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1

Kappa-opioids produce significantly greater analgesia in women than in men.  

PubMed

Sex differences in human responses to nociceptive stimuli and painful pathological conditions have generally indicated that women report higher pain levels or exhibit less tolerance than men for given stimulus intensities (reviewed in ref. 1 and 2). However, studies have not evaluated sex differences in analgesic responses. We recently reported that the opioid agonist-antagonist pentazocine, which acts predominantly at kappa-receptors, produced significantly better postoperative analgesia in females than in males in patients who underwent surgery for the removal of their third molars (wisdom teeth). In the current study, we evaluated the hypothesis that this sex difference is a characteristic of kappa-opioid agonism. In order to determine whether there are sex differences associated with kappa-opioid agonism, the analgesic efficacy of two other predominantly kappa-opioid analgesics, nalbuphine and butorphanol; was compared in males and females who underwent surgery for the removal of third molar teeth. We found that both nalbuphine and butorphanol produced significantly greater analgesia in females as compared with males. Considering our earlier findings, we conclude that kappa-opioid analgesia is greater in females than in males, probably reflecting a difference in kappa-opioid-activated endogenous pain modulating circuits. PMID:8898754

Gear, R W; Miaskowski, C; Gordon, N C; Paul, S M; Heller, P H; Levine, J D

1996-11-01

2

Presence and Significant Determinants of Cognitive Impairment in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and to identify clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in MS. Methods 303 patients with MS and 279 healthy controls were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N); measures of pre-morbid verbal competence and neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. Results Patients and healthy controls were matched for age, gender, education and pre-morbid verbal Intelligence Quotient. Patients presenting with cognitive impairment were 108/303 (35.6%). In the overall group of participants, the significant predictors of the most sensitive BRB-N scores were: presence of MS, age, education, and Vocabulary. The significant predictors when considering MS patients only were: course of MS, age, education, vocabulary, and depression. Using logistic regression analyses, significant determinants of the presence of cognitive impairment in relapsing-remitting MS patients were: duration of illness (OR?=?1.053, 95% CI?=?1.010–1.097, p?=?0.015), Expanded Disability Status Scale score (OR?=?1.247, 95% CI?=?1.024–1.517, p?=?0.028), and vocabulary (OR?=?0.960, 95% CI?=?0.936–0.984, p?=?0.001), while in the smaller group of progressive MS patients these predictors did not play a significant role in determining the cognitive outcome. Conclusions Our results corroborate the evidence about the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with MS. Furthermore, our findings identify significant clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in a large sample of MS patients for the first time. Implications for further research and clinical practice were discussed. PMID:23922813

Borghi, Martina; Cavallo, Marco; Carletto, Sara; Ostacoli, Luca; Zuffranieri, Marco; Picci, Rocco Luigi; Scavelli, Francesco; Johnston, Harriet; Furlan, Pier Maria; Bertolotto, Antonio; Malucchi, Simona

2013-01-01

3

Impaired respiration discloses the physiological significance of state transitions in Chlamydomonas  

E-print Network

Impaired respiration discloses the physiological significance of state transitions in Chlamydomonas- sitions and/or mitochondrial respiration, we show that photosyn- thetic growth, and therefore biomass cannot be provided by respiration, enhanced photosystem I turnover elicited by transition to state 2

4

Clobazam and Its Active Metabolite N-desmethylclobazam Display Significantly Greater Affinities for ?2- versus ?1-GABAA–Receptor Complexes  

PubMed Central

Clobazam (CLB), a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD), was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN) is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA ?1-subunit–selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the ?2 subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB), CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of ? (?1, ?2, ?3, or ?5), ?2, and ?2 subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for ?2- vs. ?1-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between ?2 and ?1 receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for ?1 receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB. PMID:24533090

Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Nichol, Kathryn; Lee, Deborah; Ebert, Bjarke

2014-01-01

5

Osteoarthritis of the knee or hip significantly impairs driving ability (cross-sectional survey)  

PubMed Central

Background Advising patients about when they can drive after surgery is common practice after arthroplasty of the knee or hip. In the literature, the preoperative braking performance values of the patients are frequently taken as the “safe” landmark. We hypothesised that osteoarthritis (OA), the most frequent reason for arthroplasty, already compromises the ability to perform an emergency stop. We expected that both Reaction Time (RT) and Movement Time (MT) as components of the Total Brake Response Time (TBRT), would be prolonged in patients with OA of the knee or hip in comparison with healthy subjects. We also expected maximum pressure levels on the brake pedal to be reduced in such cases. Methods A real car cabin was equipped with pressure sensors on the accelerator and brake pedals to measure RT, MT, TBRT and maximum Brake Force (BF) under realistic spatial constraints. Patients with OA of the knee (right n?=?18, left n?=?15) or hip (right n?=?20, left n?=?19) were compared with a healthy control group (n?=?21). Results All measured values for TBRT in the control group remained below 600 ms. OA of the right hip or knee significantly prolonged the braking performance (right hip: TBRT p?=?0.025, right knee: TBRT p?impair driving ability (TBRT p?=?0.228). Intriguingly, OA of the left knee prolonged RT and MT to the same degree as OA on the contralateral side (RT p?=?0.001, MT p?impaired; OA can significantly increase the total braking distance. To ensure safe traffic participation the safety margin for TBRT should be strictly set, under our experimental conditions, at around 600 ms. Moreover, therapeutic approaches to OA, such as physiotherapy, and patients receiving surgery of the left knee should take into account that left knee OA can also impair driving ability. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: Project number of the ethics committee of the University of Tübingen: 268/2009BO2; 267/2009BO2. PMID:24433417

2014-01-01

6

A cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others: feasibility and preliminary results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and present preliminary results of a cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others.Design: One group pretest—posttest design.Subjects: Twenty-two patients with mild cognitive impairment and their significant others, running in four group programmes.Intervention: The main goal of the cognitive behavioural group therapy was to strengthen adaptive behaviour in 10

Liesbeth WA Joosten-Weyn Banningh; Roy PC Kessels; Marcel GM Olde Rikkert; Caroline E Geleijns-Lanting; Floris W Kraaimaat

2008-01-01

7

Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the olfactory bulb impairs olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.  

PubMed

Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We examined two important examples of these, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95, in regard to the functional role of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) in regulation of olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). To test whether activation of egr-1 in the olfactory bulb (OB) is required for olfactory memory of these bats, bilaterally canulated individuals were infused with antisense (AS) or non-sense (NS)-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of egr-1, or with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), 2h before the olfactory training. Our results showed that behavioral training significantly up-regulates immediate early gene (IEG) EGR-1 and key synaptic proteins Synaptotagmin-1(SYT-1), CaMKII and PSD-95, and phosphorylation of CaMKII in the OB at the protein level per se. Subsequently, we observed that egr-1 antisense-ODN infusion in the OB impaired olfactory memory and down regulates the expression of CaMKII and PSD-95, and the phosphorylation of CaMKII but not SYT-1. In contrast, NS-ODN or PBS had no effect on the expression of the PSDs CaMKII or PSD-95, or on the phosphorylation of CaMKII. When the egr-1 NS-ODN was infused in the OB after training for the novel odor there was no effect on olfactory memory. These findings suggest that egr-1 control the activation of CaMKII and PSD-95 during the process of olfactory memory formation. PMID:22796292

Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

2012-08-30

8

Quality of life is significantly Impaired in long-term survivors of Acute Liver Failure and particularly in Acetaminophen Overdose patients  

PubMed Central

Functional outcomes in long-term survivors of acute liver failure (ALF) are not well-characterized. The aim of this prospective study was to determine health related quality of life (HRQOL) in long-term adult ALF survivors. ALFSG registry participants completed the CDC HRQOL-14 and SF-36 questionnaires at a 1 and/or 2 year follow-up study visit. Responses were compared among ALF subgroups and to available U.S. general population controls. Among the 282 adult ALF patients, 125 had undergone liver transplantation (LT) while 157 were spontaneous survivors (SS), including 95 acetaminophen overdose (APAP) patients and 62 non-APAP SS. Acetaminophen SS patients reported significantly lower general health scores and more days of impaired mental and physical health, activity limitations due to poor health, pain, depression, and anxiety compared to the other groups (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in coma grade, use of mechanical ventilation or ICP monitoring among the patient groups during their ALF hospitalization but the APAP SS had a significantly higher rate of psychiatric disease and substance abuse (p< 0.001). Compared to the U.S. general population, a greater proportion of the combined SS patients reported fair/poor health and >14 days of impaired physical/mental health and activity limitations due to poor health. In addition, a greater proportion of LT recipents reported >14 days of impaired physical/mental health. Similar results were observed using the SF-36 across the three ALF subgroups and compared to population controls. In conclusion, long-term adult ALF survivors report significantly lower quality of life scores compared to U.S. population controls. Furthermore, APAP SS patients report the lowest quality of life scores, possibly due to a higher rate of pre-morbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23780824

Rangnekar, Amol S.; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie; McGuire, Brendan; Lee, William M.; Fontana, Robert J.

2013-01-01

9

Use of Direct Instruction to Teach Reading to Students with Significant Cognitive Impairments: Student Outcomes and Teacher Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with significant cognitive impairments make measurable gains in reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests--Revised when taught using Direct Instruction reading programs. Additionally, the study explored teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction…

Kanfush, Philip Michael, III.

2010-01-01

10

Cognitive impairment in patients with chronic pain: The significance of stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article examines the role of emotional distress and other aspects of suffering in the cognitive impairment that\\u000a often is apparent in patients with chronic pain. Research suggests that pain-related negative emotions and stress potentially\\u000a impact cognitive functioning independent of the effects of pain intensity. The anterior cingulate cortex is likely an integral\\u000a component of the neural system that

Robert P. Hart; James B. Wade; Michael F. Martelli

2003-01-01

11

Interactive cervical motion kinematics: Sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.  

PubMed

Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. PMID:25456272

Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

2014-10-14

12

Dexrazoxane significantly impairs the induction of doxorubicin resistance in the human leukaemia line, K562  

PubMed Central

Dexrazoxane combined with doxorubicin (+ 5-fluorouracil?+?cyclophosphamide – the FAC regime) leads to a significant decrease in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and a significant increase in median survival time for patients with advanced breast cancer responsive to FAC. The reason for this increase in survival may be due to interference with the mechanism involved in the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR). In order to test this hypothesis, we induced resistance to doxorubicin in the K562 cell line by growing cells in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (10–30?nM) in the presence and absence of dexrazoxane (20?nM). The doxorubicin sensitivity of all resultant sublines was measured using the MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess the MDR1 phenotype, measuring P-glycoprotein expression with MRK 16 antibody and drug accumulation in the presence and absence of PSC 833 for functional P-glycoprotein. Long-term growth in doxorubicin increased the cellular resistance (IC 50) of K562 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (r2?=?0.908). Doxorubicin resistance was not induced in the presence of dexrazoxane (P< 0.0001) for several months. In parallel, the expression of functional P-glycoprotein was delayed after concomitant addition of dexrazoxane to the selecting medium (P< 0.001). Dexrazoxane did not act as a conventional modulator of P-glycoprotein. These results suggest that dexrazoxane may delay the development of MDR1, thus allowing responders to the FAC regime to continue to respond. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11286477

Sargent, J M; Williamson, C J; Yardley, C; Taylor, C G; Hellmann, K

2001-01-01

13

Partners met via sex parties present significantly greater odds for condomless anal sex among MSM: an event-level analysis of venues where male partners are met.  

PubMed

One hundred forty-seven men who have sex with men completed time-line follow-back interviews about the venues where they met their male partners (n = 1180 sexual events with first-time partners, <30 days). We ran multivariate models to determine the association between venues and condomless anal sex (CAS). After adjusting for known correlates of CAS, partners met at sex parties presented significantly greater odds for CAS compared with meeting a partner at a gay bar/club (adjusted odds ratio = 0.44), online (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42), bathhouse (adjusted odds ratio = 0.35), or via "other" venues (adjusted odds ratio = 0.35), all P < 0.01. These findings highlight the need to develop innovative HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention initiatives for men who attend sex parties. PMID:25226209

Grov, Christian; Rendina, H J; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

2014-12-15

14

Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

2011-01-01

15

Group Therapy for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Their Significant Others: Results of a Waiting-List Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have to deal with an uncertain prognosis and also face a multitude of memory-related problems and psychosocial consequences. A newly developed group programme proved to be feasible, however, it needed confirmation by a controlled study. Aim: This controlled study evaluates this group therapy for MCI patients aimed to help them accept and manage

Liesbeth W. A. Joosten-Weyn Banningh; Judith B. Prins; Myrra J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen; Hugo H. Wijnen; Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert; Roy P. C. Kessels

2011-01-01

16

Fears in Visually Impaired and Normally Sighted Children and Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Administered Revised Fear Survey Schedule for Children to 129 visually impaired children and 129 normally sighted children to determine whether visually impaired subjects reported greater fear. Found the two groups did not significantly differ on overall level of fearfulness, although sighted children expressed greater levels on fear of failure…

King, Neville J.; And Others

1990-01-01

17

Evidence for significantly greater N2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield emission efficiencies in proton versus electron aurora based on analysis of coincident DMSP SSUSI and SSJ/5 data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The launch of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite F16 in 2003 provided the first opportunity to analyze extensive sets of high-quality coincident auroral particle and FUV data obtained by the onboard sensors Special Sensor Ultraviolet Spectrographic Imager (SSUSI) and Special Sensor Auroral Particle Sensor (SSJ/5). Features of interest are Ly ? (121.6 nm), Lyman-Birge-Hopfield short (LBHS, the SSUSI 140-150 nm channel), and Lyman-Birge-Hopfield long (LBHL, 165-180 nm). We report on comparisons of column emission rates (CERs) by deriving simulated SSUSI values using SSJ/5 electron and ion (treated as proton) spectra. Field-line tracing is performed to determine the locations of coincidences. CERs are obtained by integrating the products of particle spectra and monoenergetic emission yields. A technique is reported for deriving these yields from nonmonoenergetic CERs obtained by our particle transport model. SSJ/5 ion spectra are extrapolated above 30 keV using a statistical representation based on Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites particle data. Key quantities of interest are ratios of SSUSI to SSJ/5-based CERs (S-S ratios) and corresponding ratios of proton-produced to total emission (unity for Ly ? and from 0 to 1 for LBHS and LBHL). SSJ/5-based CERs are used to derive the latter ratios. Median ratio values are determined in order to reduce the error budget to primarily calibration and model errors. The median LBH S-S ratios increase by a factor of ˜2.5 from electron to proton aurora and support significantly higher proton LBH emission efficiencies (3 times the electron efficiencies) assuming reported calibration uncertainties. This calls for significant increases in proton and/or H-atom LBH cross sections. In turn, FUV auroral remote-sensing algorithms must explicitly address both electron and proton aurora.

Knight, H. K.; Strickland, D. J.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.; Morrison, D.; Paxton, L. J.; Evans, D. S.

2008-04-01

18

Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

2014-01-01

19

Metabolomics reveals significant impairments in the immune system of the APP/PS1 transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Inflammatory processes and other failures related to the immune system are common features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), in both brain and the peripheral system. Thus, the study of the main organs of the immune system may have a great potential for the elucidation of pathological mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. This is the first metabolomic investigation performed in spleen and thymus from transgenic mice of AD. Tissues were fingerprinted using a metabolomic platform comprising GC-MS and ultra-HPLC-MS. Multivariate statistics demonstrated significant differences in numerous metabolites between the APP/PS1 mice and wild-type controls, and it was proven that multiple biochemical pathways are disturbed in these organs including abnormal metabolism of phospholipids, energy deficiencies, altered homeostasis of amino acids, oxidative stress, and others. Therefore, these findings highlight the importance of the proper metabolic functioning of peripheral immune system in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. PMID:25393935

González-Domínguez, Raúl; García-Barrera, Tamara; Vitorica, Javier; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

2015-02-01

20

Recumbent Cross-Training Is a Feasible and Safe Mode of Physical Activity for Significantly Motor-Impaired Adults With Cerebral Palsy  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of using recumbent cross-training for nonambulatory adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Design Observational. Setting Clinical center for CP treatment and rehabilitation. Participants Significantly motor-impaired adults with CP (NZ = 11) with a mean age ± SD of 36.3 ± 13.2 years and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) III and IV. Interventions Participants completed a 40-minute session of aerobic exercise using the NuStep Recumbent Cross Trainer, in which resistance was progressively increased at 5-minute intervals. Main Outcome Measures Every 5 minutes during the exercise session, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption (V.O2), energy expenditure, and respiratory exchange ratios (RERs) were recorded along with rating of perceived exertion. Immediately after, and 24 hours postexercise, participants received a standard survey to assess levels of pain and discomfort. Results All participants were able to complete the 40-minute exercise protocol. Five of the 11 participants achieved a heart rate of at least 60% maximum throughout the duration, 10 participants had a significant elevation in V.O2 from baseline, and all participants had elevated RER values. Six participants reported pain during exercise, but only 2 reported pain after exercise was over. Conclusions The NuStep Recumbent Cross Trainer is a feasible exercise modality for significantly motor-impaired adults with CP, GMFCS III and IV. Moreover, this mode was sufficient to stimulate a significant cardiorespiratory response in all participants, and thus it and similar devices may serve as a viable option for aerobic exercise interventions in this population, to prevent obesity and related cardiometabolic consequences. PMID:23063881

Peterson, Mark D.; Lukasik, Leah; Muth, Timothy; Esposito, Phil; Haapala, Heidi; Gordon, Paul M.; IglayReger, Heidi; Hurvitz, Edward A.

2014-01-01

21

ACAT1-associated Late Endosomes/Lysosomes Significantly Improve Impaired Intracellular Cholesterol Metabolism and the Survival of Niemann-Pick Type C Mice.  

PubMed

We previously demonstrated that macrophages exhibit endoplasmic reticulum fragmentation under cholesterol-rich conditions, which results in the generation of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1)-associated late endosomes/lysosomes (ACAT1-LE). ACAT1-LE efficiently esterify free cholesterol in loco, even with abnormal egress of free cholesterol from late endosomes. Because impaired free cholesterol transport from late endosomes results in Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC), the induction of ACAT1-LE is a potential therapeutic intervention for NPC. To examine the effects of ACAT1-LE induction on intracellular cholesterol metabolism, we incubated bone marrow-derived macrophages possessing NPC phenotype (npc1 (-/-)) with methyl-?-cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex (m?CD-cho), a cholesterol donor. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that m?CD-cho treatment of npc1 (-/-) macrophages resulted in significant colocalization of signals from ACAT1 and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, a late endosome/lysosome marker. npc1 (-/-) macrophages contained significant amounts of free cholesterol with negligible amounts of cholesteryl ester, while wild-type macrophages possessed the same amounts of both cholesterols. m?CD-cho treatment also induced marked restoration of cholesterol esterification activity. m?CD-cho administration in neonate npc1 (-/-) mice improved survival. These results indicate that ACAT1-LE induction in npc1 (-/-) mice corrects impaired intracellular cholesterol metabolism and that restoring cholesterol esterification improves prognosis of npc1 (-/-). These data suggest that ACAT1-LE induction is a potential alternative therapeutic strategy for NPC. PMID:25221362

Kamikawa, Masashi; Lei, XiaoFeng; Fujiwara, Yukio; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro; Sakashita, Naomi

2014-05-01

22

Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the  

SciTech Connect

Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

2011-08-01

23

Chromosomal DNA damage measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay is significantly associated with cognitive impairment in South Australians.  

PubMed

Loss of genome integrity may be associated with increased risk for neurodegenerative disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) individuals have increased DNA damage relative to age- and gender- matched controls using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assay. DNA damage was measured as micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPB), and nuclear buds (NBUD) in binucleated cells. The assay was performed on blood samples from 80 participants consisting of (i) MCI cases (N = 20) and age- and gender- matched controls (N = 20), and (ii) AD cases (N = 20) and age- and gender- matched controls (N = 20). There was a significant increase in MCI NBUD frequency (P = 0.006) relative to controls, which was also observed in male (P = 0.03) and female (P = 0.04) subgroups. For AD cases, there were no significant differences in assay biomarkers relative to controls. There was a significant negative correlation between Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and (i) MN in all controls, (R = -0.3, P = 0.04), and AD cases (R = -0.4, P = 0.03), (ii) NPB in all controls, (R = -0.4, P = 0.006) and AD cases (R = -0.5, P = 0.01), and (iii) NBUD in MCI cases (R = -0.5, P = 0.007) and AD cases (R = -0.7, P = 0.0002). The results suggest that an increase in lymphocyte CBMN-Cyt DNA damage biomarkers may be associated with cognitive decline. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 56:32-40, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25099033

Lee, Sau Lai; Thomas, Philip; Hecker, Jane; Faunt, Jeffrey; Fenech, Michael

2015-01-01

24

ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, significantly improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.  

PubMed

We assessed the effects of oral treatments of ESP-102, a standardized combined extract of Angelica gigas, Saururus chinensis and Schizandra chinensis, on learning and memory deficit. The cognition-enhancing effect of ESP-102 was investigated in scopolamine-induced (1 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) amnesic mice with both passive avoidance and Morris water maze performance tests. Acute oral treatment (single administration prior to scopolamine treatment) of mice with ESP-102 (doses in the range of 10 to 100 mg/kg body weight) significantly reduced scopolamine-induced memory deficits in the passive avoidance performance test. Another noteworthy result included the fact that prolonged oral daily treatments of mice with much lower amounts of ESP-102 (1 and 10 mg/kg body weight) for ten days reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. In the Morris water maze performance test, both acute and prolonged oral treatments with ESP-102 (single administration of 100 mg/kg body weight or prolonged daily administration of 1 and 10 mg/kg body weight for ten days, respectively, significantly ameliorated scopolamine-induced memory deficits as indicated by the formation of long-term and/or short-term spatial memory. In addition, we investigated the effects of ESP-102 on neurotoxicity induced by amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta25-35) or glutamate in primary cultured cortical neurons of rats. Pretreatment of cultures with ESP-102 (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 mug/ml) significantly protected neurons from neurotoxicity induced by either glutamate or Abeta25-35. These results suggest that ESP-102 may have some protective characteristics against neuronal cell death and cognitive impairments often observed in Alzheimer's disease, stroke, ischemic injury and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:15698848

Kang, So Young; Lee, Ki Yong; Koo, Kyung Ah; Yoon, Jeong Seon; Lim, Song Won; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

2005-02-25

25

Vi-bowling: a tactile spatial exergame for individuals with visual impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lack of sight forms a significant barrier to participate in physical activity. Consequently, individuals with visual impairments are at greater risk for developing serious health problems, such as obesity. Exergames are video games that provide physical exercise. For individuals with visual impairments, exergames have the potential to reduce health disparities as they may be safer to play and can be

Tony Morelli; John Foley; Eelke Folmer

2010-01-01

26

Greater Yellowstone Bibliography  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Greater Yellowstone Bibliography is a database with over 28,900 bibliographic citations to scholarly, popular, professional, and creative literature about the greater Yellowstone region. It includes citations for journal, magazine, and newspaper articles, as well as books, book chapters, conference papers, government documents, theses, maps, CDs, and other materials. Citations can be searched by author, subject keyword, and geographic location.

William, Van A.; Wyoming, University O.

27

Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration  

E-print Network

Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference 'HILQLQJ6XFFHVV Naples Beach a Committee of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force and Working Group #12;Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference Page ii #12;December 11-15, 2000 z Naples, Florida Page

Watson, Craig A.

28

Greater Good Science Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Housed at the University of California, Berkeley, the Greater Good Science Center (GGSC) is "devoted to the scientific understanding of happy and compassionate individuals, strong social bonds, and altruistic behavior." To achieve this goal, the GGSC enlists a broad range of scholars from various disciplines, publishes a quarterly magazine ("Greater Good"), and maintains an outreach program that includes a website designed for parents who wish to foster emotional intelligence in their children. On their homepage, visitors can look over the "Most Recent" area to learn about recent findings, view webcasts with experts from the Center, and also read about their latest publications. Visitors can also view the Greater Good tip of the week on the homepage to read a highlighted article.

2008-01-01

29

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.  

PubMed

Pain around the greater trochanter is still a common clinical problem that may be secondary to a variety of either intra-articular or periarticular pathologies. Gluteal tendon pathologies are one of the primary causes of greater trochanteric pain, with attrition of the fasciae latae against the gluteus medius and minimus tendons, and the trochanteric bursa being possible causes. Key sonographic findings of gluteal tendinopathy, bursitis, and differential diagnosis are described in this overview. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is still challenging; therefore ultrasound is helpful to localize the origin of pain, determine underlying pathology, and, based on these findings, to guide local aspiration and/or injection in cases of tendinopathy and/or bursitis. PMID:23487333

Klauser, Andrea S; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto; Bellmann-Weiler, Rosa; Feuchtner, Gudrun M; Wick, Marius; Jaschke, Werner R

2013-02-01

30

Impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: inter-rater reliability and factor structure of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in patients, significant others and clinicians  

PubMed Central

Aims: This study sought to address two questions: (1) what is the inter-rater reliability of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) when completed by patients, their significant others, and clinicians; and (2) does the factor structure of the DEX vary for these three groups? Methods: We obtained DEX ratings for 113 patients with an acquired brain injury from two brain injury services in the UK and two services in Ireland. We gathered data from two groups of raters—“significant others” (DEX-SO) such as partners and close family members and “clinicians” (DEX-C), who were psychologists or rehabilitation physicians working closely with the patient and who were able to provide an opinion about the patient’s level of everyday executive functioning. Intra-class correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated between each of the three groups (self, significant other, clinician). Principal axis factor (PAF) analyses were also conducted for each of the three groups. Results: The factor analysis revealed a consistent one-factor model for each of the three groups of raters. However, the inter-rater reliability analyses showed a low level of agreement between the self-ratings and the ratings of the two groups of independent raters. We also found low agreement between the significant others and the clinicians. Conclusion: Although there was a consistent finding of a single factor solution for each of the three groups, the low level of agreement between significant others and clinicians raises a question about the reliability of the DEX. PMID:25346668

McGuire, Brian E.; Morrison, Todd G.; Barker, Lynne A.; Morton, Nicholas; McBrinn, Judith; Caldwell, Sheena; Wilson, Colin F.; McCann, John; Carton, Simone; Delargy, Mark; Walsh, Jane

2014-01-01

31

Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers  

PubMed Central

We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

2009-01-01

32

Taste - impaired  

MedlinePLUS

... longer. Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu Nasal infection, nasal polyps , sinusitis Pharyngitis and ... your diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

33

Prospective Memory Impairment in Mild Cognitive Impairment: An Analytical Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by the presence in an otherwise healthy elderly\\u000a individual of cognitive deficits involving specific domains in the absence of significant functional impairments. Reports\\u000a indicate that prospective memory (PM), that is, the ability to remember to execute delayed intentions, is impaired in individuals\\u000a with MCI. The present review discusses the current debate

Alberto Costa; Carlo Caltagirone; Giovanni Augusto Carlesimo

34

Pronounced impairment of everyday skills and self-care in posterior cortical atrophy.  

PubMed

Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visual dysfunction and parietal, occipital, and occipitotemporal atrophy. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of PCA and typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) on everyday functional abilities and neuropsychiatric status. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory-Revised was given to carers of 32 PCA and 71 tAD patients. PCA patients showed significantly greater impairment in everyday skills and self-care while the tAD group showed greater impairment in aspects of memory and orientation, and motivation. We suggest that PCA poses specific challenges for those caring for people affected by the condition. PMID:25096622

Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Foxe, David; Hodges, John; Crutch, Sebastian J

2015-01-01

35

All Vision Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs All Vision Impairment Listen Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

36

Role of ophthalmic nurses with visually impaired patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1987, it was estimated that over 13 million people in the world were visually impaired, and more than 27 to 35 million were classified as blind. Greater than 6 million visually impaired people live in the United States. There are many causes of visual impairment, including age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, autoimmune deficiency syndrome, and trauma. Some

Willow Barton

1998-01-01

37

Tracking motor impairments in the progression of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale is used to characterize motor impairments and establish motor diagnosis. Little is known about the timing of diagnostic confidence level categories and the trajectory of motor impairments during the prodromal phase. Goals of this study were to estimate the timing of categories, model the prodromal trajectory of motor impairments, estimate the rate of motor impairment change by category, and provide required sample size estimates for a test of efficacy in clinical trials. In total, 1010 gene-expanded participants from the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington's Disease (PREDICT-HD) trial were analyzed. Accelerated failure time models were used to predict the timing of categories. Linear mixed effects regression was used to model the longitudinal motor trajectories. Age and length of gene expansion were incorporated into all models. The timing of categories varied significantly by gene expansion, with faster progression associated with greater expansion. For the median expansion, the third diagnostic confidence level category was estimated to have a first occurrence 1.5 years before diagnosis, and the second and first categories were estimated to occur 6.75 years and 19.75 years before diagnosis, respectively. Motor impairments displayed a nonlinear prodromal course. The motor impairment rate of change increased as the diagnostic confidence level increased, with added acceleration for higher progression scores. Motor items can detect changes in motor impairments before diagnosis. Given a sufficiently high progression score, there is evidence that the diagnostic confidence level can be used for prodromal staging. Implications for Huntington's disease research and the planning of clinical trials of efficacy are discussed. PMID:24150908

Long, Jeffery D; Paulsen, Jane S; Marder, Karen; Zhang, Ying; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A

2014-03-01

38

Developmental learning impairments in a rodent model of nodular heterotopia.  

PubMed

Developmental malformations of neocortex-including microgyria, ectopias, and periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH)-have been associated with language learning impairments in humans. Studies also show that developmental language impairments are frequently associated with deficits in processing rapid acoustic stimuli, and rodent models have linked cortical developmental disruption (microgyria, ectopia) with rapid auditory processing deficits. We sought to extend this neurodevelopmental model to evaluate the effects of embryonic (E) day 15 exposure to the anti-mitotic teratogen methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) on auditory processing and maze learning in rats. Extensive cortical anomalies were confirmed in MAM-treated rats post mortem. These included evidence of laminar disruption, PNH, and hippocampal dysplasia. Juvenile auditory testing (P21-42) revealed comparable silent gap detection performance for MAM-treated and control subjects, indicating normal hearing and basic auditory temporal processing in MAM subjects. Juvenile testing on a more complex two-tone oddball task, however, revealed a significant impairment in MAM-treated as compared to control subjects. Post hoc analysis also revealed a significant effect of PNH severity for MAM subjects, with more severe disruption associated with greater processing impairments. In adulthood (P60-100), only MAM subjects with the most severe PNH condition showed deficits in oddball two-tone processing as compared to controls. However, when presented with a more complex and novel FM sweep detection task, all MAM subjects showed significant processing deficits as compared to controls. Moreover, post hoc analysis revealed a significant effect of PNH severity on FM sweep processing. Water Maze testing results also showed a significant impairment for spatial but not non-spatial learning in MAM rats as compared to controls. Results lend further support to the notions that: (1) generalized cortical developmental disruption (stemming from injury, genetic or teratogenic insults) leads to auditory processing deficits, which in turn have been suggested to play a causal role in language impairment; (2) severity of cortical disruption is related to the severity of processing impairments; (3) juvenile auditory processing deficits appear to ameliorate with maturation, but can still be elicited in adulthood using increasingly complex acoustic stimuli; and (4) malformations induced with MAM are also associated with generalized spatial learning deficits. These cumulative findings contribute to our understanding of the behavioral consequences of cortical developmental pathology, which may in turn elucidate mechanisms contributing to developmental language learning impairment in humans. PMID:21547717

Threlkeld, Steven W; Hill, Courtney A; Cleary, Caitlin E; Truong, Dongnhu T; Rosen, Glenn D; Fitch, R Holly

2009-09-01

39

Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center is a portal to information about the natural and cultural resources of Yellowstone and Grand Teton (including John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway) national parks and Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. By reporting on what has been learned from research and monitoring in these parks, we hope to increase public awareness of new findings and encourage studies that will help guide park management decisions. The National Park Service has set up Research Learning Centers as public-private partnerships that promote the sharing of scientific knowledge about the parks.

National Park Service

40

Varicose disease affects the P2 receptor-mediated responses of human greater saphenous vein  

E-print Network

Varicose disease affects the P2 receptor-mediated responses of human greater saphenous vein Airat U mediated contractions in human greater saphenous veins, which are impaired by varicose disease, in contrast rights reserved. Keywords: P2 receptors; Human saphenous vein; Varicose disease 1. Introduction

Burnstock, Geoffrey

41

What constitutes clinically significant binge eating? Association between binge features and clinical validators in college-age women†  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between binge features and clinical validators. Method The Eating Disorder Examination assessed binge features in a sample of 549 college-age women: loss of control (LOC) presence, binge frequency, binge size, indicators of impaired control, and LOC severity. Clinical validators were self-reported clinical impairment and current psychiatric comorbidity, as determined via a semistructured interview. Results Compared with women without LOC, those with LOC had significantly greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and comorbidity (ps < 0.001). Among women with LOC (n = 252), the indicators of impaired control and LOC severity, but not binge size or frequency, were associated with greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and/or comorbidity (ps < 0.05). Discussion Findings confirm that the presence of LOC may be the hallmark feature of binge eating. Further, dimensional ratings about the LOC experience—and possibly the indicators of impaired control—may improve reliable identification of clinically significant binge eating. PMID:23386591

Vannucci, Anna; Theim, Kelly R.; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Genkin, Brooke; Rizk, Marianne; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki O.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Aspen, Vandana; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

2013-01-01

42

Greater Trochanter Apophysitis in the Adolescent Athlete.  

PubMed

: Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment. PMID:24942622

Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

2014-06-17

43

The relationship between separation anxiety and impairment  

PubMed Central

The goal of this study was to characterize the contemporaneous and prognostic relationship between symptoms of separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and associated functional impairment. The sample comprised n=2067 8–16 year-old twins from a community-based registry. Juvenile subjects and their parents completed a personal interview on two occasions, separated by an average follow-up period of 18 months, about the subject’s current history of SAD and associated functional impairment. Results showed that SAD symptoms typically caused very little impairment but demonstrated significant continuity over time. Older youth had significantly more persistent symptoms than younger children. Prior symptom level independently predicted future symptom level and diagnostic symptom threshold, with and without impairment. Neither diagnostic threshold nor severity of impairment independently predicted outcomes after taking account of prior symptom levels. The results indicate that impairment may index current treatment need but symptom levels provide the best information about severity and prognosis. PMID:17658718

Foley, Debra L; Rowe, Richard; Maes, Hermine; Silberg, Judy; Eaves, Lindon; Pickles, Andrew

2009-01-01

44

Endocrine Disruptors and Childhood Social Impairment  

PubMed Central

Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has the potential to impact early brain development. Neurodevelopmental toxicity in utero may manifest as psychosocial deficits later in childhood. This study investigates prenatal exposure to two ubiquitous endocrine disruptors, the phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA), and social behavior in a sample of adolescent inner-city children. Third trimester urines of women enrolled in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404) were analyzed for phthalate metabolites and BPA. Mother-child pairs were asked to return for a follow-up assessment when the child was between the ages of 7 to 9 years. At this visit, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) (n = 137), a quantitative scale for measuring the severity of social impairment related to Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in the general population. In adjusted general linear models increasing log-transformed low molecular weight phthalate (LMW) metabolite concentrations were associated with greater social deficits (? = 1.53, 95% CI 0.25-2.8). Among the subscales, LMWP were also associated with poorer Social Cognition (? = 1.40, 95% CI 0.1-2.7); Social Communication (? = 1.86, 95% CI 0.5-3.2) and Social Awareness (? = 1.25, 95% CI 0.1-2.4), but not for Autistic Mannerisms or Social Motivation. No significant association with BPA was found (? = 1.18, 95% CI: -0.75, 3.11). Prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with childhood social impairment in a multiethnic urban population. Even mild degrees of impaired social functioning in otherwise healthy individuals can have very important adverse effects over a child's lifetime. These results extend our previous finding of atypical neonatal and early childhood behaviors in relation to prenatal phthalate exposure. PMID:21182865

Miodovnik, Amir; Engel, Stephanie M.; Zhu, Chenbo; Ye, Xiaoyun; Soorya, Latha V.; Silva, Manori J.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.

2011-01-01

45

Manifestation of speech and language disorders in children with hearing impairment compared with children with specific language disorders.  

PubMed

Children with hearing impairment (HI) often suffer from speech and language disorders. We wondered if the manifestation of these disorders resembled the ones in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Using matched pairs, we compared the manifestation of a speech and language disorder in 5- and 6-year-old children with HI and SLI. We looked at receptive language skills using the Reynell scales, the lexicon, syntax and morphology, output phonology, and phonological short-term memory. Receptive language skills were more impaired in HI children. No significant differences were recorded for all other domains. We conclude that language deficits that are at least partially caused by the hearing impairment affect receptive language skills to a greater extent than expressive language skills. PMID:20849246

Keilmann, Annerose; Kluesener, Patrick; Freude, Christina; Schramm, Bianka

2011-04-01

46

Cognitive impairment in patients with multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.  

PubMed

This article reports the severity and profile of neuropsychological impairment on a prevalent cohort of patients with a clinical diagnosis of either multiple system atrophy (n=372) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n=311) from the Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndromes cohort. The Dementia Rating Scale and Frontal Assessment Battery were used to assess global cognition and executive dysfunction. For the Dementia Rating Scale impairment was observed in approximately 57% of the progressive supranuclear palsy group and 20% of the multiple system atrophy group. In the former, impairment in a single cognitive domain was observed in 40%, with the same number showing impairment in multiple domains, while in the latter the figures were 28.6 and 13.5%, respectively. On the Frontal Assessment Battery, impairment was observed in 62.0% of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and 31.8% of those with multiple system atrophy. Although the progressive supranuclear palsy group performed worse overall, the cognitive profiles of the two groups on the Dementia Rating Scale subscales were identical, with the main impairment of the Initiation and Perseveration subscale. The impaired patients in the two groups were largely indistinguishable, qualitatively and quantitatively. Impairment was associated with greater age and clinical disability in both groups and was evident even in the early stages (22% in multiple system atrophy and 50% in progressive supranuclear palsy). Where a pathological diagnosis was available, the original clinical diagnosis was confirmed in the majority of cases, including those with significant cognitive impairment. The rate of impairment in those with a confirmed pathological diagnosis was comparable to that of the sample as a whole. These results demonstrate, in the largest prospectively recruited cohort of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy studied to date, the existence of a cognitive profile similar to that previously reported in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results indicate a high level of cognitive impairment associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, but also point to comparable dysfunction in a substantial proportion of the patients with multiple system atrophy. Significant cognitive impairment appears consistent with a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, even early in the disease, with important implications for diagnosis, research and management. PMID:20576697

Brown, Richard G; Lacomblez, Lucette; Landwehrmeyer, Bernard G; Bak, Thomas; Uttner, Ingo; Dubois, Bruno; Agid, Yves; Ludolph, Albert; Bensimon, Gilbert; Payan, Christine; Leigh, Nigel P

2010-08-01

47

Respiratory Impairment and Systemic Inflammation in Cedar Asthmatics Removed from Exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Prior research has shown that removing occupational asthmatics from exposure does not routinely lead to significant improvements in respiratory impairment. These studies were of limited duration and factors determining recovery remain obscure. Our objective was to evaluate residual respiratory impairment and associated sputum and blood biomarkers in subjects with Western red cedar asthma after exposure cessation. Methods Subjects previously diagnosed with cedar asthma, and removed from exposure to cedar dust for at least one year, were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire and spirometry. PC20 (methacholine concentration that produces 20% fall in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at 1 second)) sputum cellularity and select Th1/Th2 (T helper cells 1 and 2) cytokine concentrations in peripheral blood were determined. The asthma impairment class was determined and multivariate analyses were performed to determine its relationship with sputum cell counts and serum cytokines. Results 40 non-smoking males (mean age 62) were examined at a mean interval of 25 years from cedar asthma diagnosis and 17 years from last cedar exposure. 40% were in impairment class 2/3. On average, the PC20 had increased by 2.0 mg/ml; the FEV1 decreased by 1.5 L, with greater decrease in those with greater impairment. Higher impairment was associated with serum interferon-gamma (mean?=?1.3 pg/ml in class 2/3 versus 0.62 pg/ml in class 0/1, p?=?0.04), mainly due to the FEV1 component (correlation with interferon-gamma?=??0.46, p?=?0.005). Conclusion Years after exposure cessation, patients with Western red cedar asthma have persistent airflow obstruction and respiratory impairment, associated with systemic inflammation. PMID:23468925

Carlsten, Chris; Dybuncio, Anne; Pui, Mandy M.; Chan-Yeung, Moira

2013-01-01

48

Tinnitus impairs cognitive efficiency.  

