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Sample records for significantly greater impairment

  1. Greater performance impairment of black runners than white runners when running in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Santos-Concejero, J; Tucker, R; Myburgh, K H; Essen-Gustavsson, B; Kohn, T A

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of performance-matched black and white runners during maximal and sub-maximal running in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. 14 well-trained runners (8 black, 6 white) performed 2 incremental maximal exercise tests and 2 fatigue resistance tests at 21% O2 (normoxia) or 14% O2 (hypoxia). Respiratory parameters, heart rate (HR), lactate concentration ([La(-)]) as well as arterial saturation (SpO2) were measured. Enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain content (MHC) were also measured. White runners reached a significantly greater peak treadmill speed and a higher HRmax than black runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Additionally, White runners achieved a greater time to fatigue than black runners (p<0.05), with black runners displaying a greater decline in performance in hypoxia compared to normoxia (20.3% vs. 13.4%, black vs. white, respectively). However, black runners presented lower [La(-)] and higher SpO2 than white runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Black runners had a higher proportion of MHC IIa and higher lactate dehydrogenase activity (p<0.05). The greater performance impairment observed in black runners in hypoxia suggests a greater performance sensitivity to this condition, despite the maintenance of physiological variables such as SpO2 and [La (-) ] within a smaller range than white runners. PMID:24577858

  2. Greater memory impairment in dementing females than males relative to sex-matched healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann

    2016-06-01

    Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls. PMID:26735615

  3. Cognitive Impairment in Individuals with Insomnia: Clinical Significance and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Fortier-Brochu, Émilie; Morin, Charles M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aims of this study were to (1) investigate the nature of cognitive impairment in individuals with insomnia, (2) document their clinical significance, (3) examine their correlates, and (4) explore differences among individuals with insomnia with and without cognitive complaints. Design: Participants underwent 3 consecutive nights of polysomnography. On the morning following the third night, they completed a battery of questionnaires and neuropsychological tests. Participants: The sample included 25 adults with primary insomnia (mean age: 44.4 ± 11.5 y, 56% women) and 16 controls (mean age: 42.8 ± 12.9 y, 50% women) matched for sex, age, and education. Intervention: N/A. Measurement and Results: Participants completed neuropsychological tests covering attention, memory, working memory, and executive functions, as well as questionnaires assessing the subjective perception of performance, depression, anxiety, fatigue, sleepiness, and hyperarousal. There were significant group differences for the attention and episodic memory domains. Clinically significant deficits were more frequent in the insomnia group. Within the insomnia group, individuals with cognitive complaints exhibited significantly poorer performance on a larger number of neuropsychological variables. All impaired aspects of performance were significantly associated with either subjective or objective sleep continuity, and some were also independently related to sleep microstructure (i.e., relative power for alpha frequencies) or selected psychological variables (i.e., beliefs or arousal). Conclusions: These findings suggest clinically significant alterations in attention and episodic memory in individuals with insomnia. Objective deficits were more pronounced and involved more aspects of performance in a subgroup of individuals with cognitive complaints. These deficits appear associated with sleep continuity, and may also be related to sleep microstructure and dysfunctional beliefs. Citation: Fortier-Brochu É, Morin CM. Cognitive impairment in individuals with insomnia: clinical significance and correlates. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1787-1798. PMID:25364074

  4. Frequent Amyloid Deposition Without Significant Cognitive Impairment Among the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Aizenstein, Howard Jay; Nebes, Robert D.; Saxton, Judith A.; Price, Julie C.; Mathis, Chester A.; Tsopelas, Nicholas D.; Ziolko, Scott K.; James, Jeffrey A.; Snitz, Beth E.; Houck, Patricia R.; Bi, Wenzhu; Cohen, Ann D.; Lopresti, Brian J.; DeKosky, Steven T.; Halligan, Edythe M.; Klunk, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the prevalence of amyloid deposition in a clinically unimpaired elderly population, as assessed by Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, and its relationship to cognitive function, measured with a battery of neuropsychological tests. Design Subjects underwent cognitive testing and PiB PET imaging (15 mCi for 90 minutes with an ECAT HR + scanner). Logan graphical analysis was applied to estimate regional PiB retention distribution volume, normalized to a cerebellar reference region volume, to yield distribution volume ratios (DVRs). Setting University medical center. Participants From a community-based sample of volunteers, 43 participants aged 65 to 88 years who did not meet diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer disease or mild cognitive impairment were included. Main Outcome Measures Regional PiB retention and cognitive test performance. Results Of 43 clinically unimpaired elderly persons imaged, 9 (21%) showed evidence of early amyloid deposition in at least 1 brain area using an objectively determined DVR cutoff. Demographic characteristics did not differ significantly between amyloid-positive and amyloid-negative participants, and neurocognitive performance was not significantly worse among amyloid-positive compared with amyloid-negative participants. Conclusions Amyloid deposition can be identified among cognitively normal elderly persons during life, and the prevalence of asymptomatic amyloid deposition may be similar to that of symptomatic amyloid deposition. In this group of participants without clinically significant impairment, amyloid deposition was not associated with worse cognitive function, suggesting that an elderly person with a significant amyloid burden can remain cognitively normal. However, this finding is based on relatively small numbers and needs to be replicated in larger cohorts. Longitudinal follow-up of these subjects will be required to support the potential of PiB imaging to identify preclinical Alzheimer disease, or, alternatively, to show that amyloid deposition is not sufficient to cause Alzheimer disease within some specified period. PMID:19001171

  5. Significantly greater reduction in breast cancer mortality from post-diagnosis running than walking.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of these analyses is to test prospectively whether post-diagnosis running and walking differ significantly in their association with breast cancer mortality. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to compare breast cancer mortality to baseline exercise energy expenditure (METs, 1 MET-hour ≅1 km run) in 272 runners and 714 walkers previously diagnosed with breast cancer from the National Runners' and Walkers' Health Studies when adjusted for age, race, menopause, family history, breastfeeding and oral contraceptive use. Diagnosis occurred (mean ± SD) 7.9 ± 7.3 years before baseline. Forty-six women (13 runners and 33 walkers) died from breast cancer during 9.1-year mortality surveillance. For the 986 runners and walkers combined, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 23.9% MET-hours/day [95% confidence interval (CI): 7.9-38.3%; p = 0.004]. There was a significantly greater decrease in risk for running than walking (risk per MET-hours/day run vs. walked: p = 0.03). For the 272 runners analyzed separately, breast cancer mortality decreased an average of 40.9% per MET-hours/day run (95% CI: 19.3-60.0%, p = 0.0004). When analyzed by categories of running energy expenditure, breast cancer mortality was 87.4% lower for the 1.8-3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 41.3-98.2% lower, p = 0.008) and 95.4% lower for the ≥3.6 MET-hours/day category (95% CI: 71.9-100% lower, p = 0.0004) compared to the <1.07 MET-hours/day category. In contrast, the 714 walkers showed a nonsignificant 4.6% decrease in breast cancer mortality per MET-hours/day walked (95% CI: 27.3% decreased risk to 21.3% increased risk, p = 0.71). These results suggest that post-diagnosis running is associated with significantly lower breast cancer mortality than post-diagnosis walking. PMID:24470442

  6. Impaired Fas-Fas Ligand Interactions Result in Greater Recurrent Herpetic Stromal Keratitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xiao-Tang; Keadle, Tammie L.; Hard, Jessicah; Herndon, John; Potter, Chloe A.; Del Rosso, Chelsea R.; Ferguson, Thomas A.; Stuart, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection of the cornea leads to a potentially blinding condition termed herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK). Clinical studies have indicated that disease is primarily associated with recurrent HSK following reactivation of a latent viral infection of the trigeminal ganglia. One of the key factors that limit inflammation of the cornea is the expression of Fas ligand (FasL). We demonstrate that infection of the cornea with HSV-1 results in increased functional expression of FasL and that mice expressing mutations in Fas (lpr) and FasL (gld) display increased recurrent HSK following reactivation compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, both gld and lpr mice took longer to clear their corneas of infectious virus and the reactivation rate for these strains was significantly greater than that seen with wild-type mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that the interaction of Fas with FasL in the cornea restricts the development of recurrent HSK. PMID:26504854

  7. Functional Literacy for Students with Visual Impairments and Significant Cognitive Disabilities: The Perspective of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports opinions and practices of teachers of students with visual impairments (TSVIs) in 34 states regarding functional literacy for students with visual impairments (VIs) and significant cognitive disabilities (SCDs). The survey asked TSVIs to select a definition of functional literacy, indicate agreement with a series of literacy…

  8. Functional Literacy for Students with Visual Impairments and Significant Cognitive Disabilities: The Perspective of Teachers of Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports opinions and practices of teachers of students with visual impairments (TSVIs) in 34 states regarding functional literacy for students with visual impairments (VIs) and significant cognitive disabilities (SCDs). The survey asked TSVIs to select a definition of functional literacy, indicate agreement with a series of literacy

  9. Prefrontal recruitment during social rejection predicts greater subsequent self-regulatory imbalance and impairment: neural and longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2014-11-01

    Social rejection impairs self-regulation, yet the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. The right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) facilitates self-regulation and plays a robust role in regulating the distress of social rejection. However, recruiting this region's inhibitory function during social rejection may come at a self-regulatory cost. As supported by prominent theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized that greater rVLPFC recruitment during rejection would predict a subsequent self-regulatory imbalance that favored reflexive impulses (i.e., cravings), which would then impair self-regulation. Supporting our hypotheses, rVLPFC activation during social rejection was associated with greater subsequent nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation and lesser functional connectivity between the NAcc and rVLPFC to appetitive cues. Over seven days, the effect of daily felt rejection on daily self-regulatory impairment was exacerbated among participants who showed a stronger rVLPFC response to social rejection. This interactive effect was mirrored in the effect of daily felt rejection on heightened daily alcohol cravings. Our findings suggest that social rejection likely impairs self-regulation by recruiting the rVLPFC, which then tips the regulatory balance towards reward-based impulses. PMID:25094019

  10. A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter; Johnson, Kirk R.; Zamuner, Alba B.; Rubn Cneo, N.; Matheos, Sergio D.; Singer, Bradley S.

    2007-10-01

    Few South American macrofloras of Paleocene age are known, and this limits our knowledge of diversity and composition between the end-Cretaceous event and the Eocene appearance of high floral diversity. We report new, unbiased collections of 2516 compression specimens from the Paleocene Salamanca Formation (ca. 61.7 Ma) from two localities in the Palacio de los Loros exposures in southern Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina. Our samples reveal considerably greater richness than was previously known from the Paleocene of Patagonia, including 36 species of angiosperm leaves as well as angiosperm fruits, flowers, and seeds; ferns; and conifer leaves, cones, and seeds. The floras, which are from siltstone and sandstone channel-fills deposited on low-relief floodplain landscapes in a humid, warm temperate climate, are climatically and paleoenvironmentally comparable to many quantitatively collected Paleocene floras from the Western Interior of North America. Adjusted for sample size, there are >50% more species at each Palacio de los Loros quarry than in any comparable U.S. Paleocene sample. These results indicate more vibrant terrestrial ecosystems in Patagonian than in North American floodplain environments 4 m.y. after the end-Cretaceous extinction, and they push back the time line 10 m.y. for the evolution of high floral diversity in South America. The cause of the dis parity is unknown but could involve reduced impact effects because of greater distance from the Chicxulub site, higher latest Cretaceous diversity, or faster recovery or immigration rates.

  11. Graphene oxide nanoribbons exhibit significantly greater toxicity than graphene oxide nanoplatelets.

    PubMed

    Chng, Elaine Lay Khim; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2014-09-21

    Graphene oxide (GOs) has emerged in recent years as a versatile nanomaterial, demonstrating tremendous potential for multifunctional biomedical applications. GOs can be prepared by the top-down or bottom-up approach, which leads to a great variability of GOs being produced due to the different procedures and starting carbon sources adopted. This will have an effect on the physiochemical properties of GOs and their resultant toxic behavior. In this study, we examined the cytotoxicity of graphene-oxide nanoribbons (GONRs; ?310 5000 nm) and graphene-oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs; 100 100 nm), prepared from the oxidative treatment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs; ?100 5000 nm) and stacked graphene nanofibers (SGNFs; 100 5000 nm), respectively. In vitro assessments revealed that the GONRs exhibited a much stronger cytotoxicity over the GONPs, and we correlated that observation with characterization data that showed GONRs to have a greater amount of carbonyl groups as well as greater length. Therefore, we put forward that the stronger toxic behavior of GONRs is a result of the synergistic effect between these two factors, and the type of carbon source used to prepare GOs should be carefully considered in any future bioapplications. PMID:25104246

  12. Allopatric tuberculosis hostpathogen relationships are associated with greater pulmonary impairment

    PubMed Central

    Pasipanodya, Jotam G.; Moonan, Patrick K.; Vecino, Edgar; Miller, Thaddeus L.; Fernandez, Michel; Slocum, Philip; Drewyer, Gerry; Weis, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Host pathogen relationships can be classified as allopatric, when the pathogens originated from separate, non-overlapping geographic areas from the host; or sympatric, when host and pathogen shared a common ancestral geographic location. It remains unclear if hostpathogen relationships, as defined by phylogenetic lineage, influence clinical outcome. We sought to examine the association between allopatric and sympatric phylogenetic Mycobacterium tuberculosis lineages and pulmonary impairment after tuberculosis (PIAT). Methods Pulmonary function tests were performed on patients 16 years of age and older who had received ?20 weeks of treatment for culture-confirmed M. tuberculosis complex. Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 min (FEV1) ?80%, Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) ?80% and FEV1/FVC >70% of predicted were considered normal. Other results defined pulmonary impairment. Spoligotype and 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) were used to assign phylogenetic lineage. PIAT severity was compared between hostpathogen relationships which were defined by geography and ethnic population. We used multivariate logistic regression modeling to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) between phylogenetic lineage and PIAT. Results Self-reported continental ancestry was correlated with Mycobacterium. tuberculosis lineage (p < 0.001). In multivariate analyses adjusting for phylogenetic lineage, age and smoking, the overall aOR for subjects with allopatric hostpathogen relationships and PIAT was 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1, 2.9) compared to sympatric relationships. Smoking >30 pack-years was also associated with PIAT (aOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.2) relative to smoking <1 pack-years. Conclusions PIAT frequency and severity varies by hostpathogen relationship and heavy cigarette consumption, but not phylogenetic lineage alone. Patients who had disease resulting from allopatrichostpathogen relationship were more likely to have PIAT than patients with disease from sympatrichostpathogen relationship infection. Further study of this association may identify ways that treatment and preventive efforts can be tailored to specific lineages and racial/ethnic populations. PMID:23501297

  13. Less wiring, more firing: low-performing older adults compensate for impaired white matter with greater neural activity.

    PubMed

    Daselaar, Sander M; Iyengar, Vijeth; Davis, Simon W; Eklund, Karl; Hayes, Scott M; Cabeza, Roberto E

    2015-04-01

    The reliable neuroimaging finding that older adults often show greater activity (over-recruitment) than younger adults is typically attributed to compensation. Yet, the neural mechanisms of over-recruitment in older adults (OAs) are largely unknown. Rodent electrophysiology studies have shown that as number of afferent fibers within a circuit decreases with age, the fibers that remain show higher synaptic field potentials (less wiring, more firing). Extrapolating to system-level measures in humans, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that greater activity in OAs compensates for impaired white-matter connectivity. Using a neuropsychological test battery, we measured individual differences in executive functions associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and memory functions associated with the medial temporal lobes (MTLs). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared activity for successful versus unsuccessful trials during a source memory task. Finally, we measured white-matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging. The study yielded 3 main findings. First, low-executive OAs showed greater success-related activity in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs showed greater success-related activity in the MTLs. Second, low-executive OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the MTLs. Finally, in both prefrontal and MTL regions, white-matter decline and success-related activations occurred in close proximity and were negatively correlated. This finding supports the less-wiring-more-firing hypothesis, which provides a testable account of compensatory over-recruitment in OAs. PMID:24152545

  14. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  15. Significantly shorter Fe-S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Krest, Courtney M; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; Yosca, Timothy H; Onderko, Elizabeth L; Calixto, Julio C; Green, Michael T

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate-ligated haem proteins that catalyse the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C-H bonds. To provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I using variable-temperature Mssbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe-S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe-S bond lengths can be understood in terms of variations in the hydrogen-bonding patterns within the 'cys-pocket' (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe-S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial thiolate ligand. This observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C-H bond activation. PMID:26291940

  16. Significantly shorter Fe-S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase

    PubMed Central

    Krest, Courtney M.; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; Yosca, Timothy H.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Calixto, Julio C.; Green, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate ligated heme proteins that catalyze the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C-H bonds. To provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I with variable temperature Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe-S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe-S bond lengths can be understood in terms of variations in hydrogen bonding patterns within the “cys-pocket” (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe-S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial-thiolate ligand. This observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C-H bond activation. PMID:26291940

  17. Significantly shorter Fe-S bond in cytochrome P450-I is consistent with greater reactivity relative to chloroperoxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krest, Courtney M.; Silakov, Alexey; Rittle, Jonathan; Yosca, Timothy H.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Calixto, Julio C.; Green, Michael T.

