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1

Which type of repetitive muscle contractions induces a greater acute impairment of position sense?  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine which type of repetitive muscle contractions induces a greater acute impairment of elbow position sense. Eleven male subjects participating in the study underwent (i) an exercise task (ET) consisting of 9 sets of 10 voluntary isometric, concentric, or eccentric contractions randomly performed on three separate sessions, and (ii) a pre- and post-exercise maximal voluntary isometric contraction (iMVC). Prior to and between sets of ET, a proprioception task (PT) consisting of matching the right arm to the left reference arm was performed at three different target angular positions (70 degrees , 110 degrees and 150 degrees). Each ET was immediately followed by 3 PT and 1 min rest. The statistical analysis revealed that post-exercise iMVCs were significantly decreased compared to pre-exercise iMVC in all conditions with a greater drop following the eccentric task. Despite this greater drop, position sense was significantly affected by the concentric exercise task. In addition, the spectral EMG signals significantly shifted towards lower frequencies from the initial values, regardless of exercise task. The results showed that concentric muscle contractions impaired position sense to a greater extent compared to isometric and eccentric contractions. PMID:19410485

Fortier, Sylvie; Basset, Fabien A; Billaut, François; Behm, David; Teasdale, Normand

2010-04-01

2

Murine malaria is associated with significant hearing impairment  

PubMed Central

Background Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been suspected to cause hearing loss. Developmental, cognitive and language disorders have been observed in children, surviving cerebral malaria. This prospective study aims to evaluate whether malaria influences hearing in mice. Methods Twenty mice were included in a standardized murine cerebral malaria model. Auditory evoked brainstem responses were assessed before infection and at the peak of the illness. Results A significant hearing impairment could be demonstrated in mice with malaria, especially the cerebral form. The control group did not show any alterations. No therapy was used. Conclusion This suggests that malaria itself leads to a hearing impairment in mice.

2010-01-01

3

Prevalence and clinical significance of systolic impairment in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the frequency of systolic impairment (SI) and its impact on the natural history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods: 1080 patients (mean (SD) age 43 (15) years, 660 men) with HCM were evaluated. Initial assessment included history, examination, 48 hour Holter monitoring, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and echocardiography; SI was defined as a fractional shortening (FS) ? 25%. Survival data were collected at clinic visits or by direct communication with patients and their general practitioners. The results of serial echocardiography in 462 patients with normal FS at presentation are also reported. Results: 26 (2.4%) patients (49 (14) years, 18 men) had SI at the initial visit. During follow up (58 (49) months), nine (34.6%) died or underwent cardiac transplantation compared with 108 (10.2%) patients with normal FS (p ?=? 0.01). Five year survival from death (any cause) or transplantation was 90.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 87.8 to 92.4) in patients with normal systolic function versus 52.4% (95% CI 25.2 to 79.6, p < 0.0001) in patients with SI. In patients who underwent serial echocardiography, 22 (4.8%, aged 41 (15) years) developed SI over 66 (40) months; the annual incidence of SI was 0.87% (95% CI 0.54 to 1.31). On initial evaluation patients who developed SI had a higher frequency of syncope (67 (15.2%) v 10 (45.5%) of those who did not develop SI, p ?=? 0.001), non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (91 (20.6%) v 11 (50%), p ?=? 0.002), and an abnormal blood pressure response on exercise (131 (29.7%) v 15 (68.2%), p ?=? 0.001). Patients with SI had greater wall thinning (p ?=? 0.001), left ventricular cavity enlargement (p < 0.0005), and deterioration in New York Heart Association functional class (p ?=? 0.001) during follow up. Thirteen (59.1%) patients who progressed to SI died or underwent transplantation compared with 38 (8.6%) patients who maintained normal systolic function. Conclusions: SI is an infrequent complication of HCM but, when present, is associated with a poor prognosis.

Thaman, R; Gimeno, J R; Murphy, R T; Kubo, T; Sachdev, B; Mogensen, J; Elliott, P M; McKenna, W J

2005-01-01

4

Role of cannabinoid receptor type 1 desensitization in greater tetrahydrocannabinol impairment of memory in adolescent rats.  

PubMed

Adolescence is a well defined developmental period during which marijuana use is common. However, little is known about the response to marijuana in adolescents compared with adults. We have shown previously that adolescent rats are more impaired than adults by ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, in a spatial learning task, but the mechanism responsible for this differential impairment is not understood. We determined the role of THC tolerance and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) regulation in THC-induced spatial learning impairment in adolescent and adult rats. We measured the development of tolerance to THC-induced learning impairment in adolescent (postnatal days 30-35) and adult (postnatal days 70-75) rats. We pretreated them for 5 days with 10 mg/kg THC, and then evaluated the effects of vehicle or THC treatment on learning during training in the Morris water maze. We also determined CB1 number and functional coupling in the hippocampus of adolescents and adults. Finally, we measured the time course of hippocampal CB1 desensitization in adolescents and adults during treatment with 10 mg/kg THC or vehicle. Our results indicate that adults, but not adolescents, become tolerant to the effects of THC during water maze training after 5 days of pretreatment. CB1s in adolescent hippocampus are less functionally coupled to G proteins and desensitize more slowly in response to THC treatment than those of adults. THC may impair learning in adolescents more than in adults because of delayed activation of cellular homeostatic adaptive mechanisms underlying cannabinoid tolerance in the hippocampus. PMID:20668056

Moore, Nicole L T; Greenleaf, Ashley L R; Acheson, Shawn K; Wilson, Wilkie A; Swartzwelder, H Scott; Kuhn, Cynthia M

2010-11-01

5

Role of Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 Desensitization in Greater Tetrahydrocannabinol Impairment of Memory in Adolescent Rats  

PubMed Central

Adolescence is a well defined developmental period during which marijuana use is common. However, little is known about the response to marijuana in adolescents compared with adults. We have shown previously that adolescent rats are more impaired than adults by ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound in marijuana, in a spatial learning task, but the mechanism responsible for this differential impairment is not understood. We determined the role of THC tolerance and cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) regulation in THC-induced spatial learning impairment in adolescent and adult rats. We measured the development of tolerance to THC-induced learning impairment in adolescent (postnatal days 30–35) and adult (postnatal days 70–75) rats. We pretreated them for 5 days with 10 mg/kg THC, and then evaluated the effects of vehicle or THC treatment on learning during training in the Morris water maze. We also determined CB1 number and functional coupling in the hippocampus of adolescents and adults. Finally, we measured the time course of hippocampal CB1 desensitization in adolescents and adults during treatment with 10 mg/kg THC or vehicle. Our results indicate that adults, but not adolescents, become tolerant to the effects of THC during water maze training after 5 days of pretreatment. CB1s in adolescent hippocampus are less functionally coupled to G proteins and desensitize more slowly in response to THC treatment than those of adults. THC may impair learning in adolescents more than in adults because of delayed activation of cellular homeostatic adaptive mechanisms underlying cannabinoid tolerance in the hippocampus.

Moore, Nicole L. T.; Greenleaf, Ashley L. R.; Acheson, Shawn K.; Wilson, Wilkie A.; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

2010-01-01

6

Significantly greater reduction in breast cancer mortality from post-diagnosis running than walking.  

PubMed

The purpose of these analyses is to test prospectively whether post-diagnosis running and walking differ significantly in their association with breast cancer mortality. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to compare breast cancer mortality to baseline exercise energy expenditure (METs, 1 MET-hour ?1 km run) in 272 runners and 714 walkers previously diagnosed with breast cancer from the National Runners' and Walkers' Health Studies when adjusted for age, race, menopause, family history, breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use. Diagnosis occurred (mean ± SD) 7.9 ± 7.3 years before baseline. Forty-six women (13 runners and 33 walkers) died from breast cancer during 9.1-year mortality surveillance. For the 986 runners and walkers combined, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 23.9% MET-hours/day [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-38.3%; p = 0.004]. There was a significantly greater decrease in risk for running than walking (risk per MET-hours/day run vs. walked: p = 0.03). For the 272 runners analyzed separately, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 40.9% per MET-hours/day run (95% CI: 19.3-60.0%, p = 0.0004). When analyzed by categories of running energy expenditure, breast cancer mortality was 87.4% lower for the 1.8-3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 41.3-98.2% lower, p = 0.008) and 95.4% lower for the ?3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 71.9-100% lower, p = 0.0004) compared to the <1.07 MET-hours/day category. In contrast, the 714 walkers showed a nonsignificant 4.6% decrease in breast cancer mortality per MET-hours/day walked (95% CI: 27.3% decreased risk to 21.3% increased risk, p = 0.71). These results suggest that post-diagnosis running is associated with significantly lower breast cancer mortality than post-diagnosis walking. PMID:24470442

Williams, Paul T

2014-09-01

7

A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few South American macrofloras of Paleocene age are known, and this limits our knowledge of diversity and composition between the end-Cretaceous event and the Eocene appearance of high floral diversity. We report new, unbiased collections of 2516 compression specimens from the Paleocene Salamanca Formation (ca. 61.7 Ma) from two localities in the Palacio de los Loros exposures in southern Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina. Our samples reveal considerably greater richness than was previously known from the Paleocene of Patagonia, including 36 species of angiosperm leaves as well as angiosperm fruits, flowers, and seeds; ferns; and conifer leaves, cones, and seeds. The floras, which are from siltstone and sandstone channel-fills deposited on low-relief floodplain landscapes in a humid, warm temperate climate, are climatically and paleoenvironmentally comparable to many quantitatively collected Paleocene floras from the Western Interior of North America. Adjusted for sample size, there are >50% more species at each Palacio de los Loros quarry than in any comparable U.S. Paleocene sample. These results indicate more vibrant terrestrial ecosystems in Patagonian than in North American floodplain environments ˜4 m.y. after the end-Cretaceous extinction, and they push back the time line 10 m.y. for the evolution of high floral diversity in South America. The cause of the dis parity is unknown but could involve reduced impact effects because of greater distance from the Chicxulub site, higher latest Cretaceous diversity, or faster recovery or immigration rates.

Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter; Johnson, Kirk R.; Zamuner, Alba B.; Rubén Cúneo, N.; Matheos, Sergio D.; Singer, Bradley S.

2007-10-01

8

Presence and Significant Determinants of Cognitive Impairment in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and to identify clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in MS. Methods 303 patients with MS and 279 healthy controls were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N); measures of pre-morbid verbal competence and neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. Results Patients and healthy controls were matched for age, gender, education and pre-morbid verbal Intelligence Quotient. Patients presenting with cognitive impairment were 108/303 (35.6%). In the overall group of participants, the significant predictors of the most sensitive BRB-N scores were: presence of MS, age, education, and Vocabulary. The significant predictors when considering MS patients only were: course of MS, age, education, vocabulary, and depression. Using logistic regression analyses, significant determinants of the presence of cognitive impairment in relapsing-remitting MS patients were: duration of illness (OR?=?1.053, 95% CI?=?1.010–1.097, p?=?0.015), Expanded Disability Status Scale score (OR?=?1.247, 95% CI?=?1.024–1.517, p?=?0.028), and vocabulary (OR?=?0.960, 95% CI?=?0.936–0.984, p?=?0.001), while in the smaller group of progressive MS patients these predictors did not play a significant role in determining the cognitive outcome. Conclusions Our results corroborate the evidence about the presence and the nature of cognitive impairment in a large sample of patients with MS. Furthermore, our findings identify significant clinical and demographic determinants of cognitive impairment in a large sample of MS patients for the first time. Implications for further research and clinical practice were discussed.

Borghi, Martina; Cavallo, Marco; Carletto, Sara; Ostacoli, Luca; Zuffranieri, Marco; Picci, Rocco Luigi; Scavelli, Francesco; Johnston, Harriet; Furlan, Pier Maria; Bertolotto, Antonio; Malucchi, Simona

2013-01-01

9

The significance of extension and impaired mobility in cancer of the vocal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

The criteria for T2 glottic cancer staging in the UICC classification are extension to the supra- or subglottic region combined or not with impaired mobility of the vocal cord. The prognostic significance of these factors is examined in this study. Patients with T2A lesions (normal mobility, 33 patients) have an uncorrected actuarial 5 year survival of 54%, and a local

W. Van Den Bogart; F. Ostyn; E. Van Der Schueren

1983-01-01

10

Autistic Features in Young Children with Significant Cognitive Impairment: Autism or Mental Retardation?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review addresses the issues and challenges related to the differential diagnosis of autism in preschool children with significant cognitive impairment. Issues affecting differential diagnosis include the use of traditional diagnostic guidelines for preschoolers with developmental delays, developmental changes in behavioral characteristics, the involvement of cognitive factors in symptom expression, and the overlap between autism and mental retardation in individuals

Susan Vig; Eleonora Jedrysek

1999-01-01

11

Clobazam and its active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam display significantly greater affinities for ??- versus ??-GABA(A)-receptor complexes.  

PubMed

Clobazam (CLB), a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD), was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN) is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA ??-subunit-selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the ?? subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB), CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of ? (??, ??, ??, or ??), ??, and ?? subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for ??- vs. ??-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between ?? and ?? receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for ?? receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB. PMID:24533090

Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Nichol, Kathryn; Lee, Deborah; Ebert, Bjarke

2014-01-01

12

Brief Report: Inner Speech Impairment in Children with Autism Is Associated with Greater Nonverbal than Verbal Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin's (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized that children with both autism and a nonverbal greater than verbal (NV greater than V) skills…

Lidstone, Jane S. M.; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

2009-01-01

13

Brief report: Inner speech impairment in children with autism is associated with greater nonverbal than verbal skills.  

PubMed

We present a new analysis of Whitehouse, Maybery, and Durkin's (2006, Experiment 3) data on inner speech in children with autism (CWA). Because inner speech development is thought to depend on linguistically mediated social interaction, we hypothesized that children with both autism and a nonverbal > verbal (NV > V) skills profile would show the greatest inner speech impairment. CWA and typically developing controls (n = 23 in each group) undertook a timed mathematical task-switching test, known to benefit from inner speech use. Participants completed the task with and without articulatory suppression (AS), which disrupts inner speech. The hypothesis was supported: AS interference varied with cognitive profile among CWA but not among controls. Only the NV > V autism group showed no AS interference, indicating an inner speech impairment. PMID:19330432

Lidstone, Jane S M; Fernyhough, Charles; Meins, Elizabeth; Whitehouse, Andrew J O

2009-08-01

14

Alzheimer's disease and memory-monitoring impairment: Alzheimer's patients show a monitoring deficit that is greater than their accuracy deficit  

PubMed Central

We assessed the ability of two groups of patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and two groups of older adults to monitor the likely accuracy of recognition judgments and source identification judgments about who spoke something earlier. Alzheimer’s patients showed worse performance on both memory judgments and were less able to monitor with confidence ratings the likely accuracy of both kinds of memory judgments, as compared to a group of older adults who experienced the identical study and test conditions. Critically, however, when memory performance was made comparable between the AD patients and the older adults (e.g., by giving AD patients extra exposures to the study materials), AD patients were still greatly impaired at monitoring the likely accuracy of their recognition and source judgments. This result indicates that the monitoring impairment in AD patients is actually worse than their memory impairment, as otherwise there would have been no differences between the two groups in monitoring performance when there were no differences in accuracy. We discuss the brain correlates of this memory-monitoring deficit and also propose a Remembrance-Evaluation model of memory-monitoring.

Dodson, Chad S.; Spaniol, Maggie; O'Connor, Maureen K.; Deason, Rebecca G.; Ally, Brandon A.; Budson, Andrew E.

2011-01-01

15

Impaired respiration discloses the physiological significance of state transitions in Chlamydomonas  

PubMed Central

State transitions correspond to a major regulation process for photosynthesis, whereby chlorophyll protein complexes responsible for light harvesting migrate between photosystem II and photosystem I in response to changes in the redox poise of the intersystem electron carriers. Here we disclose their physiological significance in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using a genetic approach. Using single and double mutants defective for state transitions and/or mitochondrial respiration, we show that photosynthetic growth, and therefore biomass production, critically depends on state transitions in respiratory-defective conditions. When extra ATP cannot be provided by respiration, enhanced photosystem I turnover elicited by transition to state 2 is required for photosynthetic activity. Concomitant impairment of state transitions and respiration decreases the overall yield of photosynthesis, ultimately leading to reduced fitness. We thus provide experimental evidence that the combined energetic contributions of state transitions and respiration are required for efficient carbon assimilation in this alga.

Cardol, Pierre; Alric, Jean; Girard-Bascou, Jacqueline; Franck, Fabrice; Wollman, Francis-Andre; Finazzi, Giovanni

2009-01-01

16

Male gamblers have significantly greater salivary cortisol before and after betting on a horse race, than do female gamblers  

PubMed Central

Prevalence rates of gambling are influenced by gender. Among normative populations, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress is affected by gender. However, pathological, compared to recreational, gamblers demonstrate perturbations in HPA activation in response to gambling stimuli. We examined whether there were gender differences in HPA response to gambling in a naturalistic setting among horse-race bettors and scratch-off lottery bettors. Salivary cortisol was collected from horse-race gamblers (n=32) and scratch-off lottery ticket players (n=39) before and after (0, 10, or 20 minutes) betting on a horse race at an off-track betting establishment. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly higher among men than among women, both prior to and following, betting on a horse race. Among women, but not men, there was a decline in salivary cortisol across time in scratch-off bettors, whereas women horse-race bettors maintained consistent low concentrations of salivary cortisol at every time point sampled. Together these data suggest that engaging in gambling may have different effects on stress responses of men, compared to women. Whether these gender differences in HPA activation contribute to gender-related differences in gambling behavior is the subject of ongoing investigation.

Franco, C.; Paris, J. J.; Wulfert, E.; Frye, A. C.

2009-01-01

17

Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

2011-01-01

18

Quality of life is significantly impaired in long-term survivors of acute liver failure and particularly in acetaminophen-overdose patients.  

PubMed

Functional outcomes for long-term survivors of acute liver failure (ALF) are not well characterized. The aim of this prospective study was to determine health-related quality of life in long-term adult ALF survivors. Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry participants completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life 14 and Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires at 1- and/or 2-year follow-up study visits. Responses were compared among ALF subgroups and to those for available general US population controls. Among the 282 adult ALF patients, 125 had undergone liver transplantation (LT), whereas 157, including 95 acetaminophen overdose (APAP) patients and 62 non-APAP patients, were spontaneous survivors (SSs). APAP SS patients reported significantly lower general health scores and more days of impaired mental and physical health, activity limitations due to poor health, pain, depression, and anxiety in comparison with the other groups (P???0.001). There were no significant differences in coma grade or in the use of mechanical ventilation or intracranial pressure monitoring among the patient groups during their ALF hospitalization, but APAP SSs had significantly higher rates of psychiatric disease and substance abuse (P?greater proportion of the combined SS patients reported fair or poor health and ?14 days of impaired physical/mental health and activity limitations due to poor health. In addition, a greater proportion of LT recipients reported ?14 days of impaired physical/mental health. Similar results were observed with the SF-36 across the 3 ALF subgroups and in comparison with population controls. In conclusion, long-term adult survivors of ALF reported significantly lower quality of life scores than US population controls. Furthermore, APAP SS patients reported the lowest quality of life scores, possibly because of higher rates of premorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23780824

Rangnekar, Amol S; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie; McGuire, Brendan; Lee, William M; Fontana, Robert J

2013-09-01

19

Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation  

PubMed Central

Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale's (NIHSS's) association with upper extremity (UE) impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM), and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant (P = ?0.204; p = 0.014) but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant (P = ?0.141; p = 0.089). Subjects scoring a “zero” on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity.

Hand, Brittany; Page, Stephen J.; White, Susan

2014-01-01

20

Increasing Comprehension of Students with Significant Intellectual Disabilities and Visual Impairments during Shared Stories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Shared stories have been shown to help increase emerging literacy skills in students with significant intellectual disabilities. One important literacy skill is the development of listening comprehension. In this study, least-to-most prompt system was used to promote listening comprehension during shared stories for two students with significant

Mims, Pamela J.; Browder, Diane M.; Baker, Joshua N.; Lee, Angel; Spooner, Fred

2009-01-01

21

Significance of E. Paleozoic Paleo-Tethyan Ophiolites in the Balkan Terrane and the Greater Caucasus for the Cadomian-Hercynian Continental Growth of Southern Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

New geochronological & geochemical data from dismembered E. Paleozoic ophiolites in the Balkan Terrane (Serbia) & the Greater Caucasus (Russian Federation) link these remnants of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust to a series of events associated with the Cadomian and Hercynian evolution of S. Europe. The Balkan-South Carpathian ophiolite belt (BSCOB) WSW of the Moesian platform is part of the South

G. S. Zakariadze; S. O. Karamata; Y. Dilek

2007-01-01

22

Juvenile Exposure to Anthracyclines Impairs Cardiac Progenitor Cell Function and Vascularization Resulting in Greater Susceptibility to Stress-Induced Myocardial Injury in Adult Mice  

PubMed Central

Background The anthracycline doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent used to treat pediatric cancers, but is associated with cardiotoxicity which can manifest many years after the initial exposure. To date, very little is known about the mechanism of this late onset cardiotoxicity. Methods and Results To understand this problem, we developed a pediatric model of late onset DOX-induced cardiotoxicity, where juvenile mice were exposed to DOX, using a cumulative dose that did not induce acute cardiotoxicity. These mice developed normally and had no obvious cardiac abnormalities as adults. However, evaluation of the vasculature revealed that juvenile DOX exposure impaired vascular development resulting in abnormal vascular architecture in the hearts with less branching and decreased capillary density. Both physiological and pathological stress induced late onset cardiotoxicity in the adult DOX mice. Moreover, adult mice subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) developed rapid heart failure which correlated with a failure to increase capillary density in the injured area. Progenitor cells participate in regeneration and blood vessel formation after an MI, but DOX mice had fewer progenitor cells in the infarct border zone. Interestingly, DOX treatment reduced proliferation and differentiation of the progenitor cells into cells of cardiac lineages. Conclusions Our data suggest that anthracycline treatment impairs vascular development as well as progenitor cell function in the young heart, resulting in an adult heart that is more susceptible to stress.

Huang, Chengqun; Zhang, Xiaoxue; Ramil, Jennifer M.; Rikka, Shivaji; Kim, Lucy; Lee, Youngil; Gude, Natalie A.; Thistlethwaite, Patricia A.; Sussman, Mark A.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Gustafsson, Asa B.

2010-01-01

23

Higher Education is Not Associated with Greater Cortical Thickness in Brain Areas Related to Literacy or Intelligence in Normal Aging or Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Education may reduce risk of dementia through passive reserve, by increasing neural substrate. We tested the hypotheses that education is associated with thicker cortex and reduced rates of atrophy in brain regions related to literacy and intellectual ability. Healthy older adults and those with mild cognitive impairment were categorized into High (?18 yrs) and Low (?13 yrs) education groups. Higher education was associated with thinner cortices in several areas, but one-year atrophy rates in these areas did not differ by education group. These results do not support a passive reserve model in which early life education protects against dementia by increasing cortical thickness. Connectivity and synaptic efficiency, or other lifestyle factors may more directly reflect cognitive reserve.

Pillai, Jagan A.; McEvoy, Linda K.; Hagler, Donald J.; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M.; Salmon, David P.; Galasko, Douglas; Fennema-Notestine, Christine

2012-01-01

24

Sepsis otopathy: experimental sepsis leads to significant hearing impairment due to apoptosis and glutamate excitotoxicity in murine cochlea  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Hearing loss is frequent in intensive care patients and can be due to several causes. However, sepsis has not been examined as a possible cause. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of experimental sepsis on hearing thresholds and to evaluate pathological changes in the cochlea. The cecal ligation puncture technique was used to induce sepsis in 18 mice. Results were compared with those from 13 sham-operated and 13 untreated control mice. The hearing thresholds of the animals were evaluated with auditory evoked brainstem responses prior to the induction of sepsis and again at the peak of the disease. Immediately after the second measurement, the mice were sacrificed and the inner ears harvested and prepared for further evaluation. The cochleae were examined with light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2. The mice with sepsis showed a significant hearing loss but not the control groups. Induction of apoptosis could be shown in the supporting cells of the organ of Corti. Furthermore, excitotoxicity could be shown at the basal pole of the inner hair cells. In this murine model, sepsis leads to significant hearing impairment. The physiological alteration could be linked to apoptosis in the supporting cells of the organ of Corti and to a disturbance of the synapses of the inner hair cells.

Schmutzhard, Joachim; Glueckert, Rudolf; Pritz, Christian; Blumer, Michael J. F.; Bitsche, Mario; Lackner, Peter; Fille, Manfred; Riechelmann, Herbert; Harkamp, Matthias; Sitthisak, Thongrong; Schrott-Fischer, Annelies

2013-01-01

25

Significance of E. Paleozoic Paleo-Tethyan Ophiolites in the Balkan Terrane and the Greater Caucasus for the Cadomian-Hercynian Continental Growth of Southern Europe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New geochronological & geochemical data from dismembered E. Paleozoic ophiolites in the Balkan Terrane (Serbia) & the Greater Caucasus (Russian Federation) link these remnants of the Paleo-Tethyan oceanic crust to a series of events associated with the Cadomian and Hercynian evolution of S. Europe. The Balkan-South Carpathian ophiolite belt (BSCOB) WSW of the Moesian platform is part of the South European suture zone (SESZ) & includes the Deli Jovan massif (DJM) composed of ultramafic mantle restites, ultrabasic & basic cumulates, gabbros, diabasic dikes and basalts. The analyzed gabbros of DJM are high-Al (19-24.5 wt.%) cumulate gabbros-troctolites (Ol82-89+Cpx79-87+Pl77-91) originated from shallow-depth crystallization of low-K (<0.3 wt.%) tholeiitic basaltic melt (T=1050°-1160°). Dike rocks are composed of fine-grained, Cpx-Pl microphyric, high-Mg tholeiitic microgabbro-diabase showing MORB affinities [(La/Sm)n=0.18-1.31; (La/Yb)n=0.22-1.35; Th/La=0.073-0.19; Zr/Y=1.60-2.39] derived from depleted mantle source(s). New isotopic ages range between 406±24 Ma and 399.7±5.2 Ma [Sm-Nd isochron age of 406±24 Ma, MSWD=0.71; U-Pb isotope dilution zircon age of 399.7±5.2 Ma; U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 405.0±2.6 Ma]. Ophiolitic rocks of the BSCOB continue E into the Paleozoic metamorphic basement of the Istanbul-Zonguldak Unit (IZU) in NW Turkey & the Crystalline Core and the Fore Range Zones of the Greater Caucasus. The metaophiolites in the Greater Caucasus include residual peridotites, ultrabasic & basic cumulates, gabbros, dike complexes, and volcanic rocks with limestones, ranging in age from 490 to 416 Ma. The volcanic sequences in these ophiolites include low-silica (SiO2=43.94-48.10 wt.%), high-Ti (TiO2=2.0-3.3 wt.%) and high phosphorus tholeiitic basalts showing slightly enriched T-MORB affinities [(La/Sm)n=2.98±0.57; (La/Yb)n=5.72±2.05; (Tb/Yb)n=1.42±0.62; and (Yb)MORB=0.97±0.35], and high-silica (SiO2=47.54-53.94 wt.%), low-Ti (TiO2=0.46-1.09 wt.%) and low-K tholeiitic basalts, basaltic andesites & andesites, showing suprasubduction zone affinities [(Tb/Yb)n=1.04±0.34; (Yb)MORB=0.62±0.28; and negative Nb and Zr anomalies]. The Early Paleozoic ophiolitic rocks within the SESZ along the southern edge of the European Platform (including the Moesian and Scythian platforms) developed during the evolution of the Paleo-Tethyan back-arc basin via seafloor spreading and arc-trench-subduction rollback processes behind the northward drifting peri-Gondwanan terranes (i.e. Transcaucasian massif in Georgia; IZU, Menderes and Armutlu massifs in Turkey; Florina terrane in Greece). They were accreted to the Eurasian continental margin during the Hercynian orogeny. The Cadomian peri- Gondwanan terranes & the SESZ ophiolites subsequently became part of the basement of a Late Paleozoic magmatic arc above a Paleo-Tethyan subduction zone along the southern margin of Europe.

Zakariadze, G. S.; Karamata, S. O.; Dilek, Y.; Three Others, A.

2007-12-01

26

Highly significant linkage to the SLI1 locus in an expanded sample of individuals affected by specific language impairment.  

PubMed

Specific language impairment (SLI) is defined as an unexplained failure to acquire normal language skills despite adequate intelligence and opportunity. We have reported elsewhere a full-genome scan in 98 nuclear families affected by this disorder, with the use of three quantitative traits of language ability (the expressive and receptive tests of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals and a test of nonsense word repetition). This screen implicated two quantitative trait loci, one on chromosome 16q (SLI1) and a second on chromosome 19q (SLI2). However, a second independent genome screen performed by another group, with the use of parametric linkage analyses in extended pedigrees, found little evidence for the involvement of either of these regions in SLI. To investigate these loci further, we have collected a second sample, consisting of 86 families (367 individuals, 174 independent sib pairs), all with probands whose language skills are >/=1.5 SD below the mean for their age. Haseman-Elston linkage analysis resulted in a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 2.84 on chromosome 16 and an MLS of 2.31 on chromosome 19, both of which represent significant linkage at the 2% level. Amalgamation of the wave 2 sample with the cohort used for the genome screen generated a total of 184 families (840 individuals, 393 independent sib pairs). Analysis of linkage within this pooled group strengthened the evidence for linkage at SLI1 and yielded a highly significant LOD score (MLS = 7.46, interval empirical P<.0004). Furthermore, linkage at the same locus was also demonstrated to three reading-related measures (basic reading [MLS = 1.49], spelling [MLS = 2.67], and reading comprehension [MLS = 1.99] subtests of the Wechsler Objectives Reading Dimensions). PMID:15133743

2004-06-01

27

Group Therapy for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Their Significant Others: Results of a Waiting-List Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have to deal with an uncertain prognosis and also face a multitude of memory-related problems and psychosocial consequences. A newly developed group programme proved to be feasible, however, it needed confirmation by a controlled study. Aim: This controlled study evaluates this group therapy for MCI patients aimed to help them accept and manage

Liesbeth W. A. Joosten-Weyn Banningh; Judith B. Prins; Myrra J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen; Hugo H. Wijnen; Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert; Roy P. C. Kessels

2011-01-01

28

Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

2011-01-01

29

Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment.

McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

2014-01-01

30

Significant impairment of health-related quality of life in mainland Chinese patients with chronic hepatitis B: a cross-sectional survey with pair-matched healthy controls  

PubMed Central

Objective Few studies have evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in mainland China. We aimed at characterizing the impact of CHB on HRQoL in mainland Chinese and finding out factors associated with HRQoL. Methods 460 CHB patients (323 with CHB only, 54 with compensated cirrhosis and 83 with decompensated cirrhosis) and 460 pair-matched healthy controls were recruited in Xi’an city. They answered a structured questionnaire including the Short Form 36 version 2 (SF-36v2), the Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) (only for patients), and questions on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A blood sample was collected from each of patients for liver function tests. SF-36v2 scores were compared between patients and controls overall and by groups by paired-samples t-test, and CLDQ scores and paired differences of SF-36v2 scores were compared among three patient groups by one-way ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test. Multi-variable linear regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of HRQoL in patients. Results Patients, overall and by groups had significantly lower SF-36v2 scores than controls on all summaries and domains, with differences higher than the suggested minimally important difference values. Both the SF-36v2 and the CLDQ showed that HRQoL of patients with cirrhosis further deteriorated, but compensated and decompensated cirrhosis patients had similar total HRQoL impairments. The gradually increasing impairment with disease progression was confirmed only on physical components. Impaired liver function and currently taken anti-viral treatment were associated with lower HRQoL. Education attainment and annual per capita household income had a positive effect on HRQoL. Conclusions Mainland Chinese CHB patients suffered significant HRQoL impairment on all health dimensions, and the impairment reached a high level on mental health at initial stage of illness and increased gradually on physical health with disease progression. Attention should be paid to the reduction of patients’ treatment cost burden and the provision of early health education accompanied with proper treatments.

2014-01-01

31

Significant Head Accelerations can Influence Immediate Neurological Impairments in a Murine Model of Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury.  

PubMed

Although blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is well recognized for its significance in the military population, the unique mechanisms of primary bTBI remain undefined. Animate models of primary bTBI are critical for determining these potentially unique mechanisms, but the biomechanical characteristics of many bTBI models are poorly understood. In this study, we examine some common shock tube configurations used to study blast-induced brain injury in the laboratory and define the optimal configuration to minimize the effect of torso overpressure and blast-induced head accelerations. Pressure transducers indicated that a customized animal holder successfully reduced peak torso overpressures to safe levels across all tested configurations. However, high speed video imaging acquired during the blast showed significant head accelerations occurred when animals were oriented perpendicular to the shock tube axis. These findings of complex head motions during blast are similar to previous reports [Goldstein et al., 2012, "Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model," Sci. Transl. Med., 4(134), 134ra160; Sundaramurthy et al., 2012, "Blast-Induced Biomechanical Loading of the Rat: An Experimental and Anatomically Accurate Computational Blast Injury Model," J. Neurotrauma, 29(13), pp. 2352-2364; Svetlov et al., 2010, "Morphologic and Biochemical Characterization of Brain Injury in a Model of Controlled Blast Overpressure Exposure," J. Trauma, 69(4), pp. 795-804]. Under the same blast input conditions, minimizing head acceleration led to a corresponding elimination of righting time deficits. However, we could still achieve righting time deficits under minimal acceleration conditions by significantly increasing the peak blast overpressure. Together, these data show the importance of characterizing the effect of blast overpressure on head kinematics, with the goal of producing models focused on understanding the effects of blast overpressure on the brain without the complicating factor of superimposed head accelerations. PMID:24950710

Gullotti, David M; Beamer, Matthew; Panzer, Matthew B; Chia Chen, Yung; Patel, Tapan P; Yu, Allen; Jaumard, Nicolas; Winkelstein, Beth; Bass, Cameron R; Morrison, Barclay; Meaney, David F

2014-09-01

32

[Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].  

PubMed

Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90?%. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases. PMID:24414233

Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

2014-01-01

33

Impaired left ventricular function and myocardial blood flow reserve in patients with long-term type 1 diabetes and no significant coronary artery disease: associations with protein glycation.  

PubMed

Our aims were to study left ventricular (LV) function and myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) in long-term type 1 diabetes and associations with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). A total of 20 type 1 diabetes patients from the Oslo Study without significant stenosis on coronary angiography were compared with 26 controls. LV systolic and diastolic functions were assessed by two-dimensional strain and the ratio between pulsed Doppler transmitral early (E) velocity and tissue Doppler velocity (E'), respectively. MBFR was evaluated by contrast echocardiography. The AGE methylglyoxal-derived hydroimidazolone was analysed in serum. Glyoxal hydroimidazolone in skin collagen was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Strain was significantly reduced (-19.5% ± 1.9% vs -21.4% ± 3.5%, p < 0.05), and E/E' increased in the diabetes patients compared to controls, 7.3 ± 2 versus 6.0 ± 1.5, p < 0.05. Significant lower MBFR was present in the diabetes patients, 3.4 (2.1, 5.3) versus 5.9 (3.9, 9.6), p < 0.01. Both AGEs correlated significantly with E/E'. The impaired LV function with correlation to AGEs in concert with reduced MBFR in diabetics without coronary artery disease may indicate possible mechanisms for diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24443481

Sveen, Kari Anne; Nerdrum, Tone; Hanssen, Kristian F; Brekke, Magne; Torjesen, Peter A; Strauch, Christopher M; Sell, David R; Monnier, Vincent M; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Steine, Kjetil

2014-03-01

34

Cognitive impairments in abstinent alcoholics.  

PubMed Central

Impaired cognitive functioning in alcoholics is widespread during the first months of detoxification. Between half and two thirds of abstinent alcoholics exhibit cognitive impairments during this period, with residual deficits persisting for years after detoxification in some patients. The most severe deficits have been observed in visuospatial abilities, perceptual-motor integration, abstract reasoning, and new learning. The most significant predictors of cognitive dysfunction in persons recovering from alcoholism are the time elapsed since the last drink and the person's age. Surprisingly, the pattern and duration of a patient's alcohol abuse are relatively weak determinants of neuropsychological impairment during abstinence. Research investigating the hypothesis that cognitive impairments may be related to alcoholic persons resuming drinking has yielded mixed results, but a higher level of neuropsychological functioning is associated with increased rates of completing treatment programs and with greater success in the work environment after discharge from treatment. The possibility of cognitive limitations should be taken into account in planning treatment programs for alcoholism.

Fein, G; Bachman, L; Fisher, S; Davenport, L

1990-01-01

35

Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE\\/EIS0375-D) and the  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function

Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

2011-01-01

36

Greater trochanteric hip pain.  

PubMed

In the patient with lateral hip pain, there is a broad differential diagnosis, making appropriate evaluation and management challenging. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a term used to denote chronic lateral hip pain and encompasses several painful soft tissue diagnoses including coxa saltans, trochanteric bursitis, and gluteus minimus and medius tendon tears. An overview of these common causes is presented through a series of cases that encompass the anatomic associations, classic presentations, diagnostic tests, and management strategies unique to each disorder. By reviewing this information, we hope to provide clinicians with the tools to evaluate greater trochanteric pain syndrome efficiently and effectively. PMID:24651142

Kimpel, Diane M; Garner, Chadwick C; Magone, Kevin M; May, Jedediah H; Lawless, Matthew W

2014-01-01

37

Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This U.S. Geological Survey website uses remotely sensed data to analyze landscape change in the Greater Yellowstone Area. It features maps and satellite images that show the geographical extent of the area, its management, land cover, and land use.

Survey, U. S.

38

Greater Yellowstone Geology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site features a collection of papers and maps about the Yellowstone hotspot by Dr. Ken Pierce of the Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, an expert in the field. Papers on this site address topics such as Yellowstone glaciation, tracking the hotspot, the Yellowstone plume head, and a seven-day field trip guide to the quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Each downloadable paper map is listed with a brief description and a full citation.

Institute, Mountain P.; Infrastructure, National B.

39

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.  

PubMed

Originally defined as "tenderness to palpation over the greater trochanter with the patient in the side-lying position," greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) as a clinical entity, has expanded to include a number of disorders of the lateral, peritrochanteric space of the hip, including trochanteric bursitis, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus and external coxa saltans (snapping hip). Typically presenting with pain and reproducible tenderness in the region of the greater trochanter, buttock, or lateral thigh, GTPS is relatively common, reported to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population. Secondary to the relative paucity of information available on the diagnosis and management of components of GTPS, the presence of these pathologic entities may be underrecognized, leading to extensive workups and delays in appropriate treatment. This article aims to review the present understanding of the lesions that comprise GTPS, discussing the relevant anatomy, diagnostic workup and recommended treatment for trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears, and external coxa saltans. PMID:20473130

Strauss, Eric J; Nho, Shane J; Kelly, Bryan T

2010-06-01

40

Brain metabolism is significantly impaired at blood glucose below 6 mM and brain glucose below 1 mM in patients with severe traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Introduction The optimal blood glucose target following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) must be defined. Cerebral microdialysis was used to investigate the influence of arterial blood and brain glucose on cerebral glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, and calculated indices of downstream metabolism. Methods In twenty TBI patients, microdialysis catheters inserted in the edematous frontal lobe were dialyzed at 1 ?l/min, collecting samples at 60 minute intervals. Occult metabolic alterations were determined by calculating the lactate- pyruvate (L/P), lactate- glucose (L/Glc), and lactate- glutamate (L/Glu) ratios. Results Brain glucose was influenced by arterial blood glucose. Elevated L/P and L/Glc were significantly reduced at brain glucose above 1 mM, reaching lowest values at blood and brain glucose levels between 6-9 mM (P < 0.001). Lowest cerebral glutamate was measured at brain glucose 3-5 mM with a significant increase at brain glucose below 3 mM and above 6 mM. While L/Glu was significantly increased at low brain glucose levels, it was significantly decreased at brain glucose above 5 mM (P < 0.001). Insulin administration increased brain glutamate at low brain glucose, but prevented increase in L/Glu. Conclusions Arterial blood glucose levels appear to be optimal at 6-9 mM. While low brain glucose levels below 1 mM are detrimental, elevated brain glucose are to be targeted despite increased brain glutamate at brain glucose >5 mM. Pathogenity of elevated glutamate appears to be relativized by L/Glu and suggests to exclude insulin- induced brain injury.

2010-01-01

41

Impairment in Task-Specific Modulation of Muscle Coordination Correlates with the Severity of Hand Impairment following Stroke  

PubMed Central

Significant functional impairment of the hand is commonly observed in stroke survivors. Our previous studies suggested that the inability to modulate muscle coordination patterns according to task requirements may be substantial after stroke, but these limitations have not been examined directly. In this study, we aimed to characterize post-stroke impairment in the ability to modulate muscle coordination patterns across tasks and its correlation with hand impairment. Fourteen stroke survivors, divided into a group with severe hand impairment (8 subjects) and a group with moderate hand impairment (6 subjects) according to their clinical functionality score, participated in the experiment. Another four neurologically intact subjects participated in the experiment to serve as a point of comparison. Activation patterns of nine hand and wrist muscles were recorded using surface electromyography while the subjects performed six isometric tasks. Patterns of covariation in muscle activations across tasks, i.e., muscle modules, were extracted from the muscle activation data. Our results showed that the degree of reduction in the inter-task separation of the multi-muscle activation patterns was indicative of the clinical functionality score of the subjects (mean value?=?26.2 for severely impaired subjects, 38.1 for moderately impaired subjects). The values for moderately impaired subjects were much closer to those of the impaired subjects (mean value?=?46.1). The number of muscle modules extracted from the muscle activation patterns of a subject across six tasks, which represents the degree of motor complexity, was found to be correlated with the clinical functionality score (R?=?0.68). Greater impairment was also associated with a change in the muscle module patterns themselves, with greater muscle coactivation. A substantial reduction in the degrees-of-freedom of the multi-muscle coordination post-stroke was apparent, and the extent of the reduction, assessed by the stated metrics, was strongly associated with the level of clinical impairment.