PubMed

Many people who complain of tinnitus say that the noises impair their mental concentration. This complaint was investigated by self-report (primarily the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire) and by means of five cognitive tasks, four presented via laptop computer and one given manually. The tasks measured performance under single- and dual-task conditions and included tests of sustained attention, reaction time, verbal fluency and immediate and delayed memory. Two groups of outpatients attending audiological clinics (tinnitus, n = 43; hearing impairment, n = 17) were compared with non-clinical volunteers (n = 32). The results replicated earlier findings that tinnitus outpatients report significantly more everyday cognitive failures than do controls. The tinnitus group responded significantly more slowly than the two control groups on the variable fore-period reaction time task under dual-task conditions. In general, comparisons between the groups on other tasks showed equivalent performance, but both clinical groups performed more poorly than non-clinical controls on verbal fluency. We conclude that cognitive inefficiency in tinnitus participants is related to the control of attentional processes, consistent with our earlier theoretical speculation about the nature of tinnitus complaint and with published findings on the effects of chronic pain on cognitive processes. PMID:15250126

Hallam, R S; McKenna, L; Shurlock, L

2004-04-01

49

Facial emotion recognition impairments in individuals with HIV  

PubMed Central

HIV is characterized by frontostriatal dysfunction, and is associated with cognitive and psychiatric abnormalities. Several studies have noted impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in patient pollutions that demonstrate frontostriatal dysfunction; however, facial emotion recognition abilities have not been systematically examined in HIV patients. The current study investigated facial emotion recognition in 50 non-demented HIV-seropositive adults and 50 control participants relative to their performance on a non-emotional landscape categorization control task. We examined the relation of HIV-disease factors (nadir and current CD4 levels) to emotion recognition abilities, and assessed the psychosocial impact of emotion recognition abnormalities. Compared to control participants, HIV patients performed normally on the control task but demonstrated significant impairments in facial emotion recognition, specifically for fear. HIV patients reported greater psychosocial impairments, which correlated with increased emotion recognition difficulties. Lower current CD4 counts were associated with poorer anger recognition. In summary, our results indicate that chronic HIV infection may contribute to emotion processing problems among HIV patients. We suggest that disruptions of frontostriatal structures and their connections with cortico-limbic networks may contribute to emotion recognition abnormalities in HIV. Our findings also highlight the significant psychosocial impact that emotion recognition abnormalities have on individuals with HIV. PMID:20961470

Cohen, Ronald A.; Westbrook, Michelle L.; Devlin, Kathryn N.; Tashima, Karen T.

2011-01-01

50

Experimental muscle pain impairs descending inhibition  

PubMed Central

In chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions, the balance between supraspinal facilitation and inhibition of pain shifts towards an overall decrease in inhibition. Application of a tonic painful stimulus results in activation of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). The aims of the present experimental human study were (1) to compare DNIC, evoked separately, by hypertonic saline (6%)-induced muscle pain (tibialis anterior) or cold pressor pain; (2) to investigate DNIC evoked by concomitant experimental muscle pain and cold pressor pain, and (3) to analyze for gender differences. Ten males and 10 age matched females participated in two sessions. In the first session unilateral muscle pain or unilateral cold pressor pain were induced separately; in the second session unilateral muscle pain and unilateral cold pressor pain were induced concomitantly. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured around the knee joint before, during, and after DNIC induction. Cold pressor pain increased PPT in both males and females with greater increases in males. Hypertonic saline-evoked muscle pain significantly increased PPT in males but not in females. When cold pressor and muscle pain were applied concomitantly the PPT increases were smaller when compared to the individual sessions. This study showed for the first time that two concurrent conditioning tonic pain stimuli (muscle pain and cold pressor pain) cause less DNIC compared with either of the conditioning stimuli given alone; and males showed greater DNIC than females. This may explain why patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain have impaired DNIC. PMID:18977598

Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Nie, Hong Ling

2009-01-01

51

Speech impairment (adult)  

MedlinePLUS

Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... Common speech and language disorders include: APHASIA Aphasia is ... understand or express spoken or written language. It commonly ...

52

Adapting for Impaired Patrons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

Schuyler, Michael

1999-01-01

53

In-Hospital Acute Stress Symptoms Are Associated with Impairment in Cognition 1 Year after Intensive Care Unit Admission  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Prior studies have found that cognitive dysfunction is common in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Yet, relatively little is known about potentially modifiable risk factors for longer-term post-ICU cognitive impairment. Objectives: To determine if in-hospital acute stress symptoms were associated with impaired 12-month cognitive functioning among ICU survivors. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 150 nontrauma patients without cognitive impairment or a dementia diagnosis who were admitted to an ICU for more than 24 hours. Patients were interviewed before hospital discharge and again via telephone at 12 months post-ICU. Measurements and Main Results: Demographics and clinical information were obtained through medical record reviews and in-person interviews. In-hospital acute stress symptoms were assessed with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version. Twelve-month post-ICU cognition was assessed with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. Follow-up interviews were completed with 120 (80%) patients. Patients’ mean age at hospitalization was 48.2 years (SD, 13.7). In unadjusted analyses, a greater number of in-hospital acute stress symptoms was associated with significantly greater impairment in 12-month cognitive functioning (?, ?0.1; 95% confidence interval, ?0.2 to ?0.004; P = 0.04). After adjusting for patient and clinical factors, in-hospital acute stress symptoms were independently associated with greater impairment in 12-month cognitive functioning (?, ?0.1; 95% CI, ?0.2 to ?0.01; P = 0.03). Conclusions: In-hospital acute stress symptoms may be a potentially modifiable risk factor for greater impairment in cognitive functioning post-ICU. Early interventions for at-risk ICU survivors may improve longer-term outcomes. PMID:23987665

Zatzick, Douglas; Hough, Catherine L.; Katon, Wayne J.

2013-01-01

54

Contributors to diffusion impairment in HIV-infected persons  

PubMed Central

Abnormal diffusing capacity is common in HIV-infected individuals including never smokers. Etiologies for diffusing capacity impairment in HIV are not understood, particularly in those without a history of cigarette smoking. A cross-sectional analysis of 158 HIV-infected individuals without acute respiratory symptoms or infection to determine associations between a DLCO % predicted and participant demographics, pulmonary spirometric measures (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC), radiographic emphysema (fraction of lung voxels <-950 Hounsfield units), pulmonary vascular/cardiovascular disease (echocardiographic tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity [TRV], N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide), and airway inflammation (induced sputum cell counts), stratified by history of smoking. Mean DLCO was 65.9% predicted, and 55 (34.8%) participants had a significantly reduced DLCO (<60 % predicted). Lower DLCO % predicted in ever smokers was associated with lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 % predicted (p<0.001) and greater radiographic emphysema (p=0.001). In never smokers, mean (standard deviation) DLCO was 72.7% (13.4%) predicted, and DLCO correlated with post-bronchodilator FEV1 (p=0.02), sputum neutrophils (p=0.03), and sputum lymphocytes (p=0.009), but not radiographic emphysema. Airway obstruction, emphysema, and inflammation influence DLCO in HIV. Never smokers may have a unique phenotype of diffusing capacity impairment. The interaction of multiple factors may account for the pervasive nature of diffusing capacity impairment in HIV infection. PMID:23429919

Gingo, Matthew R.; He, Jiayan; Wittman, Catherine; Fuhrman, Carl; Leader, Joseph K.; Kessinger, Cathy; Lucht, Lorrie; Slivka, William A.; Zhang, Yingze; McMahon, Deborah K.; Sciurba, Frank C.; Morris, Alison

2014-01-01

55

Generational Differences in the Prevalence of Hearing Impairment in Older Adults  

PubMed Central

There were significant changes in health and lifestyle throughout the 20th century which may have changed temporal patterns of hearing impairment in adults. In this study, the authors aimed to assess the effect of birth cohort on the prevalence of hearing impairment in an adult population aged 45–94 years, using data collected between 1993 and 2008 from 3 cycles of the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (n?=?3,753; ages 48–92 years at baseline) and a sample of participants from the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (n?=?2,173; ages ?45 years). Hearing impairment was defined as a pure-tone average of thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz greater than 25-dB HL [hearing level]. Descriptive analysis, generalized additive models, and alternating logistic regression models were used to examine the birth cohort effect. Controlling for age, with every 5-year increase in birth year, the odds of having hearing impairment were 13% lower in men (odds ratio?=?0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 0.92) and 6% lower in women (odds ratio?=?0.94, 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 0.98). These results suggest that 1) older adults may be retaining good hearing longer than previous generations and 2) modifiable factors contribute to hearing impairment in adults. PMID:20008889

Zhan, Weihai; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Huang, Guan-Hua; Pankow, James S.; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Tweed, Theodore S.

2010-01-01

56

Physician impairment: physicians' exposure, attitudes, and beliefs.  

PubMed

Concern about physician impairment has resulted in increased efforts to educate physicians about its nature and scope. This study reports the results of a survey of how family physicians obtain information about impairment, which sources they value, and how exposure to impairment relates to their attitudes and beliefs. A significant association was found between involvement in group-oriented programs and recognition of risk factors unique to the profession. Important differences were found between physicians who acknowledged the role of personal vulnerability in impairment and those who attributed causality to external sources. Results also revealed that this sample of physicians was almost equally divided on whether impairment should be defined exclusively by professional conduct. PMID:1755352

Butler, D J; Wolkenstein, A S

1991-09-01

57

Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

2012-01-01

58

Depression in Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Depression and cognitive disorders, including dementia and mild cognitive impairment, are common in the elderly. Depression is also a common feature of cognitive impairment although the symptoms of depression in cognitive impairment differ from depression without cognitive impairment. Pre-morbid depression approximately doubles the risk of subsequent dementia. There are two predominant, though not mutually exclusive, constructs linking pre-morbid depression to subsequent cognitive impairment: Alzheimer’s pathology and the vascular depression hypothesis. When evaluating a patient with depression and cognitive impairment, it is important to obtain caregiver input and to evaluate for alternative etiologies for depressive symptoms such as delirium. We recommend a sequential approach to the treatment of depression in dementia patients: (1) a period of watchful waiting for milder symptoms, (2) psychosocial treatment program, (3) a medication trial for more severe symptoms or failure of psychosocial interventions, and (4) possible ECT for refractory symptoms. PMID:23933974

Pellegrino, Laurel D.; Lyketsos, Constantine G.; Marano, Christopher M.

2014-01-01

59

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for...cause irreparable harm to animal or plant life could be...Significant beneficial effects also occur and must...

2012-07-01

60

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for...cause irreparable harm to animal or plant life could be...Significant beneficial effects also occur and must...

2014-07-01

61

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for...cause irreparable harm to animal or plant life could be...Significant beneficial effects also occur and must...

2013-07-01

62

Impaired Learning of Social Compared to Monetary Rewards in Autism  

PubMed Central

A leading hypothesis to explain the social dysfunction in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is that they exhibit a deficit in reward processing and motivation specific to social stimuli. However, there have been few direct tests of this hypothesis to date. Here we used an instrumental reward learning task that contrasted learning with social rewards (pictures of positive and negative faces) against learning with monetary reward (winning and losing money). The two tasks were structurally identical except for the type of reward, permitting direct comparisons. We tested 10 high-functioning people with ASD (7M, 3F) and 10 healthy controls who were matched on gender, age, and education. We found no significant differences between the two groups in terms of overall ability behaviorally to discriminate positive from negative slot machines, reaction-times, and valence ratings, However, there was a specific impairment in the ASD group in learning to choose social rewards, compared to monetary rewards: they had a significantly lower cumulative number of choices of the most rewarding social slot machine, and had a significantly slower initial learning rate for the socially rewarding slot machine, compared to the controls. The findings show a deficit in reward learning in ASD that is greater for social rewards than for monetary rewards, and support the hypothesis of a disproportionate impairment in social reward processing in ASD. PMID:23060743

Lin, Alice; Rangel, Antonio; Adolphs, Ralph

2012-01-01

63

Neuropsychological impairment in incest offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-one incest perpetrators were compared to 36 nonviolent nonsex offenders for the presence of neuropsychological impairment. The WAIS-R, Halstead-Reitan battery, and CT scans of the brain were used. The sex offenders were also examined for the presence of substance abuse, violence, pedophilia, and biological relationship to the victim. Incest offenders had significantly lower IQ scores than controls but generally were

R. Langevin; G. Wortzman; R. Dickey; P. Wright; L. Handy

1988-01-01

64

Selecting Assistive Technology for Greater Independence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a systematic method for selecting assistive technology that enhances or enables people with visual impairments to perform literacy skills. The method identifies critical tasks, personal preferences and abilities, and the relationship of visual, auditory, or tactile media needs to the critical tasks and personal preferences.…

Lueck, Amanda Hall; Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Senge, Jeffrey C.; Clarke, Linda

2001-01-01

65

Major Depressive Disorder is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. While many studies have found significant deficits associated with MDD on neuropsychological measures of EF, others have not, potentially due to low statistical power, task impurity, and diverse patient samples, and there have been no recent, comprehensive, meta-analyses investigating EF in patients with MDD. The current meta-analysis uses random effects models to synthesize 113 previous research studies that compared participants with MDD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrate that MDD is reliably associated with impaired performance on neuropsychological measures of EF, with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.32–0.97. While patients with MDD also have slower processing speed, motor slowing alone cannot account for these results. In addition, some evidence suggests that deficits on neuropsychological measures of EF are greater in patients with more severe current depression symptoms, and those taking psychotropic medications, while evidence for effects of age was weaker. The results are consistent with the theory that MDD is associated with broad impairment in multiple aspects of EF. Implications for treatment of MDD and theories of EF are discussed. Future research is needed to establish the specificity and causal link between MDD and EF impairments. PMID:22642228

Snyder, Hannah R.

2012-01-01

66

Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-grouse  

E-print Network

Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-grouse and Sagebrush Habitats J. W. Connelly S. T. Knick M CONSERVATION ASSESSMENT OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE and SAGEBRUSH HABITATS John W. Connelly Idaho Department Fish A. Schroeder Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife P.O. Box 1077 Bridgeport, WA 98813 grouse

Torgersen, Christian

67

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

2014-05-01

68

Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).  

PubMed

Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs. PMID:18817002

Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

2008-09-01

69

Greater occipital nerve block in chronic migraine.  

PubMed

Headache syndromes often involve occipital and neck symptoms suggesting a functional connectivity between nociceptive trigeminal and cervical afferents. Several studies have suggested that pain relief in migraine and other types of headache can be achieved by local injections of steroids, local anaesthetics or a mixture of both in the area of greater occipital nerve (GON). Usually greater occipital nerve block (GONB) is performed by using local anaesthetics alone or with steroid. The rationale of performing a GONB for the treatment of chronic headache states is on the anatomical connections between trigeminal and upper cervical sensory fibres at the level of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. However, the reason for the improvement after GONB in primary headache is unknown. The objective of this study is to determine whether adding triamcinolone to local anaesthetics increased the efficacy of GONB and trigger point injections (TPIs) for chronic migraine (TM). Patients with TM were randomized to receive GONB and TPIs using lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5% + either saline or triamcinolone 40 mg. Particularly, a 10-ml syringe containing 4.5 ml of lidocaine 2%, 4.5 ml of bupivacaine 0.5% and 1 ml of either saline (group A) or triamcinolone 40 mg/ml (group B) was prepared for each patients. Patients were given bilateral GONB and TPIs in the cervical paraspinal and trapezius muscles bilaterally. 2 ml were injected into each GON at the medial third of the distance between the occipital protuberance and the mastoid process. In addition, 0.5 ml was injected into each of the 12 trigger points. The total injected volume was 10 ml. The primary outcome measure was the change in mean headache severity from before injection to 20 min after in the two groups. Secondary outcome measures were the change in mean neck pain, photophobia and phonofobia severity from before injection to 20 min after in the two groups. Patients documented headache and severity of associated symptoms for 4 weeks after injection. Changes in symptom severity were compared between the two groups. Thirty-seven patients were included. Twenty minutes after injection, mean headache severity decreased by 3.2 points in group A (p < 0.01) and by 3.1 points in group B (p < 0.01). Mean neck pain severity decreased by 1.5 points in group A (p < 0.01) and by 1.7 points in group B (p < 0.01). Mean duration of being headache-free was 2.7 +/- 3.8 days in group A and 1.0 +/- 1.1 days in group B (p = 0.67). None of the outcome measures differed significantly between the two groups. Both treatments were full tolerated. In our study, adding triamcinolone to local anaesthetic when performing GONB and TPIs was not associated with improved outcome in the sample of patients with TM. In both groups, the procedure resulted in significant and rapid relief of headache, neck pain, photophobia and phonofobia. PMID:20464617

Saracco, Maria Gabriella; Valfrè, W; Cavallini, M; Aguggia, M

2010-06-01

70

Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

2011-01-01

71

Dehydration Linked to Greater Stroke Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Dehydration Linked to Greater Stroke Damage Thicker blood may be the reason why, ... Related MedlinePlus Pages Dehydration Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Stroke THURSDAY, Feb. 12, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- People who ...

72

Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers  

PubMed Central

Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

2013-01-01

73

Heritable risk factors associated with language impairments.  

PubMed

There is a strong genetic contribution to children's language and literacy impairments. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of the phenotype are familial by comparing 34 parents of probands with language/literacy impairments and 33 parents of typically developing probands. The parents responded to questionnaires regarding previous history for language/reading impairment and participated in psychometric testing. The psychometric test battery consisted of tests assessing non-verbal IQ, short-term memory, articulation, receptive grammar, reading abilities and spelling. Self-report measures demonstrated a higher prevalence of language and literacy impairments in parents of affected probands (32%) compared with parents of unaffected probands (6%). The two groups of parents differed significantly in their performance on the non-word repetition, oromotor and digit span tasks. Non-word repetition gave the best discrimination between the parent groups even when the data from the parents who actually were impaired as ascertained by direct testing or self-report were removed from the analyses. This suggests that non-word repetition serves as a marker of a family risk for language impairment. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues associated with ascertainment of specific language impairment (SLI). PMID:17233642

Barry, J G; Yasin, I; Bishop, D V M

2007-02-01

74

Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures: role of cortical slow activity  

PubMed Central

Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered consciousness may occur with bilateral or dominant temporal lobe seizure involvement. However, other bilateral temporal lobe disorders do not impair consciousness. More recent work supports a ‘network inhibition hypothesis’ in which temporal lobe seizures disrupt brainstem–diencephalic arousal systems, leading indirectly to depressed cortical function and impaired consciousness. Indeed, prior studies show subcortical involvement in temporal lobe seizures and bilateral frontoparietal slow wave activity on intracranial electroencephalography. However, the relationships between frontoparietal slow waves and impaired consciousness and between cortical slowing and fast seizure activity have not been directly investigated. We analysed intracranial electroencephalography recordings during 63 partial seizures in 26 patients with surgically confirmed mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Behavioural responsiveness was determined based on blinded review of video during seizures and classified as impaired (complex-partial seizures) or unimpaired (simple-partial seizures). We observed significantly increased delta-range 1–2 Hz slow wave activity in the bilateral frontal and parietal neocortices during complex-partial compared with simple-partial seizures. In addition, we confirmed prior work suggesting that propagation of unilateral mesial temporal fast seizure activity to the bilateral temporal lobes was significantly greater in complex-partial than in simple-partial seizures. Interestingly, we found that the signal power of frontoparietal slow wave activity was significantly correlated with the temporal lobe fast seizure activity in each hemisphere. Finally, we observed that complex-partial seizures were somewhat more common with onset in the language-dominant temporal lobe. These findings provide direct evidence for cortical dysfunction in the form of bilateral frontoparietal slow waves associated with impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures. We hypothesize that bilateral temporal lobe seizures may exert a powerful inhibitory effect on subcortical arousal systems. Further investigations will be needed to fully determine the role of cortical-subcortical networks in ictal neocortical dysfunction and may reveal treatments to prevent this important negative consequence of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:21081551

Englot, Dario J.; Yang, Li; Hamid, Hamada; Danielson, Nathan; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Marfeo, Anthony; Yu, Lissa; Gordon, Aliza; Purcaro, Michael J.; Motelow, Joshua E.; Agarwal, Ravi; Ellens, Damien J.; Golomb, Julie D.; Shamy, Michel C. F.; Zhang, Heping; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D.; Spencer, Susan S.; Schevon, Catherine; Zaveri, Hitten P.

2010-01-01

75

Muscle Impairments in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Context: Muscle impairments associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are the primary underlying cause of functional limitations. Understanding the extent of muscle impairments, its relationship with physical function and disease progression, and the evidence behind exercise therapy that targets muscle impairments is crucial. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic search for relevant articles using MEDLINE and CINHAL databases up to September 2011 was performed. In addition to the electronic search, retrieved articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Results: Quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip muscles are significantly impaired in subjects with knee OA compared with age-matched controls. Muscle strength, especially quadriceps, is a major determinant of both performance-based and self-reported physical function. Whether stronger quadriceps is protective against knee OA onset and progression is not clear. Exercise therapy, including global and targeted resistance training, is effective in reducing pain and improving function in subjects with knee OA. Conclusions: Subjects with knee OA have significant muscle impairments. These muscle impairments affect physical function and should be targeted in therapy. Further research is needed to explore the relationship between quadriceps strength and knee OA initiation and progression and to determine the optimal exercise prescription that augments outcomes in this patient population. PMID:23016099

Alnahdi, Ali H.; Zeni, Joseph A.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2012-01-01

76

Mild Cognitive Impairment Research  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Media Text Size Videos and Media Virtual Library Brain Tour Facts & Figures Spotlight on Researchers Web Links ... early diagnosis Mild Cognitive Impairment Research Inside the brain Genetics in Alzheimer's Advances in brain imaging Diet ...

77

Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability and future climate change have been briefly discussed.

Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

2014-11-01

78

(Not) talking about sex: a systematic comparison of sexual impairment in women with systemic sclerosis and other chronic disease samples  

PubMed Central

Objective. Sexual impairment in women with SSc has received little attention. The objective of this study was to compare levels of sexual impairment in women with SSc with samples of women with medical illnesses for which sexual impairment has been researched more extensively. Methods. SSc patients completed the Sexual Relationships subscale of the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale—Self-Report (PAIS-SR). A systematic review was conducted to select comparison samples. Sexual Relationships subscale scores from SSc patients were compared with scores from comparison samples (breast or gynaecological cancer and HIV) using t-tests and Hedges's g to calculate effect sizes. Results. Samples from 138 female SSc patients were analysed (28.3% diffuse; mean age 52.1 ± 12.3 years; mean time since diagnosis 9.0 ± 8.3 years). Women with dcSSc (6.1 ± 4.2) reported significantly greater sexual impairment (P < 0.05) than those with lcSSc (4.4 ± 4.2), three breast cancer samples (1.8 ± 0.1, 3.4 ± 3.9, 1.6 ± 0.6) and two samples of HIV-positive female patients (4.4 ± 3.8, 4.5 ± 3.9). Scores in dcSSc were similar to one sample of HIV-positive women (5.8 ± 4.1) and gynaecological cancer patients (7.3 ± 4.3). Scores in lcSSc were significantly higher than two breast cancer samples, similar to one breast cancer sample and two HIV-positive samples, and significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in one HIV sample and gynaecological cancer. Conclusion. Women with SSc, particularly those with dcSSc, have high levels of sexual impairment compared with women with other chronic diseases, where sexual function has received greater attention. Further research is needed on sexual function among women with SSc. PMID:19692458

Knafo, Ruby; Jewett, Lisa; Hudson, Marie; Wigley, Fred; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A.

2009-01-01

79

Management and Conservation Disturbance Factors Influencing Greater  

E-print Network

large declines in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations; thus, understanding-grouse leks. Ã? 2012 The Wildlife Society. KEY WORDS big sagebrush, Centrocercus urophasianus, cumulative-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are the larg- est grouse species in North America and once occupied 1,200,483 km2

Beck, Jeffrey L.

80

The Delphion Industry Insights Series: GREATER VALUE  

E-print Network

The Delphion Industry Insights Series: GREATER VALUE THROUGH INTELLECTUAL ASSET MANAGEMENT (IAM) www.delphion.com 3333 Warrenville Road Suite 600 Lisle, IL 60532 630.799.0600 #12;THE CHALLENGE Today, to "softer" assets such as know-how and customer relationships. Together they present a major new challenge

Kimbrough, Steven Orla

81

THE CROCODILIAN INDICATOR IN THE GREATER EVERGLADES  

E-print Network

THE CROCODILIAN INDICATOR IN THE GREATER EVERGLADES 2006 ASSESSMENT REPORT American crocodile Center FISC-Gainesville 7920 NW 71st Street Gainesville, FL 32605 #12;AMERICAN ALLIGATOR AND CROCODILE i that If conditions remain constant, status will remain below restoration objectives. American Crocodile Everglades

Mazzotti, Frank

82

THE CROCODILIAN INDICATOR IN THE GREATER EVERGLADES  

E-print Network

THE CROCODILIAN INDICATOR IN THE GREATER EVERGLADES 2006 ASSESSMENT REPORT American crocodile-Gainesville 7920 NW 71st Street Gainesville, FL 32605 #12;AMERICAN ALLIGATOR AND CROCODILE i LOCATION LAST STATUS, status will remain below restoration objectives. American Crocodile Everglades National Park Juvenile

Mazzotti, Frank

83

Ecology and Greater Prairie-Chicken  

E-print Network

Ecology and Management of the Greater Prairie-Chicken Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University E-969E-969E-969 Ecology, Editor Professor and Extension Specialist Rangeland Ecology and Management Department of Plant and Soil

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

84

2010 Annual Report Greater West Texas  

E-print Network

2010 Annual Report Greater West Texas State Employee Charitable Campaign You will find, as you look- rized workplace campaign for state agency and higher education em- ployees throughout Texas. In 2010,717 and West Central Texas SECC raised $131,797 for a combined total of $957,514! · 4,608 state employees gave

Rock, Chris

85

Vegetation of the greater Maya Mountains, Belize  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a new vegetation classification for the Greater Maya Mountains of Belize, focusing primarily on the Chiquibul Forest Reserve. Extensive use is made of GIS, remote sensing, botanical collections and field visits to provide a macro? and meso?scale overview of the vegetation of this region. A total of 32 vegetation classes have been defined, both geographically and structurally,

Malcolm G. Penn; David A. Sutton; Alex Monro

2004-01-01

86

Binaural speech discrimination under noise in hearing-impaired listeners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of an assessment of speech discrimination by hearing-impaired listeners (sensori-neural, conductive, and mixed groups) under binaural free-field listening in the presence of background noise. Subjects with pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz were presented with a version of the W-22 list of phonetically balanced words under three conditions: (1) 'quiet', with the chamber noise below 28 dB and speech at 60 dB; (2) at a constant S/N ratio of +10 dB, and with a background white noise at 70 dB; and (3) same as condition (2), but with the background noise at 80 dB. The mean speech discrimination scores decreased significantly with noise in all groups. However, the decrease in binaural speech discrimination scores with an increase in hearing impairment was less for material presented under the noise conditions than for the material presented in quiet.

Kumar, K. V.; Rao, A. B.

1988-01-01

87

Aging impairs heat loss, but when does it matter?  

PubMed

Aging is associated with an attenuated physiological ability to dissipate heat. However, it remains unclear if age-related impairments in heat dissipation only occur above a certain level of heat stress and whether this response is altered by aerobic fitness. Therefore, we examined changes in whole body evaporative heat loss (HE) as determined using whole body direct calorimetry in young (n = 10; 21 ± 1 yr), untrained middle-aged (n = 10; 48 ± 5 yr), and older (n = 10; 65 ± 3 yr) males matched for body surface area. We also studied a group of trained middle-aged males (n = 10; 49 ± 5 yr) matched for body surface area with all groups and for aerobic fitness with the young group. Participants performed intermittent aerobic exercise (30-min exercise bouts separated by 15-min rest) in the heat (40°C and 15% relative humidity) at progressively greater fixed rates of heat production equal to 300 (Ex1), 400 (Ex2), and 500 (Ex3) W. Results showed that HE was significantly lower in middle-aged untrained (Ex2: 426 ± 34; and Ex3: 497 ± 17 W) and older (Ex2: 424 ± 38; and Ex3: 485 ± 44 W) compared with young (Ex2: 472 ± 42; and Ex3: 558 ± 51 W) and middle-aged trained (474 ± 21; Ex3: 552 ± 23 W) males at the end of Ex2 and Ex3 (P < 0.05). No differences among groups were observed during recovery. We conclude that impairments in HE in older and middle-aged untrained males occur at exercise-induced heat loads of ?400 W when performed in a hot environment. These impairments in untrained middle-aged males can be minimized through regular aerobic exercise training. PMID:25505030

Stapleton, Jill M; Poirier, Martin P; Flouris, Andreas D; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Malcolm, Janine; Kenny, Glen P

2015-02-01

88

Contributors to diffusion impairment in HIV-infected persons.  

PubMed

Abnormal diffusing capacity is common in HIV-infected individuals, including never smokers. Aetiologies for diffusing capacity impairment in HIV are not understood, particularly in those without a history of cigarette smoking. Our study was a cross-sectional analysis of 158 HIV-infected individuals without acute respiratory symptoms or infection with the aim to determine associations between a diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(LCO)) % predicted and participant demographics, pulmonary spirometric measures (forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity), radiographic emphysema (fraction of lung voxels < -950 Hounsfield units), pulmonary vascular/cardiovascular disease (echocardiographic tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide) and airway inflammation (induced sputum cell counts), stratified by history of smoking. The mean D(LCO) was 65.9% predicted, and 55 (34.8%) participants had a significantly reduced D(LCO) (<60% predicted). Lower D(LCO) % predicted in ever-smokers was associated with lower post-bronchodilator FEV1 % predicted (p<0.001) and greater radiographic emphysema (p=0.001). In never-smokers, mean±SD D(LCO) was 72.7±13.4% predicted, and D(LCO) correlated with post-bronchodilator FEV1 (p=0.02), sputum neutrophils (p=0.03) and sputum lymphocytes (p=0.009), but not radiographic emphysema. Airway obstruction, emphysema and inflammation influence D(LCO) in HIV. Never-smokers may have a unique phenotype of diffusing capacity impairment. The interaction of multiple factors may account for the pervasive nature of diffusing capacity impairment in HIV infection. PMID:23429919

Gingo, Matthew R; He, Jiayan; Wittman, Catherine; Fuhrman, Carl; Leader, Joseph K; Kessinger, Cathy; Lucht, Lorrie; Slivka, William A; Zhang, Yingze; McMahon, Deborah K; Sciurba, Frank C; Morris, Alison

2014-01-01

89

Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics

L. E. Trevorrow; T. L. Gilbert; C. Luner; P. A. Merry-Libby; N. K. Meshkov; C. Yu

1985-01-01

90

Selenium Concentrations in Greater Scaup and Dreissenid Mussels During Winter on Western Lake Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hypothesis for the decline of the North American greater (Aythya marila) and lesser (A. affinis) scaup population is that contaminant burdens acquired on wintering or staging areas impair reproduction or cause lethal\\u000a or sublethal health effects. Recent studies have found increased selenium (Se) concentrations in scaup but have focused on\\u000a the fall and spring staging periods. From January to

L. L. WareS; S. A. Petrie; S. S. Badzinski; R. C. Bailey

2011-01-01

91

Alcohol, Drugs and Driving: Implications for Evaluating Driver Impairment  

PubMed Central

Impaired driving is a significant traffic safety problem, and alcohol and drugs taken before driving contribute substantially to this problem. With the increase in use of prescription medication and the decriminalization of some drugs, it has become increasingly important to understand the manifestation of driver impairment. Building upon previous alcohol research conducted at the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS), this study enrolled commercial bus drivers to evaluate the effect of triazolam on driving performance to assess difference between placebo, 0.125, and 0.25 mg doses in a randomized and double-blind design. On each of three randomized visits, subjects drove a simulator scenario that had previously been used to demonstrate effects of alcohol on driving performance. Plasma triazolam levels were obtained before the simulator drive. The protocol included participants receiving study medication and placebo over a 3-week period of time one to two weeks apart. The simulator drives used for this analysis occurred approximately 140 minutes after dosing—after the subjects had completed four bus simulator drives and neuropsychological tests over a 2-hour period of time surrounding dosing. The driving scenario contained representative situations on three types of roadways (urban, freeway, and rural) under nighttime driving conditions. Lane keeping performance (ability to drive straight in the lane) under the three doses of triazolam demonstrates that at the 0.25 mg dose, statistically significant effects on performance are observed, but no effects are found at the 0.125 mg level when testing at this time period after dosing. This differs from the effects of alcohol, which shows impairing effects at a 0.05% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and a greater effect at 0.10% BAC. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding how different types of drugs affect driving performance in realistic driving environments. Although some compounds may have an effect that correlates linearly to dosage, that is not always the case. An understanding of these differences and how they vary across driving tasks is essential to developing a robust evaluation protocol that can accurately describe the effects of a wide variety of drugs on driver impairment. This information can be used to reduce the risk of deleterious effects of therapeutic medications while ensuring their safe and beneficial use. PMID:24406943

Brown, Timothy; Milavetz, Gary; Murry, Daryl J.

2013-01-01

92

Alcohol, drugs and driving: implications for evaluating driver impairment.  

PubMed

Impaired driving is a significant traffic safety problem, and alcohol and drugs taken before driving contribute substantially to this problem. With the increase in use of prescription medication and the decriminalization of some drugs, it has become increasingly important to understand the manifestation of driver impairment. Building upon previous alcohol research conducted at the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS), this study enrolled commercial bus drivers to evaluate the effect of triazolam on driving performance to assess difference between placebo, 0.125, and 0.25 mg doses in a randomized and double-blind design. On each of three randomized visits, subjects drove a simulator scenario that had previously been used to demonstrate effects of alcohol on driving performance. Plasma triazolam levels were obtained before the simulator drive. The protocol included participants receiving study medication and placebo over a 3-week period of time one to two weeks apart. The simulator drives used for this analysis occurred approximately 140 minutes after dosing-after the subjects had completed four bus simulator drives and neuropsychological tests over a 2-hour period of time surrounding dosing. The driving scenario contained representative situations on three types of roadways (urban, freeway, and rural) under nighttime driving conditions. Lane keeping performance (ability to drive straight in the lane) under the three doses of triazolam demonstrates that at the 0.25 mg dose, statistically significant effects on performance are observed, but no effects are found at the 0.125 mg level when testing at this time period after dosing. This differs from the effects of alcohol, which shows impairing effects at a 0.05% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and a greater effect at 0.10% BAC. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding how different types of drugs affect driving performance in realistic driving environments. Although some compounds may have an effect that correlates linearly to dosage, that is not always the case. An understanding of these differences and how they vary across driving tasks is essential to developing a robust evaluation protocol that can accurately describe the effects of a wide variety of drugs on driver impairment. This information can be used to reduce the risk of deleterious effects of therapeutic medications while ensuring their safe and beneficial use. PMID:24406943

Brown, Timothy; Milavetz, Gary; Murry, Daryl J

2013-01-01

93

[Pain management of cognitively impaired patients].  

PubMed

Pain is a significant problem in clinical practice and its control is one of the most important challenging aspects as pain has a major impact on patients' quality of life and health care costs. Particularly vulnerable persons, like cognitively impaired patients are challenging for pain management and underline its increasing relevance.National and international studies showed significant differences concerning pain therapy between cognitively impaired and cognitively intact patients. A possible cause of this may be that patients who are cognitively impaired are only in a restricted way able to express their pain. Furthermore, knowledge gaps and reservations concerning the effect and dosage of analgesics among cognitively impaired patients could be identified on the involved professions.Further investigations in Germany are needed as deficient treatment remains a persistent problem and evidence-based data are missing. These investigations should describe the status quo of pain management for cognitively impaired patients and provide information which processes have to be adapted to the needs of these vulnerable patients. PMID:24668438

Czarnecki, K; Brauer, H; Köberlein, J

2014-04-01

94

Aids for visual impairment.  

PubMed Central

This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue. Images FIG 1 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 FIG 8 FIG 9 FIG 10 PMID:2252929

Dudley, N J

1990-01-01

95

Speech and Language Impairments  

MedlinePLUS

... help Educational considerations Tips for teachers Tips for parents Resources of more info A Day in the Life of an SLP Christina is a speech-language pathologist. She works with children and adults who have impairments in their speech, voice, or language skills. ...

96

Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... for this most important job. [ Return to Steps ] World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What would life be like if you couldn't see a dog wag its tail or watch a ladybug crawl ... 5.000 metres. Runyan's career as a world-class runner began in 1999 at the Pan ...

97

Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

2013-01-01

98

Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

2008-01-01

99

Six lessons learned for greater success.  

PubMed

These six lessons learned for greater success with your Patient Focused communications can help keep your cultural change process in sync with your operational change process. Of course, there are other key elements of the former, including: formal Patient Focused educational programs; restructured Human Resources "systems" (e.g., job descriptions and compensation programs); and migration toward greater organizational empowerment and more self-directed work teams. Still, your Patient Focused communications campaign will spearhead the cultural change process. As such, it will have the opportunity to make the very first impact. Basically, your communications can make or break your Patient Focused Care program from Day One. It's up to you--learn the lessons learned by others and your organization may follow the words of Marx rather than those of Brand: "Workers of the world, unite (on behalf of your Patient Focused Care program)!" Karl Marx.p6 "Workers of the world, fan out (in formation against your Patient Focused Care program)!" Stewart Brand. PMID:10133393

Leander, W J

1993-01-01

100

Increased left hemisphere impairment in high-functioning autism: a tract based spatial statistics study.  

PubMed

There is evidence emerging from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) research that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with greater impairment in the left hemisphere. Although this has been quantified with volumetric region of interest analyses, it has yet to be tested with white matter integrity analysis. In the present study, tract based spatial statistics was used to contrast white matter integrity of 12 participants with high-functioning autism or Aspergers syndrome (HFA/AS) with 12 typically developing individuals. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) was examined, in addition to axial, radial and mean diffusivity (AD, RD and MD). In the left hemisphere, participants with HFA/AS demonstrated significantly reduced FA in predominantly thalamic and fronto-parietal pathways and increased RD. Symmetry analyses confirmed that in the HFA/AS group, WM disturbance was significantly greater in the left compared to right hemisphere. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature suggestive of reduced FA in ASD, and provide preliminary evidence for RD impairments in the left hemisphere. PMID:25159311

Perkins, Thomas John; Stokes, Mark Andrew; McGillivray, Jane Anne; Mussap, Alexander Julien; Cox, Ivanna Anne; Maller, Jerome Joseph; Bittar, Richard Garth

2014-11-30

101

Intimacy and institutionalized cognitive impaired elderly.  

PubMed

About 5% of the nation's elderly reside in nursing homes; many of these individuals experience varying levels of cognitive impairment. Although physical and nonphysical intimacy are important to their well-being, numerous structural and nonstructural barriers exist to their enjoyment of intimate relationships. Additionally, significant legal and ethical issues must be considered in the formulation of institutional policy and procedures to address the intimacy needs of cognitively impaired elderly residents. This article explores the barriers that exist and the models that have been suggested to guide institutional administrators and staff in evaluating residents' needs, and concludes with recommendations. PMID:16739771

Loue, Sana

2005-01-01

102

Is UV-induced DNA damage greater at higher elevation?  