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) and chloroperoxidase (CPO) are thiolate-ligated haem proteins that catalyse the activation of carbon hydrogen bonds. The principal intermediate in these reactions is a ferryl radical species called compound I. P450 compound I (P450-I) is significantly more reactive than CPO-I, which only cleaves activated C-H bonds. To provide insight into the differing reactivities of these intermediates, we examined CPO-I and P450-I using variable-temperature Mssbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies. These measurements indicate that the Fe-S bond is significantly shorter in P450-I than in CPO-I. This difference in Fe-S bond lengths can be understood in terms of variations in the hydrogen-bonding patterns within the cys-pocket (a portion of the proximal helix that encircles the thiolate ligand). Weaker hydrogen bonding in P450-I results in a shorter Fe-S bond, which enables greater electron donation from the axial thiolate ligand. This observation may in part explain P450's greater propensity for C-H bond activation.

  18. The effects on significant others of providing a hearing aid to the hearing-impaired partner.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D N; Hallam, R S; Mellor, P A

    2001-06-01

    Communication is a shared experience which can be substantially affected by hearing impairment. Significant others may experience difficulties not only in direct communication but also in personal and social relationships. The present study was designed to investigate the impact on significant others of hearing loss in a partner and the benefits that accrued from the provision of personal amplification. The results suggested that before the provision of a hearing aid significant others experienced difficulties with person-to-person conversation, with group conversation and in viewing (listening to) television of the same order as did the hearing impaired individual. After appropriate intervention the difficulties were greatly reduced with resultant improvement in quality of life for both parties. PMID:11548043

  19. Clobazam and its active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam display significantly greater affinities for ??- versus ??-GABA(A)-receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Nichol, Kathryn; Lee, Deborah; Ebert, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    Clobazam (CLB), a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD), was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN) is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA ??-subunit-selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the ?? subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB), CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of ? (??, ??, ??, or ??), ??, and ?? subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for ??- vs. ??-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between ?? and ?? receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for ?? receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB. PMID:24533090

  20. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production are significantly impaired in striatal cells expressing mutant huntingtin.

    PubMed

    Milakovic, Tamara; Johnson, Gail V W

    2005-09-01

    There is significant evidence that energy production impairment and mitochondrial dysfunction play a role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease. Nonetheless, the specific mitochondrial defects due to the presence of mutant huntingtin have not been fully elucidated. To determine the effects of mutant huntingtin on mitochondrial energy production, a thorough analysis of respiration, ATP production, and functioning of the respiratory complexes was carried out in clonal striatal cells established from Hdh(Q7) (wild-type) and Hdh(Q111) (mutant huntingtin knock-in) mouse embryos. Mitochondrial respiration and ATP production were significantly reduced in the mutant striatal cells compared with the wild-type cells when either glutamate/malate or succinate was used as the substrate. However, mitochondrial respiration was similar in the two cell lines when the artificial electron donor TMPD/ascorbate, which feeds into complex IV, was used as the substrate. The attenuation of mitochondrial respiration and ATP production when either glutamate/malate or succinate was used as the substrate was not due to impairment of the respiratory complexes, because their activities were equivalent in both cell lines. Intriguingly, in the striatum of presymptomatic and pathological grade 1 Huntington disease cases there is also no impairment of mitochondrial complexes I-IV (Guidetti, P., Charles, V., Chen, E. Y., Reddy, P. H., Kordower, J. H., Whetsell, W. O., Jr., Schwarcz, R., and Tagle, D. A. (2001) Exp. Neurol. 169, 340-350). To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive analysis of the effects of physiological levels of mutant huntingtin on mitochondrial respiratory function within an appropriate cellular context. These findings demonstrate that the presence of mutant huntingtin impairs mitochondrial ATP production through one or more mechanisms that do not directly affect the function of the respiration complexes. PMID:15983033

  1. Spontaneous language production in bilingual Parkinson's disease patients: Evidence of greater phonological, morphological and syntactic impairments in native language.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Sergio; Tavano, Alessandro; Fabbro, Franco

    2010-05-01

    Nine early non-demented bilingual (L1 - Friulian, L2 - Italian) patients with Parkinson's disease and nine normal controls matched for age, sex and years of education were studied on a spontaneous language production task. All subjects had acquired L1 from birth in a home environment and L2 at the age of six at school formally. Patients with PD evidenced more phonological, morphological and syntactic errors in L1 than in L2. The opposite pattern was observed in normal controls as far as grammar was concerned. These findings suggest that implicit language processing is more impaired than explicit language processing in Parkinson's disease. PMID:20188407

  2. On the use of decision analysis in determining significant visibility impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Douglas G.; Rosenthal, Donald

    In the United States, the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments and subsequent regulations provide federal land managers with a responsibility to protect visibility against significant impairment within selected wildernesses, parks and other so-called mandatory Class I areas. This paper outlines a decision analysis approach to help in identifying critical decision points for federal land managers in determining the degree of visibility protection appropriate for Class I areas. The paper reviews visibility related responsibilities of Class I managers and describes options available to them. It also identifies current information and potential data on the economic and social values of air visibility which could be used with the decision tree approach and gives an overview of the state of the art of quantifying those values.

  3. Osteoarthritis of the knee or hip significantly impairs driving ability (cross-sectional survey)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advising patients about when they can drive after surgery is common practice after arthroplasty of the knee or hip. In the literature, the preoperative braking performance values of the patients are frequently taken as the safe landmark. We hypothesised that osteoarthritis (OA), the most frequent reason for arthroplasty, already compromises the ability to perform an emergency stop. We expected that both Reaction Time (RT) and Movement Time (MT) as components of the Total Brake Response Time (TBRT), would be prolonged in patients with OA of the knee or hip in comparison with healthy subjects. We also expected maximum pressure levels on the brake pedal to be reduced in such cases. Methods A real car cabin was equipped with pressure sensors on the accelerator and brake pedals to measure RT, MT, TBRT and maximum Brake Force (BF) under realistic spatial constraints. Patients with OA of the knee (right n?=?18, left n?=?15) or hip (right n?=?20, left n?=?19) were compared with a healthy control group (n?=?21). Results All measured values for TBRT in the control group remained below 600 ms. OA of the right hip or knee significantly prolonged the braking performance (right hip: TBRT p?=?0.025, right knee: TBRT p?impair driving ability (TBRT p?=?0.228). Intriguingly, OA of the left knee prolonged RT and MT to the same degree as OA on the contralateral side (RT p?=?0.001, MT p?impaired; OA can significantly increase the total braking distance. To ensure safe traffic participation the safety margin for TBRT should be strictly set, under our experimental conditions, at around 600 ms. Moreover, therapeutic approaches to OA, such as physiotherapy, and patients receiving surgery of the left knee should take into account that left knee OA can also impair driving ability. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: Project number of the ethics committee of the University of Tbingen: 268/2009BO2; 267/2009BO2. PMID:24433417

  4. Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the olfactory bulb impairs olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Ragu Varman, Durairaj; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-08-30

    Postsynaptic densities (PSDs) contain proteins that regulate synaptic transmission. We examined two important examples of these, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PSD-95, in regard to the functional role of early growth response gene-1 (egr-1) in regulation of olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). To test whether activation of egr-1 in the olfactory bulb (OB) is required for olfactory memory of these bats, bilaterally canulated individuals were infused with antisense (AS) or non-sense (NS)-oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) of egr-1, or with phosphate buffer saline (PBS), 2h before the olfactory training. Our results showed that behavioral training significantly up-regulates immediate early gene (IEG) EGR-1 and key synaptic proteins Synaptotagmin-1(SYT-1), CaMKII and PSD-95, and phosphorylation of CaMKII in the OB at the protein level per se. Subsequently, we observed that egr-1 antisense-ODN infusion in the OB impaired olfactory memory and down regulates the expression of CaMKII and PSD-95, and the phosphorylation of CaMKII but not SYT-1. In contrast, NS-ODN or PBS had no effect on the expression of the PSDs CaMKII or PSD-95, or on the phosphorylation of CaMKII. When the egr-1 NS-ODN was infused in the OB after training for the novel odor there was no effect on olfactory memory. These findings suggest that egr-1 control the activation of CaMKII and PSD-95 during the process of olfactory memory formation. PMID:22796292

  5. Women have significantly greater difference between central and peripheral arterial pressure compared with men: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Chester, Rebecca; Sander, Gary; Fernandez, Camilo; Chen, Wei; Berenson, Gerald; Giles, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Gender differences in the relationship between central and peripheral blood pressure (BP) are not well described. We sought to investigate gender differences between central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and peripheral systolic blood pressure (pSBP) in adults in the Bogalusa study population. This study enrolled adults in a cross sectional survey conducted in 2007 to 2010. BP was measured with a standard cuff and Omron applanation tonometer. Data were available from 876 participants. Participants were 57.9% female and 42.1% male (mean age, 43.54.4 years). Mean (standard deviation) for cSBP - pSBP was 1.0 (6.9) for males and 7.4 (5.2) for females (P < .001). Augmentation index (AI) was higher in women (men, 70.8 14 vs. women: 85.5 13; P < .01), as well as AI standardized to heart rate (HR) of 75 (AI@75; men, 68.5 13 vs. women, 84.4 11.8; P < .01). Female participants had greater difference between cSBP and pSBP than males. This suggests that, given similar peripheral BP, females might be at higher risk for developing target organ damage. Women in this study had higher AI, which may contribute to the difference found between cSBP and pSBP. These findings may explain why women have more age-related left ventricular hypertrophy, and poorer prognosis following myocardial infarction compared with males. PMID:23850194

  6. Women Have Significantly Greater Difference Between Central and Peripheral Arterial Pressure Compared to Men: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Rebecca Clark; Sander, Gary; Fernandez, Camilo; Chen, Wei; Berenson, Gerald; Giles, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Gender differences in the relationship between central and peripheral BP are not well described. We sought to investigate gender differences between central systolic blood pressure (cSBP) and peripheral systolic blood pressure (pSBP) in adults in the Bogalusa study population. Methods This study enrolled adults in a cross sectional survey conducted in 20072010. BP was measured with a standard cuff and Omron applanation tonometer. Data were available from 876 participants. Results Participants were 57.9% female and 42.1% male (mean age 43.5 years 4.4). Mean (SD) for cSBP-pSBP was 1.0 (6.9) for males and 7.4 (5.2) for females (p<0.001). Augmentation index (AI) was higher in women (men: 70.814 vs. women: 85.513; p<0.01), as well as augmentation index standardized to heart rate (HR) of 75 (AI@75) (men: 68.513 vs. women: 84.411.8; p<0.01). Conclusions Female participants had greater difference between cSBP and pSBP than males. This suggests that given similar peripheral BP females might be at higher risk for developing target organ damage. Women in this study had higher AI, which may contribute to the difference found between cSBP and pSBP. These findings may explain why women have more age-related left ventricular hypertrophy, and poorer prognosis following myocardial infarction compared to males. PMID:23850194

  7. Rethinking stimulation of brain in stroke rehabilitation: Why higher-motor areas might be better alternatives for patients with greater impairments

    PubMed Central

    Plow, Ela B; Cunningham, David; Varnerin, Nicole; Machado, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Stimulating the brain to drive its adaptive plastic potential is promising to accelerate rehabilitative outcomes in stroke. Ipsilesional Primary Motor Cortex (M1) is invariably facilitated. However, evidence supporting its efficacy is divided, indicating we may have over-generalized its potential. Since M1 and its corticospinal output are frequently damaged, in patients with serious lesions and impairments, ipsilesional premotor areas (PMA) could be useful alternates instead. We base our premise on their higher probability of survival, greater descending projections, and an adaptive potential, which is causal for recovery across the seriously impaired. Using a conceptual model, we describe how chronically stimulating PMA would strongly affect key mechanisms of stroke motor recovery, such as facilitating plasticity of alternate descending output, restoring inter-hemispheric balance, and establishing widespread connectivity. Although at this time it is difficult to predict whether PMA would be ‘better’, it is important to at least investigate whether they are reasonable substitutes for M1. Even if stimulation of M1 may benefit those with maximum recovery potential, while that of PMA may only help the more disadvantaged, it may still be reasonable to achieve some recovery across the majority rather than stimulate a single locus fated to be inconsistently effective across all. PMID:24951091

  8. Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.…

  9. Severe Affective and Behavioural Dysregulation Is Associated with Significant Psychosocial Adversity and Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jucksch, Viola; Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Lenz, Klaus; Goth, Kirstin; Dopfner, Manfred; Poustka, Fritz; Freitag, Christine M.; Lehmkuhl, Gerd; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holtmann, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recently, a highly heritable behavioral phenotype of simultaneous deviance on the Anxious/Depressed, Attention Problems, and Aggressive Behavior syndrome scales has been identified on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL-Dysregulation Profile, CBCL-DP). This study aims to investigate psychosocial adversity and impairment of the CBCL-DP.

  10. Use of Direct Instruction to Teach Reading to Students with Significant Cognitive Impairments: Student Outcomes and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanfush, Philip Michael, III.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with significant cognitive impairments make measurable gains in reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests--Revised when taught using Direct Instruction reading programs. Additionally, the study explored teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction

  11. Galantamine counteracts development of learning impairment in guinea pigs exposed to the organophosphorus poison soman: clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Mamczarz, Jacek; Kulkarni, Girish S; Pereira, Edna F R; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2011-12-01

    Galantamine, a drug used to treat Alzheimer's disease, protects guinea pigs against the acute toxicity and lethality of organophosphorus (OP) compounds, including soman. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a single exposure of guinea pigs to 1xLD50 soman triggers cognitive impairments that can be counteracted by galantamine. Thus, animals were injected intramuscularly with saline (0.5 ml/kg) or galantamine (8 mg/kg) and 30 min later injected subcutaneously with soman (26.3 ?g/kg) or saline. Cognitive performance was analyzed in the Morris water maze (MWM) four days or three months after the soman challenge. Fifty percent of the saline-injected animals that were challenged with soman survived with mild-to-moderate signs of acute toxicity that subsided within a few hours. These animals showed no learning impairment and no memory retention deficit, when training in the MWM started four days post-soman challenge. In contrast, animals presented significant learning impairment when testing started three months post-challenge. Though the magnitude of the impairment correlated with the severity of the acute toxicity, animals that presented no or only mild signs of toxicity were also learning impaired. All guinea pigs that were treated with galantamine survived the soman challenge with no signs of acute toxicity and learned the MWM task as control animals, regardless of when testing began. Galantamine also prevented memory extinction in both saline- and soman-challenged animals. In conclusion, learning impairment develops months after a single exposure to 1xLD50 soman, and galantamine prevents both the acute toxicity and the delayed cognitive deficits triggered by this OP poison. PMID:21784098

  12. Palmoplantar psoriasis is associated with greater impairment of health-related quality of life compared to moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jina; Duffin, Kristina Callis; Takeshita, Junko; Shin, Daniel B.; Krueger, Gerald G.; Robertson, Andrew D.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Van Voorhees, Abby S.; Edson-Heredia, Emily; Gelfand, Joel M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of palmoplantar psoriasis on health-related quality of life (QoL) is largely unknown. Objective To compare clinical characteristics and patient-reported outcomes between patients with palmoplantar psoriasis and moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with plaque psoriasis (N=1,153) and palmoplantar psoriasis (N=66) currently receiving systemic or light treatment for psoriasis. Results Patients with palmoplantar psoriasis were more likely to report Dermatology Life Quality Index scores that correspond to at least a moderate impact on QoL (odds ratio [OR] 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-3.61); problems with mobility (OR 1.98; 95% CI, 1.10-3.58), self-care (OR 3.12; 95% CI, 1.24-7.86), and usual activities (OR 2.47; 95% CI, 1.44-4.22) on the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions questionnaire; and heavy topical prescription use of at least twice daily in the preceding week (OR 2.81; 95% CI, 1.63-4.85) than those with plaque psoriasis. Limitations Our assessment tools may not account for all dimensions of health-related QoL affected by palmoplantar disease, and these results may not be generalizable to patients with milder forms of psoriasis. Conclusion Patients with palmoplantar psoriasis suffer from greater health-related QoL impairment and are more likely to report heavy use of topical prescriptions than those with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. PMID:24894455

  13. Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Brittany; Page, Stephen J.; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale's (NIHSS's) association with upper extremity (UE) impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM), and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant (P = ?0.204; p = 0.014) but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant (P = ?0.141; p = 0.089). Subjects scoring a zero on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity. PMID:24772367

  14. Endothelial Lipase Plasma Levels are Increased in Patients With Significant Carotid Artery Stenosis and History of Neurological Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Riederer, Monika; Trbui?, Matias; Degoricija, Vesna; Frank, Saa

