plates/screws. Three classification systems are commonly used to describe greater tuberosity fractures: the AO, Neer, and morphologic classifications. Several hypotheses have been discussed for the mechanism of greater tuberosity fractures and the deforming forces of the rotator cuff, and the use of advanced imaging is being explored. PMID:26700632

  1. Military Deployment Tied to Greater Odds of Child Abuse, Neglect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Military Deployment Tied to Greater Odds of Child Abuse, Neglect Periods during and just after deployment ... said Dr. Bob Sege, a pediatrician specializing in child abuse and vice president of Health Resources in ...

  2. Obesity May Be Linked to Greater Risk of Stillbirth

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154368.html Obesity May Be Linked to Greater Risk of Stillbirth ... the authors could only show an association between obesity and stillbirth; they couldn't prove a cause- ...

  3. Concentration of ozone in surface air over greater Boston

    E-print Network

    Widen, Donald Allen

    1966-01-01

    Surface ozone concentrations were measured in the Greater Boston area from November, 1964 to December, 1965. Ozone was monitored continuosly using a Mast microcoulombmetric sensor. A chromium trioxide filter was fitted to ...

  4. Intracerebroventricular injection of propionic acid, an enteric bacterial metabolic end-product, impairs social behavior in the rat: implications for an animal model of autism.

    PubMed

    Shultz, Sandy R; MacFabe, Derrick F; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter; Scratch, Shannon; Whelan, Jennifer; Taylor, Roy; Cain, Donald P

    2008-05-01

    Environmental, dietary, and gastrointestinal factors may contribute to autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Propionic acid (PPA) is a short chain fatty acid, a metabolic end-product of enteric bacteria in the gut, and a common food preservative. Recent evidence indicates that PPA can cause behavioral abnormalities and a neuroinflammatory response in rats. Social behavior was examined in similarly-treated pairs of adult male Long-Evans rats placed in an open field following intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of PPA (4 microl of 0.26 M solution) or control compounds. Behavior was analyzed using both the EthoVision behavior tracking system and by blind scoring of videotapes of social behaviors. Compared to controls, rats treated with PPA displayed social behavior impairments as indicated by significantly greater mean distance apart, reduced time spent in close proximity, reduced playful interaction, and altered responses to playful initiations. Treatment with another short chain fatty acid, sodium acetate, produced similar impairments, but treatment with the alcohol analog of PPA, 1-propanol, did not produce impairments. Immunohistochemical analysis of brain tissue taken from rats treated with PPA revealed reactive astrogliosis, indicating a neuroinflammatory response. These findings suggest that PPA can change both brain and behavior in the laboratory rat in a manner that is consistent with symptoms of human ASD. PMID:18395759

  5. List of significant publications

    E-print Network

    Barnard, Eric

    2012-01-01

    of the most significant publications: I The histidine residue in the active center of ribonuclease. II .The position of this residue in the primary protein chain. Stein WD and Barnard EA, J.Molec. Biol. 1, 350-358 (1959). Biological function... . , Barnard EA. Neuron 1, 773-781 (1988 ). Analysis of the full set of 19 GABAA receptor genes in the human genome. Simon J, Wakimoto H, Fujita N.,Lalande M , Barnard,EA. J. Biol. Chem ,279, 41422-41435(2004). V Cloning and functional expression of a...

  6. Apathy is associated with lower inferior temporal cortical thickness in mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly

    PubMed Central

    Guercio, Brendan; Donovan, Nancy J.; Ward, Andrew; Schultz, Aaron; Lorius, Natacha; Amariglio, Rebecca E.; Rentz, Dorene M.; Johnson, Keith A.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Marshall, Gad A.

    2014-01-01

    Apathy is a common neuropsychiatric symptom in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) dementia and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and is associated with cortical atrophy in AD dementia. This study investigated possible correlations between apathy and cortical atrophy in 47 individuals with MCI and 19 clinically normal elderly (CN). Backward elimination multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between scores on the Apathy Evaluation Scale and thickness of several cortical regions and covariates. Lower inferior temporal cortical thickness was predictive of greater apathy. Greater anterior cingulate cortical thickness was also predictive of greater apathy, suggesting an underlying reactive process. PMID:25716491

  7. Impaired FHIT expression characterizes serous ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, K; Enomoto, T; Yoshino, K; Fujita, M; Buzard, G S; Kawano, K; Yamasaki, M; Murata, Y

    2001-01-01

    The FHIT (fragile histidine triad) gene on chromosome 3p14.2 is a candidate tumour suppressor gene. To define the role of the FHIT gene in the development of ovarian cancer, we have examined 33 ovarian carcinomas, 2 borderline tumours and 10 benign adenomas for the presence of FHIT gene alterations. FHIT transcripts were analysed by RT-PCR and sequencing. Aberrant FHIT transcripts were observed in 5/33 carcinomas (15%) and in 1 of 2 borderline tumours. Loss of normal FHIT transcript was observed in 5/33 carcinomas (15%) but not in 2 borderline tumours or 10 benign adenomas. Allelic losses at D3S1300 and D3S4103, both located within intron 5 of FHIT were detected in 5/24 (21%) and 5/25 (20%) informative ovarian carcinomas, respectively. Expression of Fhit protein was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 44 carcinomas, 19 borderline tumours and 16 benign adenomas. Loss or significantly reduced expression of Fhit protein was observed in 6/44 (14%) ovarian carcinomas but not in any of 19 borderline tumours or 16 benign adenomas. The impaired Fhit protein expression was significantly correlated with the loss of normal FHIT transcription. Most notably, loss of normal FHIT transcript and impaired expression of Fhit protein occurred only in serous adenocarcinomas of grade 2 and 3 (5/15; 33% and 6/19; 32%, respectively). The present data suggest that inactivation of the FHIT gene by loss of expression is one of the important molecular events associated with the genesis of ovarian carcinoma, especially of high-grade serous carcinoma. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11461085

  8. Impaired coherence of life narratives of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Allé, Mélissa C.; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Köber, Christin; Schneider, Priscille; Coutelle, Romain; Habermas, Tilmann; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Self-narratives of patients have received increasing interest in schizophrenia since they offer unique material to study patients’ subjective experience related to their illness, in particular the alteration of self that accompanies schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the life narratives and the ability to integrate and bind memories of personal events into a coherent narrative in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Four aspects of life narratives were analyzed: coherence with cultural concept of biography, temporal coherence, causal-motivational coherence and thematic coherence. Results showed that in patients cultural biographical knowledge is preserved, whereas temporal coherence is partially impaired. Furthermore, causal-motivational and thematic coherence are significantly impaired: patients have difficulties explaining how events have modeled their identity, and integrating different events along thematic lines. Impairment of global causal-motivational and thematic coherence was significantly correlated with patients’ executive dysfunction, suggesting that cognitive impairment observed in patients could affect their ability to construct a coherent narrative of their life by binding important events to their self. This study provides new understanding of the cognitive deficits underlying self-disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of developing new therapeutic interventions to improve autobiographical reasoning skills. PMID:26255756

  9. Impaired coherence of life narratives of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Allé, Mélissa C; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Köber, Christin; Schneider, Priscille; Coutelle, Romain; Habermas, Tilmann; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Self-narratives of patients have received increasing interest in schizophrenia since they offer unique material to study patients' subjective experience related to their illness, in particular the alteration of self that accompanies schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the life narratives and the ability to integrate and bind memories of personal events into a coherent narrative in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Four aspects of life narratives were analyzed: coherence with cultural concept of biography, temporal coherence, causal-motivational coherence and thematic coherence. Results showed that in patients cultural biographical knowledge is preserved, whereas temporal coherence is partially impaired. Furthermore, causal-motivational and thematic coherence are significantly impaired: patients have difficulties explaining how events have modeled their identity, and integrating different events along thematic lines. Impairment of global causal-motivational and thematic coherence was significantly correlated with patients' executive dysfunction, suggesting that cognitive impairment observed in patients could affect their ability to construct a coherent narrative of their life by binding important events to their self. This study provides new understanding of the cognitive deficits underlying self-disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of developing new therapeutic interventions to improve autobiographical reasoning skills. PMID:26255756

  10. Polysomnographic and Subjective Sleep Markers of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hita-Yañez, Eva; Atienza, Mercedes; Cantero, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Growing evidence suggests that sleep disturbances precede by years the clinical onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). The goal of the current study is to determine whether changes in polysomnographic (PSG) sleep patterns accompany subjective sleep complaints in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We further examine whether meaningful changes in objective sleep physiology are predicted by self-reported sleep measures in MCI patients, and whether incipient neurodegeneration contributes to exacerbate sleep misperception. Design, Setting, and Participants: Overnight PSG recordings and self-reported sleep measures were obtained from 25 healthy elderly (HE) subjects and 25 patients with MCI at the sleep laboratory. Results: Both PSG and self-reported sleep measures confirmed that sleep is altered in patients with MCI. Whereas subjective sleep responses predicted fragmentation of slow wave sleep (SWS) in HE individuals, this relationship was not evident in MCI patients. Furthermore, patients with MCI showed significant discrepancies in the estimation of sleep onset latency when compared with HE subjects. Conclusions: Sleep is significantly impaired in patients with mild cognitive impairment at both the objective and subjective level, which may be used as a surrogate marker of preclinical Alzheimer disease. Taken together, these findings aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies devoted to improve sleep in the elderly population at risk of developing Alzheimer disease. Citation: Hita-Yañez E; Atienza M; Cantero JL. Polysomnographic and subjective sleep markers of mild cognitive impairment. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1327-1334. PMID:23997365

  11. Depression and cognitive impairment following recovery from thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Han, Bowie; Page, Evaren E; Stewart, Lauren M; Deford, Cassandra C; Scott, James G; Schwartz, Lauren H; Perdue, Jedidiah J; Terrell, Deirdra R; Vesely, Sara K; George, James N

    2015-08-01

    After recovery from an acute episode of acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), patients often describe problems with memory, concentration, and endurance. We have previously reported the occurrence of depression and cognitive impairment in these patients. In this study, we describe the frequency, severity, and clinical course of depression and cognitive impairment. Fifty-two (85%) out of 61 eligible Oklahoma Registry patients who had recovered from TTP, documented by ADAMTS13 activity <10%, have had at least one (median, four) evaluation for depression over 11 years using the Beck Depression Inventory-II; 31 (59%) patients screened positive for depression at least once; in 15 (29%), the results suggested severe depression at least once. Nine of these 15 patients had a psychiatric interview, the definitive diagnostic evaluation; the diagnosis of major depressive disorder was established in eight (89%) patients. In 2014, cognitive ability was evaluated in 33 patients by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Repeatable Battery for Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Both tests detected significant cognitive impairment in the patients as a group. Fifteen out of the 33 patients had been evaluated by extensive cognitive tests in 2006. The 2014 RBANS results were significantly worse than the 2006 results for the overall score and two out of the five RBANS domains (immediate and delayed memory). Neither depression nor cognitive impairment was significantly associated with the occurrence of relapses or ADAMTS13 activity <10% during remission. These observations emphasize the importance of screening evaluations for depression and cognitive impairment after recovery from acquired TTP. PMID:25975932

  12. Nutrient amendments in a temperate grassland have greater negative impacts on early season and exotic plant species

    E-print Network

    Mitchell, Randall J.

    of nutrient amendments varied significantly over the growing season. Fertilization reduced species richness in cumulative species richness (all species detected during the growing season) between fertilizedNutrient amendments in a temperate grassland have greater negative impacts on early season

  13. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P?

  14. Greater than the Sum of Its Parts: A Heterodinuclear Polymerization Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Garden, Jennifer A; Saini, Prabhjot K; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-12-01

    Homodinuclear catalysts have good precedent for epoxide and carbon dioxide/anhydride copolymerizations; in contrast, so far pure heterodinuclear catalysts are unknown. The synthesis and properties of a heterodinuclear Zn(II)/Mg(II) complex coordinated by a symmetrical macrocyclic ligand are reported. It shows high polymerization selectivity, control, and significantly greater activity compared to either of the homodinuclear analogues or any combinations of them. Indeed, compared to a 50:50 mixture of the homodinuclear complexes, it shows 5 times (CO2/epoxide) or 40 times (anhydride/epoxide) greater activity. PMID:26618526

  15. Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

    2002-12-01

    The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

  16. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ya-Hong; Yu, Caiguo; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Guo, Xin; Ji, Zhili; Liu, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH. However, it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance. In this study, we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. ApoCIII transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia were mated with non-transgenic control mice to obtain 4 types of offspring: maternal non-transgenic control and maternal transgenic offspring, and paternal control and paternal transgenic offspring. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FINS) were measured. ApoCIII overexpression caused severe hypertriglyceridemia, but the transgenic female mice had unaltered fertility with normal pregnancy and birth of pups. The 4 groups of offspring had similar birth weight and growth rate. The plasma TG of maternal and paternal transgenic offspring were nearly 40-fold higher than maternal and paternal control mice, but there was no difference in plasma TG between maternal and paternal transgenic offspring. Although the FPG of the 4 groups of animals had no difference, the maternal transgenic mice showed impaired glucose tolerance, increased FINS levels and higher homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than the other 3 groups. In conclusion, maternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia in ApoCIII transgenic mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and increased HOMA-R, while paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia did not have such impacts. PMID:25859267

  17. Combined deficiency of iron and (n-3) fatty acids in male rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than iron deficiency or (n-3) fatty acid deficiency alone.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Malan, Linda; Arnold, Myrtha; Yee, Benjamin K; Bianco, Laura E; Boekschoten, Mark V; Müller, Michael; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hurrell, Richard F; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-08-01

    Deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids (FA) [(n-3)FAD] may impair brain development and function through shared mechanisms. However, little is known about the potential interactions between these 2 common deficiencies. We studied the effects of ID and (n-3)FAD, alone and in combination, on brain monoamine pathways (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory (by Morris water maze testing). Using a 2 × 2 design, male rats were fed an ID, (n-3)FAD, ID+(n-3)FAD, or control diet for 5 wk postweaning (postnatal d 21-56) after (n-3)FAD had been induced over 2 generations. The (n-3)FAD and ID diets decreased brain (n-3) FA by 70-76% and Fe by 20-32%, respectively. ID and (n-3)FAD significantly increased dopamine (DA) concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) and striatum, with an additive 1- to 2-fold increase in ID+(n-3)FAD rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). ID decreased serotonin (5-HT) levels in OB, with a significant decrease in ID+(n-3)FAD rats. Furthermore, norepinephrine concentrations were increased 2-fold in the frontal cortex (FC) of (n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05). Dopa decarboxylase was downregulated in the hippocampus of ID and ID+(n-3)FAD rats (fold-change = -1.33; P < 0.05). ID and (n-3)FAD significantly impaired working memory performance and the impairment positively correlated with DA concentrations in FC (r = 0.39; P = 0.026). Reference memory was impaired in the ID+(n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05) and was negatively associated with 5-HT in FC (r = -0.42; P = 0.018). These results suggest that the combined deficiencies of Fe and (n-3) FA disrupt brain monoamine metabolism and produce greater deficits in reference memory than ID or (n-3)FAD alone. PMID:22739379

  18. H-Index Is Important for Postural Control for People with Impaired Foot Sole Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuqi; Manor, Brad; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Introduction People with Peripheral Neuropathy (PN), especially those with impaired sensory inputs through the small-afferent fiber (type II afferent fibers) reflex loop (SAF), might depend more on the large-afferent fiber (type I afferent fibers) reflex loop (LAF) for postural control. Purpose To examine whether the function of the LAF reflex loop, reflected by the H-reflex and ankle joint proprioception, influences postural control when the SAF reflex loop is impaired, as indicated by reduced foot sole cutaneous sensation. Methods Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men) diagnosed with PN and 12 age-matched controls (7 women, 5 men) completed the testing protocol. Measures of interest included the H-index, active (AAP) and passive (PAP) ankle proprioception, plantar pressure sensitivity (PPS), average sway velocity (VAVG) and area (A95) during 30 seconds eyes-closed standing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and timed up-and-go duration (TUG). Results Statistically significant group-dependent regression was observed between VAVG and H-index. Compared to the control group, the PN group demonstrated reduced PPS (2.0 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, P < .05) and H-index (63.6 ± 10.9 vs. 76.4 ± 16.0, P < .05), greater VAVG (3.5 ± 2.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6cm/s, P < .05) and A95 (10.0 ± 10.1 vs. 2.5 ± 1.5cm2, P < .05), shorter 6MWD (442.2 ± 93.0 vs. 525.3 ± 68.2m, P < .05), and longer TUG (9.4 ± 1.6 vs. 6.5 ± 1.3s, P < .05). Within the PN group, but not the control group, the H-index was correlated with VAVG (r = -.56, P < .05). Moreover, within the PN group only, PAP scores were correlated with 6MWD (r = -.68, P < .05) and TUG (r = -.59, P < .05) performance. No other statistically significant group difference, correlation or group-dependent regression was observed. Conclusion VAVG, 6MWD, and TUG correlated with LAF reflex loop function observed among those with impaired functioning of the SAF reflex loop. This observation suggests that the LAF reflex loop may be critical to the control of balance in those individuals suffering from small-fiber PN. PMID:25807534

  19. Delinquency and alcohol-impaired driving among young males: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.; Colder, Craig; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study assessed how the trajectory of delinquency affects the growth curve of alcohol-impaired driving using three-waves of data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). Using the structural equation modeling method, latent growth modeling was utilized to assess four age cohorts of sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, and nineteen years of age at the first wave. The data indicated that the growth rate of delinquency significantly and positively affects the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the respondents who were sixteen at the first wave. The growth rate of drinking was also significantly and positively associated with the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for this age cohort. Although the growth rate of delinquency had no significant effect on the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the age cohort which was seventeen at Wave 1, the growth rates of both drinking and drug use did affect for this age cohort. The data, however, showed that alcohol-impaired driving had a significant increase across the waves for the eighteen year old cohort, but there was no significant variation in the rate across respondents. Finally, for the nineteen year old cohort there was no significant increase in alcohol-impaired driving across the waves, and also no significant variation of the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving across the respondents. These findings indicated that interventions focused on reducing delinquency, alcohol and drug use by sixteen and seventeen year old male adolescents will also reduce their alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:20802847

  20. Greater attenuation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhongyong; Wu, Yujie; Wang, Meijuan; Cao, Jing; Feng, Wei; Cheng, Yan; Li, Chunbo; Shen, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Thinning of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) may reflect neurodegeneration of the central nervous system, which has been reported as part of the neuropathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, AD patients have thinner RNFL as compared to age-matched normal controls. However, whether reduction of RNFL over time can predict those at higher risk to develop cognitive deterioration remains unknown. We therefore set out a prospective clinical investigation to determine both the reduction of RNFL thickness and the deterioration of cognitive function over a period of 25 months in 78 participants (mean age 72.31 ± 3.98 years, 52% men). The participants were categorized as stable participants whose cognitive status remained unchanged (n = 60) and converted participants whose cognitive status deteriorated, which was diagnosed by DSM-VI (for AD) and Petersen's definition (for mild cognitive impairment) (n = 18). Here we show for the first time that the converted participants had greater reduction of RNFL thickness than the stable participants. Specifically, the reduction in the thickness of the inferior quadrant RNFL in the converted participants was greater than that in stable participants [-11.0 ± 12.8 (mean ± standard deviation) ?m versus 0.4 ± 15.7 ?m, p = 0.009]. These data showed that greater reduction in the inferior quadrant of RNFL thickness might indicate a higher risk for the old adults to develop cognitive deterioration. These findings have established a system to embark on a larger scale study to further test whether changes in RNFL thickness can serve as a biomarker of AD. PMID:24413621

  1. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  2. An index of reservoir habitat impairment.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Leandro E; Hunt, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and use type, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. PMID:20182913

  3. The Effects of Perceptual Encoding on the Magnitude of Object Working Memory Impairment in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Michael J.; Krastoshevsky, Olga; Tu, Xiawei; Mendell, Nancy R.; Levy, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Deficits in the visual working memory (WM) system have been consistently reported in schizophrenia patients, but the relative contribution of initial perceptual encoding to these deficits remains unsettled. We assessed the role of visual perceptual encoding on performance on an object WM task. Schizophrenia patients (N=37) and nonpsychiatric control subjects (N=33) were tested on an object WM task involving three delay periods: 200 msec, 3 sec, and 10 sec. Schizophrenia patients performed significantly less accurately than controls on all three conditions. However, after controlling for the effect of perceptual encoding (accuracy on the 200 msec delay condition) on performance in the two memory load conditions, schizophrenia patients demonstrated intact WM in the 3 sec delay condition, and showed a weak trend for decreased accuracy on the 10 sec delay compared with controls. Analysis of individual differences in pattern of performance revealed that a distinct subgroup of poor encoder patients had a significantly greater reduction in accuracy at 3 sec than the other patient subgroups and controls. In contrast, among schizophrenia patients who performed poorly on the 10 sec delay, accuracy was equivalently reduced independent of encoding ability. WM deficits in controls were independent of encoding ability at both delay intervals. These results indicate that encoding ability titrates the magnitude of WM impairment in schizophrenia patients but not in controls, and that heterogeneity has to be taken into account to correctly estimate the effects of perceptual encoding on visual object WM deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:22640637

  4. Greater Athens PM pollution: Local or regional origin;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pateraki, Stella; Maggos, Thomas; Assimakopoulos, Demosthenis; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Vasilakos, Christos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    During the last decades, the Particulate Matter (PM) pollution has become one of most challenging environmental problems worldwide. Along with their impact on global climate change and ecosystems, particles, especially for the smaller one, are indicated by numerous epidemiological studies to pose a great risk to human health with acute or long-term effects. Being located at the intersection of air masses circulating among three continents, the Mediterranean Basin is one of the areas heavily affected by aerosols with both natural and anthropogenic origin. Furthermore, the complex prevailing meteorology favours the aging of polluted air masses and induces high level of PM and photooxidant gases. In line with such scientific demands, the aim of the specific work is to elucidate the main characteristics of PM2.5 and PM1 nature (mass and chemical composition (Cl-, , SO , , K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, OC, EC)) of the Greater Athens Area (GAA) to elucidate the factors controlling the PM pollution and enable the policy makers to develop effective air quality remediation plans. Taking into consideration that PM measured at a specific site is the result of combined features and processes, at a local or a larger scale, as well as the air quality degradation by particulate matter over polluted areas which is often characterized by high levels of regional background aerosols, the main goal of this study is the identification and estimation of the local or regional contribution to the PM burden at GAA during different meteorological driven scenarios. Focusing on the changes in the prevailing atmospheric circulation patterns (mesoscale/synoptic wind regimes), a mass closure study of the available chemical species in conjunction with the observed PM mass is also attempted, in order to differentiate the relative contributions of the constituents. Special attention is also given to the high PM concentration (exceedances) days. The experimental campaign was held in parallel, during the period of 2008, at three sites of GAA. The monitoring stations were selected and positioned carefully, along the central axis (S-N) of the GAA representing rural background, roadside-industrialized and coastal/rural background locations. Our results indicate a significant contribution of regional pollution on PM levels measured at GAA.