PubMed

• Premise of the study: Although ultraviolet radiation (UV) is known to have negative effects on plant growth, there has been no direct evidence that plants growing at higher elevations are more severely affected by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, which is known to increase with elevation. We examined damage to DNA, a primary target of UV-B, in the widespread species Polygonum sachalinense (Fallopia sachalinensis) and Plantago asiatica at two elevations.• Methods: We sampled leaves of both species at 300 and 1700 m above sea level every 2 h for 11 d across the growing season and determined the level of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), a major product of UV damage to DNA.• Key results: The CPD level was significantly influenced by the time of day, date, elevation, and their interactions in both species. The CPD level tended to be higher at noon or on sunny days. DNA damage was more severe at 1700 m than at 300 m: on average, 8.7% greater at high elevation in P. asiatica and 7.8% greater in P. sachalinense. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the CPD level was explained mainly by UV-B and had no significant relationship with other environmental factors such as temperature and photosynthetically active radiation.• Conclusions: UV-induced DNA damage in plants is greater at higher elevations. PMID:24748608

Wang, Qing-Wei; Hidema, Jun; Hikosaka, Kouki

2014-04-18

103

Language impairment in Parkinson's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasingly, researchers and clinicians are beginning to unveil both cognitive and linguistic impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD), a condition characterized in the past primarily by impairment of the motoric aspects of ambulation and speech. This study describes subtle language impairment in 20 subjects with PD on a battery of measures selected to be sensitive to frontal lobe language function. Comparative

Fiona M. Lewis; Leonard L. Lapointe; Bruce E. Murdoch; Helen J. Chenery

1998-01-01

104

Assessment of Hearing Impaired Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of Directions contains 11 articles on assessment of hearing impaired individuals. Entries have the following titles and authors: "Classroom Assessment Techniques for Hearing Impaired Students--A Literature Review" (B. McKee, M. Hausknecht); "Informal Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students In the Classroom" (B. Culhane, R. Hein);…

Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

1980-01-01

105

Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Older Vietnamese  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study examined correlates of cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment among older adults living in Da Nang, Vietnam and surrounding rural areas. Methods The analytic sample consisted of 489 adults 55 and older stratified by gender, age, and rural/urban status. The sample was 46% rural, 44% women, with a mean age of 69.04. Interviews were conducted in individuals’ homes by trained interviewers. The dependent variable was a Vietnamese version of the MMSE. A multiple linear regression was run with the MMSE continuous scores reflecting cognitive functioning, while a binary logistic regression was conducted with an education-adjusted cut-off score reflecting possible cognitive impairment. Age, gender, education, material hardship, depressive symptoms (CES-D), war injury, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease conditions served as correlates, controlling for marital status and rural/urban residence. Results About 33% of the sample scored below the standard cutoff of 23 on the MMSE. However only 12.9% of the sample would be considered impaired using the education-adjusted cutoff score. Cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment as indicated by MMSE scores were significantly associated with being older, completing fewer years of education, and material hardship. Gender, depressive symptoms, and cerebrovascular disease were associated with cognitive functioning, but not cognitive impairment. Conclusion These results show that social characteristics, physical illness, and mental health are associated with cognitive functioning. The study also raises questions about the need for standardization of screening measures on Vietnamese populations. PMID:23697847

Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H.; Hoang, Chuong N.; Nguyen, Ha T.

2014-01-01

106

Multiple sclerosis among immigrants in Greater London.  

PubMed Central

Among immigrants resident in greater London from Europe, Ireland, the USSR, the old Commonwealth countries of Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, North and South America, Egypt, Turkey, and Iran the incidence of admission to hospital for probable multiple sclerosis (MS) between 1960 and 1972 was high or moderately high. The incidence was the same order as that found in those born in the United Kingdom. Immigrants from India, Pakistan, and other Asian countries and from new Commonwealth Africa and America, which includes the West Indies, had a low incidence of hospital admission for MS. Immigrants from countries where the risk of MS is low whose parents were born in Europe had a reduced incidence of admission to hospital but not the very low incidence found in those parents were also born in these countries. Emigrating to England from low risk parts of the world did not seem to increase the risk of developing MS. PMID:1260384

Dean, G; McLoughlin, H; Brady, R; Adelstein, A M; Tallett-Williams, J

1976-01-01

107

Spontaneous segmental infarction of the greater omentum.  

PubMed

Spontaneous segmental infarction of the greater omentum, although rare, is probably more common than the 112 reported cases suggest, but its sporadic occurrence has lent itself more to isolated case reports than to an extensive overview of the disease. Despite the frequent preoperative diagnosis of appendicitis, the presentation and course are seldom typical of appendicitis. Progressive peritoneal signs finally dictate surgical exploration. A vertical incision provides the best access to the involved organs and should be used whenever the diagnosis of appendicitis is in doubt. A surgeon who encounters free serosanguineous peritoneal fluid and a normal appendix should suspect omental disease. No convincing etiology has yet been advanced although blunt trauma, whether substantial or trivial, may account for some cases. The close temporal and geographic relation of two of these cases has raised the question of infectious etiology; however there was no microbiologic or pathologic evidence of bacterial or viral infection. PMID:7356112

Crofoot, D D

1980-02-01

108

Color synesthesia improves color but impairs motion perception.  

PubMed

A recent study showed that color synesthetes have increased color sensitivity but impaired motion perception. This is exciting because little research has examined how synesthesia affects basic perceptual processes outside the context of synesthetic experiences. The results suggest that synesthesia broadly impacts perception with greater neural implications than previously considered. PMID:24581557

McCarthy, J Daniel; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

2014-05-01

109

Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that approximate each other sufficiently closely to constitute a majority for the purpose of quantifying reliability. This criterion is, simply, that if there do not exist at least three sensors having weights greater than a prescribed minimum acceptable value, then the array as a whole is deemed to have failed.

Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

2004-01-01

110

Gray and White Matter Changes in Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: A Voxel-Based Analysis Study  

PubMed Central

Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25093415

Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kitamura, Soichiro; Taoka, Toshiaki; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Tanimura, Masami; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Ikawa, Daisuke; Toritsuka, Michihiro; Hashimoto, Kazumichi; Makinodan, Manabu; Kosaka, Jun; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

2014-01-01

111

Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network (GPGN) is a project by the Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries designed "to develop a web-based repository of geographically organized historical information about Philadelphia, its geography, its buildings, and its people." It's quite an impressive endeavor, and anyone with a love for the City of Brotherly Love will want to spend at least a few hours on the site. First-time visitors can get started by clicking on the Resource Browser on the homepage. Here they will have access to thousands of digitized materials, including early images of the city, planning documents, historic views, land use maps, and so on. The items here date from 1683 to the late 1960s, and visitors can use the resource type toggle feature to look for specific groups of documents. Moving on, visitors can also use the Interactive Maps Viewer to look over map layers that include a 1934 land value appraisal map and a 1942 land use map created by the Works Progress Administration. Finally, visitors shouldn't miss the Educational Resources area. Here they will find guides for teachers seeking to use this wealth of information in their own classrooms.

112

Greater Celandine hepatotoxicity: a clinical review.  

PubMed

Herbal hepatotoxicity is a rare and poorly described disease because reported cases are mostly scattered and lack an appropriate causality assessment. We now describe in detail the clinical picture of herbal hepatotoxicity by extracts of Greater Celandine (GC), syn. Chelidonium majus L. from the Papaveraceae family, which contain more than 20 ingredients including various biologically active isoquinoline alkaloids. For this purpose, we analyzed and reviewed published cases of 16 patients from various European countries. In all patients, herbal hepatotoxicity was of probable and highly probable causality for GC, using the original and updated scale of CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences). GC associated hepatotoxicity usually has an acute clinical course exhibiting a hepatocellular pattern of injury and is correlated to an idiosyncratic reaction with its metabolic subtype. Jaundice combined with high values of serum aminotransferases was present in virtually all cases with favourable outcome despite severe clinical course. In conclusion, GC hepatotoxicity is a typical herbal hepatotoxicity with a sound causality track for GC, but there is uncertainty regarding the respective causative compound(s). The present detailed review of GC hepatotoxicity may serve as an example for clinical causality assessments of future cases of liver injury due to other herbs. PMID:23109446

Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Glass, Xaver; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel

2012-01-01

113

Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project  

SciTech Connect

The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

1997-10-01

114

Route Learning Impairment in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Memory impairment on neuropsychological tests is relatively common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. But memory rarely has been evaluated in more naturalistic settings. This study assessed TLE (n = 19) and control (n = 32) groups on a real-world route learning (RL) test. Compared to the controls, the TLE group committed significantly more total errors across the three RL test trials. RL errors correlated significantly with standardized auditory and visual memory and visual-perceptual test scores in the TLE group. In the TLE subset for whom hippocampal data were available (n = 14), RL errors also correlated significantly with left hippocampal volume. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate real-world memory impairment in TLE patients and its association with both mesial temporal lobe integrity and standardized memory test performance. The results support the ecological validity of clinical neuropsychological assessment. PMID:23041173

Bell, Brian D.

2012-01-01

115

HMGB1 Mediates Cognitive Impairment in Sepsis Survivors  

PubMed Central

Severe sepsis, a syndrome that complicates infection and injury, affects 750,000 annually in the United States. The acute mortality rate is approximately 30%, but, strikingly, sepsis survivors have a significant disability burden: up to 25% of survivors are cognitively and physically impaired. To investigate the mechanisms underlying persistent cognitive impairment in sepsis survivors, here we developed a murine model of severe sepsis survivors following cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to study cognitive impairments. We observed that serum levels of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a critical mediator of acute sepsis pathophysiology, are increased in sepsis survivors. Significantly, these levels remain elevated for at least 4 wks after CLP. Sepsis survivors develop significant, persistent impairments in learning and memory, and anatomic changes in the hippocampus associated with a loss of synaptic plasticity. Administration of neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibody to survivors, beginning 1 wk after onset of peritonitis, significantly improved memory impairments and brain pathology. Administration of recombinant HMGB1 to naïve mice recapitulated the memory impairments. Together, these findings indicate that elevated HMGB1 levels mediate cognitive decline in sepsis survivors, and suggest that it may be possible to prevent or reverse cognitive impairments in sepsis survivors by administration of anti-HMGB1 antibodies. PMID:22634723

Chavan, Sangeeta S; Huerta, Patricio T; Robbiati, Sergio; Valdes-Ferrer, SI; Ochani, Mahendar; Dancho, Meghan; Frankfurt, Maya; Volpe, Bruce T; Tracey, Kevin J; Diamond, Betty

2012-01-01

116

From the prodrome to chronic schizophrenia: the neurobiology underlying psychotic symptoms and cognitive impairments  

PubMed Central

Schizophrenia is a chronic psychotic disorder that remains a considerable cause of global disease burden. Cognitive impairments are common and contribute significantly to the morbidity of the disorder. Over the last two decades or so molecular imaging studies have refined understanding of the pathophysiology underlying the development of psychosis and cognitive impairments. Firstly they have consistently implicated presynaptic dopaminergic dysfunction in the disorder, finding that dopamine synthesis capacity, dopamine release and baseline dopamine levels are increased in the illness. Secondly recent findings show that dopamine synthesis capacity is elevated in those that go on to develop psychosis in the following year, but not in those that do not, and appears to increase further with the development of psychosis. Thirdly evidence links greater dopamine synthesis capacity to poorer cognitive performance and altered frontal cortical function measured using functional imaging during cognitive tasks. Finally they have provided data on the nature of other neurofunctional alterations in the disorder, in particular in the serotonergic system and neuroinflammation. We review these findings and discuss their implications for understanding the neurobiology of psychosis and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:22239576

Howes, OD; Fusar-Poli, P; Bloomfield, M; Selvaraj, S; McGuire, P

2013-01-01

117

Effects of late visual impairment on mental representations activated by visual and tactile stimuli.  

PubMed

Similarly to sighted people, individuals congenitally affected by a severe visual impairment can maintain and mentally manipulate spatial information about tactile stimuli [Vecchi, T., Cattaneo, Z., Monegato, M., Pece, A., Cornoldi, C., Pietrini, P., 2006. Why Cyclops could not compete with Ulysses: monocular vision and mental images. NeuroReport 17, 723-726]. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the onset timing of a severe (but not total) sight loss may influence spatial imagery abilities based on haptic input. To this purpose, a group of late severe visually impaired people and a matched group of normally sighted participants (all blindfolded) were presented with an imagery task requiring to memorize and retrieve a number of locations presented on tactile matrices. Results indicate that a severe visual deficit occurring later in life significantly impairs spatial imagery abilities to a greater extent than in the case of congenital blindness, probably as a consequence of a modest development of specific compensatory mechanisms associated with congenital deficits. PMID:17368576

Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Cornoldi, Cesare

2007-05-01

118

Differences in Socialization between Visually Impaired Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to…

Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh

2011-01-01

119

Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

120

[Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood/adolescence and impairments associated with daily life: French data from the European Lifetime Impairment Survey].  

PubMed

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a 3-5 % prevalence in Europe and North America. It is associated with functional impairment and can have a negative impact on social and family relationships and daily living. The experiences of children/adolescents with ADHD in Europe, as reported by parents/caregivers who completed the online Lifetime Impairment Survey (LIS), were evaluated. The LIS was conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, and the UK to assess the extent to which the daily lives of children/adolescents (aged<20 years) with ADHD are affected by their disorder as reported by parents/caregivers. Participants to the survey were recruited by email from the GfK Global Online Panel, which consisted of a database of 487,533 members (including 85,512 members in France). The control group comprised parents/caregivers of children/adolescents without ADHD. Treatment for ADHD, as perceived by parents/caregivers of children/adolescents with ADHD, was also reviewed. Data from France are described here. In France, 157 (79 with ADHD, 78 without ADHD) parents/caregivers completed the LIS. Median age at diagnosis was 6.0 years (mean [SD], 6.4 [3.18] years) as reported by parents/caregivers; pharmacological treatment was prescribed for 46.8 % (37/79) of children/adolescents with ADHD. Compared with the control group, ADHD was associated with significantly greater impairment across all domains studied (P<0.001), except problems in home life. General impairment scale data demonstrated that more parents/caregivers of children/adolescents in the ADHD group than the control group thought that experiences during childhood/adolescence and unhappy memories would have a negative impact on their child in adult life (29-32 % vs 9-12 %, respectively). Issues that affected school/education were associated with perceived greater impairment in the ADHD group than the control group. Several limitations should be taken into account when reviewing these data, including the lack of questionnaire validation (although developed by expert consensus). In addition, the survey was conducted online and, as such, was more likely to recruit individuals who were well-educated, computer-literate, and willing to participate in the survey. Survey participants may also have had greater awareness of ADHD and the associated symptoms and impairment, and greater motivation to seek diagnosis or treatment, than the general population. Furthermore, diagnosis of ADHD and history of diagnosis were parent-/caregiver-reported and the results may have been influenced by recall bias or subjective reporting given that the survey did not directly assess the opinions of the children/adolescents with the disorder. These data provide insights into the negative impact that ADHD imposes on all aspects of life for children/adolescents in France with the disorder. Moreover, ADHD is believed to have a negative impact later in the patient's life. Further progress is needed in France and across Europe to provide a more effective and consistent approach to the treatment of patients with ADHD and to meet the expectations regarding management and treatment for the families concerned. PMID:25300717

Caci, H; Paillé, S

2014-12-01

121

Clinical significance of translocation.  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications. PMID:8125386

Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I

1994-01-01

122

Neurocognitive Impairment and HIV Risk Factors: A Reciprocal Relationship  

PubMed Central

Cognitive impairment among populations at risk for HIV poses a significant barrier to managing risk behaviors. The impact of HIV and several cofactors, including substance abuse and mental illness, on cognitive function is discussed in the context of HIV risk behaviors, medication adherence, and risk-reduction interventions. Literature suggests that cognitive impairment is intertwined in a close, reciprocal relationship with both risk behaviors and medication adherence. Not only do increased risk behaviors and suboptimal adherence exacerbate cognitive impairment, but cognitive impairment also reduces the effectiveness of interventions aimed at optimizing medication adherence and reducing risk. In order to be effective, risk-reduction interventions must therefore take into account the impact of cognitive impairment on learning and behavior. PMID:20232242

Anand, Pria; Springer, Sandra A.; Copenhaver, Michael M.

2010-01-01

123

Rock Art of the Greater Southwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

Krupp, Edwin C.

124

Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

2003-03-05

125

An Examination of Psychopathology and Daily Impairment in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n?=?16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n?=?14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group. PMID:24691406

Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C.; Bunnell, Brian E.

2014-01-01

126

Specific language impairment.  

PubMed

The acquisition of language is one of the most important achievements in young children, in part because most children appear to acquire language with little effort. Some children are not so fortunate, however. There is a large group of children who also have difficulty learning language, but do not have obvious neurological, cognitive, sensory, emotional, or environmental deficits. Clinicians often refer to these children as language disordered or language impaired. Researchers tend to refer to these children as specific language impaired (SLI). Children with SLI have intrigued researchers for many years because there is no obvious reason for their language learning difficulties. SLI has been found to be an enduring condition that begins in early childhood and often persists into adolescence and adulthood. The language problems of children with SLI are not limited to spoken language; they also affect reading and writing and thus much of academic learning. Knowledge of the characteristics of SLI should aid physicians, pediatricians, and early childhood specialists to identify these children during the preschool years and ensure that they receive appropriate services. With high-quality language intervention and literacy instruction, most children with SLI should be able to perform and function adequately in school and beyond. PMID:23622167

Kamhi, Alan G; Clark, Mary Kristen

2013-01-01

127

Cognitive impairment and self-care in heart failure  

PubMed Central

Background Heart failure (HF) is a prevalent chronic disease in older adults that requires extensive self-care to prevent decompensation and hospitalization. Cognitive impairment may impact the ability to perform HF self-care activities. We examined the association between cognitive impairment and adherence to self-care in patients hospitalized for acute HF. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and participants A total of 577 patients (mean age = 71 years, 44% female) hospitalized for HF at five medical centers in the United States and Canada. Measurements and methods Participants were interviewed for information on self-reported adherence to self-care using the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale. We assessed cognitive impairment in three domains (memory, processing speed, and executive function) using standardized measures. Patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics were obtained through medical record review. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine the association between cognitive impairment and self-care practices adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. Results A total of 453 patients (79%) were impaired in at least one cognitive domain. Average adherence to self-care activities among patients with global cognitive impairment did not differ significantly from those without cognitive impairment (30.5 versus 29.6; 45-point scale). However, impaired memory was associated with lower self-care scores (P = 0.006) in multivariable models. Conclusion Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent among older patients hospitalized for HF. Memory impairment is associated with poorer adherence to self-care practices. Screening for memory impairment in patients with HF may help to identify patients at risk for poor self-care who may benefit from tailored disease management programs. PMID:24187511

Hajduk, Alexandra M; Lemon, Stephenie C; McManus, David D; Lessard, Darleen M; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Spencer, Frederick A; Goldberg, Robert J; Saczynski, Jane S

2013-01-01

128

Subjective Cognitive Complaints Contribute to Misdiagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Subjective cognitive complaints are a criterion for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), despite their uncertain relationship to objective memory performance in MCI. We aimed to examine self-reported cognitive complaints in subgroups of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort to determine whether they are a valuable inclusion in the diagnosis of MCI or, alternatively, if they contribute to misdiagnosis. Subgroups of MCI were derived using cluster analysis of baseline neuropsychological test data from 448 ADNI MCI participants. Cognitive complaints were assessed via the Everyday Cognition (ECog) questionnaire, and discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-report. Cluster analysis revealed Amnestic and Mixed cognitive phenotypes as well as a third Cluster-Derived Normal subgroup (41.3%), whose neuropsychological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarker profiles did not differ from a “robust” normal control group. This cognitively intact phenotype of MCI participants overestimated their cognitive problems relative to their informant, whereas Amnestic MCI participants with objective memory impairment underestimated their cognitive problems. Underestimation of cognitive problems was associated with positive CSF AD biomarkers and progression to dementia. Overall, there was no relationship between self-reported cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning, but significant correlations were observed with depressive symptoms. The inclusion of self-reported complaints in MCI diagnostic criteria may cloud rather than clarify diagnosis and result in high rates of misclassification of MCI. Discrepancies between self- and informant-report demonstrate that overestimation of cognitive problems is characteristic of normal aging while underestimation may reflect greater risk for cognitive decline. PMID:25156329

Edmonds, Emily C.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Galasko, Douglas R.; Salmon, David P.; Bondi, Mark W.

2014-01-01

129

Observation of own exploration movements impairs haptic spatial perception.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to assess whether the visibility of ones' own exploratory movements impairs or enhances perceptual speed and precision of haptic stimuli with varying complexity. Previous studies have shown that noninformative vision of steady surroundings improves haptic spatial perception. However, due to the serial nature of haptic processing and limited capacity of working memory resources, we hypothesized that noninformative vision of limb movements may impair haptic perception. The study sample consisted of ninety-eight healthy adults who were randomized into two groups, matched for sex and age. Participants were required to explore two-dimensional haptic stimuli with varying complexity and to recognize them visually. The difference between the two experimental groups was a screen that would prevent the participants from viewing their hands during exploration in the nonobservation condition (NonOb). The other half of participants were able to see their hands in the manual movement observation condition (MovOb) thanks to the special design of the stimuli. As hypothesized, the persons in the MovOb condition made significantly more errors. The difference in error frequency between participants of the MovOb and NonOb condition was greater for complex stimuli than for simple ones. These results suggest that incoming visual information about own manual exploration movements increases competitive pressure for limited working memory resources, and therefore, more recognition errors are made. Covering the hands during exploration may constitute a helpful simplification of the task's demands by supporting the maintenance of information in working memory. Additionally, the relation of haptic complexity and stimulus characteristics was analyzed. PMID:24071924

Mueller, Stephanie; Habermann, Stefanie; Dudda, Janett; Grunwald, Martin

2013-12-01

130

Spared and Impaired Aspects of Motivated Cognitive Control in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and thirty-nine healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with non-reward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and non-reward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between non-reward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared to baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the non-reward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both non-reward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of “just-in-time,” reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

Mann, Claire L.; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L.; Barch, Deanna M.

2013-01-01

131

Subjective cognitive complaints contribute to misdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Subjective cognitive complaints are a criterion for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), despite their uncertain relationship to objective memory performance in MCI. We aimed to examine self-reported cognitive complaints in subgroups of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort to determine whether they are a valuable inclusion in the diagnosis of MCI or, alternatively, if they contribute to misdiagnosis. Subgroups of MCI were derived using cluster analysis of baseline neuropsychological test data from 448 ADNI MCI participants. Cognitive complaints were assessed via the Everyday Cognition (ECog) questionnaire, and discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-report. Cluster analysis revealed Amnestic and Mixed cognitive phenotypes as well as a third Cluster-Derived Normal subgroup (41.3%), whose neuropsychological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker profiles did not differ from a "robust" normal control group. This cognitively intact phenotype of MCI participants overestimated their cognitive problems relative to their informant, whereas Amnestic MCI participants with objective memory impairment underestimated their cognitive problems. Underestimation of cognitive problems was associated with positive CSF AD biomarkers and progression to dementia. Overall, there was no relationship between self-reported cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning, but significant correlations were observed with depressive symptoms. The inclusion of self-reported complaints in MCI diagnostic criteria may cloud rather than clarify diagnosis and result in high rates of misclassification of MCI. Discrepancies between self- and informant-report demonstrate that overestimation of cognitive problems is characteristic of normal aging while underestimation may reflect greater risk for cognitive decline. PMID:25156329

Edmonds, Emily C; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Galasko, Douglas R; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

2014-09-01

132

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE TO EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH WEST NILE VIRUS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined 45- 80% in North America since 1950. Although much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss, recent field studies have indicated that West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant negative impact on local populations of grouse. We confirm the susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to WNV infection in laboratory experimental

Larry Clark; Jeffrey Hall; Robert McLean; Michael Dunbar; Kaci Klenk; Richard Bowen

2006-01-01

133

The Effect of Virtual Reality and Tetra-Ataxiometric Posturography Programs on Stroke Patients With Impaired Standing Balance  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of virtual reality (VR) and a tetra-ataxiometric posturography (Tetrax) program on stroke patients with impaired standing balance. Methods Thirty acute stroke patients with impaired standing balance were recruited and randomly assigned to a VR, Tetrax, or control group. All patients received conventional balance training as a baseline; and VR and Tetrax patients received VR or Tetrax treatment, in addition. The primary outcome measures to evaluate the overall standing balance were the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the falling index (FI). The secondary outcome measures were the stability index (SI) and the weight distribution index (WDI), which were used to evaluate the balance status according to specific body positions. The FI, SI, and WDI were measured using the Tetrax instrument. Results The BBS and FI scores were improved in all groups, with no significant differences between groups. In open-eyed positions, the VR group showed significantly greater improvement in SI and WDI scores than the control group (p<0.017). In closed-eyed positions, the Tetrax group showed significantly greater improvement in SI and WDI scores than the control group (p<0.017). Conclusion The inclusion of VR and Tetrax programs did not lead to an overall benefit in balance. VR and Tetrax did, however, demonstrate a benefit in specific positions. A Tetrax program may benefit patients with abnormal proprioceptive function, whereas a VR program may benefit patients with normal sensory function. PMID:24855609

Song, Yoon Bum; Kim, Won; Lee, Sook Joung; Yi, Jin Hwa; Park, Dae Hwan

2014-01-01

134

Subcutaneous Interferon ?-1a May Protect against Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Relapsing–Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: 5-Year Follow-up of the COGIMUS Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the effects of subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) -1a on cognition over 5 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsing–remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods Patients aged 18–50 years with RRMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ?4.0) who had completed the 3-year COGIMUS study underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging, neurological examination, and neuropsychological testing at years 4 and 5. Predictors of cognitive impairment at year 5 were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Of 331 patients who completed the 3-year COGIMUS study, 265 participated in the 2-year extension study, 201 of whom (75.8%; sc IFN ?-1a three times weekly: 44 µg, n?=?108; 22 µg, n?=?93) completed 5 years' follow-up. The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment in the study population overall remained stable between baseline (18.0%) and year 5 (22.6%). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment also remained stable in both treatment groups between baseline and year 5, and between year 3 and year 5. However, a significantly higher proportion of men than women had cognitive impairment at year 5 (26.5% vs 14.4%, p?=?0.046). Treatment with the 22 versus 44 µg dose was predictive of cognitive impairment at year 5 (hazard ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.48–0.97). Conclusions This study suggests that sc IFN ?-1a dose-dependently stabilizes or delays cognitive impairment over a 5-year period in most patients with mild RRMS. Women seem to be more protected against developing cognitive impairment, which may indicate greater response to therapy or the inherently better prognosis associated with female sex in MS. PMID:24137499

Patti, Francesco; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Amato, Maria Pia; Trojano, Maria; Bastianello, Stefano; Tola, Maria Rosalia; Cottone, Salvatore; Plant, Andrea; Picconi, Orietta

2013-01-01

135

Machine-Based, Self-guided Home Therapy for Individuals With Severe Arm Impairment After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.  

PubMed

Background. Few therapeutic options exist for the millions of persons living with severe arm impairment after stroke to increase their dose of arm rehabilitation. This study compared self-guided, high-repetition home therapy with a mechanical device (the resonating arm exerciser [RAE]) to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke and explored RAE use for patients with subacute stroke. Methods. A total of 16 participants with severe upper-extremity impairment (mean Fugl-Meyer [FM] score = 21.4 ± 8.8 out of 66) >6 months poststroke were randomized to 3 weeks of exercise with the RAE or conventional exercises. The primary outcome measure was FM score 1 month posttherapy. Secondary outcome measures included Motor Activity Log, Visual Analog Pain Scale, and Ashworth Spasticity Scale. After a 1-month break, individuals in the conventional group also received a 3-week course of RAE therapy. Results. The change in FM score was significant in both the RAE and conventional groups after training (2.6 ± 1.4 and 3.4 ± 2.4, P = .008 and .016, respectively). These improvements were not significant at 1 month. Exercise with the RAE led to significantly greater improvements in distal FM score than conventional therapy at the 1-month follow-up (P = .02). In a separate cohort of patients with subacute stroke, the RAE was found feasible for exercise. Discussion. In those with severe arm impairment after chronic stroke, home-based training with the RAE was feasible and significantly reduced impairment without increasing pain or spasticity. Gains with the RAE were comparable to those found with conventional training and also included distal arm improvement. PMID:25273359

Zondervan, Daniel K; Augsburger, Renee; Bodenhoefer, Barbara; Friedman, Nizan; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Cramer, Steven C

2014-10-01

136

Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

2005-01-01

137

Neuropsychological Criteria for Mild Cognitive Impairment Improves Diagnostic Precision, Biomarker Associations, and Progression Rates  

PubMed Central

We compared two methods of diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI): conventional Petersen/Winblad criteria as operationalized by the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and an actuarial neuropsychological method put forward by Jak and Bondi designed to balance sensitivity and reliability. 1,150 ADNI participants were diagnosed at baseline as cognitively normal (CN) or MCI via ADNI criteria (MCI: n = 846; CN: n = 304) or Jak/Bondi criteria (MCI: n = 401; CN: n = 749), and the two MCI samples were submitted to cluster and discriminant function analyses. Resulting cluster groups were then compared and further examined for APOE allelic frequencies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarker levels, and clinical outcomes. Results revealed that both criteria produced a mildly impaired Amnestic subtype and a more severely impaired Dysexecutive/Mixed subtype. The neuropsychological Jak/Bondi criteria uniquely yielded a third Impaired Language subtype, whereas conventional Petersen/Winblad ADNI criteria produced a third subtype comprising nearly one-third of the sample that performed within normal limits across the cognitive measures, suggesting this method’s susceptibility to false positive diagnoses. MCI participants diagnosed via neuropsychological criteria yielded dissociable cognitive phenotypes, significant CSF AD biomarker associations, more stable diagnoses, and identified greater percentages of participants who progressed to dementia than conventional MCI diagnostic criteria. Importantly, the actuarial neuropsychological method did not produce a subtype that performed within normal limits on the cognitive testing, unlike the conventional diagnostic method. Findings support the need for refinement of MCI diagnoses to incorporate more comprehensive neuropsychological methods, with resulting gains in empirical characterization of specific cognitive phenotypes, biomarker associations, stability of diagnoses, and prediction of progression. Refinement of MCI diagnostic methods may also yield gains in biomarker and clinical trial study findings because of improvements in sample compositions of ‘true positive’ cases and removal of ‘false positive’ cases. PMID:24844687

Bondi, Mark W.; Edmonds, Emily C.; Jak, Amy J.; Clark, Lindsay R.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; McDonald, Carrie R.; Nation, Daniel A.; Libon, David J.; Au, Rhoda; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P.

2014-01-01

138

13 CFR 107.1840 - Computation of Licensee's Capital Impairment Percentage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Impairment Percentage is zero and you do not have...following amounts are both zero or greater: (1) The sum of Undistributed Net Realized Earnings, as...together your Undistributed Net Realized Earnings, your...2) of this section is zero or greater, your...

2012-01-01

139

13 CFR 108.1840 - Computation of NMVC Company's Capital Impairment Percentage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Impairment Percentage is zero and you do not have...following amounts are both zero or greater: (1) The sum of Undistributed Net Realized Earnings, as...together your Undistributed Net Realized Earnings, your...2) of this section is zero or greater, your...

2011-01-01

140

13 CFR 107.1840 - Computation of Licensee's Capital Impairment Percentage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Impairment Percentage is zero and you do not have...following amounts are both zero or greater: (1) The sum of Undistributed Net Realized Earnings, as...together your Undistributed Net Realized Earnings, your...2) of this section is zero or greater, your...

2014-01-01

141

13 CFR 107.1840 - Computation of Licensee's Capital Impairment Percentage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Impairment Percentage is zero and you do not have...following amounts are both zero or greater: (1) The sum of Undistributed Net Realized Earnings, as...together your Undistributed Net Realized Earnings, your...2) of this section is zero or greater, your...

2013-01-01

142

13 CFR 107.1840 - Computation of Licensee's Capital Impairment Percentage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Impairment Percentage is zero and you do not have...following amounts are both zero or greater: (1) The sum of Undistributed Net Realized Earnings, as...together your Undistributed Net Realized Earnings, your...2) of this section is zero or greater, your...

2011-01-01

143

Diabetes Cognitive Impairments and the Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbs  

PubMed Central

The problem of cognitive impairment resulting from diabetes is gaining more acceptance and attention. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been proved to be associated with reduced performance on numerous domains of cognitive function. Although the exact mechanisms of cognitive impairments in diabetes have not been completely understood, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance seem to play significant roles. And other possible risk factors such as hypoglycemia, insulin deficiency, vascular risk factors, hyperactive HPA axis, depression, and altered neurotransmitters will also be examined. In the meanwhile, this review analyzed the role of the active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes cognitive impairments. PMID:24386004

Guo, Leilei; Tian, Guoqing

2013-01-01

144

Gait impairment and optimizing mobility in multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease that causes demyelination and degeneration within the brain and spinal cord. This may result in many impairments, including impaired ambulation, muscle weakness, abnormal tone, visual disturbances, decreased sensation, and fatigue. Rehabilitation helps patients with MS maximize independence by helping to manage and minimize impairments. Deficits seen in ambulation should be addressed to improve energy efficiency and reduce falls. Compensation through appropriate prescription of assistive devices, bracing, and wheelchairs will help improve safety. Rehabilitation can make a significant impact on achieving and maintaining quality of life and independence. PMID:24314677

Stevens, Victoria; Goodman, Kelli; Rough, Katherine; Kraft, George H

2013-11-01

145

Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes  

PubMed Central

We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

2013-01-01

146

Social impairment in Hyperkinetic Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is paucity of information concerning social impairment in children and adolescents referred to mental health services. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the association of social impairment, psychopathology and environmental stressors in Hyperkinetic Disorder (HKD) and to determine the frequency of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) symptoms in HKD. Method: ‘Item sheets’ about children and adolescents

Paramala J. Santosh; Angela Mijovic

2004-01-01

147

Impaired Driving. Prevention Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet focuses on impaired driving. The first section presents 21 facts on impaired driving. These include the number of people who lost their lives in alcohol-related crashes; the leading cause of death for young people; the average amount of alcohol consumed by people arrested for driving under the influence; the estimation that a tax…

Lane, Amy

148

Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).  

PubMed

Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds. PMID:18436686

Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

2008-04-01

149

The safety of bendamustine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma and concomitant renal impairment: a retrospective electronic medical record database analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract This retrospective study compared adverse-event rates in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with and without renal impairment, receiving bendamustine alone or with rituximab. Patients (n = 940) were stratified into a renally impaired group (creatinine clearance [CrCL] < 40 mL/min) and two comparator groups (CrCL ? 40 mL/min and CrCL ? 60 mL/min). Renally impaired patients with NHL had a significantly greater incidence of grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia compared with the CrCL ? 60 mL/min group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.57; p = 0.025). For CLL and NHL together, grade 3-4 increased blood urea nitrogen was significantly higher in the renally impaired group than in the CrCL ? 40 mL/min (HR, 2.36; p = 0.02) and CrCL ? 60 mL/min (HR, 4.46; p = 0.001) groups. Based on these results, monitoring blood counts (including platelets) and renal function would be prudent in the management of patients with renal dysfunction and NHL or CLL who receive bendamustine-based regimens. PMID:23987821

Nordstrom, Beth L; Knopf, Kevin B; Teltsch, Dana Y; Engle, Robert; Beygi, Hooman; Sterchele, James A

2014-06-01

150

Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson Patients  

E-print Network

Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson were tested on normal dopaminergic medication, we found that comorbid clinical depression impairs initial acquisition, whereas the use of anticholinergic therapy impairs subsequent transfer generalization

Gluck, Mark

151

Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human population growth and peripherality of populations. However, future range loss may relate less to historical mechanisms and more to recent changes in land use and habitat condition, including energy developments and invasions by non-native species such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and West Nile virus. In conjunction with local measures of population performance, landscape-scale predictions of future range loss may be useful for prioritizing management and protection. Our results suggest that initial conservation efforts should focus on maintaining large expanses of sagebrush habitat, enhancing quality of existing habitats, and increasing habitat connectivity.

Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

2008-01-01

152

Neurocognitive Impairment and HIV Risk Factors: A Reciprocal Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairment among populations at risk for HIV poses a significant barrier to managing risk behaviors. The impact\\u000a of HIV and several cofactors, including substance abuse and mental illness, on cognitive function is discussed in the context\\u000a of HIV risk behaviors, medication adherence, and risk-reduction interventions. Literature suggests that cognitive impairment\\u000a is intertwined in a close, reciprocal relationship with both

Pria Anand; Sandra A. Springer; Michael M. Copenhaver; Frederick L. Altice

2010-01-01

153

A Human Alcohol Self-Administration Paradigm to Model Individual Differences in Impaired Control over Alcohol Use  

PubMed Central

We developed an alcohol self-administration paradigm to model individual differences in impaired control. The paradigm includes moderate drinking guidelines meant to model limits on alcohol consumption, which are typically exceeded by people with impaired control. Possible payment reductions provided a disincentive for excessive drinking. Alcohol use above the guideline, despite possible pay reductions, was considered to be indicative of impaired control. Heavy-drinking 21–25 year-olds (N = 39) were randomized to an experimental condition including the elements of the impaired control paradigm or to a free-drinking condition without these elements. Alcohol self-administration was compared between these two conditions to establish the internal validity of the experimental paradigm. In both conditions, participants self-administered beer and non-alcoholic beverages for 3 hours in a bar setting with 1–3 other participants. Experimental condition participants self-administered significantly fewer beers and drank to lower blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) on average than those in the free-drinking condition. Experimental condition participants were more likely than free-drinking condition participants to intersperse non-alcoholic beverages with beer and to drink at a slower pace. Although experimental condition participants drank more moderately than those in the free-drinking condition overall, their range of drinking was considerable (BAC range = .024–.097) with several participants drinking excessively. A lower initial subjective response to alcohol and earlier age of alcohol use onset were associated with greater alcohol self-administration in the experimental condition. Given the variability in response, the impaired control laboratory paradigm may have utility for preliminary tests of novel interventions in future studies and for identifying individual differences in problem-drinking risk. PMID:23937598

Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Nogueira, Christine; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

2014-01-01

154

Human skeletal muscle metabolic economy in vivo: effects of contraction intensity, age, and mobility impairment.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that older muscle has greater metabolic economy (ME) in vivo than young, in a manner dependent, in part, on contraction intensity. Twenty young (Y; 24±1 yr, 10 women), 18 older healthy (O; 73±2, 9 women) and 9 older individuals with mild-to-moderate mobility impairment (OI; 74±1, 7 women) received stimulated twitches (2 Hz, 3 min) and performed nonfatiguing voluntary (20, 50, and 100% maximal; 12 s each) isometric dorsiflexion contractions. Torque-time integrals (TTI; Nm·s) were calculated and expressed relative to maximal fat-free muscle cross-sectional area (cm2), and torque variability during voluntary contractions was calculated as the coefficient of variation. Total ATP cost of contraction (mM) was determined from flux through the creatine kinase reaction, nonoxidative glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and used to calculate ME (Nm·s·cm(-2)·mM ATP(-1)). While twitch torque relaxation was slower in O and OI compared with Y (P?0.001), twitch TTI, ATP cost, and economy were similar across groups (P?0.15), indicating comparable intrinsic muscle economy during electrically induced isometric contractions in vivo. During voluntary contractions, normalized TTI and total ATP cost did not differ significantly across groups (P?0.20). However, ME was lower in OI than Y or O at 20% and 50% MVC (P?0.02), and torque variability was greater in OI than Y or O at 20% MVC (P?0.05). These results refute the hypothesis of greater muscle ME in old age, and provide support for lower ME in impaired older adults as a potential mechanism or consequence of age-related reductions in functional mobility. PMID:25163917

Christie, Anita D; Tonson, Anne; Larsen, Ryan G; DeBlois, Jacob P; Kent, Jane A

2014-11-01

155

Impaired comprehension of alternating syntactic constructions in autism.  

PubMed

Individuals on the higher-functioning end of the autism spectrum have significant impairments in communication. Language delay can occur, particularly in syntactic or structural linguistic knowledge. However, classically observed semantic deficits generally overshadow these structural deficits. This research examined the potential effects on comprehension of dative expressions that exhibited syntactic alternation versus those that were restricted, whether in syntactic construction or through marked semantic differences in construction. Children with autism and matched neurotypical control participants were presented with a sentence battery of dative statements representing these variations in construction and were asked to display basic comprehension of the sentence meaning by identifying the recipient, or indirect object, of the dative verb. Construction, restriction, and semantic differentiation variables were analyzed for potential effects on the rate of accurate comprehension. Both groups performed with greater accuracy when dative expressions used a prepositional phrase than when the dative action was expressed in the syntax. The autism group performed more poorly when the dative expression could syntactically alternate than when it was restricted. These effects improve our knowledge of how children with autism understand alternating grammatical constructions. PMID:24227788

Stockbridge, Melissa D; Happé, Francesca G E; White, Sarah J

2014-06-01

156

Perfluorochemical (PFC) Exposure in Children: Associations with Impaired Response Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used widely in consumer products since the 1950s and are currently found at detectable levels in the blood of humans and animals across the globe. In stark contrast to this widespread exposure to PFCs, there is relatively little research on potential adverse health effects of exposure to these chemicals. Objectives We performed this cross-sectional study to determine if specific blood PFC levels are associated with impaired response inhibition in children. Methods Blood levels of 11 PFCs were measured in children (N = 83) and 6 PFCs: perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) – were found at detectable levels in most children (87.5% or greater had detectable levels). These levels were analyzed in relation to the differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) task. This task rewards delays between responses (i.e., longer inter-response times; IRTs) and therefore constitutes a measure of response inhibition. Results Higher levels of blood PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, and PFOSA were associated with significantly shorter IRTs during the DRL task. The magnitude of these associations was such that IRTs during the task decreased by 29–34% for every 1 SD increase in the corresponding blood PFC. Conclusions This study suggests an association between PFC exposure and children’s impulsivity. Although intriguing, there is a need for further investigation and replication with a larger sample of children. PMID:21682250

Gump, Brooks B.; Wu, Qian; Dumas, Amy K.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2011-01-01

157

Impaired blood flow autoregulation in nonfiltering kidneys: effects of theophylline administration.  