    2012-01-01

    Background Endothelial lipase (EL) is a phospholipase expressed predominantly by vascular endothelial cells. The goal of the present study was to examine whether EL plasma levels in patients with carotid artery stenosis differ between those with previous history of neurological impairment and those without neurological symptoms. Methods EL plasma levels were measured by a competitive ELISA assay. Results EL plasma levels were significantly higher in the symptomatic, compared with the asymptomatic group (mean 489.61 145 ng/ml (n = 31) vs. 388.39 133 ng/ml (n = 24), t-test, P = 0.011). Conclusion We concluded that increased EL plasma levels reflect the patients' overall susceptibility for cerebrovascular events. Keywords Atherosclerosis; Carotid artery stenosis; Endothelial lipase; Neurological impairment; Carotid endarterectomy PMID:22383927

  15. Impaired Autophagy in Adult Bone Marrow CD34+ Cells of Patients with Aplastic Anemia: Possible Pathogenic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jinbo; Ge, Meili; Lu, Shihong; Shi, Jun; Yu, Wei; Li, Xingxin; Wang, Min; Zhang, Jizhou; Feng, Sizhou; Dong, Shuxu; Cheng, Xuelian; Zheng, Yizhou

    2016-01-01

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is a bone marrow failure syndrome that is caused largely by profound quantitative and qualitative defects of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these defects remain unclear. Under conditions of stress, autophagy acts as a protective mechanism for cells. We therefore postulated that autophagy in CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) from AA patients might be impaired and play a role in the pathogenesis of AA. To test this hypothesis, we tested autophagy in CD34+ cells from AA samples and healthy controls and investigated the effect of autophagy on the survival of adult human bone marrow CD34+ cells. We found that the level of autophagy in CD34+ cells from AA patients was significantly lower than in age/sex-matched healthy controls, and lower in cases of severe AA than in those with non-severe AA. Autophagy in CD34+ cells improved upon amelioration of AA but, compared to healthy controls, was still significantly reduced even in AA patients who had achieved a complete, long-term response. We also showed that although the basal autophagy in CD34+ cells was low, the autophagic response of CD34+ cells to “adversity” was rapid. Finally, impaired autophagy resulted in reduced differentiation and proliferation of CD34+ cells and sensitized them to death and apoptosis. Thus, our results confirm that autophagy in CD34+ cells from AA patients is impaired, that autophagy is required for the survival of CD34+ cells, and that impaired autophagy in CD34+ HPCs may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AA. PMID:26930650

  16. Partners met via sex parties present significantly greater odds for condomless anal sex among MSM: An event-level analysis of venues where male partners are met

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2014-01-01

    N=147 MSM completed time-line follow-back interviews about the venues where they met their male partners (n=1,180 sexual events with first-time partners, < 30 days). We ran multivariate models to determine the association between venues and condomless anal sex (CAS). After adjusting for known correlates of CAS, partners met at sex parties presented significantly greater odds for CAS, compared to meeting a partner at a gay bar/club (AOR=.44), online (AOR=.42), bathhouse (AOR=.35), or via “other” venues (AOR=.35), all p < .01. These findings highlight the need to develop innovative HIV/STI prevention initiatives for men who attend sex parties. PMID:25226209

  17. VEGF significantly restores impaired memory behavior in Alzheimer's mice by improvement of vascular survival

    PubMed Central

    Religa, Piotr; Cao, Renhai; Religa, Dorota; Xue, Yuan; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Westaway, David; Marti, Hugo H.; Winblad, Bengt; Cao, Yihai

    2013-01-01

    The functional impact of amyloid peptides (Aβs) on the vascular system is less understood despite these pathologic peptides are substantially deposited in the brain vasculature of Alzheimer's patients. Here we show substantial accumulation of Aβs 40 and 42 in the brain arterioles of Alzheimer's patients and of transgenic Alzheimer's mice. Purified Aβs 1–40 and 1–42 exhibited vascular regression activity in the in vivo animal models and vessel density was reversely correlated with numbers and sizes of amyloid plaques in human patients. A significant high number of vascular cells underwent cellular apoptosis in the brain vasculature of Alzheimer's patients. VEGF significantly prevented Aβ-induced endothelial apoptosis in vitro. Neuronal expression of VEGF in transgenic mice restored memory behavior of Alzheimer's. These findings provide conceptual implication of improvement of vascular functions as a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:23792494

  18. Myeloproliferative neoplasm patient symptom burden and quality of life: evidence of significant impairment compared to controls.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lesley A; James, Glen; Duncombe, Andrew S; Mesa, Ruben; Scherber, Robyn; Dueck, Amylou C; de Vocht, Frank; Clarke, Mike; McMullin, Mary F

    2015-10-01

    The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) including polycythaemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythaemia and primary myelofibrosis (PMF) are rare diseases contributing to significant morbidity. Symptom management is a prime treatment objective but current symptom assessment tools have not been validated compared to the general population. The MPN-symptom assessment form (MPN-SAF), a reliable and validated clinical tool to assess MPN symptom burden, was administered to MPN patients (n?=?106) and, for the first time, population controls (n?=?124) as part of a UK case-control study. Mean symptom scores were compared between patients and controls adjusting for potential confounders. Mean patient scores were compared to data collected by the Mayo Clinic, USA on 1,446 international MPN patients to determine patient group representativeness. MPN patients had significantly higher mean scores than controls for 25 of the 26 symptoms measured (P?significantly higher than PV patients (P?

  19. Cost and effectiveness of an eye care adherence program for Philadelphia children with significant visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Laura T; Snitzer, Melanie; Amos, Tony; Prioli, Katherine M; Steele, Deon; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    The follow-up rate among children with vision problems in the authors' outreach programs has been <5%. The authors therefore developed a social worker (SW) intervention, the Children's Eye Care Adherence Program (CECAP), for Philadelphia school children. The objective of this study was to measure CECAP's effectiveness and cost, as well as to identify barriers to care through a conceptual framework and geomapping software. A SW reviewed records to identify children needing follow-up and phoned families to identify and resolve barriers to eye care and scheduled appointments. Effectiveness was defined as the percent completing ? 1 follow-up visit within the physician-recommended time frame. Cost was measured for SW time (SW wage rates+benefits) and additional materials (forms, postage, phone charges). Barriers were organized into a conceptual framework depicting predisposing factors, system factors, and financial factors. Geomapping software was used to illustrate follow-up rates. In all, 120 patients required additional pediatric ophthalmic care; 71 patients were contacted and returned for care (59.2%); 49 patients were contacted but did not return (40.8%). SW time was 3h rs/patient for those who returned and 2 hrs/patient for those who did not return. Based on the CECAP program total cost ($14,249) and the reimbursement payment ($6265.66), the net cost of the CECAP program was $7983.59. Predisposing factors were the primary barrier theme for patients who did not follow up. CECAP significantly improved adherence to eye care but comes at an additional cost. Future efforts should focus on reducing operational efficiencies and targeting CECAP based on predictors of follow-up. PMID:25647611

  20. Extensive Gustatory Cortex Lesions Significantly Impair Taste Sensitivity to KCl and Quinine but Not to Sucrose in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bales, Michelle B.; Schier, Lindsey A.; Blonde, Ginger D.; Spector, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we reported that large bilateral gustatory cortex (GC) lesions significantly impair taste sensitivity to salts in rats. Here we extended the tastants examined to include sucrose and quinine in rats with ibotenic acid-induced lesions in GC (GCX) and in sham-operated controls (SHAM). Presurgically, immediately after drinking NaCl, rats received a LiCl or saline injection (i.p.), but postsurgical tests indicated a weak conditioned taste aversion (CTA) even in controls. The rats were then trained and tested in gustometers to discriminate a tastant from water in a two-response operant taste detection task. Psychometric functions were derived for sucrose, KCl, and quinine. Our mapping system was used to determine placement, size, and symmetry of the lesions (~91% GC damage on average). For KCl, there was a significant rightward shift (ΔEC50 = 0.57 log10 units; p<0.001) in the GCX psychometric function relative to SHAM, replicating our prior work. There was also a significant lesion-induced impairment (ΔEC50 = 0.41 log10 units; p = 0.006) in quinine sensitivity. Surprisingly, taste sensitivity to sucrose was unaffected by the extensive lesions and was comparable between GCX and SHAM rats. The fact that such large bilateral GC lesions did not shift sucrose psychometric functions relative to SHAM, but did significantly compromise quinine and KCl sensitivity suggests that the neural circuits responsible for the detection of specific taste stimuli are partially dissociable. Lesion-induced impairments were observed in expression of a postsurgical CTA to a maltodextrin solution as assessed in a taste-oriented brief-access test, but were not reflected in a longer term 46-h two-bottle test. Thus, deficits observed in rats after extensive damage to the GC are also dependent on the test used to assess taste function. In conclusion, the degree to which the GC is necessary for the maintenance of normal taste detectability apparently depends on the chemical and/or perceptual features of the stimulus. PMID:26599914

  1. Blood plasma IgG Fc glycans are significantly altered in Alzheimer's disease and progressive mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Susanna L; Yang, Hongqian; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Zubarev, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    Blood-based anti-amyloid-β (Aβ) immunoglobulins (IgGs) and peripheral inflammation are factors correlating with development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). IgG functionality can drastically change from anti- to pro-inflammatory via alterations in the IgG-Fc N-glycan structure. Herein, we tested if IgG-Fc glycosylation in plasma is indeed altered during the development of AD. Samples from age-matched subjects of 23 controls, 58 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI), 34 patients with progressive (P)MCI, and 31 patients with AD were investigated. Label-free shotgun proteomics was applied without glycoprotein enrichment. Glycans on peptides EEQYNSTYR (IgG1) and EEQFNSTFR (IgG2) were quantified, and their abundances were normalized to total IgGn glycoform abundance. Univariate and multivariate statistics were employed to investigate the correlations between the patients groups and the abundances of the IgG glycoforms as well as those of inflammatory mediating proteins. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found, with a lower abundance of complex galactosylated and sialylated forms in AD. For females, a decline in glycoform complexity correlated with disease progress but an inverse change was found in males prior to the onset of AD. Principal component analysis (PCA; Males: R(2)X(cum) = 0.65, Q(2)(cum) = 0.34; Females: R(2)X(cum) = 0.62, Q(2)(cum) = 0.36), confirmed the gender similarities (for controls, SMCI and AD) as well as differences (for PMCI), and showed a close correlation between pro-inflammatory protein markers, AD, female PMCI, and truncated IgG-Fc glycans. The differences observed between genders prior to the onset of AD may indicate a lower ability in females to suppress peripheral inflammation, which may lead to exacerbated disease progression. PMID:24028868

  2. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex

  3. Health-related quality of life is impaired in primary hyperparathyroidism and significantly improves after surgery: a prospective study using the 15D instrument

    PubMed Central

    Ryhnen, Eeva M; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Sintonen, Harri; Vlimki, Matti J; Roine, Risto P; Schalin-Jntti, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is frequently impaired in primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) but it is unclear if surgery is beneficial. The objective was to prospectively assess HRQoL in PHPT (n=124) with the 15D instrument before and after surgery, to compare it with that of a comparable sample of the general population (n=4295), and search for predictors of HRQoL and its change. HRQoL, and clinical and laboratory parameters were measured before and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Regression techniques were used to search for predictors of HRQoL and gains from treatment. Before surgery, PHPT patients had significantly lower mean 15D score compared to controls (0.813 vs 0.904, P<0.001). Excretion, mental function, discomfort and symptoms, distress, depression, vitality, and sexual activity were most impaired (all P<0.001). Number of medications (P=0.001) and subjective symptoms (P<0.05) but not calcium or parathyroid hormone (PTH) predicted impaired HRQoL. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) was of borderline significance (P=0.051). Compared to baseline, mean 15D score improved significantly 6 months after surgery (0.813 vs 0.865, P<0.001) and the effect sustained at 1 year (0.878, P<0.001). The improvement was clinically important in 77.4% of patients (P<0.001). Educational level independently predicted improvement (P<0.005). HRQoL is severely impaired in PHPT but improves significantly after surgery. The 15D is a sensitive tool for assessing HRQoL and recognizing patients likely to benefit from surgery. PMID:26155796

  4. Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 20092012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

  5. Significant head accelerations can influence immediate neurological impairments in a murine model of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gullotti, David M; Beamer, Matthew; Panzer, Matthew B; Chen, Yung Chia; Patel, Tapan P; Yu, Allen; Jaumard, Nicolas; Winkelstein, Beth; Bass, Cameron R; Morrison, Barclay; Meaney, David F

    2014-09-01

    Although blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI) is well recognized for its significance in the military population, the unique mechanisms of primary bTBI remain undefined. Animate models of primary bTBI are critical for determining these potentially unique mechanisms, but the biomechanical characteristics of many bTBI models are poorly understood. In this study, we examine some common shock tube configurations used to study blast-induced brain injury in the laboratory and define the optimal configuration to minimize the effect of torso overpressure and blast-induced head accelerations. Pressure transducers indicated that a customized animal holder successfully reduced peak torso overpressures to safe levels across all tested configurations. However, high speed video imaging acquired during the blast showed significant head accelerations occurred when animals were oriented perpendicular to the shock tube axis. These findings of complex head motions during blast are similar to previous reports [Goldstein et al., 2012, "Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy in Blast-Exposed Military Veterans and a Blast Neurotrauma Mouse Model," Sci. Transl. Med., 4(134), 134ra160; Sundaramurthy et al., 2012, "Blast-Induced Biomechanical Loading of the Rat: An Experimental and Anatomically Accurate Computational Blast Injury Model," J. Neurotrauma, 29(13), pp. 2352-2364; Svetlov et al., 2010, "Morphologic and Biochemical Characterization of Brain Injury in a Model of Controlled Blast Overpressure Exposure," J. Trauma, 69(4), pp. 795-804]. Under the same blast input conditions, minimizing head acceleration led to a corresponding elimination of righting time deficits. However, we could still achieve righting time deficits under minimal acceleration conditions by significantly increasing the peak blast overpressure. Together, these data show the importance of characterizing the effect of blast overpressure on head kinematics, with the goal of producing models focused on understanding the effects of blast overpressure on the brain without the complicating factor of superimposed head accelerations. PMID:24950710

  6. Recumbent Cross-Training Is a Feasible and Safe Mode of Physical Activity for Significantly Motor-Impaired Adults With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Lukasik, Leah; Muth, Timothy; Esposito, Phil; Haapala, Heidi; Gordon, Paul M.; IglayReger, Heidi; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of using recumbent cross-training for nonambulatory adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Design Observational. Setting Clinical center for CP treatment and rehabilitation. Participants Significantly motor-impaired adults with CP (NZ = 11) with a mean age ± SD of 36.3 ± 13.2 years and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) III and IV. Interventions Participants completed a 40-minute session of aerobic exercise using the NuStep Recumbent Cross Trainer, in which resistance was progressively increased at 5-minute intervals. Main Outcome Measures Every 5 minutes during the exercise session, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption (V.O2), energy expenditure, and respiratory exchange ratios (RERs) were recorded along with rating of perceived exertion. Immediately after, and 24 hours postexercise, participants received a standard survey to assess levels of pain and discomfort. Results All participants were able to complete the 40-minute exercise protocol. Five of the 11 participants achieved a heart rate of at least 60% maximum throughout the duration, 10 participants had a significant elevation in V.O2 from baseline, and all participants had elevated RER values. Six participants reported pain during exercise, but only 2 reported pain after exercise was over. Conclusions The NuStep Recumbent Cross Trainer is a feasible exercise modality for significantly motor-impaired adults with CP, GMFCS III and IV. Moreover, this mode was sufficient to stimulate a significant cardiorespiratory response in all participants, and thus it and similar devices may serve as a viable option for aerobic exercise interventions in this population, to prevent obesity and related cardiometabolic consequences. PMID:23063881

  7. DNA palindromes with a modest arm length of greater, similar 20 base pairs are a significant target for recombinant adeno-associated virus vector integration in the liver, muscles, and heart in mice.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Katsuya; Lewis, Susanna M; Wu, Xiaolin; Ma, Congrong; Munroe, David J; Fuess, Sally; Storm, Theresa A; Kay, Mark A; Nakai, Hiroyuki

    2007-10-01

    Our previous study has shown that recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector integrates preferentially in genes, near transcription start sites and CpG islands in mouse liver (H. Nakai, X. Wu, S. Fuess, T. A. Storm, D. Munroe, E. Montini, S. M. Burgess, M. Grompe, and M. A. Kay, J. Virol. 79:3606-3614, 2005). However, the previous method relied on in vivo selection of rAAV integrants and could be employed for the liver but not for other tissues. Here, we describe a novel method for high-throughput rAAV integration site analysis that does not rely on marker gene expression, selection, or cell division, and therefore it can identify rAAV integration sites in nondividing cells without cell manipulations. Using this new method, we identified and characterized a total of 997 rAAV integration sites in mouse liver, skeletal muscle, and heart, transduced with rAAV2 or rAAV8 vector. The results support our previous observations, but notably they have revealed that DNA palindromes with an arm length of greater, similar 20 bp (total length, greater, similar 40 bp) are a significant target for rAAV integration. Up to approximately 30% of total integration events occurred in the vicinity of DNA palindromes with an arm length of greater, similar 20 bp. Considering that DNA palindromes may constitute fragile genomic sites, our results support the notion that rAAV integrates at chromosomal sites susceptible to breakage or preexisting breakage sites. The use of rAAV to label fragile genomic sites may provide an important new tool for probing the intrinsic source of ongoing genomic instability in various tissues in animals, studying DNA palindrome metabolism in vivo, and understanding their possible contributions to carcinogenesis and aging. PMID:17686840

  8. Studies of IRAS sources at high galactic latitudes. I - Source counts at /b/greater than 60 deg and evidence for a north-south anisotropy of cosmological significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Walker, D.; Chester, T.; Soifer, T.; Fairclough, J.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the IRAS sky at b with an absolute value greater than 60 deg is conducted. Source counts at 12, 25, 60 and 100 microns are presented, and it is shown that emission from interstellar dust at 100 microns is localized to a few small areas of tathe galactic polar caps. At 12 and 25 microns, the sky is dominated by stars; at 60 and 100 microns, by galaxies. Comparison with the minisurvey source counts indicates the 12and 25-micron source denstiy is lower at the present latitude than at a latitude whereby the absolute value of b equals 10-40 deg. Due to the greatly reduced effects of emission from interstellar dust, the 100 micron survey reaches a factor 1.6 deeper in flux at the present latitude than the minisurvey. An anisotropy significant at the 4-sigma level was found between the north and south galactic polar caps at 60 and 100 microns, after exclusion of the Virgo cluster and of the few remaining areas significantly affected by interstellar-dust emission. It is suggested that this anisotropy represents a cosmologically significant anisotropy in the galaxy distribution. The scale of associated inhomogeneity is of the order of at least 100(50/H)Mpc.