  5. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kobbe, Philipp; Pfeifer, Roman; Campbell, Graeme C.; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Bergmann, Christian; Kadyrov, Mamed; Fischer, Horst; Glüer, Christian C.; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Pufe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35?mmHg for 90 minutes). Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-?) were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. ?CT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing. PMID:26106256

  6. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greater herbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences. PMID:26482702

  7. [The treatment of diabetes in patients with liver and renal impairment].

    PubMed

    Haluzík, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disease that may eventually lead to the development of chronic complications. In patients with type 2 diabetes, a simultaneous occurrence of liver or renal impairment is quite frequent. The presence of these diseases significantly increases the risk of hypoglycemia and in case of the renal impairment also the cardiovascular risk. At the same time, the options of antidiabetic treatment are markedly limited in particular in patients with more advanced impairment owing to the fact that numerous antidiabetic drugs are either metabolized or excreted by the liver or the kidney. In this paper, we focus on the treatment of diabetes in patients with renal or liver impairment including limitations of particular drugs and drug classes. We also briefly summarize the risks associated with renal or liver impairment with respect to antidiabetic treatment. PMID:25894259

  8. Unique contributions of individual eating disorder symptoms to eating disorder-related impairment.

    PubMed

    Hovrud, Lindsey; De Young, Kyle P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the unique contribution of individual eating disorder symptoms and related features to overall eating disorder-related impairment. Participants (N=113) from the community with eating disorders completed assessments including the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that 58.6% of variance in the CIA was accounted for by binge eating frequency, weight and shape concerns, and depression. These findings indicate that certain eating disorder symptoms uniquely account for impairment and that depression is a substantial contributor. It is possible that purging, restrictive eating, and body mass index did not significantly contribute to impairment because these features are consistent with many individuals' weight and shape goals. The results imply that eating disorder-related impairment may be more a result of cognitive features and binge eating rather than body weight and compensatory behaviors. PMID:26026614

  9. Speech Perception in Older Hearing Impaired Listeners: Benefits of Perceptual Training

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Doss, Zoe; Herron, Timothy J.; Arbogast, Tanya; Younus, Masood; Ettlinger, Marc; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    Hearing aids (HAs) only partially restore the ability of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners to understand speech in noise, due in large part to persistent deficits in consonant identification. Here, we investigated whether adaptive perceptual training would improve consonant-identification in noise in sixteen aided OHI listeners who underwent 40 hours of computer-based training in their homes. Listeners identified 20 onset and 20 coda consonants in 9,600 consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables containing different vowels (/?/, /i/, or /u/) and spoken by four different talkers. Consonants were presented at three consonant-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) spanning a 12 dB range. Noise levels were adjusted over training sessions based on d’ measures. Listeners were tested before and after training to measure (1) changes in consonant-identification thresholds using syllables spoken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers, and (2) sentence reception thresholds (SeRTs) using two different sentence tests. Consonant-identification thresholds improved gradually during training. Laboratory tests of d’ thresholds showed an average improvement of 9.1 dB, with 94% of listeners showing statistically significant training benefit. Training normalized consonant confusions and improved the thresholds of some consonants into the normal range. Benefits were equivalent for onset and coda consonants, syllables containing different vowels, and syllables presented at different SNRs. Greater training benefits were found for hard-to-identify consonants and for consonants spoken by familiar than unfamiliar talkers. SeRTs, tested with simple sentences, showed less elevation than consonant-identification thresholds prior to training and failed to show significant training benefit, although SeRT improvements did correlate with improvements in consonant thresholds. We argue that the lack of SeRT improvement reflects the dominant role of top-down semantic processing in processing simple sentences and that greater transfer of benefit would be evident in the comprehension of more unpredictable speech material. PMID:25730330

  10. Increased Strength and Physical Performance with Eccentric Training in Women with Impaired Glucose Tolerance: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    LaStayo, Paul C.; Dibble, Leland E.; Hill, Laura; McClain, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Menopause is associated with both a loss of muscle mass and a worsening of insulin sensitivity (IS). Although eccentric resistance exercise (ECC) can effectively improve muscle mass over time, a single bout of ECC can worsen IS. This study assessed the effect of repeated ECC on IS, muscle mass, and function in postmenopausal women with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). Methods Sixteen PM women (aged 56 years ± 6.4) with IGT were randomly assigned to a 12-week, knee extensor ECC program (n?=?10) or a nonexercise control group (CON) (n?=?6). Participants underwent hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, dual-energy x-ray (DEXA) absorptiometry, quadriceps strength assessment, 6-minute walk (6MW) tests, and an assessment of steps taken per day before and after training. Results ECC participants experienced greater increases in leg lean soft tissue mass (ECC, 0.41 kg; CON, ?0.53 kg; p?=?0.03), quadriceps strength (ECC, 9.3 kg force; CON, ?2.9 kg force; p?=?0.02), and 6MW distance (ECC, 56.4 meters; CON, 3.3 meters; p?=?0.03) than CON participants and demonstrated a trend toward more steps taken per day posttraining (ECC, +1747 steps; CON, +339 steps; p?=?0.10). IS was unchanged. Conclusions This novel exercise improves muscle mass and function without worsening IS in postmenopausal women with IGT. Because it can be performed at low levels of exertion and improves muscle mass and function without impairing IS, ECC should be used to ameliorate muscle loss in physically inactive postmenopausal women. The impact of longer-term ECC on IS should be investigated. Demonstrating that ECC does not worsen IS in this population is significant because it has promise to combat the muscle-mediated impairments common in aging women. PMID:19183097

  11. A key role for an impaired detoxification mechanism in the etiology and severity of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a syndrome with a number of etiologies and different mechanisms that lead to abnormal development. The identification of autism biomarkers in patients with different degrees of clinical presentation (i.e., mild, moderate and severe) will give greater insight into the pathogenesis of this disease and will enable effective early diagnostic strategies and treatments for this disorder. Methods In this study, the concentration of two toxic heavy metals, lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), were measured in red blood cells, while glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and vitamin E, as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, respectively, were measured in the plasma of subgroups of autistic patients with different Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores. The results were compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Results The obtained data showed that the patients with autism spectrum disorder had significantly higher Pb and Hg levels and lower GST activity and vitamin E concentrations compared with the controls. The levels of heavy metals (Hg and Pb), GST and vitamin E were correlated with the severity of the social and cognitive impairment measures (SRS and CARS). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis and predictiveness curves indicated that the four parameters show satisfactory sensitivity, very high specificity and excellent predictiveness. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that higher levels of Hg and Pb, together with lower levels of GST and vitamin E, can be used to predict social and cognitive impairment in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Conclusion This study confirms earlier studies that implicate toxic metal accumulation as a consequence of impaired detoxification in autism and provides insight into the etiological mechanism of autism. PMID:24776096

  12. Cognitive Impairment Assessment through Visuospatial Memory Can Be Performed with a Modified Walking Corsi Test Using the ‘Magic Carpet’

    PubMed Central

    Perrochon, Anaïck; Kemoun, Gilles; Dugué, Benoit; Berthoz, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Background Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have disturbances in their spatial navigation abilities and exhibit early deficits in visuospatial short-term memory. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a quantitative (span score) and qualitative (evaluating navigation strategies used) analysis of the Corsi test (usual condition and complex navigation task) would be useful to reveal cognitive decline. Methods We evaluated the performance of 15 young adults, 21 healthy elderly subjects and 15 subjects with MCI using the electronic version of the Corsi test (the Modified Corsi Block-Tapping Test, MCBT) and the complex navigation task (the Modified Walking Corsi Test, MWCT). The MWCT, which is an adaptation of the Corsi test, assesses spatial memory when the subject walks in a complex environment. We used Richard et al.'s model [Cogn Sci 1993;17:497-529] to investigate problem-solving strategies during the Corsi tests. Results The span scores obtained on the MCBT and the MWCT were significantly lower in the healthy elderly subjects (MCBT = 5.0 ± 0.7; MWCT = 4.0 ± 0.7) and the subjects with MCI (MCBT = 4.7 ± 0.8; MWCT = 4.1 ± 0.9) than in the younger adults (MCBT = 6.2 ± 0.6; MWCT = 5.3 ± 1.0). The visuospatial working memory was more impaired in the complex navigation task (MWCT = 4.3 ± 0.9) than in the modified Corsi test (MCBT = 5.3 ± 0.8). Finally, the subjects with greater cognitive impairment were more likely to have inadequate or absence of problem-solving strategies. Conclusions Investigating the problem-solving strategies used during the MWCT appears to be a promising way to differentiate between the subjects with MCI and the healthy elderly subjects. PMID:24575112

  13. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  14. ADULTS WITH DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY EXHIBIT IMPAIRMENTS IN MULTI-TASKING AND OTHER EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, Jason L.; Jernigan, Stephen D.; McDowd, Joan M.; Kluding, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) contributes to functional impairment, and there is growing evidence that neuropsychological factors also influence physical function. We compared cognitive and executive function in adults with DPN to an age-matched comparison group, and examined the relationships between DPN, executive function, and physical function. METHODS Twenty subjects with DPN and 20 comparison subjects were assessed. DPN was quantified via the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and nerve conduction velocity testing. Subjects were administered Beck’s Depression Inventory, the Mini Mental Status Examination, and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). Each participant also completed a battery of 7 executive function tasks, including the Cognitive Timed Up and Go test (cTUG), in which a concurrent mental subtraction task was added to the standard TUG test. RESULTS The DPN group demonstrated poorer letter fluency (34.2±11.6 vs. 46.2±12.2 words, p=0.001), category fluency (47.0±8.1 vs. 56.3±8.5 words, p=0.003), and Rey Osterrieth scores (25.9±4.3 vs. 31.7±2.4 points, p<0.001), and took longer to complete both the TUG (10.3±2.8 vs. 5.9±1.0 seconds, p<0.001) and cTUG (13.0±5.8 vs. 6.9±1.6 seconds, p<0.001). Poorer global cognitive performance and greater depression symptoms were significantly related to each other (r=?0.46, p=0.04) and to slower TUG times (r=?0.53, p=0.02 and 0.54, p=0.02, respectively). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Verbal, visuospatial, and multi-tasking measures of executive function may be impaired in adults with DPN. Future research should examine how these and other cognitive and psychological factors, such as depression, affect physical function in this population. PMID:24384943

  15. Neuropsychological impairment in acute HIV and the effect of immediate antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kore, Idil; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Valcour, Victor; Fletcher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Paul, Robert; Reynolds, Jesse; Tipsuk, Somporn; Ubolyam, Sasiwimol; Rattanamanee, Somprartthana; Jagodzinski, Linda; Kim, Jerome; Spudich, Serena

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate neuropsychological performance (NP) during acute HIV infection (AHI) before and after combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). DESIGN Prospective study of Thai AHI participants examined at 3 and 6 months following initiation of cART. METHODS 36 AHI participants were evaluated pre-cART at median 19 days since HIV exposure and 3 and 6 months after cART with the Grooved Pegboard test (GP), Color Trails 1 & 2 (CT1, CT2), and Trail Making Test A (TM). Raw scores were standardized to 251 age-and-education-matched HIV-uninfected Thais. To account for learning effects, change in NP performance was compared to that of controls at 6 months. Analyses included multivariable regression, non-parametric repeated measures ANOVA, and Mann-Whitney U test. RESULTS Baseline NP scores for the AHI group were within normal range (Z scores range: ?0.26 to ?0.13). NP performance improved on CT1, CT2, and TM in the initial 3 months (ps <0.01) with no significant change during the last 3 months. Only improvement in CT1 was greater than that seen in controls at 6 months (p=0.018). Participants that performed >1 standard deviation below normative means on >2 tests (n=8) exhibited higher baseline cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV RNA (p=0.047) and had no improvement after cART. CONCLUSIONS Most AHI individuals had normal NP performance and early cART slightly improved their psychomotor function. However, approximately 25% had impaired NP performance which correlated with higher CSF HIV RNA, and these abnormalities were not reversed by early cART possibly indicating limited reversibility of cognitive impairment in a subset of AHI individuals. PMID:26509933

  16. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  17. Subducted, detached, and torn slabs during early orogeny: evidence from deep earthquakes under the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumladze, T.; Forte, A. M.; Cowgill, E.; Trexler, C.; Niemi, N. A.; Kellogg, L. H.; Yikilmaz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Arabia-Eurasian collision is the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate the role that pre-suturing tectonism plays in defining the deformational response of the upper plate to continental collision and suturing. The Greater Caucasus Mountains, which define the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone between the Black and Caspian seas, result from late Cenozoic closure of the Greater Caucasus basin, a Mesozoic back-arc basin that opened during northward subduction of Neotethys beneath the Lesser Caucasus island arc. However, both the extent to which the basin closed by subduction and its original width remain controversial. Many previous estimates suggest that the basin was very narrow and that no subduction occurred during the formation of the Greater Caucasus. However, newly compiled earthquake locations show that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab. We assembled the new catalog of earthquake locations by combining earthquake records from local networks in Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan with previously published data. Our dataset includes records from 3820 events with magnitudes M>2. Visualization of the final catalogue in an immersive visualization environment at the UC Davis Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES) provides a clear image of a northeast-dipping zone of seismicity beneath the Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as the remnant of a subducted slab. Beneath the central Greater Caucasus (45°E), the zone of seismicity extends to a depth of at least 158 km and dips to the northeast at ~40°. In contrast, beneath the western GC (i.e., west of 45°E) there is a pronounced lack of events below 25 km, which we infer to reflect slab breakoff. We also observe a gap in intermediate-depth seismicity (30 to 60 km) at the western end of the subducted slab beneath the central Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as an eastward-propagating tear. This tear coincides with a region of minimum horizontal GPS convergence rates between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, as expected in a region of active slab breakoff. Evidence of subduction beneath the Greater Caucasus suggests that the relict back-arc basin was significantly wider than previously estimated. This further suggests that closure of this basin may have been an important mechanism for accommodating plate convergence in this nascent orogen and that the Greater Caucasus may represent a form of cryptic suture. Such relict-basin closure may also be an important, but overlooked process in the early stages of other orogens where it has proven difficult to reconcile total crustal shortening with estimates of total plate convergence.

  18. Impairment of Bone Health in Pediatric Patients with Hemolytic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Schündeln, Michael M.; Goretzki, Sarah C.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Wieland, Regina; Bauer, Jens; Baeder, Lena; Eggert, Angelika; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia result in impaired bone health in both adults and youths. Children with other types of chronic hemolytic anemia may also display impaired bone health. Study Design To assess bone health in pediatric patients with chronic hemolytic anemia, a cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 patients with different forms of hemolytic anemia (i.e., 17 homozygous sickle cell disease and 14 hereditary spherocytosis patients). Biochemical, radiographic and anamnestic parameters of bone health were assessed. Results Vitamin D deficiency with 25 OH-vitamin D serum levels below 20 ng/ml was a common finding (80.5%) in this cohort. Bone pain was present in 31% of patients. Analysis of RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin levels indicated an alteration in bone modeling with significantly elevated RANKL/OPG ratios (control: 0.08+0.07; patients: 0.26+0.2, P?=?0.0007). Osteocalcin levels were found to be lower in patients compared with healthy controls (68.5+39.0 ng/ml vs. 118.0+36.6 ng/ml, P?=?0.0001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant (P<0.025) influence of LDH (partial r2?=?0.29), diagnosis of hemolytic anemia (partial r2?=?0.05) and age (partial r2?=?0.03) on osteocalcin levels. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were more frequently and more severely affected by impaired bone health than patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Conclusion Bone health is impaired in pediatric patients with hemolytic anemia. In addition to endocrine alterations, an imbalance in the RANKL/OPG system and low levels of osteocalcin may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25299063

  19. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  20. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. PMID:25706833

  1. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, C; Quispe-Escudero, D; Mathur, A; Ernst, M

    2015-01-01

    As healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over two separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented neutral and negative pictures, with the instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, but not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotion reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. PMID:25706833

  2. Human Impairment from Living near Confined Animal (Hog) Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Kaye H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem. To determine whether neighbors around manure lagoons and massive hog confinement buildings who complained of offensive odors and symptoms had impaired brain and lung functions. Method. We compared near hog manure neighbors of lagoons to people living beyond 3 kilometers in Ohio and to unexposed people controls in a nearby state for neurophysiological, cognitive, recall and memory functions, and pulmonary performance. Results. The 25 exposed subjects averaged 4.3 neurobehavioral abnormalities, significantly different from 2.5 for local controls and 2.3 for Tennessee controls. Exposed subjects mean forced vital capacity and expiratory volume in 1?sec were reduced significantly compared to local and regional controls. Conclusions. Near neighbors of hog enclosures and manure lagoon gases had impaired neurobehavioral functions and pulmonary functions and these effects extended to nearby people thought to be controls. Hydrogen sulfide must be abated because people living near lagoons cannot avoid rotten egg gas. PMID:22496706

  3. Impaired motion detection preceding smooth eye movements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, W.; Steinbach, M. J.

    1972-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out that suggest that the observed psychophysical impairment of motion detection in man may not occur equally over the entire visual field. Instead, if impaired motion detection is a consequence of redirection of 'attention' to another portion of the visual field, then movement detection may be impaired the most in the fovea and the least in the region of the subsequent target.

  4. Effects of sulfur dioxide or ammonium sulfate exposure, alone or combined, for 4 or 8 months on normal and elastase-impaired rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.G.; Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.; Cannon, W.C.; Loscutoff, S.M.; Morris, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    Normal and lung-impaired rats were compared after exposure to SO2 and/or (NH4)2SO4 for 4 or 8 months, or for 8 months plus 3 months recovery. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated intratracheally with either physiologic saline (normal lungs) or porcine pancreatic elastase (impaired lungs). Rats from each pretreatment group were exposed to filtered air (control), to SO2 (1 ppm) or (NH4)2SO4 (0.5 mg/m3), or to combined SO2 + (NH4)2SO4 for 5 hr/day, 5 days/week. Morphologic, physiologic, and immunologic criteria were evaluated. At 4 months cellular immunologic responsiveness was not impaired, but physiologic changes were detected. Morphologic changes were apparent in all time periods. Elastase-induced changes included greater lung volumes, emphysema, and alveolar interstitial fibrosis. Pollutant effects included bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and changes in alveolar mean chord length (MCL). Relative to controls, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and MCL increased in saline/pollutant groups, but decreased in elastase/pollutant rats at 4 months. The pretreatment/pollutant interaction was not observed at 8 months. Elastase effects persisted throughout the recovery period. Pollutant effects were more transitory, although alveolar septal fibrosis was greater in saline/(NH4)2SO4 rats at 8 months. Pulmonary function changes associated with elastase included increases in residual volume, functional residual capacity, and the residual volume/total lung capacity ratios. The alveolar plateau of single-breath washout (N2 slope) was significantly steeper in elastase-treated rats but less steep in animals exposed to SO2 or to (NH4)2SO4 than in those exposed to air only.

  5. Delayed magnetic mismatch negativity field, but not auditory M100 response, in Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, T.P.L.; Heiken, K.; Kahn, S.Y.; Qasmieh, S.; Blaskey, L.; Solot, C.; Parker, W.A.; Verma, R; Edgar, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that electrophysiological markers of auditory processing such as the cortical 100ms response (M100) and the mismatch field (MMF), derived from magnetoencephalography (MEG), might be used to identify children with autism spectrum disorders - M100 peak latency - and to stratify children with autism according to the degree of language impairment – mismatch field peak latency. The present study examined the latencies of right superior temporal gyrus M100 and mismatch field in a cohort of children and young adolescents with specific language impairment (n=17), in comparison to age and non-verbal IQ matched typically developing controls (n=21). Neither group showed symptoms associated with autism. Whereas M100 latency (reflecting early auditory processing) did not distinguish controls from children with specific language impairment, the later “change detection” mismatch field response was significantly delayed (by >50ms) in the specific language impairment group. Linear discriminant analysis confirmed the role of mismatch field latency (92%) but not M100 latency (8%) in distinguishing groups. Present results add support to the claim that a delayed M100 is specific to autism spectrum disorders (with relative independence of degree of language impairment) and that a delayed mismatch field reflects an abnormality more generally associated with language impairment, suggesting that mismatch field delay in the present specific language impairment group and previously reported in autistic children with language impairment may be indicative of a common neural system dysfunction. PMID:22551948

  6. Apathy in Parkinson's disease: neurophysiological evidence of impaired incentive processing.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Horta, Saul; Riba, Jordi; de Bobadilla, Ramón Fernández; Pagonabarraga, Javier; Pascual-Sedano, Berta; Antonijoan, Rosa Maria; Romero, Sergio; Mañanas, Miquel Àngel; García-Sanchez, Carmen; Kulisevsky, Jaime

    2014-04-23

    Apathy is one of the most common and debilitating nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) and is characterized by diminished motivation, decreased goal-directed behavior, and flattened affect. Despite its high prevalence, its underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood, having been associated with executive dysfunction, and impaired emotional processing and decision making. Apathy, as a syndrome, has recently been associated with reduced activation in the ventral striatum, suggesting that early- to middle-stage Parkinson's disease patients with this manifestation may have a compromised mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic pathway and impaired incentive processing. To test this hypothesis, we measured the amplitude of the feedback-related negativity, an event-related brain potential associated with performance outcome valence, following monetary gains and losses in human PD patients (12 women) and healthy controls (6 women) performing a gambling task. Early- to middle-stage PD patients presenting clinically meaningful symptoms of apathy were compared with nonapathetic PD patients and healthy controls. Patients with cognitive impairment, depression, and other psychiatric disturbances were excluded. Results showed that the amplitude of the feedback-related negativity, measured as the difference wave in the event-related brain potential between gains and losses, was significantly reduced in PD patients with apathy compared with nonapathetic patients and healthy controls. These findings indicate impaired incentive processing and suggest a compromised mesocorticolimbic pathway in cognitively intact PD patients with apathy. PMID:24760851

  7. Impaired reticuloendothelial function in patients treated with methyldopa

    SciTech Connect

    Kelton, J.G.