PubMed

To investigate blood flow autoregulation in filtering and nonfiltering kidneys, renal blood flow was determined during graded reductions in renal perfusion pressure in seven anesthetized dogs containing both a filtering and nonfiltering kidney. In each dog, one kidney was made nonfiltering by the method of EH Blaine, JO Davis, and RT Witty (Circ Res 27:1081-1089, 1970). Renal perfusion pressure was decreased from 129 to 115, 99, and 83 mm Hg by stepwise constriction of the suprarenal aorta. In filtering kidneys, the maximum decrease in renal perfusion pressure reduced renal blood flow only 20.1% of control whereas renal blood flow of nonfiltering kidneys decreased by 41.0% of control. During aortic constriction, renal vascular resistance of nonfiltering kidneys remained unchanged or slightly increased. These hemodynamic changes were associated with significantly greater autoregulation indices in nonfiltering kidneys. In eight dogs with nonfiltering kidneys, competitive inhibition of adenosine with theophylline (9 mg/kg iv) restored autoregulation of renal blood flow as shown by significant decreases in renal vascular resistance. These data indicate that in the nonfiltering kidney model, autoregulation of renal blood flow is impaired. It is suggested that this impaired autoregulatory response may result from renal ischemia and the vasoconstrictor influence of elevated intrarenal adenosine concentration. PMID:6664991

Osborn, J L; Hoversten, L G; DiBona, G F

1983-12-01

158

Impaired Inhibitory Control in Recreational Cocaine Users  

PubMed Central

Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed. PMID:17989775

Colzato, Lorenza S.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Hommel, Bernhard

2007-01-01

159

Preventing Impaired Driving Opportunities and Problems  

PubMed Central

Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested. PMID:22330222

Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

2011-01-01

160

The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

Oberhofer, E. S.

1985-01-01

161

Peer Reviewed Movements and Survival of Juvenile Greater  

E-print Network

contributing to declines in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. We evaluated movements(4):1070­ 1078; 2006) Key words Centrocercus urophasianus, greater sage-grouse, Idaho, juvenile survival, power-line collisions, predation, seasonal movements. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) historically

Beck, Jeffrey L.

162

Greater Prairie Chicken Nesting Habitat, Sheyenne National Grassland, North Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater prairie chicken (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) populations and habitats have declined dramatically in the Great Plains. The Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG) has the largest population of greater prairie chickens in North Dakota, but this population has declined over the past 15 years. Lack of nesting habitat has been identified as a signifi- cant factor contributing to the decline in greater

Clinton McCarthy; Tim Pella; Greg Link; Mark A. Rumble

163

Inhalation of the nerve gas sarin impairs ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in rats.  

PubMed

Sarin, a highly toxic nerve gas, is believed to cause bronchoconstriction and even death primarily through respiratory failure; however, the mechanism underlying the respiratory failure is not fully understood. The goals of this study were to ascertain whether sarin affects baseline ventilation (VE) and VE chemoreflexes as well as airway resistance and, if so, whether these changes are reversible. Four groups of F344 rats were exposed to vehicle (VEH) or sarin at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.0 mg h m(-3) (SL, SM, and SH, respectively). VE and VE responses to hypercapnia (7% CO2) or hypoxia (10% O2) were measured by plethysmography at 2 h and 1, 2, and 5 days after VEH or sarin exposure. Total pulmonary resistance (RL) also was measured in anesthetized VEH- and SH-exposed animals 2 h after exposure. Our results showed that within 2 h after exposure 11% of the SM- and 52% of the SH- exposed groups died. Although the SM and SH significantly decreased hypercapnic and hypoxic VE to similar levels (64 and 69%), SH induced greater respiratory impairment, characterized by lower baseline VE (30%; P<0.05), and total loss of the respiratory frequency response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. VE impairment recovered within 1-2 days after sarin exposure; interestingly, SH did not significantly affect baseline RL. Moreover, sarin induced body tremors that were unrelated to the changes in the VE responses. Thus, LC50 sarin causes a reversible impairment of VE that is not dependent on the sarin-induced body tremors and not associated with changes in RL. PMID:18706921

Zhuang, Jianguo; Xu, Fadi; Campen, Matthew J; Zhang, Cancan; Pena-Philippides, Juan C; Sopori, Mohan L

2008-11-01

164

Inhalation of the Nerve Gas Sarin Impairs Ventilatory Responses to Hypercapnia and Hypoxia in Rats  

PubMed Central

Sarin, a highly toxic nerve gas, is believed to cause bronchoconstriction and even death primarily through respiratory failure; however, the mechanism underlying the respiratory failure is not fully understood. The goals of this study were to ascertain whether sarin affects baseline ventilation (VE) and VE chemoreflexes as well as airway resistance and, if so, whether these changes are reversible. Four groups of F344 rats were exposed to vehicle (VEH) or sarin at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.0 mg h m?3 (SL, SM, and SH, respectively). VE and VE responses to hypercapnia (7% CO2) or hypoxia (10% O2) were measured by plethysmography at 2 h and 1, 2, and 5 days after VEH or sarin exposure. Total pulmonary resistance (RL) also was measured in anesthetized VEH- and SH-exposed animals 2 h after exposure. Our results showed that within 2 h after exposure 11% of the SM- and 52% of the SH-exposed groups died. Although the SM and SH significantly decreased hypercapnic and hypoxic VE to similar levels (64 and 69%), SH induced greater respiratory impairment, characterized by lower baseline VE (30%; P < 0.05), and total loss of the respiratory frequency response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. VE impairment recovered within 1–2 days after sarin exposure; interestingly, SH did not significantly affect baseline RL. Moreover, sarin induced body tremors that were unrelated to the changes in the VE responses. Thus, LC50 sarin causes a reversible impairment of VE that is not dependent on the sarin-induced body tremors and not associated with changes in RL. PMID:18706921

Zhuang, Jianguo; Xu, Fadi; Campen, Matthew J.; Zhang, Cancan; Pena-Philippides, Juan C.; Sopori, Mohan L.

2008-01-01

165

Protective effect of Ginkgo flavonoids, amifostine, and leuprorelin against platinum-induced ovarian impairment in rats.  

PubMed

Platinum-induced ovarian impairment is a consequence of treatment for malignant ovarian tumors. We compared the protective effects of Ginkgo flavonoids, amifostine, and leuprorelin on ovarian impairment in rats. Fifty rats were randomly divided into the A, B, C, D, and E groups, which were given saline, cisplatin, cisplatin plus Ginkgo flavonoids, cisplatin plus amifostine, and cisplatin plus leuprorelin, respectively. Ovarian weight was significantly greater in groups C and D compared with group B (83.5 ± 6.7 and 86.8 ± 10 vs 56.8 ± 5.4 mg). The total follicle numbers were higher in groups C, D, and E than in group B (60.5 ± 3.9, 63.8 ± 5.1, and 67.7 ± 3.5 vs 49.6 ± 4.5), and the apoptotic index was reduced in groups C, D, and E compared with group B (35.7 ± 2.0, 37.4 ± 1.6, and 30.5 ± 2.9 vs 65.3 ± 2.9%). The ovaries in groups B, C, and D had higher protein and mRNA expression levels of cytoplasmic Cytochrome c (Cyt-c) and apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apf-1) compared to group A; the Cyt-c mRNA expression was five-fold higher. The mRNA expression of Cyt-c and Apf-1 were significantly lower in groups C, D, and E compared with group B. Administration of leuprorelin, flavonoids, or amifostine protected rats against the ovarian impairment induced by prior intraperitoneal injection of cisplatin. The efficacy of leuprorelin was superior to that of Ginkgo flavonoids and amifostine, but there was no difference between the effects of Ginkgo flavonoids and amifostine. PMID:25078583

Chang, Z; Wang, H L; Du, H

2014-01-01

166

Visual biasing of normal and impaired auditory speech perception.  

PubMed

Intersensory biasing occurs when cues in one sensory modality influence the perception of discrepant cues in another modality. Visual biasing of auditory stop consonant perception was examined in two related experiments in an attempt to clarify the role of hearing impairment on susceptibility to visual biasing of auditory speech perception. Fourteen computer-generated acoustic approximations of consonant-vowel syllables forming a /ba-da-ga/ continuum were presented for labeling as one of the three exemplars, via audition alone and in synchrony with natural visual articulations of /ba/ and of /ga/. Labeling functions were generated for each test condition showing the percentage of /ba/, /da/, and /ga/ responses to each of the 14 synthetic syllables. The subjects of the first experiment were 15 normal-hearing and 15 hearing-impaired observers. The hearing-impaired subjects demonstrated a greater susceptibility to biasing from visual cues than did the normal-hearing subjects. In the second experiment, the auditory stimuli were presented in a low-level background noise to 15 normal-hearing observers. A comparison of their labeling responses with those from the first experiment suggested that hearing-impaired persons may develop a propensity to rely on visual cues as a result of long-term hearing impairment. The results are discussed in terms of theories of intersensory bias. PMID:2314076

Walden, B E; Montgomery, A A; Prosek, R A; Hawkins, D B

1990-03-01

167

The Impact of Impairment Criteria on Rates of ADHD Diagnoses in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviors characteristic of ADHD are common among preschool children, and as such, their clinical significance is oftentimes difficult to ascertain. Thus a focus on impairment is essential in determining the clinical significance of these behaviors. In order to explore the impact of impairment criteria on rates of diagnoses in…

Healey, Dione M.; Miller, Carlin J.; Castelli, Katia L.; Marks, David J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

2008-01-01

168

Impaired attention and network connectivity in childhood absence epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) often demonstrate impaired interictal attention, even with control of their seizures. No previous study has investigated the brain networks involved in this impairment. We used the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) of attentional vigilance and the Repetitive Tapping Task (RTT), a control motor task, to examine interictal attention in 26 children with CAE and 22 matched healthy controls. Each subject underwent simultaneous 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging-electroencephalography (fMRI-EEG) and CPT/RTT testing. Areas of activation on fMRI during the CPT task were correlated with behavioral performance and used as seed regions for resting functional connectivity analysis. All behavioral measures reflecting inattention were significantly higher in patients. Correlation analysis revealed that impairment on all measures of inattention on the CPT task was associated with decreased medial frontal cortex (MFC) activation during CPT. In addition, analysis of resting functional connectivity revealed an overall decrease within an ‘attention network’ in patients relative to controls. Patients demonstrated significantly impaired connectivity between the right anterior insula/frontal operculum (In/FO) and MFC relative to controls. Our results suggest that there is impaired function in an attention network comprising anterior In/FO and MFC in patients with CAE. These findings provide an anatomical and functional basis for impaired interictal attention in CAE, which may allow the development of improved treatments targeted at these networks. PMID:21421063

Killory, Brendan D; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Negishi, Michiro; Vega, Clemente; Spann, Marisa N; Vestal, Matthew; Guo, Jennifer; Berman, Rachel; Danielson, Nathan; Trejo, Gerardo; Shisler, David; Novotny, Edward J; Constable, R Todd; Blumenfeld, Hal

2011-01-01

169

Genetic Counseling in Hearing Impairment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The problem of counseling is dealt with mainly in the context of severe hearing impairment, since moderate forms are often due to illness or other nongenetic factors and do not constitute a grave handicap. (DLS)

Fraser, George R.

1979-01-01

170

Enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered Attwater's and greater prairie chickens.  

PubMed

Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During August 2004 through May 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian pox, the latter being detected in 7.4% (2 of 27) of all birds submitted for histopathology. A survey for REV was conducted in order to examine its possible role in mortality observed primarily in juvenile and adult specimens of prairie chickens. The investigative procedures included postmortem examinations, histopathology, molecular detection, and virus isolation. In total, 57 Attwater's prairie chickens and two greater prairie chickens were included in the study. REV infection was diagnosed using virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or both in 59.5% (28 of 47) of blood samples and/or tumors from suspect birds. Lymphosarcomas were detected in the tissues of 37% (10 of 27) of the birds submitted for histopathology. Such lymphosarcomas suggestive of RE represented the most frequent morphologic diagnosis on histopathology among 27 separate submissions of naturally dead prairie chickens. Overall, REV was detected or RE diagnosed in 34 of 59 prairie chickens (57.62%). The average death age of all birds diagnosed with lymphosarcomas on histopathology was 2.2 yr, ranging from <1 to 4 yr. Although deaths associated with neoplasia occurred in males and females in equal proportions based on submissions, overall more males were diagnosed as REV infected or RE affected (16 males vs. 7 females, and 11 birds of undetermined gender). Reticuloendotheliosis virus was confirmed as a significant cause of mortality in captive prairie chickens. PMID:17274288

Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Barbosa, Taylor; Haefele, Holly

2006-12-01

171

Distribution of motor impairment influences quality of life in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

We evaluated the relationship between upper extremity (UE) and lower extremity (LE) motor impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) to overall disability and quality of life (QoL) measures. A total of 639 patients who were diagnosed with idiopathic PD were administered the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), QoL, activities of daily living (ADL), and behavioral scales. Composite UE and LE scores from the motor section of the UPDRS were correlated with ADL, QoL, and behavioral measurement scores while controlling for disease duration. Patients with greater UE and LE motor impairments had lower QoL scores. However, LE impairments had a greater influence than UE impairments across all QoL measures. PMID:18546324

Stewart, Kim C; Fernandez, Hubert H; Okun, Michael S; Jacobson, Charles E; Hass, Chris J

2008-07-30

172

Spontaneous Language Production in Bilingual Parkinson's Disease Patients: Evidence of Greater Phonological, Morphological and Syntactic Impairments in Native Language  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nine early non-demented bilingual (L1--Friulian, L2--Italian) patients with Parkinson's disease and nine normal controls matched for age, sex and years of education were studied on a spontaneous language production task. All subjects had acquired L1 from birth in a home environment and L2 at the age of six at school formally. Patients with PD…

Zanini, Sergio; Tavano, Alessandro; Fabbro, Franco

2010-01-01

173

Minimizing Significant Figure Fuzziness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the principles and problems associated with the use of significant figures. Explains uncertainty, the meaning of significant figures, the Simple Rule, the Three Rule, and the 1-5 Rule. Also provides examples of the Rules. (ML)

Fields, Lawrence D.; Hawkes, Stephen J.

1986-01-01

174

Epidemiological aspects of visual impairment above 50 years in a rural area.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 5 villages in central India to find out the extent, causes and epidemiological factors for visual impairment among 903 individuals aged above 50 years; 44.3% of them were visually impaired (29.4% with low vision and 14.9% blind). Age-specific visual impairment increased at a rate of 13.2% with each decade of advancing age. Landless labourers suffered more from visual impairment than other occupational groups (p < 0.05). Socioeconomic and literacy status of the population did not significantly influence the prevalence of visual impairment. Major causes of visual impairment were cataract (48.5%), refractive errors (24.5%), age-related macular degeneration (10%), glaucoma (6.8%), and others (10.2%). In view of the high prevalence of visual impairment among the elderly individuals, it is necessary to intensify our efforts in motivating them for early detection and treatment. PMID:7890940

Singh, M C; Murthy, G V; Venkatraman, R; Nayar, S

1994-11-01

175

Molecular Pathways: Radiation-induced Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Approximately 200,000 patients/year in the US will receive partial or whole brain irradiation for the treatment of primary or metastatic brain cancer. Early and delayed radiation effects are transient and reversible with modern therapeutic standards; yet late radiation effects (?6 months postirradiation) remain a significant risk, resulting in progressive cognitive impairment. These include functional deficits in memory, attention, and executive function that severely affect the patient’s quality of life (QOL). The mechanisms underlying radiation-induced cognitive impairment remain ill defined. Classically, radiation-induced alterations in vascular and neuroinflammatory glial cell clonogenic populations were hypothesized to be responsible for radiation-induced brain injury. Recently, preclinical studies have focused on the hippocampus, one of two sites of adult neurogenesis within the brain, which plays an important role in learning and memory. Radiation ablates hippocampal neurogenesis, alters neuronal function, and induces neuroinflammation. Neuronal stem cells implanted into the hippocampus prevent the decrease in neurogenesis and improve cognition following irradiation. Clinically prescribed drugs, including PPAR ? and ? agonists, as well as RAS blockers, prevent radiation-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive impairment independent of improved neurogenesis. Translating these exciting findings to the clinic offers the promise of improving the QOL of brain tumor patients who receive radiotherapy. PMID:23388505

Greene-Schloesser, Dana; Moore, Elizabeth; Robbins, Mike E

2013-01-01

176

Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans.  

PubMed

Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays a critical role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent work in rodents has demonstrated that exposure to stress leads to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress response, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, a day later participants in the stress group (n=27) demonstrated significantly lower extinction retrieval (i.e., greater fear recovery) than those in the control group (n=25). Our results suggest that acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction learning and offers insight into why treatment strategies used in the clinic may be challenging to recruit in daily life where stress is pervasive. PMID:24508065

Raio, Candace M; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

2014-07-01

177

Ecologically Significant Wetlands  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys FINAL REPORT Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork of the Flathead River Valley Appendix 29b #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys JUNE 1, 1999 DEQ

178

Neurocognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder with far-reaching health implications. One of the major consequences of OSAS is an impact on neurocognitive functioning. Several studies have shown that OSAS has an adverse effect on inductive and deductive reasoning, attention, vigilance, learning, and memory. Neurocognitive impairment can be measured objectively with tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, the Steer Clear Performance Test, and tests of repetitive finger tapping. In children, OSAS may cause attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in addition to behavioral problems and learning disabilities. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include increasing age, male sex, apolipoprotein E ?4 allele positivity, current cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, Down syndrome, hypothyroidism, significant alcohol consumption, stroke, and the use of psychoactive medications. At a cellular level, OSAS likely causes cognitive impairment through intermittent hypoxia, hormonal imbalance, and/or systemic inflammation, either independently or via the resultant endothelial dysfunction that occurs. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be measured and minimized in all studies of neurocognitive impairment. Recent studies have used functional and structural neuroimaging to delineate the brain areas affected in patients with OSAS with neurocognitive dysfunction. A common finding in several of these studies is decreased hippocampal volume. Other affected brain areas include the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain, which show focal reductions in gray matter. These changes can be reversed at least partially with the use of CPAP, which highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment of OSAS. The currently available data in this field are quite limited, and more research is needed. PMID:22670023

Lal, Chitra; Strange, Charlie; Bachman, David

2012-06-01

179

Contrast nephropathy in patients with impaired renal function: High versus low osmolar media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrast nephropathy in patients with impaired renal function: High versus low osmolar media. Prescription of low osmolar contrast to prevent nephrotoxicity in subjects with pre-existing renal impairment is costly and has not been clearly shown to be effective. We entered 249 subjects with a pre-contrast serum creatinine greater than 120 \\/xmol\\/liter (1.35 mg\\/dl) having cardiac catheterization or intravenous contrast into

Brendan J Barrett; Patrick S Parfrey; Hilary M Vavasour; Jackie McDonald; Gloria Kent; Donna Hefferton; Frank O'Dea; Eric Stone; Raj Reddy; Patrick J McManamon

1992-01-01

180

Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Epidemiology and Associated Factors  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe the prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS); to determine whether GTPS is associated with iliotibial band (ITB) tenderness, knee osteoarthritis (OA), body mass index (BMI), or low back pain (LBP); and to assess whether GTPS is associated with reduced hip internal rotation, physical activity, and mobility. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting Multicenter observational study. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=3026) ages 50 to 79 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip OA or generalized myofascial tenderness. Results The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral GTPS was 15.0% and 8.5% in women and 6.6% and 1.9% men. Odds ratio (OR) for women was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.67–4.25), but age and race were not significantly associated with GTPS. In a multivariate model, adjusting for age, sex, ITB tenderness, ipsilateral and contralateral knee OA, BMI, and LBP, ITB tenderness (OR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.34–2.19), knee OA ipsilaterally (OR=3.47; 95% CI, 2.72–4.42) and con-tralaterally (OR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.32–2.28), and LBP (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 2.22–3.50) were positively related to GTPS. In this complete model, BMI was not associated with GTPS (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.80–1.52 when comparing ? 30 with <25kg/m2). Hip internal rotation range of motion did not differ based on GTPS status. After multivariate adjustment, GTPS did not alter physical activity score, but bilateal GTPS was significantly associated with a higher 20-meter walk time and chair stand time. Conclusions The higher prevalence of GTPS in women and in adults with ITB pain or knee OA indicates that altered lower-limb biomechanics may be related to GTPS. Slower functional performance in those with GTPS suggests that the study of targeted rehabilitation may be useful. A longitudinal study will be necessary to identify causal factors and outcomes of interventions. PMID:17678660

Segal, Neil A.; Felson, David T.; Torner, James C.; Zhu, Yanyan; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.

2010-01-01

181

Signalized Intersection Crossing for the Visually Impaired  

E-print Network

Signalized Intersection Crossing for the Visually Impaired Chen-Fu Liao Minnesota Traffic impaired § More than 3.4 million (3%) Americans 40 years and older are legally blind or visually impaired § By 2030, the number of blind and visually impaired people is predicted to double Alliance for Aging

Minnesota, University of

182

much higher concentrations. Concentrations of isoprene and terpene emitted from Mango and Eucalyptus were significantly greater than emissions from  

E-print Network

, the Hypocalypteae and Podalyrieae are involved in nitrogen-fixing symbioses with rhizobial bacteria. Within-rhizobia. For this purpose, bacteria were isolated from the root nodules of the Hypocalyptus species, as well as Virgilia oroboides and Podalyria calyptrata. For each isolate, the 16S ribosomal RNA gene was amplified, sequenced

183

Loss of molars early in life develops behavioral lateralization and impairs hippocampus-dependent recognition memory  

PubMed Central

Background Using senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), we examined whether reduced mastication from a young age affects hippocampal-dependent cognitive function. We anesthetized male SAMP8 mice at 8 weeks of age and extracted all maxillary molar teeth of half the animals. The other animals were treated similarly, except that molar teeth were not extracted. At 12 and 24 weeks of age, their general behavior and their ability to recognize novel objects were tested using the open-field test (OFT) and the object-recognition test (ORT), respectively. Results The body weight of molarless mice was reduced significantly compared to that of molar-intact mice after the extraction and did not recover to the weight of age-matched molar-intact mice throughout the experimental period. At 12 weeks of age, molarless mice showed significantly greater locomotor activity in the OFT than molar-intact mice. However, the ability of molarless mice to discriminate a novel object in the ORT was impaired compared to that of molar-intact mice. The ability of both molarless and molar-intact SAMP8 mice to recognize objects was impaired at 24 weeks of age. These results suggest that molarless SAMP8 mice develop a deficit of cognitive function earlier than molar-intact SAMP8 mice. Interestingly, both at 12 and 24 weeks of age, molarless mice showed a lateralized preference of object location in the encoding session of the ORT, in which two identical objects were presented. Their lateralized preference of object location was positively correlated with the rightward turning-direction preference, which reached statistical significance at 24 weeks of age. Conclusions Loss of masticatory function in early life causes malnutrition and chronic stress and impairs the ability to recognize novel objects. Hyperactivation and lateralized rotational behavior are commonly observed with dysfunction of the dopaminergic system, therefore, reduced masticatory function may deplete the mesolimbic and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems to impair the cognitive functions of selective attention and recognition memory in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. PMID:24387332

2014-01-01

184

Geohelminths: public health significance.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of geohelminths and their unique place in evolutionary biology have attracted research focus. These major soil-transmitted intestinal nematodes that cause human diseases are the nematode roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the two hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), often collectively referred as geohelminths. Studies of geohelminthiasis in poorly nourished children in developing regions report that geohelminths contribute to stunted growth and cognitive impairment. Insights into immunology have shed light on the modulatory role of the parasite on the host immune system and have defined the role of T cells in controlling geohelminthic infection. Recent molecular biological techniques have created an opportunity to analyse the interaction between parasites and their hosts at the molecular level. This paper is a review of the recent literature that examined the prevalence of geohelminthiasis in developing countries, the association between geohelminths in relation to public health, parasitological/diagnostic features, and therapeutic and preventive aspects of these major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) pathogens in humans. PMID:24423707

Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Jaide, Chayannan; Jinawath, Natini; Rotjanapan, Porpon; Baral, Pankaj

2014-01-01

185

Bilateral luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture: a case report  

PubMed Central

Bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture and luxatio erecta, both are rare by themselves, with only few reports of each. We report an unusual case of posttraumatic bilateral symmetrical shoulder dislocation involving luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture in a young male. To our knowledge, this is the first case of symmetrical bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture involving luxatio erecta dislocation from Indian subcontinent.

Saxena, Vikas; Pradhan, Pavan

2013-01-01

186

Selenium concentrations in greater scaup and dreissenid mussels during winter on Western lake ontario.  

PubMed

One hypothesis for the decline of the North American greater (Aythya marila) and lesser (A. affinis) scaup population is that contaminant burdens acquired on wintering or staging areas impair reproduction or cause lethal or sublethal health effects. Recent studies have found increased selenium (Se) concentrations in scaup but have focused on the fall and spring staging periods. From January to March 2006 and December to March 2006 and 2007, we analyzed liver tissues collected from greater scaup wintering in western Lake Ontario for 16 trace elements. We also measured Se concentrations in greater scaup blood and Dreissenid mussel tissue. Se was the only trace element that occurred at increased concentrations (>10 ?g/g liver dry weight) in a substantial proportion (99%) of greater scaup livers. We also found that hepatic Se concentrations increased throughout winter and were increased in nearly all birds from January to March, suggesting that accumulation of this trace element occurred soon after their arrival in fall. Se concentrations were similar in male and female birds, but juvenile birds had higher concentrations than did adults. Blood Se concentrations were correlated to liver Se concentrations in 2006 only, suggesting that blood Se concentration is an unreliable predictor of liver concentration. Se in Dreissenid mussels generally decreased with mussel size and did not change throughout winter. Overall, our results suggest that greater scaup wintering on western Lake Ontario acquire sufficiently high Se concentrations to potentially impact their health. Thus, several indicators of health and survival should be examined in relation to Se concentrations in wintering scaup. PMID:21120462

Ware, L L; Petrie, S A; Badzinski, S S; Bailey, R C

2011-08-01

187

Mechanism of Impaired Water Excretion in the Hypothyroid Rat  

PubMed Central

The ability to excrete an oral water load and the renal diluting mechanism were studied in hypothyroid rats and in age-matched euthyroid controls. Hypothyroid animals excreted a significantly smaller fraction of a 50-ml/kg oral water load than controls, demonstrating the same limited ability to excrete free water as thyroid-deficient man. During hypotonic (0.45%) saline infusion, absolute sodium delivery to the diluting segment and free water clearance were markedly lower in hypothyroid rats. However, both fractional distal sodium delivery and fractional free water clearance were similar in hypothyroid and control animals, suggesting that the reduced absolute free water formation in hypothyroid rats was due to decreased net distal delivery. In support of this hypothesis was the observation that fractional distal sodium reabsorption was equal or higher in thyroid-deficient rats, which indicates that the sodium reabsorptive capacity of the diluting segment was preserved in these animals. The results cannot be attributed to incomplete suppression of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) since they were identical in diabetes insipidus rats, nor to different rates of non-ADH-dependent backflux of filtrate since tissue osmolality and solute concentrations in the cortex, medulla, and papilla were similar in hypothyroid and control rats of both Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro strains. The functional integrity of the diluting segment in hypothyroid rats was further demonstrated in experiments in which distal delivery was increased by contralateral nephrectomy or by administration of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which decrease proximal sodium reabsorption. In both studies, fractional free water clearance increased markedly reaching levels significantly greater than in euthyroid controls. These results demonstrate that the impaired ability of the hypothyroid rat to excrete a water load is not due to incomplete suppression of ADH or decreased reabsorptive capacity of the diluting segment but results from decreased filtrate delivery to this site secondary to reduced GFR. Images PMID:4430722

Emmanouel, Dimitrios S.; Lindheimer, Marshall D.; Katz, Adrian I.

1974-01-01

188

Road Test and Naturalistic Driving Performance in Healthy and Cognitively Impaired Older Adults: Does Environment Matter?  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives The road test is regarded as the gold standard for determining driving competence in older adults, but it is unclear how well the road test relates to naturalistic driving. The study objective was to relate the standardized road test to video recordings of naturalistic driving in older adults with a range of cognitive impairment. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Academic medical center memory disorders clinic. Participants 103 older drivers (44 healthy and 59 with cognitive impairment) who passed a road test. Measurements Error rate and global ratings of safety (pass with and without recommendations, marginal with restrictions or training, or fail) made by a professional driving instructor. Results There was fair agreement between global ratings on the road test and naturalistic driving. More errors were detected in the naturalistic environment, but this did not impact global ratings. Error scores between settings were significantly correlated, and the types of errors made were similar. History of crashes corrected for miles driven per week was related to road test error scores, but not naturalistic driving error scores. Global cognition (MMSE) was correlated with both road test and naturalistic driving errors. In the healthy older adults, younger age was correlated with fewer errors on the road test and greater errors in naturalistic driving. Conclusion Road test performance is a reasonable proxy for estimating fitness to drive in older individuals’ typical driving environments. The differences between performance assessed by these two methods, however, remain poorly understood and deserve further study. PMID:23110378

Davis, Jennifer D.; Papandonatos, George D.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Hewitt, Scott D.; Festa, Elena K.; Heindel, William C.; Ott, Brian R.

2012-01-01

189

Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) habitat in central Montana .  

E-print Network

??Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) habitat was studied in central Montana primarily on Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis) dominated rangeland. The primary objective was to… (more)

Woodward, Jennifer Kristy.

2006-01-01

190

Teaching Significant Figures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that students would not be so careless about significant figures if they could actually see a demonstration of figures which are not significant. Such a demonstration is described, as is a simple teaching machine designed to give students facility in identifying insignificant figures in their calculations.

Tracy H. Logan

1964-01-01

191

Recognition memory impairments caused by false recognition of novel objects.  

PubMed

A fundamental assumption underlying most current theories of amnesia is that memory impairments arise because previously studied information either is lost rapidly or is made inaccessible (i.e., the old information appears to be new). Recent studies in rodents have challenged this view, suggesting instead that under conditions of high interference, recognition memory impairments following medial temporal lobe damage arise because novel information appears as though it has been previously seen. Here, we developed a new object recognition memory paradigm that distinguished whether object recognition memory impairments were driven by previously viewed objects being treated as if they were novel or by novel objects falsely recognized as though they were previously seen. In this indirect, eyetracking-based passive viewing task, older adults at risk for mild cognitive impairment showed false recognition to high-interference novel items (with a significant degree of feature overlap with previously studied items) but normal novelty responses to low-interference novel items (with a lower degree of feature overlap). The indirect nature of the task minimized the effects of response bias and other memory-based decision processes, suggesting that these factors cannot solely account for false recognition. These findings support the counterintuitive notion that recognition memory impairments in this memory-impaired population are not characterized by forgetting but rather are driven by the failure to differentiate perceptually similar objects, leading to the false recognition of novel objects as having been seen before. PMID:23937183

Yeung, Lok-Kin; Ryan, Jennifer D; Cowell, Rosemary A; Barense, Morgan D

2013-11-01

192

RESEARCH ARTICLE Recovery of Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Features  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Recovery of Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Features in Wyoming Big Sagebrush of prescribed fire to enhance habitat features for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming evaluated recovery of habitat features important to wintering, nesting, and early brood-rearing Sage-Grouse

Beck, Jeffrey L.

193

COMPLETION REPORT Identifying Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse Population  

E-print Network

COMPLETION REPORT Identifying Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse Population Persistence within-Central Local Sage-Grouse Work Group, and Wyoming Game and Fish Department 23 January 2012 Christopher P. Kirol habitat quality and source and sink habitats for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the 1

Beck, Jeffrey L.

194

PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District  

E-print Network

PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District by Andrew K. Doi B. A. #12;ii APPROVAL #12;iii ABSTRACT Instances of water scarcity are recurring with greater frequency in urban areas around the globe, yet per capita water consumption continues to increase. Faced

195

Anisotropic polyurethane foam with Poisson's ratio greater than 1  

E-print Network

Anisotropic polyurethane foam with Poisson's ratio greater than 1 Lee, T. and Lakes, R. S., "Anisotropic polyurethane foam with Poisson's ratio greater than 1", Journal of Materials Science , 32, 2397-cell polyurethane foam, heating above the softening point, followed by cooling under axial strain. 1. Introduction

Lakes, Roderic

196

Relationship between cognitive impairment and apparent diffusion coefficient values from magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging in elderly hypertensive patients  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine a new method for the early diagnosis and assessment of mild cognitive impairment in elderly individuals with hypertension. Elderly hypertensive patients with cognitive impairment were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Clinical Dementia Rating Assessment (CDR). Cognitive results were compared to apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging. Methods A total of 191 patients were categorized into four groups: a control group (normal cognition and no hypertension; n=20); a normal group (hypertension and normal cognition; n=33); an mild cognitive impairment group (n=80); and a vascular dementia group (n=58). The MoCA and CDR tests were used to determine cognition. ADC values in eight brain regions were calculated with magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging. Other characteristics were evaluated, eg, blood pressure, MoCA, and CDR scores, and the comparisons of the four groups were made. Results The MoCA and CDR scores differed among the four groups (P<0.001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values increased as cognitive function declined (P<0.001). Cognitive function declined as ADC values increased, and they differed between elderly people with and without hypertension (P<0.001). Among elderly hypertensive participants, ADC values were significantly increased in the cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion The MoCA and CDR tests were sufficiently sensitive to evaluate cognition. Blood pressure was closely related to cognition, as well as to functional and structural changes in the brain. These alterations were evidenced through changes in the ADC values and were most obvious in the cortex and hippocampus. Greater cognitive decline was observed in elderly participants with hypertension compared to those without. As hypertensive stage increased, greater ADC values were observed. PMID:25114516

Zhao, Yanwei; Wu, Gang; Shi, Haiming; Xia, Zhijie; Sun, Tao

2014-01-01

197

Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation for Bilateral Greater Occipital Neuralgia  

PubMed Central

This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the suboccipital region and radiated into her vertex. She was diagnosed with bilateral greater occipital neuralgia. She underwent cooled radiofrequency ablation of bilateral greater occipital nerves with minimal side effects and 75% pain reduction. Cooled radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerve in challenging cases is an alternative to pulsed and continuous RFA to alleviate pain with less side effects and potential for long-term efficacy. PMID:24716017

Chhatre, Akhil

2014-01-01

198

Runx1 deficiency permits granulocyte lineage commitment but impairs subsequent maturation  

PubMed Central

First-hits in the multi-hit process of leukemogenesis originate in germline or hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), yet leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) usually have a lineage-committed phenotype. The molecular mechanisms underlying this compartment shift during leukemia evolution have not been a major focus of investigation and remain poorly understood. Here a mechanism underlying this shift was examined in the context of Runx1 deficiency, a frequent leukemia-initiating event. Lineage-negative cells isolated from the bone marrow of Runx1-haploinsufficient and wild-type control mice were cultured in granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor to force lineage commitment. Runx1-haploinsufficient cells demonstrated significantly greater and persistent exponential cell growth than wild-type controls. Not surprisingly, the Runx1-haploinsufficient cells were differentiation-impaired, by morphology and by flow-cytometric evaluation for granulocyte differentiation markers. Interestingly, however, this impaired differentiation was not because of decreased granulocyte lineage commitment, as RNA and protein upregulation of the master granulocyte lineage-commitment transcription factor Cebpa, and Hoxb4 repression, was similar in wild-type and Runx1-haploinsufficient cells. Instead, RNA and protein expression of Cebpe, a key driver of progressive maturation after lineage commitment, were significantly decreased in Runx1-haploinsufficient cells. Primary acute myeloid leukemia cells with normal cytogenetics and RUNX1 mutation also demonstrated this phenotype of very high CEBPA mRNA expression but paradoxically low expression of CEBPE, a CEBPA target gene. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation analyses suggested a molecular mechanism for this phenotype: in wild-type cells, Runx1 binding was substantially greater at the Cebpe than at the Cebpa enhancer. Furthermore, Runx1 deficiency substantially diminished high-level Runx1 binding at the Cebpe enhancer, but lower-level binding at the Cebpa enhancer was relatively preserved. Thus, Runx1-deficiency permits Cebpa upregulation and the exponential cell growth that accompanies lineage commitment, but by impairing activation of Cebpe, a key proliferation-terminating maturation gene, extends this exponential growth. These mechanisms facilitate germline cell or HSC of origin, yet evolution into LIC with lineage-committed phenotype. PMID:24189977

Ng, K P; Hu, Z; Ebrahem, Q; Negrotto, S; Lausen, J; Saunthararajah, Y

2013-01-01

199

The Effect of Early Confirmation of Hearing Loss on the Behaviour in Middle Childhood of Children with Bilateral Hearing Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To determine if the benefit of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on children's receptive language development is associated with fewer behavioural problems. Method: Follow-up of a total population cohort of 120 children with PCHI of moderate or greater severity (greater than or equal to 40 decibels relative…

Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna C.; Law, Catherine M.; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho M.; Kennedy, Colin R.

2011-01-01

200

Hearing Impairment and Dual Sensory Impairment Are Associated with Increased Mortality in Older Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Impairment are Associated with Increased Mortality in Older Men Listen News Brief 09/10/13 Researchers from ... impairment (vision and hearing impairment combined) in older men are associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease ( ...

201

ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE  

PubMed Central

Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

2011-01-01

202

The overall impairment of core executive function components in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background It remains unclear how executive function (EF) is affected in the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Previous studies using different methods to assess EF in patients with aMCI have reached inconsistent conclusions. The aim of the study was to explore the characteristics of EF impairments in patients with aMCI. Methods We investigated three core components of EF (i.e., working memory, response inhibition and task switching) based on the theoretical model of EF proposed by Miyake et al. (2000) in 34 aMCI patients and 36 healthy elderly controls using computerized tasks programmed with E-prime (the 2-back task and the keep track task for working memory, the stop-signal task and the Stroop task for response inhibition and the more-odd shifting task for task switching). The overall EF and the three individual EF components were compared between groups. For EF components that were impaired, the extent of impairment was compared using a paired analysis. The aMCI group was further divided into EF-intact and EF-deficit groups according to their performances on the EF tests in clinical neuropsychological assessments. We tested for group differences among the normal controls and the EF-intact and EF-deficit aMCI groups and paid special attention to the comparisons between the EF-intact aMCI group and the control group. Results Compared to the control group, overall EF was significantly impaired in patients with aMCI (Wilks’ ?=0.572,P<0.001). Four tasks (the 2-back task, the keep track task, the stop-signal task and the more-odd shifting task) that tapped the three core components of EF displayed group differences that favored the normal controls. The results of the Stroop task revealed no differences in performance between the two groups. The EF-intact aMCI patients also exhibited significantly impaired capabilities in the four tasks compared to the normal controls. There were no significant differences in the extent of impairment between the four affected tasks in the aMCI group, suggesting that the three core EF components were impaired to the same extent. Conclusions Both the overall EF and all of the core EF components in the Miyake model of EF (working memory, response inhibition and task switching) were significantly impaired in aMCI patients, regardless of whether they had shown obvious clinical executive dysfunction. PMID:23164134

2012-01-01

203

Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department Internship The Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department internships will focus on content development  

E-print Network

Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department Internship The Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department internships will focus on content development and presentation for like-formatted groups of radio or trade school · Student understands that the internship must be a minimum of three months in duration

Cinabro, David

204

Experimental approaches to age-related cognitive impairments.  