  9. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  10. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90 %. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases. PMID:24414233

  11. Hearing Impairment and Retirement

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Mary E; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Pinto, Alex; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Dalton, Dayna S

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Many factors influence the decision to retire including age, insurance and pension availability along with physical and mental health. Hearing impairment may be one such factor. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to compare the 15 year retirement rate among subjects with and without hearing impairment. RESEARCH DESIGN Prospective, population-based study STUDY SAMPLE Subjects were participants in the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS), a longitudinal investigation of age-related hearing loss. Participants who were working full- or part-time in 19931995 were included (n=1410, mean age=57.8 years). DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data from four EHLS phases (19931995, 19982000, 20032005, and 20092010) were analyzed in 20102012. Hearing impairment was defined as a pure tone threshold average (at 0.5,1,2 and 4 kHz) greater than 25 dB HL in the worse ear. Employment status was determined at each of the four phases. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative incidence of retirement were calculated and Cox discrete-time modeling was used to determine the effect of hearing impairment on the rate of retirement. RESULTS The cumulative incidence of retirement was significantly (p < 0.02) higher in those with a hearing impairment (77%) compared to those without a hearing impairment (74%). After adjustment for age, gender, self-reported health, and history of chronic disease, there was no significant difference in the rate of retirement between those with and without a hearing impairment (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 0.7, 1.1). Similar results were observed when hearing aid users were excluded, when hearing impairment was based on the better ear thresholds, and when analyses were restricted to those less than 65 years of age and working full-time at baseline. Participants with a hearing impairment were less likely to state that the main reason for retirement was that the time seemed right. CONCLUSIONS Hearing impairment was found to be associated with a higher rate of retirement but the association was not independent of the effects of age, gender, and health. PMID:24828217

  12. A Combination Supplement of Fructo- and Xylo-Oligosaccharides Significantly Abrogates Oxidative Impairments and Neurotoxicity in Maternal/Fetal Milieu Following Gestational Exposure to Acrylamide in Rat.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Gokul; Divyashri, Gangaraju; Prapulla, S G; Muralidhara

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are demonstrated to confer a wide spectrum of physiological benefits during pregnancy. In view of this, focused attempts are being directed towards understanding their role as modulators of brain chemistry and behavior. Epidemiological studies have identified that exposure to neurotoxins during prenatal/early life can profoundly impact neurodevelopment/function. In this context, we have tested the hypothesis that a combination of prebiotic supplements during gestation has the propensity to attenuate acrylamide (ACR) induced oxidative impairments, mitochondrial dysfunction and neurotoxicity in maternal and fetal brain of rats. To achieve this, pregnant dams given oral supplements of a combination of fructo- and xylooligosaccharides (FOS+XOS, 3g/kg/day) during gestation days (GD 0-19) were exposed to ACR (200ppm in drinking water, GD 6-19). The behavioral analysis revealed that ACR dams fed prebiotics displayed higher exploratory behavior in the open field test. The prenatal evaluation showed that ACR-induced decrements of placental/fetal weights were markedly restored with prebiotic feeding. Prebiotics significantly offset markers of oxidative stress, restored enzymic antioxidants, cholinergic and mitochondrial function in the maternal and fetal brain. Concomitantly, prebiotics restored ACR-induced depletion in the levels of dopamine and ?-aminobutyric acid in the maternal cortex that positively correlated with cecal bacterial numbers. Collectively, these data suggest that prenatal prebiotic oligosaccharide supplements protect developing brain against oxidative stress-mediated neurotoxicity. While the underlying mechanism/s by which prebiotics abrogate the impact of neurotoxicants in the developing brain merits further studies, we speculate that it may be mediated predominantly through attenuation of oxidative stress and proliferation of enteric microbiota. PMID:26248513

  13. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ?8?sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24?hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24?hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2?hr, in addition to the standard 24?hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2?hr, but not 24?hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2?hr later. In the 24?hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock. PMID:24691725

  14. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiushi; Mller, Juliane S; Pang, Poh-Choo; Laval, Steve H; Haslam, Stuart M; Lochmller, Hanns; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed "limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates". CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells. PMID:26501342

  15. Global N-linked Glycosylation is Not Significantly Impaired in Myoblasts in Congenital Myasthenic Syndromes Caused by Defective Glutamine-Fructose-6-Phosphate Transaminase 1 (GFPT1)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiushi; Müller, Juliane S.; Pang, Poh-Choo; Laval, Steve H.; Haslam, Stuart M.; Lochmüller, Hanns; Dell, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1 (GFPT1) is the first enzyme of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. It transfers an amino group from glutamine to fructose-6-phosphate to yield glucosamine-6-phosphate, thus providing the precursor for uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) synthesis. UDP-GlcNAc is an essential substrate for all mammalian glycosylation biosynthetic pathways and N-glycan branching is especially sensitive to alterations in the concentration of this sugar nucleotide. It has been reported that GFPT1 mutations lead to a distinct sub-class of congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) termed “limb-girdle CMS with tubular aggregates”. CMS are hereditary neuromuscular transmission disorders in which neuromuscular junctions are impaired. To investigate whether alterations in protein glycosylation at the neuromuscular junction might be involved in this impairment, we have employed mass spectrometric strategies to study the N-glycomes of myoblasts and myotubes derived from two healthy controls, three GFPT1 patients, and four patients with other muscular diseases, namely CMS caused by mutations in DOK7, myopathy caused by mutations in MTND5, limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), and Pompe disease. A comparison of the relative abundances of bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary N-glycans in each of the cell preparations revealed that all samples exhibited broadly similar levels of branching. Moreover, although some differences were observed in the relative abundances of some of the N-glycan constituents, these variations were modest and were not confined to the GFPT1 samples. Therefore, GFPT1 mutations in CMS patients do not appear to compromise global N-glycosylation in muscle cells. PMID:26501342

  16. Learning to live with a loved one with mild cognitive impairment: effectiveness of a waiting list controlled trial of a group intervention on significant others' sense of competence and well-being.

    PubMed

    Banningh, Liesbeth W A Joosten-Weyn; Vernooij-Dassen, Myrra J F J; Vullings, Marjon; Prins, Judith B; Rikkert, Marcel G M Olde; Kessels, Roy P C

    2013-05-01

    This controlled study examines the efficacy of a comprehensive group program aimed at care partners of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which comprises elements of psychoeducation, cognitive rehabilitation, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Pre- and posttreatment quantitative and qualitative data were collected in the significant others of 84 patients with MCI, 27 of whom had first been assigned to a waiting list, thus serving as their own control group. Also, the significant others rated their sense of competence, well-being, distress, acceptance, helplessness, and awareness. Quantitative data analysis did not reveal statistically significant differences between the control and the intervention condition, but qualitative results suggest that at program completion the significant others reported gains in knowledge, insight, acceptance, and coping skills. In the present sample of significant others, the group intervention was not proven effective. Suggestions for program adjustments and alternative outcome measures are discussed. PMID:23528880

  17. Visual Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Visual Impairment KidsHealth > For Teens > Visual Impairment Print A ... with the brain, making vision impossible. What Is Visual Impairment? Many people have some type of visual ...

  18. More features, greater connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'. PMID:26548128

  19. Impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: inter-rater reliability and factor structure of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in patients, significant others and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Brian E.; Morrison, Todd G.; Barker, Lynne A.; Morton, Nicholas; McBrinn, Judith; Caldwell, Sheena; Wilson, Colin F.; McCann, John; Carton, Simone; Delargy, Mark; Walsh, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study sought to address two questions: (1) what is the inter-rater reliability of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) when completed by patients, their significant others, and clinicians; and (2) does the factor structure of the DEX vary for these three groups? Methods: We obtained DEX ratings for 113 patients with an acquired brain injury from two brain injury services in the UK and two services in Ireland. We gathered data from two groups of raterssignificant others (DEX-SO) such as partners and close family members and clinicians (DEX-C), who were psychologists or rehabilitation physicians working closely with the patient and who were able to provide an opinion about the patients level of everyday executive functioning. Intra-class correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated between each of the three groups (self, significant other, clinician). Principal axis factor (PAF) analyses were also conducted for each of the three groups. Results: The factor analysis revealed a consistent one-factor model for each of the three groups of raters. However, the inter-rater reliability analyses showed a low level of agreement between the self-ratings and the ratings of the two groups of independent raters. We also found low agreement between the significant others and the clinicians. Conclusion: Although there was a consistent finding of a single factor solution for each of the three groups, the low level of agreement between significant others and clinicians raises a question about the reliability of the DEX. PMID:25346668

  20. Three 15-min Bouts of Moderate Postmeal Walking Significantly Improves 24-h Glycemic Control in Older People at Risk for Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Loretta; Gribok, Andrei; Stevens, Michelle S.; Hamm, Larry F.; Rumpler, William

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three 15-min bouts of postmeal walking with 45 min of sustained walking on 24-h glycemic control in older persons at risk for glucose intolerance. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Inactive older (≥60 years of age) participants (N = 10) were recruited from the community and were nonsmoking, with a BMI <35 kg/m2 and a fasting blood glucose concentration between 105 and 125 mg dL−1. Participants completed three randomly ordered exercise protocols spaced 4 weeks apart. Each protocol comprised a 48-h stay in a whole-room calorimeter, with the first day serving as the control day. On the second day, participants engaged in either 1) postmeal walking for 15 min or 45 min of sustained walking performed at 2) 10:30 a.m. or 3) 4:30 p.m. All walking was on a treadmill at an absolute intensity of 3 METs. Interstitial glucose concentrations were determined over 48 h with a continuous glucose monitor. Substrate utilization was measured continuously by respiratory exchange (VCO2/VO2). RESULTS Both sustained morning walking (127 ± 23 vs. 118 ± 14 mg dL−1) and postmeal walking (129 ± 24 vs. 116 ± 13 mg dL−1) significantly improved 24-h glycemic control relative to the control day (P < 0.05). Moreover, postmeal walking was significantly (P < 0.01) more effective than 45 min of sustained morning or afternoon walking in lowering 3-h postdinner glucose between the control and experimental day. CONCLUSIONS Short, intermittent bouts of postmeal walking appear to be an effective way to control postprandial hyperglycemia in older people. PMID:23761134

  1. The Experience of Cognitive Impairment in People with Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen; Cupitt, Caroline; Lavender, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment has been widely studied in people with psychosis. However, research is lacking into the subjective experience of cognitive impairment, its impact and ways in which individuals cope. This study aimed to provide an account of the experience of cognitive impairment in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, including what difficulties people experience, how these difficulties are understood, how people respond to these difficulties and how they perceive others' views of these difficulties. A semi-structured interview was carried out with eight participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia focusing on participants' experiences of difficulties with cognitive functioning. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse interview transcripts. Experience of cognitive impairment was understood in terms of six master themes: impaired controlled thinking, physical sensations and impaired movement, explanations for the impairment and comparisons to the past, managing the impairment, how others see the impairment and anticipating the future. This study is the first rigorous qualitative study of the subjective experience of cognitive impairment in people with psychosis, and it provides greater context for empirical findings. The results have significant implications for clinical psychology, including education about cognitive difficulties and the importance of cognitive functioning to formulation. New areas for research include coping strategies in relation to functioning and future perspectives, ascertaining staff understanding of cognitive impairment, and reflective conversation style as an intervention for metacognitive difficulties. Key Practitioner Message Difficulties with cognitive functioning should be considered in clinical practitioners' formulations of clients' difficulties in the context of psychosis. Services should consider providing service user and carer education about cognitive impairment in psychosis. Staff may need further training in order to support people with psychosis who have difficulties with cognitive functioning. PMID:24281753

  2. Specific Language Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... SLI have significant communication problems, which are also characteristic of most children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Impairments in understanding and the onset of spoken language are common in both groups. No one knows ...

  3. Evaluation of impaired driving assessments and special management reviews in reducing impaired driving fatal crashes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fell, James; Auld-Owens, Amy; Snowden, Cecelia

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991, State Impaired-Driving Assessments (IDAs) and Special Management Reviews (SMRs) have been conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to serve as a mechanism to assess the impaired-driving problem in the State, document the existing system, recommend improvements, and garner both political and public support to fund and implement improvements. Did these assessments and reviews serve the States as intended and provide a catalyst to reduce impaired driving? Almost half of the priority recommendations from IDAs in seven States and 60% of the priority recommendations in SMR States were implemented. Barriers to the implementation of some recommendations are discussed. IDAs and SMRs implemented at varying times were examined using logistic regression analyses of the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for the years 1990 to 2008 to determine the effect they may have triggered on impaired driving rates in fatal crashes. States receiving IDAs and SMRs were compared to similar States not receiving them. Paired comparisons of similar States (e.g. IDA-State vs. non-IDA State) did not reveal any significant differences in impaired driving rates, but IDA and SMR States as a group showed significantly greater impaired driving declines in fatal crashes compared to non-IDA and non-SMR States as a group. IDAs and SMRs appear to provide a mechanism to examine the State's impaired-driving program by an external team of experts and reveal areas where improvement is needed and confirm strategies that appear to be effective. PMID:24406944

  4. [Cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Reuter, F; Audoin, B; Rico, A; Malikova, I; Ranjeva, J-P; Pelletier, J

    2009-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), occurring at all stages of the disease, even at the earliest, and can be a major source of disability, social impairment, and impoverished quality of life. Cognitive dysfunction is mainly focused on working memory, conceptual reasoning, verbal fluency, speed of information processing, attention and executive function. Measures of information-processing speed appear to be the most robust and sensitive markers of cognitive impairment in MS patients. Cognitive testing in MS patients is complex and cognitive screening tests are time- and cost-saving test instruments. A comprehensive and sensitive cognitive test procedure should be administered to detect cognitive dysfunction, and recent studies demonstrate that single, predominantly speed-related cognitive tests may be superior to extensive and time-consuming test batteries in screening cognitive decline. Additional clinical factors, including disease course, fatigue, and affective disturbance, can impact the degree of MS-related cognitive impairment. Despite weak correlation with disease duration and physical disability status, the degree of cognitive impairment in MS has been related to the extent of topographically specific neuronal tissue damage and loss. Numerous studies have applied conventional and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to correlate the profile and degree of cognitive impairment with various MRI-detectable abnormalities. The burden of MRI-visible lesions does not fully account for the degree of MS-related cognitive impairment. Nonconventional MRI findings suggest the extent of subtle tissue damage in normal-appearing white and grey matter to correlate best with the severity of cognitive impairment in MS patients. Structural MRI approaches have recently been extended by functional MRI studies scrutinizing the brain's ability for adaptive functional reorganization in the presence of widespread tissue damage. Cognitive impairment in MS seems to be not simply the result of tissue destruction, but also a balance between tissue destruction, tissue repair, and adaptive functional reorganization. These findings highlight the need to screen for cognitive deficits in MS patients to conduct potential cognitive rehabilitation intervention. PMID:19361675

  5. Hearing Impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  6. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  7. Verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia associated with cortical thinning

    PubMed Central

    Guimond, S.; Chakravarty, M.M.; Bergeron-Gagnon, L.; Patel, R.; Lepage, M.