    1985-09-05

    In about 20 per cent of patients taking the antihypertensive agent methyldopa, IgG autoantibodies form against red cells, but most such patients do not have hemolysis. The reason for this is uncertain; it does not appear to be explained by known characteristics of the autoantibody. Since antibody-dependent reticuloendothelial function is an important determinant of cell clearance, the authors measured reticuloendothelial function in nine patients taking methyldopa. They did this by measuring the rate of clearance of radiolabeled autologous red cells sensitized with anti-D alloantibody. Five patients had a positive direct antiglobulin test, and four did not. Only one patient had laboratory evidence of hemolysis. The patients without hemolysis had significantly impaired reticuloendothelial clearance. In contrast, the patient with hemolysis did not have impaired reticuloendothelial function. This study suggests that in patients taking methyldopa who have a positive direct antiglobulin test the absence of hemolysis may be caused by an impairment in reticuloendothelial function. That the drug itself may be responsible for the impairment is suggested by the occurrence of abnormal reticuloendothelial function in patients taking the drug who have a negative direct antiglobulin test.

  8. Emotion impairs extrinsic source memory--An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinrui; You, Yuqi; Li, Wen; Guo, Chunyan

    2015-09-01

    Substantial advancements in understanding emotional modulation of item memory notwithstanding, controversies remain as to how emotion influences source memory. Using an emotional extrinsic source memory paradigm combined with remember/know judgments and two key event-related potentials (ERPs)-the FN400 (a frontal potential at 300-500 ms related to familiarity) and the LPC (a later parietal potential at 500-700 ms related to recollection), our research investigated the impact of emotion on extrinsic source memory and the underlying processes. We varied a semantic prompt (either "people" or "scene") preceding a study item to manipulate the extrinsic source. Behavioral data indicated a significant effect of emotion on "remember" responses to extrinsic source details, suggesting impaired recollection-based source memory in emotional (both positive and negative) relative to neutral conditions. In parallel, differential FN400 and LPC amplitudes (correctly remembered - incorrectly remembered sources) revealed emotion-related interference, suggesting impaired familiarity and recollection memory of extrinsic sources associated with positive or negative items. These findings thus lend support to the notion of emotion-induced memory trade off: while enhancing memory of central items and intrinsic/integral source details, emotion nevertheless disrupts memory of peripheral contextual details, potentially impairing both familiarity and recollection. Importantly, that positive and negative items result in comparable memory impairment suggests that arousal (vs. affective valence) plays a critical role in modulating dynamic interactions among automatic and elaborate processes involved in memory. PMID:26213124

  9. Postcallosotomy language impairments in patients with crossed cerebral dominance.

    PubMed

    Sass, K J; Novelly, R A; Spencer, D D; Spencer, S S

    1990-01-01

    Language impairments were reviewed retrospectively in patients who underwent partial or total corpus callosum section for medically refractory secondary generalized epilepsy. Postoperatively, four of 32 patients had clinically significant language impairments that were not present prior to the operation. All involved primarily verbal output (speech and writing) and spared verbal comprehension. Written language skills (reading and spelling), verbal memory, and verbal reasoning abilities were impaired to varying degrees. These impairments were associated with crossed cerebral dominance. Three patients with severe difficulties after surgery were right hemisphere-dominant for speech and were right-handed. One left hemisphere speech-dominant, left-handed patient was agraphic after surgery, but spoke normally. It is concluded from these data and from other reports in the literature that three syndromes of language disturbance may follow callosotomy. The first, involving speech difficulty but but sparing writing, is attributable to buccofacial apraxia. The second involves speech and writing difficulties and occurs in right hemisphere-dominant right-handed patients. The third involves dysgraphia with intact speech and occurs in left hemisphere-dominant left-handed patients. PMID:2294190

  10. Soybean ?-Conglycinin Prevents Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tanigawa, Tohru; Shibata, Rei; Kondo, Kazuhisa; Katahira, Nobuyuki; Kambara, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoko; Nonoyama, Hiroshi; Horibe, Yuichiro; Ueda, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-01-01

    Obesity-related complications are associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment. ?-Conglycinin (?-CG), one of the main storage proteins in soy, offers multiple health benefits, including anti-obesity and anti-atherosclerotic effects. Here, to elucidate the potential therapeutic application of ?-CG, we investigated the effect of ?-CG on age-related hearing impairment. Male wild-type mice (age 6 months) were randomly divided into ?-CG-fed and control groups. Six months later, the body weight was significantly lower in ?-CG-fed mice than in the controls. Consumption of ?-CG rescued the hearing impairment observed in control mice. Cochlear blood flow also increased in ?-CG-fed mice, as did the expression of eNOS in the stria vascularis (SV), which protects vasculature. ?-CG consumption also ameliorated oxidative status as assessed by 4-HNE staining. In the SV, lipofuscin granules of marginal cells and vacuolar degeneration of microvascular pericytes were decreased in ?-CG-fed mice, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. ?-CG consumption prevented loss of spiral ganglion cells and reduced the frequencies of lipofuscin granules, nuclear invaginations, and myelin vacuolation. Our observations indicate that ?-CG ameliorates age-related hearing impairment by preserving cochlear blood flow and suppressing oxidative stress. PMID:26348726

  11. Low sleep efficiency in patients with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia-Ming; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Yuan, Rey-Yue; Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Liu, Hsing-Cheng; Hu, Chaur-Jong

    2009-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementias. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) indicates the situation that a person has memory complaints and mild objective cognitive impairment but no evidence of dementia. Sleep disturbance, one of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), frequently occurs in patients with AD or MCI. The alteration of sleep architectures in AD patients remains inconclusive. In this study, we conducted the polysomnography. (PSG) examination among patients with mild AD with cholinesterase inhibitors (N=10) or MCI (N=12) and age-matched nondemented controls (N=13). The results showed sleep efficiency, which was one of the important parameters for sleep quality was significantly lower in patients with MCI and AD (N=22), 79.14 +/- 11.06 % vs. 67.07 +/- 19.10 %, p=0.046. There were no statistic differences of sleep architecture but a trend of REM insufficiency in patients with MCI or AD. The mean scores of geriatric depression score (GDS) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) did not differ among the three groups. Our study implicated maintenance of sleep was impaired in patients with cognitive impairment and it was independent with depressive symptoms. PMID:19673360

  12. Long-Term Systemic Inflammation and Cognitive Impairment in a Population-Based Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Margarete A.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Carlsson, Cynthia M.; Chappell, Rick; Fischer, Mary E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Tsai, Michael Y.; Schubert, Carla R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Evidence suggests inflammation is associated with cognitive impairment, but previous epidemiological studies have reported conflicting results. DESIGN Prospective population-based cohort. SETTING Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study participants. PARTICIPANTS Individuals without cognitive impairment in 1998–2000 (N = 2,422; 1,947 with necessary data). MEASUREMENTS Cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score <24 or diagnosis of dementia) was ascertained in 1998–2000, 2003–2005, and 2009– 2010. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured in 1988–1990, 1998–2000, and 2009–2010; tumor necrosis factor-alpha was measured from 1998–2000. RESULTS Participants with high CRP in 1988–1990 and 1998–2000 had lower risk of cognitive impairment than those with low CRP at both time points (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26–0.80). Risk did not differ according to 10-year IL-6 profile or baseline inflammation category in the whole cohort. In sensitivity analyses restricted to statin nonusers, those with high IL-6 at both times had greater risk of cognitive impairment than those with low IL-6 at both times (HR = 3.35, 95% CI = 1.09–10.30). In secondary analyses, each doubling of IL-6 change over 20 years was associated with greater odds of cognitive impairment in 2009–2010 in the whole cohort (odds ratio (OR) = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.04–1.89), whereas a doubling of CRP change over 20 years was associated with cognitive impairment only in statin nonusers (OR = 1.32, 95% CI = 1.06–1.65). CONCLUSION With data collected over 20 years, this study demonstrated greater likelihood of cognitive impairment in individuals with repeated high or increasing IL-6. The inconsistent CRP findings may reflect effects of statin medications, survival effects, or adverse effects associated with chronically low CRP. Further studies of long-term inflammation and cognitive impairment are needed. PMID:25123210

  13. Seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations is greater in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum KL-6 is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, KL-6 has not been used to discriminate different types of ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations can vary depending on antigen exposure levels in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP); however, seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations in ILD have not been determined. We hypothesized that seasonal variation of serum KL-6 is greater in HP than for the other ILD. The aim of this study was to determine seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations in various ILD. Methods Serum KL-6 concentrations in the summer season from June 1 to September 30 and the winter season from November 1 to February 28 were retrospectively analyzed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n?=?16), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n?=?16), collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia (CVD-IP, n?=?33), house-related HP (House-HP, n?=?9), bird-related HP (Bird-HP, n?=?9), and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE, n?=?13). Results Bird-HP and House-HP showed greater seasonal serum KL-6 variation than the other ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations in Bird-HP were significantly increased in the winter and KL-6 concentrations in House-HP were significantly increased in the summer. Serum KL-6 variation was significantly greater in acute HP than chronic HP. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that greater seasonal variation in serum KL-6 concentrations is diagnostic for Bird-HP. Conclusion HP should be considered in ILD with greater seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations. PMID:25098177

  14. Life Science for Visually Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Larry; De Lucchi, Linda

    1979-01-01

    Describes life science activities for blind or visually impaired students including aquarium studies, plant germination, classroom animals, and outdoor activities designed with a multisensory approach. (MA)

  15. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  16. THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM VERSION 2.0 VOLUME III: USER'S MANUAL Eric Group (and especially Susanna Choy) for access to the TTS database and other technical support. #12 Directory Structure 19 4.1 gtamain.out Flowchart 23 LIST OF TABLES Page 2.1 Version 2.0 Databank Dimensions

  17. Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Don

    Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale Jean-Bernard Caron , Donald A and composition, ecological attributes, and environmental influences for the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale ecosystems further suggest the Burgess Shale community was probably highly dependent on immigration from

  18. Isolated fractures of the greater tuberosity of the proximal humerus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose The diagnosis and treatment of isolated greater tuberosity fractures of the proximal humerus is not clear-cut. We retrospectively assessed the clinical and radiographic outcome of isolated greater tuberosity fractures. Patients and methods 30 patients (mean age 58 (26–85) years, 19 women) with 30 closed isolated greater tuberosity fractures were reassessed after an average follow-up time of 3 years with DASH score and Constant score. Radiographic outcome was assessed on standard plain radiographs. Results 14 of 17 patients with undisplaced or slightly displaced fractures (? 5 mm) were treated nonoperatively and had good clinical outcome (mean DASH score of 13, mean Constant score of 71). 8 patients with moderately displaced fractures (6–10 mm) were either treated nonoperatively (n = 4) or operatively (n = 4), with good functional results (mean DASH score of 10, mean Constant score of 72). 5 patients with major displaced fractures (> 10 mm) were all operated with good clinical results (mean DASH score of 14, mean Constant score of 69). The most common discomfort at the follow-up was an impingement syndrome of the shoulder, which occurred in both nonoperatively treated patients (n = 3) and operatively treated patients (n = 4). Only 1 nonoperatively treated patient developed a non-union. By radiography, all other fractures healed. Interpretation We found that minor to moderately displaced greater tuberosity fractures may be treated successfully without surgery. PMID:21895502

  19. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  20. Extreme ultraviolet radiation with coherence time greater than 1 s

    E-print Network

    Extreme ultraviolet radiation with coherence time greater than 1 s Craig Benko1 *, Thomas K ultraviolet (XUV) where laser technology is limited and radiation sources have traditionally lacked long in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The workhorse of XUV and soft-X-ray science, synchrotron radiation6 , is both

  1. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  2. Governing Greater Boston: Meeting the Needs of the Region's People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euchner, Charles C., Ed.

    This paper asserts that if a single theme prevails in the story of Greater Boston's new immigration, it is diversity. No single group dominates in metro Boston. Diversity in country of origin is compounded by differences in ethnicity, socioeconomic background, legal status, and language. Issues of particular salience to immigrant communities…

  3. Conifer Cover Increase in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Frequency,

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Conifer Cover Increase in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Frequency, Rates, and Spatial in the extent of conifer forest cover. Meanwhile, conifer forests in unburned parts of the GYE have contin- ued to increase in extent and density. Conifer cover increase has been well documented by repeat his- torical

  4. WEST NILE VIRUS: PENDING CRISIS FOR GREATER SAGE-GROUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a ...

  5. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Anita N.; Moyo, Freeman

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26272573

  6. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  7. Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

  8. Obstructive jaundice: a rare complication of laparoscopic greater curvature plication

    PubMed Central

    Almulaifi, Abdullah; Mohammad, Waleed M.

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic greater curvature plication (LGCP) is relatively a new procedure. We report a novel complication of obstructive jaundice in a 24-year-old patient post LGCP. This was secondary to gastric mucosa prolapse with obstruction of the ampulla of Vater. A literature review revealed no previous reports of similar complication. PMID:24964469

  9. Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago Internship Announcement

    E-print Network

    Guo, Dongning

    on wastewater operation related thesis research projects such as developing ways to culture and genetically manipulate a wide range of microorganisms for wastewater treatment, nutrient removal, biofuel generation of Greater Chicago 111 E. Erie Street Attn: Tové Powell, HR Dept-Employee Development Chicago, IL 60611

  10. Fast Cryptography in Genus 2 (Two is Greater than One)

    E-print Network

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Fast Cryptography in Genus 2 (Two is Greater than One) Joppe W. Bos1, Craig Costello1 , Huseyin techniques to realize genus 2 based cryptography, which includes fast formulas on the Kummer surface, elliptic curve cryptography [40, 49] has become a popular and standardized approach to instantiate public

  11. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 416...SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness...Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another...

  12. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 416...SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness...Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another...

  13. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 416...SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness...Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another...

  14. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 416...SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness...Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another...

  15. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 416...SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness...Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another...

  16. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe...

  17. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe...

  18. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe...

  19. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe...

  20. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new severe...

  1. Functional MRI detection of pharmacologically induced memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Reisa; Greve, Douglas; Dale, Anders; Killiany, Ronald; Holmes, Jennifer; Rosas, H Diana; Cocchiarella, Andrew; Firth, Paul; Rosen, Bruce; Lake, Stephen; Lange, Nicholas; Routledge, Carol; Albert, Marilyn

    2002-01-01

    To examine alterations in brain activation associated with pharmacologically induced memory impairment, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to study the effects of lorazepam and scopolamine on a face-name associative encoding paradigm. Ten healthy young subjects were scanned on four occasions, 2 weeks apart; they were administered i.v. saline during two placebo-scanning sessions and then alternately administered i.v. lorazepam (1 mg) or scopolamine (0.4 mg) in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design. Both the extent and magnitude of activation within anatomic regions of interest (ROIs) were examined to determine the reproducibility of activation in the placebo sessions and the regional specificity of the pharmacologic effects. Activation within all ROIs was consistent across the two placebo scans during the encoding of novel face-name pairs (compared with visual fixation). With the administration of either lorazepam or scopolamine, significant decreases were observed in both the extent and magnitude of activation within the hippocampal, fusiform, and inferior prefrontal ROIs, but no significant alterations in activation in the striate cortex were found. Both medications impaired performance on postscan memory measures, and significant correlations between memory performance and extent of activation were found in hippocampal and fusiform ROIs. These findings suggest that pharmacologic effects can be detected with fMRI by using a reproducible experimental paradigm and that medications that impair memory also diminish activation in specific brain regions thought to subserve complex memory processes. PMID:11756667

  2. [Directional hearing of unilaterally hearing impaired--especially sense of sound direction in monaural hearing impairment and monaural deafness].

    PubMed

    Oikawa, T

    1990-03-01

    I. OBJECTIVE. The present study was undertaken in order to determine the onset of monaural deafness, especially whether it is congenital or acquired, making an investigation into the sense of sound direction in monaural hearing impairment and monaural deafness and comparing them between hearing-impaired patients and normal hearers. II. SUBJECTS. This study was carried out on 26 patients with monaural hearing impairment, 22 patients with monaural deafness and 10 normal hearers. III. METHODS. A circle with a radius of 1.3m was drawn around a fixed patient's position in a sound proof room, and the circle was divided into 16 directions at an equal angle of 22.5 degrees. A blindfolded hearer was instructed to listen to a speaker for white noise of 60dB (A) for one second and verbally answer in which direction he heard the noise. The normal hearers were tested in 4-, 8-, and 16-directions, and the hearing-impaired patients were tested in only 8-directions. IV. RESULTS. 1. Normal Hearers The rate of correct answers decreased with increasing directions of sound. The incorrect answers in 4-direction testing were only confusion between forward and backward directions, and similar incorrect answers were made in 8- and 16-direction testing. All other incorrect answers were errors of less than 45 degrees. 2. Monaurally Hearing-impaired Patients The rate of correct answers on the whole was low. There was such a relationship between the rate of correct answers and the mean hearing level of patients that the total rate of correct answers decreased with increasing hearing impairment. This correlation was statistically significant, and there was a still more significant correlation between the degree of hearing impairment and the rate of correct answers as to the right and left directions. Incorrect answers were errors of 90 degrees or less on the healthy side, while errors were made for all directions on the affected side. 3. Monaurally Deaf Patients The rate of correct answers was by far lower on the affected side. Whereas many errors were within 45 degrees on the healthy side, errors were made for all directions on the affected side. Judging from the onset of hearing loss, the monaurally deaf patients were divided into a group of 8 patients who obviously had sudden acquired deafness and a group of 9 patients who were presumed to have congenital monaural deafness. The mean rate of correct answers of the former group was superior to the latter group's, particularly on the effected side. PMID:2352043

  3. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in children and adolescents: symptomatology, impairment and quality of life.