PubMed

Rats exhibit morphological, biochemical, and metabolic changes in their brains, as well as cognitive deficits, with aging. Aged rats were found to be significantly impaired compared to young rats in a water maze task and test of motor coordination, and show reduced locomotor activity and exploration. Although aged rats did exhibit deficits as a group, not all aged rats were impaired. Additionally, the subgroup that was impaired on one task was not necessarily the subgroup that was impaired on another task. The cholinergic projection neurons in the basal forebrain region were significantly atrophied in the aged rodent. The degree of atrophy was highly correlated with the cognitive impairment exhibited on the Morris water maze task. Swollen choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive "plaque-like" structures were observed in the neocortex of the aged but not the young rats. Declines in cholinergic activity in the brain has also been observed during aging. Biochemical measurements of ChAT in the basal forebrain region of aged rats revealed small but consistent decreases in ChAT activity compared to young rats. General metabolic activity, measured by the 2-deoxyglucose method, was also decreased in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 fields, the dentate gyrus, the medial septal-diagonal band area, and the prefrontal cortex of aged rats. There was a significant correlation between the decrease in glucose utilization and deficits on the Morris water maze. Most aged rats exhibit pathological EEG patterns as reflected by frequent long-duration high voltage neocortical spindles (HVS) during immobility. Bilateral lesions of the nucleus basalis and scopolamine treatment increased the incidence of HVS, thereby mimicking changes in the aged brain. We attempted to ameliorate the cognitive deficits observed in subgroups or impaired rats by either: (1) implanting fetal cells of basal forebrain origin into the hippocampus, or (2) infusing nerve growth factor (NGF) chronically into the lateral ventricle. The grafts appeared to facilitate an improvement in the ability of the impaired aged rats to perform in the Morris water maze. This improved performance was reversed by injections of atropine at doses that did not affect the behavior of young animals that performed well in the same task. These results suggest that enhancement of the cholinergic system could have an effect on the performance of the impaired aged animals. The study of the effects of infusions of NGF clearly demonstrate that the ability of impaired aged rats to remember what they had previously learned was increased after NGF treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3062473

Gage, F H; Chen, K S; Buzsaki, G; Armstrong, D

1988-01-01

205

Captive propagation and brood behavior of greater prairie chickens  

E-print Network

young; (2) introducing 3, day-old greater prairie chickens to 2, week-old domestic bantam chicks that were used as trainers; and, (3) letting a greater prairie chicken hen incubate and rear her own clutch of 3. The behavior of the 3 chicks reared... by the greater prairie chicken hen difFered statistically (P & 0. 05) &om the other groups only during the evening observation period of week l. A statistical difference (P & 0. 05) was noted in the brooding behavior for the 2 groups of chicks reared without a...

Drake, David

1994-01-01

206

Significant lexical relationships  

SciTech Connect

Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

1996-12-31

207

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

SciTech Connect

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

Not Available

1993-10-01

208

Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

2013-01-01

209

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?  

E-print Network

PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT? Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet, Michele Miozzo dyslexia. In languages like English or French, in which orthog- raphy allows only an imperfect realisation of phonology, patients with surface dyslexia fail more frequently with words that have an irregular orthography

210

[Alzheimer's disease and visual impairment].  

PubMed

Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent cause of cognitive decline in older adults. The typical presentation of Alzheimer disease is memory dysfunction, however, presentations with impairment in other domains may occur. Visual symptoms may be the first manifestation of Alzheimer disease. The purpose of this article is to review the spectrum of visual system disturbances found in Alzheimer disease. PMID:22243653

Leruez, S; Annweiler, C; Annweiller, C; Etcharry-Bouyx, F; Verny, C; Beauchet, O; Milea, D

2012-04-01

211

Unrecognised and unregistered visual impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent community based studies have shown that only a minority of visually impaired people who are eligible to be registered as partially sighted or blind are actually registered as such. To determine how many unregistered but eligible people are attending ophthalmic clinics a prospective study was undertaken of all patients (n = 1543) attending ophthalmic outpatient departments, at a single

R Robinson; J Deutsch; H S Jones; S Youngson-Reilly; D M Hamlin; L Dhurjon; A R Fielder

1994-01-01

212

Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning: at the lower levels (up to 1500 m) they are recorded for a longer period and higher than 2000 m only 2-3 months. In terms of genesis the following types of debris flows are registered: rain, glacial and mixed. Rain mudflows are formed due to intensive rains (the daily amount is about 25 U 100 mm). A critical norm of precipitation forming debris 1 flows varies from west to east. In the western part it is 75-100 mm, central U 50-75 mm and eastern U 25-50 mm. Also the norm varies from north to south, in particular on advanced ridges it is higher but on the Glavny and Bokovoy ridges it is less. The difference is about 2 times. Glacial mudflows are observed only in the areas of modern glaciation. They form under high air temperature (20 U 25°C) leading to an intensive melting of snow and ice on glaciers. High air temperature should be recorded not less than 5-10 days. Mixed mudflows form under high air temperature in the glaciers area and significant rainstorms in the glacial zone. Rainstorms cause debris flow formation in focal points. Frontal precipitation with a significant amount of rain cause debris flows at vast territories often covering several kilometers. In total rain mudflows prevail on the Greater Caucasus northern slope and equal 60 - 80% of all the mudflows. Glacial mudflows constitute 30-40% and mixed mudflows U 10-20%. In the western and eastern parts rain mudflows are the principal and their share is 80-90% of all the mudflows. In the central part glacial mudflows prevail (60- 0%). Technogenic mudflows are recorded in the areas with developed mining industry, highways, forestry, and pastures. In the given region debris flows distribute from north to south depending on genesis and volume. On advanced ridges (Lesisty, Pastbishny, Skalisty) only rain mudflows are registered with the volume up to 100,000 m3. Eluvial-deluvial, alluvial-proluvial and eolian-proluvial deposits compose their solid constituents. This is a zone of weak mudflow hazard. The most often are mudflows with volume up to 5000-10,000 m3. More powerful mudflows are less frequent (once

Panova, S.

213

Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Disorders: The Consequences of Severity and Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the adolescent consequences of clinical and threshold-level psychiatric disorders, with and without significant functional impairment; to predict serious emotional disturbance (SED: clinical-level diagnosis with impairment); and to examine sex differences in the consequences of emotional and behavioral disorders.

E. JANE COSTELLO; ADRIAN ANGOLD; GORDON P. KEELER

1999-01-01

214

Neuropsychological Impairments in the Recognition of Faces, Voices, and Personal Names  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the dissociability of face, voice, and personal name recognition, we studied the performance of 36 brain-lesioned patients and 20 control subjects. Participants performed familiarity decisions for portraits, voice samples, and written names of celebrities and unfamiliar people. In those patients who displayed significant impairments in any of these tests, the specificity of these impairments was tested

Frank Neuner; Stefan R. Schweinberger

2000-01-01

215

POSTOPERATIVE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND POSTOPERATIVE DELIRIUM: RISK FACTORS, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium: risk factors, pathophysiology and management Soilemezi E, Konstantinidis P, Georgiadou Th. A significant number of patients exhibit impairment in cognitive function immediately following surgery or later; the impact of this postoperative cognitive dysfunction on the recovery and quality of life of the patient but also on the necessity for supportive and rehabilitation care is

Konstantinidis A. Panagiotis; Georgiadou Theodora

2007-01-01

216

Propagation of Significant Figures.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shows that the rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Also describes two procedures for performing this propagation more reliably than the rules of thumb. However, both require considerably more calculational effort than do the rules. (JN)

Schwartz, Lowell M.

1985-01-01

217

Speech Production and Speech Discrimination by Hearing-Impaired Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Seven hearing impaired children (five to seven years old) assigned to the Speakers group made highly significant gains in speech production and auditory discrimination of speech, while Listeners made only slight speech production gains and no gains in auditory discrimination. Combined speech and auditory training was more effective than auditory…

Novelli-Olmstead, Tina; Ling, Daniel

1984-01-01

218

Emotion Regulation in Children with Specific Language Impairment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers were asked to rate the emotion regulation behaviors of 41 children (ages 6-13) with specific language impairment (SLI) and 41 typical peers. Overall, children with SLI received significantly lower ratings than typical children. Sex differences were also found, with boys with SLI having notably lower ratings than other groups on the…

Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; Clarke, Diane

2002-01-01

219

Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

220

University Astronomy: Instructional Strategies for the Visually Impaired  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While teaching a spring laboratory course in general university astronomy, I agreed to provide instruction to a student who had been advised against laboratory work in chemistry and biology because of her significant visual impairment. This poster describes our mutual learning experience as we developed tactile concept demonstrations and laboratory exercises. Progress assessment issues and gaps in educational resources will also be discussed.

Dawson, D. W.

2008-06-01

221

Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

2005-01-01

222

Relative Clause Constructions in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: It is well documented that children with specific language impairment (SLI) experience significant grammatical deficits. While much of the focus in the past has been on morphosyntactic difficulties, less is known about their acquisition of multi-clausal constructions such as those containing relative clauses. Aims: To investigate…

Frizelle, Pauline; Fletcher, Paul

2014-01-01

223

Speech Timing and Pausing in Children with Specific Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Articulation rate, speaking rate, as well as the duration and location of pauses, were analysed in 10 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and a comparison group of seven younger children producing utterances of similar lengths. Children with SLI were significantly slower in articulation rate, but not speaking rate or pausing time,…

Smith, Allan B.; Hall, Nancy E.; Tan, Xiaomei; Farrell, Katharine

2011-01-01

224

Is Processing Speed Related to Severity of Language Impairment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Data from a study on lexical processing involving 66 children (mean age 6 years 9 months) with specific language impairments and 66 typically developing children. No significant correlations were found between response times on a series of tasks and language test scores. Results suggest that there is no linear relation between speed of processing…

Lahey, Margaret; Edwards, Jan; Munson, Benjamin

2001-01-01

225

Emotional Status and Development in Children Who Are Visually Impaired  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the developmental attainments of children with visual impairments, aged 6-59 months, with and without emotional deficits, behavioral deficits, or both. It found that an emotional or behavioral deficit was significantly related to gross motor and visual motor integration, expressive and receptive language, and social or personal…

Ophir-Cohen, Michal; Ashkenazy, Eyal; Cohen, Ayala; Tirosh, Emanuel

2005-01-01

226

Exercise training and impaired glucose tolerance in obese humans.  

PubMed

Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at greater risk of developing diabetes than in normoglycaemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 12-weeks exercise training in obese humans with IGT. Eleven participants (6 males and 5 females; 49±9 years; mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 32.4 kg · m(-2)), completed a 12-week brisk walking intervention (30 min per day, five days a week (d · wk(-1)), at 65% of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR(max)). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, pulse wave velocity (PWV, to determine arterial stiffness) and blood pressure (BP) were examined at baseline and post intervention. Fasting blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, insulin, blood lipids, indices of oxidative stress and inflammation (lipid hydroperoxides; superoxide dismutase; multimeric adiponectin concentration and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were also determined. Post intervention, PWV (9.08±1.27 m · s(-1) vs. 8.39±1.21 m · s(-1)), systolic BP (145.4±14.5 vs. 135.8±14.9 mmHg), triglycerides (1.52±0.53 mmol · L(-1) vs. 1.31±0.54 mmol · L(-1)), lipid hydroperoxides (1.20±0.47 ?M · L(-1) vs. 0.79±0.32 ?M · L(-1)) and anthropometric measures decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Moderate intensity exercise training improves upper limb vascular function in obese humans with IGT, possibly by improving triglyceride metabolism, which may subsequently reduce oxidative stress. These changes were independent of multimeric adiponectin modification and alterations in other blood biomarkers. PMID:22439679

McNeilly, Andrea Margaret; McClean, Conor; Murphy, Marie; McEneny, Jane; Trinick, Tom; Burke, George; Duly, Ellie; McLaughlin, James; Davison, Gareth

2012-01-01

227

Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351. PMID:23450499

Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

2013-01-01

228

Questioning greater Yellowstone's Future Climate, Land Use, and Invasive Species  

E-print Network

Questioning greater Yellowstone's Future Climate, Land Use, and Invasive Species The 10th Biennial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Suzanne Lewis Opening Keynote: Seeing Things Whole: An Ecosystem Approach to Yellowstone Science, and Possible Future Patterns and Consequences

Hansen, Andrew J.

229

Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape

Cameron L. Aldridge; Scott E. Nielsen; Hawthorne L. Beyer; Mark S. Boyce; John W. Connelly; Steven T. Knick; Michael A. Schroeder

2008-01-01

230

PARASITES AND INFECTIOUS DISEASES OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the parasites, infectious diseases, and non-infectious diseases related to toxicants found in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) across its range. Documentation of population-level effects is rare although researchers have responded to the recent emergence of West Nile virus with rigorous efforts. West Nile virus shows greater virulence and potential population level effects than any infectious agent detected in

THOMAS J. CHRISTIANSEN; CYNTHIA M. TATE

231

Metoprolol impairs resistance artery function in mice  

PubMed Central

Acute ?-blockade with metoprolol has been associated with increased mortality by undefined mechanisms. Since metoprolol is a relatively high affinity blocker of ?2-adrenoreceptors, we hypothesized that some of the increased mortality associated with its use may be due to its abrogation of ?2-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasodilation of microvessels in different vascular beds. Cardiac output (CO; pressure volume loops), mean arterial pressure (MAP), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF; laser Doppler), and microvascular brain tissue Po2 (G2 oxyphor) were measured in anesthetized mice before and after acute treatment with metoprolol (3 mg/kg iv). The vasodilatory dose responses to ?-adrenergic agonists (isoproterenol and clenbuterol), and the myogenic response, were assessed in isolated mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs; ?200-?m diameter) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs ?150-?m diameter). Data are presented as means ± SE with statistical significance applied at P < 0.05. Metoprolol treatment did not effect MAP but reduced heart rate and stroke volume, CO, rCBF, and brain microvascular Po2, while concurrently increasing systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.05 for all). In isolated MRAs, metoprolol did not affect basal artery tone or the myogenic response, but it did cause a dose-dependent impairment of isoproterenol- and clenbuterol-induced vasodilation. In isolated PCAs, metoprolol (50 ?M) impaired maximal vasodilation in response to isoproterenol. These data support the hypothesis that acute administration of metoprolol can reduce tissue oxygen delivery by impairing the vasodilatory response to ?2-adrenergic agonists. This mechanism may contribute to the observed increase in mortality associated with acute administration of metoprolol in perioperative patients. PMID:21799135

El Beheiry, Mostafa H.; Heximer, Scott P.; Voigtlaender-Bolz, Julia; Mazer, C. David; Connelly, Kim A.; Wilson, David F.; Beattie, W. Scott; Tsui, Albert K. Y.; Zhang, Hangjun; Golam, Kabir; Hu, Tina; Liu, Elaine; Lidington, Darcy; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian

2011-01-01

232

Systemic Wisdom, the "Selving" of Nature, and Knowledge Transformation: Education for the "Greater Whole"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considerations arising in the context of burgeoning concerns about the environment can provoke an exploration of issues that have significance both for environmental education in particular and education more generally. Notions of the "greater whole" and "systemic wisdom" that feature in some strands of environmental discourse are a case in point.…

Bonnett, Michael

2009-01-01

233

San Andreas Fault, California, M 5.5 or greater Earthquakes 1800-2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

The San Andreas fault has been the most significant source of major California earthquakes since 1800. From 1812 to 1906 it generated four major earthquakes of M 7.2 or greater in two pairs on two major regions of the fault. A pair of major earthquakes occurred on the Central to Southern region, where the 1857 faulting overlapped the 1812 earthquake

T. Toppozada; D. Branum; M. Reichle; C. Hallstrom

2001-01-01

234

45 CFR 1308.17 - Eligibility criteria: Other impairments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...17 Eligibility criteria: Other impairments. (a) The purposes of this classification, “Other impairments,” are: (1) To further coordination...whose concomitant hearing and visual impairments cause such severe...

2012-10-01

235

45 CFR 1308.17 - Eligibility criteria: Other impairments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...17 Eligibility criteria: Other impairments. (a) The purposes of this classification, “Other impairments,” are: (1) To further coordination...whose concomitant hearing and visual impairments cause such severe...

2013-10-01

236

Childhood impairments and subsequent social adjustment.  

PubMed

The relationship of a variety of childhood impairments to subsequent social adjustment measures of occupations, agency utilization, social participation, and arrest records was examined. Generally, results indicated that impaired persons adjust quite well in some respects but not so well in others. There were differential social adjustments by type of impairment and by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. The data analysis suggests complex relationships between impairment and social adjustment. PMID:152581

Butler, E W; Lei, T J; McAllister, R J

1978-11-01

237

Impaired musical ability in people with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of the musical ability of people with schizophrenia has attracted little interest despite the diverse and substantive findings of impairments in sound perception and processing and the therapeutic effect of music in people with the illness. The present study investigated the musical ability of people with schizophrenia and the association with psychiatric symptoms and cognition. Methods We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls for participation in our study. To measure musical ability and cognitive function, we used the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). We carried out a mediation analysis to investigate a possible pathway to a deficit in musical ability. Results We enrolled 50 patients and 58 controls in the study. The MBEA global score in patients with schizophrenia was significantly lower than that in controls (p < 0.001), and was strongly associated with both the composite cognitive function score (r = 0.645, p < 0.001) and the negative symptom score (r = ?0.504, p < 0.001). Further analyses revealed direct and indirect effects of negative symptoms on musical ability. The indirect effects were mediated through cognitive impairment. Limitations The relatively small sample size did not permit full evaluation of the possible effects of age, sex, education, medication and cultural influences on the results. Conclusion Examining the associations between musical deficits, negative symptoms and cognitive imapirment in patients with schizophrenia may identify shared biological mechanisms. PMID:24119791

Hatada, Sanae; Sawada, Ken; Akamatsu, Masanori; Doi, Erina; Minese, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Motoshi; Thornton, Allen E.; Honer, William G.; Inoue, Shimpei

2014-01-01

238

Vision impairment predicts 5 year mortality  

PubMed Central

AIM—To describe predictors of mortality in the 5 year follow up of the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project (VIP) cohort.?METHODS—The Melbourne VIP was a population based study of the distribution and determinants of age related eye disease in a cluster random sample of Melbourne residents aged 40 years and older. Baseline examinations were conducted between 1992 and 1994. In 1997, 5 year follow up examinations of the original cohort commenced. Causes of death were obtained from the National Death Index for all reported deaths.?RESULTS—Of the original 3271 participants, 231 (7.1%) were reported to have died in the intervening 5 years. Of the remaining 3040 participants eligible to return for follow up examinations, 2594 (85% of eligible) did participate, 51 (2%) had moved interstate or overseas, 83 (3%) could not be traced, and 312 (10%) refused to participate. Best corrected visual acuity <6/12 (OR=2.34) was associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality, as were increasing age (OR=1.09), male sex (OR=1.62), increased duration of cigarette smoking (OR=2.06 for smoking >30 years), increased duration of hypertension (OR=1.51 for duration >10 years), and arthritis (OR=1.42).?CONCLUSIONS—Even mild visual impairment increases the risk of death more than twofold. Further research is needed to determine why decreased visual acuity is associated with increased risk of mortality.?? PMID:11222339

McCarty, C.; Nanjan, M.; Taylor, H.

2001-01-01

239

Stress impairs retrieval of socially relevant information.  

PubMed

Several studies have reported that stress impairs memory retrieval, even though findings are not unequivocal. Moreover, memory for socially relevant information was not previously investigated. The present study aimed to test the effects of stress on the retrieval of social memory (e.g., memory concerning names, birthdays, or biographies). In a randomized cross-over experiment, the cognitive performance of 29 subjects (15 women) was tested twice. Social memory was tested in a stress session, in which participants were exposed to a brief standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor between encoding and retrieval. Performance was compared with a stress-free control session. Stress exposure caused an increase in cortisol concentrations and changes in several mood measures. Social memory retrieval was reduced in the stress compared with the control session. An association between the cortisol stress response and poorer retrieval was significant in responders, that is, those participants displaying a cortisol rise after stress onset. Thus, similar to other forms of declarative memory, the retrieval of declarative memory for socially relevant information learned from biographical notes is impaired after acute stress exposure. This effect is linked to the stress-induced cortisol increase. PMID:20364888

Merz, Christian J; Wolf, Oliver T; Hennig, Jürgen

2010-04-01

240

Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

2013-01-01

241

Mobile Device Impairment ... Similar Problems, Similar Solutions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained…

Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz; Chen, Tianyi

2011-01-01

242

Multimedia technology for hearing impaired people  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of advanced hearing prosthetic aids and cochlear implants allows many hearing impaired people to receive audio signals. A multimedia catalogue of hearing impairments was developed which includes the results of audiology tests, medical description of the subjects with different types of hearing impairments and sound examples illustrating consequences of a hearing loss. Moreover, within the framework of research

A. Czyzewski; H. Skarzynaski; B. Kostek; A. Geremek

1998-01-01

243

Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

Schwartz, Jonathan R.

244

The Physical Environment and the Visually Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported are results of a project carried out at the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped to determine needs of the visually impaired in the planning and adaptation of buildings and other forms of physical environment. Chapter 1 considers implications of impaired vision and includes definitions, statistics, and problems of the visually impaired

Braf, Per-Gunnar

245

FIRE PROTECTION IMPAIRMENTS University Fire Marshal  

E-print Network

FIRE PROTECTION IMPAIRMENTS University Fire Marshal Guidance Document Approved by: R. Flynn Last revised by: R. Flynn Revision date: 08/18/2012 Fire Protection Impairments Page 1 of 1 This document contains excerpts from the Fire Code of New York State that pertain to the impairment of a fire protection

Pawlowski, Wojtek

246

Accessible Smartphone Applications for the Visually Impaired  

E-print Network

Accessible Smartphone Applications for the Visually Impaired Jasmina Pelivani Kongens Lyngby 2012 applications - what can be done in order to make them as useful as possible for the visually impaired with problems of using a smartphone, problems pro- vided by a visually impaired, who also suggested this project

247

Vision impairment in Liverpool: prevalence and morbidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A database related to the activities of the Liverpool vision assessment team was used to identify all children with vision impairment aged 0-16 years, resident in Liverpool, UK, on 1 April 1995. Prevalence rates were calculated for all children with vision impairment, and separately for two groups: those with uncomplicated vision impairment, and those with additional pathology. Visual tract pathologies

M Rogers

1996-01-01

248

Preventing Impaired Driving Using Alcohol Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considerable progress has been made in the reduction of impaired driving crashes during the last two decades. Much of this progress is attributable to strengthening laws against impaired driving along with vigorous enforcement efforts aimed at deterring impaired driving. In addition, many useful strategies can also be applied that focus on the control of alcohol availability, use, and promotion. Alcohol

JOEL W. GRUBE; KATHRYN STEWART

2004-01-01

249

Alcohol and the Physically Impaired: Special Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired Persons"…

Boros, Alexander, Ed.

1989-01-01

250

Impairment due to intake of carisoprodol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Carisoprodol is a centrally acting muscle relaxant commonly used for lower back pain. It is a drug of abuse and has been detected among impaired drivers. Carisoprodol’s active metabolite meprobamate is thought to act through the GABAA receptor complex and produces a well-known impairing effect. It is unclear whether therapeutic intake of carisoprodol leads to impairment, and the effect

Jørgen G. Bramness; Svetlana Skurtveit; Jørg Mørland

2004-01-01

251

Cortical thinning associated with mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of cortical atrophy associated with mild cognitive impairment in a large sample of nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and its relation with specific neuropsychological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological assessment were performed in a sample of 90 nondemented PD patients and 32 healthy controls. All underwent a neuropsychological battery including tests that assess different cognitive domains: attention and working memory, executive functions, memory, language, and visuoperceptual-visuospatial functions. Patients were classified according to their cognitive status as PD patients without mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n?=?43) and PD patients with MCI (n?=?47). Freesurfer software was used to obtain maps of cortical thickness for group comparisons and correlation with neuropsychological performance. Patients with MCI showed regional cortical thinning in parietotemporal regions, increased global atrophy (global cortical thinning, total gray matter volume reduction, and ventricular enlargement), as well as significant cognitive impairment in memory, executive, and visuospatial and visuoperceptual domains. Correlation analyses showed that all neuropsychological tests were associated with cortical thinning in parietotemporal regions and to a lesser extent in frontal regions. These results provide neuroanatomic support to the concept of MCI classified according to Movement Disorders Society criteria. The posterior pattern of atrophy in temporoparietal regions could be a structural neuroimaging marker of cognitive impairment in nondemented PD patients. All of the neuropsychological tests reflected regional brain atrophy, but no specific patterns were seen corresponding to impairment in distinct cognitive domains. PMID:25100674

Segura, Bàrbara; Baggio, Hugo César; Marti, Maria Josep; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Garcia-Diaz, Anna Isabel; Vendrell, Pere; Bargallo, Núria; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junque, Carme

2014-10-01

252

The Attitude of Lecturers towards Visually Impaired Students: A Case Study of One of the Universities in the Limpopo Province in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the attitude of lecturers towards the visually impaired students in one of the universities in the Limpopo Province. First, it is argued that the experience of a visual impairment by a student has a greater effect on the strategies and methodologies used for instruction than on the curricular content to which the student is…

Mushome, Avhasei Merium; Monobe, Ratau John

2013-01-01

253

Analysis of the sensory innervations of the greater trochanter for improving the treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome.  

PubMed

In medical practice, greater trochanteric pain syndrome has an incidence of 5.6 per 1,000 adults per year, and affects up to 25% of patients with knee osteoarthritis and low back pain in industrialized nations. It also occurs as a complication after total hip arthroplasty. Different etiologies of the pain syndrome have been discussed, but an exact cause remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the sensory innervations of the greater trochanter in attempt to improve the treatment of this syndrome. Therefore, we dissected the gluteal region of seven adult and one fetal formalin fixed cadavers, and both macroscopic and microscopic examination was performed. We found a small sensory nerve supply to the periosteum and bursae of the greater trochanter. This nerve is a branch of the n. femoralis and accompanies the arteria and vena circumflexa femoris medialis and their trochanteric branches to the greater trochanter. This nerve enters the periosteum of the greater trochanter directly caudal to the tendon of the inferior gemellus muscle. This new anatomical information may be helpful in improving therapy, such as interventional denervation of the greater trochanter or anatomically guided injections with corticosteroids and local anesthetics. PMID:22374737

Genth, Birthe; Von Düring, Monika; Von Engelhardt, Lars Victor; Ludwig, Jörn; Teske, Wolfram; Von Schulze-Pellengahr, Christoph

2012-11-01

254

Testosterone ameliorates streptozotocin-induced memory impairment in male rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: To study the effects of testosterone on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory impairment in male rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were intracerebroventricularly (icv) infused with STZ (750 ?g) on d 1 and d 3, and a passive avoidance task was assessed 2 weeks after the first injection of STZ. Castration surgery was performed in another group of rats, and the passive avoidance task was assessed 4 weeks after the operation. Testosterone (1 mg·kg?1·d?1, sc), the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (10 mg·kg?1·d?1, ip), the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen (1 mg·kg?1·d?1, ip) or the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (4 mg·kg?1·d?1, ip) were administered for 6 d after the first injection of STZ. Results: STZ administration and castration markedly decreased both STL1 (the short memory) and STL2 (the long memory) in passive avoidance tests. Testosterone replacement almost restored the STL1 and STL2 in castrated rats, and significantly prolonged the STL1 and STL2 in STZ-treated rats. Administration of flutamide, letrozole or tamoxifen significantly impaired the memory in intact rats, and significantly attenuated the testosterone replacement in improving STZ- and castration-induced memory impairment. Conclusion: Testosterone administration ameliorates STZ- and castration-induced memory impairment in male Wistar rats. PMID:24902786

Nayebi, Alireza Mohajjel; Pourrabi, Seyedreza; Hossini, Seyedebrahim

2014-01-01

255

Angelica keiskei ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice.  

PubMed

Memory impairment is the most common symptom in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Angelica keiskei (AK) has traditionally been used as a diuretic, laxative, analeptic and galactagogue. However, the anti-amnesic effects of AK and its molecular mechanisms have yet to be clearly elucidated. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of AK on scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. The regulatory effect of AK on memory impairment was investigated using passive avoidance, Y-maze and the Morris water maze tasks. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity assay was performed to investigate the cholinergic antagonistic effect of AK in the hippocampus. The effect of AK on phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated by Western blot assays and immunohistochemistry. The findings showed that AK significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Increase of AChE activity caused by scopolamine was significantly attenuated by AK. Additionally, AK significantly recovered the phosphorylation of CREB and expression of BDNF reduced by scopolamine in the hippocampus. Taken together, these results provide experimental evidence that AK might be a useful agent in preventing deficit of learning and memory caused by AD and aging. PMID:23132631

Oh, Sa Rang; Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Jung, Ji Wook

2013-01-01

256

Accessibility and Mobility of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Historical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the historical development of two movements to improve the mobility of people with visual impairments--environmental modifications to increase accessibility, and orientation and mobility training. It also notes how changes in attitudes, effected to a large degree by the introduction of dog guides, have led to greater acceptance…

Blasch, B. B.; Stuckey, K. A.

1995-01-01

257

The Effect of Spatial Tasks on Visually Impaired Peoples' Wayfinding Abilities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Thirty-eight people with visual impairments learned a 483-meter novel route through a university campus in four groups: verbalization, modeling, pointing, and control. The performance of all four groups improved with greater experience of the route, but the modeling group improved more than the control group. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

Blades, Mark; Lippa, Yvonne; Golledge, Reginald G.; Jacobson, R. Daniel; Kitchin, Robert M.

2002-01-01

258

Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

2012-01-01

259

Physical Activity and Social Engagement Patterns during Physical Education of Youth with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals with visual impairments have a greater need to be physically fit because in comparison to sighted peers they have increased demands for energy to carry out everyday tasks (Lieberman & McHugh, 2001). Further, their level of vision influences many critical areas such as motor learning, ability to interact in games, and understanding of…

Oh, Hyun-Kyoung; Ozturk, Mehmet A.; Kozub, Francis M.

2004-01-01

260

Hospitalization of Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairments: The Influence of Organizational Features and State Policies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of specific nursing home features and state Medicaid policies on the risk of hospitalization among cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Design and Methods: We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate the odds of hospitalization among long-stay (greater than 90 days)…

Gruneir, Andrea; Miller, Susan C.; Intrator, Orna; Mor, Vincent

2007-01-01

261

Patterns of impairment in digit independence after subcortical stroke.  

PubMed

The nature of impairment in hand motor control after stroke and its relationship to hand function are still not well understood. In this study, we investigated digit independence in patients with subcortical stroke (n = 8) and moderate hand impairment, defined by wrist and hand Fugl-Meyer scale scores < or =25/33, and age-matched controls (n = 8). Subjects made cyclical flexion-extension movements of an instructed digit while keeping the other digits as still as possible. Movements of the metacarpo-phalangeal (MCP) joints of the five digits were measured using an instrumented glove. The ability to move an instructed digit individually (individuation index), and the ability to keep a noninstructed digit as still as possible (stationarity index) were determined for each digit. Contrary to the finding of normal thumb individuation in a recent study of patients with variable hand motor impairment after stroke, we found that independent movement for all digits was significantly impaired, although individuation and stationarity were differentially affected for each digit. All the digits, including the thumb, showed a similar impairment in individuation. In contrast, stationarity was affected in a digit-dependent pattern: the thumb was affected least, and the middle finger was most impaired. Stroke subjects did not extend their digits fully to the baseline position, and the angular displacement at maximum digit extension correlated significantly with digit individuation. Contrary to expectation, digit independence correlated weakly with clinical tests of hand function, which emphasize grasp. This suggests that corticospinal projections might be separated with respect to function rather than finger topography. PMID:16207778

Raghavan, Preeti; Petra, Electra; Krakauer, John W; Gordon, Andrew M

2006-01-01

262

Difference of motor overflow depending on the impaired or unimpaired hand in stroke patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of contralateral motor overflow (i.e. mirror movement) between the homologous body parts on the right and left side, in stroke patients during single-finger and multi-finger maximum force production tasks. Forty subjects, including stroke (n=20) and normal subjects (n=20), participated in this study. The stroke subjects maximally pressed force sensors with their fingers in a flexed position using a single (index, middle, ring, or little) or all fingers (all 4 fingers) using the impaired (IH) or unimpaired (UIH) hand, while the non-patient subjects used their right hands for the same tasks. The maximal voluntary forces in the ipsilateral and unintended pressing forces of each contralateral finger were recorded during the tasks. The magnitude of motor overflow to the contralateral side was calculated using the index of contralateral independence (CI). During the single finger tasks, the finger CI was significantly decreased in the UIH (91%) compared with that in the IH (99%) or normal hands (99%). Likewise, the multiple finger tasks showed that the CI was significantly lower in the UIH (84%) compared with that in the IH (96%) or normal hands (99%). However, the maximal forces were significantly lower in the IH relative to those in the UIH and normal hands. These data demonstrate that stroke patients have greater motor overflow from the UIH to the IH. PMID:25482454

Kim, Yushin; Kim, Woo-Sub; Shim, Jae Kun; Suh, Dong Won; Kim, TaeYeong; Yoon, BumChul

2015-02-01

263

Displacement as a predictor of functional impairment in tsunami-exposed children.  

PubMed

Thirty months after the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, thousands of families in Aceh Province, Indonesia, remained in temporary barracks while sanitation conditions and non-governmental organisation support deteriorated. This study sought to determine the factors associated with functional impairment in a sample of 138 displaced and non-displaced Acehnese children. Using multivariate linear regression models, it was found that displacement distance was a consistent predictor of impairment using the Brief Impairment Scale. Exposure to tsunami-related trauma markers was not significantly linked with impairment in the model. Paternal employment was a consistent protective factor for child functioning. These findings suggest that post-disaster displacement and the subsequent familial economic disruption are significant predictors of impaired functioning in children's daily activities. Post-disaster interventions should consider the disruption of familiar environments for families and children when relocating vulnerable populations to avoid deleterious impacts on children's functioning. PMID:25231556

Lee, Christopher; Du, Ye Beverly; Christina, Desy; Palfrey, Judith; O'Rourke, Edward; Belfer, Myron

2015-01-01

264

Recent research about mild cognitive impairment in China  

PubMed Central

Summary: The rapid aging of the Chinese population has spurred interest in research about the cause and prevention of dementia and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This review summarizes the last decade of research in China about MCI. Extensive research about the epidemiology, neuropsychological characteristics, diagnosis, genetic etiology, neuroimaging and electrophysiological changes, and treatment of MCI has provided some new insights but few breakthroughs. Further advances in the prevention and treatment of MCI will require a greater emphasis on multi-disciplinary prospective studies with large, representative samples that use standardized methods to assess and monitor changes in cognitive functioning over time. PMID:25114476

CHENG, Yan; XIAO, Shifu

2014-01-01

265

Impairments in Background and Event-Related Alpha-Band Oscillatory Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Studies show that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired responses to sensory stimuli, especially at the early stages of neural processing. In particular, patients’ alpha-band (8–14 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) and visual P1 event-related potential (ERP) component tend to be significantly reduced, with P1 ERP deficits greater for visual stimuli biased towards the magnocellular system. In healthy controls, studies show that pre-stimulus alpha (background alpha) plays a pivotal role in sensory processing and behavior, largely by shaping the neural responses to incoming stimuli. Here, we address whether patients’ ERD and P1 deficits stem from impairments in pre-stimulus alpha mechanisms. To address this question we recorded electrophysiological activity in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls while they engaged in a visual discrimination task with low, medium, and high contrast stimuli. The results revealed a significant decrease in patients’ ERDs, which was largely driven by reductions in pre-stimulus alpha. These reductions were most prominent in right-hemispheric areas. We also observed a systematic relationship between pre-stimulus alpha and the P1 component across different contrast levels. However, this relationship was only observed in healthy controls. Taken together, these findings highlight a substantial anomaly in patients’ amplitude-based alpha background activity over visual areas. The results provide further support that pre-stimulus alpha activity plays an active role in perception by modulating the neural responses to incoming sensory inputs, a mechanism that seems to be compromised in schizophrenia. PMID:24646909

Abeles, Ilana Y.; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel

2014-01-01

266

Chronic ethanol feeding impairs human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated testicular testosterone responses of dogs.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of ethanol on gonadal function, 24 male dogs were divided into four groups: the control group received no ethanol and the other three groups were fed varying amounts of ethanol for 30 days. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by radioimmunoassay after 30 days of ethanol or control feeding. At the conclusion of the experimental period the testes of each dog were examined for unstimulated and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated testosterone production by means of an in vivo perfusion method. None of the dogs lost weight or had abnormal liver histology as a result of ethanol feeding. Control dogs and dogs fed ethanol (0.64 g/kg of body weight) showed no changes in gonadal function. Dogs fed ethanol (1.28 g/kg and 1.92 g/kg of body weight) had no decreases in peripheral concentrations of testosterone or LH, but hCG-stimulated testicular testosterone production was significantly impaired in both groups (P less than 0.005 and P less than 0.025, respectively). In addition, the dogs receiving ethanol at 1.92 g/kg of body weight had significantly (P less than 0.05) decreased unstimulated testicular testosterone production. It is concluded that a) daily ingestion of small amounts of ethanol does not cause obvious changes in gonadal function, b) peripheral concentrations of testosterone and LH may not accurately reflect early ethanol-induced gonadal dysfunction, c) hCG-stimulated testicular testosterone production is impaired when daily ethanol consumption is 1.28 g/kg of body weight or greater for 30 days, and d) these changes occur in the absence of weight loss or obvious liver pathology. PMID:7139012

Boyden, T W; Silvert, M A; Pamenter, R W

1982-10-01

267

AUTOMATIC SPEECHREADING OF IMPAIRED SPEECH  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the use of visual, mouth-region information in improving automatic speech recognition (ASR) of the speech impaired. Given the video of an utterance by such a subject, we first extract appearance-based visual features from the mouth region-of-interest, and we use a feature fu- sion method to combine them with the subject's audio fea- tures into bimodal observations. Subsequently, we

Gerasimos Potamianos; Chalapathy Neti

268

Disposition of cefpodoxime proxetil in healthy volunteers and patients with impaired renal function.  

PubMed Central

The disposition of cefpodoxime in 24 subjects with various degrees of renal function after administration of a single oral dose of 200 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil (equivalent to 200 mg of cefpodoxime activity) was studied. Subjects were assigned to one of four groups (six per group): group I, normal renal function (creatinine clearance [CLCR], greater than ml/min); group II, mild renal impairment (CLCR, 50 to 80 ml/min); group III, moderate renal impairment (CLCR, 30 to 49 ml/min); or group IV, severe renal impairment (CLCR, 5 to 29 ml/min). Although cefpodoxime terminal elimination half-life in group I (2.55 +/- 0.25 h [mean +/- standard deviation]) was not significantly different from that in group II (3.53 +/- 0.74 h), the half-life values for group III (5.90 +/- 1.67 h) and group IV (9.80 +/- 1.21 h) were significantly prolonged compared with those of group I. The mean absorption rate constant was similar among groups and ranged from 0.68 to 0.85 h-1. All groups exhibited absorption lag-times which were comparable (0.30 to 0.41 h), and the apparent volume of distribution was similar among groups. Cefpodoxime apparent total body clearance (CLP/F) values in groups II, III, and IV (132 +/- 29, 112 +/- 41, and 55.7 +/- 9.9 ml/min, respectively) were significantly lower than that in group I (238 +/- 44 ml/min). Cefpodoxime CLP/F was positively correlated with CLCR (r2 = 0.79; P less than 0.05): CLP/F = (1.9 CLCR) + 18.4. Renal clearance also declined with decreasing renal function. Adjustments in cefpodoxime organism and on the site and severity of infection. Simulated plasma concentration-time data from this study suggest that 200 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil administered every 12 to 24 h to subjects with CLcr between 30 and 49 ml/min and 200-mg dose taken every 24 h by subjects with CLcr between 5 and 29 ml/min will maintain cefpodoxime concentration in plasma similar to those in subjects with normal renal function who receive a standard dosage mg every 12 h. PMID:1590677

St Peter, J V; Borin, M T; Hughes, G S; Kelloway, J S; Shapiro, B E; Halstenson, C E

1992-01-01

269

Mandatory notification of impaired doctors.  

PubMed

Mandatory reporting of impaired doctors is compulsory in Australasia. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency guidelines for notification claim high benchmark though the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians suggest they still obstruct doctors seeking help. Western Australia excludes mandatory reporting of practitioner-patients. This study examines reporting, consequences and international experiences with notification. Depressed doctors avoid diagnosis and treatment, fearing consequences, yet are more prone to marital problems, substance dependence and needing psychotherapy. South African research confirms isolation of impaired doctors and delayed seeking help with definable characteristics of those at risk. New Zealand data acknowledge: errors occur; questionable contribution from mandatory reporting; issues concerning competence assessment; favouring reporting to senior colleagues or self-intervention to compliance with mandatory reporting. UK found an anaesthetist guilty of professional misconduct for not reporting and sanctioned doctors regarding Harold Shipman. Australians are reluctant to report, fearing legalistic intrusion into care. Australian research confirmed definable characteristics for doctors with psychiatric illness or alcohol abuse. Exposure to legal medicine evokes personal disenchantment for doctors involved. Medicine poses barriers for impaired doctors. Spanish and UK doctors do not use general practitioners and may have suboptimal care. US and European doctors self-medicate using samples. US drug-dependent doctors also prescribe for spouses. Junior doctors are losing empathy with the profession. UK doctors favour private care, avoiding public scrutiny. NZ and Brazil created specific services for doctors, which appear effective. Mandatory reporting may be counterproductive requiring reappraisal. PMID:25442756

Beran, R G

2014-12-01

270

Brivaracetam disposition in renal impairment.  