    2015-01-01

    Verbal memory (VM) represents one of the most affected cognitive domains in schizophrenia. Multiple studies have shown that schizophrenia is associated with cortical abnormalities, but it remains unclear whether these are related to VM impairments. Considering the vast literature demonstrating the role of the frontal cortex, the parahippocampal cortex, and the hippocampus in VM, we examined the cortical thickness/volume of these regions. We used a categorical approach whereby 27 schizophrenia patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments were compared to 23 patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments and 23 healthy controls. A series of between-group vertex-wise GLM on cortical thickness were performed for specific regions of interest defining the parahippocampal gyrus and the frontal cortex. When compared to healthy controls, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments revealed significantly thinner cortex in the left frontal lobe, and the parahippocampal gyri. When compared to patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments, patients with ‘moderate to severe’ VM impairments showed a trend of thinner cortex in similar regions. Virtually no differences were observed in the frontal area of patients with ‘low to mild’ VM impairments relative to controls. No significant group differences were observed in the hippocampus. Our results indicate that patients with greater VM impairments demonstrate significant cortical thinning in regions known to be important in VM performance. Treating VM deficits in schizophrenia could have a positive effect on the brain; thus, subgroups of patients with more severe VM deficits should be a prioritized target in the development of new cognitive treatments. PMID:26909322

  8. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... people were killed in alcohol-impaired driving crashes, accounting for nearly one-third (31%) of all traffic- ... than were drivers with no alcohol in their system. (7% and 1%, respectively). 1 Top of ... Safe Driving Board on Pinterest Help spread ...

  9. Numerosity Impairment in Corticobasal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koss, Shira; Clark, Robin; Vesely, Luisa; Weinstein, Jessica; Anderson, Chivon; Richmond, Lauren; Farag, Christine; Gross, Rachel; Liang, Tsao-Wei; Grossman, Murray

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We assessed the representation of numerosity in corticobasal syndrome (CBS), a neurodegenerative condition affecting the parietal lobe. METHOD Patients judged whether a target numerosity (e.g., 3) falls between two bounding numerosities (e.g., 1 and 5). We manipulated the format for representing numerosity (Arabic numerals or dot arrays), the size of the gap between the two bounding numerosities, the absolute magnitude of the numerosities, and the order for presenting the bounding numerosities. In a subset of patients with available imaging, we related performance to cortical atrophy using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). RESULTS CBS patients were significantly impaired overall (65.7% 16.2 correct) compared to healthy seniors (96.6% 2.4 correct), and required three times longer than controls to judge correct stimuli. This deficit was equally evident for Arabic numeral and dot array formats. Controls were significantly slower with smaller gaps than larger gaps, consistent with the greater challenge distinguishing between numerosities that are more similar to each other than very different numerosities. However, CBS patients were equally slow and inaccurate for all gap sizes. Controls also were significantly slower with larger numerosities than smaller numerosities, but CBS patients were equally slow and inaccurate with all numerosity magnitudes. VBM revealed significant cortical atrophy in parietal and frontal regions in CBS compared to controls, including the intraparietal sulcus. CONCLUSIONS These observations are consistent with the claim that the representation of numerosity is degraded in CBS. PMID:20604622

  10. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  11. Familial Aggregation in Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallal, Paula; Hirsch, Linda S.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Miller, Steve; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher; Flax, Judy F.

    2001-01-01

    A case-control family study design examined the current language-related abilities of all biological, primary relatives of probands (N=22) with specific language impairment (SLI) and of matched controls. Impairment rates for family members of SLI probands was significantly higher than for controls. Also, impairment rates estimated from a family…

  12. Familial Aggregation in Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallal, Paula; Hirsch, Linda S.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Miller, Steve; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher; Flax, Judy F.

    2001-01-01

    A case-control family study design examined the current language-related abilities of all biological, primary relatives of probands (N=22) with specific language impairment (SLI) and of matched controls. Impairment rates for family members of SLI probands was significantly higher than for controls. Also, impairment rates estimated from a family

  13. Voting schemes offer greater reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, R.A.

    1997-06-01

    How does a mechanically driven chemical plant outperform its competitors? By running safely and reliably, that`s how. Today, when a critical pump fails, more often than not a standby pump is ready to be put into service. The process continues uninterrupted. Not so when an instrument fails. Instead, the process usually stops, product goes out-of-spec, customers wait for product, and engineers write investigation reports. This is especially true during startup and shutdown phases at chemical plants when incidents are most abnormally high. Safety systems have progressed significantly in reliability by advancing from a single programmable logic controller (PLC) concept to triplicated systems that can communicate digitally with a distributed control system (DCS) and be programmed with a high degree of reliability. Field devices have not kept pace. Critical instruments have basically been single-loop control or trip points. Emergency shutdown (ESD) functions have gained independence control or trip points. Emergency shutdown (ESD) functions have gained independence from control points, but, in so doing, have added components that may fail and falsely trip a unit off-line. We know that parts and devices fail. We know there are costs associated with frivolous trips due to such failures. Now we must recognize that the costs associated with frivolous trips (lost product and profit) could be significantly reduced or eliminated by upgrading systems to include redundant transmitters. Combining this redundancy with an appropriate voting scheme for generating trips will produce even higher probabilities of success and minimize costs even more. This article examines four ESD voting schemes: one of one, one of two, two of two, and two of three. One of three, one of four, and so forth will not be described because as the number of transmitters increases in a one-of-x scheme, the likelihood of a false trip goes to 100%.

  14. Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS): context.

    PubMed

    O'Shannassy, Teresa O

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology and outcome of malaria control initiatives are affected by a great diversity of factors including environment, economy and politics, to name but a few. Nowhere is this more obvious than in the GMS, where the rapid pace of economic development that has occurred over the past decade has brought with it a raft of changes to environment, employment, transport, communication, and demography and wealth patterns. The GMS, as a subregion, continues to gain increasing political and economic significance and has the potential to become one of the fastest growing regions in the world. While the pace of change is impressive, it has also brought with it new challenges in the fight against malaria. On the one hand, improvement in transport networks such as roads and railways, facilitates increased cross-border trade and development, on the other hand such improvements are likely to result in a massive increase in population movements across borders. As travel becomes easier the numbers of migrant workers moving between areas of high and low transmission, also expands, further increasing the risk of the spread of resistant malaria strains. In addition, the increase in large infrastructure projects such as the construction of dams, as well as agricultural plantations, also potentially lead to changes in vector behavior with unknown consequences for malaria transmission. Effectively addressing the new challenges to malaria control will require renewed commitment, coordination and better collaboration between all sectors from governments and non government organizations in the GMS. PMID:24159829

  15. Association between handgrip strength and cognitive impairment in elderly Koreans: a population-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae Yong; Kim, Junghoon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between handgrip strength and mild cognitive impairment in elderly adults. [Subjects] Study participants included 2,982 adults (1,366 males and 1,616 females), aged 65 years or older. [Methods] This population-based cross-sectional study used the baseline database from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. [Results] The odds ratio for mild cognitive impairment showed a significant linear decrease in relation to the quartile of handgrip strength, independent of potential covariates, in both men and women. Moreover, after excluding incident cases of mild cognitive impairment, the results showed that greater handgrip strength was associated with higher cognitive function scores in the elderly. [Conclusion] The findings presented here suggest that handgrip strength is associated with a risk of mild cognitive impairment in the Korean elderly. Moreover, greater handgrip strength is associated with higher cognitive function in cognitively normal elderly individuals. PMID:26834379

  16. [Sarcopenia: prevalence, detection, clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Bezdenezhnykh, A V; Sumin, A N

    2012-01-01

    Population aging is a most important demographic process in the recent decades. The elderly subjects constitute an increasingly greater fraction of the patients staying at multifield hospitals. They are characterized not only by having multiple pathologies but also by age-related changes in peripheral tissues. These physiological changes may considerably aggravate the clinical conditions of the patients. One of the processes accompanying aging is sarcopenia or the loss of muscular mass leading to deterioration of the quality of life and physical independence, disablement and a poor life prognosis. Sarcopenia has been extensively studied in recent decades with reference to it social and economic consequences. At the same time the efficacy of measures designed to control sarcopenia is impaired by concomitant diseases and age-related changes in the muscular tissue. The problem of sarcopenia is insufficiently dealt with in the Russian-language literature despite its clinical significance. This review is intended for a wide circle of clinicians dealing with aged patients in their practical work. PMID:23285756

  17. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs All Vision Impairment Listen Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  18. Cortical Visual Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Eye Terms Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Cortical Visual Impairment En Español Read in Chinese What is cortical visual impairment? Cortical visual impairment ( ...

  19. Sandflies in the Greater Athens region, Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, B; Tselentis, Y

    1994-06-01

    During the period from May to October 1992, a survey of phlebotomine sandflies was conducted in the Greater Athens region where cases of human and canine leishmaniasis occur. Using castor-oil paper traps, a total of 3015 sandflies were caught. Of the identified specimens, 1002 (34.1%) were Phlebotomus neglectus, 541 (18.4%) were P. papatasi, 182 (6.2%) were P. tobbi, 50 (1.7%) were P. simici, 30 (1.0%) were P. alexandri, 3(0.4%) were P. sergenti and 1122 (38.2%) were Sergentomyia minuta. The seasonal activity of most Phlebotomus species was bimodal, while that of S. minuta was unimodal. The population density of sandflies varied significantly in different localities; it was low in most of the stations and high in some stations in the outskirts. Among the potential vectors of Leishmania spp., P. neglectus and P. Papatasi were the most widespread species. The former species showed high density in 12 of the 70 sampled stations, while the latter in only 4. Hence, the risk of transmission of sandfly-borne diseases is still present in the Greater Athens region. PMID:9140480

  20. Is statistical significance always significant?

    PubMed

    Koretz, Ronald L

    2005-06-01

    One way in which we learn new information is to read the medical literature. Whether or not we do primary research, it is important to be able to read literature in a critical fashion. A seemingly simple concept in reading is to interpret p values. For most of us, if we find a p value that is <.05, we take the conclusion to heart and quote it at every opportunity. If the p value is >.05, we discard the paper and look elsewhere for useful information. Unfortunately, this is too simplistic an approach. The real utility of p values is to consider them within the context of the experiment being performed. Defects in study design can make an interpretation of a p value useless. One has to be wary of type I (seeing a "statistically significant" difference just because of chance) and type II (failing to see a difference that really exists) errors. Examples of the former are publication bias and the performance of multiple analyses; the latter refers to a trial that is too small to demonstrate the difference. Finding significant differences in surrogate or intermediate endpoints may not help us. We need to know if those endpoints reflect the behavior of clinical endpoints. Selectively citing significant differences and disregarding studies that do not find them is inappropriate. Small differences, even if they are statistically significant, may require too much resource expenditure to be clinically useful. This article explores these problems in depth and attempts to put p values in the context of studies. PMID:16207667

  1. The association between disability and cognitive impairment in an elderly Tanzanian population.

    PubMed

    Dotchin, Catherine L; Paddick, Stella-Maria; Gray, William K; Kisoli, Aloyce; Orega, Golda; Longdon, Anna R; Chaote, Paul; Dewhurst, Felicity; Dewhurst, Matthew; Walker, Richard W

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is thought to be a major cause of disability worldwide, though data from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are sparse. This study aimed to investigate the association between cognitive impairment and disability in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults living in Tanzania. The study cohort of 296 people aged 70years and over was recruited as part of a dementia prevalence study. Subjects were diagnosed as having dementia or mild cognitive impairment according to the DSM-IV criteria. Disability level was assessed according to the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule, version 2.0 (WHODAS). A higher WHODAS score indicates greater disability. The median WHODAS in the background population was 25.0; in those with dementia and in those with mild cognitive impairment, 72 of 78 (92.3%) and 41 of 46 (89.1%), respectively, had a WHODAS score above this level. The presence of dementia, mild cognitive impairment, hearing impairment, being unable to walk without an aid and not having attended school were independent predictors of having a WHODAS score above 25.0, though age and gender were not. In summary, cognitive impairment is a significant predictor of disability in elderly Tanzanians. Screening for early signs of cognitive decline would allow management strategies to be put in place that may reduce the associated disability burden. PMID:25700924

  2. Impaired Financial Abilities in Parkinsons Disease Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Roy C.; Triebel, Kristen; Kennedy, Richard E.; Nicholas, Anthony P.; Watts, Ray L.; Stover, Natividad; Brandon, Mariko; Marson, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Financial capacity (FC) is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) critical to independent functioning and sensitive to cognitive impairment in dementia. Little is known about FC in cognitively impaired patients with Parkinsons disease (PD). The present study investigated FC in PD patients with prodromal and clinical dementia. Methods Participants were 20 older controls and 35 PD patients who met consensus criteria for either mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI, n=18) or PD dementia (PDD, n=17). FC was assessed using a standardized performance based measure consisting of 9 domain and two global scores (Financial Capacity Instrument; FCI)(1). FCI domain and global performance scores were compared across groups. Capacity impairment ratings (no impairment, mild/moderate impairment, severe impairment) were calculated for each PD patients domain and global scores. Results Relative to controls, PD-MCI patients were impaired on both FCI global scores and domains of basic monetary skills, financial concepts, and investment decision-making. Relative to both controls and PD-MCI patients, PDD patients were impaired on virtually all FCI variables. With respect to impairment ratings, greater than 50% of PD-MCI patients and greater than 90% of PDD patients were classified as either mild/moderate or severely impaired on the two FCI global scores. Conclusions Impairment of financial capacity is already present in PD-MCI and is advanced in PDD. Complex cognitively-mediated IADLs such as financial capacity appear to be impaired early in the course of PD dementia. PMID:23899743

  3. What constitutes clinically significant binge eating? Association between binge features and clinical validators in college-age women

    PubMed Central

    Vannucci, Anna; Theim, Kelly R.; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Genkin, Brooke; Rizk, Marianne; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki O.; Sinton, Meghan M.; Aspen, Vandana; Wilfley, Denise E.; Taylor, C. Barr

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between binge features and clinical validators. Method The Eating Disorder Examination assessed binge features in a sample of 549 college-age women: loss of control (LOC) presence, binge frequency, binge size, indicators of impaired control, and LOC severity. Clinical validators were self-reported clinical impairment and current psychiatric comorbidity, as determined via a semistructured interview. Results Compared with women without LOC, those with LOC had significantly greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and comorbidity (ps < 0.001). Among women with LOC (n = 252), the indicators of impaired control and LOC severity, but not binge size or frequency, were associated with greater odds of reporting clinical impairment and/or comorbidity (ps < 0.05). Discussion Findings confirm that the presence of LOC may be the hallmark feature of binge eating. Further, dimensional ratings about the LOC experienceand possibly the indicators of impaired controlmay improve reliable identification of clinically significant binge eating. PMID:23386591

  4. Neural Correlates of True and False Memory in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M.; Riddell, Patricia M.; Ellis, Judi A.; Freeman, Jayne E.; Nasuto, Slawomir J.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate the changes in neural processing in mild cognitive impairment. We measured phase synchrony, amplitudes, and event-related potentials in veridical and false memory to determine whether these differed in participants with mild cognitive impairment compared with typical, age-matched controls. Empirical mode decomposition phase locking analysis was used to assess synchrony, which is the first time this analysis technique has been applied in a complex cognitive task such as memory processing. The technique allowed assessment of changes in frontal and parietal cortex connectivity over time during a memory task, without a priori selection of frequency ranges, which has been shown previously to influence synchrony detection. Phase synchrony differed significantly in its timing and degree between participant groups in the theta and alpha frequency ranges. Timing differences suggested greater dependence on gist memory in the presence of mild cognitive impairment. The group with mild cognitive impairment had significantly more frontal theta phase locking than the controls in the absence of a significant behavioural difference in the task, providing new evidence for compensatory processing in the former group. Both groups showed greater frontal phase locking during false than true memory, suggesting increased searching when no actual memory trace was found. Significant inter-group differences in frontal alpha phase locking provided support for a role for lower and upper alpha oscillations in memory processing. Finally, fronto-parietal interaction was significantly reduced in the group with mild cognitive impairment, supporting the notion that mild cognitive impairment could represent an early stage in Alzheimer’s disease, which has been described as a ‘disconnection syndrome’. PMID:23118992

  5. Diagnostic Value of the Impairment of Olfaction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casjens, Swaantje; Eckert, Angelika; Woitalla, Dirk; Ellrichmann, Gisa; Turewicz, Michael; Stephan, Christian; Eisenacher, Martin; May, Caroline; Meyer, Helmut E.; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Background Olfactory impairment is increasingly recognized as an early symptom in the development of Parkinson's disease. Testing olfactory function is a non-invasive method but can be time-consuming which restricts its application in clinical settings and epidemiological studies. Here, we investigate odor identification as a supportive diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease and estimate the performance of odor subsets to allow a more rapid testing of olfactory impairment. Methodology/Principal Findings Odor identification was assessed with 16 Sniffin' sticks in 148 Parkinson patients and 148 healthy controls. Risks of olfactory impairment were estimated with proportional odds models. Random forests were applied to classify Parkinson and non-Parkinson patients. Parkinson patients were rarely normosmic (identification of more than 12 odors; 16.8%) and identified on average seven odors whereas the reference group identified 12 odors and showed a higher prevalence of normosmy (31.1%). Parkinson patients with rigidity dominance had a twofold greater prevalence of olfactory impairment. Disease severity was associated with impairment of odor identification (per score point of the Hoehn and Yahr rating OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.26–2.77). Age-related impairment of olfaction showed a steeper gradient in Parkinson patients. Coffee, peppermint, and anise showed the largest difference in odor identification between Parkinson patients and controls. Random forests estimated a misclassification rate of 22.4% when comparing Parkinson patients with healthy controls using all 16 odors. A similar rate (23.8%) was observed when only the three aforementioned odors were applied. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that testing odor identification can be a supportive diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease. The application of only three odors performed well in discriminating Parkinson patients from controls, which can facilitate a wider application of this method as a point-of-care test. PMID:23696904

  6. Impairment of Endothelial Function by Little Cigar Secondhand Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaoyin; Narayan, Shilpa; Glantz, Stanton A.; Schick, Suzaynn F.; Springer, Matthew L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Little cigars and cigarillos are gaining in popularity as cigarette use wanes, mainly due to relaxed regulatory standards that make them cheaper, easier to buy individually, and available in a variety of flavors not allowed in cigarettes. To address whether they should be regulated as strictly as cigarettes, we investigated whether little cigar secondhand smoke (SHS) decreases vascular endothelial function like that of cigarettes. Methods We exposed rats to SHS from little cigars, cigarettes, or chamber air, for 10 minutes and measured the resulting acute impairment of arterial flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Results SHS from both little cigars and cigarettes impaired FMD. Impairment was greater after exposure to little cigar SHS than by cigarette SHS relative to pre-exposure values, although the post-exposure FMD values were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions Exposure to little cigar SHS leads to impairment of FMD that is at least equal to that resulting from similar levels of cigarette SHS. Our findings support the need to prevent even brief exposure to little cigar SHS, and support tobacco control policies that regulate little cigars as strictly as cigarettes. PMID:26753171

  7. Greater Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation in Hippocampus of Aged Rats Sensitizes Microglia

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Ruth M.; Thompson, Vanessa M.; Kitt, Meagan M.; Amat, Jose; Hale, Matthew W.; Frank, Matthew G.; Crysdale, Nicole Y.; Stamper, Christopher E.; Hennessey, Patrick A.; Watkins, Linda R.; Spencer, Robert L.; Lowry, Christopher A.; Maier, Steven F.