Lee, Sang Wook; Triandafilou, Kristen; Lock, Blair A.; Kamper, Derek G.

2013-01-01

42

What constitutes clinically significant binge eating? Association between binge features and clinical validators in college-age women†  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between binge features and clinical validators. Method The Eating Disorder Examination assessed binge features in a sample of 549 college-age women: loss of control (LOC) presence, binge frequency, binge size, indicators of impaired control, and LOC severity. Clinical validators were self-reported clinical impairment and current psychiatric comorbidity, as determined via a semistructured interview. Results Compared with women without LOC, those with LOC had significantly greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and comorbidity (ps < 0.001). Among women with LOC (n = 252), the indicators of impaired control and LOC severity, but not binge size or frequency, were associated with greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and/or comorbidity (ps < 0.05). Discussion Findings confirm that the presence of LOC may be the hallmark feature of binge eating. Further, dimensional ratings about the LOC experience—and possibly the indicators of impaired control—may improve reliable identification of clinically significant binge eating.

Vannucci, Anna; Theim, Kelly R.; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Genkin, Brooke; Rizk, Marianne; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki O.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Aspen, Vandana; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

2013-01-01

43

Cognitive Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairments, including learning disability, traumatic brain injury, and minimal brain dysfunction, have characteristics that include impulsiveness, communication skill deficits, difficulties with reasoning and problem solving, and impaired self-concept. Without professional intervention, these problems are likely to lead to marginal social acceptance, low levels of intimacy, and impaired sexuality development. This paper describes selected cognitive and behavioral implications of cognitive

Gary Sigler; Romel W. Mackelprang

1993-01-01

44

Life satisfaction in young adults 10 or more years after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for childhood malignant and nonmalignant diseases does not show significant impairment compared with healthy controls: a case-matched study.  

PubMed

Patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) may experience physical and psychological deterioration that impairs their life satisfaction (LS). This study focused on LS in long-term survivors at 10 or more years after HSCT. Fifty-five patients (39 males, median age 25 years) undergoing allogeneic HSCT for childhood malignant (n = 52) or nonmalignant diseases (n = 3) were enrolled. A control group of 98 young adults (59 males, median age 24 years) was considered. A questionnaire with a modified Satisfaction Life Domain Scale was administered. We assessed such domains as education, employment, leisure time, social relationships, and perception of physical status with a 30-item questionnaire. To investigate the association between the domains and the probability of diminished LS, we performed a logistical procedure using the maximum likelihood method. Predictive factors of LS were adjusted for sociodemographic variables. In the multivariate analysis, the participant's level of LS was not significantly correlated with sociodemographic factors or with HSCT status. The same analysis showed a slight trend in favor of the control group (P = .06) for body perception. Our data suggest that the patients who undergo HSCT in childhood have no significant difference in long-term LS compared with healthy controls. PMID:22766222

Uderzo, Cornelio; Corti, Paola; Pappalettera, Marco; Baldini, Valentina; Lucchini, Giovanna; Meani, Dario; Rovelli, Attilio

2012-11-01

45

Impaired physicians.  

PubMed

Nearly every physician has encountered a doctor who is causing problems in the practice or at the hospital. These include physicians who are impaired because of drug or alcohol abuse. Managing these physicians and helping them get back on track can be difficult and daunting. This article will discuss impaired physicians with suggestions for interacting with them and helping them become valuable members of the team. PMID:24873127

Harbin, Tom; Baum, Neil

2014-01-01

46

Quantum Leap for Greater Commercialisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The successful commercialisation of R&D in Australia has been quite low, even though it is shown that the output of new knowledge as measured by R&D publications is ranked quite high. This paper outlines a new systems engineering model that after implementation to date has proposed an improved probability of a successful commercialisation. This is achieved through greater flexibility achieved

D. Thoroughgood; L. Doukas

2010-01-01

47

Physical Impairment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

Trewin, Shari

48

[Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].  

PubMed

Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

2011-01-01

49

Clinical differences among mild cognitive impairment subtypes in Parkinson's disease  

PubMed Central

Background Mild cognitive impairment is increasingly recognized as a construct in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and occurs in about 25% of non-demented PD patients. Although executive dysfunction is the most frequent type of cognitive deficit in PD, the cognitive phenotype of PD mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) is broad. PD-MCI subtypes are represented by amnestic and nonamnestic domain impairment as well as single- and multiple-domain impairment. However, it is unclear whether patients with different PD-MCI subtypes also differ in other clinical characteristics besides cognitive profile. Methods We studied 128 PD-MCI subjects at our Movement Disorders center, comparing clinical, motor, and behavioral characteristics across the PD-MCI subtypes. Results We found varying proportions of impairment subtypes: nonamnestic single-domain (47.7%), amnestic multiple-domain (24.2%), amnestic single-domain (18.8%), and nonamnestic multiple-domain (9.5%). Attentional/executive functioning and visuospatial abilities were the most frequently impaired domains. PD-MCI subtypes differed in their motor features with nonamnestic multiple-domain PD-MCI subjects showing particularly pronounced problems with postural instability and gait. Differences among PD-MCI subtypes in age, PD duration, medication use, mood or behavioral disturbances, or vascular disease were not significant. Conclusions In addition to differing cognitive profiles, PD-MCI subtypes differ in motor phenotype and severity but not in mood, behavioral, or vascular co-morbidities. Greater postural instability and gait disturbances in the nonamnestic multiple-domain subtype emphasize shared non-dopaminergic neural substrates of gait and cognition in PD. Furthermore, increased burden of cognitive dysfunction, rather than type of cognitive deficit, may be associated with greater motor impairment in PD-MCI.

Goldman, Jennifer G.; Weis, Holly; Stebbins, Glenn; Bernard, Bryan; Goetz, Christopher G.

2012-01-01

50

Physical Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such\\u000a as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism\\u000a and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition\\u000a also has sensory or cognitive effects.

Shari Trewin

2008-01-01

51

Specific Language Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... Voice, Speech and Language Specific Language Impairment Specific Language Impairment On this page: What is specific language ... percent of children in kindergarten. What is specific language impairment? Specific language impairment (SLI) is a language ...

52

All Vision Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

Home » Resources » Statistics and Data » Vision Impairment All Vision Impairment Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the best-corrected visual acuity less than 6/12 (‹20/40) in the ...

53

ACTIVITY ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND INCIDENT COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT IN OLDER ADULTS  

PubMed Central

Introduction Studies suggest that physically active people have reduced risk of incident cognitive impairment in late life. However, these studies are limited by reliance on subjective self-reports of physical activity, which only moderately correlate to objective measures and often exclude activity not readily quantifiable by frequency and duration. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between activity energy expenditure (AEE), an objective measure of total activity, and incidence of cognitive impairment. Methods We calculated AEE as 90% of total energy expenditure (assessed over two weeks using doubly-labeled water) minus resting metabolic rate (measured using indirect calorimetry) in 197 men and women (mean 74.8 years) who were free of mobility and cognitive impairments at study baseline (1998–2000). Cognitive function was assessed at baseline and 2 or 5 years later using the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS). Cognitive impairment was defined as a decline of >1.0 SD (9 points) between baseline and follow-up. Results After adjustment for baseline 3MS, demographics, fat free mass, sleep duration, self-reported health, and diabetes, older adults in the highest sex-specific tertile of AEE had lower odds of incident cognitive impairment than those in the lowest tertile (OR, 95% CI 0.09, 0.01–0.79). There was also a significant dose response between AEE and incidence of cognitive impairment (p-for-trend over tertiles=0.05). Conclusions These findings indicate that greater activity energy expenditure may be protective against cognitive impairment in a dose-response manner. The significance of overall activity in contrast to vigorous or light activity should be determined.

Middleton, Laura E.; Manini, Todd M.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Barnes, Deborah E.; Tylavsky, Frances; Brach, Jennifer S.; Everhart, James E.; Yaffe, Kristine

2013-01-01

54

Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS): context.  

PubMed

The epidemiology and outcome of malaria control initiatives are affected by a great diversity of factors including environment, economy and politics, to name but a few. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the GMS, where the rapid pace of economic development that has occurred over the past decade has brought with it a raft of changes to environment, employment, transport, communication, and demography and wealth patterns. The GMS, as a subregion, continues to gain increasing political and economic significance and has the potential to become one of the fastest growing regions in the world. While the pace of change is impressive, it has also brought with it new challenges in the fight against malaria. On the one hand, improvement in transport networks such as roads and railways, facilitates increased cross-border trade and development, on the other hand such improvements are likely to result in a massive increase in population movements across borders. As travel becomes easier the numbers of migrant workers moving between areas of high and low transmission, also expands, further increasing the risk of the spread of resistant malaria strains. In addition, the increase in large infrastructure projects such as the construction of dams, as well as agricultural plantations, also potentially lead to changes in vector behavior with unknown consequences for malaria transmission. Effectively addressing the new challenges to malaria control will require renewed commitment, coordination and better collaboration between all sectors from governments and non government organizations in the GMS. PMID:24159829

O'Shannassy, Teresa O

2013-01-01

55

Tracking motor impairments in the progression of Huntington's disease.  

PubMed

The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale is used to characterize motor impairments and establish motor diagnosis. Little is known about the timing of diagnostic confidence level categories and the trajectory of motor impairments during the prodromal phase. Goals of this study were to estimate the timing of categories, model the prodromal trajectory of motor impairments, estimate the rate of motor impairment change by category, and provide required sample size estimates for a test of efficacy in clinical trials. In total, 1010 gene-expanded participants from the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington's Disease (PREDICT-HD) trial were analyzed. Accelerated failure time models were used to predict the timing of categories. Linear mixed effects regression was used to model the longitudinal motor trajectories. Age and length of gene expansion were incorporated into all models. The timing of categories varied significantly by gene expansion, with faster progression associated with greater expansion. For the median expansion, the third diagnostic confidence level category was estimated to have a first occurrence 1.5 years before diagnosis, and the second and first categories were estimated to occur 6.75 years and 19.75 years before diagnosis, respectively. Motor impairments displayed a nonlinear prodromal course. The motor impairment rate of change increased as the diagnostic confidence level increased, with added acceleration for higher progression scores. Motor items can detect changes in motor impairments before diagnosis. Given a sufficiently high progression score, there is evidence that the diagnostic confidence level can be used for prodromal staging. Implications for Huntington's disease research and the planning of clinical trials of efficacy are discussed. PMID:24150908

Long, Jeffery D; Paulsen, Jane S; Marder, Karen; Zhang, Ying; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A

2014-03-01

56

Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article may help the user understand the concept of statistical significance and the meaning of the numbers produced by The Survey System. This article is presented in two parts. The first part simplifies the concept of statistical significance as much as possible; so that non-technical readers can use the concept to help make decisions based on their data. The second part provides more technical readers with a fuller discussion of the exact meaning of statistical significance numbers.

2008-06-30

57

NEUROCOGNITIVE IMPAIRMENTS IN HIV INFECTION  

PubMed Central

Neuropsychological impairments punctuate the early neurological involvement among HIV-1 infected patients. Three groups of patients, twenty in each were selected. The first group consisted of seronegative local controls, the second being a group of asymptomatic seropositive patients and the third a group of seropositive symptomatic individuals. All these three groups were tested using standard neuropsychological tests. Results indicate that a broad spectrum of impairments occur in the seropositive patients and that the impairments of various functions occur at different phases of the illness. The importance of these findings in prediction of early neurological disturbance is highlighted and their significance in the total management and rehabilitation is discussed.

Edwin, Tony; Nammalvar, N.; Sabhesan, S.; Ganesh, R.; Devarajan, Hema

1999-01-01

58

Pharmacokinetics of oral disopyramide phosphate in patients with renal impairment.  

PubMed Central

1 The pharmacokinetics of disopyramide were studied after the oral administration of a 300 mg dose to 11 patients with stable chronic renal impairment (creatinine clearance 2-53 ml min-1). 2 Absorption half-life and volume of distribution were similar to those seen in normal subjects. 3 Mean plasma elimination half-life in these patients was 12.7 h, which is substantially greater than that reported for normal subjects. Elimination half-life tended to increase as creatinine clearance fell, and renal clearance of disopyramide correlated significantly (r=0.814; P < 0.001) with creatinine clearance. 4 From these results, we have calculated that patients with renal impairment should be started on a dose of disopyramide 1.5 mg kg-1 thrice daily and the regimen subsequently altered according to plasma concentrations of the drug. However, further studies are needed to define the handling of the metabolites of disopyramide.

Johnston, A; Henry, J A; Warrington, S J; Hamer, N A

1980-01-01

59

[The prognostic significance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for phobic anxiety disorders, vegetative and cognitive impairments during conservative treatment including adaptol of some functional and organic diseases of nervous system].  

PubMed

We have studied the efficacy of adaptol in the treatment of 45 patients with somatoform dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and 30 patients with closed head injury. The condition of patients during the treatment was evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological scales. The serum level of BDNF before and after the treatment has been studied as well. Adaptol has been shown to enhance the production of BDNF, reduce significantly the intensity of anxiety, autonomic disorders and improve intellectual processes. The dose-dependent effect of the drug has been demonstrated. In conclusion, adaptol can be recommended for treatment of diseases that demand stimulation of neuroplasticity in the CNS. PMID:22810739

Zhivolupov, S A; Samartsev, I N; Marchenko, A A; Puliatkina, O V

2012-01-01

60

Prognostic Significance of Potential Frailty Criteria  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine the independent prognostic effect of 7 potential frailty criteria, including 5 from the Fried phenotype, on several adverse outcomes. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Greater New Haven, Connecticut. Participants Seven hundred fifty-four initially non-disabled, community-living persons aged 70 and older. Measurements An assessment of 7 potential frailty criteria (slow gait speed, low physical activity, weight loss, exhaustion, weakness, cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms) was completed at baseline and every 18 months for 72 months. Participants were followed with monthly telephone interviews for up to 96 months to determine the occurrence of chronic disability, long-term nursing home (NH) stays, injurious falls, and death. Results In analyses that were adjusted for age, sex, race, education, number of chronic conditions, and the presence of the other potential frailty criteria, 3 of the 5 Fried criteria (slow gait speed, low physical activity, and weight loss) were independently associated with chronic disability, long-term NH stays, and death. Slow gait speed was the strongest predictor of chronic disability (Hazard ratio [HR] 2.97, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.32–3.80), and long-term NH stays (HR 3.86, 95% CI, 2.23–6.67), and was the only significant predictor of injurious falls (HR 2.19, 95% CI, 1.33–3.60). Cognitive impairment was also associated with chronic disability (HR 1.82, 95% CI, 1.40–2.38), long-term NH stays (HR 2.64, 95% CI, 1.75–3.99), and death (HR 1.54, 95% CI, 1.13–2.10), and the magnitude of these associations was comparable to that of weight loss. Conclusions The results of our study provide strong evidence to support the use of slow gait speed, low physical activity, weight loss and cognitive impairment as key indicators of frailty, while raising concerns about the value of self-reported exhaustion and muscle weakness.

Rothman, Marc D.; Leo-Summers, Linda; Gill, Thomas M.

2009-01-01

61

Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.  

PubMed

Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

2014-05-01

62

Operational technology for greater confinement disposal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures and methods for the design and operation of a greater confinement disposal facility using large-diameter boreholes are discussed. It is assumed that the facility would be located at an operating low-level waste disposal site and that only a small portion of the wastes received at the site would require greater confinement disposal. The document is organized into sections addressing:

P. T. Dickman; A. T. Vollmer; P. H. Hunter

1984-01-01

63

Tuberculosis of greater trochanter presenting as avulsion fracture of greater trochanter-A case report  

PubMed Central

Isolated tuberculosis of greater trochanteris unusual and clinical presentation is often vague. Isolated fracture of greater trochanter is also rare. We are reporting a case of tuberculosis of greater trochanter in adult female with radiological presentation in form of avulsion fracture of greater trochanter which has not be reported in literature till now to our knowledge.

Dulani, Rajesh; Gupta, Gagandeep; Singh, Pradeep; Mundada, Gaurav; Sahu, Abhijit

2013-01-01

64

Brain atrophy and intellectual impairment in tardive dyskinesia.  

PubMed

Fourteen chronic schizophrenic patients with tardive dyskinesia (TD) and 13 without TD were given psychological tests and CT scans. The low density rate (LDR), i.e., the ratio of the X-ray absorption (corresponding nearly to that of cerebrospinal fluid) of a brain lesion to the X-ray absorption of the whole brain, was used as an index of brain atrophy (HN-method). The LDR of the left hemisphere of the TD patients was significantly higher than that of non-TD patients in the basal nucleus and lateral ventricle, and the LDR of the right hemisphere for the TD patients was significantly higher than that of non-TD patients in the basal nucleus. The Hasegawa Dementia Rating Scale (HDRS) and Bender-Gestalt Test (BGT) for the TD patients were significantly lower than those for the non-TD patients. Our study revealed that brain atrophy was greater in TD than in non-TD patients and tended to be more pronounced in the left hemisphere, and that the degree of intellectual impairment was greater in the TD patients than in the non-TD group. The results suggest that schizophrenic brains with TD tend to be more easily damaged than those without TD, that this tendency predominates on the left side, and that intellectual impairment in TD is related to brain atrophy. PMID:8105130

Ueyama, K; Fukuzako, H; Takeuchi, K; Hirakawa, K; Fukuzako, T; Hokazono, Y; Takigawa, M; Matsumoto, K

1993-03-01

65

Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

2010-01-01

66

Transposition of the Greater Arteries (TGA)  

MedlinePLUS

... MD Copyright © 2012 STS Transposition of Greater Arteries (TGA) is the most common form of congenital heart ... appears blue. Why do the surgery? Infants with TGA need surgery within the first few weeks of ...

67

Changes in Brain Function Occur Years before the Onset of Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

To develop targeted intervention strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease, we first need to identify early markers of brain changes that occur before the onset of cognitive impairment. Here, we examine changes in resting-state brain function in humans from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. We compared longitudinal changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), assessed by 15O-water PET, over a mean 7 year period between participants who eventually developed cognitive impairment (n = 22) and those who remained cognitively normal (n = 99). Annual PET assessments began an average of 11 years before the onset of cognitive impairment in the subsequently impaired group, so all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval. A voxel-based mixed model analysis was used to compare groups with and without subsequent impairment. Participants with subsequent impairment showed significantly greater longitudinal rCBF increases in orbitofrontal, medial frontal, and anterior cingulate regions, and greater longitudinal decreases in parietal, temporal, and thalamic regions compared with those who maintained cognitive health. These changes were linear in nature and were not influenced by longitudinal changes in regional tissue volume. Although all participants were cognitively normal during the scanning interval, most of the accelerated rCBF changes seen in the subsequently impaired group occurred within regions thought to be critical for the maintenance of cognitive function. These changes also occurred within regions that show early accumulation of pathology in Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that there may be a connection between early pathologic change and early changes in brain function.

Goh, Joshua O.; An, Yang; Kraut, Michael A.; O'Brien, Richard J.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M.

2013-01-01

68

Mild Cognitive Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

About Alzheimer's Disease: Mild Cognitive Impairment Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition in which people have memory or other ... as severe as those seen in people with Alzheimer’s disease. More older people with MCI, compared with those ...

69

Speech and Language Impairments  

MedlinePLUS

... 11] Back to top Development of Speech and Language Skills in Childhood Speech and language skills develop ... story. Back to top Characteristics of Speech or Language Impairments The characteristics of speech or language impairments ...

70

Adapting for Impaired Patrons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

Schuyler, Michael

1999-01-01

71

Atrial fibrillation (AF) and cognitive impairment in the elderly: a case-control study.  

PubMed

AF is able not only to increase the risk of cognitive decline due to acute cerebrovascular events, but also to reduce cardiac output, with the consequence of impaired cerebral perfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between AF, dementia and depression in patients with negative anamnesis for past strokes. Our sample included 26 patients with a diagnosis of AF (paroxystic, persistent, permanent) and 31 patients with sinus rhythm, enrolled as controls. All selected patients underwent a Multidimensional Geriatric Assessment in order to investigate cognitive and behavioral functions. Statistical analysis of results showed a greater frequency of latent cognitive impairment in patients with AF, even in the absence of memory disorders. As a matter of facts, AF patients showed Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores significantly lower than those with sinus rhythm (p<0.05) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) scores higher than those without AF, evidencing a greater risk of depression too (p<0.02). Results showed a statistically significant association between AF, depression and cognitive impairment in early stage. In conclusion, AF is not only associated with the risk of developing cognitive impairment, but it can also be considered as a risk factor for dementia and depression, even in the absence of medical history of past stroke. PMID:21940057

Bellomo, A; De Benedetto, G; Fossati, C; D'Ottavio, E; Formosa, V; Gianturco, V; Iori, A; Marigliano, B; Lo Iacono, C; Troisi, G; Marigliano, V

2012-01-01

72

Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose of Review: The term mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is used to describe older subjects with demonstrable cognitive impairment who have not crossed the threshold for dementia. Because patients with MCI have an increased risk of developing dementia, especially Alzheimer disease (AD), there is significant interest in the clinical characterization of these subjects and in understanding the pathophysiology of the transition from MCI to AD. Recent Findings: The MCI syndrome, as an expression of an incipient disorder that may lead to dementia, is extremely heterogeneous and may coexist with systemic, neurologic, or psychiatric disorders that can cause cognitive deficits. Recent clinical criteria were designed to take into account the different forms of clinical presentation of the syndrome, and introduced the possible contribution of biomarkers to the clinical diagnosis. Bedside diagnosis of MCI can be difficult, since patients who report having cognitive problems may have normal scores in global cognitive scales or in brief neuropsychological instruments. Summary: This article presents the evolution of the clinical concept of MCI, the operationalization of its current definitions, the development of biomarkers that can help to identify an underlying neurodegenerative process as the etiology of the syndrome, and its proposed treatments.

Lopez, Oscar L.

2013-01-01

73

Impaired reproduction of mallards fed an organic form of selenium  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We fed mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) diets supplemented with 0-, 1-, 2-, 4-, 8-, or 16-ppm selenium in the form of selenomethionine. We fed another group of mallards a diet containing 16-ppm selenium as selenocystine. Females fed the control diet produced a mean of 8.1 ducklings that survived to 6 days of age, which was significantly greater than the 4.6 young produced by females fed 8-ppm selenium as selenomethionine and the zero surviving young of females fed 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine. Selenocystine did not impair reproduction. Diets containing 8- and 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine caused malformations in 6.8 and 67.9%, respectively, of unhatched eggs compared with 0.6% for controls. The most common malformations were of eyes, bill, legs, and feet. Selenium did not affect the onset or frequency of egg laying, egg size, shell thickness, fertility of eggs, or sex ratio of ducklings. Reduced survival and growth occurred in ducklings hatched from groups whose parents had received 8- or 16-ppm selenium as selenomethionine, even though all ducklings were fed a control diet. Concentrations of selenium in eggs and liver of adults could be predicted from dietary concentrations. We conclude that the dietary threshold of selenium as selenomethionine necessary to impair reproduction is between 4 and 8 ppm. It is difficult to identify 1 level of selenium in eggs that will be diagnostic of reproductive impairment in the field because different chemical forms of selenium appear to have different toxicities in eggs. However, when eggs from a wild population contain .gtoreq. 1-ppm selenium on a wet-weight basis, reproductive impairment may be possible and should be evaluated in that population. At 5-ppm selenium in eggs, reproductive impairment is much more likely to occur.

Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Gold, L.G.

1989-01-01

74

[What is impaired consciousness? Revisiting impaired consciousness as psychiatric concept].  

PubMed

For decades, psychiatrists have considered that concepts of impaired consciousness in the study of psychiatry were inconsistent with those applied in the field of neurology, in which the usefulness of the concept of consciousness has long been seriously doubted. Gloor concluded that the concept of consciousness does not further the understanding of seizure mechanisms or brain function, which is the current representative opinion of most epileptologists. Loss of consciousness tends to be reduced to aggregates of individual impairments of higher cognitive functions, and the concept of consciousness is preferably avoided by neurologists by assigning various behavioral disturbances during disturbed consciousness to particular neuropsychological centers. In contrast, psychiatrists, especially those in Europe, are more likely to include phenomena involving problems related to phenomenological intentionality in impaired consciousness. For the present study, we first divided consciousness into vigilance and recursive consciousness, and then attempted to determine what kind of impaired consciousness would be an ideal candidate to represent pure disturbance of recursive consciousness. Then, 4 patients, 1 each with pure amnestic states followed immediately by complex partial seizures, an akinetic mutistic state caused by absence status, and mental diplopia as a manifestation of postictal psychosis, as well as a patient with Alzheimer's disease who gracefully performed Japanese tea ceremony, were studied. Based on our findings, we concluded that impaired consciousness as a generic term in general medicine does not indicate any unitary entity corresponding to some well-demarcated physiological function or constitute a base from which recursive consciousness emerges as a superstructure. From that, we stressed that a pure form of impairment of recursive consciousness could occur without the impaired consciousness named generically in general medicine. Second, following observation of an additional 3 cases, descriptions of naissance of the first word (taken from the autobiography of Helen Keller), visual object agnosia, and chronic schizophrenia with schizophasia were discussed to examine the relationship between impairments of recursive consciousness and semantic generation dysfunction. Attempts to bridge semantic generation and recursive consciousness, performed by psychopathologists such as Bin Kimura and Hiroyuki Koide, were also briefly discussed. In light of these case presentations and related discussions, we re-examined traditional theories of impaired consciousness, including Mayer-Gross's Gestalt theory, later replaced by Conrad and Henri Ey's theory related to intentionality. Furthermore, we attempted to link Denett's theory of consciousness to those traditional theories as well as to our own postulations, and neuropsychological data such as those of implicit memory and blindsight. Finally, the significance of Freud's unconsciousness in the framework of neuroscience was discussed. PMID:15580868

Kanemoto, Kousuke

2004-01-01

75

Nutrition and cognitive impairment in the elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the number of older people is growing rapidly worldwide and the fact that elderly people are also apparently living longer, dementia, the most common cause of cognitive impairment is getting to be a greater public health problem. Nutrition plays a role in the ageing process, but there is still a lack of knowledge about nutrition-related risk factors in cognitive

M. González-Gross; Ascensión Marcos; Klaus Pietrzik

2001-01-01

76

The Relationship of Audibility and the Development of Canonical Babbling in Young Children With Hearing Impairment  

PubMed Central

This article investigated the relationship between age at onset of canonical babbling and audibility of amplified speech in children with hearing impairment. Thirteen children with severe–profound hearing impairment and two children with normal hearing participated in a longitudinal investigation of vocalization development. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design was used to analyze vocalization recordings obtained during two phases (hearing aid [HA] and cochlear implant [CI]). Audibility during HA and CI use was calculated using the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII). Earlier ages of canonical babble onset were related to greater audibility of the speech signal during HA use. Children who developed canonical babble had an SII of .35 or greater. SII was a statistically significant predictor of age of onset of canonical babble. Results support the concept of an “essential” level of audibility for onset of canonical babble. Findings are discussed relative to their methodological and clinical implications regarding treatment decision making.

Bass-Ringdahl, Sandie M.

2010-01-01

77

32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...Significant beneficial effects also occur and...

2013-07-01

78

Greater trochanteric fracture with occult intertrochanteric extension.  

PubMed

Proximal femoral fractures are frequently encountered in the emergency department (ED). Prompt diagnosis is paramount as delay will exacerbate the already poor outcomes associated with these injuries. In cases where radiography is negative but clinical suspicion remains high, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the study of choice as it has the capability to depict fractures which are occult on other imaging modalities. Awareness of a particular subset of proximal femoral fractures, namely greater trochanteric fractures, is vital for both radiologists and clinicians since it has been well documented that they invariably have an intertrochanteric component which may require surgical management. The detection of intertrochanteric or cervical extension of greater trochanteric fractures has been described utilizing MRI but is underestimated with both computed tomography (CT) and bone scan. Therefore, if MRI is unavailable or contraindicated, the diagnosis of an isolated greater trochanteric fracture should be met with caution. The importance of avoiding this potential pitfall is demonstrated in the following case of an elderly woman with hip pain and CT demonstrating an isolated greater trochanteric fracture who subsequently returned to the ED with a displaced intertrochanteric fracture. PMID:23479065

Reiter, Michael; O'Brien, Seth D; Bui-Mansfield, Liem T; Alderete, Joseph

2013-10-01

79

Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. (Exxon Exploration Co., Houston, TX (United States)) (and others)

1996-01-01

80

Spread of English across Greater China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely different societies, an emphasis is placed on mainland China

Anwei Feng

2012-01-01

81

Greater Occipital Nerve Blockade for Cluster Headache  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cluster headache is perhaps the most painful of the primary headache disorders. Its treatment includes acute, transitional, and preventive therapy. Despite the availability of many treatments, cluster headache patients can still be difficult to treat. We treated 14 cluster headache patients with greater occipital nerve block as transitional therapy (treatment initiated at the same time as preventive therapy). The mean

M FP Peres; M A Stiles; H C Siow; T D Rozen; W B Young; S D Silberstein

2002-01-01

82

Social Networks and Their Influence on Drinking Behaviors: Differences Related to Cognitive Impairment in Clients Receiving Alcoholism Treatment  

PubMed Central

Objective Mechanisms of behavioral change that support positive addiction treatment outcomes in individuals with co-occurring alcohol-use disorders and cognitive impairment remain largely unknown. This article combines person- and variable-centered approaches to examine the interrelated influence of cognitive impairment and social support on stability of and changes in drinking behaviors of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) outpatients and aftercare clients (N= 1, 726) during the first year after their entry into treatment. Method Latent class analysis identified homogeneous groups of clients based on the nature and extent of social support for abstinence or drinking at treatment entry. Cognitive impairment and drinking outcomes were compared across latent classes, and the interaction between impairment and social support on drinking outcomes was examined using mixture probit regression. Results Three independent social support classes (frequent positive, limited positive, and negative) were identified. In the outpatient sample, the frequent positive support class had greater cognitive impairment at treatment entry versus other classes, and extent of impairment significantly predicted improved drinking outcomes in this class. In the aftercare sample, the frequent positive and negative support classes had heightened impairment, yet cognitive impairment significantly predicted relatively poorer drinking outcomes in the negative support class only. Conclusions Cognitive impairment may increase the influence of the social network on the drinking outcomes of persons receiving treatment for alcohol-use disorders, but more research is needed to understand client characteristics that determine whether this influence is more likely to be manifest as increased salience of helping agents or of hindering agents in the social network.

Buckman, Jennifer F.; Bates, Marsha E.; Cisler, Ron A.

2010-01-01

83

Mild carbon monoxide poisoning impairs left ventricular diastolic function  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is associated with direct cardiovascular toxicity. In mild CO poisoning in which cardiovascular life support is not required, the effects of CO on left and right ventricular functions are unknown in patients without cardiac failure. Objectives: Echocardiography was used to determine whether or not mild CO poisoning impairs ventricular function. Twenty otherwise healthy patients with CO poisoning and 20 age- and gender-matched controls were studied. Echocardiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and 1 week after poisoning. Results: The impairment observed in the left and right ventricular diastolic function at the time of admission was greater than the impairment 1 week after poisoning. Mild CO poisoning did not have a significant effect on systolic function. Carboxyhemoglobin levels were positively correlated with left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, whereas the levels were not correlated with right ventricular diastolic function. Conclusions: In CO intoxication, the development of left and right ventricular diastolic dysfunction precedes systolic abnormality. Patients with mild CO poisoning do not manifest cardiovascular symptoms; however, it should be borne in mind that most of these patients have myocardial involvement.

Ciftci, Ozgur; Gunday, Murat; Cal?skan, Mustafa; Gullu, Hakan; Dogan, Rafi; Guven, Aytekin; Muderrisoglu, Haldun

2013-01-01

84

Naming of objects, faces and buildings in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Accruing evidence suggests that the cognitive deficits in very early Alzheimer's Disease (AD) are not confined to episodic memory, with a number of studies documenting semantic memory deficits, especially for knowledge of people. To investigate whether this difficulty in naming famous people extends to other proper names based information, three naming tasks - the Graded Naming Test (GNT), which uses objects and animals, the Graded Faces Test (GFT) and the newly designed Graded Buildings Test (GBT) - were administered to 69 participants (32 patients in the early prodromal stage of AD, so-called Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and 37 normal control participants). Patients were found to be impaired on all three tests compared to controls, although naming of objects was significantly better than naming of faces and buildings. Discriminant analysis successfully predicted group membership for 100% controls and 78.1% of patients. The results suggest that even in cases that do not yet fulfil criteria for AD naming of famous people and buildings is impaired, and that both these semantic domains show greater vulnerability than general semantic knowledge. A semantic deficit together with the hallmark episodic deficit may be common in MCI, and that the use of graded tasks tapping semantic memory may be useful for the early identification of patients with MCI. PMID:18472044

Ahmed, Samrah; Arnold, Robert; Thompson, Sian A; Graham, Kim S; Hodges, John R

2008-06-01

85

Screening for Vision Problems in Children with Hearing Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vision problems occur at higher rates in the deaf and hearing impaired population than in the general population. When an individual has a hearing impairment, vision becomes more significant in the instructional and learning process, as well as in social and communicative exchanges. Regular comprehensive visual screening of hearing impaired

Demchak, MaryAnn; Elquist, Marty

86

Habitat Suitability Index Models: Greater Sandhill Crane  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

Armbruster, Michael J.

1987-01-01

87

Methamphetamine Use Parameters Do Not Predict Neuropsychological Impairment in Currently Abstinent Dependent Adults  

PubMed Central

Methamphetamine (meth) abuse is increasingly of public health concern and has been associated with neurocognitive dysfunction. Some previous studies have been hampered by background differences between meth users and comparison subjects, as well as unknown HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) status, which can also affect brain functioning. We compared the neurocognitive functioning of 54 meth dependent (METH+) study participants who had been abstinent for an average of 129 days, to that of 46 demographically comparable control subjects (METH-) with similar level of education and reading ability. All participants were free of HIV and HCV infection. The METH+ group exhibited higher rates of neuropsychological impairment in most areas tested. Among meth users, neuropsychologically normal (n=32) and impaired (n=22) subjects did not differ with respect to self-reported age at first use, total years of use, route of consumption, or length of abstinence. Those with motor impairment had significantly greater meth use in the past year, but impairment in cognitive domains was unrelated to meth exposure. The apparent lack of correspondence between substance use parameters and cognitive impairment suggests the need for further study of individual differences in vulnerability to the neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine.

Mariana, Cherner; Suarez, Paola; Casey, Corinna; Deiss, Robert; Letendre, Scott; Marcotte, Thomas; Vaida, Florin; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Grant, Igor; Heaton, Robert K.

2009-01-01

88

Patterns of Word-List Generation in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been described as exhibiting greater impairment on tests of category fluency than letter fluency. This has been offered as evidence that this condition represents pre-clinical Alzheimer's disease (AD). We hypothesized that this pattern of differential impairment is dependent on the specific semantic categories and initial letters selected, and is not specific to

Jason Brandt; Kevin J. Manning

2009-01-01

89

Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

2012-01-01

90

Neuropsychological impairment in incest offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-one incest perpetrators were compared to 36 nonviolent nonsex offenders for the presence of neuropsychological impairment. The WAIS-R, Halstead-Reitan battery, and CT scans of the brain were used. The sex offenders were also examined for the presence of substance abuse, violence, pedophilia, and biological relationship to the victim. Incest offenders had significantly lower IQ scores than controls but generally were

R. Langevin; G. Wortzman; R. Dickey; P. Wright; L. Handy

1988-01-01

91

Associations between Visual, Hearing, and Dual Sensory Impairments and History of Motor Vehicle Collision Involvement by Older Drivers  

PubMed Central

Objectives To examine the association between visual and hearing impairment and motor vehicle collision (MVC) involvement in older drivers. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting North central Alabama Participants Population-based sample of 2,000 licensed-drivers, age 70 and older. Measurements Visual acuity was measured using the Electronic Visual Acuity test. Contrast sensitivity was measured using the Pelli-Robson chart. Presence of subjective hearing loss and other health conditions were determined using a general health questionnaire. Information regarding MVCs for all participants spanning the five years prior to study enrollment was obtained from the Alabama Department of Public Safety. Results Following adjustment for age, race, gender, number of miles driven, number of medical conditions, general cognitive status, and visual processing speed, older drivers having both visual acuity and hearing impairment (rate ratio RR 1.52, 95% confidence interval CI 1.01–2.30), contrast sensitivity impairment alone (RR 1.42, 95% CI 1.00–2.02), and both contrast sensitivity and hearing impairment (RR 2.41, 95% CI 1.62–3.57) had elevated MVC rates, compared to drivers with no visual or hearing impairments. Drivers with visual acuity loss alone or hearing loss alone did not have significantly different MVC rates when compared to the no impairment group after adjustment for multiple variables. Conclusion Older drivers with dual sensory impairment are at greater MVC risk than those with only a visual acuity or a hearing deficit alone. A combined screening approach of screening for both hearing impairment and visual impairment may be a useful tool to identify older drivers at risk for MVC involvement.

Green, Kimberly A.; McGwin, Gerald; Owsley, Cynthia

2012-01-01

92

Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Greater Philadelphia  

SciTech Connect

Always going beyond expectations, the Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Program provides its stakeholders with excellent resources to implement alternative fuel projects. They are known as one of the most successful coalitions in the Clean Cities Program, and are a member-funded organization comprised of large government organizations, utilities, and non-profit groups in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. The coalition aggressively promotes alternative fuel vehicle acquisitions; their public outreach efforts target all stakeholders and provide numerous resources to advance the alternative fuel choice.

ICF Kaiser.

1999-05-20

93

Hospital design to support greater operating efficiency.  

PubMed

With the new imperative on cost containment and particular emphasis on prospective payment, hospital design must support greater productivity. It is incumbent on architects and engineers to reduce construction costs; but more importantly, to design facilities that improve personnel productivity. Several approaches to designing for efficiency are discussed including improving the development process; systems building, ease of maintenance, and conserving energy; developing the model hospital; minimizing travel throughout the hospital; centralization vs. decentralization; automating support systems; designing for growth and change; analyzing workflow; utilizing swing space; and emphasizing consumer centered care. PMID:10268971

Skaggs, R L

1984-12-01

94

Impaired consciousness in epilepsy investigated by a prospective responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Impaired consciousness in epileptic seizures has a major negative impact on patient quality of life. Prior work on epileptic unconsciousness has mainly used retrospective and nonstandardized methods. Our goal was to validate and to obtain initial data using a standardized prospective testing battery. Methods The responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES) was used on 52 patients during continuous video/EEG monitoring. RES begins with higher-level questions and commands, and switches adaptively to more basic sensorimotor responses depending on patient performance. RES continues after seizures and includes postictal memory testing. Scoring was conducted based on video review. Key Findings Testing on standardized seizure simulations yielded good intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. We captured 59 seizures from 18 patients (35% of participants) during 1420 hours of RES monitoring. RES impairment was greatest during and after tonic-clonic seizures, less in partial seizures, and minimal in auras and subclinical seizures. In partial seizures, ictal RES impairment was significantly greater if EEG changes were present. Maximum RES impairment (lowest ictal score) was also significantly correlated with long postictal recovery time, and poor postictal memory. Significance We found that prospective testing of responsiveness during seizures is feasible and reliable. RES impairment was related to EEG changes during seizures, as well as to postictal memory deficits and recovery time. With a larger patient sample it is hoped that this approach can identify brain networks underlying specific components of impaired consciousness in seizures. This may allow the development of improved treatments targeted at preventing dysfunction in these networks.

Yang, Li; Shklyar, Irina; Lee, Hyang Woon; Ezeani, Celestine C.; Anaya, Joseph; Balakirsky, Samantha; Han, Xiao; Enamandram, Sheila; Men, Clara; Cheng, Joyce Y.; Nunn, Abigail; Mayer, Tanya; Francois, Czestochowa; Albrecht, Molly; Hutchison, Alan L.; Yap, Ee-Lynn; Ing, Kevin; Didebulidze, Gvantsa; Xiao, Bo; Hamid, Hamada; Farooque, Pue; Detyniecki, Kamil; Giacino, Joseph T.; Blumenfeld, Hal

2013-01-01

95

Development or Impairment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Joanne Paradis' Keynote Article on bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI) is an impressive overview of research in language acquisition and language impairment. Studying different populations is crucial both for theorizing about language acquisition mechanisms, and for practical purposes of diagnosing and supporting children with…

Hakansson, Gisela

2010-01-01

96

Education for the Hearing Impaired (Auditorily Impaired).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Education for the hearing impaired is discussed in nine conference papers. J. N. Howarth describes "The Education of Deaf Children in Schools for Hearing Pupils in the United Kingdom" and A.I.Dyachkov of the U.S.S.R. outlines Didactical Principles of Educating the Deaf in the Light of their Rehabilitation Goal." Seven papers from Poland are also…

World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

97

Women at greater risk of HIV infection.  