PubMed

Brivaracetam is a novel high-affinity SV2A ligand currently in clinical development for epilepsy. The objective was to characterize its disposition in patients with renal impairment. A single oral dose of 200 mg brivaracetam was administered to 9 patients with severe renal impairment not requiring dialysis (creatinine clearance <15 mL/min, n = 6; 15-29 mL/min, n = 3) and 9 matched healthy controls. Plasma and urinary concentrations of brivaracetam and 3 pharmacologically inactive metabolites (acid, hydroxy, and hydroxyacid) were determined up to 72 hours postdose, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were derived. The C(max) of brivaracetam was unchanged relative to healthy controls, whereas AUC was slightly increased (mean ratio, 1.21; 90% confidence interval, 1.01-1.45). Nonrenal and renal clearances of brivaracetam decreased from 47 and 4.5 to 41 and 1.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Exposure to the acid, hydroxy, and hydroxyacid metabolites was markedly increased: C(max) by 2.4-, 2.0-, and 11.7-fold and AUC by 3.2-, 4.1-, and 21.5-fold. Renal clearance of these rapidly cleared metabolites was decreased 10-fold in patients with severe renal impairment. Nonclinical toxicology studies concluded to the absence of safety issues related to the increased levels of metabolites. These observations suggest that dose adjustment of brivaracetam should not be required at any stage of renal dysfunction. PMID:22235139

Sargentini-Maier, Maria Laura; Sokalski, Antoni; Boulanger, Pierre; Jacobs, Tom; Stockis, Armel

2012-12-01

271

Open-label study of the safety and pharmacokinetics of solifenacin in subjects with hepatic impairment.  

PubMed

Determining the pharmacokinetics and safety of solifenacin succinate, a once-daily, oral antimuscarinic agent indicated for treatment of overactive bladder, in subjects with hepatic impairment. In this open-label study, 16 subjects (eight with moderate hepatic impairment [defined as a Child-Pugh score of 7 - 9], eight healthy) received a single oral 10 mg solifenacin dose. Blood and urine were collected for pharmacokinetic assessments. Pharmacokinetic parameters (primary: area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity [AUC(0-infinity)] and maximum plasma concentration [C(max)]) and safety were evaluated for solifenacin and its metabolites. There were no clinically relevant differences in safety. Moderate hepatic impairment increased AUC(0-infinity) by 60%, and the mean elimination half-life of solifenacin and several of its metabolites was longer versus healthy subjects. Mean C(max) values were comparable between the groups. A single oral dose of solifenacin was well tolerated in hepatically impaired and healthy subjects; however, moderate hepatic impairment influenced solifenacin pharmacokinetics. In patients with mild hepatic impairment, solifenacin may be used without special caution; however, in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, doses greater than 5 mg are not recommended and the 5 mg dose should be used with caution. PMID:17170513

Kuipers, Mirjam; Smulders, Ronald; Krauwinkel, Walter; Hoon, Timothy

2006-12-01

272

Reticuloendotheliosis in captive greater and Attwater's prairie chickens.  

PubMed

Reticuloendotheliosis in captive greater (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's (T. cupido attwateri) prairie chickens is reported for the first time. Between September 1993 and August 1994, two adult female wild-caught greater prairie chickens housed at Texas A&M University (College Station, Texas, USA) were observed with multiple subcutaneous nodules. Both birds were euthanatized. Complete necropsy examinations revealed lesions limited to the skin of each bird. Histopathologic examination of lesions revealed pleomorphic lymphoreticular cells suggestive of reticuloendotheliosis and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was demonstrated in tumor tissue by polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation. Between September 1994 and June 1995, five additional greater prairie chickens and two Attwater's prairie chickens were euthanatized or found dead with evidence of lymphoreticular neoplasia in multiple organ systems. Initial testing of the captive flock in December 1994 for evidence of viremia and antibody to reticuloendotheliosis virus revealed over 50% of the tested birds were viremic, but none developed antibodies. Subsequent testing between January 1995 and January 1996 indicated that once infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus, Attwater's prairie chickens tended to remain outwardly healthy despite persistent viremia compared to infected greater prairie chickens which had higher morbidity and mortality rates within 60 to 90 days after initial detection of viremia and did not usually develop persistent viremia. Antibodies to REV were detected in only three captive greater prairie chickens and only in 1995. Six of the nine birds that were euthanatized or found dead due to reticuloendotheliosis developed viremia prior to death; three birds were not tested prior to death. Testing of free-ranging greater and Attwater's prairie chickens for reticuloendotheliosis is recommended prior to translocation or release. PMID:9813849

Drew, M L; Wigle, W L; Graham, D L; Griffin, C P; Silvy, N J; Fadly, A M; Witter, R L

1998-10-01

273

WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

274

Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among North American populations of Greater White-fronted Geese to resolve classification and to allow formulation of subpopulation/subspecies management strategies.

Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

1995-01-01

275

The Impact of Individual Depressive Symptoms on Impairment of Psychosocial Functioning  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships). We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia) to 20.9% (sad mood). Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms. PMID:24587318

Fried, Eiko I.; Nesse, Randolph M.

2014-01-01

276

The impact of individual depressive symptoms on impairment of psychosocial functioning.  

PubMed

Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships). We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia) to 20.9% (sad mood). Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms. PMID:24587318

Fried, Eiko I; Nesse, Randolph M

2014-01-01

277

Academic Motivation to Improve Writing Skills: A Comparison of Normally Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of scores on 47 hearing impaired and 46 hearing college students on Hermans' Prestatie Motivatie Test a measure focusing on English writing skills, revealed no significant difference between the two groups. (CL)

Hayes-Scott, Fairy C.; Dowaliby, Fred J.

1984-01-01

278

Subducted, detached, and torn slabs during early orogeny: evidence from deep earthquakes under the Greater Caucasus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabia-Eurasian collision is the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate the role that pre-suturing tectonism plays in defining the deformational response of the upper plate to continental collision and suturing. The Greater Caucasus Mountains, which define the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone between the Black and Caspian seas, result from late Cenozoic closure of the Greater Caucasus basin, a Mesozoic back-arc basin that opened during northward subduction of Neotethys beneath the Lesser Caucasus island arc. However, both the extent to which the basin closed by subduction and its original width remain controversial. Many previous estimates suggest that the basin was very narrow and that no subduction occurred during the formation of the Greater Caucasus. However, newly compiled earthquake locations show that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab. We assembled the new catalog of earthquake locations by combining earthquake records from local networks in Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan with previously published data. Our dataset includes records from 3820 events with magnitudes M>2. Visualization of the final catalogue in an immersive visualization environment at the UC Davis Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES) provides a clear image of a northeast-dipping zone of seismicity beneath the Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as the remnant of a subducted slab. Beneath the central Greater Caucasus (45°E), the zone of seismicity extends to a depth of at least 158 km and dips to the northeast at ~40°. In contrast, beneath the western GC (i.e., west of 45°E) there is a pronounced lack of events below 25 km, which we infer to reflect slab breakoff. We also observe a gap in intermediate-depth seismicity (30 to 60 km) at the western end of the subducted slab beneath the central Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as an eastward-propagating tear. This tear coincides with a region of minimum horizontal GPS convergence rates between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, as expected in a region of active slab breakoff. Evidence of subduction beneath the Greater Caucasus suggests that the relict back-arc basin was significantly wider than previously estimated. This further suggests that closure of this basin may have been an important mechanism for accommodating plate convergence in this nascent orogen and that the Greater Caucasus may represent a form of cryptic suture. Such relict-basin closure may also be an important, but overlooked process in the early stages of other orogens where it has proven difficult to reconcile total crustal shortening with estimates of total plate convergence.

Mumladze, T.; Forte, A. M.; Cowgill, E.; Trexler, C.; Niemi, N. A.; Kellogg, L. H.; Yikilmaz, M.

2013-12-01

279

Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193

2012-01-01

280

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

281

Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

282

Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup

Kristen B. Gorman; Paul L. Flint; Daniel Esler; Tony D. Williams

2007-01-01

283

Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.

1983-01-01

284

CHAPTER TWO Hierarchical Modeling of Lek Habitats of Greater  

E-print Network

prairie, Tympanuchus cupido. Gregory, A. J., L. B. McNew, T. J. Prebyl, B. K. Sandercock, and S. M. Wisely-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, hereafter "prairie-chickens") are a prairie grouse that are native to the grasslands, Lance B. McNew, Thomas J. Prebyl, Brett K. Sandercock, and Samantha M. Wisely Abstract. GreaterPrairie-Chickens(Tympanuchus

Sandercock, Brett K.

285

Greater spear-nosed bats discriminate group mates by vocalizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals often benefit from identifying their prospective social partners. Some species that live in stable social groups discriminate between their group mates and others, basing this distinction on calls that differ among individuals. Vocalizations that differ between social groups are much less common, and few studies have demonstrated that animals use group-distinctive calls to identify group mates. Female greater spear-nosed

JANETTE WENRICK BOUGHMAN; GERALD S. WILKINSON

1998-01-01

286

College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

Gaultney, Jane F.

2014-01-01

287

WEST NILE VIRUS: PENDING CRISIS FOR GREATER SAGE-GROUSE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a ...

288

Habitat Relations Greater Sage-Grouse Winter Habitat Use on  

E-print Network

Habitat Relations Greater Sage-Grouse Winter Habitat Use on the Eastern Edge of Their Range sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) at the western edge of the Dakotas occur in the transition zone from those habitats that comprise the central portions of the sage-grouse range; yet, no information

289

Slimness is Associated with Greater Intercourse and Lesser Masturbation Frequency  

Microsoft Academic Search

I examined the relationship of recalled and diary recorded frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (FSI), noncoital partnered sexual activity, and masturbation to measured waist and hip circumference in 120 healthy adults aged 19–38. Slimmer waist (in men and in the sexes combined) and slimmer hips (in men and women) were associated with greater FSI. Slimmer waist and hips were associated with

STUART BRODY

2004-01-01

290

Greater sciatic notch morphology: Sex, age, and population differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy of a method for visually scoring sex differences in the greater sciatic notch was tested on 296 skeletons of known age and sex. The pro- portion of correct sex assignments is 80% when all speci- mens are classified, and 89% when os coxae assigned the score in which the sexes show the greatest overlap are excluded. Although many

Phillip L. Walker

2005-01-01

291

External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

Beachler, Judith

292

Energetics of reproduction in female and male greater snow geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic-nesting geese are classified as “capital” breeders (i.e., birds that rely largely on endogenous reserves to meet the high nutrient requirement of clutch formation) as opposed to “income” breeders (those that rely directly on ingested food). However, some evidence has suggested that energy reserves of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) are not sufficient to meet these costs. We tested

Line Choinière; Gilles Gauthier

1995-01-01

293

Greater Platte River Basins Symposium PROGRAM Thursday, October 7  

E-print Network

of Research and Economic Development Perspectives on Hydrology and Water Management in a Changing World Climate-Change Effects Assessment in the Greater Plate River Basins Update ­ Robert Swanson, U and Groundwater in the Lower Platte River Basin ­ Gengxin Ou, University of Nebraska-Lincoln Scoring the Platte

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

294

THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM  

E-print Network

THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM VERSION 2.0 VOLUME III: USER'S MANUAL Eric 13 2.5 Matrices Using "Extended" Portions of Their Array Space 14 2.6 Summary of GTAModel Zone System Post-Run Report 32 4.5 Base 1996 Files for Use in Post-Run Utilities 33 #12;GTA Travel Demand Modelling

Toronto, University of

295

Annual Report 2003-04 To Greater Heights  

E-print Network

Annual Report 2003-04 To Greater Heights #12;Contents The University of Windsor is a friendly, mid-2005 Action Plan #12;Message from the President Ross Paul, Ph.D. President This annual report culminates;2 UNIVERSITY OF WINDSOR ANNUAL REPORT 2003-04 The Best of Both Worlds Covering the period July 1, 1999 to June

296

Cognitive Impairment and 1-Year Outcome in Elderly Patients with Hip Fracture  

PubMed Central

Background Hip fracture is common in elderly patients. However, few effective studies had linked cognitive impairment to patient clinical outcome. Material/Methods A total of 244 elderly hip fracture patients were prospectively followed up for 12 months. At 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year after hip repair surgery, patients and/or primary caregivers were interviewed by phone by trained, blinded interviewers. Functional evaluation, from pre-injury through 1 year after the operation, was assessed using the Barthel Index. Results Among 244 patients, 43 were diagnosed as having cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score <24). Compared to those without cognitive impairment, the 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year mortalities in the impaired patients were significantly higher than that of the cognitively intact patients. Six months after hip repair surgery, the cognitively intact patients presented significantly higher activities of daily living (ADL) scores than the cognitively impaired patients, and only 38.5% of impaired patients returned to their pre-operation baseline levels afterwards. The ADL scores in the impaired patients were similar to the intact ones at 1 year after the operation. Conclusions Although they had a higher risk of mortality in hip fracture, functional gain in the cognitively impaired patients was similar to that in the cognitively intact patients at 1-year follow-up. PMID:25323014

Guo, Yongzhi; Sun, Tiansheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Shaoguang; Liu, Zhi

2014-01-01

297

Cognitive impairment, disruptive behaviors, and home care utilization.  

PubMed

Disruptive behaviors by an elder with cognitive impairment, such as violence, abrupt mood swings, and overt inappropriate sexual behaviors have been known to create caregiver distress, but little is known about how these behaviors may influence the use of home care services by that elder or their informal caregiver. The purpose of this study is to explore the associations between type of cognitive impairment (cognitive impairment with no dementia, and dementia), selected disruptive behaviors, and the use of four home care services (homemaking/cleaning, personal care, in-home nursing, home-delivered meals). Secondary data analysis from the 1991-1992 Manitoba Study on Health and Aging data set was conducted, using a sample of 124 community-dwelling elders and their unpaid caregivers. Multivariate analysis revealed that disruptive behaviors were significantly associated with the use of two services: personal care and home-delivered meals. Being cognitively impaired with dementia was significant for only home-delivered meals. Overall functional status of the elder emerged as a consistent predictor. PMID:11272854

Hawranik, P G; Strain, L A

2001-03-01

298

Cognitive impairment among children at-risk for schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Adults with schizophrenia present cognitive impairments, as do individuals at ultra-high risk for the disorder, youth with relatives with schizophrenia spectrum disorders, and children with antecedents of schizophrenia. The present study aimed to determine if impairments in childhood differed depending on the definition of risk and/or on the degree of relatedness to an affected individual, and if impairments were explained by IQ. Four groups of children aged 9-12 years were studied: (1) 13 children with ?1 first-degree or ?2 second-degree affected relatives (high familial loading: FHx(H)); (2) 14 with ?1 affected second-degree relative (lower familial loading: FHx(L)); (3) 32 with well-replicated antecedents of schizophrenia (ASz); and (4) 45 typically-developing (TD) children with neither a positive family history nor antecedents. Compared to TD children, both FHx(H) and ASz children exhibited significantly poorer verbal comprehension, scholastic achievement, and verbal working memory, while FHx(H) children additionally displayed significantly lower full-scale IQ, and verbal memory and executive function impairments. After adjusting statistical analyses for IQ, group differences were attenuated. Relative to TD children, FHx(L) children showed no significant differences in performance. The results imply that impairments in verbal comprehension, scholastic achievement, and verbal working memory may index vulnerability for schizophrenia among children with affected relatives with the disorder and among those with multiple antecedents of the disorder who have no affected relatives. More accurate identification of children at-risk for schizophrenia and the specific deficits that they present provides opportunities for interventions such as cognitive remediation that may impact the development of the illness. PMID:24373930

Dickson, Hannah; Cullen, Alexis E; Reichenberg, Abraham; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Campbell, Desmond D; Morris, Robin G; Laurens, Kristin R

2014-03-01

299

Impaired glucose tolerance: qualitative and quantitative study of general practitioners' knowledge and perceptions  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate general practitioners' knowledge of and attitudes to impaired glucose tolerance. Design Mixed methodology qualitative and quantitative study with semistructured interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires. Setting 34 general practitioners in five primary care groups in the north east of England. Results All the general practitioners had knowledge of impaired glucose tolerance as a clinical entity, but they had little awareness of the clinical significance of impaired glucose tolerance and were uncertain about managing and following up these patients. Attitudes to screening were mixed and were associated with reservations about increased workload, concern about lack of resources, and pessimism about the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions. Some general practitioners felt strongly that screening patients for impaired glucose tolerance and subsequent lifestyle intervention medicalised an essentially social problem and that a health educational approach, involving schools and the media, should be adopted instead. A minority expressed a positive attitude towards a pharmacological approach. Conclusion Awareness of impaired glucose tolerance needs to be raised, and guidelines for management are needed. General practitioners remain to be convinced that they have a role in attempting to reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes by targeting interventions at patients with impaired glucose tolerance. What is already known on this topicImpaired glucose tolerance is common and carries a 50% risk of progression to type 2 diabetes within 10 years of diagnosis and a doubling of the risk of developing cardiovascular diseaseLifestyle intervention can significantly reduce the progression to diabetes, although the evidence for reduction in cardiovascular disease is less compellingWhat this study addsAwareness of the clinical significance of impaired glucose tolerance among general practitioners is lowGeneral practitioners are uncertain how best to manage and follow up patients with established impaired glucose toleranceGeneral practitioners are reluctant to screen patients for impaired glucose tolerance for a variety of reasons PMID:12016185

Wylie, Graeme; Hungin, A Pali S; Neely, Joanne

2002-01-01

300

Seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations is greater in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis  

PubMed Central

Background Serum KL-6 is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, KL-6 has not been used to discriminate different types of ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations can vary depending on antigen exposure levels in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP); however, seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations in ILD have not been determined. We hypothesized that seasonal variation of serum KL-6 is greater in HP than for the other ILD. The aim of this study was to determine seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations in various ILD. Methods Serum KL-6 concentrations in the summer season from June 1 to September 30 and the winter season from November 1 to February 28 were retrospectively analyzed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n?=?16), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n?=?16), collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia (CVD-IP, n?=?33), house-related HP (House-HP, n?=?9), bird-related HP (Bird-HP, n?=?9), and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE, n?=?13). Results Bird-HP and House-HP showed greater seasonal serum KL-6 variation than the other ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations in Bird-HP were significantly increased in the winter and KL-6 concentrations in House-HP were significantly increased in the summer. Serum KL-6 variation was significantly greater in acute HP than chronic HP. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that greater seasonal variation in serum KL-6 concentrations is diagnostic for Bird-HP. Conclusion HP should be considered in ILD with greater seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations. PMID:25098177

2014-01-01

301

Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

2002-12-01

302

The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the properties of the Greater Indian lithosphere and in the mechanism of its descent beneath different parts of the plateau. In the west, cratonic Indian lithosphere underthrusts the Tibetan crust and collides with the Tarim Craton to the north of it. In the central part of the plateau, Indian lithosphere underthrusts Tibet form the Himalayas up to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then, further north, subducts at a relatively steep angle. Indian lithosphere now under the east-central Himalayas is not cratonic (not as thick and cold as in the west). Beneath eastern Tibet, the Indian lithosphere has subducted, at a shallow angle, hundreds of kilometers northwards to under the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi Terranes. The detailed new seismic images provide new constraints on the size of the Greater India continent and on lateral variations in the properties of its lithosphere. The size and shape of the Greater India as evidenced by the seismic data are consistent with the recent plate-tectonic models in which the India-Asia hard continental collision commences more recently than previously thought. References Agius, M. R., S. Lebedev. Tibetan and Indian lithospheres in the upper mantle beneath Tibet: Evidence from broadband surface-wave dispersion. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, doi:10.1002/ggge.20274, 2013. Schaeffer, A. J., S. Lebedev. Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int. 194, 417-449, 2013. Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., et al., Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 7659-64, 2012. Zahirovic, S., et al., Insights on the kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision from global geodynamic models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, doi:10.1029/2011GC003883, 2012.

Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

2014-05-01

303

An index of reservoir habitat impairment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

2011-01-01

304

Diversion programs for impaired physicians.  

PubMed Central

Nine states have legislated impaired physician programs administered by state medical boards (2), by independent agencies (4), or by medical societies through contracts with medical boards (3). All other state programs are administered by medical societies. California's diversion program has been in effect for more than 10 years. It was the first program for alcohol- and drug-addicted physicians in the country administered by the state agency that also disciplines physicians. Of the physicians who enrolled in this program, 72% have completed it successfully. A total of 618 physicians have been accepted into the program since its inception, with 247 physicians currently participating. PMID:2349803

Ikeda, R; Pelton, C

1990-01-01

305

Delinquency and alcohol-impaired driving among young males: A longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

The present study assessed how the trajectory of delinquency affects the growth curve of alcohol-impaired driving using three-waves of data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). Using the structural equation modeling method, latent growth modeling was utilized to assess four age cohorts of sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, and nineteen years of age at the first wave. The data indicated that the growth rate of delinquency significantly and positively affects the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the respondents who were sixteen at the first wave. The growth rate of drinking was also significantly and positively associated with the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for this age cohort. Although the growth rate of delinquency had no significant effect on the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the age cohort which was seventeen at Wave 1, the growth rates of both drinking and drug use did affect for this age cohort. The data, however, showed that alcohol-impaired driving had a significant increase across the waves for the eighteen year old cohort, but there was no significant variation in the rate across respondents. Finally, for the nineteen year old cohort there was no significant increase in alcohol-impaired driving across the waves, and also no significant variation of the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving across the respondents. These findings indicated that interventions focused on reducing delinquency, alcohol and drug use by sixteen and seventeen year old male adolescents will also reduce their alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:20802847

Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.; Colder, Craig; Nochajski, Thomas H.

2010-01-01

306

Cognitive Activities and Instrumental Activity of Daily Living in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Aims This study aimed to identify differences in the implementation of cognitive activities and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) between healthy individuals and subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods The study included 2,498 cognitively healthy subjects (mean age, 71.2 ± 5.1 years) and 809 MCI subjects (mean age, 71.8 ± 5.4 years). The subjects were interviewed regarding their participation in cognitive activities and the implementation of IADLs. Results We found a significant association between participation in any cognitive activities (p < 0.001), using a bus or a train (p < 0.001), and MCI. After adjusting for covariates, cognitive activity of any type remained significantly associated with MCI (p < 0.005) but not with the implementation of IADLs. Conclusions Our study revealed that greater participation in cognitive activity was associated with lower odds of MCI. Participation in cognitive activities may reflect differences between healthy and MCI subjects. To clarify the causal relationship between cognitive activities and MCI, further studies are required. PMID:24348501

Doi, Takehiko; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Makizako, Hyuma; Lee, Sangyoon; Park, Hyuntae; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Uemura, Kazuki; Yoshida, Daisuke; Anan, Yuya; Suzuki, Takao

2013-01-01

307

The Effects of Perceptual Encoding on the Magnitude of Object Working Memory Impairment in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Deficits in the visual working memory (WM) system have been consistently reported in schizophrenia patients, but the relative contribution of initial perceptual encoding to these deficits remains unsettled. We assessed the role of visual perceptual encoding on performance on an object WM task. Schizophrenia patients (N=37) and nonpsychiatric control subjects (N=33) were tested on an object WM task involving three delay periods: 200 msec, 3 sec, and 10 sec. Schizophrenia patients performed significantly less accurately than controls on all three conditions. However, after controlling for the effect of perceptual encoding (accuracy on the 200 msec delay condition) on performance in the two memory load conditions, schizophrenia patients demonstrated intact WM in the 3 sec delay condition, and showed a weak trend for decreased accuracy on the 10 sec delay compared with controls. Analysis of individual differences in pattern of performance revealed that a distinct subgroup of poor encoder patients had a significantly greater reduction in accuracy at 3 sec than the other patient subgroups and controls. In contrast, among schizophrenia patients who performed poorly on the 10 sec delay, accuracy was equivalently reduced independent of encoding ability. WM deficits in controls were independent of encoding ability at both delay intervals. These results indicate that encoding ability titrates the magnitude of WM impairment in schizophrenia patients but not in controls, and that heterogeneity has to be taken into account to correctly estimate the effects of perceptual encoding on visual object WM deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:22640637

Coleman, Michael J.; Krastoshevsky, Olga; Tu, Xiawei; Mendell, Nancy R.; Levy, Deborah L.

2012-01-01

308

CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 accelerates impaired wound healing in diabetic mice.  

PubMed

The antagonism of CXC-chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) with AMD3100 improves cardiac performance after myocardial infarction by augmenting the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from the bone marrow to the regenerating vasculature. We investigated whether AMD3100 may accelerate diabetes-impaired wound healing through a similar mechanism. Skin wounds were made on the backs of leptin receptor-deficient mice and treated with AMD3100 or saline. Fourteen days after treatment, wound closure was significantly more complete in AMD3100-treated mice (AMD3100: 87.0 ± 2.6%, saline: 33.1 ± 1.8%; P<0.0001) and was accompanied by greater collagen fiber formation, capillary density, smooth muscle-containing vessel density, and monocyte/macrophage infiltration. On day 7 after treatment, AMD3100 was associated with higher circulating EPC and macrophage counts, and with significantly upregulated mRNA levels of stromal cell-derived factor 1 and platelet-derived growth factor B in the wound bed. AMD3100 also promoted macrophage proliferation and phagocytosis and the migration and proliferation of diabetic mouse primary dermal fibroblasts and 3T3 fibroblasts, which express very little CXCR4. In conclusion, a single topical application of AMD3100 promoted wound healing in diabetic mice by increasing cytokine production, mobilizing bone marrow EPCs, and enhancing the activity of fibroblasts and monocytes/macrophages, thereby increasing both angiogenesis and vasculogenesis. Not all of the AMD3100-mediated effects evolved through CXCR4 antagonism. PMID:22048734

Nishimura, Yukihide; Ii, Masaaki; Qin, Gangjian; Hamada, Hiromichi; Asai, Jun; Takenaka, Hideya; Sekiguchi, Haruki; Renault, Marie-Ange; Jujo, Kentaro; Katoh, Norito; Kishimoto, Saburo; Ito, Aiko; Kamide, Christine; Kenny, John; Millay, Meredith; Misener, Sol; Thorne, Tina; Losordo, Douglas W

2012-03-01

309

Memory impairment in patients with cirrhosis.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in cirrhotic patients is usually characterized by memory impairment and psychomotor slowing. Our aim was to investigate memory status in cirrhotic patients with and without clinically overt HE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two cirrhotic patients (10 female and 22 male) aged 49 +/- 17 years and 20 healthy subjects (six female and 14 male) aged 46 +/- 12 years were included in the study. Memory status was defined by Wechsler Memory Scale, verbal memory process and complex memory process tests. RESULTS: Grade-1 HE was detected in 7 (22%) patients with cirrhosis. We detected 36 to 92% decrement in various memory tests in cirrhotic patients without HE as compared to healthy subjects. The scores for all psychometric testing results were significantly lower in cirrhotic patients without HE as compared to healthy subjects. We detected 42.9 to 100% decrement in various memory tests in cirrhotic patients with HE than cirrhotic patients without HE. However, there was no statistical significant difference between cirrhotic patients with and without HE. There was no statistical significant difference in cirrhotic patients with Child-Pugh A, B, and C. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, memory status was influenced in which patients with cirrhosis yet has a normal mental and neurological status to routine clinical examination (subclinical HE). Occasionally, decreased memory performance may adversely affect the satisfaction and lifestyle of these patients. Therefore, subclinical HE is an important social problem. PMID:15712784

Bahceci, Funda; Yildirim, Bulent; Karincaoglu, Melih; Dogan, Ibrahim; Sipahi, Birsen

2005-01-01

310

Impaired Biomechanical Properties of Diabetic Skin  

PubMed Central

Diabetic skin is known to have deficient wound healing properties, but little is known of its intrinsic biomechanical properties. We hypothesize that diabetic skin possesses inferior biomechanical properties at baseline, rendering it more prone to injury. Skin from diabetic and nondiabetic mice and humans underwent biomechanical testing. Real-time PCR was performed for genes integral to collagen synthesis and degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9, and TIMP-1 protein levels were assessed by ELISA and zymography. Collagen I and III content was assessed using Western blot analysis. At baseline, both murine and human diabetic skin was biomechanically inferior compared to nondiabetic skin, with decreased maximum stress and decreased modulus (P < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in collagen synthesis were significantly up-regulated, and genes involved in collagen degradation were significantly down-regulated in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.01). In addition, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 protein ratios were significantly lower in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.05). Collagen I levels and I:III ratios were lower in diabetic skin (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the predisposition of diabetics to wounds may be the result of impaired tissue integrity at baseline, and are due, in part, to a defect in the regulation of collagen protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21514435

Bermudez, Dustin M.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Lind, Robert; Beason, David P.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

2011-01-01

311

The degree of kinship and its association with reciprocity and exchange in the relationships of visually impaired older adults  

PubMed Central

This study draws on an evolutionary model of exchange in relationships to examine the nature of perceived reciprocity in the context of kin and non-kin relationships among a sample of visually impaired older adults (age 63–99). Further, we examined the direct and moderating impact of functional impairment and adaptation to visual impairment on the nature of perceived reciprocity. Results showed that the greater the degree of genetic relatedness the more imbalanced the exchange. It was also found that degree of adaptation to visual impairment moderated the association between genetic relatedness and perceived exchange, such that the greater the degree of genetic relatedness the more people reported they gave rather than received except at very low levels of adaptation, when people received more than they gave the greater the degree of genetic relatedness. Thus, an evolutionary model was supported such that imbalanced exchange was found more with greater degrees of genetic relatedness, but the direction of exchange was different for high versus low levels of adaptation to vision impairment. PMID:20160974

Flaig, Katherina N.-L.; Reinhardt, Joann P.

2009-01-01

312

Associations between cognitive impairment in advanced cancer patients and psychiatric disorders in their caregivers  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined whether cognitive impairment in advanced cancer patients is associated with a heightened frequency of psychiatric disorders in their primary caregivers. Methods 356 patient-caregiver dyads were interviewed and administered the SPMSQ (Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire) and the Structured Clinical Interview of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder Fourth Edition (SCID) approximately 3.4 months before the patient's death. The SCID was administered to caregivers again approximately 6 months after the patient's death. Results 46 (12.9%) patients displayed signs of mild cognitive impairment at the baseline interview. After adjustment for relevant confounders, patient cognitive impairment was significantly associated with caregiver pre-loss major depressive disorder (MDD) [OR 6.88 (95% CI 1.32–35.92); p=0.02], without associated increases in suicidality. There were no significant associations between patient cognitive impairment and caregiver pre-loss generalized anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, or grief. Likewise, there were no significant associations between patient cognitive impairment and caregiver post-loss psychiatric disorders, but caregivers of cognitively impaired patients appeared to be less satisfied with the patient's manner of death (p=0.01). Conclusions Caregivers of cognitively impaired advanced cancer patients appear at heightened risk of major depression that resolves after the patient's death. Further study with a larger sample and more sensitive longitudinal cognitive measures is indicated. PMID:22451155

Meyer, Fremonta; Zhang, Baohui; Gao, Xin; Prigerson, Holly G.

2012-01-01

313

An observation of Clostridium perfringens in Greater Sage-Grouse.  

PubMed

Mortality due to infectious diseases is seldom reported in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). A case of necrotic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A is described in a free-ranging adult male sage-grouse in eastern Oregon. Clostridial enteritis is known to cause outbreaks of mortality in various domestic and wild birds, and should be considered as a potential cause of mortality in sage-grouse populations. PMID:17699098

Hagen, Christian A; Bildfell, Robert J

2007-07-01

314

Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different

L. E. Trevorrow; T. L. Gilbert; C. Luner; P. A. Merry-Libby; N. K. Meshkov; C. Yu

1985-01-01

315

Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the

Kevin E. Doherty; David E. Naugle; Brett L. Walker; Jon M. Graham

2008-01-01

316

West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species that has declined 45-80% and is endangered in Canada and under current consideration for federal listing in the US.

David E. Naugle; Cameron L. Aldridge; Brett L. Walker; Todd E. Cornish; Brendan J. Moynahan; Matt J. Holloran; Kimberly Brown; Gregory D. Johnson; Edward T. Schmidtmann; Richard T. Mayer; Cecilia Y. Kato; Marc R. Matchett; Thomas J. Christiansen; Walter E. Cook; Terry Creekmore; Roxanne D. Falise; E. Thomas Rinkes; Mark S. Boyce

2004-01-01

317

Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

Banks, Richard C.

2011-01-01

318

A High Fructose Diet Impairs Spatial Memory in Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Over the past three decades there has been a substantial increase in the amount of fructose consumed by North Americans. Recent evidence from rodents indicates that hippocampal insulin signaling facilitates memory and excessive fructose consumption produces hippocampal insulin resistance. Based on this evidence, the present study tested the hypothesis that a high fructose diet would impair hippocampal-dependent memory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal day 61) were fed either a control (0 % fructose) or high fructose diet (60 % of calories). Food intake and body mass were measured regularly. After 19 weeks, the rats were given 3 days of training (8 trials/day) in a spatial version of the water maze task, and retention performance was probed 48 h later. The high fructose diet did not affect acquisition of the task, but did impair performance on the retention test. Specifically, rats fed a high fructose diet displayed significantly longer latencies to reach the area where the platform had been located, made significantly fewer approaches to that area, and spent significantly less time in the target quadrant than did control diet rats. There was no difference in swim speed between the two groups. The retention deficits correlated significantly with fructose-induced elevations of plasma triglyceride concentrations. Consequently, the impaired spatial water maze retention performance seen with the high fructose diet may have been attributable, at least in part, to fructose-induced increases in plasma triglycerides. PMID:19500683

Ross, A.P.; Bartness, T.J.; Mielke, J. G.; Parent, M.B.

2009-01-01

319

The Importance of Saccular Function to Motor Development in Children with Hearing Impairments  

PubMed Central

Children with hearing deficits frequently have delayed motor development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate saccular function in children with hearing impairments using the Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP). The impact of the saccular hypofunction on the timely maturation of normal balance strategies was examined using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). Thirty-three children with bilateral severe/profound hearing impairment between 4 and 7 years of age were recruited from a three-state area. Approximately half of the sample had one or bilateral cochlear implants, one used bilateral hearing aids, and the rest used no amplification. Parents reported whether the hearing impairment was diagnosed within the first year or after 2 years of age. No VEMP was evoked in two thirds of the hearing impaired (HI) children in response to the bone-conducted stimulus. Children who were reportedly hearing impaired since birth had significantly poorer scores when tested with the Movement ABC. PMID:20148080

Shall, Mary S.

2009-01-01

320

Disruptive camouflage impairs object recognition  

PubMed Central

Whether hiding from predators, or avoiding battlefield casualties, camouflage is widely employed to prevent detection. Disruptive coloration is a seemingly well-known camouflage mechanism proposed to function by breaking up an object's salient features (for example their characteristic outline), rendering objects more difficult to recognize. However, while a wide range of animals are thought to evade detection using disruptive patterns, there is no direct experimental evidence that disruptive coloration impairs recognition. Using humans searching for computer-generated moth targets, we demonstrate that the number of edge-intersecting patches on a target reduces the likelihood of it being detected, even at the expense of reduced background matching. Crucially, eye-tracking data show that targets with more edge-intersecting patches were looked at for longer periods prior to attack, and passed-over more frequently during search tasks. We therefore show directly that edge patches enhance survivorship by impairing recognition, confirming that disruptive coloration is a distinct camouflage strategy, not simply an artefact of background matching. PMID:24152693

Webster, Richard J.; Hassall, Christopher; Herdman, Chris M.; Godin, Jean-Guy J.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

2013-01-01

321

Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.  

PubMed

Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern. PMID:19377866

Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

2009-09-01

322

Cognitive Impairment Assessment through Visuospatial Memory Can Be Performed with a Modified Walking Corsi Test Using the ‘Magic Carpet’  

PubMed Central

Background Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have disturbances in their spatial navigation abilities and exhibit early deficits in visuospatial short-term memory. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a quantitative (span score) and qualitative (evaluating navigation strategies used) analysis of the Corsi test (usual condition and complex navigation task) would be useful to reveal cognitive decline. Methods We evaluated the performance of 15 young adults, 21 healthy elderly subjects and 15 subjects with MCI using the electronic version of the Corsi test (the Modified Corsi Block-Tapping Test, MCBT) and the complex navigation task (the Modified Walking Corsi Test, MWCT). The MWCT, which is an adaptation of the Corsi test, assesses spatial memory when the subject walks in a complex environment. We used Richard et al.'s model [Cogn Sci 1993;17:497-529] to investigate problem-solving strategies during the Corsi tests. Results The span scores obtained on the MCBT and the MWCT were significantly lower in the healthy elderly subjects (MCBT = 5.0 ± 0.7; MWCT = 4.0 ± 0.7) and the subjects with MCI (MCBT = 4.7 ± 0.8; MWCT = 4.1 ± 0.9) than in the younger adults (MCBT = 6.2 ± 0.6; MWCT = 5.3 ± 1.0). The visuospatial working memory was more impaired in the complex navigation task (MWCT = 4.3 ± 0.9) than in the modified Corsi test (MCBT = 5.3 ± 0.8). Finally, the subjects with greater cognitive impairment were more likely to have inadequate or absence of problem-solving strategies. Conclusions Investigating the problem-solving strategies used during the MWCT appears to be a promising way to differentiate between the subjects with MCI and the healthy elderly subjects. PMID:24575112

Perrochon, Anaïck; Kemoun, Gilles; Dugué, Benoit; Berthoz, Alain

2014-01-01

323

A key role for an impaired detoxification mechanism in the etiology and severity of autism spectrum disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a syndrome with a number of etiologies and different mechanisms that lead to abnormal development. The identification of autism biomarkers in patients with different degrees of clinical presentation (i.e., mild, moderate and severe) will give greater insight into the pathogenesis of this disease and will enable effective early diagnostic strategies and treatments for this disorder. Methods In this study, the concentration of two toxic heavy metals, lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), were measured in red blood cells, while glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and vitamin E, as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, respectively, were measured in the plasma of subgroups of autistic patients with different Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores. The results were compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Results The obtained data showed that the patients with autism spectrum disorder had significantly higher Pb and Hg levels and lower GST activity and vitamin E concentrations compared with the controls. The levels of heavy metals (Hg and Pb), GST and vitamin E were correlated with the severity of the social and cognitive impairment measures (SRS and CARS). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis and predictiveness curves indicated that the four parameters show satisfactory sensitivity, very high specificity and excellent predictiveness. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that higher levels of Hg and Pb, together with lower levels of GST and vitamin E, can be used to predict social and cognitive impairment in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Conclusion This study confirms earlier studies that implicate toxic metal accumulation as a consequence of impaired detoxification in autism and provides insight into the etiological mechanism of autism. PMID:24776096

2014-01-01

324

Patent Foramen Ovale Is Not Associated with Hypoxemia in Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Does Not Impair Exercise Performance  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) may be disadvantageous in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is unknown whether right-to-left shunting through PFO increases during exercise impairing exercise performance. Objectives: To determine whether (1) PFO prevalence is greater in hypoxemic versus less hypoxemic patients with COPD, (2) PFO is associated with clinically relevant impairment, and (3) right-to-left shunting increases during exercise and impairs exercise performance. Methods: Patients with COPD and age-matched control subjects underwent contrast transthoracic echocardiography and transcranial Doppler to identify PFO. Patients with COPD with no shunt and patients with large PFO underwent cardiopulmonary exercise tests with contrast transcranial Doppler, esophageal, and gastric balloon catheters. Measurements and Main Results: PFO prevalence was similar in 50 patients with COPD and 50 healthy control subjects (46% vs. 30%; P = 0.15). Large shunts were more common in patients with COPD (26% vs. 6%; P = 0.01). In an expanded COPD cohort, PFO prevalence was similar in 31 hypoxemic (Pao2 ? 7.3 kPa) and 63 less hypoxemic (Pao2 > 8.0 kPa) patients with COPD (39% vs. 52%; P = 0.27). Patients with intrapulmonary shunting had lower Pao2 than both patients with PFO and those with no right-to-left shunt (7.7 vs. 8.6 vs. 9.3 kPa, respectively; P = 0.002). Shunting significantly increased during exercise in patients with COPD with PFO. Endurance time at 60% Vo2max was 574 (178) seconds for patients with PFO and 534 (279) seconds for those without (P = ns). Conclusions: Hypoxemic patients with COPD do not have a higher prevalence of PFO. Patients with COPD with PFO do not perform less well either on a 6-minute walk or submaximal exercise testing despite increased right-to-left shunting during exercise. PMID:24450410

Shaikh, Zarrin F.; Kelly, Julia L.; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; de Villa, Manuel; Mullen, Michael J.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.; Morrell, Mary J.