    2014-01-01

    Healthy aging individuals are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following an immune challenge than are younger adults. These challenges produce a brain inflammatory response that is exaggerated with age. Sensitized microglia found in the normal aging brain are responsible for this amplified response, which in turn interferes with processes involved in memory formation. Here, we examine factors that may lead aging to sensitize microglia. Aged rats exhibited higher CORT levels in the hippocampus, but not in plasma, throughout the daytime (diurnal inactive phase). These elevated hippocampal CORT levels were associated with increased hippocampal 11β-HSD1 protein expression, the enzyme that catalyzes glucocorticoid formation, and greater hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Intracisternal administration of mifepristone, a GR antagonist, effectively reduced immune-activated proinflammatory responses, specifically from hippocampal microglia, and prevented E. coli-induced memory impairments in aged rats. Voluntary exercise as a therapeutic intervention significantly reduced total hippocampal GR expression. These data strongly suggest that increased GR activation in the aged hippocampus plays a critical role in sensitizing microglia. PMID:25559333

  8. Endocrine Disruptors and Childhood Social Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Miodovnik, Amir; Engel, Stephanie M.; Zhu, Chenbo; Ye, Xiaoyun; Soorya, Latha V.; Silva, Manori J.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors has the potential to impact early brain development. Neurodevelopmental toxicity in utero may manifest as psychosocial deficits later in childhood. This study investigates prenatal exposure to two ubiquitous endocrine disruptors, the phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA), and social behavior in a sample of adolescent inner-city children. Third trimester urines of women enrolled in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study between 1998 and 2002 (n = 404) were analyzed for phthalate metabolites and BPA. Mother-child pairs were asked to return for a follow-up assessment when the child was between the ages of 7 to 9 years. At this visit, mothers completed the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) (n = 137), a quantitative scale for measuring the severity of social impairment related to Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in the general population. In adjusted general linear models increasing log-transformed low molecular weight phthalate (LMW) metabolite concentrations were associated with greater social deficits (? = 1.53, 95% CI 0.25-2.8). Among the subscales, LMWP were also associated with poorer Social Cognition (? = 1.40, 95% CI 0.1-2.7); Social Communication (? = 1.86, 95% CI 0.5-3.2) and Social Awareness (? = 1.25, 95% CI 0.1-2.4), but not for Autistic Mannerisms or Social Motivation. No significant association with BPA was found (? = 1.18, 95% CI: -0.75, 3.11). Prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with childhood social impairment in a multiethnic urban population. Even mild degrees of impaired social functioning in otherwise healthy individuals can have very important adverse effects over a child's lifetime. These results extend our previous finding of atypical neonatal and early childhood behaviors in relation to prenatal phthalate exposure. PMID:21182865

  9. Dimethylfumarate Impairs Neutrophil Functions.

    PubMed

    Mller, Susen; Behnen, Martina; Bieber, Katja; Mller, Sonja; Hellberg, Lars; Witte, Mareike; Hnsel, Martin; Zillikens, Detlef; Solbach, Werner; Laskay, Tams; Ludwig, Ralf J

    2016-01-01

    Host defense against pathogens relies on neutrophil activation. Inadequate neutrophil activation is often associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. Neutrophils also constitute a significant portion of infiltrating cells in chronic inflammatory diseases, for example, psoriasis and multiple sclerosis. Fumarates improve the latter diseases, which so far has been attributed to the effects on lymphocytes and dendritic cells. Here, we focused on the effects of dimethylfumarate (DMF) on neutrophils. Invitro, DMF inhibited neutrophil activation, including changes in surface marker expression, reactive oxygen species production, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, and migration. Phagocytic ability and autoantibody-induced, neutrophil-dependent tissue injury exvivo was also impaired by DMF. Regarding the mode of action, DMF modulates-in a stimulus-dependent manner-neutrophil activation using the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt-p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 pathways. For invivo validation, mouse models of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by autoantibodies to type VII collagen, were employed. In the presence of DMF, blistering induced by injection of anti-type VII collagen antibodies into mice was significantly impaired. DMF treatment of mice with clinically already-manifested epidermolysis bullosa acquisita led to disease improvement. Collectively, we demonstrate a profound inhibitory activity of DMF on neutrophil functions. These findings encourage wider use of DMF in patients with neutrophil-mediated diseases. PMID:26763431

  10. Selecting Assistive Technology for Greater Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lueck, Amanda Hall; Dote-Kwan, Jamie; Senge, Jeffrey C.; Clarke, Linda

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses a systematic method for selecting assistive technology that enhances or enables people with visual impairments to perform literacy skills. The method identifies critical tasks, personal preferences and abilities, and the relationship of visual, auditory, or tactile media needs to the critical tasks and personal preferences.…

  11. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,

  12. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

  13. Mild Cognitive Impairment and Susceptibility to Scams in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Han, S. Duke; Boyle, Patricia A.; James, Bryan D.; Yu, Lei; Bennett, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Falling victim to financial scams can have a significant impact upon social and financial wellbeing and independence. A large proportion of scam victims are older adults, but whether older victims with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are at higher risk remains unknown. Objective We tested the hypothesis that older persons with MCI exhibit greater susceptibility to scams compared to those without cognitive impairment. Methods Seven hundred and thirty older adults without dementia were recruited from the Rush Memory and Aging Project, a community-based epidemiologic study of aging. Participants completed a five-item self-report measure of susceptibility to scams, a battery of cognitive measures, and clinical diagnostic evaluations. Results In models adjusted for age, education, and gender, the presence of MCI was associated with greater susceptibility to scams (B = 0.125, SE = 0.063, p-value = 0.047). Further, in analyses of the role of specific cognitive systems in susceptibility to scams among persons with MCI (n = 144), the level of performance in two systems, episodic memory and perceptual speed abilities, were associated with susceptibility. Conclusions Adults with MCI may be more susceptible to scams in old age than older persons with normal cognition. Lower abilities in specific cognitive systems, particularly perceptual speed and episodic memory, may contribute to greater susceptibility to scams in those with MCI. PMID:26519434

  14. Association between alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Sanem, Julia R; Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-05-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  15. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePLUS

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... Common speech and language disorders include: APHASIA Aphasia is ... understand or express spoken or written language. It commonly ...

  16. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Alzheimer's Project Act (NAPA) About ADEAR About Alzheimer's Disease: Mild Cognitive Impairment Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is ... Knowing When to Ask for Help 2014-2015 Alzheimer's Disease Progress Report: Advancing Research Toward a Cure Understanding ...

  17. Manifestation of speech and language disorders in children with hearing impairment compared with children with specific language disorders.

    PubMed

    Keilmann, Annerose; Kluesener, Patrick; Freude, Christina; Schramm, Bianka

    2011-04-01

    Children with hearing impairment (HI) often suffer from speech and language disorders. We wondered if the manifestation of these disorders resembled the ones in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Using matched pairs, we compared the manifestation of a speech and language disorder in 5- and 6-year-old children with HI and SLI. We looked at receptive language skills using the Reynell scales, the lexicon, syntax and morphology, output phonology, and phonological short-term memory. Receptive language skills were more impaired in HI children. No significant differences were recorded for all other domains. We conclude that language deficits that are at least partially caused by the hearing impairment affect receptive language skills to a greater extent than expressive language skills. PMID:20849246

  18. Differential effects of orthographic and phonological consistency in cortex for children with and without reading impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, Donald J.; Minas, Jennifer; Burman, Douglas D.; Booth, James R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the central challenges in mastering English is becoming sensitive to consistency from spelling to sound (i.e. phonological consistency) and from sound to spelling (i.e. orthographic consistency). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the neural correlates of consistency in 9-15-year-old Normal and Impaired Readers during a rhyming task in the visual modality. In line with our previous study, for Normal Readers, lower phonological and orthographic consistency were associated with greater activation in several regions including bilateral inferior/middle frontal gyri, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex as well as left fusiform gyrus. Impaired Readers activated only bilateral anterior cingulate cortex in response to decreasing consistency. Group comparisons revealed that, relative to Impaired Readers, Normal Readers exhibited a larger response in this network for lower phonological consistency whereas orthographic consistency differences were limited. Lastly, brain-behavior correlations revealed a significant relationship between skill (i.e. Phonological Awareness and non-word decoding) and cortical consistency effects for Impaired Readers in left inferior/middle frontal gyri and left fusiform gyrus. Impaired Readers with higher skill showed greater activation for higher consistency. This relationship was reliably different from that of Normal Readers in which higher skill was associated with greater activation for lower consistency. According to single-route or connectionist models, these results suggest that Impaired Readers with higher skill devote neural resources to representing the mapping between orthography and phonology for higher consistency words, and therefore do not robustly activate this network for lower consistency words. PMID:18725239

  19. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.

  20. The Impaired Social Worker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reamer, Frederic G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses concept of the impaired professional; reviews research on various types of impairment (personality disorders, depression and other emotional problems, marital problems, and physical illness), prevalence and causes of impairment, and responses to it; and outlines model assessment and action plan for social workers who encounter an

  1. Gender Differences in Alcohol Impairment of Simulated Driving Performance and Driving-Related Skills

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa A.; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Methods: Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Results: Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Conclusions: Both biological and socialcultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference. PMID:19786725

  2. Use of renal risk drugs in patients with renal impairment.

    PubMed

    Holm, Hilde; Bjerke, Kirsti; Holst, Lone; Mathiesen, Liv

    2015-12-01

    Background Renal impairment often goes unrecognised until the most advanced stages. Patients with renal impairment use a variety of drugs and the pharmacokinetics and drug effects are prone to change. Objective Describe drug related problems in a population of patients with renal impairment, investigate possible risk factors, and investigate whether the clinical pharmacist can propose relevant measures to solve the problems. Setting The internal medicine department at Innlandet Hospital Trust Gjvik, Norway. Method A prospective study enrolling patients (?18years) with moderate and severe renal impairment, i.e. with glomerular filtration rate of 30-59 and 15-29ml/min/1.73m(2), respectively, and using at least one drug. The clinical pharmacist reviewed the patients' drug regimen with focus on drug related problems, related to renal function. Problems identified were discussed with the multidisciplinary team, or directly with the physician. Main outcome measure The number of drug related problems. Results The results are based on data from 79 patients, 21 with severe and 58 with moderate renal impairment. Most patients, 92.4%, used 5 or more drugs; in average 10.2 (range 2-27). In total, 88 drug related problems were identified in 49 patients, i.e. in 62%. The most frequently occurring problems were incorrect dose (45.5%) and inappropriate drug (41.0%). There was a significant correlation between both the degree of renal impairment and the number of drugs, and the number of drug related problems. The acceptance rate of the clinical pharmacist's interventions was 95.7%. The drugs most frequently associated with drug related problems were metformin, benzylpenicillin and furosemide. Conclusion Drug related problems often occur in patients with renal impairment. Incorrect drug dose and inappropriate drug choice according to the patients' renal function were the most common problems. Patients with the most complex drug treatment, i.e. with increasing degree of renal impairment and increasing number of drugs, are at greater risk of drug related problems. The high acceptance rate for the pharmacist's interventions supports the inclusion of a clinical pharmacist in the multidisciplinary treatment team to increase awareness and optimisation of the drug treatment in this patient group. PMID:26280885

  3. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Oscar L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The term mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is used to describe older subjects with demonstrable cognitive impairment who have not crossed the threshold for dementia. Because patients with MCI have an increased risk of developing dementia, especially Alzheimer disease (AD), there is significant interest in the clinical characterization of these subjects and in understanding the pathophysiology of the transition from MCI to AD. Recent Findings: The MCI syndrome, as an expression of an incipient disorder that may lead to dementia, is extremely heterogeneous and may coexist with systemic, neurologic, or psychiatric disorders that can cause cognitive deficits. Recent clinical criteria were designed to take into account the different forms of clinical presentation of the syndrome, and introduced the possible contribution of biomarkers to the clinical diagnosis. Bedside diagnosis of MCI can be difficult, since patients who report having cognitive problems may have normal scores in global cognitive scales or in brief neuropsychological instruments. Summary: This article presents the evolution of the clinical concept of MCI, the operationalization of its current definitions, the development of biomarkers that can help to identify an underlying neurodegenerative process as the etiology of the syndrome, and its proposed treatments. PMID:23558486

  4. Driver Compensation: Impairment or Improvement?

    PubMed

    Young, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Strayer et al.'s conclusion that their "cognitive distraction scale" for auditory-vocal tasks indicates "significant impairments to driving" is not supported by their data. Additional analysis demonstrates that slower brake reaction times during auditory-vocal tasks were fully compensated for by longer following distances to the lead car. Naturalistic driving data demonstrate that cellular conversation decreases crash risk, the opposite of the article's assumption. Hence, the scale's internal and external validities for indicating driving impairment are highly questionable. PMID:26534851

  5. Cognitive impairment in patients with multiple system atrophy and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard G; Lacomblez, Lucette; Landwehrmeyer, Bernard G; Bak, Thomas; Uttner, Ingo; Dubois, Bruno; Agid, Yves; Ludolph, Albert; Bensimon, Gilbert; Payan, Christine; Leigh, Nigel P

    2010-08-01

    This article reports the severity and profile of neuropsychological impairment on a prevalent cohort of patients with a clinical diagnosis of either multiple system atrophy (n=372) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n=311) from the Neuroprotection and Natural History in Parkinson Plus Syndromes cohort. The Dementia Rating Scale and Frontal Assessment Battery were used to assess global cognition and executive dysfunction. For the Dementia Rating Scale impairment was observed in approximately 57% of the progressive supranuclear palsy group and 20% of the multiple system atrophy group. In the former, impairment in a single cognitive domain was observed in 40%, with the same number showing impairment in multiple domains, while in the latter the figures were 28.6 and 13.5%, respectively. On the Frontal Assessment Battery, impairment was observed in 62.0% of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and 31.8% of those with multiple system atrophy. Although the progressive supranuclear palsy group performed worse overall, the cognitive profiles of the two groups on the Dementia Rating Scale subscales were identical, with the main impairment of the Initiation and Perseveration subscale. The impaired patients in the two groups were largely indistinguishable, qualitatively and quantitatively. Impairment was associated with greater age and clinical disability in both groups and was evident even in the early stages (22% in multiple system atrophy and 50% in progressive supranuclear palsy). Where a pathological diagnosis was available, the original clinical diagnosis was confirmed in the majority of cases, including those with significant cognitive impairment. The rate of impairment in those with a confirmed pathological diagnosis was comparable to that of the sample as a whole. These results demonstrate, in the largest prospectively recruited cohort of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy and multiple system atrophy studied to date, the existence of a cognitive profile similar to that previously reported in idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results indicate a high level of cognitive impairment associated with progressive supranuclear palsy, but also point to comparable dysfunction in a substantial proportion of the patients with multiple system atrophy. Significant cognitive impairment appears consistent with a diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, even early in the disease, with important implications for diagnosis, research and management. PMID:20576697

  6. Factors Associated with Greater Pain Intensity.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Mariano E; Ring, David

    2016-02-01

    The intensity of pain reported for a given nociception is highly variable. Variation in pain intensity is best accounted for by stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies. Among orthopedic surgery patients, greater intake of opioids is associated with greater pain intensity and decreased satisfaction with pain control, no matter the pathophysiology or nociception. The single most effective pain reliever is self-efficacy (the sense that one can manage and that everything will be okay). PMID:26611386