PubMed

Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed. PMID:12292992

Mahathir, M

1997-04-01

98

Pragmatic impairments in adults with childhood diagnoses of autism or developmental receptive language disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Audiotaped conversational samples from adults diagnosed as having autistic disorders (n=15) or developmental receptive language disorders (n=17) in childhood were transcribed and analyzed using methods based on those of Bishop and Adams (1989). Subjects with autism showed substantially greater pragmatic impairment not explicable by generalized impairment of verbal skills. This was mainly due to autistic subjects' greater difficulty in forming

Martin J. Eales

1993-01-01

99

Cycling performance decrement is greater in hypobaric versus normobaric hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether cycling time trial (TT) performance differs between hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) at the same ambient PO2 (93 mmHg, 4,300-m altitude equivalent). Methods Two groups of healthy fit men were matched on physical performance and demographic characteristics and completed a 720-kJ time trial on a cycle ergometer at sea level (SL) and following approximately 2 h of resting exposure to either HH (n?=?6, 20?±?2 years, 75.2?±?11.8 kg, mean?±?SD) or NH (n?=?6, 21?±?3 years, 77.4?±?8.8 kg). Volunteers were free to manually increase or decrease the work rate on the cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected every 5 min during the TT, and the mean was calculated. Results Both groups exhibited similar TT performance (min) at SL (73.9?±?7.6 vs. 73.2?±?8.2), but TT performance was longer (P?greater (P?impaired to a greater degree in HH versus NH at the same ambient PO2 equivalent to 4,300 m despite similar cardiorespiratory responses.

2014-01-01

100

[Greater trochanteric pain syndrome of the hip].  

PubMed

Lateral pain of the hip with point tenderness at the Greater Trochanter is a common musculoskeletal complaint. It is frequently diagnosed as trochanteric bursitis; however, this term is inaccurate because of evident non-inflammatory pathologies, particularly of the abductor tendons of the hip. It is important to differentiate this extra-articular source from an intra-articular or a lower back source of pain. Imaging is useful in cases of trauma, prolonged pain or uncertain diagnosis. Non-operative treatment that involves modifying activities, physiotherapy, analgesics, steroid injections and shock wave therapy is usually helpful. Nevertheless, despite the above treatments, about one third of the patients suffer from chronic pain and disability. These patients may be candidates for operative intervention. Currently, there are endoscopic surgical techniques for local decompression, bursectomy and suture of torn tendons similar to surgery used in the shoulder. PMID:24716427

Haviv, Barak; Bronak, Shlomo; Thein, Rafael

2014-02-01

101

Planning for greater-confinement disposal  

SciTech Connect

This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references.

Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

1984-01-01

102

Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

1985-01-01

103

Planning for greater-confinement disposal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (CGD) of low-level radioactive waste is presented. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives.

Gilbert, T. L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N. K.; Trevorrow, L. E.; Yu, C.

104

Pervasive Cognitive Impairment in Acute Rehabilitation Inpatients Without Brain Injury  

PubMed Central

Objective To establish feasibility for the hypothesis that patients in acute rehabilitation who are hospitalized for disorders not known to involve cerebral injury can have significant cognitive impairment. Design A comparison of performances on neuropsychological tests between 2 samples of subjects: inpatients in an acute rehabilitation hospital without known cerebral disease and normal community-dwelling persons. Setting Acute inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Patients and Participants Nineteen hospitalized patients without delirium who were screened for pre-existing cerebral and psychiatric illness, dementia, and dependency in basic self-care skills before hospitalization. Eighteen community-dwelling persons who were not different in terms of age and education served as the control group. Methods Participants completed 10 commonly used neuropsychological tests of executive, language, and memory functions. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of variance. Main Outcome Measurements Raw scores on the 10 neuropsychological tests. Results Hospitalized patients performed significantly worse on 9 of 10 tests than community-dwelling participants. Older hospitalized participants had significantly greater cognitive impairment than younger hospitalized participants, which suggested increased susceptibility to effects of hospitalization on cognition. Conclusions Patients hospitalized without brain injury, and especially elderly patients, should be carefully monitored for cognitive deficits that may affect posthospitalization quality of living. Further research is needed to determine whether the cognitive deficits in such patients persist after discharge and affect functional independence, and to identify mechanisms for the deficits. Furthermore, the use of hospitalized participants without brain injury as control subjects in neuropsychological studies of brain injury should be balanced with an additional comparison group of matched, neurologically healthy, normal subjects who live in the community to control for cognitive impairments that are associated with acute hospitalization.

Woods, Adam J.; Mark, Victor W.; Pitts, Anthony C.; Mennemeier, Mark

2012-01-01

105

Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

2011-01-01

106

Hearing or speech impairment - resources  

MedlinePLUS

Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association - www.asha.org National Dissemination Center for Children ...

107

Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Relationship to Caregiver Burden  

PubMed Central

Background Caregivers of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) need similar levels of support services as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) caregivers, but it is unclear if this translates to increased caregiver burden. Methods 135 participants and their caregivers (40 MCI, 55 AD and 40 normal controls, NC) completed questionnaires, and the patients were administered neuropsychological tests. Results The MCI caregivers reported significantly more overall caregiving burden than the NC, but less than the AD. They showed similar levels of emotional, physical and social burden as the AD caregivers. Among the MCI caregivers, the neuropsychiatric symptoms and executive functioning of the patients were related to a greater burden, and the caregivers with a greater burden reported lower life satisfaction and social support, and a greater need for support services. Conclusion These results indicate that MCI caregivers are at increased risk for caregiver stress, and they require enhanced assistance and/or education in caring for their loved ones.

Ryan, Kelly A.; Weldon, Anne; Persad, Carol; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Barbas, Nancy; Giordani, Bruno

2013-01-01

108

Deficits in retrospective and prospective components underlying prospective memory tasks in amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objectives By use of purer indices of PM and RM components than previous studies and adoption of three PM task types, the present study aimed to investigate the deficits of these two components underlying global impairment at a PM task in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods Nineteen aMCI patients and 22 normal controls were examined on event-, time- and activity-based PM tasks. Separate scores were obtained for initiation of intentions (i.e. PM component) and for the content of the intentions (i.e. RM component). Results Individuals with aMCI achieved lower PM component (but not RM component) scores than NCs across all three PM tasks. Furthermore, there was a trend for greater impairment on activity-based than time-based and event-based PM tasks, but which did not reach significance. In addition, a significant association between PM component and an executive function test was observed in aMCI group. PM task performance, especially activity-based PM task performance and PM component performance, successfully discriminated between aMCI and NC and was able to do so above and beyond the executive function tests. Conclusions Our finding suggested that the deficits in PM component, related to a disrupted executive control processes, were responsible for the impaired ability of individuals with aMCI to realize delayed intentions.

2012-01-01

109

Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that approximate each other sufficiently closely to constitute a majority for the purpose of quantifying reliability. This criterion is, simply, that if there do not exist at least three sensors having weights greater than a prescribed minimum acceptable value, then the array as a whole is deemed to have failed.

Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

2004-01-01

110

Early tectonic history of the Greater Antilles  

SciTech Connect

The islands of the Greater Antilles exhibit differing pre-Oligocene tectonic styles and histories, but all display the results of convergent plate activity from the Early Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Western and central Cuba consist of autochthonous, Jurassic and older continental crust, which was overthrust by Cretaceous ophiolites in the Early to Middle Eocene. In contrast, eastern Cuba seems to be similar to Northern Hispaniola, and both areas consist of complexes of upper Cretaceous to Eocene magmatic-arc rocks, and trench generated ophiolites and blueschists produced by SW directed subduction. The oldest rocks in central Hispaniola are exposed in NW trending linear fault-bounded belts. Unusual high-Mg greenschists and amphibolites, quartz-feldspathic greenschists, together with N-type MORB basalts and keratophyric volcanics, are juxtaposed against a medial serpentinite belt. Central and eastern Puerto Rico consist of Lower to Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks intruded by upper Cretaceous to Eocene plutons. Similar Cretaceous volcanics occur in SW Puerto Rico, but they are overthrust by Upper Jurassic cherts, spilites and amphibolites. Jamaica lies along the Nicaraguan Rise to the SW of the other islands and consists of Barremian to Maastrichtian volcanics and volcanogenic sediments intruded by upper Cretaceous calc-alkalic plutons. Blueschists and related rocks in eastern Jamaica, and geochemical zonation in the igneous rocks suggest that the subduction was to the NW. Change in tectonic movements from convergence to left lateral shear took place during the Late Eocene/Early Oligocene.

Lewis, J.F.; Draper, G.; Mattson, P.

1985-01-01

111

Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver  

SciTech Connect

The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

Foellmi, S.N. (Black and Veatch, Irvine, CA (United States). Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. (Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)); Dawson, R.N. (Stanley Associates Engineering Ltd., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))

1993-10-01

112

Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network (GPGN) is a project by the Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries designed "to develop a web-based repository of geographically organized historical information about Philadelphia, its geography, its buildings, and its people." It's quite an impressive endeavor, and anyone with a love for the City of Brotherly Love will want to spend at least a few hours on the site. First-time visitors can get started by clicking on the Resource Browser on the homepage. Here they will have access to thousands of digitized materials, including early images of the city, planning documents, historic views, land use maps, and so on. The items here date from 1683 to the late 1960s, and visitors can use the resource type toggle feature to look for specific groups of documents. Moving on, visitors can also use the Interactive Maps Viewer to look over map layers that include a 1934 land value appraisal map and a 1942 land use map created by the Works Progress Administration. Finally, visitors shouldn't miss the Educational Resources area. Here they will find guides for teachers seeking to use this wealth of information in their own classrooms.

113

Mild Cognitive Impairment Research  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Media Text Size Videos and Media Virtual Library Brain Tour Facts & Figures Spotlight on Researchers Web Links ... early diagnosis Mild Cognitive Impairment Research Inside the brain Genetics in Alzheimer's Advances in brain imaging Diet ...

114

Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.  

PubMed

Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development. PMID:20645470

Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

2010-01-01

115

Muscle Impairments in Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

Context: Muscle impairments associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) are the primary underlying cause of functional limitations. Understanding the extent of muscle impairments, its relationship with physical function and disease progression, and the evidence behind exercise therapy that targets muscle impairments is crucial. Evidence Acquisition: An electronic search for relevant articles using MEDLINE and CINHAL databases up to September 2011 was performed. In addition to the electronic search, retrieved articles were searched manually for relevant studies. Results: Quadriceps, hamstrings, and hip muscles are significantly impaired in subjects with knee OA compared with age-matched controls. Muscle strength, especially quadriceps, is a major determinant of both performance-based and self-reported physical function. Whether stronger quadriceps is protective against knee OA onset and progression is not clear. Exercise therapy, including global and targeted resistance training, is effective in reducing pain and improving function in subjects with knee OA. Conclusions: Subjects with knee OA have significant muscle impairments. These muscle impairments affect physical function and should be targeted in therapy. Further research is needed to explore the relationship between quadriceps strength and knee OA initiation and progression and to determine the optimal exercise prescription that augments outcomes in this patient population.

Alnahdi, Ali H.; Zeni, Joseph A.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

2012-01-01

116

Driving impairment due to sleepiness is exacerbated by low alcohol intake  

PubMed Central

Methods: Twelve healthy young men drove for two hours in the afternoon, in an instrumented car on a simulated motorway. In a repeated measures, counterbalanced design, they were given alcohol or placebo under conditions of normal sleep or prior sleep restriction. Measurements were: driving impairment (lane drifting), subjective sleepiness, and EEG measures of sleepiness. Results: Whereas sleep restriction and alcohol each caused a significant deterioration in all indices, the combined alcohol and sleep restriction further and significantly worsened lane drifting (which typifies sleep related crashes). This combined effect was also reflected to a significant extent in the EEG, but not with subjective sleepiness. That is, alcohol did not significantly increase subjective sleepiness in combination with sleep loss when compared with sleep loss alone. Conclusions: Modest, and apparently "safe" levels of alcohol intake exacerbate driving impairment due to sleepiness. The sleepy drivers seemed not to have realised that alcohol had increased their sleepiness to an extent that was clearly reflected by a greater driving impairment and in the EEG.

Horne, J; Reyner, L; Barrett, P

2003-01-01

117

Mainstreaming the Hearing Impaired Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature on mainstreaming students with hearing impairments begins by defining "hearing impairment,""deafness," and "hard of hearing". The paper briefly considers causes of hearing impairments and types of hearing impairments. Suggestions for preparing a class for a student with hearing loss includes having a visible class…

Szelazkiewicz, Sara

118

Psychiatric symptom impairment in children with autism spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

The general aim of this study was to examine the relation of psychiatric symptom-induced impairment with other common parameters of mental health in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Prevalence rates are used to illustrate the implications of different criteria for caseness. Parents/teachers completed DSM-IV-referenced rating scales for 6-12 year old children with ASD (N?=?115), the majority of whom were boys (86 %). Most children were rated by parents (81 %) or teachers (86 %) as being socially or academically impaired by symptoms of at least one psychiatric disorder. The most common impairing conditions (parent/teacher) were attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (67 %/71 %), oppositional defiant disorder (35 %/33 %), and anxiety disorder (47 %/34 %), and the combined rates based on either informant were generally much higher. Agreement between symptom cutoff and impairment cutoff was acceptable for most disorders. A larger percentage of youth were impaired by psychiatric symptoms than met symptom cutoff criteria, and the discrepancy between impairment cutoff and clinical cutoff (impairment cutoff plus symptom cutoff) was even greater. Impairment was moderately to highly correlated with both number and severity of symptoms. Parents' and teachers' ratings indicated little agreement as to whether a child was impaired. Findings for youth with ASD were similar to non ASD child psychiatry outpatient referrals, but clearly different in several ways from comparable studies of community-based samples. PMID:23605958

Kaat, Aaron J; Gadow, Kenneth D; Lecavalier, Luc

2013-08-01

119

Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?  

PubMed Central

Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

2013-01-01

120

Appeal for legislation on greater safety.  

PubMed

An Essex-headquartered company which claims to manufacture the world's leading "brand" of glass vision panel, is calling for legislation to regulate the quality and design of such products. With no statutory governance currently in place, it is concerned that a rash of badly-designed, poorer quality variants, that it says have emerged in recent years, pose a significant self-harm and ligature risk to mentally unwell patients in hospitals, and a potential danger to staff when components like internal fittings and the glass itself, especially should the latter be too thin and thus easy to break, are used as "weapons". HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie reports. PMID:22053362

Baillie, Jonathan

2011-10-01

121

Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report  

SciTech Connect

This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

2003-03-05

122

Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin  

SciTech Connect

Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

Al-Laboun, A.A.

1987-05-01

123

Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.  

PubMed

The phylogeography of the bush habituated African bovid species impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from Southern Africa toward Eastern regions in the greater kudu. Results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. The study reveals a similar pattern, that is a marked divergence of lineages from South-western Africa relative to other regions. This pattern is opposed to previously published findings in other African bovid species. In the impala, the genetically isolated region is consistent with morphology because it is recognized as the subspecies A. m. petersi, the black-faced impala. In contrast, the similar split of South-western mitochondrial lineages was not expected in the greater kudu on the basis of morphology. Both species show a significant population genetic differentiation. Beyond their phylogeographical value, our results should raise conservation concerns about South-western populations of both species. The black-faced impala is categorized as vulnerable and our data show indications of hybridization with common impala A. m. melampus. The previously unrecognized genetic status of the South-western kudus could also imply conservation regulations. PMID:11298982

Nersting, L G; Arctander, P

2001-03-01

124

Impairments in Activities of Daily Living in Older Japanese Men in Hawaii and Japan  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Hypertension and cigarette smoking are dominant risk factors for cardiovascular disease in Japan while in westernized countries, broader effects encompass obesity, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia. This paper examines whether different associations also appear important in the manifestation of activities of daily living (ADL) in older Japanese men in Hawaii and Japan. Methods. Measures of ADL (feeding, toileting, dressing, bathing, and walking around the house) were assessed from 1995 to 1999 in 1,893 men in Hawaii and 543 men in Japan. Concomitant risk factors were measured from 1990 to 1993. Results. In Hawaii, diabetes increased the odds of ?1 ADL impairment nearly 1.5-fold (P = .020). A similar association was absent in Japan. In contrast, the odds of an ADL impairment in Japan was increased more than 5-fold in the presence of stroke (P < .001). The association in Hawaii was significantly weaker (P = .007). In both cohorts, past alcohol use was associated with a greater likelihood of ADL impairment. Conclusion. In this comparison of genetically similar samples, findings suggest that different strengths in risk factor associations with cardiovascular disease in Japan and westernized countries may also include different strengths in associations with impaired ADL.

Abbott, Robert D.; Kadota, Aya; Miura, Katsuyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kadowaki, Takashi; Okamura, Tomonori; Okayama, Akira; Masaki, Kamal H.; Ueshima, Hirotsugu

2011-01-01

125

Piracetam treatment in patients with cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Piracetam is a cognitive-enhancing agent that is used for the treatment of cognitive impairments of various etiologies. Little is known about its side effect profile, especially in those with psychiatric illness. We herewith present two cases with cognitive impairment who had contrasting responses to piracetam. One of them with organic amnestic syndrome had significant improvement, whereas the other who had an organic personality change as well as a family history of mental illness had significant worsening of behavioral problems after piracetam was introduced. This report highlights the need for caution in the use of piracetam, especially in those with past or family history of psychiatric illness. PMID:22763000

Rao, Mukund G; Holla, Bharath; Varambally, Shivarama; Raveendranathan, Dhanya; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

2013-01-01

126

Efficacy of levomilnacipran extended-release in improving functional impairment associated with major depressive disorder: pooled analyses of five double-blind, placebo-controlled trials  

PubMed Central

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by increased rates of impaired function and disability. During antidepressant treatment, functional improvement often lags behind symptomatic resolution, and residual impairment is associated with an increased risk for relapse. When evaluating MDD treatments, it is important to assess not only depressive symptoms but also functional outcomes. In this post-hoc analysis, data from five studies were pooled to examine the effect of levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) versus placebo on functional impairment as measured using the Sheehan Disability Scale. The mean change in the Sheehan Disability Scale total score was significantly greater for levomilnacipran ER versus placebo in the overall pooled population, for both sexes, and across all ages. Statistically significantly higher rates of functional response, functional remission, combined (functional and symptomatic) response, and combined remission were achieved with levomilnacipran ER compared with placebo in the pooled population, as well as in the male, female, younger, and middle-aged population subgroups. The levomilnacipran ER group also showed significantly improved functional outcomes versus placebo regardless of baseline depression severity. Similarly, functional impairment was significantly improved and higher functional and combined response and remission rates were achieved with levomilnacipran ER compared with placebo regardless of the baseline level of functional impairment.

Gommoll, Carl; Chen, Changzheng; Greenberg, William M.

2014-01-01

127

Spared and impaired aspects of motivated cognitive control in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and 39 healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with nonreward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and nonreward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between nonreward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared with baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the nonreward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both nonreward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of "just-in-time," reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

Mann, Claire L; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L; Barch, Deanna M

2013-08-01

128

Benzo[a]pyrene impairs neurodifferentiation in PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Animal studies indicate neurobehavioral anomalies after prenatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (BaP). In order to determine if BaP directly affects neurodevelopment, we compared its effects to those of the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), in undifferentiated and differentiating neuronotypic PC12 cells, evaluating indices of cell replication, cell number, neurite outgrowth and phenotypic differentiation. Unlike CPF, BaP did not inhibit DNA synthesis in undifferentiated cells. In cells undergoing nerve growth factor-induced differentiation, CPF reduced cell numbers (assessed by DNA content) whereas BaP increased them, suggesting a delay in the transition between cell replication and differentiation. Indices of cell enlargement (total protein/DNA) and neurite outgrowth (membrane protein/DNA) also showed opposite effects of CPF (increases) and BaP (decreases). We directly confirmed BaP impairment of neurodifferentiation by measuring markers for the two neurotransmitter phenotypes expressed by PC12 cells: tyrosine hydroxylase (dopamine phenotype) and choline acetyltransferase (acetylcholine phenotype). BaP significantly reduced both markers in differentiating cells, with a preferentially greater effect on the acetylcholine phenotype. Our results indicate that low, non-toxic levels of BaP can impair neurodifferentiation, resulting in excess cell numbers at the expense of the emergence of neurotransmitter phenotypes. BaP thus has direct actions on developing neuronal cells that could contribute to the adverse neurodevelopmental effects seen with in vivo exposures. PMID:19539729

Slotkin, Theodore A; Seidler, Frederic J

2009-08-28

129

Binaural speech discrimination under noise in hearing-impaired listeners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the results of an assessment of speech discrimination by hearing-impaired listeners (sensori-neural, conductive, and mixed groups) under binaural free-field listening in the presence of background noise. Subjects with pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz were presented with a version of the W-22 list of phonetically balanced words under three conditions: (1) 'quiet', with the chamber noise below 28 dB and speech at 60 dB; (2) at a constant S/N ratio of +10 dB, and with a background white noise at 70 dB; and (3) same as condition (2), but with the background noise at 80 dB. The mean speech discrimination scores decreased significantly with noise in all groups. However, the decrease in binaural speech discrimination scores with an increase in hearing impairment was less for material presented under the noise conditions than for the material presented in quiet.

Kumar, K. V.; Rao, A. B.

1988-01-01

130

Impaired top-down control of visual search in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

This study examined top-down and bottom-up control of attention in a group of 24 patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy volunteers. Participants completed a visual search task in which they reported whether a target oval contained a gap. The target was accompanied by 5, 11, or 17 distractors. On some trials, the target was identified by a highly salient feature that was shared by only 2 distractors, causing this feature to “pop out” from the display. This feature provided strong bottom-up information that could be used to direct attention to the target. On other trials, half of the distractors contained this distractor, making these distractors no more salient than the other distractors requiring greater use of top-down control to restrict processing to items containing this feature. Patient visual search efficiency closely approximated control performance in the first trial type. In contrast, patients demonstrated significant slowing of search in the second trial type, which required top-down control. These results suggest schizophrenia does not impair the ability to implement the selection of a target when attention can be guided by bottom-up information, but it does impair the ability to use top-down control mechanisms to guide attention. These results extend prior studies that have focussed on aspects of executive control in complex tasks and suggest that a similar underlying deficit may also impact the performance of perceptual systems.

Gold, James M.; Fuller, Rebecca L.; Robinson, Benjamin M.; Braun, Elsie L.; Luck, Steven J.

2007-01-01

131

Functional Impairment in Youth Three Years after Detention  

PubMed Central

Purpose This article examines functional impairment across global and specific dimensions among youth 3 years after their detention. Methods Functional impairment was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) in a large, stratified, random sample of formerly detained youth (N = 1653). Results More than one-fifth of the sample were scored as having marked impairment that required, at minimum, “multiple sources of care” (CAFAS Total Score of 100 or higher); 7.0% required “intensive intervention” (CAFAS Total Score ?140). Most of the sample had impairment; only 7.5% of the sample had “no noteworthy impairment” (CAFAS Total Score ?10). Significantly more males were impaired than females. Among males living in the community at follow-up, African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to be impaired than non-Hispanic whites. In comparison to males living in the community, males who were incarcerated at follow-up were significantly more likely to have impaired thinking and impaired functioning at their place of residence but less likely to have substance use problems. Conclusions Three years after detention, most youth struggle in one or more life domains; more than one in five have marked impairment in functioning. These findings underscore the ongoing costs, to both youth and society, of our failure to provide effective rehabilitation to youth after detention.

Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin G.; Teplin, Linda A.

2009-01-01

132

Effects of shape, size, and chromaticity of stimuli on estimated size in normally sighted, severely myopic, and visually impaired students.  

PubMed

Effects of shape, size, and chromaticity of stimuli on participants' errors when estimating the size of simultaneously presented standard and comparison stimuli were examined. 48 Taiwanese college students ages 20 to 24 years old (M = 22.3, SD = 1.3) participated. Analysis showed that the error for estimated size was significantly greater for those in the low-vision group than for those in the normal-vision and severe-myopia groups. The errors were significantly greater with green and blue stimuli than with red stimuli. Circular stimuli produced smaller mean errors than did square stimuli. The actual size of the standard stimulus significantly affected the error for estimated size. Errors for estimations using smaller sizes were significantly higher than when the sizes were larger. Implications of the results for graphics-based interface design, particularly when taking account of visually impaired users, are discussed. PMID:20681344

Huang, Kuo-Chen; Wang, Hsiu-Feng; Chen, Chun-Ching

2010-06-01

133

Neonatal agonism of ER? impairs male reproductive behavior and attractiveness  

PubMed Central

The organization of the developing male rodent brain is profoundly influenced by endogenous steroids, most notably estrogen. This process may be disrupted by estrogenic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) resulting in altered sex behavior and the capacity to attract a mate in adulthood. To better understand the relative role each estrogen receptor (ER) subtype (ER? and ER?) plays in mediating these effects, we exposed male Long Evans rats to estradiol benzoate (EB, 10 ?g), vehicle, or agonists specific for ER? (DPN, 1 mg/kg) or ER? (PPT, 1 mg/kg) daily for the first four days of life, and then assessed adult male reproductive behavior and attractiveness via a partner preference paradigm. DPN had a greater adverse impact than PPT on reproductive behavior, suggesting a functional role for ER? in the organization of these male-specific behaviors. Therefore the impact of neonatal ER? agonism was further investigated by repeating the experiment using vehicle, EB and additional DPN doses (0.5 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg bw). Exposure to DPN suppressed male reproductive behavior and attractiveness in a dose dependent manner. Finally, males were exposed to EB or an environmentally relevant dose of genistein (GEN, 10 mg/kg), a naturally occurring xenoestrogen, which has a higher relative binding affinity for ER? than ER?. Sexual performance was impaired by GEN but not attractiveness. In addition to suppressing reproductive behavior and attractiveness, EB exposure significantly lowered the testis to body weight ratio, and circulating testosterone levels. DPN and GEN exposure only impaired behavior, suggesting that disrupted androgen secretion does not underlie the impairment.

Sullivan, Alana W.; Hamilton, Peter; Patisaul, Heather B.

2011-01-01

134

Helping Hearing Impaired Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes visual aids that can be used to help hearing impaired children participate in library story hours as well as programs for library instruction and encouraging reading. Factors to be considered in selecting appropriate library materials for this group are discussed, and book selection aids and information sources are indicated. (CMV)

Metcalf, Mary Jane

1979-01-01

135

Alcohol, Drugs and Driving: Implications for Evaluating Driver Impairment  

PubMed Central

Impaired driving is a significant traffic safety problem, and alcohol and drugs taken before driving contribute substantially to this problem. With the increase in use of prescription medication and the decriminalization of some drugs, it has become increasingly important to understand the manifestation of driver impairment. Building upon previous alcohol research conducted at the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS), this study enrolled commercial bus drivers to evaluate the effect of triazolam on driving performance to assess difference between placebo, 0.125, and 0.25 mg doses in a randomized and double-blind design. On each of three randomized visits, subjects drove a simulator scenario that had previously been used to demonstrate effects of alcohol on driving performance. Plasma triazolam levels were obtained before the simulator drive. The protocol included participants receiving study medication and placebo over a 3-week period of time one to two weeks apart. The simulator drives used for this analysis occurred approximately 140 minutes after dosing—after the subjects had completed four bus simulator drives and neuropsychological tests over a 2-hour period of time surrounding dosing. The driving scenario contained representative situations on three types of roadways (urban, freeway, and rural) under nighttime driving conditions. Lane keeping performance (ability to drive straight in the lane) under the three doses of triazolam demonstrates that at the 0.25 mg dose, statistically significant effects on performance are observed, but no effects are found at the 0.125 mg level when testing at this time period after dosing. This differs from the effects of alcohol, which shows impairing effects at a 0.05% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and a greater effect at 0.10% BAC. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding how different types of drugs affect driving performance in realistic driving environments. Although some compounds may have an effect that correlates linearly to dosage, that is not always the case. An understanding of these differences and how they vary across driving tasks is essential to developing a robust evaluation protocol that can accurately describe the effects of a wide variety of drugs on driver impairment. This information can be used to reduce the risk of deleterious effects of therapeutic medications while ensuring their safe and beneficial use.

Brown, Timothy; Milavetz, Gary; Murry, Daryl J.

2013-01-01

136

Significant sequelae after bacterial meningitis in Niger: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Beside high mortality, acute bacterial meningitis may lead to a high frequency of neuropsychological sequelae. The Sahelian countries belonging to the meningitis belt experience approximately 50% of the meningitis cases occurring in the world. Studies in Africa have shown that N. meningitidis could cause hearing loss in up to 30% of the cases, exceeding sometimes measles. The situation is similar in Niger which experiences yearly meningitis epidemics and where rehabilitation wards are rare and hearing aids remain unaffordable. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of neuropsychological sequelae after acute bacterial meningitis in four of the eight regions of Niger. Methods Subjects exposed to acute bacterial meningitis were enrolled into a cohort with non exposed subjects matched on age and gender. Consenting subjects were interviewed during inclusion and at a control visit two months later. If clinical symptoms or psychological troubles persisted at both visits among the exposed subjects with a frequency significantly greater than that observed among the non exposed subjects, a sequelae was retained. The comparison of the frequency of sequelae between non exposed and exposed subjects to bacterial meningitis was also calculated using the Fisher exact test. Results Three persisting functional symptoms were registered: headaches, asthenia, and vertigo among 31.3, 36.9, and 22.4% respectively of the exposed subjects. A significant motor impairment was retrieved among 12.3% of the exposed versus 1.6% of the non exposed subjects. Hearing loss significantly disabled 31.3% of the exposed subjects and 10.4% exhibited a serious deafness. Conclusions This study carried out in Niger confirms two serious neurological sequelae occurring at high frequencies after bacterial meningitis: severe and profound hearing loss and motor impairment. Cochlear implantation and hearing aids are too expensive for populations living in developing countries. Neurological sequelae occurring after meningitis should sensitize African public health authorities on the development of rehabilitation centers. All these challenges can be met through existing strategies and guidelines.

2013-01-01

137

Clinical significance of translocation.  

PubMed Central

The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications.

Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I

1994-01-01

138

Chemistry for the Visually Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses modifications to general education or introductory chemistry courses that allow visually impaired students to participate productively. Describes a strategy for teaching about elements and density, and the construction of a conductivity tester for visually impaired students. (JRH)

Ratliff, Judy L.

1997-01-01

139

Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

2008-01-01

140

Peak Aerobic Fitness of Visually Impaired and Sighted Adolescent Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared 10 visually impaired and 10 sighted girls on a discontinuous incremental treadmill test and found no significant difference between the peak oxygen intake of the 2 groups. The results indicate that visually impaired children can attain aerobic fitness levels similar to those of sighted children. (Author/CR)

Williams, C. A.; And Others

1996-01-01

141

Mechanism of impaired urinary concentration in chronic primary glomerulonephritis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanism of impaired urinary concentration in chronic primary glomerulonephritis. To define the role of medullary damage and the influence of solute load and blood pressure (BP) in impairing urinary concentration, patients with chronic glomerulonephritis were investigated by histological and functional studies. In 59 biopsy specimens, the degree of medullary fibrosis was correlated inversely with urinary specific gravity and was significantly

Giuseppe Conte; Antonio Dal Canton; Giorgio Fuiano; Maurizio Terribile; Massimo Sabbatini; Mario Balletta; Pasquale Stanziale; Vittorio E Andreucci

1985-01-01

142

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Use by Older Adults Is Associated with Greater Functional Responses to Exercise  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To assess the association between angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and improvements in the physical function of older adults in response to chronic exercise training. DESIGN Secondary analysis of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) study, a multisite randomized clinical trial to evaluate the effects of chronic exercise on the physical function of older adults at risk for mobility disability. SETTING Four academic research centers within the United States. PARTICIPANTS Four hundred twenty-four individuals aged 70 to 89 with mild to moderate functional impairments categorized for this analysis as ACEi users, users of other antihypertensive drugs, or antihypertensive nonusers. INTERVENTION A 12-month intervention of structured physical activity (PA) or health education promoting successful aging (SA). MEASUREMENTS Change in walking speed during a 400-m test and performance on a battery of short-duration mobility tasks (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB)). RESULTS Physical activity significantly improved the adjusted walking speed of ACEi users (P < .001) but did not of nonusers. PA improved the adjusted SPPB score of ACEi users (P < .001) and of persons who used other antihypertensive drugs (P = .005) but not of antihypertensive nonusers (P = .91). The percentage of ACEi users deriving clinically significant benefit from exercise training for walking speed (30%) and SPPB score (48%) was dramatically higher than for nonusers (14% and 12%, respectively). CONCLUSION For older adults at risk for disability, exercise-derived improvements in physical function were greater for ACEi users than users of other antihypertensive drugs and antihypertensive nonusers.

Buford, Thomas W.; Manini, Todd M.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Cesari, Matteo; Anton, Stephen D.; Nayfield, Susan; Stafford, Randall S.; Church, Timothy S.; Pahor, Marco; Carter, Christy S.

2013-01-01

143

The importance of friendship and family support in adaptation to chronic vision impairment.  

PubMed

The importance of friendship and family support in adaptation for 241 elders experiencing age-related vision loss was examined. Adaptation was operationalized with two global measures of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, depressive symptoms) and a domain-specific measure, adaptation to vision loss. Hierarchical regression analyses tested the effects of sociodemographic, vision, health, and functional disability variables in the first step, family support quality in the second step, and friendship support quality in the third step. Variables entered at each step contributed significant portions of explained variance in outcome variables. Thus, the importance of friendship support, independent of family support, in adaptation to chronic impairment was demonstrated. The effect of relationship type and gender on multiple support components was also assessed. Scores for family support were higher than those for friend support on almost all components. Close relationships were perceived as providing greater attachment in females and greater instrumental assistance and social integration in males. PMID:8809003

Reinhardt, J P

1996-09-01

144

Cognitively impaired elderly and their adult children.  

PubMed

An aging parent's development of a cognitive impairment requires significant changes in the lives of that individual and his or her family. Adult children may be required to assume caregiving responsibilities and may experience feelings of loss, as well as conflicting feelings of guilt, apprehension, anger, and resentment towards these responsibilities. This article explores the dynamic that underlies these sentiments and suggests strategies to maximize parent-child communication and facilitate the relationship between cognitively impaired elderly adults and their adult children. PMID:16294577

Loue, Sana

2004-01-01

145

Assessment of Hearing Impaired Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of Directions contains 11 articles on assessment of hearing impaired individuals. Entries have the following titles and authors: "Classroom Assessment Techniques for Hearing Impaired Students--A Literature Review" (B. McKee, M. Hausknecht); "Informal Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students In the Classroom" (B. Culhane, R. Hein);…

Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

1980-01-01

146

Impaired Consciousness in Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Consciousness is essential to normal human life. In epileptic seizures consciousness is often transiently lost making it impossible for the individual to experience or respond. This has huge consequences for safety, productivity, emotional health and quality of life. To prevent impaired consciousness in epilepsy it is necessary to understand the mechanisms leading to brain dysfunction during seizures. Normally the “consciousness system”—a specialized set of cortical-subcortical structures—maintains alertness, attention and awareness. Recent advances in neuroimaging, electrophysiology and prospective behavioral testing have shed new light on how epileptic seizures disrupt the consciousness system. Diverse seizure types including absence, generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures converge on the same set of anatomical structures through different mechanisms to disrupt consciousness. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to improved treatment strategies to prevent impaired consciousness and improve quality of life in people with epilepsy.

Blumenfeld, Hal

2013-01-01

147

Impaired consciousness in epilepsy.  

PubMed

Consciousness is essential to normal human life. In epileptic seizures consciousness is often transiently lost, which makes it impossible for the individual to experience or respond. These effects have huge consequences for safety, productivity, emotional health, and quality of life. To prevent impaired consciousness in epilepsy, it is necessary to understand the mechanisms that lead to brain dysfunction during seizures. Normally the consciousness system-a specialised set of cortical-subcortical structures-maintains alertness, attention, and awareness. Advances in neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and prospective behavioural testing have shed light on how epileptic seizures disrupt the consciousness system. Diverse seizure types, including absence, generalised tonic-clonic, and complex partial seizures, converge on the same set of anatomical structures through different mechanisms to disrupt consciousness. Understanding of these mechanisms could lead to improved treatment strategies to prevent impairment of consciousness and improve the quality of life of people with epilepsy. PMID:22898735

Blumenfeld, Hal

2012-09-01

148

Seasonal distribution of Culicini larvae in Greater Cairo.  

PubMed

Five species of mosquito larvae were encountered in Greater Cairo, Culex pipiens, Cx. pusillus, Cx. perexiguus, Aedes caspius and Culiseta longiareolata. In parts of Qualyoubia G. Cx. pipiens was the most dominant and the least was Cx. perexiguus. In parts of Giza G. Cx. pipiens was the most dominant and the least was Cs. longiareolata. In Cairo G. Cx. pipiens was the most dominant and the least was Ae. caspius. The overall abundance in a descending order was Cx. pipiens (61.74%), Cs. longiareolata (15.56%), Ae. caspius (15.3%), Cx. pusillus (4.0%) and Cx. perexiguus (3.16%). However, in all sites Cx. pipiens were more in December than in August. The difference in number of Cx. pipiens in one hand and all number of larvae collected on the other hand was non significant. PMID:15125522

Morsy, Tosson A; Khalil, Nabawia M; Habib, Faiza S M; El-Laboudy, Noha A

2004-04-01

149

Impaired cerebrovascular hemodynamics are associated with cerebral white matter damage.  

PubMed

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) in elderly individuals with vascular diseases are presumed to be due to ischemic small vessel diseases; however, their etiology is unknown. We examined the cross-sectional relationship between cerebrovascular hemodynamics and white matter structural integrity in elderly individuals with vascular risk factors. White matter hyperintensity volumes, fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained from MRI in 48 subjects (75±7years). Pulsatility index (PI) and dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) was assessed using transcranial Doppler ultrasound of the middle cerebral artery. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was calculated from transfer function analysis (phase and gain) of spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations in the low (LF, 0.03 to 0.15?Hz) and high (HF, 0.16 to 0.5?Hz) frequency ranges. Higher PI was associated with greater WMH (P<0.005). Higher phase across all frequency ranges was associated with greater FA and lower MD (P<0.005). Lower gain was associated with higher FA in the LF range (P=0.001). These relationships between phase and FA were significant in the territories limited to the middle cerebral artery as well as across the entire brain. Our results show a strong relationship between impaired cerebrovascular hemodynamics (PI and dCA) and loss of cerebral white matter structural integrity (WMH and DTI metrics) in elderly individuals. PMID:24129749

Purkayastha, Sushmita; Fadar, Otite; Mehregan, Aujan; Salat, David H; Moscufo, Nicola; Meier, Dominik S; Guttmann, Charles Rg; Fisher, Naomi Dl; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Sorond, Farzaneh A

2014-02-01

150

Mental health impairment in underweight women: do body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behavior play a role?  

PubMed Central

Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is due to an association between low body weight and elevated levels of body dissatisfaction and/or eating-disordered behaviour. Methods Subgroups of underweight and normal-weight women recruited from a large, general population sample were compared on measures of body dissatisfaction, eating-disordered behaviour and mental health. Results Underweight women had significantly greater impairment in mental health than normal-weight women, even after controlling for between-group differences in demographic characteristics and physical health. However, there was no evidence that higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour accounted for this difference. Rather, underweight women had significantly lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour than normal-weight women. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is unlikely to be due to higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour. Rather, lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour among underweight women may counterbalance, to some extent, impairment due to other factors.

2011-01-01

151

Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4-5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11-12% vs. SW: 6-8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction. PMID:24505104

Csapo, R; Malis, V; Hodgson, J; Sinha, S

2014-04-01

152

Marijuana and Driving Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

After alcohol, marijuana is the most popular recreational drug in North America. Its effects are largely predictable in type,\\u000a but not in degree, although they do appear in a roughly dose-dependent manner. The effects discussed here make a very convincing\\u000a case for the potential for marijuana to impair driving, although as noted, the extent to which that potential is realized

Barry K. Logan

153

Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of zibotentan (ZD4054) in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment: two open-label comparative studies  

PubMed Central

Background Zibotentan (ZD4054) is a specific endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist being investigated for the treatment of prostate cancer. As zibotentan is eliminated by renal and metabolic routes, clearance may be reduced in patients with hepatic or renal impairment, leading to greater drug exposure. Methods Open-label studies investigated the PK and tolerability of zibotentan in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment, compared with those with normal organ function. In the hepatic and renal studies, respectively, subjects were divided into categories using Child-Pugh classification or 24-hour urine creatinine clearance (mild, moderate, or severe impairment and normal function). Each subject received a single oral dose of zibotentan 10 mg and PK sampling was undertaken. Within the hepatic study, AUC and Cmax were expressed as the ratio of geometric means and 90% CI for each impairment group compared with the normal function group. The possibility that hepatic impairment had a clinically relevant effect on exposure was considered if the upper 90% CI for the ratio exceeded 2. In the renal study, AUC, Cmax and t1/2 were analyzed using linear regression fitting effects for creatinine clearance and age. Results In the hepatic and renal studies respectively, 32 subjects (eight per group) and 48 subjects received treatment (n = 18 normal, n = 12 mild, n = 9 moderate, n = 9 severe). Zibotentan Cmax was not significantly affected by hepatic or renal impairment. Compared with the normal function group, zibotentan AUC was 40% (1.40; 90% CI 0.91-2.17), 45% (1.45; 90% CI 0.94-2.24) and 190% (2.90; 90% CI 1.88-4.49) higher in subjects with mild, moderate and severe hepatic impairment, respectively, and 66% (1.66; 90% CI 1.38-1.99), 89% (1.89; 90% CI 1.50-2.39) and 117% (2.17; 90% CI 1.64-2.86) higher in subjects with mild, moderate and severe renal impairment, respectively. In both studies mean t1/2 increased and zibotentan clearance decreased with the degree of impairment. Headache was the most common AE in all groups. Conclusions Zibotentan absorption was unchanged, however, exposure was higher in subjects with hepatic or renal impairment due to slower clearance. This increased exposure did not result in differences in the range or severity of AEs observed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00672581 and AstraZeneca study number D4320C00016 (renal trial; conducted in Germany).