    PubMed

    De Caluwé, Elien; De Clercq, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Although the "presence of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms" and "OC-related impairment" are the main criteria to diagnose obsessive-compulsive disorder, the significance of symptomatology versus impairment in explaining quality of life remains unclear. The present study relies on two samples including 462 children (8-11 years old) and 265 children and adolescents (10-17 years old) and explores how self-ratings of specific OC symptoms and OC impairment are associated with father ratings of childhood quality of life. Hierarchical regression analysis was used to investigate the additive effect of OC impairment beyond OC symptomatology (and vice versa) in predicting quality of life. The results demonstrated that specific OC symptoms and OC impairment are differentially related to quality of life, underscoring the additive value of OC impairment beyond OC symptomatology, whereas the reverse was not the case. This finding highlights the importance of measuring impairment besides symptomatology to identify those OC features in childhood that are most significantly related to decreased quality of life. PMID:25672655

  4. Meiotic Nondisjunction: Insights into the Origin and Significance of Aneuploidy in Human Spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Ioannou, Dimitrios; Tempest, Helen G

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome aneuploidy refers to changes in the chromosome complement of a genome and can include gain or loss of genetic material. The human genome is delicately balanced, and for the most part perturbations in the chromosome complement are often incompatible with embryonic development. The importance and clinical relevance of paternally derived aneuploidy is often overshadowed by the large maternal contribution; as a result, the paternal contribution to pregnancy loss due to chromosome aneuploidy is rarely considered within the clinic. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest that certain men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy, which is mirrored by an increase in aneuploidy within their embryos and offspring. Therefore, the paternal contribution to aneuploidy at least for some individuals may have greater clinical significance than is currently perceived. Thus, the main focus of this chapter is to provide insights into the origin and clinical relevance of paternally derived aneuploidy. Furthermore, this section will review the general mechanisms through which aneuploidy arises during spermatogenesis and how numerical (whole chromosome) and structural chromosome aberrations (cytogenetically visible or submicroscopic) may lead to clinically relevant aneuploidy potentially resulting in pregnancy loss, congenital malformations, and cognitive impairment. PMID:26178843

  5. Blood alcohol and impairment of judgment.

    PubMed

    Pohl, J E

    1978-07-01

    1. The cerebral depressant effect of 30 ml of aqueous ethanol diluted to 25% and administered orally to 16 volunteer subjects was compared with a control group of 15 volunteer subjects. 2. The two parallel forms of the Watson--Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal tests were employed as a measure of cerebral function. 3. The control group showed a small but statistically insignificant improvement on retesting with Watson--Glaser test form ZM after preliminary administration of form YM. 4. The relationship between the blood alcohol time curve and the alcohol effect was analysed for each individual subject, each subject being used as his own control. 5. The main peak cerebral depressant effect was substantial and occurred on average 25.5 min before the attainment of the peak blood alcohol concentration. 6. There was no significant correlation between blood alcohol concentration and contemporaneous cerebral impairment (r = -0.01). 7. There was a highly significant correlation (r = 0.60) between the effect upon cerebral function and the gradient of the blood alcohol curve at that time. PMID:668268

  6. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint. PMID:20221997

  7. A Depressive Endophenotype of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Leigh A.; Hall, James R.; O’Bryant, Sid E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating public health problem that affects over 5.4 million Americans. Depression increases the risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and AD. By understanding the influence of depression on cognition, the potential exists to identify subgroups of depressed elders at greater risk for cognitive decline and AD. The current study sought to: 1) clinically identify a sub group of geriatric patients who suffer from depression related cognitive impairment; 2) cross validate this depressive endophenotype of MCI/AD in an independent cohort. Methods and Findings Data was analyzed from 519 participants of Project FRONTIER. Depression was assessed with the GDS30 and cognition was assessed using the EXIT 25 and RBANS. Five GDS items were used to create the Depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD (DepE). DepE was significantly negatively related to RBANS index scores of Immediate Memory (B=-2.22, SE=.37, p<0.001), visuospatial skills (B=-1.11, SE=0.26, p<0.001), Language (B=-1.03, SE=0.21, p<0.001), Attention (B=-2.56, SE=0.49, p<0.001), and Delayed Memory (B=-1.54, SE = 037, p<0.001), and higher DepE scores were related to poorer executive functioning (EXIT25; B=0.65, SE=0.19, p=0.001). DepE scores significantly increased risk for MCI diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% CI=1.54-2.69). Data from 235 participants in the TARCC (Texas Alzheimer’s Research & Care Consortium) were analyzed for cross-validation of findings in an independent cohort. The DepE was significantly related to poorer scores on all measures, and a significantly predicted of cognitive change over 12- and 24-months. Conclusion The current findings suggest that a depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD exists and can be clinically identified using the GDS-30. Higher scores increased risk for MCI and was cross-validated by predicting AD in the TARCC. A key purpose for the search for distinct subgroups of individuals at risk for AD and MCI is to identify novel treatment and preventative opportunities. PMID:23874786

  8. The spatiotemporal distributions and determinants of ambient fungal spores in the Greater Taipei area.

    PubMed

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Tsai, Ying-Jie; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Wu, Chih-Da; Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Chen, Pang-Cheng; Chompuchan, Chuphan; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2015-09-01

    Airborne fungal spores, a type of bioaerosols, are significant air pollutants. We conducted a study to determine the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient fungi in the Greater Taipei area and develop land use regression (LUR) models for total and major fungal taxa. Four seasonal sampling campaigns were conducted over a year at 44 representative sites. Multiple regressions were performed to construct the LUR models. Ascospores were the most prevalent category, followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium, basidiospores, and Cladosporium. The highest fungal concentrations were found in spring. According to the LUR models, higher concentrations of Aspergillus/Penicillium and basidiospores were respectively present in residential/commercial areas and in areas with shorter road lengths. Various meteorological factors, particulates with aerodynamic diameters of ?10 ?m, and elevation also had significant relationships with fungal concentrations. The LUR models developed in this study can be used to assess spatiotemporal fungal distribution in the Greater Taipei area. PMID:25969377

  9. Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson Patients

    E-print Network

    Gluck, Mark

    Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson. Gluck, PhDw Abstract: In a study of acquired equivalence in Parkinson disease (PD), in which patients that anticholinergic drugs may particularly impair cognitive abilities that depend on the MT lobe. Key Words: Parkinson

  10. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 404...Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s...or severe enough so that you are still disabled under § 404.1594. [50 FR...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 404...Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s...or severe enough so that you are still disabled under § 404.1594. [50 FR...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 404...Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s...or severe enough so that you are still disabled under § 404.1594. [50 FR...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 404...Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s...or severe enough so that you are still disabled under § 404.1594. [50 FR...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 404...Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s...or severe enough so that you are still disabled under § 404.1594. [50 FR...

  15. Correlates of impaired mother-infant bonding in a partial hospital program for perinatal women.

    PubMed

    Sockol, Laura E; Battle, Cynthia L; Howard, Margaret; Davis, Thamara

    2014-10-01

    Maternal psychopathology is a risk factor for impaired mother-infant bonding, but not all women with this illness experience impaired bonding. This study investigated correlates of mother-infant bonding among 180 postpartum women treated in a psychiatric partial hospitalization program. Women completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms and mother-infant bonding, and a retrospective chart review assessed demographic characteristics, clinician-rated diagnoses, and obstetric factors. Symptoms of depression, self-reported suicidality, demographic characteristics, and mode of delivery were significantly associated with impaired bonding. PMID:24643421

  16. Thresholds for impaired species recovery

    PubMed Central

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, rrealized, a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (Nmax), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals. Articulation of a ‘recovering population paradigm’ would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739

  17. Thresholds for impaired species recovery.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-22

    Studies on small and declining populations dominate research in conservation biology. This emphasis reflects two overarching frameworks: the small-population paradigm focuses on correlates of increased extinction probability; the declining-population paradigm directs attention to the causes and consequences of depletion. Neither, however, particularly informs research on the determinants, rate or uncertainty of population increase. By contrast, Allee effects (positive associations between population size and realized per capita population growth rate, r(realized), a metric of average individual fitness) offer a theoretical and empirical basis for identifying numerical and temporal thresholds at which recovery is unlikely or uncertain. Following a critique of studies on Allee effects, I quantify population-size minima and subsequent trajectories of marine fishes that have and have not recovered following threat mitigation. The data suggest that threat amelioration, albeit necessary, can be insufficient to effect recovery for populations depleted to less than 10% of maximum abundance (N(max)), especially when they remain depleted for lengthy periods of time. Comparing terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates, life-history analyses suggest that population-size thresholds for impaired recovery are likely to be comparatively low for marine fishes but high for marine mammals.Articulation of a 'recovering population paradigm' would seem warranted. It might stimulate concerted efforts to identify generic impaired recovery thresholds across species. It might also serve to reduce the confusion of terminology, and the conflation of causes and consequences with patterns currently evident in the literature on Allee effects, thus strengthening communication among researchers and enhancing the practical utility of recovery-oriented research to conservation practitioners and resource managers. PMID:26213739

  18. Prevalence of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult EMS Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish N.; Jones, Courtney M. C.; Richardson, Thomas M.; Conwell, Yeates; Katz, Paul; Schneider, Sandra M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To characterize the proportion of older adult ED patients with depression or cognitive impairment. To compare the prevalence of depression or cognitive impairment among ED patients arriving via EMS, as compared to other modes. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age?60) presenting to an academic medical center ED were interviewed. Participants provided demographic and clinical information, and were evaluated for depression and cognitive impairment. Subjects arriving via EMS were compared to those arriving via other modes using the chi-square test, t-test, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test, where appropriate. Results Consent was obtained from 1342 eligible older adults; 695 (52%) arrived via EMS. The median age for those arriving via EMS was 74 (IQR 65, 82), 52% were female, 81% white. 15% of EMS patients had moderate or greater depression, as compared to 14% of patients arriving via other modes (p=0.52). 13% of EMS patients had cognitive impairment, as compared to 8% arriving via other modes (p<0.01). Depressed EMS patients frequently reported a history of depression (47%) and taking antidepressants (51%). Cognitively impaired EMS patients infrequently reported a history of dementia (16%) or taking medications for dementia (14%). Conclusions In this cohort of community-dwelling older adult ED patients depression and cognitive impairment were common. As compared to ED patients arriving by other transport means, patients arriving via EMS had similar prevalence of depression but an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment. Screening for depression and cognitive impairment by EMS providers may have value, but needs further investigation. PMID:20977363

  19. Stereotype threat can enhance, as well as impair, older adults’ memory

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults’ memory; however, the mechanisms underlying this are unclear. In two experiments we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts: executive control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about their memory or not. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall either led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive control interference account predicts that threat decreases the availability of executive control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus. Because of this threat should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were only consistent with the regulatory fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults’ working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses. PMID:24150969

  20. Providing Hearing-Impaired Students with Learning Care after Classes through Smart Phones and the GPRS Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Hong, Yi-Ching

    2007-01-01

    Although computers and network technology have been widely utilised to assist students learn, few technical supports have been developed to help hearing-impaired students learn in Taiwan. A significant challenge for teachers is to provide after-class learning care and assistance to hearing-impaired students that sustain their motivation to…

  1. An Alternative Option to Dedicated Braille Notetakers for People with Visual Impairments: Universal Technology for Better Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sunggye

    2012-01-01

    Technology provides equal access to information and helps people with visual impairments to complete tasks more independently. Among various assistive technology options for people with visual impairments, braille notetakers have been considered the most significant because of their technological innovation. Braille notetakers allow users who are…

  2. The Effectiveness of Sensory Integration Activities on Language Processing in Preschoolers Who Are Sensory and Language Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Moira A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Nine children participated in one of three groups: children diagnosed as both sensory and language impaired, children diagnosed as language impaired, and normally developing children matched for language level. Sensory integration activities prior to language intervention resulted in significant changes on the Battelle Developmental Inventory for…

  3. Greater amberjack Fsh, Lh, and their receptors: Plasma and mRNA profiles during ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kazeto, Yukinori; Izumida, Daisuke; Tani, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hamada, Kazuhisa; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Gen, Koichiro; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Okuzawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    To understand the endocrine regulation of ovarian development in a multiple spawning fish, the relationship between gonadotropins (Gths; follicle-stimulating hormone [Fsh] and luteinizing hormone [Lh]) and their receptors (Gthrs; Fshr and Lhr) were investigated in greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili). cDNAs encoding the Gth subunits (Fsh?, Lh?, and glycoprotein ? [Gp?]) and Gthrs were cloned. The in vitro reporter gene assay using recombinant hormones revealed that greater amberjack Fshr and Lhr responded strongly to their own ligands. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for measuring greater amberjack Fsh and Lh. Anti-Fsh and anti-Lh antibodies were raised against recombinant chimeric single-chain Gths consisting of greater amberjack Fsh? (or Lh?) with rabbit GP?. The validation study showed that the ELISAs were precise (intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation, <10%) and sensitive (detection limit of 0.2ng/ml for Fsh and 0.8ng/ml for Lh) with low cross-reactivity. A good parallelism between the standard curve and serial dilutions of greater amberjack plasma and pituitary extract were obtained. In female greater amberjack, pituitary fshb, ovarian fshr, and plasma E2 gradually increased during ovarian development, and plasma Fsh significantly increased during the post-spawning period. This suggests that Fsh plays a role throughout ovarian development and during the post-spawning period. Pituitary lhb, ovarian lhr, and plasma Lh were high during the spawning period, suggesting that the synthesis and secretion of Lh, and Lhr expression are upregulated to induce final oocyte maturation and ovulation. PMID:26519759

  4. Trajectories of Work-Related Functional Impairment prior to Suicide

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Work-related functional impairment in terms of sickness absence and disability pension (SA/DP) has been reported to be associated with subsequent suicide. However, there is only limited knowledge on SA/DP patterns prior to suicide. The aim was to identify trajectories of work-related functional impairment prior to suicide and to describe associations of socio-demographic and medical factors with such trajectories. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study of the 4 209 individuals aged 22–65 years who committed suicide during 2007–2010 in Sweden. Work-related functional impairment was measured as mean annual number of months of SA/DP. We analyzed trajectories of SA/DP during five years prior to suicide (i.e., 2002–2009) by a group-based trajectory method. Associations between socio-demographic and medical factors with different groups of trajectories were estimated by chi2-test and multinomial logistic regression. Results Five different functional impairment trajectory groups were identified prior to suicide. One group had constant low levels of SA/DP (46%), while 30% had constant high levels of SA/DP. Two groups (16%) showed increasing number of SA/DP months. The remaining 7% showed decreasing number of SA/DP months before the suicide. Sex, age, educational level, family situation, and diagnosis-specific healthcare were significantly associated with different trajectory groups (Likelihood ratio X2 tests <0.05). A larger proportion of higher educated and younger men with a lower proportion of previous suicide attempts were found in the group with constant low levels. Opposite characteristics were displayed in the group with constant high levels. Conclusions This study identified five different groups of work-related functional impairment trajectories before suicide. These differences might be partly explained by the variations in socio-demographic profiles and health care consumptions five years before suicide. PMID:26444997

  5. Prefrontal cortex stroke induces delayed impairment in spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lisa Y Y; Wright, Tim E; Clarkson, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of long-term disability. Little is known about the effects of stroke on cognitive deficits. The subtle nature of cognition and its respective domains in areas such as working memory and attention can make this difficult to diagnose and treat. We aimed to establish a model of focal ischemia that targets the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and induce memory impairments. Stroke and sham mice were assessed at one and four-weeks post-stroke on various tests: open-field task to assess activity; grid-walk and cylinder task to assess motor impairments; elevated plus maze to assess anxiety; novel-object and object-location recognition tasks to assess memory impairment. Stroke mice in the open-field showed a small increase in activity with no effects on gross motor tasks or anxiety levels (P?0.05) at one and four-weeks post-stroke. Assessment of stroke mice on the novel object task showed no differences at either one or four-weeks compared to sham mice (P?0.05). However, assessment of stroke mice on the object-location recognition task revealed a significant (P?0.05) impairment in spatial memory by four-weeks compared to controls. Further, we show that stroke results in a small decrease in volume of the medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus (P?0.05). This is the first evidence that demonstrates stroke to the PFC results in delayed onset impairment in spatial memory, similar to findings in human epidemiological data. We suggest that this model may be a useful tool in assessing potential rehabilitative/cognitive therapies after stroke. PMID:26306825

  6. Verbal learning impairment in euthymic bipolar disorder: BDI v BDII

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Corin; Bilderbeck, Amy; Drennan, Rebecca; Atkinson, Lauren; Price, Jonathan; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Cognitive impairment is known to occur in bipolar disorder (BD), even in euthymic patients, with largest effect sizes often seen in Verbal Learning and Memory Tasks (VLT). However, comparisons between BD Type-I and Type-II have produced inconsistent results partly due to low sample sizes. Methods This study compared the performance of 183 BDI with 96 BDII out-patients on an adapted version of the Rey Verbal Learning Task. Gender, age, years of education, mood scores and age at onset were all used as covariates. Current medication and a variety of illness variables were also investigated for potential effects on VLT performance. Results BDI patients were significantly impaired relative to BDII patients on all five VLT outcome measures after controlling for the other variables [Effect Sizes=.13–.17]. The impairments seem to be unrelated to drug treatment and largely unrelated to illness variables, although age of onset affected performance on three outcome measures and number of episodes of mood elevation affected performance on one. Limitations This study used historical healthy controls. Analysis of potential drug effects was limited by insufficient participants not being drug free. Cross-sectional nature of the study limited the analysis of the potential effect of illness variables. Conclusions This study replicates earlier findings of increased verbal learning impairment in BDI patients relative to BDII in a substantially larger sample. Such performance cannot be wholly explained by medication effects or illness variables. Thus, the cognitive impairment is likely to reflect a phenotypic difference between bipolar sub-types. PMID:25983304

  7. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  8. PERCENT OF IMPAIRED WATERS - 1998 IWI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Importance of Clean Water Act Section 303(d) Listing Information Section 303(d) waters show water quality standards impairments or threats to the attainment of beneficial uses or anti-degradation provisions. This map is a representation of threatened and impaired streams, rivers,...

  9. Orientating Children in Regular Schools towards Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, P. P.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses audio-visual material and other education techniques which eventually may facilitate the integration of children with mental, physical, and sensory impairments in the regular classroom. Films, radio texts, theater plays, and books are considered. Emphasis is on the introduction of impairments to the nonhandicapped population.…

  10. Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

  11. Identification of Adults with Developmental Language Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Lesley J.; Plante, Elena; Vance, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of a wide range of language measures (phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics) for the identification of adults with developmental language impairment. Method: Measures were administered to 3 groups of adults, each representing a population expected to demonstrate high levels of language impairment, and to…

  12. Dual-Retrieval Models and Neurocognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Gomes, C. F. A.; Kenney, A. E.; Gross, C. J.; Taub, E. S.; Spreng, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in dual-retrieval models of recall make it possible to use clinical data to test theoretical hypotheses about mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD), the most common forms of neurocognitive impairment. Hypotheses about the nature of the episodic memory declines in these diseases, about decline versus sparing of…

  13. Counseling the Chronically Health Impaired Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brian, Comp.; And Others

    The role of counselors in working with chronically health impaired students is examined, and illustrations of the Chronic Health Impaired/Sickle Cell Anemia Program in Baltimore (MD) are presented. The importance of setting goals with the student is underlined, as is the necessity for counselors to have proper flexibility and time to devote to…

  14. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  15. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  16. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  17. Does Aggressive Phototherapy Increase Mortality while Decreasing Profound Impairment among the Smallest and Sickest Newborns?

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Jon E; Pedroza, Claudia; Langer, John; Green, Charles; Morris, Brenda; Stevenson, David; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Oh, William; Phelps, Dale; O’Shea, Michael; McDavid, Georgia E.; Grisby, Cathy; Higgins, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Objective Aggressive phototherapy (AgPT) is widely used and assumed to be safe and effective for even the most immature infants. We assessed whether the benefits and hazards for the smallest and sickest infants differed from those for other extremely low birth weight (ELBW; (?1000 g) infants in our Neonatal Research Network trial, the only large trial of AgPT. Study Design ELBW infants (n=1974) were randomized to AgPT or conservative phototherapy at age 12–36 hours. The effect of AgPT on outcomes (death; impairment; profound impairment; death or impairment [primary outcome], and death or profound impairment) at 18–22 months corrected age was related to BW stratum (501–750 g; 751–1000 g) and baseline severity of illness using multilevel regression equations. The probability of benefit and of harm was directly assessed with Bayesian analyses. Results Baseline illness severity was well characterized using mechanical ventilation and FiO2 at 24 hours age. Among mechanically ventilated infants ?750 g BW (n =684), a reduction in impairment and in profound impairment was offset by higher mortality (p for interaction <0.05) with no significant effect on composite outcomes. Conservative Bayesian analyses of this subgroup identified a 99% (posterior) probability that AgPT increased mortality, a 97% probability that AgPT reduced impairment, and a 99% probability that AgPT reduced profound impairment. Conclusions Findings from the only large trial of AgPT suggest that AgPT may increase mortality while reducing impairment and profound impairment among the smallest and sickest infants. New approaches to reduce their serum bilirubin need development and rigorous testing. PMID:22652561

  18. Visual impairment, visual functioning, and quality of life assessments in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine the relation between visual impairment, visual functioning, and the global quality of life in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Visual impairment, defined with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment; visual functioning, measured with the VF-14 and the Field Test Version of the National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); and the global quality of life, assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), were determined in 147 consecutive patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: None of the SF-36 domains demonstrated more than a weak correlation with visual impairment. The VF-14 scores were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual field impairment; vision specific social functioning, near activities, vision specific role difficulties, general vision, vision specific mental health, color vision, and driving were modestly correlated; visual pain was weakly correlated; and two were not significantly correlated. Correcting for visual actuity weakened the strength of the correlation coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36 is unlikely to be useful in determining visual impairment in patients with glaucoma. Based on the moderate correlation between visual field impairment and the VF-14 score, this questionnaire may be generalizable to patients with glaucoma. Several of the NEI-VFQ scales correlate with visual field impairment scores in patients with a wide range of glaucomatous damage. PMID:8981717

  19. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  20. Impaired color discrimination among viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Raitta, C.; Teir, H.; Tolonen, M.; Nurminen, M.; Helpioe, E.M.; Malmstroem, S.

    1981-03-01

    A possible effect of chronic carbon disulfide exposure on the optic nerve was studied by giving the Farnsworth Munsell 100-Hue Test for color discrimination to 62 exposed and 40 nonexposed men. Carbon disulfide exposure did not relate to specific pattern defects in color discrimination, but impaired color discrimination occurred significantly more often in the exposed group than among the referents. The abnormal findings suggest an impairment in the receptiveness of the ganglion cells or demyelination of the optic nerve fibers.