  7. Atrial fibrillation (AF) and cognitive impairment in the elderly: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, A; De Benedetto, G; Fossati, C; D'Ottavio, E; Formosa, V; Gianturco, V; Iori, A; Marigliano, B; Lo Iacono, C; Troisi, G; Marigliano, V

    2012-01-01

    AF is able not only to increase the risk of cognitive decline due to acute cerebrovascular events, but also to reduce cardiac output, with the consequence of impaired cerebral perfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between AF, dementia and depression in patients with negative anamnesis for past strokes. Our sample included 26 patients with a diagnosis of AF (paroxystic, persistent, permanent) and 31 patients with sinus rhythm, enrolled as controls. All selected patients underwent a Multidimensional Geriatric Assessment in order to investigate cognitive and behavioral functions. Statistical analysis of results showed a greater frequency of latent cognitive impairment in patients with AF, even in the absence of memory disorders. As a matter of facts, AF patients showed Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores significantly lower than those with sinus rhythm (p<0.05) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) scores higher than those without AF, evidencing a greater risk of depression too (p<0.02). Results showed a statistically significant association between AF, depression and cognitive impairment in early stage. In conclusion, AF is not only associated with the risk of developing cognitive impairment, but it can also be considered as a risk factor for dementia and depression, even in the absence of medical history of past stroke. PMID:21940057

  8. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs. PMID:18817002

  9. Labeling Children Who Are Visually Impaired "Disadvantaged."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalifoux, L. M.; Fagan, B.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a review of several factors that lead to the label of "disadvantaged," with a focus on children with blindness or visual impairment. It is noted that these children are at greater risk to be considered as disadvantaged. Practical solutions to these disadvantaging circumstances are offered. (Author/CR)

  10. Striatal degeneration impairs language learning: evidence from Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    De Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Couette, Marylin; Dolbeau, Guillaume; Drr, Alexandra; Youssov, Katia; Bachoud-Lvi, Anne-Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Although the role of the striatum in language processing is still largely unclear, a number of recent proposals have outlined its specific contribution. Different studies report evidence converging to a picture where the striatum may be involved in those aspects of rule-application requiring non-automatized behavior. This is the main characteristic of the earliest phases of language acquisition that require the online detection of distant dependencies and the creation of syntactic categories by means of rule learning. Learning of sequences and categorization processes in non-language domains has been known to require striatal recruitment. Thus, we hypothesized that the striatum should play a prominent role in the extraction of rules in learning a language. We studied 13 pre-symptomatic gene-carriers and 22 early stage patients of Huntingtons disease (HD), both characterized by a progressive degeneration of the striatum and 21 late stage patients HD (18 stages II, 2 stage III and 1 stage IV) where cortical degeneration accompanies striatal degeneration. When presented with a simplified artificial language where words and rules could be extracted, early stage HD patients (stage I) were impaired in the learning test, demonstrating a greater impairment in rule than word learning compared to the twenty age- and education- matched controls. HD patients at later stages were impaired both on word and rule learning. While spared in their overall performance, gene-carriers having learned a set of abstract artificial language rules were then impaired in the transfer of those rules to similar artificial language structures. The correlation analyses among several neuropsychological tests assessing executive function showed that rule learning correlated with tests requiring working memory and attentional control, while word learning correlated with a test involving episodic memory. These learning impairments significantly correlated with the bicaudate ratio. The overall results support striatal involvement in rule extraction from speech and suggest that language acquisition requires several aspects of memory and executive functions for word and rule learning. PMID:18842608

  11. Visual impairment in the hearing impaired students

    PubMed Central

    Gogate, Parikshit; Rishikeshi, Nikhil; Mehata, Reshma; Ranade, Satish; Kharat, Jitesh; Deshpande, Madan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ocular problems are more common in children with hearing problems than in normal children. Neglected visual impairment could aggravate educational and social disability. Aim: To detect and treat visual impairment, if any, in hearing-impaired children. Setting and Design: Observational, clinical case series of hearing-impaired children in schools providing special education. Materials and Methods: Hearing-impaired children in selected schools underwent detailed visual acuity testing, refraction, external ocular examination and fundoscopy. Ocular motility testing was also performed. Teachers were sensitized and trained to help in the assessment of visual acuity using Snellen's E charts. Refractive errors and squint were treated as per standard practice. Statistical Analysis: Excel software was used for data entry and SSPS for analysis. Results: The study involved 901 hearing-impaired students between four and 21 years of age, from 14 special education schools. A quarter of them (216/901, 24%) had ocular problems. Refractive errors were the most common morbidity 167(18.5%), but only 10 children were using appropriate spectacle correction at presentation. Fifty children had visual acuity less than 20/80 at presentation; after providing refractive correction, this number reduced to three children, all of whom were provided low-vision aids. Other common conditions included strabismus in 12 (1.3%) children, and retinal pigmentary dystrophy in five (0.6%) children. Conclusion: Ocular problems are common in hearing-impaired children. Screening for ocular problems should be made mandatory in hearing-impaired children, as they use their visual sense to compensate for the poor auditory sense. PMID:19861747

  12. Gender Differences in Reading Impairment and in the Identification of Impaired Readers: Results from a Large-Scale Study of At-Risk Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Reading impairment is more common in males, but the magnitude and origin of this gender difference are debated. In a large-scale study of reading impairment among 491,103 beginning second-graders, gender differences increased with greater severity of reading impairment, peaking at a ratio of 2.4:1 for a broad measure of fluency and a ratio of

  13. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability and future climate change have been briefly discussed.

  14. Social Networks and Their Influence on Drinking Behaviors: Differences Related to Cognitive Impairment in Clients Receiving Alcoholism Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Buckman, Jennifer F.; Bates, Marsha E.; Cisler, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Mechanisms of behavioral change that support positive addiction treatment outcomes in individuals with co-occurring alcohol-use disorders and cognitive impairment remain largely unknown. This article combines person- and variable-centered approaches to examine the interrelated influence of cognitive impairment and social support on stability of and changes in drinking behaviors of Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity) outpatients and aftercare clients (N= 1, 726) during the first year after their entry into treatment. Method Latent class analysis identified homogeneous groups of clients based on the nature and extent of social support for abstinence or drinking at treatment entry. Cognitive impairment and drinking outcomes were compared across latent classes, and the interaction between impairment and social support on drinking outcomes was examined using mixture probit regression. Results Three independent social support classes (frequent positive, limited positive, and negative) were identified. In the outpatient sample, the frequent positive support class had greater cognitive impairment at treatment entry versus other classes, and extent of impairment significantly predicted improved drinking outcomes in this class. In the aftercare sample, the frequent positive and negative support classes had heightened impairment, yet cognitive impairment significantly predicted relatively poorer drinking outcomes in the negative support class only. Conclusions Cognitive impairment may increase the influence of the social network on the drinking outcomes of persons receiving treatment for alcohol-use disorders, but more research is needed to understand client characteristics that determine whether this influence is more likely to be manifest as increased salience of helping agents or of hindering agents in the social network. PMID:17690808

  15. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  16. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  17. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment

  18. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely

  19. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  20. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy impairs quality of life.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Swastik; Umapathy, Sridharan; Dhiman, Radha K

    2015-03-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of the spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. It is a frequent occurrence in patients of cirrhosis and is detectable only by specialized neurocognitive testing. MHE is a clinically significant disorder which impairs daily functioning, driving performance, work capability and learning ability. It also predisposes to the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, increased falls and increased mortality. This results in impaired quality of life for the patient as well as significant social and economic burden for health providers and care givers. Early detection and treatment of MHE with ammonia lowering therapy can reverse MHE and improve quality of life. PMID:26041957

  1. Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking.

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie A; Allen, Matthew S; O'Connor, Shawn M; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-04-01

    We implemented a virtual reality system to quantify differences in the use of visual feedback to maintain balance during walking between healthy young (n=12, mean age: 24 years) and healthy old (n=11, 71 years) adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched, virtual hallway with and without mediolateral visual perturbations. A motion capture system tracked center of mass (CoM) motion and foot kinematics. Spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local divergence exponents quantified old and young adults' dynamic response to visual perturbations. Old and young adults walked normally with comparable CoM spectral characteristics, lateral step placement temporal persistence, and local divergence exponents. Perturbed visual flow induced significantly larger changes in mediolateral CoM motion in old vs. young adults. Moreover, visual perturbations disrupted the control of lateral step placement and compromised local dynamic stability more significantly in old than young adults. Advanced age induces a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during waking, an effect that may compensate for degradations in somatosensation. Our findings are relevant to the early diagnosis of sensory-induced balance impairments and also point to the potential use of virtual reality to evaluate sensory rehabilitation and balance training programs for old adults. PMID:25687664

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Greater Sandhill Crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armbruster, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  3. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hugo; Dermody, Brian; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin; Eppinga, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems in South Florida (USA) remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy datasets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the non-linear processes involved in peat production and decomposition in combination with the local drainage conditions of Southern Florida. The model results suggest that RSL-rise alone cannot predict the onset of peat initiation in the Greater Everglades using our model setup. The model also implies that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr BP. The two-phased character of peat land initiation may be explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly non-linear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleo-ecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  4. Education for the Hearing Impaired (Auditorily Impaired).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Federation of the Deaf, Rome (Italy).

    Education for the hearing impaired is discussed in nine conference papers. J. N. Howarth describes "The Education of Deaf Children in Schools for Hearing Pupils in the United Kingdom" and A.I.Dyachkov of the U.S.S.R. outlines Didactical Principles of Educating the Deaf in the Light of their Rehabilitation Goal." Seven papers from Poland are also…

  5. Development or Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Gisela

    2010-01-01

    Joanne Paradis' Keynote Article on bilingualism and specific language impairment (SLI) is an impressive overview of research in language acquisition and language impairment. Studying different populations is crucial both for theorizing about language acquisition mechanisms, and for practical purposes of diagnosing and supporting children with

  6. Cognitive impairment in COPD: a systematic review*

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Snchez, Irene; Rodrguez-Alzueta, Elisabeth; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; Lpez-Torres, Isabel; Moreno-Ramrez, Maria Paz; Valenza, Marie Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and clarify the relationships between the various cognitive domains affected in COPD patients and the disease itself, as well as to determine the prevalence of impairment in the various cognitive domains in such patients. To that end, we performed a systematic review using the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and ScienceDirect. We included articles that provided information on cognitive impairment in COPD patients. The review of the findings of the articles showed a significant relationship between COPD and cognitive impairment. The most widely studied cognitive domains are memory and attention. Verbal memory and learning constitute the second most commonly impaired cognitive domain in patients with COPD. The prevalence of impairment in visuospatial memory and intermediate visual memory is 26.9% and 19.2%, respectively. We found that cognitive impairment is associated with the profile of COPD severity and its comorbidities. The articles reviewed demonstrated that there is considerable impairment of the cognitive domains memory and attention in patients with COPD. Future studies should address impairments in different cognitive domains according to the disease stage in patients with COPD. PMID:25909154

  7. Augmenting CPT to Improve Sleep Impairment in PTSD: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Galovski, Tara E.; Mott, Juliette; Blain, Leah M.; Elwood, Lisa; Gloth, Chelsea; Fletcher, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite the success of empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), sleep impairment frequently remains refractory following treatment for PTSD. This single-site, randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of sleep-directed hypnosis as a complement to an empirically supported psychotherapy for PTSD (cognitive processing therapy; CPT). Method Participants completed either 3 weeks of hypnosis (n = 52) or a symptom monitoring control condition (n = 56) before beginning standard CPT. Multilevel modeling was used to investigate differential patterns of change to determine whether hypnosis resulted in improvements in sleep, PTSD, and depression. An intervening variable approach was then used to determine whether improvements in sleep achieved during hypnosis augmented change in PTSD and depression during CPT. Results After the initial phase of treatment (hypnosis or symptom monitoring), the hypnosis condition showed significantly greater improvement than the control condition in sleep and depression, but not PTSD. After CPT, both conditions demonstrated significant improvement in sleep and PTSD; however, the hypnosis condition demonstrated greater improvement in depressive symptoms. As sleep improved, there were corresponding improvements in PTSD and depression, with a stronger relationship between sleep and PTSD. Conclusion Hypnosis was effective in improving sleep impairment, but those improvements did not augment gains in PTSD recovery during the trauma-focused intervention. Public Health Significance: This study suggests that hypnosis may be a viable treatment option in a stepped-care approach for treating sleep impairment in individuals suffering from PTSD. PMID:26689303

  8. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to

  9. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  10. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Boer, Hugo J.; Dermody, Brian J.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we first present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy data sets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene, (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL, and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the nonlinear processes involved in peat production and decomposition. The model results suggest that RSL rise could explain the onset of peatland initiation and imply that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr B.P. The two-phased character of peatland initiation maybe explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly nonlinear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleoecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  11. Cognitive impairments may mimic delusions.

    PubMed

    Eterovi?, Marija; Kozari?-Kova?i?, Dragica

    2015-12-01

    Delusions are often recognized as key to the concept of psychosis. What is delusion is one of the basic questions of psychopathology. The common denominator of definitions of delusions is the divergence between the strong conviction in the delusional belief and superior evidences to the contrary which are continually ignored. An implicit, sustainably unspoken assumption is that the person with delusional belief has cognitive capacities to process the (counter-)arguments relevant to their delusion. However, individual's cognitive capacities are not being emphasized when delusions are evaluated. Moreover, the impact of cognitive decline on formation of delusions is neglected, both in theory and practice. We elaborate that cognitive deficits may facilitate, oppose, or mimic delusions. We focus on the last, which can lead to diagnosing as delusion what could be explained by cognitive decline and better called pseudo-delusion. The risk is significant when cognition is impaired, as in demented people; an issue which has not yet been debated. True delusions are incompatible with person's cognitive capacities, i.e., if we take into account person's cognitive status, we still cannot understand how the person holds the strange belief with an extraordinary conviction. Pseudo-delusions would be beliefs, thoughts or judgments that at first seem delusional (they are false, subculturally atypical beliefs that are strongly maintained in the face of counterargument), but lose the essence of delusions after we take cognitive impairment into account. Pseudo-delusions could actually be explained or understood by person's cognitive impairments, they "fit into" them. The reported reality-based contents of delusions in the elderly, poor response to antipsychotics and lack of association with early or family history of psychiatric disorders could in part be accounted for by the bias of misdiagnosing the cognitive impairment as the delusion. Not recognizing that the cognitive impairment underlies formation of pseudo-delusions and misdiagnosing it as delusions may lead to focusing on antipsychotic treatment, instead on treatment of the underlying cognitive deficit. PMID:26428906

  12. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  13. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile. PMID:24906427

  14. Hospital design to support greater operating efficiency.

    PubMed

    Skaggs, R L

    1984-12-01

    With the new imperative on cost containment and particular emphasis on prospective payment, hospital design must support greater productivity. It is incumbent on architects and engineers to reduce construction costs; but more importantly, to design facilities that improve personnel productivity. Several approaches to designing for efficiency are discussed including improving the development process; systems building, ease of maintenance, and conserving energy; developing the model hospital; minimizing travel throughout the hospital; centralization vs. decentralization; automating support systems; designing for growth and change; analyzing workflow; utilizing swing space; and emphasizing consumer centered care. PMID:10268971

  15. Early diagnosis of diabetic vascular complications: impairment of red blood cell deformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sehyun; Ku, Yunhee; Park, Cheol-Woo; Suh, Jang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Reduced deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) may play an important role on the pathogenesis of chronic vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. However, available techniques for measuring RBC deformability often require washing process after each measurement, which is not optimal for day-to-day clinical use at point of care. The objectives of the present study are to develop a device and to delineate the correlation of impaired RBC deformability with diabetic nephropathy. We developed a disposable ektacytometry to measure RBC deformability, which adopted a laser diffraction technique and slit rheometry. The essential features of this design are its simplicity (ease of operation and no moving parts) and a disposable element which is in contact with the blood sample. We studied adult diabetic patients divided into three groups according to diabetic complications. Group I comprised 57 diabetic patients with normal renal function. Group II comprised 26 diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Group III consisted of 30 diabetic subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. According to the renal function for the diabetic groups, matched non-diabetic groups were served as control. We found substantially impaired red blood cell deformability in those with normal renal function (group I) compared to non-diabetic control (P = 0.0005). As renal function decreases, an increased impairment in RBC deformability was found. Diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (group II) when compared to non-diabetic controls (CRF) had an apparently greater impairment in RBC deformability (P = 0.07). The non-diabetic cohort (CRF), on the other hand, manifested significant impairment in red blood cell deformability compared to healthy control (P = 0.0001). The newly developed slit ektacytometer can measure the RBC deformability with ease and accuracy. In addition, progressive impairment in cell deformability is associated with renal function loss in all patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. In diabetic patients, early impairment in RBC deformability appears in patients with normal renal function.