2011-01-01

154

Caffeine counteracts impairments in task-oriented psychomotor performance induced by chlorpheniramine: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chlorpheniramine on psychomotor performance and the counteracting effects of caffeine on those sedative antihistamine actions. Sixteen healthy young men participated in this study. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, each subject was administered one of the following conditions in a random order with a one-week interval: 'placebo-placebo', '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-placebo', 'placebo-200 mg of caffeine' or '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-200 mg of caffeine'. Before and after the treatments, psychomotor functions were assessed using a battery of tests. Additionally, subjective responses were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Psychomotor performance changed over time in different ways according to the combination of study medications. In the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition, reaction times of the compensatory tracking task were significantly impaired compared with the other three conditions. In addition, the number of omission errors of the continuous performance test were significantly greater compared with the 'placebo-caffeine' condition. However, the response pattern of the 'chlorpheniramine-caffeine' condition was not significantly different from that of the 'placebo-placebo' condition. Changes of VAS for sleepiness were significantly greater in the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition compared with the other three conditions. In conclusion, chlorpheniramine significantly increases subjective sleepiness and objectively impairs psychomotor performance. However, caffeine counteracts these sedative effects and psychomotor impairments. PMID:22719016

Kim, Sung-Wan; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Shin, Hee-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kang, Gaeun; Yoon, Jin-Sang

2013-01-01

155

Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were…

Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

2009-01-01

156

Reinforcer Assessment for Children with Developmental Disabilities and Visual Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The applicability of two reinforcer assessment procedures to children with developmental disabilities and visual impairments was evaluated. Greater differentiation between stimuli occurred with a choice procedure than with a preference procedure. Measurement of compliance and responding rate in adaptive skill training confirmed that the choice…

Paclawskyj, Theodosia R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.

1995-01-01

157

Color synesthesia improves color but impairs motion perception.  

PubMed

A recent study showed that color synesthetes have increased color sensitivity but impaired motion perception. This is exciting because little research has examined how synesthesia affects basic perceptual processes outside the context of synesthetic experiences. The results suggest that synesthesia broadly impacts perception with greater neural implications than previously considered. PMID:24581557

McCarthy, J Daniel; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

2014-05-01

158

JAMA Patient Page: Causes of Visual Impairment  

MedlinePLUS

... Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Causes of Visual Impairment V isual impairment can happen to children or ... of visual impairment. CONDITIONS THAT MAY CAUSE VISUAL IMPAIRMENT FOR MORE INFORMATION • National Eye Institute 301/496- ...

159

Sexual Dimorphism in Healthy Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A DTI Study  

PubMed Central

Previous PET and MRI studies have indicated that the degree to which pathology translates into clinical symptoms is strongly dependent on sex with women more likely to express pathology as a diagnosis of AD, whereas men are more resistant to clinical symptoms in the face of the same degree of pathology. Here we use DTI to investigate the difference between male and female white matter tracts in healthy older participants (24 women, 16 men) and participants with mild cognitive impairment (21 women, 12 men). Differences between control and MCI participants were found in fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusion (DR), axial diffusion (DA) and mean diffusion (MD). A significant main effect of sex was also reported for FA, MD and DR indices, with male control and male MCI participants having significantly more microstructural damage than their female counterparts. There was no sex by diagnosis interaction. Male MCIs also had significantly less normalised grey matter (GM) volume than female MCIs. However, in terms of absolute brain volume, male controls had significantly more brain volume than female controls. Normalised GM and WM volumes were found to decrease significantly with age with no age by sex interaction. Overall, these data suggest that the same degree of cognitive impairment is associated with greater structural damage in men compared with women.

O'Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O'Neill, Desmond; Bartley, Mairead; Collins, Ronan; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

2012-01-01

160

Clinical implications of impaired microcirculation.  

PubMed

Various types of microcirculation disturbances have been described in the course of systemic diseases, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and the so-called "idiopathic oedema" syndrome. This article summarizes the relevant microcirculatory disorders associated with diabetes and their pathophysiology. These functional disorders occur before or in association with anatomical lesions of diabetic microangiopathy. Increased capillary permeability to albumin is frequently observed in diabetes. In a placebo-controlled trial, Daflon 500 mg, a purified, micronized, flavonoidic fraction, significantly improved this disorder. Patients complaining of an oedematous syndrome almost always have an increased extracellular fluid volume, probably largely due to increased capillary permeability. Diabetes and "idiopathic oedema" therefore constitute two examples of the major clinical implications of impaired microcirculation. PMID:8919261

Valensi, P; Behar, A

1995-09-01

161

Spatial memory impairments in amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a virtual radial arm maze  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aims to apply the virtual radial arm maze (VRAM) task to find spatial working memory and reference memory impairments in patients of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Spatial memory functions between aMCI converters and nonconverters are also compared using VRAM results. Methods We assessed the spatial memory in 20 normal controls, 20 aMCI, and 20 mild AD subjects using VRAM. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating scale, and other neuropsychological tests were given to the subjects in conjunction with the VRAM test. Scores in working memory errors and reference memory errors were compared among the three groups using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, aMCI patients were followed-up after 5 years and surveyed for AD conversion rate. Results In AD patients, both spatial working and reference memory were impaired. However, in aMCI subjects, only spatial reference memory was impaired. Significant spatial reference memory impairment was found in the aMCI converter group when compared to the nonconverter group. Conclusion Spatial working memory is less impaired in aMCI while reference memory is similarly damaged in AD. In aMCI patients, more severe spatial reference memory deficit is a neuropsychological marker for AD conversion. VRAM may be well utilized in humans to assess spatial memory in normal aging, in aMCI, and in AD.

Lee, Jun-Young; Kho, Sooyeon; Yoo, Hye Bin; Park, Soowon; Choi, Jung-Seok; Kwon, Jun Soo; Cha, Kyung Ryeol; Jung, Hee-Yeon

2014-01-01

162

Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks  

PubMed Central

Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hour) sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years). Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hours) sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR?=?1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P < 0.01). Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.

Pandey, A.; Williams, N.; Donat, M.; Ceide, M.; Brimah, P.; Ogedegbe, G.; McFarlane, S. I.; Jean-Louis, G.

2013-01-01

163

Greater diaphragm fatigability in individuals with recurrent low back pain.  

PubMed

The diaphragm plays an important role in spinal control. Increased respiratory demand compromises spinal control, especially in individuals with low back pain (LBP). The objective was to determine whether individuals with LBP exhibit greater diaphragm fatigability compared to healthy controls. Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressures (TwPdi) were recorded in 10 LBP patients and 10 controls, before and 20 and 45 min after inspiratory muscle loading (IML). Individuals with LBP showed a significantly decreased potentiated TwPdi, 20 min (-20%) (p=0.002) and 45 min (-17%) (p=0.006) after IML. No significant decline was observed in healthy individuals, 20 min (-9%) (p=0.662) and 45 min (-5%) (p=0.972) after IML. Diaphragm fatigue (TwPdi fall ? 10%) was present in 80% (20 min after IML) and 70% (45 min after IML) of the LBP patients compared to 40% (p=0.010) and 30% (p=0.005) of the controls, respectively. Individuals with LBP exhibit propensity for diaphragm fatigue, which was not observed in controls. An association with reduced spinal control warrants further study. PMID:23727158

Janssens, Lotte; Brumagne, Simon; McConnell, Alison K; Hermans, Greet; Troosters, Thierry; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine

2013-08-15

164

Route Learning Impairment in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Memory impairment on neuropsychological tests is relatively common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. But memory rarely has been evaluated in more naturalistic settings. This study assessed TLE (n = 19) and control (n = 32) groups on a real-world route learning (RL) test. Compared to the controls, the TLE group committed significantly more total errors across the three RL test trials. RL errors correlated significantly with standardized auditory and visual memory and visual-perceptual test scores in the TLE group. In the TLE subset for whom hippocampal data were available (n = 14), RL errors also correlated significantly with left hippocampal volume. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate real-world memory impairment in TLE patients and its association with both mesial temporal lobe integrity and standardized memory test performance. The results support the ecological validity of clinical neuropsychological assessment.

Bell, Brian D.

2012-01-01

165

Auditory emotion recognition impairments in Schizophrenia: Relationship to acoustic features and cognition  

PubMed Central

Objective Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in ability to perceive emotion based upon tone of voice. The basis for this deficit, however, remains unclear and assessment batteries remain limited. We evaluated performance in schizophrenia on a novel voice emotion recognition battery with well characterized physical features, relative to impairments in more general emotional and cognitive function. Methods We studied in a primary sample of 92 patients relative to 73 controls. Stimuli were characterized according to both intended emotion and physical features (e.g., pitch, intensity) that contributed to the emotional percept. Parallel measures of visual emotion recognition, pitch perception, general cognition, and overall outcome were obtained. More limited measures were obtained in an independent replication sample of 36 patients, 31 age-matched controls, and 188 general comparison subjects. Results Patients showed significant, large effect size deficits in voice emotion recognition (F=25.4, p<.00001, d=1.1), and were preferentially impaired in recognition of emotion based upon pitch-, but not intensity-features (group X feature interaction: F=7.79, p=.006). Emotion recognition deficits were significantly correlated with pitch perception impairments both across (r=56, p<.0001) and within (r=.47, p<.0001) group. Path analysis showed both sensory-specific and general cognitive contributions to auditory emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia. Similar patterns of results were observed in the replication sample. Conclusions The present study demonstrates impairments in auditory emotion recognition in schizophrenia relative to acoustic features of underlying stimuli. Furthermore, it provides tools and highlights the need for greater attention to physical features of stimuli used for study of social cognition in neuropsychiatric disorders.

Gold, Rinat; Butler, Pamela; Revheim, Nadine; Leitman, David; Hansen, John A.; Gur, Ruben; Kantrowitz, Joshua T.; Laukka, Petri; Juslin, Patrik N.; Silipo, Gail S.; Javitt, Daniel C.

2013-01-01

166

Passengers of Impaired Drivers  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aims of this study are (a) to estimate the prevalence of passengers riding with alcohol-impaired drivers; (b) to investigate the role of demographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational status) and relevant driving conditions (time of the day, trip origin, vehicle ownership) on shaping the likelihood of alcohol-impaired driving; (c) to identify and estimate the prevalence of passengers as alternative drivers (PADs); and (d) to examine the role that vehicle ownership plays in shaping the occurrence of PADs. Method Data came from a unique convenience sample of passengers obtained from the 2007 National Roadside Survey, a random sample of drivers from the 48 contiguous states. Results The prevalence of PADs in the targeted population (mostly weekend night vehicles) was higher with drivers at .00

Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John

2012-01-01

167

Specific language impairment.  

PubMed

The acquisition of language is one of the most important achievements in young children, in part because most children appear to acquire language with little effort. Some children are not so fortunate, however. There is a large group of children who also have difficulty learning language, but do not have obvious neurological, cognitive, sensory, emotional, or environmental deficits. Clinicians often refer to these children as language disordered or language impaired. Researchers tend to refer to these children as specific language impaired (SLI). Children with SLI have intrigued researchers for many years because there is no obvious reason for their language learning difficulties. SLI has been found to be an enduring condition that begins in early childhood and often persists into adolescence and adulthood. The language problems of children with SLI are not limited to spoken language; they also affect reading and writing and thus much of academic learning. Knowledge of the characteristics of SLI should aid physicians, pediatricians, and early childhood specialists to identify these children during the preschool years and ensure that they receive appropriate services. With high-quality language intervention and literacy instruction, most children with SLI should be able to perform and function adequately in school and beyond. PMID:23622167

Kamhi, Alan G; Clark, Mary Kristen

2013-01-01

168

Differences in Socialization between Visually Impaired Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to…

Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh

2011-01-01

169

Impaired Competence for Pretense in Children with Autism: Exploring Potential Cognitive Predictors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lack of pretense in children with autism has been explained by a number of theoretical explanations, including impaired mentalising, impaired response inhibition, and weak central coherence. This study aimed to empirically test each of these theories. Children with autism (n = 60) were significantly impaired relative to controls (n = 65) when…

Bigham, Sally

2010-01-01

170

Greater volumes of static and dynamic stretching within a warm-up do not impair star excursion balance performance.  

PubMed

Based on the conflicting static stretching (SS) literature and lack of dynamic stretching (DS) literature regarding the effects of differing volumes of stretching on balance, the present study investigated the effects of 4, 8, and 12 sets of SS and DS following a 5 min aerobic running warm-up on the star excursion balance test (SEBT). The objective was to examine an optimal stretch modality and volume to enhance dynamic balance. A randomized, within-subjects experimental design with repeated measures for stretching (SS and DS) versus no-stretching treatment was used to examine the acute effects of 10 (4 sets), 20 (8 sets), and 30 (12 sets) min, of 15s repetitions per muscle of SS and/or DS following a 5 min aerobic warm-up on the performance of the SEBT. Results indicated that a warm-up employing either SS or DS of any volume generally improves SEBT by a "small" amount with effect sizes ranging from 0.06 to 0.50 (11 of 18 conditions >75% likely to exceed the 1.3-1.9% smallest worthwhile change). Secondly, the difference between static and dynamic warm-up on this observed improvement with warm-up improvement was "trivial" to "moderate" (d=0.04 to 0.57) and generally "unclear" (only two of nine conditions >75% likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change). Finally, the effect of increasing the volume of warm-up on the observed improvement with a warm-up is "trivial" to "small" (d<0.40) and generally "unclear" (only three of 12 conditions >75% likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change). In summary, an aerobic running warm-up with stretching that increases core and muscle temperature whether it involves SS or DS may be expected to provide small improvements in the SEBT. PMID:24739290

Belkhiria-Turki, L; Chaouachi, A; Turki, O; Hammami, R; Chtara, M; Amri, M; Drinkwater, E J; Behm, D G

2014-06-01

171

Blood-brain barrier impairment in Alzheimer disease  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the stability and functional significance of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD). Methods Thirty-six patients (mean age 71 ± 7 years) with mild to moderate AD (Mini-Mental State Examination [MMSE] 19 ± 5) participated in a biomarker study involving clinical assessments, brain imaging, and CSF and plasma collection over 1 year. BBB integrity was assessed with the CSF-albumin index (CSF-AI). Results BBB disruption was present in an important subgroup of patients (n = 8/36, 22%) at all time points measured. CSF-AI was highly reproducible over 1 year with an intraclass correlation of 0.96. Age, sex, and APOE status did not correlate with CSF-AI. Vascular factors (blood pressure, Hachinski ischemia score, MR-derived white matter hyperintensity, body mass index) were not strongly associated with CSF-AI levels (p = 0.066). CSF/plasma IgG ratio correlated with CSF-AI in a manner indicating that peripheral IgG has greater access to the CNS in patients with an impaired BBB. Further evidence for the physiologic significance of the CSF-AI was noted in the form of correlations with rates of disease progression, including annual change on MMSE (r2 = 0.11, p = 0.023), annual Clinical Dementia Rating sum-of-boxes change (r2 = 0.29, p = 0.001), and annual ventricular volume change (r2 = 0.17, p = 0.007). Conclusions Blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment is a stable characteristic over 1 year and present in an important subgroup of patients with Alzheimer disease. Age, gender, APOE status, vascular risk factors, and baseline Mini-Mental State Examination score did not explain the variability in BBB integrity. A role for BBB impairment as a modifier of disease progression is suggested by correlations between CSF-albumin index and measures of disease progression over 1 year.

Bowman, G.L.; Kaye, J.A.; Moore, M.; Waichunas, D.; Carlson, N.E.; Quinn, J.F.

2009-01-01

172

How impaired are children and adolescents by mental health problems? Results of the BELLA study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The consideration of impairment plays a crucial role in detecting significant mental health problems in children whose symptoms\\u000a do not meet diagnostic criteria. The assessment of impairment may be particularly relevant when only short screening instruments\\u000a are applied in epidemiological surveys. Furthermore, differences between childrens’ and parents’ perceptions of present impairment\\u000a and impairing symptoms are of interest with respect to

Nora Wille; Susanne Bettge; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen; Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer

2008-01-01

173

[Multilingualism and specific language impairment].  

PubMed

Specific language impairment is one of the most common developmental disturbances in childhood. With the increase of the foreign language population group an increasing number of children assimilating several languages and causing concern in language development attend clinical examinations. Knowledge of factors underlying the specific language impairment and the specific impairment in general, special features of language development of those learning several languages, as well as the assessment and support of the linguistic skills of a multilingual child is essential. The risk of long-term problems and marginalization is high for children having specific language impairment. PMID:23577584

Arkkila, Eva; Smolander, Sini; Laasonen, Marja

2013-01-01

174

Unrecognised cognitive impairment in hospice patients: a pilot study  

PubMed Central

The presence of cognitive impairment in patients who are receiving hospice care can affect numerous practical, ethical and legal aspects of their healthcare. A number of factors can contribute to cognitive impairment in these patients. Prevalence rates of cognitive impairment vary widely, but it remains under-recognised and under-treated. The aims of this pilot study were to evaluate the presence and nature of cognitive deficits in patients receiving inpatient hospice care who did not have a known current or past diagnosis of a cognitive disorder or any obvious cognitive impairments. A convenience sample of 30 patients receiving inpatient hospice care underwent bedside cognitive testing. A comprehensive battery of tests was used, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and standardised neuropsychological tests of pre-morbid intellectual functioning, immediate and delayed recall, digit span forward and backward, verbal reasoning and letter and category fluency. On average, subjects were impaired on the MMSE and on tests of learning, verbal reasoning and letter and category fluency. Furthermore, 12 of the 30 subjects met DSM-IV cognitive impairment criteria for dementia based on impaired performance in memory and at least one other cognitive domain on testing. The results of this pilot study suggest that a sizable proportion of patients receiving inpatient hospice care have undetected but clinically significant cognitive impairments. Assessing for and helping patients, families and caregivers deal with cognitive impairment might benefit patients’ quality of life, relationships and overall care at the end of life. Future research in this population is needed to evaluate the causes and time course of cognitive impairment over time, as well as any relationship between cognitive impairment and decision-making capacity.

Irwin, SA; Zurhellen, CH; Diamond, LC; Dunn, LB; Palmer, BW; Jeste, DV; Twamley, EW

2014-01-01

175

Mole-rats from higher altitudes have greater thermoregulatory capabilities.  

PubMed

Subterranean mammals (those that live and forage underground) inhabit a challenging microenvironment, with high levels of carbon dioxide and low levels of oxygen. Consequently, they have evolved specialised morphological and physiological adaptations. For small mammals that inhabit high altitudes, the effects of cold are compounded by low oxygen partial pressures. Hence, subterranean mammals living at high altitudes are faced with a uniquely demanding physiological environment, which presumably necessitates additional physiological adjustments. We examined the thermoregulatory capabilities of two populations of Lesotho mole-rat Cryptomys hottentotus mahali that inhabit a 'low' (1600 m) and a 'high' (3200 m) altitude. Mole-rats from the high altitude had a lower temperature of the lower critical point, a broader thermoneutral zone, a lower thermal conductance and greater regulatory non-shivering thermogenesis than animals from the lower altitude. However, minimum resting metabolic rate values were not significantly different between the populations and were low compared with allometric predictions. We suggest that thermoregulatory costs may in part be met by animals maintaining a low resting metabolic rate. High-altitude animals may adjust to their cooler, more oxygen-deficient environment by having an increased non-shivering thermogenesis whilst maintaining low thermal conductance. PMID:17020776

Broekman, Marna; Bennett, Nigel C; Jackson, Craig R; Scantlebury, Michael

2006-12-30

176

Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes.

Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

2012-01-01

177

Cognitive Estimation Impairment in Alzheimer Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intact executive functioning is believed to be required for performance on tasks requiring cognitive estimations. This study used a revised version of a cognitive estimations test (CET) to investigate whether patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were impaired on the CET compared with normal elderly controls (NECs). Neuropsychological tests were administered to determine the relationship between

Elise J. Levinoff; Natalie A. Phillips; Louis Verret; Lennie Babins; Nora Kelner; Vivian Akerib; Howard Chertkow

2006-01-01

178

Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

2005-01-01

179

Recognition of Facial Emotional Expression in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment  

PubMed Central

We examined whether recognition of facial emotional expression would be affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A total of 50 elderly persons met the initial inclusion criteria, 10 were subsequently excluded (Geriatric Depression Score >5). 22 subjects were classified with aMCI based on published criteria (single domain aMCI [SD-aMCI], n = 10; multiple domain aMCI [MD-aMCI], n = 12); 18 subjects were cognitively normal. All underwent standard neurological and neuropsychological evaluations as well as tests of facial emotion recognition (FER) and famous faces identification (FFI). Among normal controls, FFI was negatively correlated with MMSE and positively correlated with executive function. Among patients with aMCI, FER was correlated with attention/speed of processing. No other correlations were significant. In a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and education, a poorer score on FER, but not on FFI, was associated with greater odds of being classified as MD-aMCI (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–13.91; p = 0.042). This association was not explained by memory or global cognitive score. There was no association between FER or FFI and SD-aMCI (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.36–3.57; p = 0.836). Therefore, FER, but not FFI, may be impaired in MD-aMCI. This implies that in MD-aMCI, the tasks of FER and FFI may involve segregated neurocognitive networks.

Varjassyova, Alexandra; Horinek, Daniel; Andel, Ross; Amlerova, Jana; Laczo, Jan; Sheardova, Katerina; Magerova, Hana; Holmerova, Iva; Vyhnalek, Martin; Bradac, Ondrej; Geda, Yonas E.; Hort, Jakub

2014-01-01

180

Observation of own exploration movements impairs haptic spatial perception.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to assess whether the visibility of ones' own exploratory movements impairs or enhances perceptual speed and precision of haptic stimuli with varying complexity. Previous studies have shown that noninformative vision of steady surroundings improves haptic spatial perception. However, due to the serial nature of haptic processing and limited capacity of working memory resources, we hypothesized that noninformative vision of limb movements may impair haptic perception. The study sample consisted of ninety-eight healthy adults who were randomized into two groups, matched for sex and age. Participants were required to explore two-dimensional haptic stimuli with varying complexity and to recognize them visually. The difference between the two experimental groups was a screen that would prevent the participants from viewing their hands during exploration in the nonobservation condition (NonOb). The other half of participants were able to see their hands in the manual movement observation condition (MovOb) thanks to the special design of the stimuli. As hypothesized, the persons in the MovOb condition made significantly more errors. The difference in error frequency between participants of the MovOb and NonOb condition was greater for complex stimuli than for simple ones. These results suggest that incoming visual information about own manual exploration movements increases competitive pressure for limited working memory resources, and therefore, more recognition errors are made. Covering the hands during exploration may constitute a helpful simplification of the task's demands by supporting the maintenance of information in working memory. Additionally, the relation of haptic complexity and stimulus characteristics was analyzed. PMID:24071924

Mueller, Stephanie; Habermann, Stefanie; Dudda, Janett; Grunwald, Martin

2013-12-01

181

Driving impairs talking.  

PubMed

It is well known that conversation (e.g., on a cell phone) impairs driving. We demonstrate that the reverse is also true: Language production and comprehension, and the encoding of the products of comprehension into memory, are less accurate when one is driving. Ninety-six pairs of drivers and conversation partners engaged in a story-retelling task in a driving simulator. Half of the pairs were older adults. Each pair completed one dual-task block (driving during the retelling task) and two single-task control blocks. The results showed a decline in the accuracy of the drivers' storytelling and of their memory for stories that were told to them by their nondriving partners. Speech production suffered an additional cost when the difficulty of driving increased. Measures of driving performance suggested that the drivers gave priority to the driving task when they were conversing. As a result, their linguistic performance suffered. PMID:20081155

Becic, Ensar; Dell, Gary S; Bock, Kathryn; Garnsey, Susan M; Kubose, Tate; Kramer, Arthur F

2010-02-01

182

Cognitive Impairment in Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose Cognitive impairments are frequent consequences of epilepsy, with intellectual ability reportedly being lower in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies than in the general population. However, neuropsychological investigations have been rarely performed in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). We aimed to quantify the cognitive function in JME patients using various neuropsychological tests. Methods We compared cognitive function in 27 JME patients with that in 27 healthy volunteers using tests examining cognitive performance, such as the verbal and visual memory, frontal function, attention, IQ score, and mood. In the JME group, we examined risk factors for cognitive function such as age, sex, family history, education level, age at seizure onset, seizure frequency, EEG abnormality, disease duration, and previous intake of antiepileptic drugs. Results Verbal learning was significantly lower in JME patients than in controls, and attention and verbal fluency were impaired in JME patients compared with controls. However, general intellectual ability and mood did not differ between the groups. Early onset of seizure and long duration of disease were closely related to impaired cognitive function. Conclusions JME patients may exhibit impaired cognitive function, in terms of memory and execution, despite having normal intelligence and mood.

Kim, Sun-Young; Hwang, Yang-Ha; Lee, Ho-Won; Suh, Chung-Kyu; Kwon, Soon-Hak

2007-01-01

183

Comparative Education in Greater China: Contexts, Characteristics, Contrasts and Contributions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of comparative education in Greater China (mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau) has been influenced by size, culture, political ideologies, standard of living, and colonialism. Similarities and differences in conceptions of comparative education are identified among the four components and between Greater China and other…

Bray, Mark; Qin, Gui

2001-01-01

184

Do Open-Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although many authors believe that their work has a greater research impact if it is freely available, studies to demonstrate that impact are few. This study looks at articles in four disciplines at varying stages of adoption of open access—philosophy, political science, electrical and electronic engineering and mathematics—to see whether they have a greater im- pact as measured by citations

Kristin Antelman

2005-01-01

185

Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights…

Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

2008-01-01

186

Torsion of the greater omentum with inguinal hernia.  

PubMed

Torsion of the greater omentum is an uncommon cause of acute abdomen, often diagnosed only intraoperatively. We report a 30-year-old man with torsion of the greater omentum in association with inguinal hernia, diagnosed on CT scan and managed conservatively. PMID:14658542

Xavier, Saju; John, Priya

2003-01-01

187

The impact of impaired insulin release and insulin resistance on glucose intolerance after renal transplantation.  

PubMed

The current knowledge of the pathogenesis of post-transplant glucose intolerance is sparse. This study was undertaken to assess the relative importance of insulin secretion (ISec) and insulin sensitivity (IS) in the pathogenesis of post-transplant diabetes mellitus (PTDM), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) after renal transplantation. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed in 167 non-diabetic recipients 10 wk after renal transplantation. Fasting, 1-h and 2-h insulin and glucose levels were used to estimate the insulin secretory response and IS. One year after transplantation 89 patients were re-examined with an OGTT including measurements of fasting and 2 h glucose. Ten weeks after transplantation the PTDM-patients had significantly lower ISec and IS than patients with IGT/IFG, who again had lower ISec and IS than those with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). One year later, a similar difference in baseline ISec was observed between the three groups, whereas baseline IS did not differ significantly. Patients who improved their glucose tolerance during the first year, were mainly characterized by a significantly greater baseline ISec, and they received a significantly higher median prednisolone dose at baseline with a subsequent larger dose reduction during the first year, than the patients who had their glucose tolerance unchanged or worsened. In conclusion, both impaired ISec and IS characterize patients with PTDM and IGT/IFG in the early course after renal transplantation. The presence of defects in insulin release, rather than insulin action, indicates a poor prognosis regarding later normalization of glucose tolerance. PMID:12437616

Hjelmesaeth, Jøran; Hagen, Monica; Hartmann, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; Egeland, Thore; Jenssen, Trond

2002-12-01

188

Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy-related cognitive impairment (CRCI) was first described in the 1970s, but significant recognition of CRCI did not emerge with consistency until the late 1990s. Estimates of frequency now range from 17%-75%, and evidence suggests that CRCI, or "chemobrain" as it is referred to in the lay literature, is of significant concern to patients. A variety of potentially associated factors have been identified, including age, education level, intelligence, and social support; anxiety, depression, and fatigue; disease site, stage, and comorbidities; treatment regimen, timing, duration, and concomitant therapies; and hormonal levels, cytokine levels, damage to neural progenitor cells, and the presence of the apolipoprotein E 4 allele. Controversy exists as to the most suitable neurocognitive tests to evaluate this sequeal of treatment. Neuroimaging techniques are beginning to reveal affected areas of the brain. A neuropsychologist is essential for the assessment, diagnosis, and recommendation of appropriate management strategies for this patient population. Oncology nurses should be aware of available resources, such as relevant Web sites, support groups, neuropsychologists, and cognitive retraining programs, and provide support for patients concerned about or experiencing CRCI. PMID:19648097

Myers, Jamie S

2009-08-01

189

The Effect of Virtual Reality and Tetra-Ataxiometric Posturography Programs on Stroke Patients With Impaired Standing Balance  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the effect of virtual reality (VR) and a tetra-ataxiometric posturography (Tetrax) program on stroke patients with impaired standing balance. Methods Thirty acute stroke patients with impaired standing balance were recruited and randomly assigned to a VR, Tetrax, or control group. All patients received conventional balance training as a baseline; and VR and Tetrax patients received VR or Tetrax treatment, in addition. The primary outcome measures to evaluate the overall standing balance were the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and the falling index (FI). The secondary outcome measures were the stability index (SI) and the weight distribution index (WDI), which were used to evaluate the balance status according to specific body positions. The FI, SI, and WDI were measured using the Tetrax instrument. Results The BBS and FI scores were improved in all groups, with no significant differences between groups. In open-eyed positions, the VR group showed significantly greater improvement in SI and WDI scores than the control group (p<0.017). In closed-eyed positions, the Tetrax group showed significantly greater improvement in SI and WDI scores than the control group (p<0.017). Conclusion The inclusion of VR and Tetrax programs did not lead to an overall benefit in balance. VR and Tetrax did, however, demonstrate a benefit in specific positions. A Tetrax program may benefit patients with abnormal proprioceptive function, whereas a VR program may benefit patients with normal sensory function.

Song, Yoon Bum; Kim, Won; Lee, Sook Joung; Yi, Jin Hwa; Park, Dae Hwan

2014-01-01

190

Impaired spatial working memory maintenance in schizophrenia involves both spatial coordinates and spatial reference frames.  

PubMed

Spatial working memory (SWM) dysfunction is a central finding in schizophrenia; however, more evidence of impaired maintenance over time is required. Consequently, the present study examined SWM maintenance over short unfilled delays, and with encoding equated. The influence of a vertical reference frame to support maintenance was also investigated. The performance of 58 patients with schizophrenia and 50 healthy controls was assessed using the Visuo-Spatial Working Memory (VSWM) Test across three unfilled delays (0, 2, and 4s). Inaccuracy of direction and distance responses was examined at each delay duration. The results showed that performance was significantly less accurate for both distance and direction responses at 2 and 4s delays in schizophrenia, but was not significantly different from controls at the 0s delay. Patients showed a particularly marked loss of accuracy between the time interval of 0-2s. Furthermore, schizophrenia participants exhibited significantly greater response variability at the vertical axis of symmetry than controls at the 2 and 4s delays, but not at the 0s delay. These data clearly show both impaired maintenance over time and difficulty using a vertical frame of reference in schizophrenia. The latter findings may reflect, in part, dysfunctional reference-related inhibition. PMID:20493553

Mazhari, Shahrzad; Badcock, Johanna C; Waters, Flavie A; Dragovi?, Milan; Badcock, David R; Jablensky, Assen

2010-10-30

191

Four Essential Tremor Cases with Moderately Impaired Gait: How Impaired can Gait be in this Disease?  

PubMed Central

Background A body of literature is emerging regarding gait/balance impairments observed in essential tremor (ET) patients. Although impairment is generally mild, the full extent of the spectrum remains undefined. We present four ET cases with more severe gait/balance impairment. Methods A battery of subjective and objective gait/balance assessments was performed: the Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, the Berg Balance Scale, and the Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). Tandem missteps during 10 steps were counted. Quantitative gait testing was performed (GAITRite) to quantify gait speed, dynamic balance, gait symmetry, and gait variability. Results Two patients were middle-aged (38 and 52 years) and two were older (70 and 79 years). All had longstanding classic ET (duration 22–60 years). The mean POMA score was 21.5, which is indicative of moderate fall risk. On average, there were five missteps during tandem gait, which was higher than observed in substantially older ET cases (age 86.0±4.6 years), and four times higher than seen in ET patients of comparable age. On quantitative gait analysis, patients demonstrated significant balance impairment. Discussion We present a sample of ET patients with a level of gait difficulty that would not be characterized as mild. The existence of such cases raises a number of questions, one of which is how impaired can gait be in ET?

Louis, Elan D.; Galecki, Monica; Rao, Ashwini K.

2013-01-01

192

Geohelminths: public health significance.  

PubMed

The worldwide prevalence of geohelminths and their unique place in evolutionary biology have attracted research focus. These major soil-transmitted intestinal nematodes that cause human diseases are the nematode roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the two hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), often collectively referred as geohelminths. Studies of geohelminthiasis in poorly nourished children in developing regions report that geohelminths contribute to stunted growth and cognitive impairment. Insights into immunology have shed light on the modulatory role of the parasite on the host immune system and have defined the role of T cells in controlling geohelminthic infection. Recent molecular biological techniques have created an opportunity to analyse the interaction between parasites and their hosts at the molecular level. This paper is a review of the recent literature that examined the prevalence of geohelminthiasis in developing countries, the association between geohelminths in relation to public health, parasitological/diagnostic features, and therapeutic and preventive aspects of these major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) pathogens in humans. PMID:24423707

Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Jaide, Chayannan; Jinawath, Natini; Rotjanapan, Porpon; Baral, Pankaj

2014-01-01

193

Interhemispheric temporal lobe connectivity predicts language impairment in adolescents born preterm  

PubMed Central

Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways connecting frontal and temporal language regions. To investigate this, we performed a comprehensive assessment of language and academic abilities in a group of adolescents born prematurely, some of whom had evidence of brain injury at birth (n = 50, mean age: 16 years, mean gestational age: 27 weeks) and compared them to a term-born control group (n = 30). Detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tractography analyses of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric white matter bundles were performed. Analysis of intrahemispheric pathways included the arcuate fasciculus (dorsal language pathway) and uncinate fasciculus/extreme capsule (ventral language pathway). Analysis of interhemispheric pathways (in particular, connections between the temporal lobes) included the two major commissural bundles: the corpus callosum and anterior commissure. We found language impairment in 38% of adolescents born preterm. Language impairment was not related to abnormalities of the arcuate fasciculus (or its subsegments), but was associated with bilateral volume reductions in the ventral language pathway. However, the most significant volume reduction was detected in the posterior corpus callosum (splenium), which contains interhemispheric connections between the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. Diffusion tractography showed that of the three groups of interhemispheric fibres within the splenium, only those connecting the temporal lobes were reduced. Crucially, we found that language impairment was only detectable if the anterior commissure (a second temporal lobe commissural pathway) was also small. Regression analyses showed that a combination of anatomical measures of temporal interhemispheric connectivity (through the splenium of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure) explained 57% of the variance in language abilities. This supports recent theories emphasizing the importance of interhemispheric connections for language, particularly in the developing brain.

Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.

2012-01-01

194

Children with unexplained chronic pain: substantial impairment in everyday life  

PubMed Central

Aims: To describe and quantify impairment in an outpatient population of children with chronic pain of unknown origin (UCP). Methods: A total of 149 children who presented with pain of at least three months' duration and without a satisfactory explanation at presentation were studied. Number of somatic complaints (Children's Somatisation Inventory, CSI), pain intensity (VAS, 0–10 cm), functional disability (Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-CF) and clinical history), and general health perceptions (CHQ) were determined. Results: Mean age of the children was 11.8 years; 73% were girls. Overall, 72% suffered impairment in sports activities, 51% reported absence from school, 40% experienced limitations in social functioning, and 34% had problems with sleeping. Mean number of somatic symptoms differed significantly between boys (8.4) and girls (10.7). The CHQ-CF scores for physical functioning, role/social functioning, and general health perceptions were 76.4, 70.7, and 57.5, respectively, indicating substantial impairment on all domains. The mean pain intensity was 4.7 for current and 7.1 for worst pain. Children solely evaluated by a general practitioner prior to referral reported less, though still substantial, impairment. Low general health perceptions, impaired role/social functioning, high pain intensity, and having headache or musculoskeletal pain were independent predictors of having significant impairment. Conclusions: Referred children with UCP show substantial impairment on multiple domains in daily life.

Konijnenberg, A; Uiterwaal, C; Kimpen, J; van der Hoeven, J; Buitelaar, J; de Graeff-Meeder, E R

2005-01-01

195

A Depressive Endophenotype of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating public health problem that affects over 5.4 million Americans. Depression increases the risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and AD. By understanding the influence of depression on cognition, the potential exists to identify subgroups of depressed elders at greater risk for cognitive decline and AD. The current study sought to: 1) clinically identify a sub group of geriatric patients who suffer from depression related cognitive impairment; 2) cross validate this depressive endophenotype of MCI/AD in an independent cohort. Methods and Findings Data was analyzed from 519 participants of Project FRONTIER. Depression was assessed with the GDS30 and cognition was assessed using the EXIT 25 and RBANS. Five GDS items were used to create the Depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD (DepE). DepE was significantly negatively related to RBANS index scores of Immediate Memory (B=-2.22, SE=.37, p<0.001), visuospatial skills (B=-1.11, SE=0.26, p<0.001), Language (B=-1.03, SE=0.21, p<0.001), Attention (B=-2.56, SE=0.49, p<0.001), and Delayed Memory (B=-1.54, SE = 037, p<0.001), and higher DepE scores were related to poorer executive functioning (EXIT25; B=0.65, SE=0.19, p=0.001). DepE scores significantly increased risk for MCI diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% CI=1.54-2.69). Data from 235 participants in the TARCC (Texas Alzheimer’s Research & Care Consortium) were analyzed for cross-validation of findings in an independent cohort. The DepE was significantly related to poorer scores on all measures, and a significantly predicted of cognitive change over 12- and 24-months. Conclusion The current findings suggest that a depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD exists and can be clinically identified using the GDS-30. Higher scores increased risk for MCI and was cross-validated by predicting AD in the TARCC. A key purpose for the search for distinct subgroups of individuals at risk for AD and MCI is to identify novel treatment and preventative opportunities.

Johnson, Leigh A.; Hall, James R.; O'Bryant, Sid E.

2013-01-01

196

Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

2013-01-01

197

Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin  

SciTech Connect

This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

Not Available

1993-10-01

198

Macrocerebellum: significance and pathogenic considerations.  

PubMed

Macrocerebellum is a rare finding characterized by an abnormally large cerebellum. Only few patients with a syndromal or isolated macrocerebellum have been reported so far. This article aims to categorize the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, quantitate the macrocerebellum by volumetric analysis, characterize the neurological and dysmorphic features and cognitive outcome, and report the results of genetic analyses in children with macrocerebellum. All MR images were qualitatively evaluated for infratentorial and supratentorial abnormalities. Volumetric analysis was performed. Data about neurological and dysmorphic features, outcome, and genetic analysis were collected from clinical histories and follow-up examinations. Five patients were included. Volumetric analysis in three patients confirmed large cerebellar size compared to age-matched controls. MR evaluation showed that thickening of the cortical gray matter of the cerebellar hemispheres is responsible for the macrocerebellum. Additional infratentorial and supratentorial abnormalities were present in all patients. Muscular hypotonia, as well as impaired motor and cognitive development, was found in all patients, with ocular movement disorders in three of five patients. The five patients differed significantly in terms of dysmorphic features and involvement of extracerebral organs. Submicroscopic chromosomal aberrations were found in two patients. Macrocerebellum is caused by thickening of the cortical gray matter of the cerebellar hemispheres, suggesting that cerebellar granule cells may be involved in its development. Patients with macrocerebellum show highly heterogeneous neuroimaging, clinical, and genetic findings, suggesting that macrocerebellum is not a nosological entity, but instead represents the structural manifestation of a deeper, more basic biological disturbance common to heterogeneous disorders. PMID:22528964

Poretti, Andrea; Mall, Volker; Smitka, Martin; Grunt, Sebastian; Risen, Sarah; Toelle, Sandra P; Benson, Jane E; Yoshida, Shoko; Jung, Nikolai H; Tinschert, Sigrid; Neuhann, Teresa M; Rauch, Anita; Steinlin, Maja; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A G M; Boltshauser, Eugen

2012-12-01

199

Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-Grouse and Sagebrush Habitats.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We organized the Conservation Assessment into 4 main sections. In the first section, (Chapters 1 and 2), we present background information on greater sage-grouse and sagebrush habitats. We first introduce the factors that have contributed to widespread co...

J. W. Connelly M. A. Schroeder S. J. Stiver S. T. Knick

2004-01-01

200

Optically Selected Quasars with Z Greater Than 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results of a wide field multicolor photographic survey for bright high redshift (z greater than 4) quasars are presented. No decline in the space density of these luminous high resdshift quasars compared to z = 2 quasars is apparent. Preliminary analysis ...