  1. Emotional face processing in post-traumatic stress disorder after reconsolidation impairment using propranolol: A pilot fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, Megan; Tucholka, Alan; Shin, Lisa M; Etienne, Pierre; Brunet, Alain

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit exaggerated emotional reactions to threatening stimuli, which may represent deregulated fear-conditioning, associated with long-term adaptations in the sympathetic nervous system. Within a repeated measures design, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to investigate neural responses to threat in PTSD participants (N=7), during the presentation of emotional facial expressions. Scans were separated by 6 weekly reconsolidation impairment treatment sessions, consisting of traumatic memory reactivation under the influence of propranolol. Greater activation before versus after treatment emerged in the thalamus and amygdala during fearful versus neutral face processing. Furthermore, participants showed greater activation after versus before treatment in the right anterior cingulate, during fearful relative to happy face processing. PTSD symptoms significantly improved (d=1.75), post-treatment. These preliminary results suggest that aberrant emotional responding is modulated by noradrenergic plasticity within the amygdala-prefrontal cortex circuit, a neural substrate for the pharmacological treatment of PTSD. PMID:26551661

  2. Meniscal root tears: significance, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    Meniscal root tears, less common than meniscal body tears and frequently unrecognized, are a subset of meniscal injuries that often result in significant knee joint disorders. The meniscus root attachment aids meniscal function by securing the meniscus in place and allowing for optimal shock-absorbing function in the knee. With root tears, meniscal extrusion often occurs, and the transmission of circumferential hoop stresses is impaired. This alters knee biomechanics and kinematics and significantly increases tibiofemoral contact pressure. In recent years, meniscal root tears, which by definition include direct avulsions off the tibial plateau or radial tears adjacent to the root itself, have attracted attention because of concerns that significant meniscal extrusion dramatically inhibits normal meniscal function, leading to a condition biomechanically similar to a total meniscectomy. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of early diagnosis and treatment; fortunately, these processes have been vastly improved by advances in magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant anatomic, biomechanical, and functional descriptions of the meniscus root attachments, as well as current strategies for accurate diagnosis and treatment of common injuries to these meniscus root attachments. PMID:24623276

  3. Impact of Depression, Fatigue, and Global Measure of Cortical Volume on Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    De Cola, Maria Cristina; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Sessa, Edoardo; Marino, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of demographic and clinical variables, such as depression, fatigue, and quantitative MRI marker on cognitive performances in a sample of patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods. 60 MS patients (52 relapsing remitting and 8 primary progressive) underwent neuropsychological assessments using Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N), the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II), and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). We performed magnetic resonance imaging to all subjects using a 3?T scanner and obtained tissue-specific volumes (normalized brain volume and cortical brain volume). We used Student's t-test to compare depressed and nondepressed MS patients. Finally, we performed a multivariate regression analysis in order to assess possible predictors of patients' cognitive outcome among demographic and clinical variables. Results. 27.12% of the sample (16/59) was cognitively impaired, especially in tasks requiring attention and information processing speed. From between group comparison, we find that depressed patients had worse performances on BRB-N score, greater disability and disease duration, and brain volume decrease. According to multiple regression analysis, the BDI-II score was a significant predictor for most of the neuropsychological tests. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the presence of depressive symptoms is an important determinant of cognitive performance in MS patients. PMID:25861633

  4. Functional Capacity, Muscle Fat Infiltration, Power Output, and Cognitive Impairment in Institutionalized Frail Oldest Old

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Idoate, Fernando; Millor, Nora; Martínez-Ramirez, Alicia; Gómez, Marisol; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Marcellán, Teresa; de Gordoa, Ana Ruiz; Marques, Mário C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the neuromuscular and functional performance differences between frail oldest old with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, the associations between functional capacities, muscle mass, strength, and power output of the leg muscles were also examined. Forty-three elderly men and women (91.9±4.1 years) were classified into three groups—the frail group, the frail with MCI group (frail+MCI), and the non-frail group. Strength tests were performed for upper and lower limbs. Functional tests included 5-meter habitual gait, timed up-and-go (TUG), dual task performance, balance, and rise from a chair ability. Incidence of falls was assessed using questionnaires. The thigh muscle mass and attenuation were assessed using computed tomography. There were no differences between the frail and frail+MCI groups for all the functional variables analyzed, except in the cognitive score of the TUG with verbal task, which frail showed greater performance than the frail+MCI group. Significant associations were observed between the functional performance, incidence of falls, muscle mass, strength, and power in the frail and frail+MCI groups (r=?0.73 to r=0.83, p<0.01 to p<0.05). These results suggest that the frail oldest old with and without MCI have similar functional and neuromuscular outcomes. Furthermore, the functional outcomes and incidences of falls are associated with muscle mass, strength, and power in the frail elderly population. PMID:23822577

  5. Neuroanatomic substrates of semantic memory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: Patterns of functional MRI activation

    PubMed Central

    SAYKIN, ANDREW J.; FLASHMAN, LAURA A.; FRUTIGER, SALLY A.; JOHNSON, STERLING C.; MAMOURIAN, ALEXANDER C.; MORITZ, CHAD H.; O’JILE, JUDITH R.; RIORDAN, HENRY J.; SANTULLI, ROBERT B.; SMITH, CYNTHIA A.; WEAVER, JOHN B.

    2015-01-01

    Impairment in semantic processing occurs early in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and differential impact on subtypes of semantic relations have been reported, yet there is little data on the neuroanatomic basis of these deficits. Patients with mild AD and healthy controls underwent 3 functional MRI auditory stimulation tasks requiring semantic or phonological decisions (match–mismatch) about word pairs (category–exemplar, category–function, pseudoword). Patients showed a significant performance deficit only on the exemplar task. On voxel-based fMRI activation analyses, controls showed a clear activation focus in the left superior temporal gyrus for the phonological task; patients showed additional foci in the left dorsolateral prefrontal and bilateral cingulate areas. On the semantic tasks, predominant activation foci were seen in the inferior and middle frontal gyrus (left greater than right) in both groups but patients showed additional activation suggesting compensatory recruitment of locally expanded foci and remote regions, for example, right frontal activation during the exemplar task. Covariance analyses indicated that exemplar task performance was strongly related to signal increase in bilateral medial prefrontal cortex. The authors conclude that fMRI can reveal similarities and differences in functional neuroanatomical processing of semantic and phonological information in mild AD compared to healthy elderly, and can help to bridge cognitive and neural investigations of the integrity of semantic networks in AD. PMID:10439584

  6. Ischemia/reperfusion unveils impaired capacity of older adults to restrain oxidative insult.

    PubMed

    Davies, Sean S; Traustadóttir, Tinna; Stock, Anthoney A; Ye, Fei; Shyr, Yu; Harman, S Mitchell; Roberts, L Jackson

    2009-10-01

    Age independently predicts poor outcome in a variety of medical settings, including sepsis, trauma, severe burns, and surgery. Because these conditions are associated with oxidative stress, we hypothesized that the capacity to constrain oxidative insult diminishes with age, leading to more extensive oxidative damage during trauma. To test this hypothesis, we used suprasystolic inflation of an arm blood pressure cuff to safely induce localized forearm ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) and quantified plasma F(2)-isoprostane (IsoP) levels in serial blood samples. Before I/R, IsoP levels were similar in young (20-33 years) and older adults (62-81 years). After I/R challenge, the magnitude and duration of increased IsoP levels was significantly greater in older adults. Because aging is associated with declining levels of sex hormones that contribute to the regulation of antioxidant enzyme expression, we then examined the response to I/R in older women receiving hormone replacement therapy and found that these women did not manifest the amplified IsoP response found in untreated older women. These findings demonstrate that aging impairs the ability to restrain oxidative damage after an acute insult, which may contribute to the increased vulnerability of older adults to traumatic conditions and establishes a useful method to identify effective interventions to ameliorate this deficiency. PMID:19596063

  7. An fMRI study of neural pathways following acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Bai, Lijun; Wang, Hu; Zhong, Chongguang; You, Youbo; Zhang, Wensheng; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    While the use of acupuncture as a complementary therapeutic method for treating MCI is popular in certain parts of the world, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. In the current study, we adopted multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) to explore the causal interactions of brain networks involving acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). The fMRI experiment was performed with two different paradigms: namely, deep acupuncture (DA) and superficial acupuncture (SA) at acupoint KI3. Results demonstrated that deep acupuncture could modulate the abnormal regions in MCI group. These regions are implicated in memory encoding and retrieving. This may relate to the purported therapeutically beneficial effects of acupuncture for the treatment of MCI. However, the most significant causal interactions were found in the sensorimotor regions in HC group. This may because acupuncture has a greater modulatory effect on patients with a pathological imbalance. This paper provides the preliminary neurophysiological evidence for the potential efficacy effect of acupuncture on MCI.

  8. Cognitive impairment in generalized anxiety disorder revealed by event-related potential N270

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingxue; Zhang, Xiating; Zhu, Yu; Dai, Yakang; Liu, Ting; Wang, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive function in anxiety disorders has been the subject of limited investigation, especially in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive function in subjects with GAD using mismatch-triggered negativity N270. Methods Fifteen medication-free patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, and 15 well-matched healthy controls performed a dual-feature delayed matching task while event-related potentials were recorded from their scalp. Results The GAD group was characterized by the decreased N270 amplitude in the left hemisphere. The smaller N270 amplitude was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusion Since N270 is thought to index cognitive function in different domains, including attention and memory, our results suggest that individuals with GAD have an impaired cognitive function, particularly in selective attention and working memory. These cognitive deficits may have clinical significance in subjects with GAD and should be considered in treatment planning. PMID:26082637

  9. Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control during wakefulness in adult sleepwalkers.

    PubMed

    Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Petit, Dominique; Desautels, Alex; Montplaisir, Jacques; Zadra, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Sleepwalkers often complain of excessive daytime somnolence. Although excessive daytime somnolence has been associated with cognitive impairment in several sleep disorders, very few data exist concerning sleepwalking. This study aimed to investigate daytime cognitive functioning in adults diagnosed with idiopathic sleepwalking. Fifteen sleepwalkers and 15 matched controls were administered the Continuous Performance Test and Stroop Colour-Word Test in the morning after an overnight polysomnographic assessment. Participants were tested a week later on the same neuropsychological battery, but after 25 h of sleep deprivation, a procedure known to precipitate sleepwalking episodes during subsequent recovery sleep. There were no significant differences between sleepwalkers and controls on any of the cognitive tests administered under normal waking conditions. Testing following sleep deprivation revealed significant impairment in sleepwalkers' executive functions related to inhibitory control, as they made more errors than controls on the Stroop Colour-Word Test and more commission errors on the Continuous Performance Test. Sleepwalkers' scores on measures of executive functions were not associated with self-reported sleepiness or indices of sleep fragmentation from baseline polysomnographic recordings. The results support the idea that sleepwalking involves daytime consequences and suggest that these may also include cognitive impairments in the form of disrupted inhibitory control following sleep deprivation. These disruptions may represent a daytime expression of sleepwalking's pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:26087833

  10. Lidocaine attenuates cognitive impairment after isoflurane anesthesia in old rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daowei; Cao, Lin; Wang, Zhi; Li, Jiejie; Washington, Jacqueline M; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2012-03-17

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical phenomenon that has drawn significant attention from the public and scientific community. Age is a risk factor for POCD. However, the contribution of general anesthesia/anesthetics to POCD and the underlying neuropathology are not clear. Here, we showed that 18-month-old male Fisher 344 rats exposed to 1.2% isoflurane, a general anesthetic, for 2h had significant learning and memory impairments assessed at 2-4 weeks after isoflurane exposure. These isoflurane effects were attenuated by intravenous lidocaine (1.5mg/kg as a bolus and then 2mg/kg/h during isoflurane exposure), a local anesthetic that has neuroprotective effect. Exposure to isoflurane or isoflurane plus lidocaine did not change the neuronal and synaptic density as well as the expression of NeuN (a neuronal protein), drebrin (a dendritic spine protein), synaptophysin (a synaptic protein), activated caspase 3 and caspase-activated DNase in the hippocampus at 29 days after isoflurane exposure when cognitive impairment was present. Isoflurane and lidocaine did not affect the amount of ?-amyloid peptide, total tau and phospho-tau in the cerebral cortex as well as interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? in the hippocampus at 29 days after isoflurane exposure. Thus, isoflurane induces learning and memory impairment in old rats. Lidocaine attenuates these isoflurane effects. Isoflurane may not cause long-lasting neuropathological changes. PMID:22192381

  11. Working memory and reward association learning impairments in obesity

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, Géraldine; Nolan-Poupart, Sarah; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn; Small, Dana M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with impaired executive functions including working memory. Less explored is the influence of obesity on learning and memory. In the current study we assessed stimulus reward association learning, explicit learning and memory and working memory in healthy weight, overweight and obese individuals. Explicit learning and memory did not differ as a function of group. In contrast, working memory was significantly and similarly impaired in both overweight and obese individuals compared to the healthy weight group. In the first reward association learning task the obese, but not healthy weight or overweight participants consistently formed paradoxical preferences for a pattern associated with a negative outcome (fewer food rewards). To determine if the deficit was specific to food reward a second experiment was conducted using money. Consistent with experiment 1, obese individuals selected the pattern associated with a negative outcome (fewer monetary rewards) more frequently than healthy weight individuals and thus failed to develop a significant preference for the most rewarded patterns as was observed in the healthy weight group. Finally, on a probabilistic learning task, obese compared to healthy weight individuals showed deficits in negative, but not positive outcome learning. Taken together, our results demonstrate deficits in working memory and stimulus reward learning in obesity and suggest that obese individuals are impaired in learning to avoid negative outcomes. PMID:25447070

  12. Impaired metacognitive capacities in individuals with problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Bechara, Antoine; Greisen, Max; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Impaired insight into behavior may be one of the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling. In the present study, we tested whether the capacity to evaluate accurately the quality of one's own decisions during a non-gambling task was impaired in problem gamblers. Twenty-five problem gamblers and 25 matched healthy participants performed an artificial grammar-learning paradigm, in which the quality of choice remains uncertain throughout the task. After each trial of this task, participants had to indicate how confident they were in the grammaticality judgements using a scale ranging from 1 (low confidence) to 7 (high confidence). Results showed that (i), problem gamblers' performance on the grammaticality test was lower than controls'; (ii) there was a significant correlation between grammaticality judgments and confidence for control participants, which indicates metacognitive insight and the presence of conscious knowledge; (iii) this correlation was not significant in problem gamblers, which suggests a disconnection between performance and confidence in this group. These findings suggest that problem gamblers are impaired in their metacognitive abilities on a non-gambling task, which suggests that compulsive gambling is associated with poor insight as a general factor. Clinical interventions tailored to improve metacognition in gambling could be a fruitful avenue of research in order to prevent pathological gambling. PMID:23149513

  13. Outcomes of Greater Occipital Nerve Injections in Pediatric Patients with Chronic Primary Headache Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Amy A.; Reider, Amanda C.; Goadsby, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine is common in pediatrics and generally disabling. In adults, infiltration of the area around the greater occipital nerve can provide short to medium term benefit in some patients. This study reports the efficacy of greater occipital nerve infiltrations in pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients <18 years with a chronic primary headache disorder undergoing a first-time injection. Infiltrations were unilateral and consisted of a mixture of methylprednisolone acetate, adjusted for weight, and lidocaine 2%. Results Forty-six patients were treated. Thirty-five (76%) had chronic migraine, nine (20%) New Daily Persistent Headache (NDPH), and two (4%) a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. Medication overuse was present in 26%. Ages ranged from 7–17 years. Follow-up data were available for 40 (87%). Overall, 53% (21/40) benefitted, 52% (11/21) significantly. Benefit onset ranged from 0–14 days, mean 4.7(SD 4.3), with mean benefit duration of 5.4(SD 4.9) weeks. In chronic migraine, 62% (18/29) benefitted, 56% (10/18) significantly. In NDPH, 33% (3/9) benefitted; 33% (n=1) significantly. Neither child with a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia benefitted. In logistic regression modeling, medication overuse, age, sex, and sensory change in the distribution of the infiltrated nerve did not predict outcome. There were no serious side effects. Conclusions Greater occipital nerve injections benefitted 53% of pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Efficacy appeared higher in chronic migraine than NDPH. Given the benign side effect profile, a greater occipital nerve infiltration prior to more aggressive approaches seems appropriate. PMID:24268688

  14. Brain gene expression patterns differentiate mild cognitive impairment from normal aged and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Berchtold, Nicole C; Sabbagh, Marwan N; Beach, Thomas G; Kim, Ronald C; Cribbs, David H; Cotman, Carl W

    2014-09-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a cognitive state intermediate between normal aging and early Alzheimer's disease (AD). To investigate if the molecular signature of MCI parallels the clinical picture, we use microarrays to extensively profile gene expression in 4 cortical brain regions (entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, superior frontal gyrus, post-central gyrus) using the postmortem tissue from cognitively normal aged controls, MCI, and AD cases. Our data reveal that gene expression patterns in MCI are not an extension of aging, and for the most part, are not intermediate between aged controls and AD. Functional enrichment analysis of significant genes revealed prominent upregulation in MCI brains of genes associated with anabolic and biosynthetic pathways (notably transcription, protein biosynthesis, protein trafficking, and turnover) as well as mitochondrial energy generation. In addition, many synaptic genes showed altered expression in MCI, predominantly upregulation, including genes for central components of the vesicle fusion machinery at the synapse, synaptic vesicle trafficking, neurotransmitter receptors, and synaptic structure and stabilization. These data suggest that there is a rebalancing of synaptic transmission in the MCI brain. To investigate if synaptic gene expression levels in MCI were related to cognitive function, Pearson correlation coefficient between the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and region-specific messenger RNA expression were computed for MCI cases. A number of synaptic genes showed strong significant correlations (r > 0.8, p < 0.01) most notably in the entorhinal cortex, with fewer in the hippocampus, and very few in neocortical regions. The synaptic genes with highly significant correlations were predominantly related to synaptic transmission and plasticity, and myelin composition. Unexpectedly, we found that gene expression changes that facilitate synaptic excitability and plasticity were overwhelmingly associated with poorer MMSE, and conversely that gene expression changes that inhibit plasticity were positively associated with MMSE. These data suggest that there are excessive excitability and apparent plasticity in limbic brain regions in MCI, that is associated with impaired synaptic and cognitive function. Such changes would be predicted to contribute to increased excitability, in turn leading to greater metabolic demand and ultimately progressive degeneration and AD, if not controlled. PMID:24786631

  15. Brain gene expression patterns differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment from normal Aged and Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Berchtold, Nicole C.; Sabbagh, Marwan N.; Beach, Thomas G.; Kim, Ronald C.; Cribbs, David H.; Cotman, Carl W.

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) represents a cognitive state intermediate between normal aging and early Alzheimer Disease (AD). To investigate if the molecular signature of MCI parallels the clinical picture, we use microarrays to extensively profile gene expression in 4 cortical brain regions (entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, superior frontal gyrus, post-central gyrus) using post-mortem tissue from cognitively normal aged controls, MCI, and AD cases. Our data reveal that gene expression patterns in MCI are not an extension of aging, and for the most part, are not intermediate between aged controls and AD. Functional enrichment analysis of significant genes revealed prominent upregulation in MCI brains of genes associated with anabolic and biosynthetic pathways (notably transcription, protein biosynthesis, protein trafficking and turnover) as well as mitochondrial energy generation. In addition, many synaptic genes showed altered expression in MCI, predominantly upregulation, including genes for central components of the vesicle fusion machinery at the synapse, synaptic vesicle trafficking, neurotransmitter receptors, and synaptic structure and stabilization. These data suggest that there is a rebalancing of synaptic transmission in the MCI brain. To investigate if synaptic gene expression levels in MCI were related to cognitive function, Pearson’s correlation coefficient between MMSE and region-specific mRNA expression were computed for MCI cases. A number of synaptic genes showed strong significant correlations (r>0.8, p<0.01) most notably in the EC, with fewer in the HC, and very few in neocortical regions. The synaptic genes with highly significant correlations were predominantly related to synaptic transmission and plasticity, and myelin composition. Unexpectedly, we found that gene expression changes that facilitate synaptic excitability and plasticity were overwhelmingly associated with poorer MMSE, and conversely that gene expression changes that inhibit plasticity were positively associated with MMSE. These data suggest that there is excessive excitability and apparent plasticity in limbic brain regions in MCI, that is associated with impaired synaptic and cognitive function. Such changes would be predicted to contribute to increased excitability, in turn leading to greater metabolic demand and ultimately progressive degeneration and AD, if not controlled. PMID:24786631

  16. Comorbid Heart Failure and Renal Impairment: Epidemiology and Management

    PubMed Central

    Iyngkaran, Pupalan; Thomas, Merlin; Majoni, William; Anavekar, Nagesh S.; Ronco, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Heart failure mortality is significantly increased in patients with baseline renal impairment and those with underlying heart failure who subsequently develop renal dysfunction. This accelerated progression occurs independent of the cause or grade of renal dysfunction and baseline risk factors. Recent large prospective databases have highlighted the depth of the current problem, while longitudinal population studies support an increasing disease burden. We have extensively reviewed the epidemiological and therapeutic data among these patients. The evidence points to a progression of heart failure early in renal impairment, even in the albuminuric stage. The data also support poor prescription of prognostic therapies. As renal function is the most important prognostic factor in heart failure, it is important to establish the current understanding of the disease burden and the therapeutic implications. PMID:23381594

  17. Impaired Autonomic Responses to Emotional Stimuli in Autoimmune Limbic Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Olga; Schriewer, Elisabeth; Golombeck, Kristin S.; Kürten, Julia; Lohmann, Hubertus; Schwindt, Wolfram; Wiendl, Heinz; Bruchmann, Maximilian; Melzer, Nico; Straube, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) is an autoimmune-mediated disorder that affects structures of the limbic system, in particular, the amygdala. The amygdala constitutes a brain area substantial for processing of emotional, especially fear-related signals. The amygdala is also involved in neuroendocrine and autonomic functions, including skin conductance responses (SCRs) to emotionally arousing stimuli. This study investigates behavioral and autonomic responses to discrete emotion evoking and neutral film clips in a patient suffering from LE associated with contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2) antibodies as compared to a healthy control group. Results show a lack of SCRs in the patient while watching the film clips, with significant differences compared to healthy controls in the case of fear-inducing videos. There was no comparable impairment in behavioral data (emotion report, valence, and arousal ratings). The results point to a defective modulation of sympathetic responses during emotional stimulation in patients with LE, probably due to impaired functioning of the amygdala. PMID:26648907

  18. A Systems Perspective on Trainee Impairment: Continuing the Dialogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elman, Nancy; Forrest, Linda; Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Gizara, Sharon

    1999-01-01

    Responds to comments made in three articles critiquing the authors' earlier article on counselor trainee impairment. Builds a more systematic picture of trainee impairment. Discusses evaluation, power, organized psychology, professional impairment, and prevention within a systems perspective. (Author/MKA)

  19. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Visually Impaired Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Category All Advocacy Assessment/Evaluation ... Organization Name Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Browse All Search Categories About ...

  20. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

  1. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tome, Wolfgang A.