2014-01-01

325

Impaired ability to modulate glomerular filtration rate in aged female sheep following fetal uninephrectomy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fetal uninephrectomy (uni?x) results in hypertension at a later age in female than male sheep. We hypothesized that dysregulation of tubular sodium handling contributes to the reduced ability to regulate extracellular fluid (ECF) homeostasis in older females born with a congenital nephron deficit. Following renal excretory balance studies, the response to inhibition of the Na+K+2Cl? cotransporter with furosemide (0.5 mg/kg bolus + 1 mg/kg per hour, i.v) or vehicle treatment was examined in conscious 5?year?old female uni?x (n = 7) and sham (n = 7) sheep. Balance studies in meal?fed sheep demonstrated that while average 24 h sodium excretion over 6 days was not different between the groups, the daily variation in sodium excretion was significantly greater in uni?x compared to sham sheep (31 ± 4% vs. 12 ± 2%; P < 0.001). Basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and renal cortical cyclooxygenase?2 (COX?2) gene expression were lower in uni?x sheep (both, P < 0.01). The increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow observed in sham sheep in response to furosemide were significantly attenuated in uni?x sheep (both PGROUP×TREAT < 0.05). However, fractional sodium excretion increased by a greater extent in the uni?x (4.4 ± 1.0%) as compared to the sham sheep (2.0 ± 0.4%; PGROUP×TIME < 0.05) in response to furosemide. In conclusion, fetal uni?x was associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension in aged females. The impaired ability to modulate PRA and GFR in the adults with a congenital nephron deficit may reduce the capacity of the kidney to respond to gains or losses in ECF to maintain a stable internal environment. PMID:24744887

Lankadeva, Yugeesh R.; Singh, Reetu R.; Hilliard, Lucinda M.; Moritz, Karen M.; Denton, Kate M.

2014-01-01

326

Functional significance of cortical NMDA receptors in somatosensory information processing.  

PubMed

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated activity is required for whisker-related neural patterning in the rodent brain. Deletion of the essential NMDAR subunit NR1 gene in excitatory cortical neurons prevents whisker-specific barrel formation and impairs thalamocortical afferent patterning. We used electrophysiological and voltage-sensitive dye imaging methods to assess synaptic and sensory evoked cortical activity and immunohistochemistry to examine immediate early gene expression following whisker stimulation in cortex-specific NR1 knockout (CxNR1KO) mice. In mutant mice, layer IV neurons lacked NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents, and temporal summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) was impaired. Barrel neurons showed both phasic and tonic responses to whisker deflection. The averaged tonic response in CxNR1KO mice was significantly less than that in control mice due to impaired EPSP temporal summation. Electrophysiological estimation of the number of thalamic neurons innervating single barrel neurons indicated a significant increase in CxNR1KO mice. Similarly, voltage-sensitive dye optical signals in response to whisker stimulation were widespread. Immediate early gene expression following whisker stimulation also showed a diffuse expression pattern in the CxNR1KO cortex compared with whisker-specific expression patterns in controls. Thus, when NMDAR function is impaired, spatial discrimination of whisker inputs is severely compromised, and sensory stimulation evokes diffuse, topographically misaligned activity in the barrel cortex. PMID:24047907

Lo, Fu-Sun; Akkentli, Fatih; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Erzurumlu, Reha S

2013-12-01

327

The nitric oxide redox sibling nitroxyl partially circumvents impairment of platelet nitric oxide responsiveness.  

PubMed

Impaired platelet responsiveness to nitric oxide (NO resistance) is a common characteristic of many cardiovascular disease states and represents an independent risk factor for cardiac events and mortality. NO resistance reflects both scavenging of NO by superoxide (O2(-)), and impairment of the NO receptor, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). There is thus an urgent need for circumvention of NO resistance in order to improve clinical outcomes. Nitroxyl (HNO), like NO, produces vasodilator and anti-aggregatory effects, largely via sGC activation, but is not inactivated by O2(-). We tested the hypothesis that HNO circumvents NO resistance in human platelets. In 57 subjects with or without ischemic heart disease, platelet responses to the HNO donor isopropylamine NONOate (IPA/NO) and the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were compared. While SNP (10?M) induced 29±3% (p<0.001) inhibition of platelet aggregation, IPA/NO (10?M) caused 75±4% inhibition (p<0.001). In NO-resistant subjects (n=28), the IPA/NO:SNP response ratio was markedly increased (p<0.01), consistent with partial circumvention of NO resistance. Similarly, cGMP accumulation in platelets was greater (p<0.001) with IPA/NO than with SNP stimulation. The NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO (CPTIO, 200?M) inhibited SNP and IPA/NO responses by 92±7% and 17±4% respectively (p<0.001 for differential inhibition), suggesting that effects of IPA/NO are only partially NO-mediated. ODQ (10?M) inhibited IPA/NO responses by 36±8% (p<0.001), consistent with a contribution of sGC/haem to IPA/NO inhibition of aggregation. There was no significant relationship between whole blood ROS content and IPA/NO responses. Thus the HNO donor IPA/NO substantially circumvents platelet NO resistance while acting, at least partially, as a haem-mediated sGC activator. PMID:24012721

Dautov, R F; Ngo, D T M; Licari, G; Liu, S; Sverdlov, A L; Ritchie, R H; Kemp-Harper, B K; Horowitz, J D; Chirkov, Y Y

2013-11-30

328

Impairment of Bone Health in Pediatric Patients with Hemolytic Anemia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia result in impaired bone health in both adults and youths. Children with other types of chronic hemolytic anemia may also display impaired bone health. Study Design To assess bone health in pediatric patients with chronic hemolytic anemia, a cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 patients with different forms of hemolytic anemia (i.e., 17 homozygous sickle cell disease and 14 hereditary spherocytosis patients). Biochemical, radiographic and anamnestic parameters of bone health were assessed. Results Vitamin D deficiency with 25 OH-vitamin D serum levels below 20 ng/ml was a common finding (80.5%) in this cohort. Bone pain was present in 31% of patients. Analysis of RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin levels indicated an alteration in bone modeling with significantly elevated RANKL/OPG ratios (control: 0.08+0.07; patients: 0.26+0.2, P?=?0.0007). Osteocalcin levels were found to be lower in patients compared with healthy controls (68.5+39.0 ng/ml vs. 118.0+36.6 ng/ml, P?=?0.0001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant (P<0.025) influence of LDH (partial r2?=?0.29), diagnosis of hemolytic anemia (partial r2?=?0.05) and age (partial r2?=?0.03) on osteocalcin levels. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were more frequently and more severely affected by impaired bone health than patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Conclusion Bone health is impaired in pediatric patients with hemolytic anemia. In addition to endocrine alterations, an imbalance in the RANKL/OPG system and low levels of osteocalcin may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25299063

Schündeln, Michael M.; Goretzki, Sarah C.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Wieland, Regina; Bauer, Jens; Baeder, Lena; Eggert, Angelika; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

2014-01-01

329

Impaired Visual Object Processing Across an Occipital- Frontal-Hippocampal Brain Network in Schizophrenia: An integrated neuroimaging study  

PubMed Central

Background Perceptual closure refers to the ability to identify objects with partial information. Deficits in schizophrenia are indexed by impaired generation of the closure-related negativity (NCL) from ventral stream visual cortex (lateral occipital complex, LOC), as part of a network of brain regions that also includes dorsal stream visual regions, prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. This study evaluates network-level interactions during perceptual closure in schizophrenia using parallel ERP, fMRI and neuropsychological assessment. Methods ERP were obtained from 24 patients and 20 healthy volunteers in response to fragmented (closeable) and control scrambled (noncloseable) line drawings. fMRI were obtained from 11 patients and 12 controls. Patterns of between group differences for predefined ERP components and fMRI regions of interest were determined using both analysis of variance and structural equation modeling. Global neuropsychological performance was assessed using elements of the WAIS-III, WMS-III and MATRICS batteries. Results Patients showed impaired visual P1 generation, reflecting dorsal stream dysfunction, along with impaired generation of NCL components over PFC and LOC. In fMRI, patients showed impaired activation of dorsal and ventral visual regions, PFC and hippocampus. Impaired activation of dorsal stream visual regions contributed significantly to impaired PFC activation. Impaired PFC activation contributed significantly to impaired activation of hippocampus and LOC. Impaired LOC and hippocampal activation contributed significantly to deficits on WAIS-III Perceptual Organization Index (POI) and other tests of impaired perceptual processing in schizophrenia. Conclusion Schizophrenia is associated with severe activation deficits across a distributed network of sensory and higher order cognitive regions. Deficit in early visual processing within the dorsal visual stream contributes significantly to impaired frontal activation which, in turn, leads to dysregulation of hippocampus and ventral visual stream. Dysfunction within this network underlies impairment in more traditional measures of neurocognitive dysfunction such as POI, supporting distributed models of brain dysfunction in schizophrenia. PMID:20679585

Sehatpour, Pejman; Dias, Elisa C.; Butler, Pamela D.; Revheim, Nadine; Guilfoyle, David N.; Foxe, John J.; Javitt, Daniel C.

2013-01-01

330

Greater Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Interrupted Stress Pattern Compared to Daily Restraint Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on psychiatric disorders. PMID:25014526

Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R.; Padival, Mallika A.; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

2014-01-01

331

Impaired lysosomal cobalamin transport in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is required for erythrocyte formation and DNA synthesis and it plays a crucial role in maintaining neurological function. As a coenzyme for methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, cobalamin utilization depends on its efficient transit through the intracellular lysosomal compartment and subsequent delivery to the cytosol and mitochondria. Lysosomal function deteriorates in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lysosomal acidification is defective in AD and lysosomal proteolysis is disrupted by AD-related presenilin 1 mutation. In this study, we propose that AD related lysosomal dysfunction may impair lysosomal cobalamin transport. The experiments use in vitro and in vivo models of AD to define how lysosomal dysfunction directly affects cobalamin utilization. SH-SY5Y-A?PP mutant cells were treated with a proteasome inhibitor to induce lysosomal amyloid-? accumulation. We metabolically labeled these cells with [57Co] cobalamin and isolated purified lysosomes, mitochondria, and cytosol fractions. The results indicated that proteasome inhibition was associated with lysosomal amyloid-? accumulation and a doubling of lysosomal [57Co] cobalamin levels. We also used A?PPxPS1 transgenic AD mice that were intraperitoneally injected with [57Co] cobalamin. The amount of [57Co] cobalamin in the major organs of these mice was measured and the subcellular [57Co] cobalamin distribution in the brain was assessed. The results demonstrated that lysosomal [57Co] cobalamin level was significantly increased by 56% in the A?PPxPS1 AD mouse brains as compared to wild type control mice. Together these data provide evidence that lysosomal cobalamin may be impaired in AD in association with amyloid-? accumulation. PMID:25125476

Zhao, Hua; Li, Hongyun; Ruberu, Kalani; Garner, Brett

2015-01-01

332

Impaired motion detection preceding smooth eye movements.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments have been carried out that suggest that the observed psychophysical impairment of motion detection in man may not occur equally over the entire visual field. Instead, if impaired motion detection is a consequence of redirection of 'attention' to another portion of the visual field, then movement detection may be impaired the most in the fovea and the least in the region of the subsequent target.

Richards, W.; Steinbach, M. J.

1972-01-01

333

Whole body cholesterol metabolism is impaired in Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

We previously reported impaired cholesterol biosynthesis in rodent Huntington Disease (HD) models and HD patients' fibroblasts and post mortem brains. We also found that plasma levels of 24S-hydroxycholesterol (24OHC), the brain specific elimination product of cholesterol considered a marker of brain cholesterol turnover, were significantly reduced in HD patients at any disease stage. In the present study we analysed by mass spectrometry the fasting plasma levels of cholesterol, its biosynthetic precursors lanosterol and lathosterol, of the whole-body elimination products 27-hydroxycholesterol and of brain 24OHC in a cohort of premanifest and HD patients at different disease stages. We found that the cholesterol precursors lanosterol and lathosterol (both index of whole body cholesterol synthesis), the levels of the bile acid precursor 27-hydroxycholesterol, and of the brain specific 24OHC, were all significantly reduced in manifest HD patients, suggesting that whole-body and brain cholesterol homeostasis are both impaired in HD. PMID:21406216

Leoni, V; Mariotti, C; Nanetti, L; Salvatore, E; Squitieri, F; Bentivoglio, A R; Bandettini di Poggio, M; Bandettini Del Poggio, M; Piacentini, S; Monza, D; Valenza, M; Cattaneo, E; Di Donato, S

2011-05-01

334

Human Impairment from Living near Confined Animal (Hog) Feeding Operations  

PubMed Central

Problem. To determine whether neighbors around manure lagoons and massive hog confinement buildings who complained of offensive odors and symptoms had impaired brain and lung functions. Method. We compared near hog manure neighbors of lagoons to people living beyond 3 kilometers in Ohio and to unexposed people controls in a nearby state for neurophysiological, cognitive, recall and memory functions, and pulmonary performance. Results. The 25 exposed subjects averaged 4.3 neurobehavioral abnormalities, significantly different from 2.5 for local controls and 2.3 for Tennessee controls. Exposed subjects mean forced vital capacity and expiratory volume in 1?sec were reduced significantly compared to local and regional controls. Conclusions. Near neighbors of hog enclosures and manure lagoon gases had impaired neurobehavioral functions and pulmonary functions and these effects extended to nearby people thought to be controls. Hydrogen sulfide must be abated because people living near lagoons cannot avoid rotten egg gas. PMID:22496706

Kilburn, Kaye H.

2012-01-01

335

Impairment of attention networks in patients with untreated hyperthyroidism.  

PubMed

Attention disorders are common symptoms in patients with untreated hyperthyroidism. Nevertheless, it is unknown whether they represent a global attention deficit or selective impairment of attention networks. Thirty-seven patients with hyperthyroidism were recruited and underwent the Attention Network Test (ANT), which provided measures of three independent attention networks (alerting, orienting and executive control), before being treated with methimazole. This study demonstrated that patients with untreated hyperthyroidism had significant deficits in the alerting and executive control networks. Interestingly, a significant positive association was also found between T4 level and the value of the executive network in patients with hyperthyroidism. These results suggest that the patients with hyperthyroidism may not just exist a specific impairment of attention networks, and there was some relationship between the level of T4, not T3 or TSH, and the value of the executive control network in patients with hyperthyroidism. PMID:24852828

Yuan, Lili; Tian, Yanghua; Zhang, Fangfang; Dai, Fang; Luo, Li; Fan, Jin; Wang, Kai

2014-06-27

336

Respiratory impairment in coffee factory workers in the Asaro Valley of Papua New Guinea.  

PubMed Central

In a coffee growing area of Papua New Guinea, a developing country in the western Pacific region, coffee factory workers were found to have more chronic symptomatic respiratory impairment than a carefully matched group of neighbouring villagers. This impairment was not related to their duration of employment. Coffee factory workers were found also to have a greater prevalence of reversible but asymptomatic airways obstruction on entering their factories after two days off duty than a group of soft drink factory workers. These findings are thought to be related to exposure to the dust produced in large quantities during coffee processing. Images PMID:4015998

Smith, D; Brott, K; Koki, G

1985-01-01

337

Bridging neurocognitive aging and disease modification: targeting functional mechanisms of memory impairment.  

PubMed

Risk for Alzheimer's disease escalates dramatically with increasing age in the later decades of life. It is widely recognized that a preclinical condition in which memory loss is greater than would be expected for a person's age, referred to as amnestic mild cognitive impairment, may offer the best opportunity for intervention to treat symptoms and modify disease progression. Here we discuss a basis for age-related memory impairment, first discovered in animal models and recently isolated in the medial temporal lobe system of man, that offers a novel entry point for restoring memory function with the possible benefit in slowing progression to Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20088811

Gallagher, M; Bakker, A; Yassa, M A; Stark, C E L

2010-05-01

338

Life Science for Visually Impaired Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes life science activities for blind or visually impaired students including aquarium studies, plant germination, classroom animals, and outdoor activities designed with a multisensory approach. (MA)

Malone, Larry; De Lucchi, Linda

1979-01-01

339

Motor dysfunction in patients with liver cirrhosis: impairment of handwriting.  

PubMed

Motor dysfunction is an important clinical finding in patients with liver cirrhosis and mild forms of hepatic encephalopathy. The mechanisms and clinical appearance of motor impairment in patients with liver cirrhosis are not completely understood. We studied fine motor control in forty four patients with advanced liver cirrhosis (excluding those with hepatic encephalopathy grade II) and 48 healthy controls using a kinematic analysis of standardized handwriting tests. We analysed parameters of velocity, the ability to coordinate and the level of automatisation of handwriting movements. Furthermore, we studied the association between impairment of handwriting and clinical neuro-psychiatric symptoms. As compared with control subjects, patients showed a statistically significant reduction of movement peak velocity in all handwriting tasks as well as a substantial increase of number of velocity inversions per stroke. Using a z-score based assessment we found impairment of handwriting in fourteen out of forty four patients (31.8 %). The deterioration of handwriting was associated with clinical symptoms of motor dysfunction, such as bradykinesia, adiadochokinesia, dysmetria of upper extremities and gait ataxia. This is the first study that quantitatively investigates impairment of handwriting in patients with liver cirrhosis. Our findings suggest the application of kinematic analysis of handwriting for diagnostics of motor dysfunction in patients with mild forms of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:16244813

Mechtcheriakov, Sergei; Graziadei, Ivo W; Kugener, André; Schuster, Ingrid; Mueller, Joerg; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Vogel, Wolfgang; Marksteiner, Josef

2006-03-01

340

Working memory contributions to reinforcement learning impairments in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in reinforcement learning tasks. However, behavioral learning curves in such tasks originate from the interaction of multiple neural processes, including the basal ganglia- and dopamine-dependent reinforcement learning (RL) system, but also prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive strategies involving working memory (WM). Thus, it is unclear which specific system induces impairments in schizophrenia. We recently developed a task and computational model allowing us to separately assess the roles of RL (slow, cumulative learning) mechanisms versus WM (fast but capacity-limited) mechanisms in healthy adult human subjects. Here, we used this task to assess patients' specific sources of impairments in learning. In 15 separate blocks, subjects learned to pick one of three actions for stimuli. The number of stimuli to learn in each block varied from two to six, allowing us to separate influences of capacity-limited WM from the incremental RL system. As expected, both patients (n = 49) and healthy controls (n = 36) showed effects of set size and delay between stimulus repetitions, confirming the presence of working memory effects. Patients performed significantly worse than controls overall, but computational model fits and behavioral analyses indicate that these deficits could be entirely accounted for by changes in WM parameters (capacity and reliability), whereas RL processes were spared. These results suggest that the working memory system contributes strongly to learning impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25297101

Collins, Anne G E; Brown, Jaime K; Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Frank, Michael J

2014-10-01

341

Low sleep efficiency in patients with cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementias. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) indicates the situation that a person has memory complaints and mild objective cognitive impairment but no evidence of dementia. Sleep disturbance, one of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), frequently occurs in patients with AD or MCI. The alteration of sleep architectures in AD patients remains inconclusive. In this study, we conducted the polysomnography. (PSG) examination among patients with mild AD with cholinesterase inhibitors (N=10) or MCI (N=12) and age-matched nondemented controls (N=13). The results showed sleep efficiency, which was one of the important parameters for sleep quality was significantly lower in patients with MCI and AD (N=22), 79.14 +/- 11.06 % vs. 67.07 +/- 19.10 %, p=0.046. There were no statistic differences of sleep architecture but a trend of REM insufficiency in patients with MCI or AD. The mean scores of geriatric depression score (GDS) and Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) did not differ among the three groups. Our study implicated maintenance of sleep was impaired in patients with cognitive impairment and it was independent with depressive symptoms. PMID:19673360

Yu, Jia-Ming; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Yuan, Rey-Yue; Sheu, Jau-Jiuan; Liu, Hsing-Cheng; Hu, Chaur-Jong

2009-06-01

342

The relationship between sluggish cognitive tempo and impairment in children with and without ADHD.  

PubMed

This study examined impairment in multiple domains of functioning in children with and without ADHD who present with high or low levels of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) while taking into account the total symptom ratings of ADHD. Participants were 584 children in kindergarten through eighth grade (55.7 % male, 91.7 % Caucasian), drawn from five archival datasets. Two, 2 (SCT groups: high and low) x 3 (ADHD Status: ADHD-I, ADHD-C, and non-ADHD) MANCOVAs were conducted with the total ADHD symptom ratings and child age as covariates. One MANCOVA was conducted on scores on the teacher Impairment Rating Scale (IRS; Fabiano et al. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology 35:369-385, 2006) and the other on the 6 scores on the parent IRS. The results indicated that the presence of SCT symptoms was associated with greater functional impairment at home according to parent report while it was associated with less functional impairment at school according to teacher report. Thus, the relationship between SCT symptoms and impairment differs depending on the informant and the context in which impairment is evaluated. PMID:23820732

Watabe, Yuko; Owens, Julie Sarno; Evans, Steven W; Brandt, Nicole Evangelista

2014-01-01

343

Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.  

PubMed

Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

1990-05-25

344

Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.  

PubMed

The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

2013-09-01

345

Quantifying Repetitive Speech in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child’s echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult’s original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child’s utterances. PMID:23661504

van Santen, Jan P. H.; Sproat, Richard W.; Hill, Alison Presmanes

2013-01-01

346

Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions?  

PubMed Central

The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

2013-01-01

347

Recognising neuroplasticity in musculoskeletal rehabilitation: a basis for greater collaboration between musculoskeletal and neurological physiotherapists.  

PubMed

Evidence is emerging for central nervous system (CNS) changes in the presence of musculoskeletal dysfunction and pain. Motor control exercises, and potentially manual therapy, can induce changes in the CNS, yet the focus in musculoskeletal physiotherapy practice is conventionally on movement impairments with less consideration of intervention-induced neuroplastic changes. Studies in healthy individuals and those with neurological dysfunction provide examples of strategies that may also be used to enhance neuroplasticity during the rehabilitation of individuals with musculoskeletal dysfunction, improving the effectiveness of interventions. In this paper, the evidence for neuroplastic changes in patients with musculoskeletal conditions is discussed. The authors compare and contrast neurological and musculoskeletal physiotherapy clinical paradigms in the context of the motor learning principles of experience-dependent plasticity: part and whole practice, repetition, task-specificity and feedback that induces an external focus of attention in the learner. It is proposed that increased collaboration between neurological and musculoskeletal physiotherapists and researchers will facilitate new discoveries on the neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning sensorimotor changes in patients with musculoskeletal dysfunction. This may lead to greater integration of strategies to enhance neuroplasticity in patients treated in musculoskeletal physiotherapy practice. PMID:24530068

Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Heneghan, Nicola R; Tsao, Henry; Stanwell, Peter T; Rivett, Darren A; Van Vliet, Paulette M

2014-12-01

348

Impaired generation of new subcategories and switching in a semantic verbal fluency test in older adults with mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

The semantic verbal fluency task is broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects. Even some studies have identified differences in verbal fluency clustering and switching measures between subjects with normal aging and a clinical condition such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease, the results are not always consistent. This study aimed to compare clustering and switching measures of an animal's semantic verbal fluency task among normal controls (NC, n = 25), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 25), amnestic multiple domain Mild Cognitive Impairment (a+mdMCI; n = 25) and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 25) Brazilian subjects. The analyses were executed considering three (unifying the MCI subtypes) and four groups. As the data were not normally distributed, we carried out non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests) to evaluate the differences in performance in the measures of the verbal fluency test among the groups. The comparison demonstrated that the groups differed in the total of correct words produced, number of clusters and switching but the measure of new subcategories was the only with significant difference among the NC and all the clinical groups. The measure of new subcategories is the number of original subcategories inside the higher category of animals that the subject produced, such as farm, domestic, African animals. Our results indicate that semantic memory impairment is a visible and recent deficit that occurs even in non-demented subjects with very MCI and the implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25071550

Bertola, Laiss; Cunha Lima, Maria Luiza; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

2014-01-01

349

Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.  

PubMed

The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint. PMID:20221997

Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

2010-03-01

350

Impaired DRL 30 performance during amphetamine withdrawal.  

PubMed

Repeated administration of psychomotor stimulants may produce an impulsive state that could contribute to the cycle of drug abstinence and relapse seen in human drug addicts. We have previously reported that the inhibitory effects of dopamine (DA) on the firing rate of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) neurons were reduced in rats after repeated amphetamine treatment suggesting impaired mPFC DA function. Here, we used a differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) operant conditioning task, which is dependent on mPFC DA, to test impulsivity and inhibitory control. Food-restricted rats were trained to inhibit a nose poke response for 30s before a subsequent nose poke would result in a food reward (DRL 30). Once training was completed, rats received 5 days of no treatment, daily i.p. saline injections or daily i.p. injections of 5mg/kg amphetamine. Nine days of DRL 30 test performance began following a 3-day withdrawal from treatment. The percent of training active hole nose pokes was significantly increased and the percent of training efficiency was significantly decreased in rats withdrawn from repeated amphetamine administration as compared to saline or nai;ve rats. This suggests that impulsivity is increased during amphetamine withdrawal, which we hypothesize is associated with disrupted DA function in the mPFC. PMID:12842301

Peterson, Jayms D; Wolf, Marina E; White, Francis J

2003-07-14

351

Structural correlates of mild cognitive impairment  

E-print Network

The structural correlates of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were examined in 105 elderly subjects whose cognitive function ranged from intact to demented, including 38 subjects with MCI. Hippocampal volumes (left and right HcV), brain volume (BV), and grey matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were segmented from high resolution magnetic resonance data sets and normalised to intracranial volume (ICV). Hippocampal volume reductions, but not global brain, white or grey matter atrophy, were associated with MCI. White matter lesion severity did not differ over cognitive states. In multiple logistic regression models, normalised HcV and ICV (indicating premorbid brain volume) were significant predictors of MCI versus normality. Normalised BV and ICV significantly predicted dementia versus MCI. Absolute volumetric measures of HcV and BV yielded comparable classification accuracies. Hippocampal atrophy may be the crucial step for the transition from normality to MCI. Widespread brain atrophy may be the step to determine the transition from MCI to dementia. Brain volume reserve effects appear to be involved in both of these steps.

Henrike Wolf A; Anke Hensel A; Frithjof Kruggel B; Steffi G. Riedel-heller A; Thomas Arendt C; Lars-olof Wahlund D; Hermann-josef Gertz A

352

Invisible collinear structures impair search.  

PubMed

Visual attention and perceptual grouping both help us from being overloaded by the vast amount of information, and attentional search is delayed when a target overlaps with a snake-like collinear distractor (Jingling & Tseng, 2013). We assessed whether awareness of the collinear distractor is required for this modulation. We first identified that visible long (=9 elements), but not short (=3 elements) collinear distractor slowed observers' detection of an overlapping target. Then we masked part of a long distractor (=9 elements) with continuous flashing color patches (=6 elements) so that the combined dichoptic percept to observers' awareness was a short collinear distractor (=3 elements). We found that the invisible collinear parts, like visible ones, can form a continuous contour to impair search, suggesting that conscious awareness is not a pre-requisite for contour integration and its interaction with selective attention. PMID:25460240

Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

2015-01-01

353

Impairment of noninsulin-mediated glucose disposal in the elderly.  

PubMed

While normal aging is characterized by resistance to insulin-mediated glucose disposal (IMGU), the effect of age on noninsulin-mediated glucose disposal (NIMGU), which is responsible for the majority of basal glucose uptake, has not been completely evaluated. These studies were conducted on healthy nonobese young (n = 10; age, 20-30 yr) and old (n = 10; age, 62-80 yr) men. Each subject underwent two paired studies in random order. In all studies a [3H]glucose infusion was used to measure glucose uptake and production rates, and somatostatin (500 micrograms/h) was infused to suppress endogenous insulin release. In study A, plasma glucose was kept close to fasting levels (approximately 5.6 mmol/L) using an euglycemic clamp protocol for 4 h. Plasma insulin decreased to less than 20 pmol/L within 15 min and remained suppressed thereafter in all studies. Steady state (15-240 min) plasma glucagon levels were slightly greater in the elderly [young, 86 +/- 5 (+/- SE); old, 98 +/- 2 ng/L; P less than .05]. Basal glucose uptake was similar in both groups (young, 877 +/- 21; old, 901 +/- 24 mumol/min). Glucose uptake during the last hour of the study (180-240 min) was used to represent NIMGU, because insulin action was assumed to be absent by this time. NIMGU was less in the elderly (young, 744 +/- 18; old, 632 +/- 32 mumol/min; P less than 0.01). In study B, plasma glucose was kept at about 11 mmol/L for 4 h using a hyperglycemic clamp protocol. Plasma insulin decreased to less than 20 pmol/L within 15 min and remained suppressed thereafter in all studies. Steady state plasma glucagon levels were slightly but not significantly higher in the elderly (young, 88 +/- 6; old, 100 +/- 4 ng/L). Basal glucose uptake (young, 910 +/- 27; old, 883 +/- 25 mumol/min) and NIMGU (young, 933 +/- 36; old, 890 +/- 16 mumol/min; P = NS) were similar in both young and old subjects. We conclude that aging is associated with impairment in NIMGU only in the basal state, which may explain in part the increase in fasting glucose with age. PMID:2563735

Meneilly, G S; Elahi, D; Minaker, K L; Sclater, A L; Rowe, J W

1989-03-01

354

Impaired navigation skills in patients with psychological distress and chronic peripheral vestibular hypofunction without vertigo.  

PubMed

Few studies have focused on the role of the vestibular system for navigation and spatial memory functions in humans, with controversial results. Since most experimental settings were based on magnetic resonance imaging volumetry of the hippocampus and virtual navigation task on a PC, aim of this study was to investigate whether a well-compensated unilateral peripheral vestibular hypofunction in humans could interfere with navigation tasks while walking on memorized routes. A series of 50 unilateral labyrinthine-defective patients, without vertigo at the time of examination, and 50 controls were invited to visually memorize 3 different routes (a triangle, a circle and a square) on a grey carpet and then to walk along them clockwise and counter-clockwise (mental map navigation) with eyes closed. The same test was then repeated with eyes open (actual navigation) and a second time with eyes closed (mental navigation). Execution time was recorded in each test. In the same session, working spatial memory was assessed by the Corsi block test and all subjects completed the Symptom Check List (SCL-90) to assess depression and anxiety levels. Results showed that labyrinthine-defective patients presented higher levels of anxiety and depression and performed the Corsi block test with more difficulties than controls. All differences reached statistically significant level (p < 0.05). Moreover, patients needed more time than controls in the first and third navigation tasks (eyes closed). No difference was observed between clockwise and counter-clockwise walking, on all routes, either in patients or controls. Patients showed a greater improvement in the third navigation task, with respect to the first test, than controls, with no side-effect in relation to labyrinthine hypofunction. These data demonstrate that walking along memorized routes without vision is impaired by peripheral vestibular damage even if vestibular compensation prevents patients from suffering from vertigo and balance disturbances. This impairment could be due to a permanent deficit of visuo-spatial short-term memory as suggested by the Corsi block test results even if a residual sensori-motor impairment and/or an interference of psychological distress could not be excluded. PMID:18533551

Guidetti, G; Monzani, D; Trebbi, M; Rovatti, V

2008-02-01

355

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure  

PubMed Central

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

2012-01-01

356

Thiafentanil-dexmedetomidine-telazol anesthesia in greater rheas (Rhea americana).  

PubMed

Ratite anesthetic events are often dangerous because these birds use their powerful legs and clawed feet as a defense, and physical restraint can result in self-trauma or injury to handlers. Although various combinations of opioids, alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, and dissociative agents have been employed in ratites, few effective chemical immobilization protocols have been documented for rheas (Rhea spp.). An intramuscular, remote-delivered combination of thiafentanil (0.30 +/- 0.08 mg/kg), dexmedetomidine (7.31 +/- 2.72 microg/kg), and tiletamine-zolazepam (5.09 +/- 2.31 mg/kg) was utilized in eight adult (four male, four female) greater rheas (Rhea americana). Smooth inductions were observed. During clinical procedures, birds were intubated and maintained on isoflurane gas, and atipamezole was administered to antagonize the dexmedetomidine. At recovery, naltrexone was administered to antagonize the thiafentanil, and midazolam was administered to smooth crate recoveries until release. This low-volume, high-potency, reversible drug combination demonstrated safe inductions and smooth recoveries and proved to be a reliable anesthetic regimen for greater rheas. PMID:23272347

Ter Beest, Julia; McClean, Modesto; Cushing, Andrew; Bildfell, Robert

2012-12-01

357

The State of Lithospheric Stress in Greater Thailand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thailand and its surrounding regions occupy an important, but often overlooked, location in terms of plate tectonics and lithospheric deformation. The lateral extrusion of Tibet southeastward and eastward along deep strike slip faults to the north and the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone to the south and west bound the region of greater Thailand. While it is adjacent to some of the most seismically active plate boundaries and intra-plate regions on Earth, this region has experienced only a low level of background seismicity. Thus, the long-term seismic potential of greater Thailand remains highly uncertain. Although historic seismicity is one indicator for future seismicity it is not the only tool we have for determining seismic hazard; we can assess the state of lithospheric stress. The stress conditions in this apparent aseismic region will be controlled by the forces acting on it boundaries. We can analyze those conditions through a study of fault structure, earthquake activity, and kinematics in the boundary area. Using Global Seismic Network (GSN) data augmented with Thai seismic network data to constrain the kinematics, and numerical finite element modeling of crustal and lithospheric deformation of the region, we are able to determine to overall stress conditions. This stress model can be compared to the known fault states in Thailand to assess the potential for earthquake activity.

Meyers, B.; Furlong, K. P.; Pananont, P.; Pornsopin, P.

2013-12-01

358

Greater inequalities in dental treatment than in disease experience.  

PubMed

This study aimed to (1) describe social gradients in dental caries in a population-level survey and (2) examine whether inequalities are greater in disease experience or in its treatment. Using data from Australia's National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006, we examined absolute and relative income inequalities for DMFT and its separate components (DT, MT, FT) using adjusted proportions, means, and health disparity indices [Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII)]. Approximately 90% of Australian adults had experienced caries, with prevalence ranging from 89.7% in the highest to 96.6% in the lowest income group. Social gradients in caries were evident across all components of DMFT, but particularly notable in Missing (SII = -15.5, RII = -0.3) and untreated Decay (SII = -23.7, RII = -0.9). Analysis of age- and gender-adjusted data indicated less variation in levels of disease experienced (DMFT) than in the health outcomes of its management (missing teeth). The findings indicate that social gradients for dental caries have a greater effect on how the disease was treated than on lifetime disease experience. PMID:25081039

Mejia, G; Jamieson, L M; Ha, D; Spencer, A J

2014-10-01

359

Prevalence of Depression and Cognitive Impairment in Older Adult EMS Patients  

PubMed Central

Objectives To characterize the proportion of older adult ED patients with depression or cognitive impairment. To compare the prevalence of depression or cognitive impairment among ED patients arriving via EMS, as compared to other modes. Methods Community-dwelling older adults (age?60) presenting to an academic medical center ED were interviewed. Participants provided demographic and clinical information, and were evaluated for depression and cognitive impairment. Subjects arriving via EMS were compared to those arriving via other modes using the chi-square test, t-test, and the Wilcoxon rank sum test, where appropriate. Results Consent was obtained from 1342 eligible older adults; 695 (52%) arrived via EMS. The median age for those arriving via EMS was 74 (IQR 65, 82), 52% were female, 81% white. 15% of EMS patients had moderate or greater depression, as compared to 14% of patients arriving via other modes (p=0.52). 13% of EMS patients had cognitive impairment, as compared to 8% arriving via other modes (p<0.01). Depressed EMS patients frequently reported a history of depression (47%) and taking antidepressants (51%). Cognitively impaired EMS patients infrequently reported a history of dementia (16%) or taking medications for dementia (14%). Conclusions In this cohort of community-dwelling older adult ED patients depression and cognitive impairment were common. As compared to ED patients arriving by other transport means, patients arriving via EMS had similar prevalence of depression but an increased prevalence of cognitive impairment. Screening for depression and cognitive impairment by EMS providers may have value, but needs further investigation. PMID:20977363

Shah, Manish N.; Jones, Courtney M. C.; Richardson, Thomas M.; Conwell, Yeates; Katz, Paul; Schneider, Sandra M.

2010-01-01

360

Muscle-Specific Adaptations, Impaired Oxidative Capacity and Maintenance of Contractile Function Characterize Diet-Induced Obese Mouse Skeletal Muscle  

PubMed Central

Background The effects of diet-induced obesity on skeletal muscle function are largely unknown, particularly as it relates to changes in oxidative metabolism and morphology. Principal Findings Compared to control fed mice, mice fed a high fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal: fat) for 8 weeks displayed increased body mass and insulin resistance without overt fasting hyperglycemia (i.e. pre-diabetic). Histological analysis revealed a greater oxidative potential in the HFD gastrocnemius/plantaris (increased IIA, reduced IIB fiber-type percentages) and soleus (increased I, IIA cross-sectional areas) muscles, but no change in fiber type percentages in tibialis anterior muscles compared to controls. Intramyocellular lipid levels were significantly increased relative to control in HFD gastrocnemius/plantaris, but were similar to control values in the HFD soleus. Using a novel, single muscle fiber approach, impairments in complete palmitate and glucose oxidation (72.8±6.6% and 61.8±9.1% of control, respectively; p<0.05) with HFD were detected. These reductions were consistent with measures made using intact extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles. Compared to controls, no difference in succinate dehydrogenase or citrate synthase enzyme activities were observed between groups in any muscle studied, however, short-chain fatty acyl CoA dehydrogenase (SCHAD) activity was elevated in the HFD soleus, but not tibialis anterior muscles. Despite these morphological and metabolic alterations, no significant difference in peak tetanic force or low-frequency fatigue rates were observed between groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that HFD induces early adaptive responses that occur in a muscle-specific pattern, but are insufficient to prevent impairments in oxidative metabolism with continued high-fat feeding. Moreover, the morphological and metabolic changes which occur with 8 weeks of HFD do not significantly impact muscle contractile properties. PMID:19806198

Shortreed, Karin E.; Krause, Matthew P.; Huang, Julianna H.; Dhanani, Dili; Moradi, Jasmin; Ceddia, Rolando B.; Hawke, Thomas J.

2009-01-01

361

Psycholinguistic Markers for Specific Language Impairment (SLI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study 160 children, aged 11 years with a definite history of specific language impairment (SLI), completed four tasks that could be potential positive psycholinguistic markers for this impairment: a third person singular task, a past tense task, a nonword repetition task, and a sentence repetition task. This allowed examination of more than one type of marker simultaneously, facilitating

Gina Conti-Ramsden; Nicola Botting; Brian Faragher

2001-01-01

362

Statistics on Children with Visual Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes statistical data relating to children with visual impairments, including incidence, causes, and education. Data include: (1) prevalence estimates that indicate 1 percent of persons under the age of 18 in the United States have a visual impairment that cannot be corrected with glasses; (2) the leading cause of childhood…

Viisola, Michelle

363

Service Plan for the Hearing Impaired Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The service plan provides guidelines for a mainstreamed hearing impaired program. Terms are defined and job descriptions for a hearing impaired teacher, aide, interpreter, and speech pathologist are presented. The referral system, including the diagnostic procedures, are outlined as well as placement procedures. Program placement alternatives,…

Anderson, Valerie K.; Schwartz, Candy L.

364

Adult day care participation among impaired elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates 35 impaired elderly clients of a social day care center and compares them with 116 impaired persons taken from a random sample of community elderly using the Duke Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) functional assessment instrument. Multiple discriminant analysis is used to determine if factors exist which predict use of adult day care facilities. Results indicate

Charles M. Barresi; Donna J. McConnell

1987-01-01

365

Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Respiration in Sleep.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Associations between depression and impaired respiration in sleep are frequently noted clinically. This relationship was documented psychometrically with the Geriatric Depression Scale, a self-report measure of nonsomatic depressive symptoms. Mean values and effect size suggest that impaired respiration in sleep was associated with only relatively…

Bliwise, Donald L.; And Others

1986-01-01

366

Counseling the Chronically Health Impaired Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of counselors in working with chronically health impaired students is examined, and illustrations of the Chronic Health Impaired/Sickle Cell Anemia Program in Baltimore (MD) are presented. The importance of setting goals with the student is underlined, as is the necessity for counselors to have proper flexibility and time to devote to…

Dale, Brian, Comp.; And Others

367

Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pain is an understudied problem in frail elderly patients, especially those with cognitive impairment, delirium, or dementia. The focus of this study was to describe the pain experienced by patients in skilled nursing homes, which have a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. A random sample of 325 subjects was selected from ten community skilled nursing homes. Subjects underwent a cross-sectional

Bruce A. Ferrell; Betty R. Ferrell; Lynne Rivera

1995-01-01

368

PERCENT OF IMPAIRED WATERS - 1998 IWI  

EPA Science Inventory

Importance of Clean Water Act Section 303(d) Listing Information Section 303(d) waters show water quality standards impairments or threats to the attainment of beneficial uses or anti-degradation provisions. This map is a representation of threatened and impaired streams, rivers,...