R. G. Mcmahon M. J. Irwin C. Hazard

1992-01-01

201

Arthroscopic treatment for malunions of the proximal humeral greater tuberosity  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this article was to report an arthroscopic treatment method for greater tuberosity malunion. Eight patients with malunion of the greater tuberosity were treated by arthroscopic acromioplasty, detachment of rotator cuff, tuberoplasty of the greater tuberosity and repair of the rotator cuff. On the basis of the UCLA rating scale, the overall score increased from 11.1 (range 9–14) to 30.2 (range 25–35) postoperatively, with one excellent result, six good results, and one poor result. All patients had less pain than preoperatively. Full activity level was achieved in two patients, five patients had only slight functional restriction, and one patient had mild limitation in activities of daily living. Seven patients returned to their previous occupations without restrictions. One patient did not return to work because of residual upper extremity weakness. We conclude that arthroscopic tuberoplasty is a good method for the treatment of greater tuberosity malunion.

Calvo, Angel; Domingo, Javier; Cuenca, Jorge; Herrera, Antonio

2009-01-01

202

COPD Patients Face Greater Risk of Heart Failure, Study Says  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. COPD Patients Face Greater Risk of Heart Failure, Study ... 21, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages African American Health COPD Heart Failure WEDNESDAY, May 21, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

203

Staff to have greater say with 'mutual' model.  

PubMed

Ten NHS providers will be selected to test ways of working that are similar to the John Lewis 'mutual' model where staff effectively own the organisation and have a greater say in running it. PMID:25052631

2014-07-23

204

Early presentation of gait impairment in Wolfram Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Classically characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities, Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is also associated with atypical brainstem and cerebellar findings in the first decade of life. As such, we hypothesized that gait differences between individuals with WFS and typically developing (TD) individuals may be detectable across the course of the disease. Methods Gait was assessed for 13 individuals with WFS (min 6.4?yrs, max 25.8?yrs) and 29 age-matched, typically developing individuals (min 5.6?yrs, max 28.5?yrs) using a GAITRite ® walkway system. Velocity, cadence, step length, base of support and double support time were compared between groups. Results Across all tasks, individuals with WFS walked slower (p = 0.03), took shorter (p ? 0.001) and wider (p ? 0.001) steps and spent a greater proportion of the gait cycle in double support (p = 0.03) compared to TD individuals. Cadence did not differ between groups (p = 0.62). Across all tasks, age was significantly correlated with cadence and double support time in the TD group but only double support time was correlated with age in the WFS group and only during preferred pace forward (rs= 0.564, p = 0.045) and dual task forward walking (rs= 0.720, p = 0.006) tasks. Individuals with WFS also had a greater number of missteps during tandem walking (p ? 0.001). Within the WFS group, spatiotemporal measures of gait did not correlate with measures of visual acuity. Balance measures negatively correlated with normalized gait velocity during fast forward walking (rs = ?0.59, p = 0.03) and percent of gait cycle in double support during backward walking (rs = ?0.64, p = 0.03). Conclusions Quantifiable gait impairments can be detected in individuals with WFS earlier than previous clinical observations suggested. These impairments are not fully accounted for by the visual or balance deficits associated with WFS, and may be a reflection of early cerebellar and/or brainstem abnormalities. Effective patient-centered treatment paradigms could benefit from a more complete understanding of the progression of motor and other neurological symptom presentation in individuals with WFS.

2012-01-01

205

Taurine improves the spatial learning and memory ability impaired by sub-chronic manganese exposure  

PubMed Central

Background Excessive manganese exposure induced cognitive deficit. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that taurine improves cognitive impairment induced by numerous neurotoxins. However, the role of taurine on manganese-induced damages in learning and memory is still elusive. This goal of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of taurine on learning and memory capacity impairment by manganese exposure in an animal model. Results The escape latency in the Morris Water Maze test was significantly longer in the rats injected with manganese than that in the rats received both taurine and manganese. Similarly, the probe trial showed that the annulus crossings were significantly greater in the taurine plus manganese treated rats than those in the manganese-treated rats. However, the blood level of manganese was not altered by the taurine treatment. Interestingly, the exposure of manganese led to a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity and an evidently decrease in the choline acetyltransferase activity, which were partially restored by the addition of taurine. Additionally, we identified 9 differentially expressed proteins between the rat hippocampus treated by manganese and the control or the manganese plus taurine in the proteomic analysis using the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Most of these proteins play a role in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and neuron synapse. Conclusions In summary, taurine restores the activity of AChE and ChAT, which are critical for the regulation of acetylcholine. We have identified seven differentially expressed proteins specifically induced by manganese and two proteins induced by taurine from the rat hippocampus. Our results support that taurine improves the impaired learning and memory ability caused by excessive exposure of manganese.

2014-01-01

206

Arthroscopic findings of coexisting lesions with greater tuberosity fractures.  

PubMed

Proximal humerus fractures comprise approximately 5% of all fractures, with isolated greater tuberosity fractures accounting for approximately 20% of proximal humerus fractures. Although performing shoulder arthroscopy in situations including a fracture is technically demanding, it allows surgeons the opportunity to identify and treat other coexisting lesions that could have otherwise been missed. The incidence of these pathologies in combination with greater tuberosity fractures has not been established. This study aimed to identify the various types of pathologies that may coexist with greater tuberosity fractures but not be detected before fixation. Displaced 2-part greater tuberosity fractures were treated arthroscopically in the authors' department. All patients initially underwent diagnostic arthroscopy during which other coexisting pathologies were detected and assessed, including rotator cuff tears, labral tears (Bankart or superior labral anterior posterior lesions), or long head of the biceps pathologies. Twenty-four patients underwent arthroscopic (n=10) or arthroscopic-assisted (n=14) greater tuberosity reduction and fixation. Thirteen (54.2%) fragments were fully displaced. Four (16.7%) patients had fracture dislocation of the glenohumeral joint. The concomitant soft-tissue pathologies were identified and treated arthroscopically in 22 (92%) patients. Arthroscopic evaluation before greater tuberosity fracture fixation revealed a high percentage of concomitant soft tissue pathologies. These pathologies may be overlooked otherwise, but they are easily detected arthroscopically, enabling their treatment during the same procedure. PMID:24762155

Maman, Eran; Dolkart, Oleg; Chechik, Ofir; Amar, Eyal; Rak, Ofer; Rath, Ehud; Mozes, Gavriel

2014-03-01

207

Neurocognitive Impairment and HIV Risk Factors: A Reciprocal Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cognitive impairment among populations at risk for HIV poses a significant barrier to managing risk behaviors. The impact\\u000a of HIV and several cofactors, including substance abuse and mental illness, on cognitive function is discussed in the context\\u000a of HIV risk behaviors, medication adherence, and risk-reduction interventions. Literature suggests that cognitive impairment\\u000a is intertwined in a close, reciprocal relationship with both

Pria Anand; Sandra A. Springer; Michael M. Copenhaver; Frederick L. Altice

2010-01-01

208

Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence with Reading Impairments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two family aggregation studies involving 25 children (ages 5-10) with specific language impairment (SLI) report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments and reading impairments. Results indicate that when language impairments occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with reading impairments.…

Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula

2003-01-01

209

Impaired Performance in Commercial Drivers  

PubMed Central

Sleepiness plays an important role in major crashes of commercial vehicles. Because determinants are likely to include inadequate sleep and sleep apnea, we evaluated the role of short sleep durations over 1 wk at home and sleep apnea in subjective sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), objective sleepiness (reduced sleep latency as determined by the Multiple Sleep Latency Test), and neurobehavioral functioning (lapses in performance, tracking error in Divided Attention Driving Task) in commercial drivers. Studies were conducted in 247 of 551 drivers at higher risk for apnea and in 159 of 778 drivers at lower risk. A multivariate linear association between the sets of outcomes and risk factors was confirmed (p < 0.0001). Increases in subjective sleepiness were associated with shorter sleep durations but not with increases in severity of apnea. Increases in objective sleepiness and performance lapses, as well as poorer lane tracking, were associated with shorter sleep durations. Associations with sleep apnea severity were not as robust and not strictly monotonic. A significant linear association with sleep apnea was demonstrated only for reduced sleep latency. The effects of severe apnea (apnea–hypopnea index, at least 30 episodes/h), which occurred in 4.7%, and of sleep duration less than 5 h/night, which occurred in 13.5%, were similar in terms of their impact on objective sleepiness. Thus, addressing impairment in commercial drivers requires addressing both insufficient sleep and sleep apnea, the former being more common.

Pack, Allan I.; Maislin, Greg; Staley, Bethany; Pack, Frances M.; Rogers, William C.; George, Charles F. P.; Dinges, David F.

2006-01-01

210

Preventing impaired driving opportunities and problems.  

PubMed

Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested. PMID:22330222

Voas, Robert B; Fell, James C

2011-01-01

211

Effects of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and its secondary metabolites on morphology and cytoskeleton of plasmatocytes isolated from the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Metarhizium anisopliae infection and three different secondary metabolites released by the fungus, destruxin A and E and cytochalasin D, on the morphology and cytoskeleton of plasmatocytes of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella were studied. Plasmatocytes isolated from M. anisopliae infected larvae exhibited impairment of attachment, spreading and cytoskeleton formation accompanied with the occurrence of blebbing and

Andreas Vilcinskas; Vladimir Matha; Peter Götz

1997-01-01

212

The safety of bendamustine in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma and concomitant renal impairment: a retrospective electronic medical record database analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract This retrospective study compared adverse-event rates in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), with and without renal impairment, receiving bendamustine alone or with rituximab. Patients (n = 940) were stratified into a renally impaired group (creatinine clearance [CrCL] < 40 mL/min) and two comparator groups (CrCL ? 40 mL/min and CrCL ? 60 mL/min). Renally impaired patients with NHL had a significantly greater incidence of grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia compared with the CrCL ? 60 mL/min group (hazard ratio [HR], 2.57; p = 0.025). For CLL and NHL together, grade 3-4 increased blood urea nitrogen was significantly higher in the renally impaired group than in the CrCL ? 40 mL/min (HR, 2.36; p = 0.02) and CrCL ? 60 mL/min (HR, 4.46; p = 0.001) groups. Based on these results, monitoring blood counts (including platelets) and renal function would be prudent in the management of patients with renal dysfunction and NHL or CLL who receive bendamustine-based regimens. PMID:23987821

Nordstrom, Beth L; Knopf, Kevin B; Teltsch, Dana Y; Engle, Robert; Beygi, Hooman; Sterchele, James A

2014-06-01

213

Photoreceptor Impairment and Restoration on Optical Coherence Tomographic Image  

PubMed Central

With recent development of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), the pathological changes of retina can be observed in much greater detail. SD-OCT clearly delineates three highly reflective lines in the outer retina, which are external limiting membrane (ELM), photoreceptor inner and outer segment (IS/OS) junction, and cone outer segment tips (COST) in order from inside. These lines can serve as hallmarks for the evaluation of photoreceptor condition. In retinitis pigmentosa (RP) leading to photoreceptor degeneration, the ELM, IS/OS, and COST lines are shortened with the progression of the disease. In addition, shortening of the ELM, IS/OS and COST lines is significantly associated with each other. The line length is longest in the ELM, followed by the IS/OS, and COST, suggesting that retinal layer becomes disorganized first at the COST, followed by the IS/OS and finally the ELM. This finding is consistent with the previous report that the earliest histopathological change in RP is a shortening of the photoreceptor outer segments. On the other hand, retinal layer becomes restored first at the ELM, followed by the IS/OS and finally the COST after macular hole surgery. There may be a directionality of photoreceptor impairment or restoration on optical coherence tomographic image.

Mitamura-Aizawa, Sayaka; Katome, Takashi; Naito, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Akira; Kumagai, Ken; Yamamoto, Shuichi

2013-01-01

214

Contextual Social Cognition Impairments in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. Methodology/Principal Findings This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge) that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients’ depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. Conclusions/Significance Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed.

Villarin, Lilian; Theil, Donna; Gonzalez-Gadea, Maria Luz; Gomez, Pedro; Mosquera, Marcela; Huepe, David; Strejilevich, Sergio; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Matthaus, Franziska; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin M.

2013-01-01

215

The Neuropsychology of Cocaine Addiction: Recent Cocaine Use Masks Impairment  

PubMed Central

Individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) form a heterogeneous group, making sensitive neuropsychological (NP) comparisons with healthy individuals difficult. The current study examined the effects on NP functioning of four factors that commonly vary among CUD: urine status for cocaine (positive vs negative on study day), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and dysphoria. Sixty-four cocaine abusers were matched to healthy comparison subjects on gender and race; the groups also did not differ in measures of general intellectual functioning. All subjects were administered an extensive NP battery measuring attention, executive function, memory, facial and emotion recognition, and motor function. Compared with healthy control subjects, CUD exhibited performance deficits on tasks of attention, executive function, and verbal memory (within one standard deviation of controls). Although CUD with positive urine status, who had higher frequency and more recent cocaine use, reported greater symptoms of dysphoria, these cognitive deficits were most pronounced in the CUD with negative urine status. Cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol consumption, and dysphoria did not alter these results. The current findings replicate a previously reported statistically significant, but relatively mild NP impairment in CUD as compared with matched healthy control individuals and further suggest that frequent/recent cocaine may mask underlying cognitive (but not mood) disturbances. These results call for development of pharmacological agents targeted to enhance cognition, without negatively impacting mood in individuals addicted to cocaine.

Woicik, Patricia A; Moeller, Scott J; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Maloney, Thomas; Lukasik, Tanya M; Yeliosof, Olga; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

2009-01-01

216

Perfluorochemical (PFC) Exposure in Children: Associations with Impaired Response Inhibition  

PubMed Central

Background Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used widely in consumer products since the 1950s and are currently found at detectable levels in the blood of humans and animals across the globe. In stark contrast to this widespread exposure to PFCs, there is relatively little research on potential adverse health effects of exposure to these chemicals. Objectives We performed this cross-sectional study to determine if specific blood PFC levels are associated with impaired response inhibition in children. Methods Blood levels of 11 PFCs were measured in children (N = 83) and 6 PFCs: perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) – were found at detectable levels in most children (87.5% or greater had detectable levels). These levels were analyzed in relation to the differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) task. This task rewards delays between responses (i.e., longer inter-response times; IRTs) and therefore constitutes a measure of response inhibition. Results Higher levels of blood PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, and PFOSA were associated with significantly shorter IRTs during the DRL task. The magnitude of these associations was such that IRTs during the task decreased by 29–34% for every 1 SD increase in the corresponding blood PFC. Conclusions This study suggests an association between PFC exposure and children’s impulsivity. Although intriguing, there is a need for further investigation and replication with a larger sample of children.

Gump, Brooks B.; Wu, Qian; Dumas, Amy K.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2011-01-01

217

Impaired comprehension of alternating syntactic constructions in autism.  

PubMed

Individuals on the higher-functioning end of the autism spectrum have significant impairments in communication. Language delay can occur, particularly in syntactic or structural linguistic knowledge. However, classically observed semantic deficits generally overshadow these structural deficits. This research examined the potential effects on comprehension of dative expressions that exhibited syntactic alternation versus those that were restricted, whether in syntactic construction or through marked semantic differences in construction. Children with autism and matched neurotypical control participants were presented with a sentence battery of dative statements representing these variations in construction and were asked to display basic comprehension of the sentence meaning by identifying the recipient, or indirect object, of the dative verb. Construction, restriction, and semantic differentiation variables were analyzed for potential effects on the rate of accurate comprehension. Both groups performed with greater accuracy when dative expressions used a prepositional phrase than when the dative action was expressed in the syntax. The autism group performed more poorly when the dative expression could syntactically alternate than when it was restricted. These effects improve our knowledge of how children with autism understand alternating grammatical constructions. Autism Res 2014, 7: 314-321. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24227788

Stockbridge, Melissa D; Happé, Francesca G E; White, Sarah J

2014-06-01

218

Impaired orofacial motor functions on chronic temporomandibular disorders.  

PubMed

Because temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) rehabilitation continues to be a challenge, a more comprehensive picture of the orofacial functions in patients with chronic pain is required. This study assessed the orofacial functions, including surface electromyography (EMG) of dynamic rhythmic activities, in patients with moderate-severe signs and symptoms of chronic TMD. It was hypothesized that orofacial motor control differs between patients with moderate-severe chronic TMD and healthy subjects. Seventy-six subjects (46 with TMD and 30 control) answered questionnaires of severity of TMD and chewing difficulties. Orofacial functions and EMG during chewing were assessed. Standardized EMG indices were obtained by quantitative analysis of the differential EMG signals of the paired masseter and temporal muscles, and used to describe muscular action during chewing. TMD patients showed significant greater difficulty in chewing; worse orofacial scores; longer time for free mastication; a less accurate recruitment of the muscles on the working and balancing sides, reduced symmetrical mastication index (SMI) and increased standardized activity during EMG test than healthy subjects. SMI, TMD severity and orofacial myofunctional scores were correlated (P<0.01). Impaired orofacial functions and increased activity of the muscles of balancing sides during unilateral chewing characterized the altered orofacial motor control in patients with moderate-severe chronic TMD. Implications for rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:24816190

Ferreira, Cláudia Lúcia Pimenta; Machado, Bárbara Cristina Zanandréa; Borges, Carina Giovana Pissinatti; Rodrigues Da Silva, Marco Antonio M; Sforza, Chiarella; De Felício, Cláudia Maria

2014-08-01

219

Efficacy and safety of cognitive enhancers for patients with mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background: Cognitive enhancers, including cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are used to treat dementia, but their effectiveness for mild cognitive impairment is unclear. We conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment. Methods: Our eligibility criteria were studies of the effects of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine or memantine on mild cognitive impairment reporting cognition, function, behaviour, global status, and mortality or harms. We identified relevant material by searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, Embase), the references of included studies, trial registries and conference proceedings, and by contacting experts. Two reviewers independently screened the results of the literature search, abstracted data and appraised risk of bias using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Results: We screened 15 554 titles and abstracts and 1384 full-text articles. Eight randomized clinical trials and 3 companion reports met our inclusion criteria. We found no significant effects of cognitive enhancers on cognition (Mini–Mental State Examination: 3 randomized clinical trials [RCTs], mean difference [MD] 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.22 to 0.50; Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale — cognition subscale: 3 RCTs, standardized MD ?0.07, 95% CI?0.16 to 0.01]) or function (Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study activities of daily living inventory: 2 RCTs, MD 0.30, 95% CI ?0.26 to 0.86). Cognitive enhancers were associated with higher risks of nausea, diarrhea and vomiting than placebo. Interpretation: Cognitive enhancers did not improve cognition or function among patients with mild cognitive impairment and were associated with a greater risk of gastrointestinal harms. Our findings do not support the use of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment.

Tricco, Andrea C.; Soobiah, Charlene; Berliner, Shirra; Ho, Joanne M.; Ng, Carmen H.; Ashoor, Huda M.; Chen, Maggie H.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Straus, Sharon E.

220

The significance of research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When promoting the value of their research or procuring funding, researchers often need to explain the significance of their work to the community -- something that can be just as tricky as the research itself.

2014-02-01

221

A Meta-Analysis of the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity.  

PubMed

The present study examined the relationship between the Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) and psychiatric severity. Search procedures yielded 13 independent samples (total N = 1402, average n = 108, standard deviation = 90) for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Inter-rater reliability analyses demonstrated that coding of effect sizes and moderator variables was completed with good to excellent reliability. Results indicated that higher EII scores were associated with greater psychiatric severity, with an overall weighted effect size of r = 0.29, p = 0.000002 (95% confidence interval = 0.17-0.40), supporting the EII's validity as a measure of psychological impairment. Publication bias analyses did not indicate any significant cause for concern regarding the results. The data were demonstrably heterogeneous (Q = 56.82, p = 0.0000001), and results of post-hoc tests indicated that effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via researcher ratings were significantly larger than any of the following: effect sizes with dependent variables obtained via clinician ratings, informant ratings, information about level of treatment or placement status or self-report ratings (p's = 0.0005, 0.003, <0.001, <0.001, respectively). In addition, there was a trend for effect sizes based on performance-based measures to be larger than those based on information about level of treatment or placement status (p = 0.098) as well as those based on self-report measures (p = 0.076). Other moderator analyses were non-significant (p 's > 0.10). Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: • The Rorschach Ego Impairment Index (EII) demonstrated validity in measuring psychiatric severity across a range of normative, outpatient, residential, and inpatient samples. • The degree of the EII's validity in assessing psychiatric severity compared favorably to the overall validity of the Rorschach and the MMPI. • The EII appears to be most valid in capturing psychiatric severity as measured by researcher ratings of social competency or estimated ego impairment. PMID:20941796

Diener, Marc J; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Shaffer, Seth A; Sexton, James E

2011-01-01

222

Management of Functionally Impaired Drivers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Older drivers have specific issues that need to be addressed including changes in sensory, motor, and cognitive skills may affect driving ability. Motor impairments include lack of neck and limb mobility, whereas sensory declines primarily involve visual ...

D. Utley J. D. Edwards K. M. Leonard

2006-01-01

223

[Greater occipital neuralgia associated with occipital osteolytic lesion. Case report].  

PubMed

The anatomic distribution of the greater occipital nerve during its path permits a close relationship with muscular structures, tendons, vessels and bones. The rupture of this relationship can origin its irritation and headache. We describe an uncommon association between an osteolytic lesion on occipital bone and greater occipital nerve. The patient, female 50, has been presenting headache for two years on the right occipital region spreading to the hemicranic and ipsilateral supraorbital region. The symptoms started spontaneously or by pressure on the trapezius tendon. The pain lasted about 30 minutes, compressive, mild intensity, with no autonomic symptoms and no improvement after the infiltration in the greater occipital nerve. The total improvement of the symptoms after releasing the nerve has allowed us to associate this lesion to the presence of algic symptoms. PMID:10347737

Piovesan, E J; Werneck, L C; Kowacs, P A; Tatsui, C; Lange, M C; Carraro Júnior, H; Wittig, E O

1999-03-01

224

Research With Cognitively Impaired Participants.  

PubMed

Illnesses that cause cognitive impairment are a considerable health problem in the United States. These include Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's chorea, cerebrovascular disease, psychiatric disorders, chronic alcoholism, and AIDS dementia complex. Illness associated with cognitive impairment may cause great suffering to the affected patients and their families. Research involving individuals who may be at risk for or have cognitive impairment is necessary to improve our understanding of these illnesses. For example, this may occur during efforts to develop effective therapies to treat them. However, research with participants who have cognitive impairment presents additional ethical concerns because they may be vulnerable to coercion. Therefore, nurse researchers must not only understand the principles of informed consent (i.e., autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice), but also the additional safeguards provided in the common rule to protect cognitively impaired participants in research. These safeguards include advanced informed consent, legal representative, and assent. Gaps exist in federal regulations related to adhering to these safeguards such as how to assess for decision-making capacity and variations on who can be a legal representative. The nurse researchers have potential roles as educators and advocates in research involving participants with cognitive impairment. PMID:21814457

Oruche, Ukamaka M

2009-10-01

225

WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

226

Enhanced large conductance K+ channel activity contributes to the impaired myogenic response in the cerebral vasculature of Fawn Hooded Hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Recent studies have indicated that the myogenic response (MR) in cerebral arteries is impaired in Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH) rats and that transfer of a 2.4 megabase pair region of chromosome 1 (RNO1) containing 15 genes from the Brown Norway rat into the FHH genetic background restores MR in a FHH.1(BN) congenic strain. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. The present study examined the role of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in impairing the MR in FHH rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp studies of cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) revealed that iberiotoxin (IBTX; BK inhibitor)-sensitive outward potassium (K+) channel current densities are four- to fivefold greater in FHH than in FHH.1(BN) congenic strain. Inside-out patches indicated that the BK channel open probability (NPo) is 10-fold higher and IBTX reduced NPo to a greater extent in VSMCs isolated from FHH than in FHH.1(BN) rats. Voltage sensitivity of the BK channel is enhanced in FHH as compared with FHH.1(BN) rats. The frequency and amplitude of spontaneous transient outward currents are significantly greater in VSMCs isolated from FHH than in FHH.1(BN) rats. However, the expression of the BK-? and -?-subunit proteins in cerebral vessels as determined by Western blot is similar between the two groups. Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) isolated from FHH rats exhibited an impaired MR, and administration of IBTX restored this response. These results indicate that there is a gene on RNO1 that impairs MR in the MCAs of FHH rats by enhancing BK channel activity. PMID:24464756

Pabbidi, Mallikarjuna R; Mazur, Olga; Fan, Fan; Farley, Jerry M; Gebremedhin, Debebe; Harder, David R; Roman, Richard J

2014-04-01

227

Sublethal hyperoxia impairs pulmonary innate immunity.  

PubMed

Supplemental oxygen is often required in the treatment of critically ill patients. The impact of hyperoxia on pulmonary host defense is not well-established. We hypothesized that hyperoxia directly impairs pulmonary host defense, beyond effects on alveolar wall barrier function. C57BL/6 mice were kept in an atmosphere of >95% O(2) for 4 days followed by return to room air. This exposure does not lead to mortality in mice subsequently returned to room air. Mice kept in room air served as controls. Mice were intratracheally inoculated with Klebsiella pneumoniae and followed for survival. Alveolar macrophages (AM) were harvested by bronchoalveolar lavage after 4 days of in vivo hyperoxia for ex vivo experiments. Mortality from pneumonia increased significantly in mice exposed to hyperoxia compared with infected mice in room air. Burden of organisms in the lung and dissemination of infection were increased in the hyperoxia group whereas accumulation of inflammatory cells in the lung was impaired. Hyperoxia alone had no impact on AM numbers, viability, or ability to phagocytize latex microbeads. However, following in vivo hyperoxia, AM phagocytosis and killing of Gram-negative bacteria and production of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in response to LPS were significantly reduced. AM surface expression of Toll-like receptor-4 was significantly decreased following in vivo hyperoxia. Thus sublethal hyperoxia increases Gram-negative bacterial pneumonia mortality and has a significant adverse effect on AM host defense function. Impaired AM function due to high concentrations of supplemental oxygen may contribute to the high rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia seen in critically ill patients. PMID:12847267

Baleeiro, Carlos E O; Wilcoxen, Steven E; Morris, Susan B; Standiford, Theodore J; Paine, Robert

2003-07-15

228

New regulations to minimize water impairment from animals rely on management practices.  

PubMed

Water pollution from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) led to revised federal regulations in the United States. The regulations provide for the greater management of potential sources of agricultural contamination and impose additional financial costs on producers. Along with a duty to secure a permit, significant changes address coverage of pollutants, separation of production and land application areas, effluent limitation guidelines, and differentiating agricultural storm water discharges from other discharges. The revised provisions require more producers to secure National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permits and mandate that large CAFOs develop technology-based effluent discharge limitations involving best management practices. Medium- and small-sized CAFOs need to adopt technology-based effluent discharge requirements employing best professional judgment. For farms raising animals that are not CAFOs, voluntary management practices may be employed to intercept pollutants before they enter waterbodies. Additional educational efforts promoting the implementation of further management practices that address the agricultural impairment of water resources may be needed. PMID:15031014

Centner, Terence J

2004-06-01

229

Significance of Grandparents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This research focuses on the significance of grandparenthood to a sample of young adult grandchildren as detailed from their responses to a series of Likert-type, range of choice, and yes-no items in five distinct areas of inquiry. Results show that grandchildren do not see grandparents as old-fashioned. (Author)

Robertson, Joan F.

1976-01-01

230

Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. The Pakistan national blindness and visual impairment survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the causes of blindness and visual impairment in adults (?30 years old) in Pakistan, and to explore socio?demographic variations in cause. Methods A multi?stage, stratified, cluster random sampling survey was used to select a nationally representative sample of adults. Each subject was interviewed, had their visual acuity measured and underwent autorefraction and fundus/optic disc examination. Those with a visual acuity of <6/12 in either eye underwent a more detailed ophthalmic examination. Causes of visual impairment were classified according to the accepted World Health Organization (WHO) methodology. An exploration of demographic variables was conducted using regression modeling. Results A sample of 16?507 adults (95.5% of those enumerated) was examined. Cataract was the most common cause of blindness (51.5%; defined as <3/60 in the better eye on presentation) followed by corneal opacity (11.8%), uncorrected aphakia (8.6%) and glaucoma (7.1%). Posterior capsular opacification accounted for 3.6% of blindness. Among the moderately visually impaired (<6/18 to ?6/60), refractive error was the most common cause (43%), followed by cataract (42%). Refractive error as a cause of severe visual impairment/blindness was significantly higher in rural dwellers than in urban dwellers (odds ratio (OR) 3.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 11.7). Significant provincial differences were also identified. Overall we estimate that 85.5% of causes were avoidable and that 904?000 adults in Pakistan have cataract (<6/60) requiring surgical intervention. Conclusions This comprehensive survey provides reliable estimates of the causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. Despite expanded surgical services, cataract still accounts for over half of the cases of blindness in Pakistan. One in eight blind adults has visual loss from sequelae of cataract surgery. Services for refractive errors need to be further expanded and integrated into eye care services, particularly those serving rural populations.

Dineen, B; Bourne, R R A; Jadoon, Z; Shah, S P; Khan, M A; Foster, A; Gilbert, C E; Khan, M D

2007-01-01

231

A Greater Society: The Transformation of the Federal Role in Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The federal role in education will soon be transformed in ways that could produce an even greater society than President Lyndon B. Johnson envisioned. The authors identify underlying principles of this new role and describe how it represents a significant departure from the past. Historically, for example, the federal government has been…

Wise, Bob; Rothman, Robert

2010-01-01

232

Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults With Specific Language Impairment  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights.

Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

2013-01-01

233

Mild traumatic brain injury: Impairment and disability assessment caveats.  

PubMed

Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) accounts for approximately 80% of all brain injuries, and persistent sequelae can impede physical, emotional, social, marital, vocational, and avocational functioning. Evaluation of impairment and disability following MTBI typically can involve such contexts as social security disability application, personal injury litigation, worker's compensation claims, disability insurance policy application, other health care insurance policy coverage issues, and the determination of vocational and occupational competencies and limitations. MTBI is still poorly understood and impairment and disability assessment in MTBI can present a significant diagnostic challenge. There are currently no ideal systems for rating impairment and disability for MTBI residua. As a result, medicolegal examiners and clinicians must necessarily familiarise themselves with the variety of disability and impairment evaluation protocols and understand their limitations. The current paper reviews recommended procedures and potential obstacles and confounding issues. PMID:21854326

Zasler, Nathan D; Martelli, Michael F

2003-01-01

234

Assessing the Water Quality Significance of N & P Compound Concentrations in Agricultural Runoff1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excessive growth of aquatic plants causes significant water quality\\/beneficial-use problems, including low dissolved oxygen, impairment of domestic water supplies' water quality, impairment of recreation, etc. The growth of aquatic plants to excessive levels is driven by nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from a variety of sources, including agricultural stormwater runoff, tail water and subsurface drain water discharges. Because of the significance

G. Fred Lee; Anne Jones-Lee

235

Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance?  

PubMed Central

A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized.

Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

2011-01-01

236

Fetal sex and preterm birth: are males at greater risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The existence of a male excess among preterm births is interesting because it could shed light on the aetiology of preterm birth. Possible mechanisms are greater body weight, increased susceptibility to complications of pregnancy, sex-linked biochemical processes and earlier conception in the fertile cycle. METHODS: We measured the association between fetal sex and preterm birth in four original datasets,

Jennifer Zeitlin; Marie-Josephe Saurel-Cubizolles; Jaques de Mouzon; Lucile Rivera; Pierre-Yves Ancel; Monique Kaminski

237

Energetics of reproduction in female and male greater snow geese  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arctic-nesting geese are classified as “capital” breeders (i.e., birds that rely largely on endogenous reserves to meet the high nutrient requirement of clutch formation) as opposed to “income” breeders (those that rely directly on ingested food). However, some evidence has suggested that energy reserves of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) are not sufficient to meet these costs. We tested

Line Choinière; Gilles Gauthier

1995-01-01

238

Biofuels production for smallholder producers in the Greater Mekong Subregion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Looming concerns on rising food prices and food security has slowed down the impetus in biofuel production. The development of the sub-sector, however, remains an important agenda among developing countries like those of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) that have abundant labour and natural resources but have limited supply of fossil fuels which continues to serve as a constraint to

Urooj S. Malik; Mahfuz Ahmed; Mercedita A. Sombilla; Sarah L. Cueno

2009-01-01

239

Isolated fractures of the greater tuberosity of the proximal humerus  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The diagnosis and treatment of isolated greater tuberosity fractures of the proximal humerus is not clear-cut. We retrospectively assessed the clinical and radiographic outcome of isolated greater tuberosity fractures. Patients and methods 30 patients (mean age 58 (26–85) years, 19 women) with 30 closed isolated greater tuberosity fractures were reassessed after an average follow-up time of 3 years with DASH score and Constant score. Radiographic outcome was assessed on standard plain radiographs. Results 14 of 17 patients with undisplaced or slightly displaced fractures (? 5 mm) were treated nonoperatively and had good clinical outcome (mean DASH score of 13, mean Constant score of 71). 8 patients with moderately displaced fractures (6–10 mm) were either treated nonoperatively (n = 4) or operatively (n = 4), with good functional results (mean DASH score of 10, mean Constant score of 72). 5 patients with major displaced fractures (> 10 mm) were all operated with good clinical results (mean DASH score of 14, mean Constant score of 69). The most common discomfort at the follow-up was an impingement syndrome of the shoulder, which occurred in both nonoperatively treated patients (n = 3) and operatively treated patients (n = 4). Only 1 nonoperatively treated patient developed a non-union. By radiography, all other fractures healed. Interpretation We found that minor to moderately displaced greater tuberosity fractures may be treated successfully without surgery.

2011-01-01

240

Spar technology takes oil exploration to greater depths  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf is the hottest exploration site in the world. How has this geological expanse, once considered in its declining years of oil and gas production, reawakened as a giant in drilling and exploration activity? Technological advances in deep-water drilling and recovery are the answer. Tension leg platforms have pioneered the path to greater depths with capabilities to 7,000 ft,

Cullison

1997-01-01

241

ICU Patients At Much Greater Risk for PTSD  

MedlinePLUS

... JavaScript. ICU Patients at Much Greater Risk for PTSD: Study Stay in intensive care can be traumatic ... May 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Critical Care Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder MONDAY, May 19, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- After being ...

242

Job satisfaction: what is its true meaning in Greater China?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Previously, researchers have performed studies on job satisfaction and organizational behavior outcomes in Western contexts. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether economic prosperity or cultural perspective may explain why job satisfaction may not be an effective predictor of organizational outcomes in Greater China. Researchers need more empirical evidence to understand the nature of the relationship

Yong Han; Nada K. Kakabadse

2009-01-01

243

Paleoecology of the Greater Phyllopod Bed community, Burgess Shale  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand temporal variations in species diversity and composition, ecological attributes, and environmental influences for the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale community, we studied 50,900 fossil specimens belonging to 158 genera (mostly monospecific and non-biomineralized) representing 17 major taxonomic groups and 17 ecological categories. Fossils were collected in situ from within 26 massive siliciclastic mudstone beds of the Greater Phyllopod

Jean-Bernard Caron; Donald A. Jackson

2008-01-01

244

The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

Gardner, Philip

2012-01-01

245

Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution

Chandra Giri; Clinton Jenkins

2005-01-01

246

Hearing Impairment in Congenitally Hypothyroid Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective Thyroid hormone is necessary for normal development of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of hearing impairment in congenitally hypothyroid (CH) patients, and its relation with factors such as CH severity and age at starting treatment, during CH screening program in Isfahan. Methods Hearing acuity was assessed in two groups of children with (94 patients aged 4 months – 3 years) and without CH (450), between 2000-2006. Otoacostic emission (OAE) was performed by a two step method. After two tests without OAE signals bilaterally, they were referred for auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. Subjects with both OAE and ABR abnormal test results were considered to have hearing problem. Obtained data was compared in case and control group and also CH patients with and without hearing impairment. Findings Three (3.2%) of patients and 1 of control group (0.2%) were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss. The rate of hearing loss was not different significantly in two studied groups (P>0.05). There was no difference between age of starting treatment and first T4 and TSH level in CH patients with and without hearing loss (P>0.05). CH neonates with hearing impairment had thyroid dyshormonogenesis according to the follow up results. Conclusion The rate of hearing loss was low among our studied CH patients. It may be due to proper management of CH patients. In view of the fact that all CH neonates were dyshormonogentic and considering the relation between certain gene mutations and hearing impairment in CH patients, further studies with larger sample size, with regard to different etiologies of CH should be investigated to indicate the possible gene mutations related to hearing loss in CH.

Hashemipour, Mahin; Hovsepian, Silva; Hashemi, Mostafa; Amini, Massoud; Kelishadi, Roya; Sadeghi, Somaye

2012-01-01

247

Is colour vision impairment associated with cognitive impairment in solvent exposed workers?  

PubMed Central

Methods: A sample of 82 painters and 38 other subjects were studied. Alcohol, drug, and smoking histories were obtained. Colour vision was tested using the Lanthony D-15-d colour vision test. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Benton visual retention test, Trail making A, and Trail making B tests. Pre-morbid IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test. Solvent exposure in all subjects was estimated using a previously validated, structured subjective assessment methodology. Results: After exclusion of subjects with competing causes of colour vision impairment the final group of men numbered 78. There was a significant association on multiple linear regression between the mean colour confusion index (CCI) and three measures of cognitive impairment, the Benton visual retention test, Trail making A, and Trail making B tests after adjusting for the effects of age (or IQ as appropriate), alcohol, and smoking. Conclusion: Acquired colour vision loss is associated with cognitive impairment in solvent exposed workers. However, given the prevalence of acquired colour vision losses in the adult population, colour vision testing is unlikely to be of value as a screening test.

Dick, F; Semple, S; Soutar, A; Osborne, A; Cherrie, J; Seaton, A

2004-01-01

248

Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students’ professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

Zhang, Fulei

249

Impairment Rating Ambiguity in the United States: The Utah Impairment Guides for Calculating Workers' Compensation Impairments  

PubMed Central

Since the implementation of workers' compensation, accurately and consistently rating impairment has been a concern for the employee and employer, as well as rating physicians. In an attempt to standardize and classify impairments, the American Medical Association (AMA) publishes the AMA Guides ("Guides"), and recently published its 6th edition of the AMA Guides. Common critiques of the AMA Guides 6th edition are that they are too complex, lacking in evidence-based methods, and rarely yield consistent ratings. Many states mandate use of some edition of the AMA Guides, but few states are adopting the current edition due to the increasing difficulty and frustration with their implementation. A clearer, simpler approach is needed. Some states have begun to develop their own supplemental guides to combat problems in complexity and validity. Likewise studies in Korea show that past methods for rating impairment are outdated and inconsistent, and call for measures to adapt current methods to Korea's specific needs. The Utah Supplemental Guides to the AMA Guides have been effective in increasing consistency in rating impairment. It is estimated that litigation of permanent impairment has fallen below 1% and Utah is now one of the least costly states for obtaining workers' compensation insurance, while maintaining a medical fee schedule above the national average. Utah's guides serve as a model for national or international impairment guides.

Hunter, Bradley; Bunkall, Larry D.; Holmes, Edward B.

2009-01-01

250

Motor impairment and its relationship to fitness in children  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this work was to explore the physiological and perceptual limits to exercise in children with varying degrees of motor impairment, and the relationships to measures of health. Design and methods In a group comparison design, 35 boys aged 12–15?years completed the Movement ABC test for the assessment of motor impairment, followed by an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten participants classified as having either high or no motor impairment also performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the assessment of lower limb extensor strength. Results 18 boys were classified as having high motor impairment. There was a significant difference in peak (34.9 vs 48.5?mL?kg/min), workload (12.5 vs 10.0?mL?W), maximal HR (176 vs 188?bpm), maximal oxygen pulse (12.1 vs 15.9?mL?beat) and MVIC (5.7 vs 9.1?Nm?kg) between the high and non-motor impaired participants, respectively, (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the RER or RPE between groups. Conclusions When performing cycling ergometry, perceived exertion was not a limiting factor in children with high motor impairment. The lower maximal HR, coupled with reduced movement efficiency and muscle strength reported in this group, suggests that exercise is limited by impairment at the muscular level. This finding was supported by high RER values despite low maximal HR values attained at exercise cessation and reduced maximal strength. Perception of effort is not heightened in children with high motor impairment and future-exercise interventions should be focused on improving muscular condition in these participants to enable them to be better prepared to engage in physical activity for health.

Morris, Martyn; Dawes, Helen; Howells, Ken; Janssen, Roel

2013-01-01

251

Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "ÃÂÃÂPractice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

Duckworth, William; Mccabe, George; Moore, David; Sclove, Stanley

2009-03-05

252

Coincidence to significance.  

PubMed

This article will describe the author's entrepreneurial experiences related to challenges of initiating, negotiating and completing a health promotion project for a Fortune 500 company. The events described begin with her casual meeting of a director of the health promotion section of an international food company and wncludes with the author's final development of a significant employee injury prevention program. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate professional challenges an occupational therapist may encounter to successfully complete a corporate project. PMID:23931009

Herring, C

1989-01-01

253

Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans.  

PubMed

Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays a critical role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent work in rodents has demonstrated that exposure to stress leads to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress response, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, a day later participants in the stress group (n=27) demonstrated significantly lower extinction retrieval (i.e., greater fear recovery) than those in the control group (n=25). Our results suggest that acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction learning and offers insight into why treatment strategies used in the clinic may be challenging to recruit in daily life where stress is pervasive. PMID:24508065

Raio, Candace M; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

2014-07-01

254

The Impact of Impairment Criteria on Rates of ADHD Diagnoses in Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Behaviors characteristic of ADHD are common among preschool children, and as such, their clinical significance is oftentimes difficult to ascertain. Thus a focus on impairment is essential in determining the clinical significance of these behaviors. In order to explore the impact of impairment criteria on rates of diagnoses in…

Healey, Dione M.; Miller, Carlin J.; Castelli, Katia L.; Marks, David J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

2008-01-01

255

Mediators and moderators of functional impairment in adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.  