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

  2. Impact of Breathing 100% Oxygen on Radiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Payne, Valerie; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Walb, Matthew C.; Munley, Michael T.; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2015-01-01

    Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O2 for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O2) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O2 received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O2 was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. PMID:25338095

  3. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2?=?0.88), shrubland (r2?=?0.75), and cropland (r2?=?0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2?=?0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  4. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. PMID:20184654

  5. Cognitive impairment and risk of future stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Meng; Saver, Jeffrey L.; Hong, Keun-Sik; Wu, Yi-Ling; Liu, Hsing-Cheng; Rao, Neal M.; Ovbiagele, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have assessed the link between cognitive impairment and risk of future stroke, but results have been inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies to determine the association between cognitive impairment and risk of future stroke. Methods: We searched MEDLINE and Embase (1966 to November 2013) and conducted a manual search of bibliographies of relevant retrieved articles and reviews. We included cohort studies that reported multivariable adjusted relative risks and 95% confidence intervals or standard errors for stroke with respect to baseline cognitive impairment. Results: We identified 18 cohort studies (total 121 879 participants) and 7799 stroke events. Pooled analysis of results from all studies showed that stroke risk increased among patients with cognitive impairment at baseline (relative risk [RR] 1.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24–1.56). The results were similar when we restricted the analysis to studies that used a widely adopted definition of cognitive impairment (i.e., Mini-Mental State Examination score < 25 or nearest equivalent) (RR 1.64, 95% CI 1.46–1.84). Cognitive impairment at baseline was also associated with an increased risk of fatal stroke (RR 1.68, 95% CI 1.21–2.33) and ischemic stroke (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.41–1.93). Interpretation: Baseline cognitive impairment was associated with a significantly higher risk of future stroke, especially ischemic and fatal stroke. PMID:25157064

  6. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

  7. Multiple Task Interference is Greater in Children with ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Ewen, Joshua B.; Moher, Jeffrey S.; Lakshmanan, Balaji M.; Ryan, Matthew; Xavier, Priya; Crone, Nathan E.; Denckla, Martha B.; Egeth, Howard; Mahone, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable lay discussion that children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have increased difficult with multitasking, but there are few experimental data. In the current study, we examine the simultaneous processing of two stimulus-response tasks using the psychological refractory period (PRP) effect. We hypothesized that children with ADHD would show a greater PRP effect, suggesting a prolonged “bottleneck” in stimulus-response processing. A total of 19 school-aged children with ADHD showed a prolonged PRP effect compared with 25 control children, suggesting a higher cognitive cost in ADHD for multi-tasking. PMID:22339226

  8. Stability of Early Identified Aggressive Victim Status in Elementary School and Associations with Later Mental Health Problems and Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive victims--children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression--experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim…

  9. Neural Correlates of Alerting and Orienting Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez-Marrufo, Manuel; Galvao-Carmona, Alejandro; González-Rosa, Javier J.; Hidalgo-Muñoz, Antonio R.; Borges, Mónica; Ruiz-Peña, Juan Luis; Izquierdo, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Background A considerable percentage of multiple sclerosis patients have attentional impairment, but understanding its neurophysiological basis remains a challenge. The Attention Network Test allows 3 attentional networks to be studied. Previous behavioural studies using this test have shown that the alerting network is impaired in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to identify neurophysiological indexes of the attention impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using this test. Results After general slowing had been removed in patients group to isolate the effects of each condition, some behavioral differences between them were obtained. About Contingent Negative Variation, a statistically significant decrement were found in the amplitude for Central and Spatial Cue Conditions for patient group (p<0.05). ANOVAs showed for the patient group a significant latency delay for P1 and N1 components (p<0.05) and a decrease of P3 amplitude for congruent and incongruent stimuli (p<0.01). With regard to correlation analysis, PASAT-3s and SDMT showed significant correlations with behavioral measures of the Attention Network Test (p<0.01) and an ERP parameter (CNV amplitude). Conclusions Behavioral data are highly correlated with the neuropsychological scores and show that the alerting and orienting mechanisms in the patient group were impaired. Reduced amplitude for the Contingent Negative Variation in the patient group suggests that this component could be a physiological marker related to the alerting and orienting impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. P1 and N1 delayed latencies are evidence of the demyelination process that causes impairment in the first steps of the visual sensory processing. Lastly, P3 amplitude shows a general decrease for the pathological group probably indexing a more central impairment. These results suggest that the Attention Network Test give evidence of multiple levels of attention impairment, which could help in the assessment and treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients. PMID:24820333

  10. Olfactory impairment after chronic occupational cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Rose, C S; Heywood, P G; Costanzo, R M

    1992-06-01

    Disorders of olfaction affect millions of Americans, but the extent to which occupational and environmental exposures contribute to these disorders is unknown. We examined 55 workers with chronic occupational exposure to cadmium fumes in a brazing operation. We estimated cadmium body burden using urinary cadmium levels and assessed cadmium-induced renal damage by urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels. We quantified olfactory function using a standardized test that measured two components of olfaction, butanol detection threshold and odor identification, and compared workers with a reference group. Forty-four percent of the cadmium-exposed workers were mildly hyposmic, and 13% were either moderately or severely hyposmic. In the reference group, 31% were mildly hyposmic, and the rest were normosmic. The workers with both high urinary cadmium levels and tubular proteinuria had the most significant olfactory dysfunction, with a selective defect in odor detection threshold. Our findings suggest that chronic occupational cadmium exposure sufficient to cause renal damage also is associated with impairment in olfactory function. PMID:1619490

  11. Statins impair glucose uptake in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Nowis, Dominika; Malenda, Agata; Furs, Karolina; Oleszczak, Bozenna; Sadowski, Radoslaw; Chlebowska, Justyna; Firczuk, Malgorzata; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Staruch, Adam D; Zagozdzon, Radoslaw; Glodkowska-Mrowka, Eliza; Szablewski, Leszek; Golab, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the increasing number of clinical observations indicating hyperglycemic effects of statins, this study was designed to measure the influence of statins on the uptake of glucose analogs by human cells derived from liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Design Flow cytometry and scintillation counting were used to measure the uptake of fluorescently labeled or tritiated glucose analogs by differentiated visceral preadipocytes, skeletal muscle cells, skeletal muscle myoblasts, and contact-inhibited human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A bioinformatics approach was used to predict the structure of human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and to identify the presence of putative cholesterol-binding (cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC)) motifs within this transporter. Mutagenesis of CRAC motifs in SLC2A1 gene and limited proteolysis of membrane GLUT1 were used to determine the molecular effects of statins. Results Statins significantly inhibit the uptake of glucose analogs in all cell types. Similar effects are induced by methyl-?-cyclodextrin, which removes membrane cholesterol. Statin effects can be rescued by addition of mevalonic acid, or supplementation with exogenous cholesterol. Limited proteolysis of GLUT1 and mutagenesis of CRAC motifs revealed that statins induce conformational changes in GLUTs. Conclusions Statins impair glucose uptake by cells involved in regulation of glucose homeostasis by inducing cholesterol-dependent conformational changes in GLUTs. This molecular mechanism might explain hyperglycemic effects of statins observed in clinical trials. PMID:25452863

  12. Mild Cognitive Impairment: Pathology and mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mufson, Elliott J.; Binder, Lester; Counts, Scott E.; DeKosky, Steven T.; deTolledo-Morrell, Leyla; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Ikonomovic, Milos D.; Perez, Sylvia E.; Scheff, Stephen W.

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is rapidly becoming one of the most common clinical manifestations affecting the elderly. The pathologic and molecular substrate of people diagnosed with MCI is not well established. Since MCI is a human specific disorder and neither the clinical nor the neuropathological course appears to follows a direct linear path, it is imperative to characterize neuropathology changes in the brains of people who came to autopsy with a well-characterized clinical diagnosis of MCI. Herein, we discuss findings derived from clinical pathologic studies of autopsy cases with various subtypes of MCI antemortem. The heterogeneity of clinical MCI imparts significant challenges to any review of this subject. The pathologic substrate of MCI is equally complex and must take into account not only conventional plaque and tangle pathology but also a wide range of cellular biochemical and molecular deficits many of which relate to cognitive decline as well as compensatory responses to the progressive disease process. The multifaceted nature of the neuronal disconnection syndrome associated with MCI, suggests that there is no single event, which precipitates this prodromal stage of AD. In fact, it can be argued that neuronal degeneration initiated at different levels of the central nervous system drive cognitive decline as a final common pathway at this stage of the dementing disease process. PMID:22101321

  13. Impaired Hyperemic Response to Exercise Post Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Durand, Matthew J.; Murphy, Spencer A.; Schaefer, Kathleen K.; Hunter, Sandra K.; Schmit, Brian D.; Gutterman, David D.; Hyngstrom, Allison S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with chronic stroke have reduced perfusion of the paretic lower limb at rest; however, the hyperemic response to graded muscle contractions in this patient population has not been examined. This study quantified blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs of subjects with chronic stroke after submaximal contractions of the knee extensor muscles and correlated those measures with limb function and activity. Ten subjects with chronic stroke and ten controls had blood flow through the superficial femoral artery quantified with ultrasonography before and immediately after 10 second contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 20, 40, 60, and 80% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the test limb. Blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic limb of stroke subjects was significantly reduced at all load levels compared to control subjects even after normalization to lean muscle mass. Of variables measured, increased blood flow after an 80% MVC was the single best predictor of paretic limb strength, the symmetry of strength between the paretic and non-paretic limbs, coordination of the paretic limb, and physical activity. The impaired hemodynamic response to high intensity contractions was a better predictor of lower limb function than resting perfusion measures. Stroke-dependent weakness and atrophy of the paretic limb do not explain the reduced hyperemic response to muscle contraction alone as the response is similarly reduced in the non-paretic limb when compared to controls. These data may suggest a role for perfusion therapies to optimize rehabilitation post stroke. PMID:26630380

  14. Impaired Hyperemic Response to Exercise Post Stroke.

    PubMed

    Durand, Matthew J; Murphy, Spencer A; Schaefer, Kathleen K; Hunter, Sandra K; Schmit, Brian D; Gutterman, David D; Hyngstrom, Allison S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with chronic stroke have reduced perfusion of the paretic lower limb at rest; however, the hyperemic response to graded muscle contractions in this patient population has not been examined. This study quantified blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic lower limbs of subjects with chronic stroke after submaximal contractions of the knee extensor muscles and correlated those measures with limb function and activity. Ten subjects with chronic stroke and ten controls had blood flow through the superficial femoral artery quantified with ultrasonography before and immediately after 10 second contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 20, 40, 60, and 80% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the test limb. Blood flow to the paretic and non-paretic limb of stroke subjects was significantly reduced at all load levels compared to control subjects even after normalization to lean muscle mass. Of variables measured, increased blood flow after an 80% MVC was the single best predictor of paretic limb strength, the symmetry of strength between the paretic and non-paretic limbs, coordination of the paretic limb, and physical activity. The impaired hemodynamic response to high intensity contractions was a better predictor of lower limb function than resting perfusion measures. Stroke-dependent weakness and atrophy of the paretic limb do not explain the reduced hyperemic response to muscle contraction alone as the response is similarly reduced in the non-paretic limb when compared to controls. These data may suggest a role for perfusion therapies to optimize rehabilitation post stroke. PMID:26630380

  15. Poor quality of life, depressed mood, and memory impairment may be mediated by sleep disruption in patients with Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S A; Ross, Ian L; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2015-11-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patterns. Sixty patients with AD and 60 matched healthy controls completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived physical and mental health (Short-Form 36), mood (Beck Depression Inventory-II), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and cognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). A latent variable model revealed that although AD had a significant direct effect on quality of life, the indirect effect of sleep was significantly greater. Furthermore, although AD had no direct effect on cognitive functioning, the indirect effect of sleep was significant. The overall model showed a good fit (comparative fit index = 0.91, root mean square of approximation = 0.09, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep, and not the disease per se, may induce poor quality of life, memory impairment, and affect dysregulation in patients with AD. We think that improving sleep architecture may improve cognitive, affective, and physical functioning. PMID:26256520

  16. Does Physical Activity Influence Semantic Memory Activation in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Verber, Matthew D.; Durgerian, Sally; Antuono, Piero; Butts, Alissa M.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Lancaster, Melissa A.; Rao, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical activity (PA) on functional brain activation for semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) was examined using event-related fMRI during fame discrimination. Greater semantic memory activation occurred in the left caudate of High- versus Low-PA patients (P = 0.03), suggesting PA may enhance memory-related caudate activation in aMCI. PMID:21601432

  17. Using pictures and words to understand recognition memory deterioration in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ally, Brandon A.

    2012-01-01

    Difficulty recognizing previously encountered stimuli is one of the earliest signs of incipient Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Work over the last 10 years has focused on how patients with AD and those in the prodromal stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) make recognition decisions for visual and verbal stimuli. Interestingly, both groups of patients demonstrate markedly better memory for pictures over words, to a degree that is significantly greater in magnitude than their healthy older counterparts. Understanding this phenomenon not only helps to conceptualize how memory breaks down in AD, but also potentially provides the basis for future interventions. The current review will critically examine recent recognition memory work using pictures and words in the context of the dual-process theory of recognition and current hypotheses of cognitive breakdown in the course of very early AD. PMID:22927024

  18. Design and technical evaluation of an enhanced location-awareness service enabler for spatial disorientation management of elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro A; Hernando, M Elena; Gómez, Enrique J

    2015-01-01

    The progressive ageing of population has turned the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) into a prevalent disease suffered by elderly. Consequently, the spatial disorientation has become a significant problem for older people and their caregivers. The ambient-assisted living applications are offering location-based services for empowering elderly to go outside and encouraging a greater independence. Therefore, this paper describes the design and technical evaluation of a location-awareness service enabler aimed at supporting and managing probable wandering situations of a person with MCI. Through the presence capabilities of the IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) architecture, the service will alert patient's contacts if a hazardous situation is detected depending on his location. Furthermore, information about the older person's security areas has been included in the user profile managed by IMS. In doing so, the service enabler introduced contribute to "context-awareness" paradigm allowing the adaptation and personalization of services depending on user's context and specific conditions or preferences. PMID:25486651

  19. Senescence marker protein-30/gluconolactonase deletion worsens glucose tolerance through impairment of acute insulin secretion.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Goji; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Kadono, Mayuko; Tanaka, Muhei; Asano, Mai; Senmaru, Takafumi; Kondo, Yoshitaka; Fukui, Michiaki; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Naoki; Nakamura, Naoto; Ishigami, Akihito

    2010-02-01

    Senescence marker protein-30 (SMP30) is an androgen-independent factor that decreases with age. We recently identified SMP30 as the lactone-hydrolyzing enzyme gluconolactonase (GNL), which is involved in vitamin C biosynthesis in animal species. To examine whether the age-related decrease in SMP30/GNL has effects on glucose homeostasis, we used SMP30/GNL knockout (KO) mice treated with L-ascorbic acid. In an ip glucose tolerance test at 15 wk of age, blood glucose levels in SMP30/GNL KO mice were significantly increased by 25% at 30 min after glucose administration compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Insulin levels in SMP30/GNL KO mice were significantly decreased by 37% at 30 min after glucose compared with WT mice. Interestingly, an insulin tolerance test showed a greater glucose-lowering effect in SMP30/GNL KO mice. High-fat diet feeding severely worsened glucose tolerance in both WT and SMP30/GNL KO mice. Morphometric analysis revealed no differences in the degree of high-fat diet-induced compensatory increase in beta-cell mass and proliferation. In the static incubation study of islets, insulin secretion in response to 20 mm glucose or KCl was significantly decreased in SMP30/GNL KO mice. On the other hand, islet ATP content at 20 mm in SMP30/GNL KO mice was similar to that in WT mice. Collectively, these data indicate that impairment of the early phase of insulin secretion due to dysfunction of the distal portion of the secretion pathway underlies glucose intolerance in SMP30/GNL KO mice. Decreased SMP30/GNL may contribute to the worsening of glucose tolerance that occurs in normal aging. PMID:19934374

  20. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: different profiles of syntactic impairment

    PubMed Central

    Szterman, Ronit; Friedmann, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9–12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structure of the sentence. An analysis of the reading and paraphrasing of each participant exposed two different patterns of syntactic impairment. Some hearing-impaired children paraphrased the object relatives incorrectly but could still read the homograph, indicating impaired assignment of thematic roles alongside good syntactic structure building; other hearing-impaired children could neither read the homograph nor paraphrase the sentence, indicating a structural deficit in the syntactic tree. Further testing of these children confirmed the different impairments: some are impaired only in Wh-movement, whereas others have CP impairment. The syntactic impairment correlated with whether or not a hearing device was fitted by the age of 1 year, but not with the type of hearing device or the depth of hearing loss: children who had a hearing device fitted during the first year of life had better syntactic abilities than children whose hearing devices were fitted later. PMID:25426086

  1. Silver Impairs Neurodevelopment: Studies in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M.; Wrench, Nicola; Ryde, Ian T.; Smith, Amanda M.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to silver is increasing because of silver nanoparticles in consumer products. Objectives and methods Many biological effects of silver entail actions of Ag+ (monovalent silver ions), so we used neuronotypic PC12 cells to evaluate the potential for silver to act as a developmental neurotoxicant, using chlorpyrifos (CPF), a pesticide known to evoke developmental neurotoxicity, as a positive control for comparison. Results In undifferentiated cells, a 1-hr exposure to 10 ?M Ag+ inhibited DNA synthesis more potently than did 50 ?M CPF; it also impaired protein synthesis but to a lesser extent than its effect on DNA synthesis, indicating a preferential effect on cell replication. Longer exposures led to oxidative stress, loss of viability, and reduced numbers of cells. With the onset of cell differentiation, exposure to 10 ?M Ag+ evoked even greater inhibition of DNA synthesis and more oxidative stress, selectively impaired neurite formation without suppressing overall cell growth, and preferentially suppressed development into the acetylcholine phenotype in favor of the dopamine phenotype. Lowering the exposure to 1 ?M Ag+ reduced the net effect on undifferentiated cells. However, in differentiating cells, the lower concentration produced an entirely different pattern, enhancing cell numbers by suppressing ongoing cell death and impairing differentiation in parallel for both neurotransmitter phenotypes. Conclusions Our results show that silver has the potential to evoke developmental neurotoxicity even more potently than known neurotoxicants, such as CPF, and that the spectrum of effects is likely to be substantially different at lower exposures that do not show signs of outright toxicity. PMID:20056586

  2. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  3. The State of Lithospheric Stress in Greater Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, B.; Furlong, K. P.; Pananont, P.; Pornsopin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Thailand and its surrounding regions occupy an important, but often overlooked, location in terms of plate tectonics and lithospheric deformation. The lateral extrusion of Tibet southeastward and eastward along deep strike slip faults to the north and the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone to the south and west bound the region of greater Thailand. While it is adjacent to some of the most seismically active plate boundaries and intra-plate regions on Earth, this region has experienced only a low level of background seismicity. Thus, the long-term seismic potential of greater Thailand remains highly uncertain. Although historic seismicity is one indicator for future seismicity it is not the only tool we have for determining seismic hazard; we can assess the state of lithospheric stress. The stress conditions in this apparent aseismic region will be controlled by the forces acting on it boundaries. We can analyze those conditions through a study of fault structure, earthquake activity, and kinematics in the boundary area. Using Global Seismic Network (GSN) data augmented with Thai seismic network data to constrain the kinematics, and numerical finite element modeling of crustal and lithospheric deformation of the region, we are able to determine to overall stress conditions. This stress model can be compared to the known fault states in Thailand to assess the potential for earthquake activity.

  4. Prevalence of strong bottom currents in the greater Agulhas system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Meghan F.; Tozuka, Tomoki; Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Beal, Lisa M.

    2013-05-01

    Deep current meter data and output from two high-resolution global ocean circulation models are used to determine the prevalence and location of strong bottom currents in the greater Agulhas Current system. The two models and current meter data are remarkably consistent, showing that benthic storms, with bottom currents greater than 0.2 m s-1, occur throughout the Agulhas retroflection region south of Africa more than 20% of the time. Furthermore, beneath the mean Agulhas Current core and the retroflection front, bottom currents exceed 0.2 m s-1 more than 50% of the time, while away from strong surface currents, bottom currents rarely exceed 0.2 m s-1. Implications for sediment transport are discussed and the results are compared to atmospheric storms. Benthic storms of this strength (0.2 m s-1) are comparable to a 9 m s-1 (Beaufort 5) windstorm, but scaling shows that benthic storms may be less effective at lifting and transporting sediment than dust storms.

  5. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  6. Cancer in the Sindhi population of Greater Bombay.

    PubMed

    Jussawalla, D J; Yeole, B B; Natekar, M V; Rajagopalan, T R

    1980-11-01

    The Sindhis are a Hindu subgroup identified by their place of origin and their written spoken language. These are the people who were originally inhabitants of the Province of Sind, which formed a part of the large Bombay Presidency in Undivided India before 1947. The Sindhi Hindus migrated en masse to India after partition. An attempt has been made here to examine the differences found in the site-specific cancer risks among the Sindhi community, the other Hindu groups (such as the Marathi and Gujrati populations) and the Parsi community of Greater Bombay. As the Indian Census Board does not provide age distribution details for the Sindhis, analysis of the data was undertaken employing frequency ratios. Age-standardized cancer ratios (ASCAR) were also utilized for certain calculations. The common sites of cancer appear to vary greatly between the total Bombay population and the Sindhi group. In Sindhi men, for example, cancers of the lung, large bowel, prostate, kidneys and leukemias are most commmonly seen, whereas laryngeal and oesophageal cancers predominate in the general population of Bombay. In Sindhi women the breast, uterus, ovary, and skin are the preferred sites, whereas cancers of the cervix and leukemias are predominant in the general population of Bombay. It is interesting to note that there is a degree of similarity in the incidence of cancer at certain anatomical sites, such as the prostate, large intestine, and leukemias in males, and breast, cervix, ovary and uterus in females, between the Sindhi and Parsi communities of Greater Bombay. PMID:7427916

  7. Impaired insulin-mediated vasorelaxation in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats is caused by impaired Akt phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin Hee; Palaia, Thomas; Ragolia, Louis

    2009-01-01

    Insulin resistance associated with Type 2 diabetes contributes to impaired vasorelaxation. Previously, we showed the phosphorylation of myosin-bound phosphatase substrate MYPT1, a marker of the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contraction, was negatively regulated by Akt (protein kinase B) phosphorylation in response to insulin stimulation. In this study we examined the role of Akt phosphorylation on impaired insulin-induced vasodilation in the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat model of Type 2 diabetes. GK VSMCs had impaired basal and insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation as well as increases in basal MYPT1 phosphorylation, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and nitrite/nitrate production compared with Wistar-Kyoto controls. Both iNOS expression and the inhibition of angiotensin (ANG) II-induced MYPT1 phosphorylation were resistant to the effects of insulin in diabetic GK VSMC. We also measured the isometric tension of intact and denuded GK aorta using a myograph and observed significantly impaired insulin-induced vasodilation. Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of constitutively active Akt in GK VSMC led to significantly improved insulin sensitivity in terms of counteracting ANG II-induced contractile signaling via MYPT1, myosin light chain dephosphorylation, and reduced iNOS expression, S-nitrosylation and survivin expression. We demonstrated for the first time the presence of Akt-independent iNOS expression in the GK diabetic model and that the defective insulin-induced vasodilation observed in the diabetic vasculature can be restored by the overexpression of active Akt, which advocates a novel therapeutic strategy for treating diabetes. PMID:19052261

  8. Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

  9. Hydrology of the Greater Tongonan geothermal system, Philippines, as deduced from geochemical and isotopic data

    SciTech Connect

    Alvis-Isidro, R.R.; Solana, R.R.; D`amore, F.; Nuti, S.; Gonfiantini, R.