369

Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

2012-01-01

370

Personal guidance system for the visually impaired  

Microsoft Academic Search

We outline the design for a navigation system for the visually impaired and describe the progress we have made toward such a system. Our long-term goal is for a portable, self-contained system that will allow visually impaired individuals to travel through familiar and unfamiliar environments without the assistance of guides. The system, as it exists now, consists of the following

Jack M. Loomis; Reginald G. Golledge; Roberta L. Klatzky; Jon Speigle; Jerome Tietz

1994-01-01

371

Resources for Visually Impaired or Blind Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…

Hart, Elizabeth

2000-01-01

372

Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

2011-01-01

373

Hearing-Impaired Formal Inservice Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The HI-FI (Hearing-Impaired Formal Inservice) Program is described as a set of inservice materials targeted for workshops of regular classroom teachers and other school personnel concerned with school district and classroom management of hearing impaired (HI) children. An introductory section focuses on the design of the program materials,…

Northeast Regional Media Center for the Deaf, Amherst, MA.

374

Writing Motivation of Students with Language Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compared the writing motivation of students with language impairments (LI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. For the study 272 students (33 students with language impairments, 242 TD peers) aged 8-10 years, in 11 elementary schools, were sampled. The two groups completed self-report measures of writing motivation and 20…

Brouwer, Kyle L.

2012-01-01

375

Assessing Functional Impairment in Siblings Living With Children With Disability  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to empirically test if siblings of children with disability had higher levels of parent-reported behavioral and emotional functional impairment compared with a peer group of siblings residing with only typically developing children. METHODS: This was a retrospective secondary analysis of data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We included only households with at least 2 children to ensure sibling relationships. Two groups of siblings were formed: 245 siblings resided in households with a child with disability and 6564 siblings resided in households with typically developing children. Parents responded to questions from the Columbia Impairment Scale to identify functional impairment in their children. RESULTS: On the basis of parent reports and after adjusting for sibling demographic characteristics and household background, siblings of children with disability were more likely than siblings residing with typically developing children to have problems with interpersonal relationships, psychopathological functioning, functioning at school, and use of leisure time (P < .05). The percentage of siblings of children with disability classified with significant functional impairment was 16.0% at the first measurement period and 24.2% at the second (P < .001). For siblings of typically developing children there was a smaller percentage increase from 9.5% to 10.3% (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Functional impairment is a key indicator for the need of mental health services and, as such, early assessment and interventions to limit increasing severity and short- to long-term consequences need to be addressed. Health care professionals need to consider a family-based health care approach for families raising children with disability. PMID:23897909

Havercamp, Susan; Jamieson, Barry; Sahr, Timothy

2013-01-01

376

An Alternative Option to Dedicated Braille Notetakers for People with Visual Impairments: Universal Technology for Better Access  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technology provides equal access to information and helps people with visual impairments to complete tasks more independently. Among various assistive technology options for people with visual impairments, braille notetakers have been considered the most significant because of their technological innovation. Braille notetakers allow users who are…

Hong, Sunggye

2012-01-01

377

The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM): normative data from cognitively intact, cognitively impaired, and elderly patients with dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research adds to the psychometric validation of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) by providing data for samples of elderly patients who are cognitively intact, cognitively impaired (non-dementia), and with dementia. Subjects were 78 individuals referred for evaluation of memory complaints. Significant group differences emerged between the dementia group and the two other groups (normals and cognitively impaired), although

Gordon Teichner; Mark T Wagner

2004-01-01

378

Monocyte Activation in HIV/HCV Coinfection Correlates with Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) challenges the immune system with two viruses that elicit distinct immune responses. Chronic immune activation is a hallmark of HIV infection and an accurate indicator of disease progression. Suppressing HIV viremia by antiretroviral therapy (ART) effectively prolongs life and significantly improves immune function. HIV/HCV coinfected individuals have peripheral immune activation despite effective ART control of HIV viral load. Here we examined freshly isolated CD14 monocytes for gene expression using high-density cDNA microarrays and analyzed T cell subsets, CD4 and CD8, by flow cytometry to characterize immune activation in monoinfected HCV and HIV, and HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects. To determine the impact of coinfection on cognition, subjects were evaluated in 7 domains for neuropsychological performance, which were summarized as a global deficit score (GDS). Monocyte gene expression analysis in HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects identified 43 genes that were elevated greater than 2.5 fold. Correlative analysis of subjects’ GDS and gene expression found eight genes with significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Correlative expression of six genes was confirmed by qPCR, five of which were categorized as type 1 IFN response genes. Global deficit scores were not related to plasma lipopolysaccharide levels. In the T cell compartment, coinfection significantly increased expression of activation markers CD38 and HLADR on both CD4 and CD8 T cells but did not correlate with GDS. These findings indicate that coinfection is associated with a type 1 IFN monocyte activation profile which was further found to correlate with cognitive impairment, even in subjects with controlled HIV infection. HIV-suppressed coinfected subjects with controlled HIV viral load experiencing immune activation could benefit significantly from successful anti-HCV therapy and may be considered as preferential candidates. PMID:23437063

Rempel, Hans; Sun, Bing; Calosing, Cyrus; Abadjian, Linda; Monto, Alexander; Pulliam, Lynn

2013-01-01

379

Central processing energetic factors mediate impaired motor control in ADHD combined subtype but not in ADHD inattentive subtype.  

PubMed

Participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often impaired in visuomotor tasks. However, little is known about the contribution of modal impairment in motor function relative to central processing deficits or whether different processes underlie the impairment in ADHD combined (ADHD-C) versus ADHD inattentive (ADHD-I) subtype. The present study analyzes performance on the Visual Motor Integration Test relative to less effortful motor tests as well as on measures of energetics. Both ADHD groups showed evidence of impaired motor function on both visual-motor integration (VMI) and the less effortful motor tests. The ADHD-C group performed below the ADHD-I group on VMI, but their performance correlated highly with the measures of the energetic pools of arousal and effort. Different mechanisms may underlie impaired fine motor skills in ADHD. Central processing deficits contribute significantly to the deficit of ADHD-C but do not explain the motor impairment in ADHD-I. PMID:21685345

Egeland, Jens; Ueland, Torill; Johansen, Susanne

2012-01-01

380

Does Aggressive Phototherapy Increase Mortality while Decreasing Profound Impairment among the Smallest and Sickest Newborns?  

PubMed Central

Objective Aggressive phototherapy (AgPT) is widely used and assumed to be safe and effective for even the most immature infants. We assessed whether the benefits and hazards for the smallest and sickest infants differed from those for other extremely low birth weight (ELBW; (?1000 g) infants in our Neonatal Research Network trial, the only large trial of AgPT. Study Design ELBW infants (n=1974) were randomized to AgPT or conservative phototherapy at age 12–36 hours. The effect of AgPT on outcomes (death; impairment; profound impairment; death or impairment [primary outcome], and death or profound impairment) at 18–22 months corrected age was related to BW stratum (501–750 g; 751–1000 g) and baseline severity of illness using multilevel regression equations. The probability of benefit and of harm was directly assessed with Bayesian analyses. Results Baseline illness severity was well characterized using mechanical ventilation and FiO2 at 24 hours age. Among mechanically ventilated infants ?750 g BW (n =684), a reduction in impairment and in profound impairment was offset by higher mortality (p for interaction <0.05) with no significant effect on composite outcomes. Conservative Bayesian analyses of this subgroup identified a 99% (posterior) probability that AgPT increased mortality, a 97% probability that AgPT reduced impairment, and a 99% probability that AgPT reduced profound impairment. Conclusions Findings from the only large trial of AgPT suggest that AgPT may increase mortality while reducing impairment and profound impairment among the smallest and sickest infants. New approaches to reduce their serum bilirubin need development and rigorous testing. PMID:22652561

Tyson, Jon E; Pedroza, Claudia; Langer, John; Green, Charles; Morris, Brenda; Stevenson, David; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Oh, William; Phelps, Dale; O’Shea, Michael; McDavid, Georgia E.; Grisby, Cathy; Higgins, Rose

2013-01-01

381

Visual impairment, visual functioning, and quality of life assessments in patients with glaucoma.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine the relation between visual impairment, visual functioning, and the global quality of life in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Visual impairment, defined with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment; visual functioning, measured with the VF-14 and the Field Test Version of the National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); and the global quality of life, assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), were determined in 147 consecutive patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: None of the SF-36 domains demonstrated more than a weak correlation with visual impairment. The VF-14 scores were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual field impairment; vision specific social functioning, near activities, vision specific role difficulties, general vision, vision specific mental health, color vision, and driving were modestly correlated; visual pain was weakly correlated; and two were not significantly correlated. Correcting for visual actuity weakened the strength of the correlation coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36 is unlikely to be useful in determining visual impairment in patients with glaucoma. Based on the moderate correlation between visual field impairment and the VF-14 score, this questionnaire may be generalizable to patients with glaucoma. Several of the NEI-VFQ scales correlate with visual field impairment scores in patients with a wide range of glaucomatous damage. PMID:8981717

Parrish, R K

1996-01-01

382

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the  

E-print Network

Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared See Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, & Swan River Valleys Appendix 29 #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared

383

The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.  

PubMed

The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679?159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

2014-01-01

384

The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network  

PubMed Central

The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679?159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

2014-01-01

385

Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.  

PubMed

We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5). PMID:24549296

Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

2014-04-01

386

Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples  

PubMed Central

Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

Bushman, Brad J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond, Richard S.; Hanus, Michael D.

2014-01-01

387

Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women  

PubMed Central

Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline) startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level) while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109 = 0.23, p < 0.05). Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109 = 0.28, p < 0.05) and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p < 0.001). Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders.

Poli, Eleonora; Angrilli, Alessandro

2015-01-01

388

The failure of feedback on alcohol impairment to reduce impaired driving.  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of rules to govern drinking, individual feedback on blood alcohol concentration (BAC), and public posting of group data on impaired driving on the incidence of impaired driving. Level of impairment was determined from breath samples taken from tavern patrons. Following baseline, an intervention package consisting of (a) cards to guide patrons in pacing their drinking to stay under the legal limit, (b) individual feedback on BAC, and (c) posted group feedback on the percentage of patrons driving while impaired the preceding week was introduced in two taverns. Results indicated that the intervention package did not reduce the percentage of impaired drivers departing either tavern. The addition of a brief intensive police enforcement program directed at impaired driving produced a short-term reduction in impaired driving. PMID:8407684

Nau, P A; Van Houten, R; Rolider, A; Jonah, B A

1993-01-01

389

Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) breeding on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, using a method that accounts for within day variation in follicle size. We considered several models for describing changes in follicle growth with the best supported model estimating the duration of rapid follicle growth (RFG) to be 5.20 ?? 0.52 days (??95% confidence intervals) for each developing follicle. Average diameter and dry mass of preovulatory follicles were estimated to be 9.36 mm and 0.26 g, respectively, at the onset of RFG, and these follicle characteristics were 41.47 mm and 15.57 g, respectively, at ovulation. The average diameter of postovulatory follicles immediately following ovulation was estimated to be 17.35 mm, regressing quickly over several days. In addition, we derived predictive equations using diameter and dry mass to estimate the number of days before, and after, ovulation for pre- and postovulatory follicles, as well as an equation to estimate dry mass of damaged follicles. Our results allow precise definition of RFG and nest initiation dates, clutch size, and the daily energetic and nutritional demands of egg production at the individual level. This study provides the necessary foundation for additional work on Greater Scaup reproductive energetics and physiology, and offers an approach for quantifying ovarian follicle dynamics in other species. ?? 2007 The Author(s). Journal compilation ??2007 Association of Field Ornithologists.

Gorman, K.B.; Flint, P.L.; Esler, D.; Williams, T.D.

2007-01-01

390

An fMRI study of neural pathways following acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment patients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the use of acupuncture as a complementary therapeutic method for treating MCI is popular in certain parts of the world, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. In the current study, we adopted multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) to explore the causal interactions of brain networks involving acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). The fMRI experiment was performed with two different paradigms: namely, deep acupuncture (DA) and superficial acupuncture (SA) at acupoint KI3. Results demonstrated that deep acupuncture could modulate the abnormal regions in MCI group. These regions are implicated in memory encoding and retrieving. This may relate to the purported therapeutically beneficial effects of acupuncture for the treatment of MCI. However, the most significant causal interactions were found in the sensorimotor regions in HC group. This may because acupuncture has a greater modulatory effect on patients with a pathological imbalance. This paper provides the preliminary neurophysiological evidence for the potential efficacy effect of acupuncture on MCI.

Feng, Yuanyuan; Bai, Lijun; Wang, Hu; Zhong, Chongguang; You, Youbo; Zhang, Wensheng; Tian, Jie

2012-03-01

391

Utility of AD8 for Cognitive Impairment in a Chinese Physical Examination Population: A Preliminary Study  

PubMed Central

Objective. To investigate the utility of AD8 for cognitive impairment in a Chinese physical examination population. Methods. Military cadres who took routine physical examination in Chinese PLA General Hospital from Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2013, were subjected to AD8 scale. Individual information such as age, gender, and education was also collected. All data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Results. 1544 subjects were enrolled in this study with mean age 75.4 ± 10.6 years. The subjects who scored 0 to 8 of AD8 scale were 1015, 269, 120, 60, 30, 14, 19, 8, and 9, respectively. Corresponding proportions were 65.7%, 17.4%, 7.8%, 3.9%, 2.0%, 0.9%, 1.2%, 0.5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of 8 questions was 5.6%, 9.2%, 6.6%, 9.2%, 4.8%, 4.5%, 8.9%, and 24.1%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of question 8 was significantly higher than others (P < 0.05). 260 subjects were scored equal to or greater than 2. The abnormal rate was 16.9%. All the participants were stratified into 9 groups by age; the prevalence of dementia was highly correlated with age (P < 0.01). Conclusion. AD8 scale is a convenient and effective tool for cognitive screening in routine physical examination population. PMID:25436227

Xie, Yue; Gao, Ya; Jia, Jianjun; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhenfu; Xie, Hengge

2014-01-01

392

Specific impairments in self-regulation in children exposed to alcohol prenatally.  

PubMed

The present study utilizes a conceptual framework derived from theories of cognition to explain the pattern of behavioral and learning problems observed in subjects with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE). Based on a modern interpretation of Luria's theory of self-regulation, this study used a neuropsychological test battery to compare 10 subjects (mean age = 13 years) having FAS/FAE with 10 control subjects (mean age = 12 years and 9 months). Subjects with FAS/FAE were relatively high functioning and did not significantly differ from controls with respect to receptive vocabulary. However, those with FAS/FAE exhibited greater difficulty than controls on tasks that involved the manipulation of information and goal management in working memory (e.g., Planning, Controlled Oral Word Association, etc). Both groups performed equally well on some tasks that demanded rule learning (Delayed Response) and response inhibition (Go-No-Go). The above impairments were interpreted to be reflective of selective rather than generalized disruptions of neural networks that subserve working memory. PMID:8749827

Kodituwakku, P W; Handmaker, N S; Cutler, S K; Weathersby, E K; Handmaker, S D

1995-12-01

393

Functional Capacity, Muscle Fat Infiltration, Power Output, and Cognitive Impairment in Institutionalized Frail Oldest Old  

PubMed Central

Abstract This study examined the neuromuscular and functional performance differences between frail oldest old with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, the associations between functional capacities, muscle mass, strength, and power output of the leg muscles were also examined. Forty-three elderly men and women (91.9±4.1 years) were classified into three groups—the frail group, the frail with MCI group (frail+MCI), and the non-frail group. Strength tests were performed for upper and lower limbs. Functional tests included 5-meter habitual gait, timed up-and-go (TUG), dual task performance, balance, and rise from a chair ability. Incidence of falls was assessed using questionnaires. The thigh muscle mass and attenuation were assessed using computed tomography. There were no differences between the frail and frail+MCI groups for all the functional variables analyzed, except in the cognitive score of the TUG with verbal task, which frail showed greater performance than the frail+MCI group. Significant associations were observed between the functional performance, incidence of falls, muscle mass, strength, and power in the frail and frail+MCI groups (r=?0.73 to r=0.83, p<0.01 to p<0.05). These results suggest that the frail oldest old with and without MCI have similar functional and neuromuscular outcomes. Furthermore, the functional outcomes and incidences of falls are associated with muscle mass, strength, and power in the frail elderly population. PMID:23822577

Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Idoate, Fernando; Millor, Nora; Martínez-Ramirez, Alicia; Gómez, Marisol; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Marcellán, Teresa; de Gordoa, Ana Ruiz; Marques, Mário C.

2013-01-01

394

Working memory and reward association learning impairments in obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity has been associated with impaired executive functions including working memory. Less explored is the influence of obesity on learning and memory. In the current study we assessed stimulus reward association learning, explicit learning and memory and working memory in healthy weight, overweight and obese individuals. Explicit learning and memory did not differ as a function of group. In contrast, working memory was significantly and similarly impaired in both overweight and obese individuals compared to the healthy weight group. In the first reward association learning task the obese, but not healthy weight or overweight participants consistently formed paradoxical preferences for a pattern associated with a negative outcome (fewer food rewards). To determine if the deficit was specific to food reward a second experiment was conducted using money. Consistent with Experiment 1, obese individuals selected the pattern associated with a negative outcome (fewer monetary rewards) more frequently than healthy weight individuals and thus failed to develop a significant preference for the most rewarded patterns as was observed in the healthy weight group. Finally, on a probabilistic learning task, obese compared to healthy weight individuals showed deficits in negative, but not positive outcome learning. Taken together, our results demonstrate deficits in working memory and stimulus reward learning in obesity and suggest that obese individuals are impaired in learning to avoid negative outcomes. PMID:25447070

Coppin, Géraldine; Nolan-Poupart, Sarah; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn; Small, Dana M

2014-12-01

395

Cognitive impairment in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.  

PubMed

Cognitive impairment in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalous (iNPH) has not been clearly documented. We performed standardized neuropsychological assessments of 21 patients with iNPH and of 42 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) matched to the patients with iNPH 2:1 by age, sex, and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Compared with the AD group, the iNPH group scored significantly higher on the orientation subtest of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale and on the general memory and delayed recall subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), and significantly lower on the attention/concentration subtest of the WMS-R and on the digit span, arithmetic, block design and digit symbol substitution subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. The impairment of frontal lobe functions is disproportionately severe and memory impairment is disproportionately mild in patients with iNPH compared with AD. Recognition of these features contributes to an early diagnosis, which can lead to a better prognosis. PMID:16374006

Ogino, Atsushi; Kazui, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Noriko; Hashimoto, Mamoru; Ohkawa, Shingo; Tokunaga, Hiromasa; Ikejiri, Yoshitaka; Takeda, Masatoshi

2006-01-01

396

Automatic morphometry in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment???  

PubMed Central

This paper presents a novel, publicly available repository of anatomically segmented brain images of healthy subjects as well as patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying magnetic resonance images have been obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. T1-weighted screening and baseline images (1.5 T and 3 T) have been processed with the multi-atlas based MAPER procedure, resulting in labels for 83 regions covering the whole brain in 816 subjects. Selected segmentations were subjected to visual assessment. The segmentations are self-consistent, as evidenced by strong agreement between segmentations of paired images acquired at different field strengths (Jaccard coefficient: 0.802 ± 0.0146). Morphometric comparisons between diagnostic groups (normal; stable mild cognitive impairment; mild cognitive impairment with progression to Alzheimer's disease; Alzheimer's disease) showed highly significant group differences for individual regions, the majority of which were located in the temporal lobe. Additionally, significant effects were seen in the parietal lobe. Increased left/right asymmetry was found in posterior cortical regions. An automatically derived white-matter hypointensities index was found to be a suitable means of quantifying white-matter disease. This repository of segmentations is a potentially valuable resource to researchers working with ADNI data. PMID:21397703

Heckemann, Rolf A.; Keihaninejad, Shiva; Aljabar, Paul; Gray, Katherine R.; Nielsen, Casper; Rueckert, Daniel; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Hammers, Alexander

2011-01-01

397

Impaired metacognitive capacities in individuals with problem gambling.  

PubMed

Impaired insight into behavior may be one of the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling. In the present study, we tested whether the capacity to evaluate accurately the quality of one's own decisions during a non-gambling task was impaired in problem gamblers. Twenty-five problem gamblers and 25 matched healthy participants performed an artificial grammar-learning paradigm, in which the quality of choice remains uncertain throughout the task. After each trial of this task, participants had to indicate how confident they were in the grammaticality judgements using a scale ranging from 1 (low confidence) to 7 (high confidence). Results showed that (i), problem gamblers' performance on the grammaticality test was lower than controls'; (ii) there was a significant correlation between grammaticality judgments and confidence for control participants, which indicates metacognitive insight and the presence of conscious knowledge; (iii) this correlation was not significant in problem gamblers, which suggests a disconnection between performance and confidence in this group. These findings suggest that problem gamblers are impaired in their metacognitive abilities on a non-gambling task, which suggests that compulsive gambling is associated with poor insight as a general factor. Clinical interventions tailored to improve metacognition in gambling could be a fruitful avenue of research in order to prevent pathological gambling. PMID:23149513

Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Bechara, Antoine; Greisen, Max; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

2014-03-01

398

Clinical Prediction of Alzheimer Disease Dementia Across the Spectrum of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine whether clinical assessment methods that grade the severity of impairments within the spectrum of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) can predict clinical course, particularly among very mildly impaired individuals who do not meet formal MCI criteria as implemented in clinical trials. Design: Cohort. Setting: Community volunteers. Participants: From a longitudinal study of normal (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR]=0; n=77) and mildly impaired (CDR=0.5; n=167) participants with 5 or more annual clinical assessments, baseline level of cognitive impairment in daily life was graded using CDR sum of boxes (CDR-SB) and level of cognitive performance impairment was graded using neuropsychological test scores. Main Outcome Measures: Five-year outcome measures included (1) probable Alzheimer disease (AD) diagnosis and (2) clinical “decline” (CDR-SB increase ?1.0). Logistic regression models were used to assess the ability of baseline measures to predict outcomes in the full sample and separately in the subjects who did not meet formal MCI criteria as implemented in a multicenter clinical trial (n = 125; “very mild cognitive impairment” [vMCI]). Results: The presence of both higher CDR-SB and lower verbal memory and executive function at baseline predicted greater likelihood of probable AD and decline. Five-year rates of probable AD and decline in vMCI (20%, AD; 49%, decline) were intermediate between normal participants (0%, AD; 28%, decline) and participants with MCI (41%, AD; 62%, decline). Within vMCI, likelihood of probable AD was predicted by higher CDR-SB and lower executive function. Conclusions: Even in very mildly impaired individuals who do not meet strict MCI criteria as implemented in clinical trials, the degree of cognitive impairment in daily life and performance on neuropsychological testing predict likelihood of an AD diagnosis within 5 years. The clinical determination of relative severity of impairment along the spectrum of MCI may be valuable for trials of putative disease-modifying compounds, particularly as target populations are broadened to include less impaired individuals. PMID:18056553

Dickerson, Bradford C.; Sperling, Reisa A.; Hyman, Bradley T.; Albert, Marilyn S.; Blacker, Deborah

2008-01-01

399

45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness. 1308...13 Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness. (a...classified as visually impaired when visual impairment, with correction,...

2011-10-01

400

45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness. 1308...13 Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness. (a...classified as visually impaired when visual impairment, with correction,...

2012-10-01

401

45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness. 1308...13 Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness. (a...classified as visually impaired when visual impairment, with correction,...

2013-10-01

402

45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness. 1308...13 Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness. (a...classified as visually impaired when visual impairment, with correction,...

2010-10-01

403

Neuropsychological impairments in chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and depression.  

PubMed Central

To examine the degree and nature of cognitive impairments in chronic fatigue syndrome, a comprehensive neuropsychological battery was given to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, depressed patients, and healthy controls. The battery included tests of attention and concentration, information processing speed, verbal and visual memory, intellectual ability, and concept formation. Measures of depression and anxiety were also obtained. The chronic fatigue syndrome group did not differ from the depressed group in overall neuropsychological performance, but differed from the multiple sclerosis and control groups. The most significant impairment was in information processing speed in the chronic fatigue syndrome group. Depression and anxiety were not related to neuropsychological performance. The influence of reduced information processing on other areas of cognition is discussed. PMID:7823065

DeLuca, J; Johnson, S K; Beldowicz, D; Natelson, B H

1995-01-01

404

Grape powder supplementation prevents oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment, and high blood pressure in rats.  

PubMed

We examined whether or not grape powder treatment ameliorates oxidative stress-induced anxiety-like behavior, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. Oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats was produced by using L-buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO). Four groups of rats were used: 1) control (C; injected with vehicle and provided with tap water), 2) grape powder-treated (GP; injected with vehicle and provided for 3 wk with 15 g/L grape powder dissolved in tap water), 3) BSO-treated [injected with BSO (300 mg/kg body weight), i.p. for 7 d and provided with tap water], and 4) BSO plus grape powder-treated (GP+BSO; injected with BSO and provided with grape powder-treated tap water). Anxiety-like behavior was significantly greater in BSO rats compared with C or GP rats (P < 0.05). Grape powder attenuated BSO-induced anxiety-like behavior in GP+BSO rats. BSO rats made significantly more errors in both short- and long-term memory tests compared with C or GP rats (P < 0.05), which was prevented in GP+BSO rats. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly greater in BSO rats compared with C or GP rats (P < 0.05), whereas grape powder prevented high blood pressure in GP+BSO rats. Furthermore, brain extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) was activated (P < 0.05), whereas levels of glyoxalase-1 (GLO-1), glutathione reductase-1 (GSR-1), calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type IV (CAMK-IV), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were significantly less (P < 0.05) in BSO but not in GP+BSO rats compared with C or GP rats. We suggest that by regulating brain ERK-1/2, GLO-1, GSR-1, CAMK-IV, CREB, and BDNF levels, grape powder prevents oxidative stress-induced anxiety, memory impairment, and hypertension in rats. PMID:23596160

Allam, Farida; Dao, An T; Chugh, Gaurav; Bohat, Ritu; Jafri, Faizan; Patki, Gaurav; Mowrey, Christopher; Asghar, Mohammad; Alkadhi, Karim A; Salim, Samina

2013-06-01

405

20 CFR 220.101 - Evaluation of mental impairments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Evaluation of mental impairments. 220.101 Section 220...Disability § 220.101 Evaluation of mental impairments. (a) General. The...apply to the evaluation of physical and mental impairments. In addition, in...

2012-04-01

406

20 CFR 220.101 - Evaluation of mental impairments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Evaluation of mental impairments. 220.101 Section 220...Disability § 220.101 Evaluation of mental impairments. (a) General. The...apply to the evaluation of physical and mental impairments. In addition, in...

2010-04-01

407

20 CFR 220.101 - Evaluation of mental impairments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2012-04-01 true Evaluation of mental impairments. 220.101 Section 220...Disability § 220.101 Evaluation of mental impairments. (a) General. The...apply to the evaluation of physical and mental impairments. In addition, in...

2013-04-01

408

20 CFR 220.101 - Evaluation of mental impairments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2012-04-01 true Evaluation of mental impairments. 220.101 Section 220...Disability § 220.101 Evaluation of mental impairments. (a) General. The...apply to the evaluation of physical and mental impairments. In addition, in...

2014-04-01

409

20 CFR 220.101 - Evaluation of mental impairments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Evaluation of mental impairments. 220.101 Section 220...Disability § 220.101 Evaluation of mental impairments. (a) General. The...apply to the evaluation of physical and mental impairments. In addition, in...

2011-04-01

410

Microcontaminants and reproductive impairment of the Forster's tern on Green Bay, Lake Michigan,1983  

USGS Publications Warehouse

For the 1983 nesting season, Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) reproductive success was significantly impaired on organochlorine contaminated Green Bay, Lake Michigan compared to a relatively uncontaminated inland location at Lake Poygan, Wisconsin. Compared with tern eggs from Lake Poygan, eggs from Green Bay had significantly higher median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total (three congeners) non-ortho, ortho' PCBs, five individual PCB congeners known to induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and several other organochlorine contaminants. Conversions of analytical concentrations of TCDD and PCB congeners based on relative AHH induction potencies allowed for estimation of total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Two PCB congeners, 2,3,3',4,4'- and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PeCB) accounted for more than 90% of the median estimated TCDD equivalents at both Green Bay and Lake Poygan. The median estimated TCDD equivalents were almost 11-fold higher in tern eggs from Green Bay than in eggs from Lake Poygan (2175 and 201 pg/g). The hatching success of Green Bay sibling eggs from nests where eggs were collected for contaminant analyses was 75% lower at Green Bay than at Lake Poygan. Hatchability of eggs taken from other nests and artificially incubated was about 50% lower for Green Bay than for Lake Poygan. Among hatchlings from laboratory incubation, those from Green Bay weighed approximately 20% less and had a mean liver weight to body weight ratio 26% greater than those from Lake Poygan. In both field and laboratory, mean minimum incubation periods were significantly longer for eggs from Green Bay compared to Lake Poygan (8.25 and 4.58 days, respectively). Mean minimum incubation time for Green Bay eggs in the field was 4.37 days longer than in the laboratory. Hatchability was greatly improved when Green Bay eggs were incubated by Lake Poygan adults in an egg-exchange experiment, but was sharply decreased in Lake Poygan eggs incubated in Green Bay nests. Nest abandonment and egg disappearance were substantial at Green Bay but nil at Lake Poygan. Thus, not only factors intrinsic to the egg, but also extrinsic factors (parental attentiveness), impaired reproductive outcome at Green Bay. The epidemiological evidence from this study strongly suggested that contaminants were a causal factor. AHH-active PCB congeners (intrinsic effects) and PCBs in general (extrinsic effects) appeared to be the only contaminants at the concentrations measured in eggs, capable of producing the effects that were observed at Green Bay.

Kubiak, T.J.; Harris, H.J.; Smith, L.M.; Schwartz, T.R.; Stalling, D.L.; Trick, J.A.; Sileo, L.; Docherty, D.E.; Erdman, T.C.

1989-01-01

411

Hypercholesterolemia Impairs Immunity to Tuberculosis ?  

PubMed Central

We demonstrate that apolipoprotein E -deficient (ApoE?/?) mice are highly susceptible to tuberculosis and that their susceptibility depends on the severity of hypercholesterolemia. Wild-type (WT) mice and ApoE?/? mice fed a low-cholesterol (LC) or high-cholesterol (HC) diet were infected with ?50 CFU Mycobacterium tuberculosis Erdman by aerosol. ApoE?/? LC mice were modestly more susceptible to tuberculosis than WT LC mice. In contrast, ApoE?/? HC mice were extremely susceptible, as evidenced by 100% mortality after 4 weeks with tuberculosis. The lung pathology of ApoE?/? HC mice was remarkable for giant abscess-like lesions, massive infiltration by granulocytes, elevated inflammatory cytokine production, and a mean bacterial load ?2 log units higher than that of WT HC mice. Compared to WT HC mice, the gamma interferon response of splenocytes restimulated ex vivo with M. tuberculosis culture filtrate protein was delayed in ApoE?/? HC mice, and they failed to control M. tuberculosis growth in the lung. OT-II cells adoptively transferred into uninfected ApoE?/? HC mice had a weak proliferative response to their antigen, indicating impaired priming of the adaptive immune response. Our studies show that ApoE?/? deficiency is associated with delayed expression of adaptive immunity to tuberculosis caused by defective priming of the adaptive immune response and that elevated serum cholesterol is responsible for this effect. PMID:18505807

Martens, Gregory W.; Arikan, Meltem Cevik; Lee, Jinhee; Ren, Fucheng; Vallerskog, Therese; Kornfeld, Hardy

2008-01-01

412

Perceptual grouping impairs temporal resolution.  

PubMed

Performance on multisensory temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks is enhanced when the sensory stimuli are presented at different locations rather than the same location. In our first experiment, we replicated this result for spatially separated stimuli within the visual modality. In Experiment 2, we investigated the effect of perceptual grouping on this spatial effect. Observers performed a visual TOJ task in which two stimuli were presented in a configuration that encouraged perceptual grouping or not (i.e., one- and two-object conditions respectively). Despite a constant spatial disparity between targets across the two conditions, a smaller just noticeable difference (i.e., better temporal resolution) was found when the two targets formed two objects than when they formed one. This effect of perceptual grouping persisted in Experiment 3 when we controlled for apparent motion by systematically varying the spatial distance between the targets. Thus, in contrast to the putative same-object advantage observed in spatial discrimination tasks, these findings indicate that perceptual grouping impairs visual temporal resolution. PMID:17639362

Nicol, Jeffrey R; Shore, David I

2007-11-01

413

Impact of breathing 100% oxygen on radiation-induced cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O(2) during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O(2) for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O(2)) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O(2) received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O(2) was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O(2) during an EVA. PMID:25338095

Wheeler, Kenneth T; Payne, Valerie; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Walb, Matthew C; Munley, Michael T; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J; Robbins, Mike E

2014-11-01

414

Impact of Breathing 100% Oxygen on Radiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O2 for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O2) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O2 received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O2 was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. PMID:25338095

Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Payne, Valerie; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Walb, Matthew C.; Munley, Michael T.; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J.; Robbins, Mike E.

2015-01-01

415

Cognition and motor control as a function of Delta9-THC concentration in serum and oral fluid: limits of impairment.  

PubMed

Cannabis use has been associated with increased risk of becoming involved in traffic accidents; however, the relation between THC concentration and driver impairment is relatively obscure. The present study was designed to define performance impairment as a function of THC in serum and oral fluid in order to provide a scientific framework to the development of per se limits for driving under the influence of cannabis. Twenty recreational users of cannabis participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way cross-over study. Subjects were administered single doses of 0, 250 and 500 microg/kg THC by smoking. Performance tests measuring skills related to driving were conducted at regular intervals between 15 min and 6h post smoking and included measures of perceptual-motor control (Critical tracking task), motor impulsivity (Stop signal task) and cognitive function (Tower of London). Blood and oral fluid were collected throughout testing. Results showed a strong and linear relation between THC in serum and oral fluid. Linear relations between magnitude of performance impairment and THC in oral fluid and serum, however, were low. A more promising way to define threshold levels of impairment was found by comparing the proportion of observations showing impairment or no impairment as a function of THC concentration. The proportion of observations showing impairment progressively increased as a function of serum THC in every task. Binomial tests showed an initial and significant shift toward impairment in the Critical tracking task for serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml. At concentrations between 5 and 10 ng/ml approximately 75-90% of the observations were indicative of significant impairment in every performance test. At THC concentrations >30 ng/ml the proportion of observations indicative of significant impairment increased to a full 100% in every performance tests. It is concluded that serum THC concentrations between 2 and 5 ng/ml establish the lower and upper range of a THC limit for impairment. PMID:16723194

Ramaekers, J G; Moeller, M R; van Ruitenbeek, P; Theunissen, E L; Schneider, E; Kauert, G

2006-11-01

416

Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials: Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test-retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score {<=}-1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose-volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD{sub 2}) assuming an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher's exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dose-response data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results: Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD{sub 2} to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion: EQD{sub 2} to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results.

Gondi, Vinai [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Hermann, Bruce P. [Department of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A., E-mail: tome@humonc.wisc.edu [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

2012-07-15

417

Multiple white matter tract abnormalities underlie cognitive impairment in RRMS.  

PubMed

Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a sensitive tool for detecting microstructural tissue damage in vivo. In this study, we investigated DTI abnormalities in individuals with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and examined the relations between imaging-based measures of white matter injury and cognitive impairment. DTI-derived metrics using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were compared between 37 individuals with RRMS and 20 healthy controls. Cognitive impairment was assessed with three standard tests: the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), which measures cognitive processing speed and visual working memory, the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), which examines verbal memory, and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), which assesses sustained attention and working memory. Correlations between DTI-metrics and cognition were explored in regions demonstrating significant differences between the RRMS patients and the control group. Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) was found in RRMS participants compared to controls across the tract skeleton (0.40 ± 0.03 vs. 0.43 ± 0.01, p<0.01). In areas of reduced FA, mean diffusivity was increased and was dominated by increased radial diffusivity with no significant change in axial diffusivity, an indication of the role of damage to CNS myelin in MS pathology. In the RRMS group, voxelwise correlations were found between FA reduction and cognitive impairment in cognitively-relevant tracts, predominantly in the posterior thalamic radiation, the sagittal stratum, and the corpus callosum; the strongest correlations were with SDMT measures, with contributions to these associations from both lesion and normal-appearing white matter. Moreover, results using threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) showed more widespread white matter involvement compared to cluster-based thresholding. These findings indicate the important role for DTI in delineating mechanisms underlying MS-associated cognitive impairment and suggest that DTI could play a critical role in monitoring the clinical and cognitive effects of the disease. PMID:22062194

Yu, Hui Jing; Christodoulou, Christopher; Bhise, Vikram; Greenblatt, Daniel; Patel, Yashma; Serafin, Dana; Maletic-Savatic, Mirjana; Krupp, Lauren B; Wagshul, Mark E

2012-02-15

418

Role of serotonin in memory impairment.  

PubMed

As a result of its presence in various structures of the central nervous system serotonin (5-HT) plays a role in a great variety of behaviours such as food intake, activity rythms, sexual behaviour and emotional states. Despite this lack of functional specialization, the serotonergic system plays a significant role in learning and memory, in particular by interacting with the cholinergic, glutamatergic, dopaminergic or GABAergic systems. Its action is mediated via specific receptors located in crucial brain structures involved in these functions, primarily the septo-hippocampal complex and the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM)-frontal cortex. Converging evidence suggests that the administration of 5-HT2A/2C or 5-HT4 receptor agonists or 5-HT1A or 5-HT3 and 5-HT1B receptor antagonists prevents memory impairment and facilitates learning in situations involving a high cognitive demand. In contrast, antagonists for 5-HT2A/2C and 5-HT4, or agonists for 5-HT1A or 5-HT3 and 5-HT1B generally have opposite effects. A better understanding of the role played by these and other serotonin receptor subtypes in learning and memory is likely to result from the recent availability of highly specific ligands, such as 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, and new molecular tools, such as gene knock-out mice, especially inducible mice in which a specific genetic alteration can be restricted both temporally and anatomically. PMID:10821328

Buhot, M C; Martin, S; Segu, L

2000-04-01

419

The Impact of Forced Transitions on the Most Functionally Impaired Nursing Home Residents  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives To examine the hospitalization rate and mortality associated with forced mass transfer of nursing home residents with the highest levels of functional impairment. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting 119 Texas and Louisiana nursing homes that were identified as being “at-risk” for evacuation for Hurricane Gustav. Participants 6,464 long-stay residents residing in “at-risk” nursing homes for at least three consecutive months prior to landfall of Hurricane Gustav. Measurements Using Medicare claims and instrumental variable analysis, we compared the differential mortality (death at 30 and 90 days) and hospitalization rates (at 30 and 90 days) of the most functionally-impaired long-stay residents who evacuated for Hurricane Gustav relative to the most functionally impaired residents who did not evacuate. Results Results suggest that the effect of evacuation was associated with an 8% increase in hospitalizations by 30 and 90 days for the most functionally impaired residents. Evacuation was not significantly related to mortality for the most functionally impaired residents. Conclusion Our results suggest that the most functionally impaired nursing home residents experience an increase in hospitalizations but not mortality as a consequence of forced mass transfer. With the inevitability of nursing home evacuations for many different reasons, harm mitigation strategies focused on the most impaired residents are needed. PMID:23002792

Thomas, Kali S.; Dosa, David; Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M.; Swamination, Shailender; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

2012-01-01

420

Stability of Early Identified Aggressive Victim Status in Elementary School and Associations with Later Mental Health Problems and Functional Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aggressive victims--children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression--experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim…

Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.

2011-01-01

421

A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of expected shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking is ca 35% in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama and ca 10% in Chiba for an average 30 year period, in good agreement with our independent estimate, and thus bolstering our view that Tokyo's hazard looms large. Given $1 trillion estimates for the cost of an M???7.3 shock beneath Tokyo, our probability implies a $13 billion annual probable loss. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

2006-01-01

422

Neural Correlates of Alerting and Orienting Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Background A considerable percentage of multiple sclerosis patients have attentional impairment, but understanding its neurophysiological basis remains a challenge. The Attention Network Test allows 3 attentional networks to be studied. Previous behavioural studies using this test have shown that the alerting network is impaired in multiple sclerosis. The aim of this study was to identify neurophysiological indexes of the attention impairment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients using this test. Results After general slowing had been removed in patients group to isolate the effects of each condition, some behavioral differences between them were obtained. About Contingent Negative Variation, a statistically significant decrement were found in the amplitude for Central and Spatial Cue Conditions for patient group (p<0.05). ANOVAs showed for the patient group a significant latenc