PubMed

The current study examined correlates, moderators, and mediators of functional impairment in 98 treatment-seeking adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Participants completed or were administered measures assessing obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, functional impairment, resistance against symptoms, interference due to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, depressive symptoms, insight, and anxiety sensitivity. Results indicated that all factors, except insight into symptoms, were significantly correlated with functional impairment. The relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and functional impairment was not moderated by patient insight, resistance against obsessive-compulsive symptoms, or anxiety sensitivity. Mediational analyses indicated that obsessive-compulsive symptom severity mediated the relationship between anxiety sensitivity and obsessive-compulsive related impairment. Indeed, anxiety sensitivity may play an important contributory role in exacerbating impairment through increases in obsessive-compulsive symptom severity. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between obsessive-compulsive symptom severity and obsessive-compulsive related impairment. Implications for assessment and treatment are discussed. PMID:24342055

Storch, Eric A; Wu, Monica S; Small, Brent J; Crawford, Erika A; Lewin, Adam B; Horng, Betty; Murphy, Tanya K

2014-04-01

256

Contrast nephropathy in patients with impaired renal function: High versus low osmolar media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrast nephropathy in patients with impaired renal function: High versus low osmolar media. Prescription of low osmolar contrast to prevent nephrotoxicity in subjects with pre-existing renal impairment is costly and has not been clearly shown to be effective. We entered 249 subjects with a pre-contrast serum creatinine greater than 120 \\/xmol\\/liter (1.35 mg\\/dl) having cardiac catheterization or intravenous contrast into

Brendan J Barrett; Patrick S Parfrey; Hilary M Vavasour; Jackie McDonald; Gloria Kent; Donna Hefferton; Frank O'Dea; Eric Stone; Raj Reddy; Patrick J McManamon

1992-01-01

257

Cognitive estimation impairment in Alzheimer disease and mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Intact executive functioning is believed to be required for performance on tasks requiring cognitive estimations. This study used a revised version of a cognitive estimations test (CET) to investigate whether patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were impaired on the CET compared with normal elderly controls (NECs). Neuropsychological tests were administered to determine the relationship between CET performance and other cognitive domains. AD patients displayed impaired CET performance when compared with NECs but MCI patients did not. Negative correlations between tests of working memory (WM) and semantic memory and the CET were found in NECs and AD patients, indicating that these cognitive domains were important for CET performance. Regression analysis suggests that AD patients were unable to maintain semantic information in WM to perform the task. The authors conclude that AD patients display deficits in working memory, semantic memory, and executive function, which are required for adequate CET performance. PMID:16460228

Levinoff, Elise J; Phillips, Natalie A; Verret, Louis; Babins, Lennie; Kelner, Nora; Akerib, Vivian; Chertkow, Howard

2006-01-01

258

Mediated and moderated effects of neurocognitive impairment on outcomes of treatment for substance dependence and major depression.  

PubMed

Objective: Neurocognitive impairment has not consistently predicted substance use treatment outcomes but has been linked to proximal mediators of outcome. These indirect effects have not been examined in adults with substance dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. We examined mediators and moderators of the effects of neurocognitive impairment on substance use among adults in treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression (MDD). Method: Participants were veterans (N = 197, mean age = 49.3 years, 90% male, 75% Caucasian) in a trial of 2 group interventions for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD. Measures examined here included intake neurocognitive assessments and percent days drinking (PDD), percent days using drugs (PDDRG), self-efficacy, 12-step affiliation, and depressive symptoms measured every 3 months from intake to the 18-month follow-up. Results: Greater intake neurocognitive impairment predicted lower self-efficacy, lower 12-step affiliation, and greater depression severity, and these time-varying variables mediated the effects of impairment on future PDD and PDDRG. The prospective effects of 12-step affiliation on future PDD were greater for those with greater neurocognitive impairment. Impairment also interacted with depression to moderate the effects of 12-step affiliation and self-efficacy on PDD. Adults with greater impairment and currently severe depression had the strongest associations between 12-step affiliation/self-efficacy and future drinking. Conclusions: Greater neurocognitive impairment may lead to poorer outcomes from group therapy for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD due to compromised change in therapeutic processes. Distal factors such as neurocognitive impairment can interact with dynamic risk factors to modulate the association between therapeutic processes and future drinking outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24588403

Worley, Matthew J; Tate, Susan R; Granholm, Eric; Brown, Sandra A

2014-06-01

259

Riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) deficiency impairs NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) priming and defense against Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2 , is converted by riboflavin kinase (RFK) into flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which are essential cofactors of dehydrogenases, reductases, and oxidases including the phagocytic NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2). Riboflavin deficiency is common in young adults and elderly individuals, who are at the coincidental risk for listeriosis. To address the impact of acute riboflavin deficiency on host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), we generated conditional RFK knockout (KO) strains of mice. Phagocyte-specific RFK KO impaired the capability of phagocytes to control intracellular L.m., which corresponded to a greater susceptibility of mice to in vivo challenge with L.m. The oxidative burst of RFK-deficient phagocytes in response to L.m. infection was significantly reduced. Mechanistically, TNF-induced priming of Nox2, which is needed for oxidative burst, was defective in RFK-deficient phagocytes. Lack of riboflavin in wild-type macrophages for only 6 h shut down TNF-induced, RFK-mediated de novo FMN/FAD generation, which was accompanied by diminished ROS production and impaired anti-listerial activity. Vice versa, ROS production by riboflavin-deprived macrophages was rapidly restored by riboflavin supplementation. Our results suggest that acute riboflavin deficiency immediately impairs priming of Nox2, which is of crucial relevance for an effective phagocytic immune response in vivo. PMID:24272050

Schramm, Michael; Wiegmann, Katja; Schramm, Sandra; Gluschko, Alexander; Herb, Marc; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Krönke, Martin

2014-03-01

260

The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the properties of the Greater Indian lithosphere and in the mechanism of its descent beneath different parts of the plateau. In the west, cratonic Indian lithosphere underthrusts the Tibetan crust and collides with the Tarim Craton to the north of it. In the central part of the plateau, Indian lithosphere underthrusts Tibet form the Himalayas up to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then, further north, subducts at a relatively steep angle. Indian lithosphere now under the east-central Himalayas is not cratonic (not as thick and cold as in the west). Beneath eastern Tibet, the Indian lithosphere has subducted, at a shallow angle, hundreds of kilometers northwards to under the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi Terranes. The detailed new seismic images provide new constraints on the size of the Greater India continent and on lateral variations in the properties of its lithosphere. The size and shape of the Greater India as evidenced by the seismic data are consistent with the recent plate-tectonic models in which the India-Asia hard continental collision commences more recently than previously thought. References Agius, M. R., S. Lebedev. Tibetan and Indian lithospheres in the upper mantle beneath Tibet: Evidence from broadband surface-wave dispersion. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, doi:10.1002/ggge.20274, 2013. Schaeffer, A. J., S. Lebedev. Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int. 194, 417-449, 2013. Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., et al., Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 7659-64, 2012. Zahirovic, S., et al., Insights on the kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision from global geodynamic models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, doi:10.1029/2011GC003883, 2012.

Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

2014-05-01

261

Greater attenuation of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in Alzheimer's disease patients.  

PubMed

Thinning of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) may reflect neurodegeneration of the central nervous system, which has been reported as part of the neuropathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Specifically, AD patients have thinner RNFL as compared to age-matched normal controls. However, whether reduction of RNFL over time can predict those at higher risk to develop cognitive deterioration remains unknown. We therefore set out a prospective clinical investigation to determine both the reduction of RNFL thickness and the deterioration of cognitive function over a period of 25 months in 78 participants (mean age 72.31 ± 3.98 years, 52% men). The participants were categorized as stable participants whose cognitive status remained unchanged (n = 60) and converted participants whose cognitive status deteriorated, which was diagnosed by DSM-VI (for AD) and Petersen's definition (for mild cognitive impairment) (n = 18). Here we show for the first time that the converted participants had greater reduction of RNFL thickness than the stable participants. Specifically, the reduction in the thickness of the inferior quadrant RNFL in the converted participants was greater than that in stable participants [-11.0 ± 12.8 (mean ± standard deviation) ?m versus 0.4 ± 15.7 ?m, p = 0.009]. These data showed that greater reduction in the inferior quadrant of RNFL thickness might indicate a higher risk for the old adults to develop cognitive deterioration. These findings have established a system to embark on a larger scale study to further test whether changes in RNFL thickness can serve as a biomarker of AD. PMID:24413621

Shi, Zhongyong; Wu, Yujie; Wang, Meijuan; Cao, Jing; Feng, Wei; Cheng, Yan; Li, Chunbo; Shen, Yuan

2014-01-01

262

My Speech Problem, Your Listening Problem, and My Frustration: The Experience of Living with Childhood Speech Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article was to understand the experience of speech impairment (speech sound disorders) in everyday life as described by children with speech impairment and their communication partners. Method: Interviews were undertaken with 13 preschool children with speech impairment (mild to severe) and 21 significant others…

McCormack, Jane; McLeod, Sharynne; McAllister, Lindy; Harrison, Linda J.

2010-01-01

263

Relation of macroinvertebrate community impairment to catchment characteristics in New Jersey streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The level of macroinvertebrate community impairment was statistically related to selected basin and water-quality characteristics in New Jersey streams. More than 700 ambient biomonitoring stations were chosen to evaluate potential and known anthropogenic effects. Macroinvertebrate communities were assessed with a modified rapid-bioassessment approach using three impairment ratings (nonimpaired, moderately impaired, and severely impaired). Maximum-likelihood multiple logistic-regression analysis was used to develop equations defining the probability of community impairment above predetermined impairment levels. Seven of the original 140 explanatory variables were highly related to the level of community impairment. Explanatory variables found to be most useful for predicting severe macroinvertebrate community impairment were the amount of urban land and total flow of municipal effluent. Area underlain by the Reading Prong physiographic region and amount of forested land were inversely related to severe impairment. Nonparametric analysis of variance on rank-transformed bioassessment scores was used to evaluate differences in level of impairment among physiographic regions and major drainage areas simultaneously. Rejection of the null hypothesis indicated that the levels of impairment among all six physiographic regions and five major drainage areas were not equal. Physiographic regions located in the less urbanized northwest portion of New Jersey were not significantly different from each other and had the lowest occurrence of severely impaired macroinvertebrate communities. Physiographic regions containing urban centers had a higher probability of exhibiting a severely impaired macroinvertebrate community. Analysis of major drainage areas indicates that levels of impairment in the Atlantic Coastal Rivers drainage area differed significantly from those in the Lower Delaware River drainage area.

Kennen, J. G.

1999-01-01

264

Cognitive impairment in individuals currently using methamphetamine.  

PubMed

Although there are increasing reports of methamphetamine use, studies examining the cognitive consequences of methamphetamine have not been performed on a population currently using the drug. To characterize this population, 65 people currently using MA regularly and 65 non-users were given a battery of cognitive tests. The battery included recall, recognition, Digit Symbol, Trail Making A & B, Stroop, Wisconsin Card Sort, backward digit span, and the FAS test of verbal fluency. The methamphetamine users were significantly more impaired on recall tasks, digit symbol, Stroop color words, and Trail Making B, but scores fell within the normal ranges on the other measures. PMID:11000918

Simon, S L; Domier, C; Carnell, J; Brethen, P; Rawson, R; Ling, W

2000-01-01

265

Higher motivation - greater control? The effect of arousal on judgement.  

PubMed

This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:23126677

Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu

2013-01-01

266

Urbanization and green space dynamics in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green space is particularly indispensable for proper functioning of the ecosystem in an urban environment. This study was\\u000a an attempt to dynamically map and monitor green spaces in Greater Dhaka of Bangladesh. Both primary and secondary data were\\u000a acquired to document the spatial–temporal dynamics of green spaces in the study area. Using a supervised classification algorithm,\\u000a multi-temporal land use\\/cover data

Talukder Byomkesh; Nobukazu Nakagoshi; Ashraf M. Dewan

267

West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species that has declined 45-80% and is endangered in Canada and under current consideration for federal listing in the US.

David E. Naugle; Cameron L. Aldridge; Brett L. Walker; Todd E. Cornish; Brendan J. Moynahan; Matt J. Holloran; Kimberly Brown; Gregory D. Johnson; Edward T. Schmidtmann; Richard T. Mayer; Cecilia Y. Kato; Marc R. Matchett; Thomas J. Christiansen; Walter E. Cook; Terry Creekmore; Roxanne D. Falise; E. Thomas Rinkes; Mark S. Boyce

2004-01-01

268

Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

Banks, Richard C.

2011-01-01

269

Driving Simulator Performance Remains Impaired In Patients With Severe OSA after CPAP Treatment  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in improving 90-minute driving simulator performance in severe OSA patients compared to age/gender matched controls. Design: Driving simulator performance was assessed at baseline and 3 months later, with OSA patients treated with CPAP during the interval. Setting: University Teaching Hospital. Participants: Patients with severe OSA (n = 11) and control subjects without OSA (n = 9). Interventions: CPAP Measurements and Results: Simulator driving parameters of steering deviation, braking reaction time and crashes were measured at baseline and ?3 months follow-up. At baseline, OSA subjects demonstrated significantly greater steering deviation compared to controls (mean [95% CI], OSA group, 49.9 cm [43.7 to 56.0 cm] vs control group, 34.9 cm [28.1 to 41.7 cm], p = 0.003). Following ?3 months of CPAP treatment (mean ± SD 6.0 ± 1.4 h/night), steering deviation in OSA subjects improved by an average of 3.1 cm (CI, 1.4 to 4.9), p < 0.001, while no significant steering changes were observed in the control group. Despite the improvement, steering deviation in the OSA group remained significantly higher than in controls (OSA group, 46.7 cm [CI, 40.6 to 52.8 cm] vs control group, 36.1 cm [CI, 29.3 to 42.9 cm], p = 0.025). Conclusions: While driving simulator performance improved after ?3 months of CPAP treatment with high adherence in patients with severe OSA, performance remained impaired compared to control subjects. These results add to the growing body of evidence that some neurobehavioral deficits in patients with severe OSA are not fully reversed by treatment. Further studies are needed to assess causes of residual driving simulator impairment and to determine whether this is associated with persistent elevated real-life accident risk. Trial Registration: Data presented in this manuscript was collected as part of a clinical trial “Experimental Investigations of Driving Impairment in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea” ACTRN12610000009011, http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=334979 Citation: Vakulin A; Baulk SD; Catcheside PG; Antic NA; van den Heuvel CJ; Dorrian J; McEvoy RD. Driving simulator performance remains impaired in patients with severe OSA after CPAP treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(3):246-253.

Vakulin, Andrew; Baulk, Stuart D.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Antic, Nick A.; van den Heuvel, Cameron J.; Dorrian, Jillian; McEvoy, R. Doug

2011-01-01

270

Loss of molars early in life develops behavioral lateralization and impairs hippocampus-dependent recognition memory  

PubMed Central

Background Using senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), we examined whether reduced mastication from a young age affects hippocampal-dependent cognitive function. We anesthetized male SAMP8 mice at 8 weeks of age and extracted all maxillary molar teeth of half the animals. The other animals were treated similarly, except that molar teeth were not extracted. At 12 and 24 weeks of age, their general behavior and their ability to recognize novel objects were tested using the open-field test (OFT) and the object-recognition test (ORT), respectively. Results The body weight of molarless mice was reduced significantly compared to that of molar-intact mice after the extraction and did not recover to the weight of age-matched molar-intact mice throughout the experimental period. At 12 weeks of age, molarless mice showed significantly greater locomotor activity in the OFT than molar-intact mice. However, the ability of molarless mice to discriminate a novel object in the ORT was impaired compared to that of molar-intact mice. The ability of both molarless and molar-intact SAMP8 mice to recognize objects was impaired at 24 weeks of age. These results suggest that molarless SAMP8 mice develop a deficit of cognitive function earlier than molar-intact SAMP8 mice. Interestingly, both at 12 and 24 weeks of age, molarless mice showed a lateralized preference of object location in the encoding session of the ORT, in which two identical objects were presented. Their lateralized preference of object location was positively correlated with the rightward turning-direction preference, which reached statistical significance at 24 weeks of age. Conclusions Loss of masticatory function in early life causes malnutrition and chronic stress and impairs the ability to recognize novel objects. Hyperactivation and lateralized rotational behavior are commonly observed with dysfunction of the dopaminergic system, therefore, reduced masticatory function may deplete the mesolimbic and mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic systems to impair the cognitive functions of selective attention and recognition memory in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus.

2014-01-01

271

Reduction of hippocampal hyperactivity improves cognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Summary Elevated hippocampal activation is observed in conditions that confer risk for Alzheimer's disease, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Studies in relevant animal models have indicated that over-activity in selective hippocampal circuits contributes to cognitive impairment. Here we tested the effect of reducing hippocampal activation in aMCI. Under placebo treatment, hippocampal activation in the dentate gyrus/CA3 was elevated in aMCI patients compared to a healthy control group. By using a low dose of the antiepileptic levetiracetam hippocampal activation in aMCI was reduced to a level that did not differ from the control group. Compared to aMCI memory performance under placebo, performance in the scanning task was significantly improved under drug treatment. Contrary to the view that greater hippocampal activation might serve a beneficial function, these results support the view that increased hippocampal activation in aMCI is a dysfunctional condition and that targeting excess hippocampal activity has therapeutic potential.

Bakker, Arnold; Krauss, Gregory L.; Albert, Marilyn S.; Speck, Caroline L.; Jones, Lauren R.; Stark, Craig E.; Yassa, Michael A.; Bassett, Susan S.; Shelton, Amy L.; Gallagher, Michela

2012-01-01

272

Could language deficits really differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from mild Alzheimer's disease?  

PubMed

Naming abilities seem to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, though MCI individuals tend to exhibit greater impairments in category fluency. In this study we: (1) detect language deficits of amnestic MCIs (aMCIs) and mild AD (mAD) participants and present their language performance (the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination - BDAE scores) according to educational level, (2) study the diagnostic value of language deficits according to the cognitive state of the participants. One hundred nineteen participants, 38 normal controls (NC), 28 aMCIs and 53 mADs, were recruited randomly as outpatients of 2 clinical departments and administered clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging assessment. Language abilities were assessed by the adapted Greek edition of the BDAE (2nd edition). Our results indicate that verbal fluency, auditory, reading comprehension and narrative ability are the main language abilities to be affected in mADs, although they are almost intact in NCs and less vulnerable in aMCIs. Narrative ability seems to be significantly impaired in mADs but not so in aMCIs. Six language subtests of the BDAE assess safely the above deficits. This brief version of the BDAE discriminated mADs from the other 2 groups 92.5% of the time, NCs 86.8% and aMCI 67.9% of the time in order to save time and to be accurate in clinical practice. PMID:23628238

Tsantali, E; Economidis, D; Tsolaki, M

2013-01-01

273

Polymerization of sickle cell hemoglobin at arterial oxygen saturation impairs erythrocyte deformability.  

PubMed Central

We have examined the filterability of sickle erythrocytes, using an initial-flow-rate method, to determine whether sufficient hemoglobin S polymer forms at arterial oxygen saturation to adversely affect erythrocyte deformability. The amount of intracellular polymer was calculated as a function of oxygen saturation to estimate the polymerization tendency for each of eight patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Progressive reduction of oxygen tension within the arterial range caused a sudden loss of filterability of SCA erythrocytes through 5-micron-diam pores at a critical PO2 between 110 and 190 mmHg. This loss of filterability occurred at a higher PO2 than did morphological sickling, and the critical PO2 correlated significantly (r = 0.844-0.881, P less than 0.01) with the polymerization tendency for each patient. Study of density-gradient fractionated cells from four SCA patients indicated that the critical PO2 of dense cells was reached when only a small amount of polymer had formed, indicating the influence of this subpopulation on the results obtained for unfractionated cells. Impairment of erythrocyte filterability at high oxygen saturation (greater than 90%) suggests that small changes in oxygen saturation within the arterial circulation cause rheological impairment of sickle cells. Images

Green, M A; Noguchi, C T; Keidan, A J; Marwah, S S; Stuart, J

1988-01-01

274

Subducted, detached, and torn slabs during early orogeny: evidence from deep earthquakes under the Greater Caucasus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabia-Eurasian collision is the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate the role that pre-suturing tectonism plays in defining the deformational response of the upper plate to continental collision and suturing. The Greater Caucasus Mountains, which define the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone between the Black and Caspian seas, result from late Cenozoic closure of the Greater Caucasus basin, a Mesozoic back-arc basin that opened during northward subduction of Neotethys beneath the Lesser Caucasus island arc. However, both the extent to which the basin closed by subduction and its original width remain controversial. Many previous estimates suggest that the basin was very narrow and that no subduction occurred during the formation of the Greater Caucasus. However, newly compiled earthquake locations show that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab. We assembled the new catalog of earthquake locations by combining earthquake records from local networks in Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan with previously published data. Our dataset includes records from 3820 events with magnitudes M>2. Visualization of the final catalogue in an immersive visualization environment at the UC Davis Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES) provides a clear image of a northeast-dipping zone of seismicity beneath the Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as the remnant of a subducted slab. Beneath the central Greater Caucasus (45°E), the zone of seismicity extends to a depth of at least 158 km and dips to the northeast at ~40°. In contrast, beneath the western GC (i.e., west of 45°E) there is a pronounced lack of events below 25 km, which we infer to reflect slab breakoff. We also observe a gap in intermediate-depth seismicity (30 to 60 km) at the western end of the subducted slab beneath the central Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as an eastward-propagating tear. This tear coincides with a region of minimum horizontal GPS convergence rates between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, as expected in a region of active slab breakoff. Evidence of subduction beneath the Greater Caucasus suggests that the relict back-arc basin was significantly wider than previously estimated. This further suggests that closure of this basin may have been an important mechanism for accommodating plate convergence in this nascent orogen and that the Greater Caucasus may represent a form of cryptic suture. Such relict-basin closure may also be an important, but overlooked process in the early stages of other orogens where it has proven difficult to reconcile total crustal shortening with estimates of total plate convergence.

Mumladze, T.; Forte, A. M.; Cowgill, E.; Trexler, C.; Niemi, N. A.; Kellogg, L. H.; Yikilmaz, M.

2013-12-01

275

The 'hidden' burden of malaria: cognitive impairment following infection  

PubMed Central

Background The burden of post-malaria cognitive impairment is often overlooked. Given the large number of infections occurring worldwide, the magnitude of the problem is likely to be substantial. The objectives of this paper are; (i) to assess the evidence on post malarial cognitive impairment or impact on school education; (ii) to assess the possible positive impact of malaria drug prophylaxis on cognition; and (iii) to suggest recommendations on minimizing the burden of post-malarial cognitive impairment Methods PUBMED and SCOPUS were searched for all articles with the key word 'Malaria' in the title field and 'cognitive impairment' in any field. Google Scholar was searched for the same keywords anywhere in the article. The search was restricted to articles published in English within the last 15 years (1995-2010). After filtering of abstracts from the initial search, 44 papers had research evidence on this topic. Results & Discussion Cognitive abilities and school performance were shown to be impaired in sub-groups of patients (with either cerebral malaria or uncomplicated malaria) when compared with healthy controls. Studies comparing cognitive functions before and after treatment for acute malarial illness continued to show significantly impaired school performance and cognitive abilities even after recovery. Malaria prophylaxis was shown to improve cognitive function and school performance in clinical trials when compared to placebo groups. The implications of these findings are discussed.

2010-01-01

276

Acrochordon and impaired carbohydrate metabolism.  

PubMed

Acrochordons were reported to have a probable association with diabetes mellitus but detailed data about this relation has not been introduced yet. We evaluated 120 patients with acrochordon for the presence of impaired carbohydrate metabolism. Overt diabetes mellitus (DM) was found in 88 patients and glucose intolerance was detected in 6 patients; 4 patients had reactive hypoglycemia. We concluded that acrochordons may be skin markers of underlying impaired carbohydrate metabolism and the patients with acrochordon should be evaluated for the presence of diabetes mellitus. PMID:12120914

Demir, S; Demir, Y

2002-06-01

277

Smokers Report Greater Demand for Alcohol on a Behavioral Economic Purchase Task  

PubMed Central

Objective: Cigarette smokers have higher levels of alcohol consumption than nonsmokers and poorer response to alcohol treatment. It is possible that the greater severity of alcohol problems observed in smokers reflects a greater susceptibility to alcohol-related reinforcement. The present study used a behavioral economic purchase task to investigate whether heavy drinking smokers would have greater demand for alcohol than heavy drinking nonsmokers. Method: Participants were 207 college students who reported at least one heavy drinking episode in the past month. Of the 207 participants, 33.2% (n = 67) reported smoking cigarettes at least 1 day in the past month. Participants completed the hypothetical alcohol purchase task, a simulation task that asked them to report how many drinks they would purchase at varying price increments. Results: After the participants’ reported alcohol consumption, gender, alcohol problems, and depression were controlled for, analyses of covariance revealed that heavy drinking smokers had significantly greater reported maximum alcohol expenditures (Omax), greater maximum inelastic price (Pmax), and higher breakpoint values (first price suppressing consumption to zero). Conclusions: College student heavy drinkers who also smoke cigarettes exhibit increased demand for alcohol. Smokers in this high-risk developmental stage may thus be less sensitive to price and other contingencies that would otherwise serve to modulate drinking and may require more intensive intervention approaches.

Yurasek, Ali M.; Murphy, James G.; Clawson, Ashley Hum; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Mackillop, James

2013-01-01

278

Deficits in Cue Detection and Intention Retrieval Underlie Prospective Memory Impairment in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Emerging evidence indicates that individuals with schizophrenia (SCZ) may exhibit deficits in prospective memory (ProM), a dissociable and ecologically important aspect of episodic memory entailing the formation, maintenance, and execution of future intentions. The present study aimed to elucidate the component processes of ProM impairment in 41 individuals with SCZ relative to 41 demographically similar healthy comparison (HC) participants. Results revealed that the SCZ group performed worse than HCs on overall ProM, with comparable deficits on time- and event-based ProM trials. In the SCZ cohort, better ProM performance was associated with younger age and less severe negative symptoms. Although a significantly greater number of task substitution and loss of time errors were evident in the SCZ group as compared to HCs, the most prevalent error type in SCZ was characterized by a complete failure to respond to the ProM cue. Importantly, the SCZ and HC groups did not differ on a post-test multiple-choice recognition trial, suggesting adequate formation and maintenance (i.e., retention) of the ProM cue-intention pairing when self-directed monitoring and retrieval demands were minimized. Findings indicate that SCZ is associated with impairment in the cue detection and self-initiated retrieval components of executing future intentions, which is consistent with a possible prefrontostriatal loop neuropathogenesis. Further studies are needed to explore the neurobiological mechanisms of SCZ-associated ProM impairment and the impact of such deficits on daily functioning (e.g., medication compliance).

Woods, Steven Paul; Twamley, Elizabeth W.; Dawson, Matthew S.; Narvaez, Jenille M.; Jeste, Dilip V.

2007-01-01

279

Significant Radionuclides Determination  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

Jo A. Ziegler

2001-07-31

280

Warfarin Dosing in Patients With Impaired Kidney Function  

PubMed Central

Background Warfarin, a drug primarily metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, is initiated at similar doses and managed similarly in patients with kidney impairment as in the general medical population. Unfortunately, few data exist to guide dose adjustment in patients with reduced kidney function. Herein we determine the degree of warfarin dose reduction associated with kidney impairment and make recommendations for warfarin dosing. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting & Participants Chronic warfarin users followed at anticoagulation clinics (n=980); 708 participants from the University of Alabama (UAB) and 272 participants from the University of Chicago (UIC). Predictor No/mild (eGFR?60ml/min/1.73 m2), moderate (eGFR=30–59ml/min/1.73 m2) and severe (eGFR<30ml/min/1.73 m2) kidney impairment, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype, age, race, gender, body mass, socio-demographic factors, smoking status, alcohol, vitamin K intake, comorbid conditions (e.g. CHF, etc.) and drug interactions (e.g. amiodarone, statins, etc.). Outcome & Measurement Warfarin dose (mg/day) was evaluated using linear regression after adjustment for clinical demographic and genetic factors. Results The prevalence of moderate kidney impairment (31.8% and 27.6%) and severe kidney impairment (8.9% and 6.6%) was similar in the UAB and UIC cohorts. Warfarin dose requirements were significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe kidney impairment compared to those with none/mild kidney impairment in the UAB (p<0.001) and UIC (p<0.001) cohorts. Compared to patients with no/mild kidney impairment, patients with moderate kidney impairment required 9.5% lower doses (p<0.001) and patients with severe kidney impairment required 19% lower doses (p<0.001). Limitations No measurement of warfarin, serum albumin, vitamin K and clotting factor levels, no evaluation of other markers (e.g. cystatin). Conclusion Moderate and severe kidney impairment were associated with a reduction in warfarin dose requirements.

Limdi, Nita A; Limdi, Mohit A; Cavallari, Larisa; Anderson, Aaron M; Crowley, Michael R; Baird, Melissa F; Allon, Michael; Beasley, T.Mark

2010-01-01

281

The relationship between hyoid and laryngeal displacement and swallowing impairment  

PubMed Central

Objectives Reduced range of hyoid and laryngeal movement is thought to contribute to aspiration risk and pharyngeal residues in dysphagia. Our aim was to determine the extent to which movements of the hyoid and larynx are correlated in the superior and anterior directions in swallowing, and whether movement range is predictive of penetration-aspiration or pharyngeal residue. Design Prospective, single-blind study of penetration-aspiration and pharyngeal residue with objective frame-by-frame measures of hyoid and laryngeal excursion from videofluoroscopy. Setting Tertiary hospital and rehabilitation teaching hospital. Participants 28 participants referred for videofluoroscopy: 13 females, aged 57-77; 15 males aged 54-70. Individuals with known neurodegenerative diseases or prior surgery to the neck were excluded. Each swallowed three boluses of 40% w/v thin liquid barium suspension. Outcomes Two speech-language pathologists independently rated penetration-aspiration, vallecular and pyriform sinus residue. Cervical spine length, hyoid and laryngeal displacement were traced frame-by-frame. Predictive power was calculated. Results Cervical spine length was significantly greater in males. Hyoid displacement ranged from 34-63% of the C2-4 distance. Arytenoid displacement ranged from 18-66%, with significantly smaller anterior displacement in males. Positive hyoid-laryngeal movement correlations in both axes were the most common pattern observed. Participants with reduced displacement ranges (? first quartile) and with abnormal correlation patterns were more likely to display penetration-aspiration. Those with reduced anterior hyoid displacement and abnormal correlation patterns had a greater risk of post-swallow pharyngeal residues. Conclusions It is difficult for clinicians to make on-line appraisals of the extent to which hyoid and laryngeal movement may be contributing to functional swallowing consequences during videofluoroscopy. This study suggests that it is most important for clinicians to discern whether reduced anterior displacement of these structures is contributing to a patient's swallowing impairment. Measures of structural displacement in thin liquid swallowing should be corrected for variations in participant height. Reductions in anterior hyoid and laryngeal movement below the first quartile boundaries are statistically associated with increased risk for penetration-aspiration and post-swallow residues.

Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Chau, Tom; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Oshalla, Mohamed; Waito, Ashley A.; Zoratto, Dana C. B. H.

2013-01-01

282

Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.  

PubMed

In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. PMID:20184654

Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

2010-06-01

283

Phenotypic cognitive impairment in late-onset delusional disorder.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Previous use of heterogeneous diagnostic criteria and insensitive cognitive measures has impeded clarification of the extent and type of cognitive impairment specific to late-onset delusional disorder. We examined whether clinical presentations of late-onset delusional disorder are associated with prodromal or established dementia, and whether it might be a discrete clinical syndrome characterized by its own profile of cognitive impairment. Method: Nineteen patients with late-onset delusional disorder from a hospital psychiatric service and 20 patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (AD) from an outpatient memory clinic were recruited in a consecutive case series. All patients underwent comprehensive neuropsychological assessment that included general intellectual function, executive function, new learning and delayed memory, language, processing speed, and visuo-perceptual skills. Results: Late-onset delusional disorder patients showed moderate impairment to conceptual reasoning, visual object recognition, processing speed, and confrontation naming. Severe impairment appeared in visuo-perceptual planning and organization, and divided attention. Compared with the Alzheimer's disease (AD) group, the late-onset delusional disorder group demonstrated significantly poorer visuo-perceptual skills but a significantly better capacity to consolidate information into delayed memory. Conclusions: A high rate of marked cognitive impairment occurs in late-onset delusional disorder. There was evidence of a conceptual reasoning deficit, plus the presence of a visuo-perceptual impairment affecting object recognition. This impairment profile can explain the genesis and maintenance of the observed delusions. Understanding late-onset delusional disorder as other than a purely psychiatric phenomenon or a precursor to AD will lead to better assessment and management approaches. PMID:24524668

Harris, Ben S; Kotsopoulos, Eleftheria J; Yamin, Sami

2014-06-01

284

Validity of Clinically Derived Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index  

PubMed Central

Objective To develop a Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index for the lower limbs and evaluate its construct validity for discriminating relevant groups and predictive validity for predicting global postural control over time. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based cohort. Participants InCHIANTI (“Invecchiare in Chianti” or aging in the Chianti area) study participants (N=960; age, 21–91y, 51.8% women). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was derived from baseline performance on clinical tests of pressure sensitivity, vibration sensitivity, proprioception, and graphesthesia. Global postural control was assessed using Frailty and Injuries Cooperative Studies of Intervention Techniques (FICSIT) balance test, time to complete 5 repeated chair stands, and fast walking speed, at baseline and at 3-year follow-up. Results In participants without neurologic conditions (n=799), the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was significantly different in age groups classified by decades (P<.001). Compared with participants without prevalent conditions, the Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index was significantly higher in persons with diabetes (P=.017), peripheral arterial disease (P=.006), and a history of stroke (P<.001). In the overall population (N=960), in the fully adjusted multiple regression models, the Cumulative Somato-sensory Impairment Index independently predicted deterioration in FICSIT scores (P=.002), time for 5 repeated chair stands (P<.001), and fast gait speed (P=.003) at 3-year follow-up. Conclusions The Cumulative Somatosensory Impairment Index is a valid measure that detects relevant group differences in lower limb somatosensory impairment and is an independent predictor of decline in postural control over 3 years.

Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

2010-01-01

285

Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.  

PubMed

Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

1990-05-25

286

Livelihood patterns of displaced households in greater khartoum.  

PubMed

Members of impoverished households in Greater Khartoum, who have been displaced from their homelands by famine and civil war, gain a livelihood by utilising a wide variety of subsistence activities and sources. These include moonlighting, income diversification and pooling, exchange relations, scavenging, relief supplies from aid agencies and remittances from relatives working in other areas. This finding challenges the widely held view of the displaced as dependent and parasitic on the wider urban community. Several public policies are identified which have a detrimental effect on the livelihood of the displaced. PMID:20958748

Hamid, G M

1992-09-01

287

CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

1995-01-01

288

Epigenetic Treatments for Cognitive Impairments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenetic mechanisms integrate signals from diverse intracellular transduction cascades and in turn regulate genetic readout. Accumulating evidence has revealed that these mechanisms are critical components of ongoing physiology and function in the adult nervous system, and are essential for many cognitive processes, including learning and memory. Moreover, a number of psychiatric disorders and syndromes that involve cognitive impairments are associated

Jeremy J Day; J David Sweatt

2012-01-01

289

Neuropsychological Impairment in Tardive Dyskinesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder secondary to neuroleptic treatment. Whether TD is associated with neurocognitive dysfunction is a controversial issue. We reviewed 31 published studies evaluating neuropsychological (NP) test results in schizophrenic patients with and without TD and found that TD was generally reported to be associated with cognitive impairment. Numerous methodological limitations, however, restrict the conclusions made

Jane S. Paulsen; Robert K. Heaton; Dilip V. Jeste

1994-01-01

290

Accessibility for the Mobility Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights important legislation and architectural standards that have reflected and fostered changes in the public's attitude toward accessibility for the mobility impaired. Describes a project by students at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University to assess accessibility of public or commercial buildings in Blacksburg, Virginia. (JOW)

London, Jeffrey W.; And Others

1988-01-01

291

Impaired response to deep inspiration in obesity  

PubMed Central

Deep inspirations modulate airway caliber and airway closure and their effects are impaired in asthma. The association between asthma and obesity raises the question whether the deep inspiration (DI) effect is also impaired in the latter condition. We assessed the DI effects in obese and nonobese nonasthmatics. Thirty-six subjects (17 obese, 19 nonobese) underwent routine methacholine (Mch) challenge and 30 of them also had a modified bronchoprovocation in the absence of DIs. Lung function was monitored with spirometry and forced oscillation (FO) [resistance (R) at 5 Hz (R5), at 20 Hz (R20), R5-R20 and the integrated area of low-frequency reactance (AX)]. The response to Mch, assessed with area under the dose-response curves (AUC), was consistently greater in the routine challenge in the obese (mean ± SE, obese vs. nonobese AUC: R5: 15.7 ± 2.3 vs. 2.4 ± 2.0, P < 0.0005; R20: 5.6 ± 1.4 vs. 1.4 ± 1.2, P = 0.027; R5-R20: 10.2 ± 1.6 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1.4, P < 0.0005; AX: 115.6 ± 22.0 vs. 1.5 ± 18.9, P < 0.0005), but differences between groups in the modified challenge were smaller, indicating reduced DI effects in obesity. Given that DI has bronchodilatory and bronchoprotective effects, we further assessed these components separately. In the obese subjects, DI prior to Mch enhanced Mch-induced bronchoconstriction, but DI after Mch resulted in bronchodilation that was of similar magnitude as in the nonobese. We conclude that obesity is characterized by increased Mch responsiveness, predominantly of the small airways, due to a DI effect that renders the airways more sensitive to the stimulus.

Schechter, Clyde; Desai, Alpa; Togias, Alkis

2011-01-01

292

Sulforaphane alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.  

PubMed

Sulforaphane, an organosulfur compound present in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. To determine whether sulforaphane can preserve cognitive function, we examined its effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze test. Sulforaphane (10 or 50mg/kg) was administered to C57BL/6 mice by oral gavage for 14 days (days 1-14), and memory impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (1mg/kg) for 7 days (days 8-14). Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, as indicated by a decreased acetylcholine (ACh) level and an increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Sulforaphane significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment and improved cholinergic system reactivity, as indicated by an increased ACh level, decreased AChE activity, and increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. These effects of sulforaphane on cholinergic system reactivity were confirmed in vitro. Sulforaphane (10 or 20?M) increased the ACh level, decreased the AChE activity, and increased ChAT expression in scopolamine-treated primary cortical neurons. These observations suggest that sulforaphane might exert a significant neuroprotective effect on cholinergic deficit and cognitive impairment. PMID:24836869

Lee, Siyoung; Kim, Jisung; Seo, Sang Gwon; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Han, Jung-Soo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jiyoung

2014-07-01

293

The overall impairment of core executive function components in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background It remains unclear how executive function (EF) is affected in the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Previous studies using different methods to assess EF in patients with aMCI have reached inconsistent conclusions. The aim of the study was to explore the characteristics of EF impairments in patients with aMCI. Methods We investigated three core components of EF (i.e., working memory, response inhibition and task switching) based on the theoretical model of EF proposed by Miyake et al. (2000) in 34 aMCI patients and 36 healthy elderly controls using computerized tasks programmed with E-prime (the 2-back task and the keep track task for working memory, the stop-signal task and the Stroop task for response inhibition and the more-odd shifting task for task switching). The overall EF and the three individual EF components were compared between groups. For EF components that were impaired, the extent of impairment was compared using a paired analysis. The aMCI group was further divided into EF-intact and EF-deficit groups according to their performances on the EF tests in clinical neuropsychological assessments. We tested for group differences among the normal controls and the EF-intact and EF-deficit aMCI groups and paid special attention to the comparisons between the EF-intact aMCI group and the control group. Results Compared to the control group, overall EF was significantly impaired in patients with aMCI (Wilks’ ?=0.572,P<0.001). Four tasks (the 2-back task, the keep track task, the stop-signal task and the more-odd shifting task) that tapped the three core components of EF displayed group differences that favored the normal controls. The results of the Stroop task revealed no differences in performance between the two groups. The EF-intact aMCI patients also exhibited significantly impaired capabilities in the four tasks compared to the normal controls. There were no significant differences in the extent of impairment between the four affected tasks in the aMCI group, suggesting that the three core EF components were impaired to the same extent. Conclusions Both the overall EF and all of the core EF components in the Miyake model of EF (working memory, response inhibition and task switching) were significantly impaired in aMCI patients, regardless of whether they had shown obvious clinical executive dysfunction.

2012-01-01

294

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.  

PubMed

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

2012-04-24

295

Cancer in the Sindhi population of Greater Bombay.  