    1993-10-01

    Fluids in the Greater Tongonan geothermal system exhibit a large positive {sup 18}O shift from the Leyte meteoric water line. However, there is also a significant shift in {sup 2}H. The {delta}{sup 2}H-{delta}{sup 18}O plot shows that the geothermal fluids may be derived by the mixing of meteoric water with local magmatic water. The most enriched water in the Greater Tongonan system, in terms of {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H and Cl, is comprised of approximately 40% magmatic water. Baseline isotope results support a hydrogeochemical model in which there is increasing meteoric water dilution to the southeast, from Mahiao to Sambaloran and towards Malitbog. The Cl-{delta}{sup 18}O plot confirms that the geothermal fluid in Mahanagdong, further southeast, is distinct from that of the Mahiao-Sambaloran-Malitbog system.

  10. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance

  11. Making Diabetes Education Accessible For People With Visual Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ann S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to identify changes needed to make the diabetes education materials and programs of the Diabetes Association of Greater Cleveland (DAGC) accessible for people who have visual impairment and diabetes (PVID). Methods Using the principles and techniques of participatory action research (PAR), five PVID and four staff members of a local diabetes association met once a month for a year to plan, implement, and evaluate progress towards full accessibility of all diabetes education materials and programs. The researcher served as facilitator. Results Four “transformational moments” are presented through which the PAR process enabled PVID and diabetes professionals to learn to understand and trust each other. Changes made to increase accessibility included: production of two recordings for providing access to print information about diabetes; planning public education program publicity and locations for access; development of guidelines to help speakers make their diabetes education presentations accessible for people who cannot see slides and gestures. and presentation of an inservice for the entire staff of the diabetes association, including information about how they live with visual impairment, and common courtesies that make communication with PVID more effective Implications Diabetes education programs should include planning for full accessibility for PVID. Diabetes organizations should publish teaching materials in accessible format. PMID:19417119

  12. Formaldehyde exposure impairs the function and differentiation of NK cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lee, Hwa-Youn; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Ki-Mo; Park, Min; Ji, Kon-Young; Jang, Ji-Hun; Jeong, Yun-Hwa; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Yoon, Il-Joo; Kim, Su-Man; Jeong, Moon-Jin; Kim, Kwang Dong; Kang, Hyung-Sik

    2013-11-25

    We investigated the cytotoxic effects of formaldehyde (FA) on lymphocytes. FA-exposed mice showed a profound reduction not only in the number of natural killer (NK) cells but also in the expression of NK cell-specific receptors, but these mice did not exhibit decreases in the numbers of T or B lymphocytes. FA exposure also induced decreases in NK cytolytic activity and in the expression of NK cell-associated genes, such as IFN-?, perforin and CD122. To determine the effect of FA on tumorigenicity, C57BL/6 mice were subcutaneously injected with B16F10 melanoma cells after FA exposure. The mass of the B16F10 tumor and the concentration of extravascular polymorphonuclear leukocytes were greater than those in unexposed tumor-bearing control mice. The number and cytolytic activity of NK cells were also reduced in B16F10 tumor-bearing mice exposed to FA. To determine how FA reduces the NK cell number, NK precursor (pNK) cells were treated with FA, and the differentiation status of the NK cells was analyzed. NK cell differentiation was impaired by FA treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that FA exposure may promote tumor progression by impairing NK cell function and differentiation. PMID:24060340

  13. Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Activity in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Martin A.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Wuu, Joanne; Cuello, A. Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF)-dependent cholinergic basal forebrain neurons degenerate during the progression of Alzheimer disease (AD). Elevated proNGF and reduced levels of the TrkA high-affinity NGF receptor occur in prodromal and advanced stages of AD. We recently described a protease cascade responsible for the conversion of proNGF to mature NGF (mNGF) in which matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) degrades mNGF in the extracellular space. To determine whether this proteolytic cascade is altered during the progression of AD, we examined human frontal and parietal cortex tissue from aged subjects with a clinical diagnosis of AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or no cognitive impairment (NCI). The analysis demonstrated greater MMP-9 activity in both AD and MCI compared to NCI brain samples (p < 0.01), which supports the notion that a metabolic failure in the NGF-maturation/degradation pathway may be associated with an exacerbated degradation of mNGF in the cerebral cortex in early AD. Moreover, there were inverse correlations between Global Cognitive Score and Mini-Mental State Examination score and MMP-9 activity. These findings suggest that a reduction in mNGF as a consequence of MMP-9-mediated degradation may in part underlie the pathogenesis of cognitive deficits in MCI and AD. PMID:19915485

  14. Adverse surgical outcomes among patients with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, G M; Offenbartl, S K

    1991-11-01

    To determine the factors that contributed to adverse outcomes, the records of 59 cognitively impaired patients with nonfatal complications (n = 23) or death (n = 36) on a general surgery teaching service over a 30-month period were examined retrospectively. Specific complications are reported. Patient, disease, and management factors related to mortality and morbidity are identified. Patients with cognitive impairments had a higher mortality rate (9.6 vs 6.3%) and approximately the same rate of nonfatal complications (6.1 vs 7.6%) when compared with general surgery patients as a whole. Patient characteristics including age over 70, dementia, nursing home residence, contractures, inability to communicate, need for total care, and gross malnutrition were associated with fatal outcomes. Vascular, colonic, esophageal, gastric, or duodenal conditions, emergency admission, urgent operation, and admission APACHE II scores greater than or equal to 15 were disease-related factors associated with mortality. Management risk factors were prehospital or inpatient diagnostic delays and technical or judgmental errors of surgical management. Twenty-four of 36 deaths were directly related either to a diagnostic delay (11), an operative technical error (11), or a judgmental error of postoperative airway management (2). Eighty-five per cent of diagnostic delays (11/13) and 37 per cent (11/30) of technical errors resulted in mortality. Suggestions for improving the care of these patients are discussed. PMID:1746775

  15. Acoustic vs. Magnetic Coupling for Telephone Listening of Hearing-Impaired Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Alice E.

    1985-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of six telephone conditions on discrimination in 19 hearing impaired adults. No significant differences were found among the unaided, acoustically coupled, and magnetically coupled listening modes. Ss understood words significantly better using an amplifier handset, regardless of listening mode. (Author/CL)

  16. Grammatical Characteristics of a Spanish-English Bilingual Child with Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Kruth, Kirsten

    2000-01-01

    These case studies describe and compare the language characteristics of two bilingual children (age 7), one with specific language impairment (SLI). Results found the child with SLI produced significantly more morphosyntactic errors and less variety of grammatical forms and sentence types in both languages, and demonstrated significant

  17. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Is Associated with Cognitive Impairment in Elderly Korean Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Jun; Baek, Jun-Hyung; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin that is widely expressed in the mammalian brain and acts to regulate neuronal survival and influence cognitive processes. The present study measured serum BDNF levels to investigate the associations of the BDNF Val66Met and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphisms with cognitive function in elderly Korean individuals. Methods Over 60 years, a total of 834 subjects were recruited for the present study. The subjects were classified into groups based on the degree of cognitive impairment (age-associated cognitive decline, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer’s disease) and compared with normal controls in terms of a neuropsychological assessment and a clinical evaluation. Results Of the initial 834 study participants, 165 (59 controls and 106 subjects with cognitive impairments) completed the study. There was a significant increase in serum BDNF levels in subjects with cognitive impairments relative to the control group and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism was significantly associated with cognitive function but not serum BDNF levels. The 5-HTTLPR polymorphism did not have any associations with cognitive impairment or serum BDNF levels. Conclusion The present findings suggest that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of cognitive impairment and the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism may be an important factor in the susceptibility to these age-related deficits. PMID:26598587

  18. The Lowe and Costello Symbolic Play Test in socially impaired children.

    PubMed

    Gould, J

    1986-06-01

    The Symbolic Play Test was given to 31 socially impaired and 29 sociable children retarded in language comprehension, with the same range of age (5 to 12 years) and intelligence (profoundly retarded to normal). Play test age and spontaneous pretend play were at a similar level in the sociable children, but, in the socially impaired, spontaneous pretend play was lower than the play test age would predict. In some of the latter it was absent, and in the others it was narrow and repetitive in form. For subgroups of socially impaired and sociable children with similar play ages, there was no significant difference in language comprehension age. The discrepancy, in socially impaired children, between levels on tests and spontaneous use of skills was discussed. PMID:2424888

  19. Cerebral autoregulation in neonates with a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Chock, Valerie Y.; Ramamoorthy, Chandra; Van Meurs, Krisa P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are at risk for impaired cerebral autoregulation with pressure passive blood flow. Fluctuations in cerebral perfusion may occur in infants with a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA), especially during ductal closure. Our goal was to compare cerebral autoregulation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in VLBW infants treated for a hsPDA. Study design This prospective observational study enrolled 28 VLBW infants with a hsPDA diagnosed by echocardiogram and 12 control VLBW infants without a hsPDA. NIRS cerebral monitoring was applied during conservative treatment, indomethacin, or surgical ligation. A cerebral pressure passivity index (PPI) was calculated and PPI differences were compared using a mixed effects regression model. Cranial ultrasound and MRI data were also assessed. Results Infants with surgically ligated PDAs were more likely to have had a greater PPI within two hours following ligation compared with those treated with conservative management (p=0.04) or indomethacin (p=0.0007). These differences resolved six hours following treatment. Conclusions Cerebral autoregulation was better preserved after indomethacin treatment of a hsPDA compared with surgical ligation. Infants requiring surgical hsPDA ligation may be at increased risk for cerebral pressure passivity in the six hours following surgery. PMID:22226574

  20. A 110-year perspective of significant tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazulis, Thomas P.

    A tornado documentation project began in 1980 as an effort to resolve differences between the two independently designed tornado data bases used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One was established for the NRC at the University of Chicago (UC) by T. T. Fujita for the years 1916-1985. In addition, the NRC assisted the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) in adding F scale ratings to the existing NSSFC data base in Kansas City, from 1950 to the present. The final task of this effort (hereinafter called the project) was to locate and list all significant tornadoes from 1880 through 1989. Significant is defined here as all tornadoes doing confirmable F-2 or greater damage or causing a death.

  1. Atrophy and lower regional perfusion of temporo-parietal brain areas are correlated with impairment in memory performances and increase of EEG upper alpha power in prodromal Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Vito Davide

    2015-01-01

    Background: Temporo-parietal cortex thinning is associated with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The increase of the EEG upper/low alpha power ratio has been associated with MCI due to AD subjects and to the atrophy of temporo-parietal brain areas. Moreover, subjects with a higher alpha3/alpha2 frequency power ratio showed lower brain perfusion than in the low alpha3/alpha2 group. The two groups have significantly different hippocampal volumes and correlation with the theta frequency activity. Methods: 74 adult subjects with MCI underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluation, electroencephalogram (EEG) recording, and high resolution 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). 27 of them underwent EEG recording and perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) evaluation. The alpha3/alpha2 power ratio as well as cortical thickness was computed for each subject. The difference in cortical thickness between the groups was estimated. Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation topography between cortical thinning as well as between brain perfusion and memory impairment. Results: In the higher upper/low alpha group, memory impairment was more pronounced both in the MRI group and the SPECT MCI group. Moreover, it was correlated with greater cortical atrophy and lower perfusional rate in temporo-parietal cortex. Conclusion: High EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning lower perfusion in temporo-parietal. Moreover, atrophy and lower perfusional rate were both significantly correlated with memory impairment in MCI subjects. The increase of EEG upper/low alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to AD dementia and may be of value in the clinical context. PMID:26389016

  2. Cognitive Impairments in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces cognitive impairments mainly affecting executive functions, episodic memory, and visuospatial capacities related to multiple brain lesions. These cognitive impairments not only determine everyday management of these patients, but also impact on the efficacy of management and may compromise the abstinence prognosis. Maintenance of lasting abstinence is associated with cognitive recovery in these patients, but some impairments may persist and interfere with the good conduct and the efficacy of management. It therefore appears essential to clearly define neuropsychological management designed to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. It is also essential to develop cognitive remediation therapy so that the patient can fully benefit from the management proposed in addiction medicine units. PMID:25076914

  3. 20 CFR 404.1523 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability § 404.1523 Multiple impairments. In determining whether your physical or...

  4. Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ...

  5. SPECIAL ARTICLE Cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders

    E-print Network

    , working memory and episodic memory. We also briefly discuss cognitive impairment in affective psychoses control, working memory, episodic memory, cognitive deficits, schizophrenia, psychotic disorders represent goal information in working memory as a means to guide behavior, with the associated neurobiologi

  6. State Alcohol-Impaired-Driving Estimates

    MedlinePLUS

    ... day, day of week, type of crash, location); vehicle factors (e.g., vehicle type and role in the crash); and person ... driver” refers to the operator of any motor vehicle, including a motorcycle. The term “alcohol-impaired” does ...

  7. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... financial institution, NIOC, or NICO in a direct customer relationship generally would be of greater... performed with the involvement or approval of management or only by clerical personnel; and (2) Whether the... a business development strategy. (d) Nexus. The proximity between the foreign financial...

  8. 31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... financial institution, NIOC, or NICO in a direct customer relationship generally would be of greater... performed with the involvement or approval of management or only by clerical personnel; and (2) Whether the... a business development strategy. (d) Nexus. The proximity between the foreign financial...

  9. Institution animal care and use committees need greater ethical diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Lawrence Arthur

    2013-01-01

    In response to public outrage stemming from exposés of animal abuse in research laboratories, the US Congress in 1985 mandated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) to oversee animal use at institutions receiving federal grants. IACUCs were enjoined to respect public concern about the treatment of animals in research, but they were not specifically instructed whether or not to perform ethical cost-benefit analyses of animal research protocols that IACUCs have chosen, with approval contingent upon a balancing of animal pain and suffering against a reasonable expectation of resultant human benefit. IACUCs have chosen not to make such ethical judgments but, rather, restrict themselves to an advisory role, often tweaking the details of animal-use protocols, but eventually approving all of them. This disinclination by IACUCs to take a broader ethical view of their authority and responsibilities may reflect a membership composition highly skewed towards animal researchers themselves (67%) and institutional veterinarians (15%), both with vested interests in continuing animal research. The resultant ethical monoculture may impair IACUC's ability to meet public concern for laboratory animal welfare. Psychological research has established that unconscious bias affects us all, that deliberations among the like-minded lead to adapting extremist positions, and that groupthink blinds organisations to alternatives that might be obvious to outsiders. Taken together, skewed IACUC membership composition and psychological research insights into unconscious bias and groupthink suggest that an infusion of ethical diversity by increasing the percentage of institutionally unaffiliated members on IACUCs would broaden their ethical perspectives and enable them to better address public concerns about laboratory animal welfare. PMID:23131895

  10. Institution animal care and use committees need greater ethical diversity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Lawrence Arthur

    2013-03-01

    In response to public outrage stemming from exposés of animal abuse in research laboratories, the US Congress in 1985 mandated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) to oversee animal use at institutions receiving federal grants. IACUCs were enjoined to respect public concern about the treatment of animals in research, but they were not specifically instructed whether or not to perform ethical cost-benefit analyses of animal research protocols that IACUCs have chosen, with approval contingent upon a balancing of animal pain and suffering against a reasonable expectation of resultant human benefit. IACUCs have chosen not to make such ethical judgments but, rather, restrict themselves to an advisory role, often tweaking the details of animal-use protocols, but eventually approving all of them. This disinclination by IACUCs to take a broader ethical view of their authority and responsibilities may reflect a membership composition highly skewed towards animal researchers themselves (67%) and institutional veterinarians (15%), both with vested interests in continuing animal research. The resultant ethical monoculture may impair IACUC's ability to meet public concern for laboratory animal welfare. Psychological research has established that unconscious bias affects us all, that deliberations among the like-minded lead to adapting extremist positions, and that groupthink blinds organisations to alternatives that might be obvious to outsiders. Taken together, skewed IACUC membership composition and psychological research insights into unconscious bias and groupthink suggest that an infusion of ethical diversity by increasing the percentage of institutionally unaffiliated members on IACUCs would broaden their ethical perspectives and enable them to better address public concerns about laboratory animal welfare. PMID:23131895

  11. Changes in the normal appearing brain tissue and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Filippi, M; Tortorella, C; Rovaris, M; Bozzali, M; Possa, F; Sormani, M; Iannucci, G; Comi, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess (a) whether the changes in the normal appearing brain tissue (NABT), as revealed by magnetisation transfer (MT) histogram analysis, correlates with cognitive dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis and (b) the relative contribution of these changes by comparison with that of multiple sclerosis lesions visible on conventional MRI.?METHODS—Dual echo, T1 weighted and MT scans of the brain were obtained in 12 patients with multiple sclerosis with cognitive impairment and in seven without cognitive impairment. Lesion loads were assessed from T2 and T1 weighted scans. To create MT histograms of the NABT, multiple sclerosis lesion outlines from dual echo scans were superimposed automatically and nulled out from the coregistered and scalp stripped MTR maps. Average lesion MT ratio (MTR) and brain size were also measured.?RESULTS—T2 and T1 lesion loads were significantly higher and the average lesion MTR and brain size were significantly lower in the group of cognitively impaired patients. Patients with cognitive deficits also had significantly lower average MTR and peak location of the NABT histogram. Logistic regression analysis showed that 68% of the total variance was explained by average NABT-MTR alone. A multivariable regression model showed that NABT-MTR was the only factor that significantly correlated with cognitive impairment in these patients (p=0.001).?CONCLUSIONS—The extent of abnormalities which go undetected when using conventional MRI is relevant in determining cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.?? PMID:10644780

  12. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Brad J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond, Richard S.; Hanus, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

  13. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

    2014-04-29

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

  14. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network

    PubMed Central

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679?159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

  15. Unsaturated zone transport modeling of the Greater Confinement Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.

    1994-12-31

    Unsaturated zone transport modeling is being conducted as part of the performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility which is located on the Nevada Test Site. This performance assessment is based on an iterative process of modeling and data collection to assess the likelihood the site will meet the US Environmental Protection Agency`s containment, individual protection and groundwater protection requirements for the disposal of transuranic wastes, high-level wastes and spent fuel. The current iteration of the performance assessment evaluates the potential impact of future events on the transport system. The future events included in this analysis are subsidence, bioturbation, erosion, climate change, irrigated farming and drilling. This paper presents the unsaturated transport model, how it fits into the performance assessment and how the future events are incorporated in the model.

  16. Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

  17. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5). PMID:24549296

  18. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Eleonora; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline) startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level) while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109 = 0.23, p < 0.05). Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109 = 0.28, p < 0.05) and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p < 0.001). Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders. PMID:25705181

  19. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    PubMed

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7 days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n = 98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n = 512) women (p < 0.001). After adjusting for BMI, age, education, cancer treatment, months since diagnosis, and aromatase inhibitor status, Black women had an average 4-point (95 % confidence interval 0.18-8.01) higher QuickDASH score (p = 0.04) than White women. Mediation analysis suggested that BMI attenuated the association between race and disability by 40 %. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability. PMID:26420404

  20. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Anna N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these “cultural universals” is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of the kinds of errors that can occur in transmission. PMID:23831566

  1. Alzheimer's disease and language impairments: social intervention and medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Klimova, Blanka; Maresova, Petra; Valis, Martin; Hort, Jakub; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Communication is very important for people to be successfully integrated into social environment and make and maintain relationship. Particularly, language difficulties lead to social exclusion of the people affected with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and contribute to a significant decrease in the quality of their life and also have a big impact on their family members who in most cases become their caregivers who need to communicate with their loved ones in order to meet their needs. Therefore, the goal of this study is to describe language impairments in the individual phases of AD and discuss their improvement with respect to AD on the basis of literature review. The authors of this article use traditional research methods in order to achieve the goal set mentioned earlier. First, a method of literature review of available sources describing language impairments in the individual phases of AD is exploited. Second, to show how informal caregivers and relevant drugs can successfully intervene in the improvement of these language impairments, a method of comparison of different research studies exploring such social intervention and medical treatment is used. PMID:26346123

  2. Does Fatigue Complaint Reflect Memory Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Jougleux-Vie, Caroline; Duhin, Emeline; Deken, Valerie; Outteryck, Olivier; Vermersch, Patrick; Zéphir, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Fatigue and memory impairment are common symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) and both may interact with cognition. This can contribute to making a complaint misrepresentative of the objective disorder. We sought to determine whether fatigue complaint in MS reflects memory impairment and investigated whether patients' subjective fatigue is associated with memory complaint. Methods. Fifty MS patients complaining of fatigue underwent subjective assessment of fatigue and memory complaint measured using self-assessment scales. Cognitive functions were assessed using a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a test of verbal episodic memory, the selective reminding test (SRT). Correlations were studied between subjective fatigue, memory complaint, and performance in verbal episodic memory. Results. Depression score, psychotropic and/or antiepileptic drug use, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, and MS form were confounding factors. After adjusting for these confounding factors, neither fatigue complaint nor memory complaint was correlated with SRT performance. Subjective fatigue was significantly associated with memory complaint. Conclusion. Although complaint of fatigue in MS was correlated with memory complaint, subjective fatigue was not the expression of memory impairment. PMID:24724029

  3. Prevalence of Cognitive Impairment in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rashedi, Vahid; Rezaei, Mohammad; Gharib, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mild cognitive impairment can be considered as an intermediate clinical state between normal cognitive aging and mild dementia. Elderly people with this impairment represent an at-risk group for the development of dementia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of cognitive impairment in community-dwelling older adults by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and its relationship with socio-demographic variables. Methods In this analytical-descriptive study, 212 subjects admitted to Hamadan’s day care centers were selected through simple random sampling method. To gather the data, MMSE was used as well as a questionnaire containing demographic variables. Data analysis was completed through SPSS-16. Results The sample consisted of 17.9% male, 59.4% of whom were married. According to the results, 96 cases (45.3%) suffered from mild (MMSE?22), 110 cases (51.9%) from moderate (11?MMSE?21) and 6 cases (2.8%) from severe cognitive disorder (MMSE?10). As findings revealed, factors such as age (Pv = 0.005, r = -0.491) and schooling (Pv < 0.001) are of significant relationship with MMSE score. Discussion Prevalence of cognitive decline in community-dwelling older adults was of normal range. Hence, familial relations and social support can decrease mental status disorder. PMID:25436081

  4. A diet enriched with curcumin impairs newly acquired and reactivated fear memories.

    PubMed

    Monsey, Melissa S; Gerhard, Danielle M; Boyle, Lara M; Briones, Miguel A; Seligsohn, Ma'ayan; Schafe, Glenn E

    2015-04-01

    Curcumin, a yellow-pigment compound found in the popular Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been extensively investigated for its anti-inflammatory, chemopreventative, and antidepressant properties. Here, we examined the efficacy of dietary curcumin at impairing the consolidation and reconsolidation of a Pavlovian fear memory, a widely studied animal model of traumatic memory formation in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We show that a diet enriched with 1.5% curcumin prevents the training-related elevation in the expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) Arc/Arg3.1 and Egr-1 in the lateral amygdala (LA) and impairs the 'consolidation' of an auditory Pavlovian fear memory; short-term memory (STM) is intact, whereas long-term memory (LTM) is significantly impaired. Next, we show that dietary curcumin impairs the 'reconsolidation' of a recently formed auditory Pavlovian fear memory; fear memory retrieval (reactivation) and postreactivation (PR)-STM are intact, whereas PR-LTM is significantly impaired. Additional experiments revealed that dietary curcumin is also effective at impairing the reconsolidation of an older, well-consolidated fear memory. Furthermore, we observed that fear memories that fail to reconsolidate under the influence of dietary curcumin are impaired in an enduring manner; unlike extinguished fear memories, they are not subject to reinstatement or renewal. Collectively, our findings indicate that a diet enriched with curcumin is capable of impairing fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation processes, findings that may have important clinical implications for the treatment of disorders such as PTSD that are characterized by unusually strong and persistently reactivated fear memories. PMID:25430781

  5. Further aspects of male-on-male rape and sexual assault in greater Manchester.

    PubMed

    McLean, Iain A; Balding, Val; White, Cath

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe pertinent non-medical circumstances around male-on-male sexual assault, and supplements the earlier article in this journal regarding forensic medical aspects of this population. As services (medical, policing and judicial) see more males they will need to adapt themselves to their needs as well as those of their female clients. St. Mary's Sexual Assault Referral Centre (Greater Manchester, UK) opened in October 1986. Up to May 2003 it had seen 376 male (370 individual clients) and 7,789 female cases (7,403 clients). Of these, significantly fewer males reported to the police than females, although this difference has disappeared in recent years. There were also significant differences between the sexes regarding relationship, number of assailants, and assault location. There were no statistically significant differences between the sexes for age of the client, and presence in the assault of weapons or additional violence. PMID:16117283

  6. Quality of life impairment and the attitudinal and behavioral features of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Latner, Janet D; Mond, Jonathan M; Vallance, Joanna K; Gleaves, David H; Buckett, Geoffrey

    2013-07-01

    We examined the relative contribution of different forms of eating disorder (ED) pathology to impairment in mental and physical health-related quality of life (QOL) in women with a wide range of ED symptoms. Female participants from an outpatient ED clinic (n = 53) and the local community (n = 214) completed measures of ED features and mental and physical health-related QOL. Across the sample, ED features were significantly associated with most mental and physical domains of QOL. In multiple regression analyses controlling for age and body mass index, ED features significantly predicted impairment in mental and physical QOL. Extreme shape and weight concern significantly and independently predicted most QOL subscales (? range = 0.19-0.44). The prominent contribution of shape and weight concern to both mental and physical QOL impairment underlines the importance of addressing body dissatisfaction in the treatment and prevention of EDs. PMID:23817157

  7. Impaired neural response to negative prediction errors in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Parvaz, Muhammad A; Konova, Anna B; Proudfit, Greg H; Dunning, Jonathan P; Malaker, Pias; Moeller, Scott J; Maloney, Tom; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2015-02-01

    Learning can be guided by unexpected success or failure, signaled via dopaminergic positive reward prediction error (+RPE) and negative reward-prediction error (-RPE) signals, respectively. Despite conflicting empirical evidence, RPE signaling is thought to be impaired in drug addiction. To resolve this outstanding question, we studied as a measure of RPE the feedback negativity (FN) that is sensitive to both reward and the violation of expectation. We examined FN in 25 healthy controls; 25 individuals with cocaine-use disorder (CUD) who tested positive for cocaine on the study day (CUD+), indicating cocaine use within the past 72 h; and in 25 individuals with CUD who tested negative for cocaine (CUD-). EEG was acquired while the participants performed a gambling task predicting whether they would win or lose money on each trial given three known win probabilities (25, 50, or 75%). FN was scored for the period in each trial when the actual outcome (win or loss) was revealed. A significant interaction between prediction, outcome, and group revealed that controls showed increased FN to unpredicted compared with predicted wins (i.e., intact +RPE) and decreased FN to unpredicted compared with predicted losses (i.e., intact -RPE). However, neither CUD subgroup showed FN modulation to loss (i.e., impaired -RPE), and unlike CUD+ individuals, CUD- individuals also did not show FN modulation to win (i.e., impaired +RPE). Thus, using FN, the current study directly documents -RPE deficits in CUD individuals. The mechanisms underlying -RPE signaling impairments in addiction may contribute to the disadvantageous nature of excessive drug use, which can persist despite repeated unfavorable life experiences (e.g., frequent incarcerations). PMID:25653348

  8. Impaired Neural Response to Negative Prediction Errors in Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Konova, Anna B.; Proudfit, Greg H.; Dunning, Jonathan P.; Malaker, Pias; Moeller, Scott J.; Maloney, Tom; Alia-Klein, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    Learning can be guided by unexpected success or failure, signaled via dopaminergic positive reward prediction error (+RPE) and negative reward-prediction error (?RPE) signals, respectively. Despite conflicting empirical evidence, RPE signaling is thought to be impaired in drug addiction. To resolve this outstanding question, we studied as a measure of RPE the feedback negativity (FN) that is sensitive to both reward and the violation of expectation. We examined FN in 25 healthy controls; 25 individuals with cocaine-use disorder (CUD) who tested positive for cocaine on the study day (CUD+), indicating cocaine use within the past 72 h; and in 25 individuals with CUD who tested negative for cocaine (CUD?). EEG was acquired while the participants performed a gambling task predicting whether they would win or lose money on each trial given three known win probabilities (25, 50, or 75%). FN was scored for the period in each trial when the actual outcome (win or loss) was revealed. A significant interaction between prediction, outcome, and group revealed that controls showed increased FN to unpredicted compared with predicted wins (i.e., intact +RPE) and decreased FN to unpredicted compared with predicted losses (i.e., intact ?RPE). However, neither CUD subgroup showed FN modulation to loss (i.e., impaired ?RPE), and unlike CUD+ individuals, CUD? individuals also did not show FN modulation to win (i.e., impaired +RPE). Thus, using FN, the current study directly documents ?RPE deficits in CUD individuals. The mechanisms underlying ?RPE signaling impairments in addiction may contribute to the disadvantageous nature of excessive drug use, which can persist despite repeated unfavorable life experiences (e.g., frequent incarcerations). PMID:25653348

  9. Neural oscillatory deficits in schizophrenia predict behavioral and neurocognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Antígona; Gaspar, Pablo A; Hillyard, Steven A; Bickel, Stephan; Lakatos, Peter; Dias, Elisa C; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    Paying attention to visual stimuli is typically accompanied by event-related desynchronizations (ERD) of ongoing alpha (7-14 Hz) activity in visual cortex. The present study used time-frequency based analyses to investigate the role of impaired alpha ERD in visual processing deficits in schizophrenia (Sz). Subjects viewed sinusoidal gratings of high (HSF) and low (LSF) spatial frequency (SF) designed to test functioning of the parvo- vs. magnocellular pathways, respectively. Patients with Sz and healthy controls paid attention selectively to either the LSF or HSF gratings which were presented in random order. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to all stimuli. As in our previous study, it was found that Sz patients were selectively impaired at detecting LSF target stimuli and that ERP amplitudes to LSF stimuli were diminished, both for the early sensory-evoked components and for the attend minus unattend difference component (the Selection Negativity), which is generally regarded as a specific index of feature-selective attention. In the time-frequency domain, the differential ERP deficits to LSF stimuli were echoed in a virtually absent theta-band phase locked response to both unattended and attended LSF stimuli (along with relatively intact theta-band activity for HSF stimuli). In contrast to the theta-band evoked responses which were tightly stimulus locked, stimulus-induced desynchronizations of ongoing alpha activity were not tightly stimulus locked and were apparent only in induced power analyses. Sz patients were significantly impaired in the attention-related modulation of ongoing alpha activity for both HSF and LSF stimuli. These deficits correlated with patients' behavioral deficits in visual information processing as well as with visually based neurocognitive deficits. These findings suggest an additional, pathway-independent, mechanism by which deficits in early visual processing contribute to overall cognitive impairment in Sz. PMID:26190988

  10. Inhibition of SDF-1? further impairs diabetic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Dustin M.; Xu, Junwang; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Radu, Antoneta; Mitchell, Marc E.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Impaired diabetic wound healing is associated with abnormal SDF-1? production, decreased angiogenesis, and chronic inflammation. Lentiviral-mediated overexpression of SDF-1? can correct the impairments in angiogenesis and healing in diabetic wounds. We hypothesized that SDF-1? is a critical component of the normal wound healing response and that inhibition of SDF-1? would further delay the wound-healing process. Design of study Db/Db diabetic mice and Db/+ non-diabetic mice were wounded with an 8mm punch biopsy and the wounds treated with a lentiviral vector containing either the GFP or SDF-1? inhibitor transgene. The inhibitor transgene is a mutant form of SDF-1? that binds, but does not activate, the CXCR4 receptor. Computerized planimetry was used to measure wound size daily. Wounds were analyzed at 3 and 7 days by histology and for production of inflammatory markers using real-time PCR. The effect of the SDF-1? inhibitor on cellular migration was also assessed. Results Inhibition of SDF-1? resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of diabetic wound healing, (3.8 cm2/day versus 6.5 cm2/day in GFP-treated wounds p=0.04), and also impaired the early phase of non-diabetic wound healing. SDF-1? inhibition also resulted in fewer small-caliber vessels, less granulation tissue formation, and increased proinflammatory gene expression (IL-6 and MIP-2) in the diabetic wounds. Conclusions The relative level of SDF-1? in the wound plays a key role in the wound healing response. Alterations in the wound level of SDF-1?, as seen in diabetes or by SDF-1? inhibition, impair healing by decreasing cellular migration and angiogenesis, leading to increased production of inflammatory cytokines and inflammation. PMID:21211927

  11. Gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume differences in children with Specific Language Impairment and/or Reading Disability.

    PubMed

    Girbau-Massana, Dolors; Garcia-Marti, Gracian; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Schwartz, Richard G

    2014-04-01

    We studied gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations that may be critical for language, through an optimized voxel-based morphometry evaluation in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), compared to Typical Language Development (TLD). Ten children with SLI (8;5-10;9) and 14 children with TLD (8;2-11;8) participated. They received a comprehensive language and reading test battery. We also analyzed a subgroup of six children with SLI+RD (Reading Disability). Brain images from 3-Tesla MRIs were analyzed with intelligence, age, gender, and total intracranial volume as covariates. Children with SLI or SLI+RD exhibited a significant lower overall gray matter volume than children with TLD. Particularly, children with SLI showed a significantly lower volume of gray matter compared to children with TLD in the right postcentral parietal gyrus (BA4), and left and right medial occipital gyri (BA19). The group with SLI also exhibited a significantly greater volume of gray matter in the right superior occipital gyrus (BA19), which may reflect a brain reorganization to compensate for their lower volumes at medial occipital gyri. Children with SLI+RD, compared to children with TLD, showed a significantly lower volume of: (a) gray matter in the right postcentral parietal gyrus; and (b) white matter in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (RILF), which interconnects the temporal and occipital lobes. Children with TLD exhibited a significantly lower CSF volume than children with SLI and children with SLI+RD respectively, who had somewhat smaller volumes of gray matter allowing for more CSF volume. The significant lower gray matter volume at the right postcentral parietal gyrus and greater cerebrospinal fluid volume may prove to be unique markers for SLI. We discuss the association of poor knowledge/visual representations and language input to brain development. Our comorbid study showed that a significant lower volume of white matter in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus may be unique to children with SLI and Reading Disability. It was significantly associated to reading comprehension of sentences and receptive language composite z-score, especially receptive vocabulary and oral comprehension of stories. PMID:24418156

  12. The impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on preadolescent adjustment may be greater for girls than for boys.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Irene J; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Whether gender differences exist in the impairment associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still largely unknown, because most samples have few affected girls or include only one sex. The current study evaluated whether ADHD affects adjustment differently for girls than boys in a population-based cohort of 11-year-olds (520 girls, 478 boys). Those with a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD (predominantly inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or combined) were compared to those without ADHD on teacher, parent, and child reports of academics, peer relationships, self-concept, clinical symptoms, and treatment. Although boys and girls with ADHD experienced difficulties in all areas, girls with ADHD, especially the inattentive subtype, were more negatively affected in academics and peer relationships. Inattentive girls were less popular and more likely to be bullied than girls without ADHD, whereas inattentive boys were not. The social isolation experienced by many girls with ADHD deserves greater attention. PMID:21722026

  13. Levomilnacipran Extended-Release Treatment in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder: Improvements in Functional Impairment Categories

    PubMed Central

    Gommoll, Carl P.; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M.; Ruth, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In this post hoc analysis, improvement in functional impairment in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with levomilnacipran extended release (ER) was evaluated by assessing shifts from more severe to less severe functional impairment categories on individual Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) subscales. Method: SDS data were pooled from 5 phase II/III studies conducted between December 2006 and March 2012 of levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in adult patients with MDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria). Proportions of patients shifting from moderate-extreme baseline impairment (score ? 4) to mild-no impairment (score ? 3) at end of treatment were assessed for each SDS subscale. Proportions of patients shifting from marked-extreme (score ? 7) baseline impairment to moderate-no (score ? 6) or mild-no impairment (score ? 3) at end of treatment, and shifts in which patients worsened from moderate-no to marked-extreme impairment, were also evaluated. Results: A significantly higher proportion of patients treated with levomilnacipran ER than placebo-treated patients improved from more severe categories of functional impairment at baseline to less severe impairment categories across all SDS subscales: work/school, social life, and family life/home responsibilities (P < .01). Depending on the SDS subscale, 48%–55% of levomilnacipran ER–treated patients with moderate-extreme impairment at baseline improved to mild or no impairment, compared with no more than 40% of placebo patients on any subscale. Almost half (42%–47%) of levomilnacipran ER–treated patients versus only about one-third (29%–34%) of placebo patients improved from marked-extreme to mild or no impairment across functional domains. Conclusions: These results suggest that functional improvement was observed across the SDS functional domains. To our knowledge, this is the first such categorical analysis of functional improvement, as measured by the SDS, for an antidepressant. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00969709, NCT01377194, NCT00969150, and NCT01034462 and EudraCT identifier: 2006–002404-34 PMID:26644957

  14. Beauty is in the 'we' of the beholder: greater agreement on facial attractiveness among close relations.

    PubMed

    Bronstad, P Matthew; Russell, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Scientific research on facial attractiveness has focused primarily on elucidating universal factors to which all raters respond consistently. However, recent work has shown that there is also substantial disagreement between raters, highlighting the importance of determining how attractiveness preferences vary among different individuals. We conducted a typical attractiveness ratings study, but took the unusual step of recruiting pairs of subjects who were spouses, siblings, or close friends. The agreement between pairs of affiliated friends, siblings, and spouses was significantly greater than between pairs of strangers drawn from the same race and culture, providing evidence that facial-attractiveness preferences are socially organized. PMID:18265847

  15. Greater gains in strength and power with intraset rest intervals in hypertrophic training.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Jagim, Andrew R; Sanchez, Adam C; Mardock, Michelle A; Kelly, Katherine A; Meredith, Holly J; Smith, Gerald L; Greenwood, Mike; Parker, Janet L; Riechman, Steven E; Fluckey, James D; Crouse, Stephen F; Kreider, Richard B

    2013-11-01

    We sought to determine if hypertrophic training with intraset rest intervals (ISRs) produced greater gains in power compared with traditional rest (TRD) hypertrophic training. Twenty-two men (age 25 ± 5 years, height 179.71 ± 5.04 cm, weight 82.1 ± 10.6 kg, 6.5 ± 4.5 years of training) matched according to baseline characteristics were assigned to 12 weeks of training using TRD or ISR. Body composition, strength (1-repetition maximum [1RM] bench and squat), and power output (60% 1RM bench and squat, and vertical jump) were assessed at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Determination of myosin heavy chain (MHC) percentage from the vastus lateralis was performed pretraining and posttraining. Body composition was analyzed by analysis of variance, whereas performance measures and MHC were analyzed by analysis of covariance with baseline values as the covariate. Data are presented as mean ± SD changes pre to post. The ISR produced greater power output in bench (TRD 32.8 ± 53.4 W; ISR 83.0 ± 49.9 W, p = 0.020) and vertical jump (TRD 91.6 ± 59.8 W; ISR 147.7 ± 52.0 W; p = 0.036) with squat power approaching significance (TRD 204.9 ± 70.2 W; ISR 282.1 ± 104.2 W; p = 0.053) after post hoc analysis (p < 0.10). The ISR produced greater gains in bench (TRD 9.1 ± 3.7 kg; ISR 15.1 ± 8.3 kg; p = 0.010) and squat (TRD 48.5 ± 17.4 kg; ISR 63.8 ± 12.0 kg; p = 0.002) strength. Both protocols produced significant gains in lean mass with no significant differences between groups (1.6 ± 2.1 kg; p = 0.869). The MHCIIx percentage decreased (-31.0 ± 24.5%; p = 0.001), whereas the MHCIIA percentage increased (28.9 ± 28.5%; p = 0.001) with no significant differences between groups. Results indicate that hypertrophy training with ISR produces greater gains in strength and power, with similar gains in lean mass and MHC alterations as TRD. The ISR may be best used in hypertrophic training for strength and power sports. PMID:23736782

  16. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian - Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician - Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  17. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 ?g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ?g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ?g/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  18. Normobaric hyperoxia combined with minocycline provides greater neuroprotection than either alone in transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xinchun; Liu, Jie; Liu, Ke J; Rosenberg, Gary A; Yang, Yi; Liu, Wenlan

    2013-02-01

    Normobaric hyperoxia (NBO), which maintains penumbral oxygenation, reduces brain injury during cerebral ischemia, and minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, reduces reperfusion injury, including inflammation, apoptosis and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activation. Since they have different mechanisms of action, we hypothesized that combining them would provide greater neuroprotection. To test the hypothesis, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of the combination of NBO with minocycline. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to NBO (95% O(2)) or normoxia (21% O(2)) during 90-min filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, followed by 48 h of reperfusion. Minocycline (3 mg/kg) or vehicle was intravenously administered to rats 15 min after reperfusion onset. Treatment with NBO and minocycline alone resulted in 36% and 30% reductions in infarction volume, respectively. When the two treatments were combined, there was a 68% reduction in infarction volume. The combination therapy also significantly reduced hemispheric swelling, which was absent with monotherapy. In agreement with its greater neuro- and vasoprotection, the combination therapy showed greater inhibitory effects on MMP-2/9 induction, occludin degradation, caspase-3 and -9 activation and apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) induction in ischemic brain tissue. Our results show that NBO plus minocycline effectively reduces brain injury in transient focal cerebral ischemia with protection due to inhibition on MMP-2/9-mediated occludin degradation and attenuation of caspase-dependent and independent apoptotic pathways. PMID:23195595

  19. Intervention for Mixed Receptive-Expressive Language Impairment: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, James; McCartney, Elspeth; O'Hare, Anne; Law, James

    2010-01-01

    Studies indicate that language impairment that cannot be accounted for by factors such as below-average non-verbal ability, hearing impairment, behaviour or emotional problems, or neurological impairments affects some 6% of school-age children. Language impairment with a receptive language component is more resistant to intervention than specific…

  20. Adaptive Behavior and Low Incidence Handicaps: Hearing and Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Frieda R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The article discusses recommended adaptive behavior scales for use with hearing impaired, visually impaired, and multihandicapped sensory impaired individuals. Assessment instruments developed and used in the National Independent Living Skills Project, which have applicability across sensory impaired populations, are also described. (Author/JW)