PubMed

The Sindhis are a Hindu subgroup identified by their place of origin and their written spoken language. These are the people who were originally inhabitants of the Province of Sind, which formed a part of the large Bombay Presidency in Undivided India before 1947. The Sindhi Hindus migrated en masse to India after partition. An attempt has been made here to examine the differences found in the site-specific cancer risks among the Sindhi community, the other Hindu groups (such as the Marathi and Gujrati populations) and the Parsi community of Greater Bombay. As the Indian Census Board does not provide age distribution details for the Sindhis, analysis of the data was undertaken employing frequency ratios. Age-standardized cancer ratios (ASCAR) were also utilized for certain calculations. The common sites of cancer appear to vary greatly between the total Bombay population and the Sindhi group. In Sindhi men, for example, cancers of the lung, large bowel, prostate, kidneys and leukemias are most commmonly seen, whereas laryngeal and oesophageal cancers predominate in the general population of Bombay. In Sindhi women the breast, uterus, ovary, and skin are the preferred sites, whereas cancers of the cervix and leukemias are predominant in the general population of Bombay. It is interesting to note that there is a degree of similarity in the incidence of cancer at certain anatomical sites, such as the prostate, large intestine, and leukemias in males, and breast, cervix, ovary and uterus in females, between the Sindhi and Parsi communities of Greater Bombay. PMID:7427916

Jussawalla, D J; Yeole, B B; Natekar, M V; Rajagopalan, T R

1980-11-01

296

Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure  

PubMed Central

Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas.

Alvarez, Ramon A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

2012-01-01

297

Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes  

SciTech Connect

Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

1985-01-01

298

Prevalence of strong bottom currents in the greater Agulhas system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deep current meter data and output from two high-resolution global ocean circulation models are used to determine the prevalence and location of strong bottom currents in the greater Agulhas Current system. The two models and current meter data are remarkably consistent, showing that benthic storms, with bottom currents greater than 0.2 m s-1, occur throughout the Agulhas retroflection region south of Africa more than 20% of the time. Furthermore, beneath the mean Agulhas Current core and the retroflection front, bottom currents exceed 0.2 m s-1 more than 50% of the time, while away from strong surface currents, bottom currents rarely exceed 0.2 m s-1. Implications for sediment transport are discussed and the results are compared to atmospheric storms. Benthic storms of this strength (0.2 m s-1) are comparable to a 9 m s-1 (Beaufort 5) windstorm, but scaling shows that benthic storms may be less effective at lifting and transporting sediment than dust storms.

Cronin, Meghan F.; Tozuka, Tomoki; Biastoch, Arne; Durgadoo, Jonathan V.; Beal, Lisa M.

2013-05-01

299

Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm  

SciTech Connect

Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths.

Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

1981-06-01

300

Hearing impairment and cognitive function among a community-dwelling population in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Hearing impairment is a prevalent and chronic condition in older people. This study investigated the relationship between cognitive function and hearing impairment in a Japanese population. Methods A pure-tone average (0.5-2.0 kHz) was used to evaluate hearing impairment in 846 participants of the Iwaki Health Promotion Project who were aged at least 50 years old (310 men and 536 women). We also administered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies for Depression (CES-D) scale, Starkstein's apathy scale (AS) and the Short Form Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2). A multiple linear regression analysis assessed the association between hearing impairment and mental correlates. Results The overall prevalence of hearing impairment in this study population was 37.7%. The participants with hearing impairment were older and less educated compared to those with no hearing problems. We observed significant differences in the MMSE and AS scores between the mild/moderate to severe groups versus the non-impaired group. After adjusting for age, gender and amount of education, hearing impairment was significantly associated with MMSE and AS scores, but not with CES-D scores. Hearing impairment was significantly related to the social functioning (SF) and role emotional (RE) scores of the SF-36v2. Conclusions Hearing impairment is common among older people and is associated with cognitive impairment, apathy and a poor health-related quality of life. Screening for and correcting hearing impairments might improve the quality of life and functional status of older patients.

2011-01-01

301

Greater Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Interrupted Stress Pattern Compared to Daily Restraint Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on psychiatric disorders.

Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R.; Padival, Mallika A.; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

2014-01-01

302

Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.  

PubMed

Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on psychiatric disorders. PMID:25014526

Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R; Padival, Mallika A; Rosenkranz, J Amiel

2014-01-01

303

Problem of visual impairment in children.  

PubMed

Visual impairment is a global problem which is more pronounced in developing countries. There are an estimated 40-45 million blind in the world today, equivalent to a 1% prevalence of global blindness. More than 80% of global blindness is either preventable or curable by simple techniques, if done in time. Blindness in Southeast Asian countries varies from about .3% in Korea to about 2.0% in bangladesh or Myanmar and 1.5% in India. The causes of visual impairment and blindness include infections such as trachoma, injuries, malnutrition (particularly vitamin A deficiency) and refractive anomalies including muscle imbalance. Nutrition blindness is common in almost all the developing countries, but it is not problem in Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Korea. Various control and nutritional measures undertaken by national governments have significantly reduced the prevalence of trachoma. It is a serious problem in Bangladesh and some parts of India. While socioeconomic factors contribute to its prevalence, attacks of diarrhea or acute infections add to its gravity. Eye injuries or trauma are common in developing countries. Blindness is not a public health problem alone, but low educational, socioeconomic status, unscientific cultural practices, and poor environmental status play a major role. Health education for eye care in the community and primary intervention can control causes like infections, trauma, or malnutrition, while visual aids such as spectacles have to be used for the correction of refractive anomalies. The problem of visual impairment per se and in children in particular can be overcome with concerted efforts. The countries affected have initiated control efforts to modify people's socioeconomic status. Voluntary organizations collaborating with governments have also produced good results. The education of children about eye health and training of school teachers in early detection of visual problems can be effective. PMID:12286293

Gupta, U C

1992-01-01

304

Metoprolol impairs resistance artery function in mice  

PubMed Central

Acute ?-blockade with metoprolol has been associated with increased mortality by undefined mechanisms. Since metoprolol is a relatively high affinity blocker of ?2-adrenoreceptors, we hypothesized that some of the increased mortality associated with its use may be due to its abrogation of ?2-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasodilation of microvessels in different vascular beds. Cardiac output (CO; pressure volume loops), mean arterial pressure (MAP), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF; laser Doppler), and microvascular brain tissue Po2 (G2 oxyphor) were measured in anesthetized mice before and after acute treatment with metoprolol (3 mg/kg iv). The vasodilatory dose responses to ?-adrenergic agonists (isoproterenol and clenbuterol), and the myogenic response, were assessed in isolated mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs; ?200-?m diameter) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs ?150-?m diameter). Data are presented as means ± SE with statistical significance applied at P < 0.05. Metoprolol treatment did not effect MAP but reduced heart rate and stroke volume, CO, rCBF, and brain microvascular Po2, while concurrently increasing systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.05 for all). In isolated MRAs, metoprolol did not affect basal artery tone or the myogenic response, but it did cause a dose-dependent impairment of isoproterenol- and clenbuterol-induced vasodilation. In isolated PCAs, metoprolol (50 ?M) impaired maximal vasodilation in response to isoproterenol. These data support the hypothesis that acute administration of metoprolol can reduce tissue oxygen delivery by impairing the vasodilatory response to ?2-adrenergic agonists. This mechanism may contribute to the observed increase in mortality associated with acute administration of metoprolol in perioperative patients.

El Beheiry, Mostafa H.; Heximer, Scott P.; Voigtlaender-Bolz, Julia; Mazer, C. David; Connelly, Kim A.; Wilson, David F.; Beattie, W. Scott; Tsui, Albert K. Y.; Zhang, Hangjun; Golam, Kabir; Hu, Tina; Liu, Elaine; Lidington, Darcy; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian

2011-01-01

305

Selective neurocognitive impairments in adolescents with major depressive disorder.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test-Identical Pairs, the Attention Network Test, the Iowa Gambling Task, the Emotional Go-NoGo Task, and the Face Go-NoGo Task were administered to adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (n = 31) and psychiatric diagnosis free controls (n = 30). Findings indicated that compared with controls, depressed adolescents exhibited impaired sustained attention; a gender by group interaction on affective decision making such that depressed males tended to make less advantageous choices on the IGT; and an inverse pattern of correlations between depressive symptom counts and reaction time to affective stimuli, characterizing greater affective reactivity in depressed adolescents. Findings demonstrate that adolescents with MDD display selective neurocognitive impairments on tasks capturing 'cool' and 'hot' executive functioning. PMID:21782233

Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

2012-02-01

306

Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351.

Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

2013-01-01

307

Foster Family Care for Visually Impaired Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article lists suggestions for those who are responsible for the care of visually impaired children. Topics covered are: learning about visual impairment, motor development, communication, self-help skills, educational services, and assessment of the child's progress. (SB)

Moor, Pauline M.

1976-01-01

308

Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults  

MedlinePLUS

Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Cognitive Impairment in ...

309

Tips for Runners with Visual Impairments  

MedlinePLUS

... Loss Recreation Running Tips for Runners with Visual Impairments A runner and her guide If you're ... Email Print Like Tips for Runners with Visual Impairments Back to : Recreation Directory of Services Find Local ...

310

Linguistic Humor Comprehension of Normal and Language-Impaired Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared to 12 normally achieving students, 12 language-impaired high school students had significantly poorer comprehension of humor elements of riddles, jokes, and puns classified according to their phonological, morphological, or syntactic elements. Especially poor were subjects' ability to grasp the nature of multimeaning words and to segment…

Spector, Cecile C.

1990-01-01

311

Evaluating Hearing-Impaired Students' Writing: A Practical Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined persuasive writing samples of 20 severely hearing-impaired high school students using a feature analytical scoring guide. Results indicate significant differences in content and linguistic considerations between relatively good and poor writers and similarities in surface mechanics. Implications and classroom applications of…

Gormley, Kathleen; Sarachan-Deily, Beth

1987-01-01

312

Language Impairments in Sign Language: Breakthroughs and Puzzles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Specific language impairment has previously solely been documented for children acquiring spoken languages, despite informal reports of deaf children with possible sign language disorder. The paper reports the case of a deaf child exposed to British Sign Language (BSL) from birth, who has significant developmental deficits in the…

Morgan, Gary; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

2007-01-01

313

The Role of Spirituality in Coping with Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Spirituality and coping behaviors were measured in 85 individuals with visual impairments aged 23 to 97. A regression analysis indicated that the religious well-being subscale of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale is a significant predictor of adaptive coping behaviors, indicating that higher religious well-being facilitates adaptive coping. (Contains…

Yampolsky, Maya A.; Wittich, Walter; Webb, Gail; Overbury, Olga

2008-01-01

314

Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

315

University Astronomy: Instructional Strategies for the Visually Impaired  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While teaching a spring laboratory course in general university astronomy, I agreed to provide instruction to a student who had been advised against laboratory work in chemistry and biology because of her significant visual impairment. This poster describes our mutual learning experience as we developed tactile concept demonstrations and laboratory exercises. Progress assessment issues and gaps in educational resources will also be discussed.

Dawson, D. W.

2008-06-01

316

Quality Improvement and Substance Abuse: Rethinking Impaired Provider Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse is known to be our nation's number one public health problem. Physicians and other health providers can develop chemical dependency problems that create significant quality assurance and risk man agement dilemmas. Not all of society understands drug dependence to be a treatable medical disease and behav ioral problem. Sometimes impaired providers are ignored or punished rather than treated

Bruce V. Corsino; Dean H. Morrow; Connie J. Wallace

1996-01-01

317

Factors contributing to neuromuscular impairment and sarcopenia during aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motor disturbances and wasting of skeletal muscles (sarcopenia) causes significant impairment of daily life activities and is a major underlying cause for hospitalization in senescence. Herein we review data and present new findings on aging-specific changes in motoneurons, skeletal muscle and the interplay between motoneurons and target muscle fibers. Although many of the changes occurring during aging may be specific

Erik Edström; Mikael Altun; Esbjörn Bergman; Hans Johnson; Susanna Kullberg; Vania Ramírez-León; Brun Ulfhake

2007-01-01

318

Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

2005-01-01

319

Marked DDE Impairment of Mallard Reproduction in Controlled Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

DDE in concentrations of 10 and 40 p.p.m. in the feed of penned mallards induced significant eggshell thinning and cracking and a marked increase in embryo mortality. DDD and DDT impaired reproduction, but less severely than DDE, a widespread breakdown pr...

R. G. Heath J. W. Spann J. F. Kreitzer

1969-01-01

320

Siblings of Children with Speech Impairment: Cavalry on the Hill  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the experiences of siblings of children with speech impairment, an underresearched area of family-centered practice. Method: Using naturalistic inquiry, we interviewed 6 siblings and 15 significant others. Interview transcripts were analyzed for meaning statements, and meaning statements were…

Barr, Jacqueline; McLeod, Sharynne; Daniel, Graham

2008-01-01

321

Training and the Early Years Professional: Understanding Visual Impairment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite a significant increase in the incidence of visual impairment (VI) in early years children, research has afforded the subject scant attention. Perhaps as a result of underfunding, research into VI typically adopts a single case study approach, with the training needs of early years professionals largely ignored. This paper seeks to inform…

Gray, Colette

2005-01-01

322

Hippocampal ProNGF Signaling Pathways and ?-Amyloid Levels in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease  

PubMed Central

Hippocampal precursor of nerve growth factor (proNGF)/NGF signaling occurs in conjunction with ?-amyloid (A?) accumulations in Alzheimer disease (AD). To assess the involvement of this pathway in AD progression, we quantified these proteins and their downstream pathway activators in postmortem tissues from the brains of subjects with no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD using immunoblotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hippocampal proNGF was significantly greater in AD compared to NCI and MCI cases. TrkA was significantly reduced in MCI compared to NCI and AD, whereas p75NTR, sortilin, and neurotrophin receptor homolog-2 remained stable. Akt decreased from NCI to MCI to AD, whereas phospho-Akt and phosphor-Akt to Akt ratio were elevated in AD compared to MCI and NCI. No differences were found in phospho-Erk, Erk or their ratio across groups. c-jun kinase (JNK) remained stable across groups, while phospho-JNK and the phospho-JNK to JNK ratio increased significantly in AD compared to NCI and MCI. Expression levels of A?1-40, A?1-42 and A?40/42 ratio were stable. Statistical analysis revealed a strong positive correlation between proNGF and phospho-JNK, though only proNGF was negatively correlated with cognitive function and only TrkA was negatively associated with pathologic criteria. These findings suggest that alterations in the hippocampal NGF signaling pathway in MCI and AD favor proNGF-mediated pro-apoptotic pathways, and that this is independent of A? accumulation during AD progression.

Mufson, Elliott J.; He, Bin; Nadeem, Muhammad; Perez, Sylvia E.; Counts, Scott E.; Leurgans, Sue; Fritz, Jason; Lah, James; Ginsberg, Stephen D.; Wuu, Joanne; Scheff, Stephen W.

2012-01-01

323

A study of ten quasars with redshifts greater than four  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four quasars with redshifts greater than four were detected in a low-resolution CCD grism survey. CCD photometry and high S/N, moderate resolution spectra are presented for these quasars and the six other known quasars with redshifts above 4. The M sub B values of nine of the objects are between -27.5 and -25, with the tenth quasar having an M sub B value of -29. The emission lines and shapes of the continua of these ten quasars are similar to those of lower-redshift quasars. The results suggest that the C IV emission lines in high-redshift quasars may be weaker than those in lower-redshift quasars. The continua of all of the high-redshift quasars display strong depressions blueward of the Ly-alpha emission line.

Schneider, Donald P.; Schmidt, Maarten; Gunn, James E.

1989-01-01

324

Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis  

SciTech Connect

Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.

1987-04-01

325

Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.  

PubMed

Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

2014-04-29

326

ROSAT observations of z greater than 3 quasars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Successful pointed observations using the Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT) Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) were made of seven z greater than 3 optically selected quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey (LBQS). Four detections and three 3 sigma upper limits resulted. Combining these data with the heterogeneous sample of Avni & Tananbaum (1986) confirms their conclusion that the ratio of x-ray to optical luminosity is correlated with optical luminosity and probably not correlated with redshift. This suggests that x-ray luminosity evolves more slowly than optical luminosity. These results are then used in conjunction with the LBQS database to estimate the contribution to the 2 keV x-ray background of bright, optically selected quasars with m(sub B(sub J)) less than 18.85; the result is about 5%.

Pickering, T. E.; Impey, C. D.; Foltz, C. B.

1994-01-01

327

Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.  

PubMed

We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5). PMID:24549296

Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

2014-04-01

328

The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.  

PubMed

The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679?159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

2014-07-01

329

Greater confinement disposal program at the Savannah River Plant  

SciTech Connect

The first facility to demonstrate Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) in a humid environment in the United States has been built and is operating at the Savannah River Plant. GCD practices of waste segregation, packaging, emplacement below the root zone, and waste stabilization are being used in the demonstration. Activity concentrations to select wastes for GCD are based on a study of SRP burial records, and are equal to or less than those for Class B waste in 10CFR61. The first disposal units to be constructed are 9-foot diameter, thirty-foot deep boreholes which will be used to dispose of wastes from production reactors, tritiated wastes, and selected wastes from off-site. In 1984 an engineered GCD trench will be constructed for disposal of boxed wastes and large bulky items. 2 figures, 1 table.

Cook, J R; Towler, O A; Peterson, D L; Johnson, G M; Helton, B D

1984-01-01

330

The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network  

PubMed Central

The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679?159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

2014-01-01

331

Errorless learning and the cognitive rehabilitation of memory-impaired schizophrenic patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. In recent years, evidence has accumulated that a significant proportion of schizophrenic patients have severe memory impairment, which cannot be attributed to the eects of medication, chronicity or institutionalization. Our group has demonstrated that memory impairment is associated with poor psychosocial outcome and treatment resistance. Work on the classical amnesic syndrome has suggested that memory training is facilitated by

R. E. O'CARROLL; H. H. RUSSELL; S. M. LAWRIE; E. C. JOHNSTONE

1999-01-01

332

The influence of cognitive impairment on desire for hastened death among terminally ill AIDS patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding the relationship between cognitive impairment and desire for hastened death has important implications for palliative care practice and the debate over the legalization of physician-assisted suicide. The presence of cognitive impairment may significantly influence terminally ill patient's attitudes towards hastened death. As cognitive abilities become compromised, patients may have more difficulty making decisions and finding alternative solutions besides death

Hayley Ann Pessin

2001-01-01

333

Hypertension, Hypertriglyceridemia, and Impaired Endothelium-dependent Vascular Relaxation in Mice Lacking Insulin Receptor Substrate1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insulin resistance is often associated with atherosclerotic diseases in subjects with obesity and impaired glucose toler- ance. This study examined the effects of insulin resistance on coronary risk factors in IRS-1 deficient mice, a nonobese animal model of insulin resistance. Blood pressure and plasma triglyceride levels were significantly higher in IRS-1 deficient mice than in normal mice. Impaired endothelium- dependent

Hideki Abe; Nobuhiro Yamada; Katsuo Kamata; Tomoyuki Kuwaki; Masako Shimada; Junichi Osuga; Futoshi Shionoiri; Naoya Yahagi; Takashi Kadowaki; Hiroyuki Tamemoto; Shun Ishibashi; Yoshio Yazaki; Masatoshi Makuuchi

334

Psychosocial Adjustment and the Meaning of Social Support for Visually Impaired Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study investigated the psychosocial adjustment and the meaning of social support for 316 Dutch individuals (ages 14-24) with visual impairments. Findings indicate social support, especially the support of peers, was important. The differences between adolescents with and without visual impairments proved to be small but significant. (Contains…

Kef, Sabina

2002-01-01

335

Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Disorders: The Consequences of Severity and Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo examine the adolescent consequences of clinical and threshold-level psychiatric disorders, with and without significant functional impairment; to predict serious emotional disturbance (SED: clinical-level diagnosis with impairment); and to examine sex differences in the consequences of emotional and behavioral disorders.

E. JANE COSTELLO; ADRIAN ANGOLD; GORDON P. KEELER

1999-01-01

336

POSTOPERATIVE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND POSTOPERATIVE DELIRIUM: RISK FACTORS, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postoperative cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium: risk factors, pathophysiology and management Soilemezi E, Konstantinidis P, Georgiadou Th. A significant number of patients exhibit impairment in cognitive function immediately following surgery or later; the impact of this postoperative cognitive dysfunction on the recovery and quality of life of the patient but also on the necessity for supportive and rehabilitation care is

Konstantinidis A. Panagiotis; Georgiadou Theodora

2007-01-01

337

Student Attitudes toward Impairment: An Assessment of Passive and Active Learning Methods in Urban Planning Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designing for the needs of people with impairments has rarely been a significant feature of urban planning theory and education. Given the role of urban planners as shapers of the built environment and public policy, the prevalence of negative and misinformed attitudes among planners toward impaired populations has been highlighted as requiring…

Lewis, John L.

2011-01-01

338

Clinical outcome of the Fontan operation in patients with impaired ventricular function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Although a staged Fontan strategy allows for an excellent outcome in high-risk patients, an impaired ventricular function remains a significant factor of early\\/late mortality and morbidity. This study evaluated the clinical outcome of the Fontan operation in patients with impaired ventricular function. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on 217 patients who had undergone the Fontan operation between 1991

Yasuhiro Kotani; Shingo Kasahara; Yasuhiro Fujii; Ko Yoshizumi; Yu Oshima; Shin-ichi Otsuki; Teiji Akagi; Shunji Sano

2009-01-01

339

A Comparison of Psychometric Functions for Detection in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric functions (PFD) for the detection of pure tones were obtained from 10 adolescent and young adult listeners with normal hearing and 10 adult listeners with sensorineural impairments of presumed cochlear origin. The slopes of the PFDs were abnormally steep in some of the hearing-impaired listeners but were statistically significant only…

Arehart, Kathryn Hoberg; And Others

1990-01-01

340

Visual Attention Deficits are Associated with Driving Accidents in Cognitively-Impaired HIV-Infected Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has found HIV-associated neuropsychological (NP) dysfunction to be associated with impaired driving skills. To determine whether specific impairments in visual attention impart an increased accident risk, we assessed 21 HIV seronegative (HIV-) and 42 seropositive (HIV+) participants on NP tests and the Useful Field of View (UFOV), a computerized test of visual attention. HIV+ participants performed significantly worse

Thomas D. Marcotte; Deborah Lazzaretto; J. Cobb Scott; Erica Roberts; Steven P. Woods; Scott Letendre

2006-01-01

341

Learning and Memory Performance of Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine learning and memory in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) as compared to 30 normally functioning children on the Children's Memory Scale. Results indicated that children in the SLI group exhibited impaired performance on the Attention\\/Concentration Index (working memory), as well as significantly lower scores on both the immediate and delayed auditory\\/verbal

Cynthia A. Riccio; Deborah L. Cash; Morris J. Cohen

2007-01-01

342

Strategic Significance of Negative Externalities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Negative externalities have competitive relevance in a market when they have selective impacts as, for example, when a product in use imposes greater costs on consumers of rival products than on other people. Because managers have discretion over aspects ...

M. G. Nagler

2012-01-01

343

Mobile Device Impairment ... Similar Problems, Similar Solutions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained…

Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz; Chen, Tianyi

2011-01-01

344

Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

Schwartz, Jonathan R.

345

Alcohol and the Physically Impaired: Special Focus.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired Persons"…

Boros, Alexander, Ed.

1989-01-01

346

Current Concepts in Mild Cognitive Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

he field of aging and dementia is focusing on the characterization of the earliest stages of cognitive impairment. Recent research has identified a transitional state between the cognitive changes of normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), known as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Mild cognitive impairment refers to the clinical condi- tion between normal aging and AD in which persons experience

Ronald C. Petersen; Rachelle Doody; Alexander Kurz; Richard C. Mohs; John C. Morris; Peter V. Rabins; Karen Ritchie; Martin Rossor; Leon Thal; Bengt Winblad

1999-01-01

347

The Physical Environment and the Visually Impaired.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reported are results of a project carried out at the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped to determine needs of the visually impaired in the planning and adaptation of buildings and other forms of physical environment. Chapter 1 considers implications of impaired vision and includes definitions, statistics, and problems of the visually impaired

Braf, Per-Gunnar

348

Fisher syndrome with taste impairment.  

PubMed

A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a two day history of truncal ataxia and diplopia. Three days after admission, complete paresis of eye movements, left ptosis, taste impairment and absence of deep tendon reflexes appeared. The patient displayed normal facial movements; however, she reported decreased sensations of sweet and salty tastes. Anti-GQ1b antibodies were detected in the serum, and Fisher syndrome was therefore diagnosed. Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered starting five days after admission, with limitations of eye movements, areflexia and taste impairment showing improvements by 12 days after onset. Taste disturbance is rare in patients with Fisher syndrome. In this case, we hypothesize that autoantibodies may have targeted antigens in the chorda tympani, glossopharyngeal nerve or taste buds. PMID:23064580

Ohe, Yasuko; Shintani, Daisuke; Kato, Yuji; Tanahashi, Norio

2012-01-01

349

Rumination and Perceived Impairment Associated With Depressive Symptoms in a Verbal Adolescent-Adult ASD Sample.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and several psychosocial constructs (insight into autism symptoms, rumination, desire for social interaction, and satisfaction with social support) that may play a role in the development or maintenance of depression in verbally fluent adolescents and adults with ASD. Participants included 50 individuals with ASD and verbal IQ???70, aged 16-35 (sample size varied by measure). Elevated depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II), were associated with greater self-perceived, autism-related impairments (n?=?48), greater rumination (n?=?21), and lower perceived social support (n?=?37). Rumination tended to moderate the association between self-perceived autism symptoms and BDI-II scores (n?=?21), and was significantly associated with ASD-related insistence on sameness behaviors (n?=?18). An unexpected relationship between depressive features and social participation and motivation will need to be clarified by longitudinal research. These and similar findings contribute to our understanding of the phenomenology of depression in ASD, which is critical to the development of practical prevention and treatment. Autism Res 2014, 7: 381-391. © 2014 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24802136

Gotham, Katherine; Bishop, Somer L; Brunwasser, Steven; Lord, Catherine

2014-06-01

350

Visual Scanning Strategies of Neurologically Impaired, Perceptually Impaired, And Normal Children Viewing the Bender-Gestalt Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes and compares visual encoding processes and copying performance of normal children and children with perceptual and neurological disabilities viewing the Bender-Gestalt designs. Designs of the neurologically impaired children were significantly different from those of either of the other two diagnostic groups. (Author)

Locher, Paul J.; Worms, Peter F.

1977-01-01

351

Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults with Heart Failure: Prevalence, Documentation, and Impact on Outcomes  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the fact that 80% of patients with heart failure are over age 65, recognition of cognitive impairment by physicians in this population has received relatively little attention. The purpose of our study was to evaluate physician documentation (as a measure of recognition) of cognitive impairment at time of discharge in a cohort of older adults hospitalized for heart failure. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of older adults hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. Cognitive status was evaluated with the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at the time of hospitalization. A score of 21–24 was used to indicate mild cognitive impairment, and a score of ?20 to indicate moderate to severe impairment. To evaluate physician documentation of cognitive impairment, we used a standardized form with a targeted keyword strategy to review hospital discharge summaries. We calculated the proportion of patients with cognitive impairment documented as such by physicians, and compared characteristics between groups with and without documented cognitive impairment. We then analyzed the association of cognitive impairment, and documentation of cognitive impairment, with 6-month mortality or readmission using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results A total of 282 patients completed the cognitive assessment. Their mean age was 80 years of age, 18.8% were nonwhite, and 53.2% were female. Cognitive impairment was present in 132/282 patients (46.8% overall; 25.2% mild, 21.6% moderate-severe). Among those with cognitive impairment, 30/132 (22.7%) were documented as such by physicians. Compared with patients whose cognitive impairment was documented by physicians, those whose impairment was not documented were younger (81.3 years vs. 85.2 years, P<0.05) and had less severe impairment (median MMSE score 22.0 vs. 18.0, P<0.01). After multivariable adjustment, patients whose cognitive impairment was not documented were significantly more likely to experience 6-month mortality or hospital readmission than patients without cognitive impairment. Conclusions Cognitive impairment is common in older adults hospitalized for heart failure, yet frequently not documented by physicians. Implementation of strategies to improve recognition and documentation of cognitive impairment may improve the care of these patients, particularly at the time of hospital discharge.

Dodson, John A.; Truong, Tuyet-Trinh N.; Towle, Virginia R.; Kerins, Gerard; Chaudhry, Sarwat I.

2012-01-01

352

Rumination and Impaired Resource Allocation in Depression  

PubMed Central

Depression is characterized by a range of cognitive deficits that theorists posit are due to the resource capturing properties of rumination. The present study was designed to examine the relation between rumination and resource allocation in depression. Twenty-five depressed and 25 nondepressed participants completed a modified dual-task version of the recency-probes task, which assesses the controlled allocation of cognitive resources by comparing performance across low- and high-interference conditions. In low-interference conditions, participants performed either the recency-probes task or a tracking task, which required participants to track specific stimuli across trials (i.e., no dual-task interference). In the high-interference condition, participants performed both the recency-probes task and the tracking task, which required the controlled allocation of resources to resolve dual-task interference. Depressed participants performed significantly worse than did their nondepressed counterparts in only the high-interference condition; performance of the 2 groups was comparable in the low-interference conditions. Furthermore, the degree to which depressed participants were impaired in the high-interference condition was correlated .74 with rumination. These findings suggest that an association between rumination and impairments in resource allocation underlies the cognitive difficulties experienced by depressed individuals.

Levens, Sara M.; Muhtadie, Luma; Gotlib, Ian H.

2010-01-01

353

Balance impairment in individuals with Wolfram syndrome  

PubMed Central

AIM Wolfram syndrome (WFS), a rare neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities. Although previously unreported, we hypothesized that neurological complications may be detectable in relatively early stages of the disease. As the cerebellum and brainstem seem particularly vulnerable in WFS, we focused on balance functions critically dependent on these regions. The primary goal of this investigation was to compare balance in young individuals with WFS, in relatively early stages of the disease, to an age-matched cohort using a clinically applicable test. METHOD Balance was assessed via the mini-BESTest in 13 children, adolescents and young adults with WFS and 30 typically developing age-matched individuals. RESULTS A significant difference was observed between groups in balance as well as in three of four subcomponents of the mini-BESTest and in two timed tasks related to balance. Mini-BESTest scores were correlated with age (p < 0.001, rs = 0.59) among typically developing individuals. In the WFS group, mini-BESTest scores were related to overall motor dysfunction, but not age. INTERPRETATION Impairments in balance in WFS may occur earlier in the disease process than previously recognized and appear to be related to overall neurological progression rather than chronological age. Recognizing balance impairments and understanding which balance systems contribute to balance deficits in those with WFS may allow for development of effective patient-centered treatment paradigms.

Pickett, Kristen A.; Duncan, Ryan P.; Paciorkowski, Alex R.; Permutt, Alan; Marshall, Bess; Hershey, Tamara; Earhart, Gammon M.

2012-01-01

354

Does Stroke Impair Learning in Children?  

PubMed Central

Objective. To assess cognitive development and learning in children who have had strokes. Method. Twenty-nine stroke patients and 18 children with no brain lesions and no learning impairments were evaluated. For the cognitive assessment, Piaget's clinical method was used. Writing, arithmetic, and reading abilities were assessed by the school performance test. Results. The mean age at evaluation was 9.6 years. Among the 29 children, 20 had early lesions (mean of 2.4 years old). The stroke was ischemic in 18 subjects; there were 7 cases of recurrence. Six children could not answer the tests. A high index of cognitive delay and low performance in writing, arithmetic, and reading were verified. Comparison with the control group revealed that the children who have had strokes had significantly lower performances. Conclusion. In this sample, strokes impaired cognitive development and learning. It is important that children have access to educational support and cognitive rehabilitation after injury. These approaches may minimise the effects of strokes on learning in children.

Rodrigues, Sonia das Dores; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria; Guimaraes, Ines Elcione; da Freiria Elias, Karla Maria Ibraim; Oliveira, Carolina Camargo; de Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana Leme

2011-01-01

355

Impaired musical ability in people with schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Background Assessment of the musical ability of people with schizophrenia has attracted little interest despite the diverse and substantive findings of impairments in sound perception and processing and the therapeutic effect of music in people with the illness. The present study investigated the musical ability of people with schizophrenia and the association with psychiatric symptoms and cognition. Methods We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls for participation in our study. To measure musical ability and cognitive function, we used the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). We carried out a mediation analysis to investigate a possible pathway to a deficit in musical ability. Results We enrolled 50 patients and 58 controls in the study. The MBEA global score in patients with schizophrenia was significantly lower than that in controls (p < 0.001), and was strongly associated with both the composite cognitive function score (r = 0.645, p < 0.001) and the negative symptom score (r = ?0.504, p < 0.001). Further analyses revealed direct and indirect effects of negative symptoms on musical ability. The indirect effects were mediated through cognitive impairment. Limitations The relatively small sample size did not permit full evaluation of the possible effects of age, sex, education, medication and cultural influences on the results. Conclusion Examining the associations between musical deficits, negative symptoms and cognitive imapirment in patients with schizophrenia may identify shared biological mechanisms.

Hatada, Sanae; Sawada, Ken; Akamatsu, Masanori; Doi, Erina; Minese, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Motoshi; Thornton, Allen E.; Honer, William G.; Inoue, Shimpei

2014-01-01

356

Acrochordon and impaired carbohydrate metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acrochordons were reported to have a probable association with diabetes mellitus but detailed data about this relation has\\u000a not been introduced yet. We evaluated 120 patients with acrochordon for the presence of impaired carbohydrate metabolism.\\u000a Overt diabetes mellitus (DM) was found in 88 patients and glucose intolerance was detected in 6 patients; 4 patients had reactive\\u000a hypoglycemia. We concluded that

S. Demir; Y. Demir

2002-01-01

357

Semantic memory activation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

Cognitively intact older individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease frequently show increased functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain activation presumably associated with compensatory recruitment, whereas mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients tend not to show increased activation presumably due to reduced neural reserve. Previous studies, however, have typically used episodic memory activation tasks, placing MCI participants at a performance disadvantage relative to healthy elders. In this event-related fMRI study, we employed a low effort, high accuracy semantic memory task to determine if increased activation of memory circuits is preserved in amnestic MCI when task performance is controlled. Fifty-seven participants, aged 65-85 years, comprised three groups (n = 19 each): amnestic MCI patients; cognitively intact older participants at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease based on having at least one ApoE epsilon4 allele and a positive family history of Alzheimer's disease (At Risk); and cognitively intact participants without Alzheimer's disease risk factors (Control). fMRI was conducted on a 3T MR scanner while participants performed a famous name discrimination task. Participants also underwent neuropsychological testing outside the scanner; whole brain and hippocampal atrophy were assessed from anatomical MRI scans. The three groups did not differ on demographic variables or on fame discrimination performance (>87% correct for all groups). As expected, the amnestic MCI participants demonstrated reduced episodic memory performance. Spatial extent of activation (Fame--Unfamiliar subtraction) differentiated the three groups (Control = 0 ml, At Risk = 9.7 ml, MCI = 34.7 ml). The MCI and At Risk groups showed significantly greater per cent signal change than Control participants in 8 of 14 functionally defined regions, including the medial temporal lobe, temporoparietal junction, and posterior cingulate/precuneus. MCI participants also showed greater activation than Controls in two frontal regions. At Risk, but not MCI, participants showed increased activity in the left hippocampal complex; MCI participants, however, evidenced increased activity in this region when hippocampal atrophy was controlled. When performance is equated, MCI patients demonstrate functional compensation in brain regions subserving semantic memory systems that generally equals or exceeds that observed in cognitively intact individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease. This hyperactivation profile in MCI is even observed in the left hippocampal complex, but only when the extent of hippocampal atrophy is taken into consideration. PMID:19515831

Woodard, J L; Seidenberg, M; Nielson, K A; Antuono, P; Guidotti, L; Durgerian, S; Zhang, Q; Lancaster, M; Hantke, N; Butts, A; Rao, S M

2009-08-01

358

Semantic memory activation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Cognitively intact older individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease frequently show increased functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain activation presumably associated with compensatory recruitment, whereas mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients tend not to show increased activation presumably due to reduced neural reserve. Previous studies, however, have typically used episodic memory activation tasks, placing MCI participants at a performance disadvantage relative to healthy elders. In this event-related fMRI study, we employed a low effort, high accuracy semantic memory task to determine if increased activation of memory circuits is preserved in amnestic MCI when task performance is controlled. Fifty-seven participants, aged 65–85 years, comprised three groups (n = 19 each): amnestic MCI patients; cognitively intact older participants at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease based on having at least one ApoE ?4 allele and a positive family history of Alzheimer's disease (At Risk); and cognitively intact participants without Alzheimer's disease risk factors (Control). fMRI was conducted on a 3T MR scanner while participants performed a famous name discrimination task. Participants also underwent neuropsychological testing outside the scanner; whole brain and hippocampal atrophy were assessed from anatomical MRI scans. The three groups did not differ on demographic variables or on fame discrimination performance (>87% correct for all groups). As expected, the amnestic MCI participants demonstrated reduced episodic memory performance. Spatial extent of activation (Fame—Unfamiliar subtraction) differentiated the three groups (Control = 0 ml, At Risk = 9.7 ml, MCI = 34.7 ml). The MCI and At Risk groups showed significantly greater per cent signal change than Control participants in 8 of 14 functionally defined regions, including the medial temporal lobe, temporoparietal junction, and posterior cingulate/precuneus. MCI participants also showed greater activation than Controls in two frontal regions. At Risk, but not MCI, participants showed increased activity in the left hippocampal complex; MCI participants, however, evidenced increased activity in this region when hippocampal atrophy was controlled. When performance is equated, MCI patients demonstrate functional compensation in brain regions subserving semantic memory systems that generally equals or exceeds that observed in cognitively intact individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease. This hyperactivation profile in MCI is even observed in the left hippocampal complex, but only when the extent of hippocampal atrophy is taken into consideration.

Woodard, J. L.; Seidenberg, M.; Nielson, K. A.; Antuono, P.; Guidotti, L.; Durgerian, S.; Zhang, Q.; Lancaster, M.; Hantke, N.; Butts, A.

2009-01-01

359

Clinical significance of knowledge about the structure, function, and impairments of working memory  

PubMed Central

A review of contemporary research on the working memory system (WMS) is important, both due to the need to focus the discussion on further necessary investigations on the structure and function of this key part of the human brain, as well as to share this knowledge with clinicians. In our introduction we try to clarify the actual terminology and provide an intuitively understandable model for 3 basic cognitive operations: perception, recognition, imagery, and manipulation of recalled mental images. We emphasize the importance of knowledge of the structure and function of the WMS for the possibility to demonstrate the links between genetic polymorphisms and the prevalence to some mental disorders. We also review current knowledge of working memory dysfunction in the most common diseases and specific clinical situations such as maturation and aging. Finally, we briefly discuss methods for assessment of WMS capacity. This article establishes a kind of compendium of knowledge for clinicians who are not familiar with the structure and operation of the WMS.

Brodziak, Andrzej; Brewczynski, Adam; Bajor, Grzegorz

2013-01-01

360

Plasmodium falciparum Infection Significantly Impairs Placental Cytokine Profile in HIV Infected Cameroonian Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not Available Bibtex entry for this abstract Preferred format for this abstract (see Preferences) Find Similar Abstracts: Use: Authors Title Return: Query Results Return items starting with number Query Form Database: Astronomy Physics arXiv e-prints

Anfumbom Kfutwah; Jean Yves Mary; Brigitte Lemen; Robert Leke; Dominique Rousset; Françoise Barré-Sinoussi; Eric Nerrienet; Elisabeth Menu; Ahidjo Ayouba; Georges Snounou

2009-01-01

361

Clinical significance of knowledge about the structure, function, and impairments of working memory.  

PubMed

A review of contemporary research on the working memory system (WMS) is important, both due to the need to focus the discussion on further necessary investigations on the structure and function of this key part of the human brain, as well as to share this knowledge with clinicians. In our introduction we try to clarify the actual terminology and provide an intuitively understandable model for 3 basic cognitive operations: perception, recognition, imagery, and manipulation of recalled mental images. We emphasize the importance of knowledge of the structure and function of the WMS for the possibility to demonstrate the links between genetic polymorphisms and the prevalence to some mental disorders. We also review current knowledge of working memory dysfunction in the most common diseases and specific clinical situations such as maturation and aging. Finally, we briefly discuss methods for assessment of WMS capacity. This article establishes a kind of compendium of knowledge for clinicians who are not familiar with the structure and operation of the WMS. PMID:23645218

Brodziak, Andrzej; Brewczy?ski, Adam; Bajor, Grzegorz

2013-01-01

362

Reduced Acute Recovery from Alcohol Impairment in Adults with ADHD  

PubMed Central

Rationale Prior research has found that adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show increased sensitivity to the impairing effects of alcohol (Weafer et al. 2009). However, these studies have focused exclusively on the ascending limb of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, and it is unclear whether these adults continue to show increased sensitivity during the later phase of the dose as BAC is declining. Objective This study tested the hypothesis that those with ADHD would display increased response to alcohol during the ascending limb of the BAC curve and less recovery from the impairing effects during the descending limb. Methods Adult social drinkers with ADHD and control adults completed measures of motor coordination, reaction time, and subjective intoxication twice following 0.64 g/kg alcohol and placebo. The measures were administered during the ascending limb of the BAC curve and again during the descending limb. Results During the ascending limb, alcohol reduced motor coordination, slowed reaction time (RT), and increased self-reports of subjective intoxication. Those with ADHD displayed greater impairment of motor coordination compared with controls. During the descending limb, controls reported diminished subjective intoxication and showed recovery from the impairing effects of alcohol on both their motor coordination and their RT. Those with ADHD showed reduced subjective intoxication and faster RT during this time, but they did not recover motor control. Conclusions The protracted time course of motor impairment in adults with ADHD despite reductions in subjective intoxication may contribute to poor decision making and diminished behavioral control in this group.

Roberts, Walter; Milich, Richard; Fillmore, Mark T.

2013-01-01

363

Mild cognitive impairment: animal models  

PubMed Central

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an aspect of cognitive aging that is considered to be a transitional state between normal aging and the dementia into which it may convert. Appropriate animal models are necessary in order to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of MCI and develop drugs for its treatment. In this review, we identify the features that should characterize an animal model of MCI, namely old age, subtle memory impairment, mild neuropathological changes, and changes in the cholinergic system, and the age at which these features can be detected in laboratory animals. These features should occur in aging animals with normal motor activity and feeding behavior. The animal models may be middle-aged rats and mice, rats with brain ischemia, transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 (tested at an early stage), or aging monkeys. Memory deficits can be detected by selecting appropriately difficult behavioral tasks, and the deficits can be associated with neuropathological alterations. The reviewed literature demonstrates that, under certain conditions, these animal species can be considered to be MCI models, and that cognitive impairment in these models responds to drug treatment.

Pepeu, Giancarlo

2004-01-01

364

20 CFR 404.1598 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If you become disabled by another impairment(s). 404.1598 Section... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1598 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new...

2013-04-01

365

Ethnic differences in perceived impairment and need for care.  

PubMed

Latino children in the U.S. have high rates of unmet need for mental health services, perhaps due to biased perceptions of impairment and need for care by parents and providers. We tested this argument using an experimental vignette design. Vignettes described children with problems that varied on severity (mild vs. serious), nature of the problem (internalizing vs. externalizing), as well as gender and ethnicity (Latino vs. Anglo). Raters were Latino and Anglo parents (N = 185) and providers (N = 189). Vignettes with Latino names were viewed as more impaired by both parents and providers, and this effect was significantly stronger in Latino vignettes with less severe problems. Severity and Latino features of vignettes also interacted with judgments of need for service. At higher severity, vignettes with Anglo names were judged to need service more than vignettes with Latino names, despite the same judged levels of impairment. Results are discussed in the light of the unmet need for Latinos. PMID:20521095

Chavez, Ligia M; Shrout, Patrick E; Alegría, Margarita; Lapatin, Sheri; Canino, Glorisa

2010-11-01

366

Ethnic Differences in Perceived Impairment and Need for Care  

PubMed Central

Latino children in the U.S. have high rates of unmet need for mental health services, perhaps due to biased perceptions of impairment and need for care by parents and providers. We tested this argument using an experimental vignette design. Vignettes described children with problems that varied on severity (mild vs. serious), nature of the problem (internalizing vs. externalizing), as well as gender and ethnicity (Latino vs. Anglo). Raters were Latino and Anglo parents (N=185) and providers (N=189). Vignettes with Latino names were viewed as more impaired by both parents and providers, and this effect was significantly stronger in Latino vignettes with less severe problems. Severity and Latino features of vignettes also interacted with judgments of need for service. At higher severity, vignettes with Anglo names were judged to need service more than vignettes with Latino names, despite the same judged levels of impairment. Results are discussed in the light of the unmet need for Latinos.

Chavez, Ligia M.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Alegria, Margarita; Lapatin, Sheri; Canino, Glorisa

2011-01-01

367

Assessment and prediction of functional impairment in vascular dementia.  

PubMed

Vascular dementia is associated with cognitive, physical and functional impairments that often lead to disability among the elderly. Declines in activities of daily living significantly contribute to the disability reported among patients with vascular dementia and compromise quality of life for both patients and their families. Assessment of activities of daily living is an important component of the diagnosis, tracking and management of vascular dementia patients. Furthermore, an understanding of the determinants of activities of daily living dysfunction may provide an earlier identification of individuals at risk for functional disability and allow opportunities for improved patient care. In this review, methods for assessing and tracking activities of daily living are discussed and the literature on the correlates of functional impairment in vascular dementia is summarized. Also, the potential use of executive dysfunction as a marker for instrumental activities of daily living impairment is discussed and recommendations for clinical practice and future research are provided. PMID:15853621

Boyle, Patricia A; Cahn-Weiner, Deborah

2004-01-01

368

Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment  

PubMed Central

Objective: To preliminarily assess the safety and efficacy of transdermal nicotine therapy on cognitive performance and clinical status in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Nonsmoking subjects with amnestic MCI were randomized to transdermal nicotine (15 mg per day or placebo) for 6 months. Primary outcome variables were attentional improvement assessed with Connors Continuous Performance Test (CPT), clinical improvement as measured by clinical global impression, and safety measures. Secondary measures included computerized cognitive testing and patient and observer ratings. Results: Of 74 subjects enrolled, 39 were randomized to nicotine and 35 to placebo. 67 subjects completed (34 nicotine, 33 placebo). The primary cognitive outcome measure (CPT) showed a significant nicotine-induced improvement. There was no statistically significant effect on clinician-rated global improvement. The secondary outcome measures showed significant nicotine-associated improvements in attention, memory, and psychomotor speed, and improvements were seen in patient/informant ratings of cognitive impairment. Safety and tolerability for transdermal nicotine were excellent. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that transdermal nicotine can be safely administered to nonsmoking subjects with MCI over 6 months with improvement in primary and secondary cognitive measures of attention, memory, and mental processing, but not in ratings of clinician-rated global impression. We conclude that this initial study provides evidence for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement in subjects with MCI; however, whether these effects are clinically important will require larger studies. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that 6 months of transdermal nicotine (15 mg/day) improves cognitive test performance, but not clinical global impression of change, in nonsmoking subjects with amnestic MCI.

Kellar, K.; Aisen, P.; White, H.; Wesnes, K.; Coderre, E.; Pfaff, A.; Wilkins, H.; Howard, D.; Levin, E.D.

2012-01-01

369

Greater functionality of bismuth and lead based perovskites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel Bi and Pb-based perovskite oxide chemistries have been investigated through bulk solid-state synthesis methods with a goal of increasing the dielectric, ferroelectric, and magnetic functionality of these materials. Although the Pb+2 and Bi+3 canons are chemically similar, Pb-based perovskites have historically received greater commercial and scientific attention. However, recent experimental and theoretical progress in studies of Bi containing systems has prompted a renewed interest in their potential. As such, particular focus was given to the Bi+3 containing systems in the current work. An investigation of the Bi-based perovskite compounds, emphasizing multiferroic BiFeO3 and related solid solutions, has explored the limitations of bulk synthesis methods for these systems. Numerous cation and anion substitution routes are experimentally studied and a comprehensive review of previous work examining B' site cation substitution in Bi-based perovskites is performed. This has resulted in an improved understanding of phase competition within these systems. These findings were used to engineer new chemistries, particularly those of mixed cation site occupancy, with improved perovskite stability. New low tolerance factor Bi-based perovskites with mixed B ' site cation chemistries have been used to induce morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) formation in solid solutions with PbTiO3. Moreover, a new qualitative relationship correlating the tolerance factor of Bi and Pb-based end members in PbTiO3 solid solutions to the compositional position of the system's MPB has been developed and experimentally validated. This relationship has been used to explore novel end members with very low tolerance factors including (Pb1/2Th1/2)ScO 3, for PbTiO3-based MPB solid solutions. A new category of Bi-based chemistries which enhance tetragonality and Curie temperature (Tc) in solid solutions with PbTiO3 has been identified. This effect is particularly dramatic for the (x)PbTiO 3-(1 - x)Bi(Zn1/2Ti1/2)O 3 solid solution. The x = 0.6 composition of this system exhibits a high c/a ratio of 1.11 and a TC greater than 700°C. Detailed structural analysis of this system was performed by powder neutron diffraction. It is postulated that such unique behavior is driven by A' site Bi canons, but is effective only when the B' site positions are fully occupied by ferroelectrically active canons. These TC and tetragonality enhancing Bi-based chemistries are used as additives to modify the structural, ferroelectric, and piezoelectric properties of well known PbTiO3-based MPB systems.

Suchomel, Matthew R.

370

Short-term recognition memory impairment is associated with decreased expression of FK506 binding protein 51 in the aged mouse brain  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling may contribute to cognitive decline with age. We hypothesized that alterations in GR signaling pathway molecules, FK506 binding protein (FKBP) 51 and FKBP52, were associated with memory impairment in aged mice. We used the single-trial object recognition test to measure short-term memory in 18 aged mice compared to 22 young mice, and employed quantitative immunohistochemistry to assess cellular expression of those three proteins in the frontal cortex, hippocampal CA1, and dentate gyrus. Values of the discrimination ratio (DR, a measure of novelty preference) in aged mice were significantly lower than those in young mice (mean 0.54 vs. 0.67, p?=?0.003, t test). Aged mice with DR below 0.54 were considered impaired (n?=?9). In the three neuroanatomic regions studied, the immunoreactivity normalized to the area measured (IRn) for GR was significantly increased in aged mice regardless of their task performance compared to young mice (p?significantly lower in impaired aged mice than in unimpaired aged mice (p?impairment in aged mice is associated with decreased FKBP51 expression that may promote GR-mediated glucocorticoid signaling to a greater extent than in unimpaired aged mice.

Risbrough, Victoria B.; Young, Jared W.; Wallace, Chelsea K.; Soontornniyomkij, Benchawanna; Jeste, Dilip V.; Achim, Cristian L.

2010-01-01

371

31 CFR 561.404 - Significant transaction or transactions; significant financial services; significant financial...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...involvement or approval of management or only by clerical personnel...NIOC, or NICO in a direct customer relationship generally would be of greater...indirectly or in a tertiary relationship. (e) Impact. The...

2013-07-01

372

Therapeutic Riding for a Student with Multiple Disabilities and Visual Impairment: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 9-year-old with multiple disabilities and visual impairments was the focus of a 10-week developmental therapeutic riding program incorporating hippotherapy. The program has led to increased mobility, an increase in visual attention span and fixation time, signs of greater verbal communication, and the acquisition of new functional signs.…

Lehrman, Jennifer; Ross, David B.

2001-01-01

373

Accessibility and Mobility of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Historical Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article traces the historical development of two movements to improve the mobility of people with visual impairments--environmental modifications to increase accessibility, and orientation and mobility training. It also notes how changes in attitudes, effected to a large degree by the introduction of dog guides, have led to greater acceptance…

Blasch, B. B.; Stuckey, K. A.

1995-01-01

374

Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

2012-01-01

375

A Hyperstable Model-Following Flight Control System Used for Reconfiguration Following Aircraft Impairment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques have been developed for remixing the commands issued by flight control laws that assume unimpaired operation. This approach allows impairments to be accommodated that previously were not. This increase in fault tolerance does not decrease reliability because no additional hardware is installed on the aircraft. Instead, previously existing redundant control surfaces are used to greater advantage. A recent effort

C. J. Dittmar

1988-01-01

376

Pentagon copying is more impaired in dementia with Lewy bodies than in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESIn many cases the clinical differentiation of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) from those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been difficult. Because many neuropsychological studies have reported greater visuospatial\\/constructional impairment in DLB than in AD, it was determined whether accuracy in copying the interlocking pentagons item on the mini mental state examination (MMSE) may be helpful in distinguishing

T A Ala; L F Hughes; G A Kyrouac; M W Ghobrial; R J Elble

2001-01-01

377

Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats  

PubMed Central

Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990.

Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

2013-01-01

378

Vaccine Preventability of Meningococcal Clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany  

PubMed Central

Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001–2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7–2,4:F1–5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area.

Schouls, Leo M.; van de Pol, Ingrid; Keijzers, Wendy C.; Martin, Diana R.; Glennie, Anne; Oster, Philipp; Frosch, Matthias; Vogel, Ulrich; van der Ende, Arie

2010-01-01

379

Integration core exercises elicit greater muscle activation than isolation exercises.  

PubMed

The American College of Sports Medicine and the United States Department of Health and Human Services advocate core training as a means to improve stability, reduce injury, and maintain mobility. There are countless exercises that target the primary core trunk muscles (abdominal and lumbar) with the aim of providing these benefits. However, it is unknown as to which exercises elicit the greatest activation thereby maximizing functional gains and peak performance. Thus, our purpose was to determine whether integration core exercises that require activation of the distal trunk muscles (deltoid and gluteal) elicit greater activation of primary trunk muscles in comparison with isolation core exercises that only require activation of the proximal trunk muscles. Twenty participants, 10 men and 10 women, completed 16 randomly assigned exercises (e.g., crunch, upper body extension, and hover variations). We measured muscle activity with surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, rectus abdominus, external abdominal oblique, lumbar erector spinae, thoracic erector spinae, and gluteus maximus. Our results indicate that the activation of the abdominal and lumbar muscles was the greatest during the exercises that required deltoid and gluteal recruitment. In conclusion, when completing the core strength guidelines, an integrated routine that incorporates the activation of distal trunk musculature would be optimal in terms of maximizing strength, improving endurance, enhancing stability, reducing injury, and maintaining mobility. PMID:22580983

Gottschall, Jinger S; Mills, Jackie; Hastings, Bryce

2013-03-01

380

Vocal learning by greater spear-nosed bats.  

PubMed Central

Vocal learning is well known among passerine and psittacine birds, but most data on mammals are equivocal. Specific benefits of vocal learning are poorly understood for most species. One case where vocal learning should be favoured by selection is where calls indicate group membership and group mates are unrelated. Female greater spear-nosed bats, Phyllostomus hastatus, live in stable groups of unrelated bats and use loud, broadband calls to coordinate foraging movements of social group mates. Bats benefit from group foraging. Calls differ between female social groups and cave colonies, and playback experiments demonstrate that bats perceive these acoustic differences. Here I show that the group distinctive structure of calls arises through vocal learning. Females change call structure when group composition changes, resulting in increased similarity among new social group mates. Comparisons of transfers with age-matched half-sibs indicate that call changes are not simply due to maturation, the physical environment or heredity. These results suggest that studies testing vocal learning in mammals could profit by focusing on vocalizations that signify group membership.

Boughman, J W

1998-01-01

381

Greater neuronal responses during automatic semantic processing in schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

A core feature of schizophrenia is a disturbance of associative processes. To date, no functional MRI studies have investigated semantic priming in schizophrenia under experimental conditions that measure automatic, as opposed to strategic, processing. The present study’s focus was to investigate hemodynamic responses during indirect semantic priming at a short stimulus onset asynchrony (i.e. 350 ms), conditions which are considered to be a particularly sensitive measure of automatic spreading activation during semantic processing and of the associative disturbances in schizophrenia. Seventeen individuals with DSM-IV, schizophrenia and 15 comparison participants underwent functional scanning while performing a lexical decision task on directly related, indirectly related, unrelated, and word/nonword pairs. A random-effects region of interest analysis within a priori temporal and frontal regions was performed. Whereas comparison individuals exhibited hemodynamic suppression in response to priming, individuals with schizophrenia exhibited hemodynamic enhancement. Relative to the comparison group, these enhancements were observed in the left fusiform and superior temporal gyri for indirectly related word pairs relative to unrelated pairs. Greater priming-related responses within temporal regions may reflect increased and prolonged automatic spreading activation during semantic processing in schizophrenia.

Wilson, Lisa B.; Rojas, Donald C.; Shatti, Shireen; Tregellas, Jason R.

2013-01-01

382

Greater neuronal responses during automatic semantic processing in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

A core feature of schizophrenia is a disturbance of associative processes. To date, no functional MRI studies have investigated semantic priming in schizophrenia under experimental conditions that measure automatic, as opposed to strategic, processing. The present study's focus was to investigate hemodynamic responses during indirect semantic priming at a short stimulus onset asynchrony (i.e., 350 ms), conditions which are considered to be a particularly sensitive measure of automatic spreading activation during semantic processing and of the associative disturbances in schizophrenia. Seventeen individuals with DSM-IV, schizophrenia and 15 comparison participants underwent functional scanning while performing a lexical decision task on directly related, indirectly related, unrelated, and word/nonword pairs. A random-effects region of interest analysis within a priori temporal and frontal regions was performed. Whereas comparison individuals exhibited hemodynamic suppression in response to priming, individuals with schizophrenia exhibited hemodynamic enhancement. Relative to the comparison group, these enhancements were observed in the left fusiform and superior temporal gyri for indirectly related word pairs relative to unrelated pairs. Greater priming-related responses within temporal regions may reflect increased and prolonged automatic spreading activation during semantic processing in schizophrenia. PMID:23399997

Wilson, Lisa B; Rojas, Donald C; Shatti, Shireen; Tregellas, Jason R

2013-03-27

383

Mercury's global contraction much greater than earlier estimates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury, a planet with a lithosphere that forms a single tectonic plate, is replete with tectonic structures interpreted to be the result of planetary cooling and contraction. However, the amount of global contraction inferred from spacecraft images has been far lower than that predicted by models of the thermal evolution of the planet's interior. Here we present a synthesis of the global contraction of Mercury from orbital observations acquired by the MESSENGER spacecraft. We show that Mercury's global contraction has been accommodated by a substantially greater number and variety of structures than previously recognized, including long belts of ridges and scarps where the crust has been folded and faulted. The tectonic features on Mercury are consistent with models for large-scale deformation proposed for a globally contracting Earth--now obsolete--that pre-date plate tectonics theory. We find that Mercury has contracted radially by as much as 7 km, well in excess of the 0.8-3 km previously reported from photogeology and resolving the discrepancy with thermal models. Our findings provide a key constraint for studies of Mercury's thermal history, bulk silicate abundances of heat-producing elements, mantle convection and the structure of its large metallic core.

Byrne, Paul K.; Klimczak, Christian; Celâl ?engör, A. M.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watters, Thomas R.; Hauck, Steven A., II

2014-04-01

384

The Attitude of Lecturers towards Visually Impaired Students: A Case Study of One of the Universities in the Limpopo Province in South Africa  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents the attitude of lecturers towards the visually impaired students in one of the universities in the Limpopo Province. First, it is argued that the experience of a visual impairment by a student has a greater effect on the strategies and methodologies used for instruction than on the curricular content to which the student is…

Mushome, Avhasei Merium; Monobe, Ratau John

2013-01-01

385

Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

1985-01-01

386

Identification of a high-molecular-weight (greater than 400 000) protein in hyaline cartilage.  

PubMed

A high-molecular-weight (greater than 400 000) non-collagenous protein has been identified in normal articular cartilage from several mammalian species and in bovine tracheal cartilage. This protein is reduced by 2-mercaptoethanol to subunits with a molecular weight of 116 000, which appear to constitute approx. 2-4% of the total protein detectable by the Lowry assay in 4 M guanidinium chloride extracts of normal bovine and canine articular cartilage. Antiserum to the 116 kDa subunit protein from bovine articular cartilage cross-reacts with the intact and subunit proteins from bovine trachea and from normal canine, porcine and human articular cartilage. This protein is not found in non-cartilagenous tissues, suggesting that it is a cartilage-specific protein. We conclude that the greater than 400 kDa protein and its subunit are ubiquitous and quantitatively significant proteins in hyaline cartilage. PMID:6095921

Fife, R S; Brandt, K D

1984-12-20

387

Hydrology of the Greater Tongonan geothermal system, Philippines, as deduced from geochemical and isotopic data  

SciTech Connect

Fluids in the Greater Tongonan geothermal system exhibit a large positive {sup 18}O shift from the Leyte meteoric water line. However, there is also a significant shift in {sup 2}H. The {delta}{sup 2}H-{delta}{sup 18}O plot shows that the geothermal fluids may be derived by the mixing of meteoric water with local magmatic water. The most enriched water in the Greater Tongonan system, in terms of {delta}{sup 18}O, {delta}{sup 2}H and Cl, is comprised of approximately 40% magmatic water. Baseline isotope results support a hydrogeochemical model in which there is increasing meteoric water dilution to the southeast, from Mahiao to Sambaloran and towards Malitbog. The Cl-{delta}{sup 18}O plot confirms that the geothermal fluid in Mahanagdong, further southeast, is distinct from that of the Mahiao-Sambaloran-Malitbog system.

Alvis-Isidro, R.R.; Solana, R.R. [Philippine National Oil Co.-Energy Development Corp., Fort Bonifacio (Philippines)] [Philippine National Oil Co.-Energy Development Corp., Fort Bonifacio (Philippines); D`amore, F.; Nuti, S. [Inst. Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche, Pisa (Italy)] [Inst. Internazionale per le Ricerche Geotermiche, Pisa (Italy); Gonfiantini, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)] [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

1993-10-01

388

Functional Impairment in Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Prospective, Follow-up Study  

PubMed Central

Cross sectional/retrospective studies indicate that individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) have markedly impaired psychosocial functioning. However, no study has prospectively examined functioning in BDD. In this study, which is to our knowledge the first prospective study of the course of BDD, psychosocial functioning was assessed at baseline and over 1 to 3 years (mean = 2.7 ± 0.9 years) of follow-up with the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF), Social and Occupational Functioning Scale (SOFAS), and LIFE-RIFT (Range of Impaired Functioning Tool). Psychosocial functioning was poor during the follow-up period. Functioning remained stably poor over time on the SOFAS and LIFE-RIFT, although there was a trend for a gradual and slight improvement on the GAF over time. The cumulative probability of attaining functional remission on the GAF (score >70 for at least 2 consecutive months) during the follow-up period was only 5.7%. On the SOFAS, the cumulative probability of attaining functional remission (score >70 for at least 2 consecutive months) was 10.6%. BDD severity significantly predicted functioning on the GAF (p=.0012), SOFAS (p=.0017), and LIFE-RIFT (p=.0015). A trend for a time-by-BDD severity interaction was found on the GAF (p=.033) but not the SOFAS or LIFE-RIFT. More delusional BDD symptoms also predicted poorer functioning on all measures, although this finding was no longer significant when controlling for BDD severity. Functioning was not predicted, however, by age, gender, BDD duration, or a personality disorder. In conclusion, psychosocial functioning was poor over time, and few subjects attained functional remission. Greater BDD severity predicted poorer functioning.

Phillips, Katharine A.; Quinn, Gene; Stout, Robert L.

2010-01-01

389

The role of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype in early mild cognitive impairment (E-MCI)  

PubMed Central

Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the association of APOE with amyloid deposition, cerebrospinal fluid levels (CSF) of A?, tau, and p-tau, brain atrophy, cognition and cognitive complaints in E-MCI patients and cognitively healthy older adults (HC) in the ADNI-2 cohort. Methods: Two-hundred and nine E-MCI and 123 HC participants from the ADNI-2 cohort were included. We evaluated the impact of diagnostic status (E-MCI vs. HC) and APOE ?4 status (?4 positive vs. ?4 negative) on cortical amyloid deposition (AV-45/Florbetapir SUVR PET scans), brain atrophy (structural MRI scans processed using voxel-based morphometry and Freesurfer version 5.1), CSF levels of A?, tau, and p-tau, and cognitive performance and complaints. Results: E-MCI participants showed significantly impaired cognition, higher levels of cognitive complaints, greater levels of tau and p-tau, and subcortical and cortical atrophy relative to HC participants (p < 0.05). Cortical amyloid deposition and CSF levels of A? were significantly associated with APOE ?4 status but not E-MCI diagnosis, with ?4 positive participants showing more amyloid deposition and lower levels of CSF A? than ?4 negative participants. Other effects of APOE ?4 status on cognition and CSF tau levels were also observed. Conclusions: APOE ?4 status is associated with amyloid accumulation and lower CSF A?, as well as increased CSF tau levels in early prodromal stages of AD (E-MCI) and HC. Alternatively, neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment, and increased complaints are primarily associated with a diagnosis of E-MCI. These findings underscore the importance of considering APOE genotype when evaluating biomarkers in early stages of disease.

Risacher, Shannon L.; Kim, Sungeun; Shen, Li; Nho, Kwangsik; Foroud, Tatiana; Green, Robert C.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Jack, Clifford R.; Aisen, Paul S.; Koeppe, Robert A.; Jagust, William J.; Shaw, Leslie M.; Trojanowski, John Q.; Weiner, Michael W.; Saykin, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

390

Low dose of hydroxyethyl starch impairs clot formation as assessed by viscoelastic devices.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. High doses of the synthetic colloid hydroxyethyl starch (HES) used for plasma expansion have been associated with impaired haemostasis and hypocoagulation. Less is known about effects on clot formation in the low haemodilutional range (< 40%). This study evaluated the effects of low haemodilution with HES and albumin on coagulation using two different viscoelastic methods. Methods. Clot formation was studied in vitro in healthy donor blood after 10% and 30% haemodilution with 60 g/L HES 130/0.4 or 50 g/L albumin with free oscillation rheometry (FOR) and rotational thromboelastography. Results. Clotting time was not significantly affected at 10% haemodilution but was prolonged with both substances at 30% dilution (p < 0.01-0.001). The effect was significantly more pronounced with HES than with albumin. The elasticity of the clot was slightly reduced at 10% dilution with albumin, more pronounced at 10% dilution with HES (p < 0.05), further reduced at 30% dilution with albumin and to a still greater extent at 30% dilution with HES (p < 0.05). With albumin the functional activity of fibrinogen was not reduced in excess of the dilutional effect. HES in contrast produced a further reduction in clot elasticity than caused by mere dilution at both 10% and 30% dilutions (p < 0.001). Conclusions. There is an adverse effect on clot formation even at low grade haemodilution with both albumin and HES. The effect on coagulation is significantly more pronounced with HES than with albumin. PMID:24621204

Tynngård, Nahreen; Berlin, Gösta; Samuelsson, Anders; Berg, Sören

2014-06-01

391

Chroman amide 12P inhibition of lipid peroxidation and protection against learning and memory impairment.  

PubMed

Structure modification of the cerebroprotective chroman amide 12 to improve the drug delivery to the target organ by protecting the active hydroxy functional group was carried out in this study. Chroman amide 12P, which the O-acetyl group was served to protect the active group to be delivered to the target organ, was synthesized. Ex vivo antilipid peroxidation activity of 12P was significantly greater than the activity of 12 while the in vitro inhibition of 12P was found to be lower. These indicated that 12P with protected active group effectively reached the brain, the target site, but in vitro, 12P was unable to release its parent or released slowly. Neuropharmacological effect of 12P was investigated in mice. 12 and 12P (50-100 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant suppression on the hypermotility induced by methamphetamine. 12P (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was more potent than 12, 54.36% and 38.73% suppression, respectively. The result suggested the enhancement of brain delivery and the antagonism against aberrant dopamine release. In the water maze test, 12P (200 mg/kg) as well as tacrine (3 mg/kg) significantly reduced the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg). The results support the enhanced brain delivery and the additional role of radical scavengers in the modulation of brain neurotransmitters in the aberrant condition. PMID:11021357

Vajragupta, O; Monthakantirat, O; Wongkrajang, Y; Watanabe, H; Peungvicha, P

2000-08-25

392

Melting of iron by significant structure theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From Eyring's method of significant structures, a partition function is derived for liquid iron. The solid at high temperature is described in the Einstein approximation. Magnetic and electronic contributions to the thermodynamic properties of both the liquid and solid phases are considered. The model is compatible with properties (thermal expansion, compressibility, heat capacity, entropy of melting, and volume change on melting) at one atm. The melting temperature at high pressure is found by satisfying the requirement that the Gibbs free energies of the liquid and solid phases are equal at the melting temperature. Under conditions at the earth's core-mantle boundary, the melting temperature of iron is greater than approximately 5000 K, and under inner-outer core conditions the melting temperature is greater than approximately 7000 K. These estimates are consistent with the Lindemann melting law, but not with the Kraut-Kennedy melting law.

Leppaluoto, D. A.

1972-01-01

393

Significance of placental pathology in transplacental haemorrhage  

PubMed Central

Placentae were examined from 120 women whose pregnancy and delivery was normal, from 264 women whose pregnancy or delivery was complicated, and from 98 women who were Rh-negative without antibodies and 35 women Rh-negative with antibodies. The presence of Kline's haemorrhages, intervillous thrombi, infarcts, and retroplacental haemorrhages was positively correlated with the presence of foetal cells in the maternal circulation. When there were no maternal antibodies transplacental haemorrhages occurred occasionally in the absence of such placental lesions but more frequently when these lesions were present. Moreover, the greater the number of lesions in a placenta the greater the size of the transplacental haemorrhage. In Rh-negative women with antibodies the observed incidence of transplacental haemorrhage was significantly less despite an appreciable increase in placental lesions. Images

Devi, Banti; Jennison, R. F.; Langley, F. A.

1968-01-01

394

Prevalence of metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, impaired fasting blood glucose, and dyslipidemia in Uygur and Kazak populations.  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired fasting blood glucose (IFG), insulin resistance (IR), hypertriglyceridemia (HTG), and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in adult Uygur and Kazak populations. Questionnaires, blood pressure, anthropometric measurement, and fasting glucose were evaluated. The age-adjusted prevalence of MetS and IFG was 3.43- and 1.47-fold higher, respectively, in Uygurs compared with Kazaks. The prevalence of IR and HTG was 1.33- and 2.22-fold higher, respectively, in Uygurs compared with Kazaks. In addition, the prevalence of low HDL-C was 4.05-fold higher in Uygurs compared with Kazaks. These data depicted greater risk for cardiometabolic syndrome in Uygurs compared with Kazaks. In addition, all prevalence with the exception of low HDL-C was greater in men compared with women in both ethnic groups. For body mass index (BMI)<24, 24 to 28, and ?28 kg/m2, the prevalence of MetS, HTG, and low HDL-C was higher in Uygurs than Kazaks at the same BMI level. For individuals with a BMI between 24 and 28, the prevalence of IR but not IFG was significantly greater in Uygurs than Kazaks. At BMI?28, neither IFG nor IR was overtly different between the two ethnic groups. PMID:20883236

Wang, Lifeng; Tao, Yicun; Xie, Zijing; Ran, Xinjian; Zhang, Minfang; Wang, Ye; Luo, Xin; Hu, Mengying; Gen, Wenning; Wufuer, Hamulati; Li, Linlin; Ren, Jun; Mao, Xinming

2010-09-01

395

How impaired are children and adolescents by mental health problems? Results of the BELLA study  

PubMed Central

Background The consideration of impairment plays a crucial role in detecting significant mental health problems in children whose symptoms do not meet diagnostic criteria. The assessment of impairment may be particularly relevant when only short screening instruments are applied in epidemiological surveys. Furthermore, differences between childrens’ and parents’ perceptions of present impairment and impairing symptoms are of interest with respect to treatment-seeking behaviour. Objectives The objectives were to assess parent- and self-reported impairment due to mental health problems in a representative sample of children and adolescents; to describe the characteristics of highly impaired children with normal symptom scores; and to investigate the associations between symptoms in different problem areas and impairment. Methods The mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (the BELLA study) examined mental health in a representative sub-sample of 2,863 families with children aged 7–17. Self-reported and parent-reported symptoms of mental health problems and associated impairment were identified by the extended version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) in children 11 years and older. Results Considerable levels of distress and functional impairment were found with 14.1% of the boys and 9.9% of the girls being severely impaired according to the parental reports. However, self-reported data shows a reversed gender-difference as well as lower levels of severe impairment (6.1% in boys; 10.0% in girls). Six percent of the sampled children suffer from pronounced impairment due to mental health problems but were not detected by screening for overall symptoms. Childrens’ and parents’ reports differed in regard to the association between reported symptom scores and associated impairment with children reporting higher impairment due to emotional problems. Conclusions The assessment of impairment caused by mental health problems provides important information beyond the knowledge of symptoms and helps to identify an otherwise undetected high risk group. In the assessment of impairment, gender-specific issues have to be taken into account. Regarding the systematic differences between childrens’ and parents’ reports in the assessment of impairment, the child’s perspective should be given special attention.

Bettge, Susanne; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike

2009-01-01

396

Greater involvement of people living with HIV in health care  

PubMed Central

Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS represents a mobilising and an organising principle for the involvement of people living with HIV in program and policy responses. People with HIV have been at the forefront of designing and implementing effective HIV treatment, care and prevention activities. However, governments and health systems have yet to act to fully harness the potential and resources of people living with HIV in addressing the epidemic. The lives and experiences of people living with HIV highlight the need for a shift in the existing paradigm of disease management. The high prevalence of HIV amongst health care providers in many countries, exacerbated by stigma towards those with HIV in the health care professions, is seriously undermining the capacity of health systems and signals the need to change the current nature of health care delivery. Moreover, the negative experiences of many people with HIV in relation to their health care as well as in their daily social interactions, coupled with the ever-limited current investment in treatment, care and support, demonstrate that the current system is drastically failing the majority of people with HIV. Current health management systems urgently need to be more effectively maximised, to increase the quality of standards of health care systems and services in resource poor countries. An integrated approach to health care based on a human rights framework, grounded in community realities and delivered in partnership and solidarity with people living with HIV, offers the most viable approach to overcoming the crisis of HIV in the health care system.

2009-01-01

397

Enterostomal complications: are emergently created enterostomas at greater risk?  

PubMed

It is not unusual for surgeons to have to construct a enterostoma during an emergency abdominal operation. The enterostomal complications, often overlooked, can be serious for the patient. There are many factors relating to stoma complications. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the emergency status of an operation is an independent risk. Over a 19-year period from 1976 to 1995, there were 1758 enterostomas constructed at our institution. Fifty-nine per cent were for emergent situations, defined as any operation performed for peritonitis, obstructions, or massive hemorrhage. The data pertaining to complications was compiled by the enterostomal therapist and prospectively recorded into an institutional database. Complications were characterized as skin problems, parastomal problems (infection, separation), retraction, stenosis, necrosis, prolapse, and herniation. There were 624 (35%) patients with recorded complications. It was not uncommon for a patient to have more than one complication. There were 500 (55%) skin problems, 111 (12%) parastomal problems, 104 (11%) retractions, 33 (4%) stenoses, 112 (12%) necroses, 28 (3%) prolapses, and 19 (3%) enterostomas herniated. Overall, there were 1044 emergently created enterostomas, and we found that 356 (34%) patients had a complication. The most common indications for emergency laparotomies were abdominal gunshot wounds (40%), bowel obstruction (20%), bowel perforation other than by gunshot or stab wound (15%), and diverticulitis (8%). Among the nonemergently created enterostomas (714), there were 268 (37%) with complications (P = 0.015). Our findings suggest that emergently created enterostomas are not at greater risk for complications, except for the ileostomy. Although further analysis of this particular subset must be undertaken, the technical intricacies of an ileostomy, including preoperative marking of the site, might have an important role. PMID:9202542

Del Pino, A; Cintron, J R; Orsay, C P; Pearl, R K; Tan, A; Abcarian, H

1997-07-01

398

Greater muscle damage induced by fast versus slow velocity eccentric exercise.  

PubMed

Debate exists concerning the effect of contraction velocity on muscle damage, and few human studies have yet to address this issue. This study examined whether the velocity of eccentric exercise affected the magnitude of muscle damage. Twelve untrained subjects performed a series of slow velocity isokinetic eccentric elbow flexions (SV: 30 degrees . s (-1)) of one arm and a fast velocity exercise (FV: 210 degrees . s (-1)) of the other arm, separated by 14 days. In order to standardise the time under tension (120 s) for the two conditions, the number of muscle actions for SV was 30 and 210 for FV. Criterion measures consisted of maximal voluntary torque for isometric, concentric (4 velocities) and eccentric contractions (2 velocities), range of motion (ROM) and relaxed elbow joint angle (RANG), upper arm circumference, muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity. Measures were taken before, immediately after, 0.5 hour and 24 - 168 hours (240 hours for CK) after each eccentric exercise protocol, and changes in the measures over time were compared between FV and SV by two-way repeated measures ANOVA. Both protocols resulted in significant decrements in isometric and dynamic torque (p < 0.01), but FV showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater reductions over time ( approximately 55 %) and a slower recovery compared to SV ( approximately 30 %). Significantly (p < 0.05) larger decreases in, and delayed recovery of, ROM and RANG were evident after FV compared to SV. FV had significantly (p < 0.05) larger increases in upper arm circumference and soreness compared to SV, and peak plasma CK activity was 4.5-fold greater (p < 0.05) following FV than SV. These results suggest that, for the same time under tension, fast velocity eccentric exercise causes greater muscle damage than slow velocity exercise in untrained subjects. PMID:16874584

Chapman, D; Newton, M; Sacco, P; Nosaka, K

2006-08-01

399

Functional significance of cortical NMDA receptors in somatosensory information processing.  

PubMed

N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated activity is required for whisker-related neural patterning in the rodent brain. Deletion of the essential NMDAR subunit NR1 gene in excitatory cortical neurons prevents whisker-specific barrel formation and impairs thalamocortical afferent patterning. We used electrophysiological and voltage-sensitive dye imaging methods to assess synaptic and sensory evoked cortical activity and immunohistochemistry to examine immediate early gene expression following whisker stimulation in cortex-specific NR1 knockout (CxNR1KO) mice. In mutant mice, layer IV neurons lacked NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents, and temporal summation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) was impaired. Barrel neurons showed both phasic and tonic responses to whisker deflection. The averaged tonic response in CxNR1KO mice was significantly less than that in control mice due to impaired EPSP temporal summation. Electrophysiological estimation of the number of thalamic neurons innervating single barrel neurons indicated a significant increase in CxNR1KO mice. Similarly, voltage-sensitive dye optical signals in response to whisker stimulation were widespread. Immediate early gene expression following whisker stimulation also showed a diffuse expression pattern in the CxNR1KO cortex compared with whisker-specific expression patterns in controls. Thus, when NMDAR function is impaired, spatial discrimination of whisker inputs is severely compromised, and sensory stimulation evokes diffuse, topographically misaligned activity in the barrel cortex. PMID:24047907

Lo, Fu-Sun; Akkentli, Fatih; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Erzurumlu, Reha S

2013-12-01

400

Case detection through school surveys in Greater Bombay.  

PubMed

Of the 55,502 students examined 214 were found to be suffering from leprosy, the case-detection rate being 3.9 per 1000. Age of the students showed no relation to the occurrence of leprosy. Sex of the student was significant. Leprosy was more common among the male students. Leprosy rate amongst Tamil and Urdu speaking students was significanlty more than amongst Marathi and other language groups. 98% of cases were tuberculoid, 2% cases intermediate and nil lepromatous. 4% of cases were bacteriologically positive. Over 99% of cases were without deformity 86% of cases were in early stages. In a significant number of leprosy cases the single lesion (presumably initial lesion) was on the covered parts of the body. PMID:1026823

Koticha, K K

1976-10-01

401

[Mild Cognitive Impairment: potential therapeutics].  

PubMed

Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is an emerging concept used to describe memory decline and probably attention disturbances in otherwise intellectually intact individuals. MCI may be considered in 12 to 15 p. 100 of the cases as announcing an Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Although still speculative, the debate concerning the drugs susceptible to normalize symptoms of MCI or to stop conversion to AD must be raised. For that purpose, several long term clinical trials are running (antioxidants, nootropics, anticholinesterasics.) and new molecules in the pipe-line should be assessed in patients with the diagnosis of MCI. PMID:12529584

Allain, H; Bentue-Ferrer, D; Belliard, S; Reymann, J-M; Djemaï, M; Merienne, M

2002-01-01

402

The seafloor off Greater Los Angeles: Visualizing Gigabytes of Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seafloor off the greater Los Angeles area was mapped with three different high-resolution multibeam echosounders over a period of three field seasons. The mapping was untaken to provide a base map for ongoing marine geological studies in the area. The combined data set covers the entire continental shelf and basin slope from as shallow as the 20-m isobath (in some places the 5-m isobath) on the inner shelf to the 800-m isobath on the basin floor. These data represent more than 5 billion georeferenced depth soundings that cover an area of more than 1000 km2. In addition, each depth sounding location has an associated acoustic backscatter value, thereby effectively doubling the data volume that needs to be visualized. And, when the land area DEM is draped with Landsat imagery, the dataset enlarges to more than 6 billion points. The data can be visualized with many standard GIS packages but statically investigating 2D map views of such a large dataset, one view at a time, is cumbersome and can be tedious. In addition, the bathymetric data have various spatial resolutions that depend on the water depth. A dynamically interactive 3D visualization package that allows georeferenced datasets of mixed spatial resolutions was chosen to enhance the interpretation phase of the dataset. Some of the capabilities of this software will be demonstrated during the presentation. The bathymetric data reveal the complex nature of this basin-margin environment. Large debris avalanches have scarred the basin slope off the Palos Verdes Peninsula. Undercutting along the base of the basin slope suggests current erosion. The morphologies of the submarine canyons in the area range in complexity from a simple single canyon channel, such as Redondo Canyon, to a complex system of canyon channels, such as Newport and San Gabriel Canyons. Distinctive small canyon morphologies suggests the possibility of fresh-water springs outcropping along the San Pedro upper basin slope and along the mid and lower basin slope. Large sections of the southern portion of the margin appear to be slowly creeping downslope. The continental shelves in the area vary from sediment covered with fields of bedforms to areas of rock outcrops. Linear trends of outcrops on the San Pedro shelf suggest previously unmapped structural trends. Very little of the floors of Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins have been mapped. However, the areas that have been mapped show a succession of channel downcuts that suggest tectonic uplift of San Pedro Basin as well as debris deposits and channel meanders.

Gardner, J. V.

2002-12-01

403

Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: heterogeneity and complexity.  

PubMed

The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by 'border malaria' and 'forest malaria' with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. 'Border malaria' is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is severely undermined due to high prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in target human populations. In the GMS, the dramatically different ecologies, diverse vector systems, and insecticide resistance render traditional mosquito control less efficient. Here we attempt to review the changing malaria epidemiology in the GMS, analyze the vector systems and patterns of malaria transmission, and identify the major challenges the malaria control community faces on its way to malaria elimination. PMID:21382335

Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

2012-03-01

404

Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ? 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (? 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ? 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (? 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments.

Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.

2011-01-01

405