  16. Six lessons learned for greater success.

    PubMed

    Leander, W J

    1993-01-01

    These six lessons learned for greater success with your Patient Focused communications can help keep your cultural change process in sync with your operational change process. Of course, there are other key elements of the former, including: formal Patient Focused educational programs; restructured Human Resources "systems" (e.g., job descriptions and compensation programs); and migration toward greater organizational empowerment and more self-directed work teams. Still, your Patient Focused communications campaign will spearhead the cultural change process. As such, it will have the opportunity to make the very first impact. Basically, your communications can make or break your Patient Focused Care program from Day One. It's up to you--learn the lessons learned by others and your organization may follow the words of Marx rather than those of Brand: "Workers of the world, unite (on behalf of your Patient Focused Care program)!" Karl Marx.p6 "Workers of the world, fan out (in formation against your Patient Focused Care program)!" Stewart Brand. PMID:10133393

  17. Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

  18. Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language

  19. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing -- www.agbell. ...

  20. The Impaired Surgeon.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Ranjan; Seymour, Keri

    2016-02-01

    Impaired physicians are unable to manage professional activities safely. Impairment can be the result of physical or mental disorders, but impaired physicians commonly refers to those suffering from substance use disorders. These disorders are at least as common in physicians as they are in the general population, and physician health programs have been established in each state to provide expeditious and detailed evaluation, referral to treatment facilities, and post-treatment monitoring to ensure compliance. These programs protect participants against sanctions and safeguard patients. The prognosis for participants is excellent, with more than 70% able to practice medicine at 5 years. PMID:26612022

  1. Cycling performance decrement is greater in hypobaric versus normobaric hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether cycling time trial (TT) performance differs between hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) at the same ambient PO2 (93mmHg, 4,300-m altitude equivalent). Methods Two groups of healthy fit men were matched on physical performance and demographic characteristics and completed a 720-kJ time trial on a cycle ergometer at sea level (SL) and following approximately 2h of resting exposure to either HH (n?=?6, 20??2years, 75.2??11.8kg, mean??SD) or NH (n?=?6, 21??3years, 77.4??8.8kg). Volunteers were free to manually increase or decrease the work rate on the cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected every 5min during the TT, and the mean was calculated. Results Both groups exhibited similar TT performance (min) at SL (73.9??7.6 vs. 73.2??8.2), but TT performance was longer (P?greater (P?impaired to a greater degree in HH versus NH at the same ambient PO2 equivalent to 4,300m despite similar cardiorespiratory responses. PMID:24778792

  2. Kids' Quest: Vision Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... important job. Â Return to Steps World-Wide Web Search Kids Health: What is Vision Impairment What ... for the Blind (AFB) created the Braille Bug web site to teach sighted children about braille, and ...

  3. Specific Language Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for kindergarten with special programs designed to enrich language development. This kind of classroom program might enlist normally ... screen for language impairments are based on typical language development milestones in English. Because bilingual children are more ...

  4. Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment: Relationship to Caregiver Burden

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Kelly A.; Weldon, Anne; Persad, Carol; Heidebrink, Judith L.; Barbas, Nancy; Giordani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Background Caregivers of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) need similar levels of support services as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) caregivers, but it is unclear if this translates to increased caregiver burden. Methods 135 participants and their caregivers (40 MCI, 55 AD and 40 normal controls, NC) completed questionnaires, and the patients were administered neuropsychological tests. Results The MCI caregivers reported significantly more overall caregiving burden than the NC, but less than the AD. They showed similar levels of emotional, physical and social burden as the AD caregivers. Among the MCI caregivers, the neuropsychiatric symptoms and executive functioning of the patients were related to a greater burden, and the caregivers with a greater burden reported lower life satisfaction and social support, and a greater need for support services. Conclusion These results indicate that MCI caregivers are at increased risk for caregiver stress, and they require enhanced assistance and/or education in caring for their loved ones. PMID:23128102

  5. Smartphone-based system to improve transportation access for the cognitively impaired.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Shane M; Riehle, Timothy H; Lichter, Patrick A; Brown, Allen W; Panescu, Dorin

    2015-08-01

    This project developed and evaluated a smartphone-based system to improve mobility and transportation access for the cognitively impaired. The proposed system is intended to allow the cognitively impaired to use public transportation systems, community transportation and dedicated transportation services for the disabled with greater ease and safety. Individuals with cognitive disabilities are often unable to operate an automobile, or may require a prolonged recovery period before resuming driving. Public transportation systems represent a significant means to allow these individuals to maintain independence. Yet public transportation systems can pose significant challenges to individuals with cognitive impairment. The goal of this project is to develop a system to reduce these barriers via a technological solution consisting of components developed both for the cognitively impaired user and their caregiver or family member. The first component consists of a cognitive prosthetic device featuring traditional memory cueing and reminders as well as custom location-based transportation specific functions. This cognitive mobility assistant will leverage the computing power and GPS location determination capabilities of inexpensive, powerful smart phones. The second component consists of a management application which offers caregivers the ability to configure and program the reminder and transit functions remotely via the Internet. Following completion of the prototype system a pilot human test was performed with cognitively disabled individuals and family members or caregivers to assess the usability and acceptability of both system components. PMID:26738091

  6. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility... and intensity of the proposed action (40 CFR 1508.27). The analysis should establish, by resource... significant. Significant beneficial effects also occur and must be addressed, if applicable. (c) The...

  7. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility... and intensity of the proposed action (40 CFR 1508.27). The analysis should establish, by resource... significant. Significant beneficial effects also occur and must be addressed, if applicable. (c) The...

  8. Literacy and visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Karen A; Hatton, Deborah

    2007-02-01

    Research supporting specific instructional approaches for young children with visual impairments and blindness is limited. There is, however, a growing body of evidence to support the belief that the critical components of emergent and early conventional literacy for children with visual impairments do not differ markedly from those of their sighted peers. Specifically, infants and toddlers with visual impairments and blindness require interactions that support their oral language development, awareness of print or braille, and opportunities to explore writing. Although these very young children are often delayed in developing emergent literacy understandings, the path of their development is consistent with emergent literacy development of sighted children. The research regarding older children with visual impairments and blindness suggests that they too benefit from instruction that emphasizes the critical elements of early literacy instruction for all children. Research also suggests that specific strategies, such as repeated readings, direct instruction in phonics, and big word decoding that emphasizes morphemes, can benefit school-aged children with visual impairments and blindness. Further research is needed if we are to understand fully the most effective approaches to emergent and early literacy instruction for children with visual impairments and blindness, but there is a solid base from which we can begin. PMID:17340383

  9. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that approximate each other sufficiently closely to constitute a majority for the purpose of quantifying reliability. This criterion is, simply, that if there do not exist at least three sensors having weights greater than a prescribed minimum acceptable value, then the array as a whole is deemed to have failed.

  10. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  11. Early tectonic history of the Greater Antilles

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.F.; Draper, G.; Mattson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The islands of the Greater Antilles exhibit differing pre-Oligocene tectonic styles and histories, but all display the results of convergent plate activity from the Early Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Western and central Cuba consist of autochthonous, Jurassic and older continental crust, which was overthrust by Cretaceous ophiolites in the Early to Middle Eocene. In contrast, eastern Cuba seems to be similar to Northern Hispaniola, and both areas consist of complexes of upper Cretaceous to Eocene magmatic-arc rocks, and trench generated ophiolites and blueschists produced by SW directed subduction. The oldest rocks in central Hispaniola are exposed in NW trending linear fault-bounded belts. Unusual high-Mg greenschists and amphibolites, quartz-feldspathic greenschists, together with N-type MORB basalts and keratophyric volcanics, are juxtaposed against a medial serpentinite belt. Central and eastern Puerto Rico consist of Lower to Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks intruded by upper Cretaceous to Eocene plutons. Similar Cretaceous volcanics occur in SW Puerto Rico, but they are overthrust by Upper Jurassic cherts, spilites and amphibolites. Jamaica lies along the Nicaraguan Rise to the SW of the other islands and consists of Barremian to Maastrichtian volcanics and volcanogenic sediments intruded by upper Cretaceous calc-alkalic plutons. Blueschists and related rocks in eastern Jamaica, and geochemical zonation in the igneous rocks suggest that the subduction was to the NW. Change in tectonic movements from convergence to left lateral shear took place during the Late Eocene/Early Oligocene.

  12. Evaluation of passive transfer in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).

    PubMed

    Hammond, Elizabeth E; Fiorello, Christine V

    2011-12-01

    Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) calves can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study, serum samples from neonatal kudu calves were tested for immunoglobulin using different tests validated for domestic ruminants, including measurement of gamma globulin (GG) measured by protein electrophoresis, total solids (TS) measured by calibrated refractometry, total protein (TP) and globulins measured by colorimetry, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the zinc sulfate turbidity test (ZSTT). In a logistic regression model, TP, TS, globulins, and the natural log transform of GGT were the only significant parameters associated with FPT. Various historic parameters related to the dam, as well as calf weight, sex, glucose, and packed cell volume, were not significant. Based on the results, FPT in greater kudu is defined as GG of < 0.5 g/dl, a value lower than that in domestic cattle. TS measured by refractometry has an 80% sensitivity and a 100% specificity for FPT in greater kudu. With FPT defined as GG < 0.5 g/dl, kudu calves with a TS < 4.8 g/dl and a negative ZSTT have an increased probability of requiring medical intervention and additional diagnostics may be warranted. PMID:22204060

  13. Aided and Unaided Speech Perception by Older Hearing Impaired Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Arbogast, Tanya; Doss, Zoe; Younus, Masood; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    The most common complaint of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners is difficulty understanding speech in the presence of noise. However, tests of consonant-identification and sentence reception threshold (SeRT) provide different perspectives on the magnitude of impairment. Here we quantified speech perception difficulties in 24 OHI listeners in unaided and aided conditions by analyzing (1) consonant-identification thresholds and consonant confusions for 20 onset and 20 coda consonants in consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables presented at consonant-specific signal-to-noise (SNR) levels, and (2) SeRTs obtained with the Quick Speech in Noise Test (QSIN) and the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). Compared to older normal hearing (ONH) listeners, nearly all unaided OHI listeners showed abnormal consonant-identification thresholds, abnormal consonant confusions, and reduced psychometric function slopes. Average elevations in consonant-identification thresholds exceeded 35 dB, correlated strongly with impairments in mid-frequency hearing, and were greater for hard-to-identify consonants. Advanced digital hearing aids (HAs) improved average consonant-identification thresholds by more than 17 dB, with significant HA benefit seen in 83% of OHI listeners. HAs partially normalized consonant-identification thresholds, reduced abnormal consonant confusions, and increased the slope of psychometric functions. Unaided OHI listeners showed much smaller elevations in SeRTs (mean 6.9 dB) than in consonant-identification thresholds and SeRTs in unaided listening conditions correlated strongly (r = 0.91) with identification thresholds of easily identified consonants. HAs produced minimal SeRT benefit (2.0 dB), with only 38% of OHI listeners showing significant improvement. HA benefit on SeRTs was accurately predicted (r = 0.86) by HA benefit on easily identified consonants. Consonant-identification tests can accurately predict sentence processing deficits and HA benefit in OHI listeners. PMID:25730423

  14. Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

  15. Trainable Mentally Impaired/Severely Multiply Impaired/Autistic Impaired/Severely Mentally Impaired. Product Evaluation Report 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Richard N.; And Others

    The evaluation report describes special education services provided to trainable mentally impaired (TMI), autistic impaired (AI), severely multiply impaired (SXI), and severely mentally impaired (SMI) students at and through the Melvin G. Millet Learning Center (Bridgeport, Michigan). The eight program components are described individually and

  16. A Report of 134 Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients with Renal Impairment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Aijun; Yang, Guangzhong; Geng, Chuanying; Wang, Huijuan; Li, Lihong; Li, Yanchen; Wu, Yin; Tian, Ying; Leng, Yun; Wang, Guorong; Gao, Wen; Chen, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the effects of bortezomib on the prognosis of the newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients with renal impairment, we assessed the outcomes of 134 multiple myeloma patients with renal impairment (serum creatinine ?178 ?mol/l) who were treated at Beijing Chaoyang Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups: bortezomib (n = 83) and nonbortezomib (n = 51). The overall response rate of the bortezomib group was higher than that of the nonbortezomib group. There was no significant difference in the time to restore renal function, but the complete renal response ratio was significantly higher in the bortezomib group. The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate of the bortezomib group was significantly greater than the nonbortezomib group, as was the 3-year OS rate. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed significantly better survival for the bortezomib group. The main side effects in the bortezomib group were thrombocytopenia, peripheral neuropathy, infection, and herpes zoster, and there was a low incidence of grades 3 and 4 adverse events. Our findings indicate that bortezomib-based combination chemotherapy can improve the prognosis of the newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients with renal impairment and should be considered as a first-line therapy. PMID:26587903

  17. Evaluation of Nissen fundoplication in neurologically impaired children.

    PubMed

    Rice, H; Seashore, J H; Touloukian, R J

    1991-06-01

    The value of performing Nissen fundoplication in neurologically impaired children is a controversial issue. To evaluate the benefit of fundoplication in these children, hospital records were reviewed for 77 children who underwent fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux (GER). Fifty-two children were neurologically impaired; 25 children had no neurological impairment. Impaired children had significantly fewer hospital admissions (1.8 v 0.7; P less than .005) and total days of hospitalization (36 v 14; P less than .005) during the first postoperative 6 months, compared with the immediate preoperative 6-month period. Normal children had fewer hospital admissions and days postoperatively, but the difference was not significant. Impaired children with preoperative failure to thrive (FTT had significantly increased average monthly weight gain over the first 6-month period postoperatively, compared with preoperative growth rate (3.0% v 0.9% of total body weight; P less than .05). Average monthly weight gain at 1 and 2 years postoperatively was not significantly different from preoperative values for impaired children. Growth rate of normal children with FTT did not change significantly postoperatively. Symptomatic relief was comparable in the normal and impaired children. Perioperative mortality was 0% in the normal children and 6% in the impaired children. This study demonstrates that Nissen fundoplication in neurologically impaired children with GER can be performed safely, reduces the frequency of hospitalization, and improves short-term weight gain. PMID:1941460

  18. IMPAIRED FASTING BLOOD GLUCOSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED ENDOTHELIN-1 VASOCONSTRICTOR TONE

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Kyle J.; Templeton, Danielle L.; Ma, Julie; Weil, Brian R.; Greiner, Jared J.; Stauffer, Brian L.; DeSouza, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim/Hypothesis The experimental aim of this study was to determine whether ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in adult humans with impaired fasting blood glucose concentrations, independent of other cardiovascular risk factors. Methods Forearm blood flow (FBF: plethysmography) responses to intra-arterial infusion of selective ETA receptor blockade (BQ-123: 100 nmol/min for 60 min) and non-selective ETA/B blockade (BQ-123 + BQ-788: 50 nmol/min for 60 min) were determined in 28 middle-aged, sedentary adults (17 M/11 F): 14 with normal fasting blood glucose (age: 57±2 yr; 6F/8M; BMI: 29.2±0.9 kg/m2; glucose: 4.9±0.1 mmol/L) and 14 impaired fasting blood glucose (58±1 yr; 5F/9M; 29.6±1.1 kg/m2; 5.8±0.1 mmol/L) concentrations. Results Selective ETA receptor blockade elicited a significantly greater (~20%) increase in FBF in the impaired fasting glucose adults compared with the normoglycemia controls. ETA/B blockade resulted in a further 2-fold increase (P<0.05) in FBF above that elicited by ETA receptor antagonism in the impaired fasting glucose but not normal fasting glucose adults. There was a positive correlation between fasting blood glucose levels and the peak vascular responses to ETA (r=0.44; P<0.05) and ETA/B (r=0.62; P<0.05) blockade. No other anthropometric, hemodynamic or metabolic variable was correlated with the blood flow responses to ET-1 receptor blockade. Conclusions/Interpretation ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in adults with impaired fasting blood glucose concentrations, independent of other cardiometabolic risk factors. Enhanced ET-1 system activity may underlie endothelial vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular risk in adults with impaired fasting blood glucose concentrations. PMID:23643051

  19. Early-onset and late-onset Alzheimer's disease are associated with distinct patterns of memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Sven; Gour, Natalina; Guedj, Eric; Didic, Mira; Guriot, Claude; Koric, Lejla; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Felician, Olivier; Guye, Maxime; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the specific patterns of memory breakdown in patients suffering from early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Twenty EOAD patients, twenty LOAD patients, twenty matched younger controls, and twenty matched older controls participated in this study. All participants underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment, an MRI scan, an FDG-PET scan, and AD patients had biomarkers as supporting evidence of both amylodopathy and neuronal injury. Results of the neuropsychological assessment showed that both EOAD and LOAD groups were impaired in the domains of memory, executive functions, language, praxis, and visuoconstructional abilities, when compared to their respective control groups. EOAD and LOAD groups, however, showed distinct patterns of memory impairment. Even though both groups were similarly affected on measures of episodic, short term and working memory, in contrast semantic memory was significantly more impaired in LOAD than in EOAD patients. The EOAD group was not more affected than the LOAD group in any memory domain. EOAD patients, however, showed significantly poorer performance in other cognitive domains including executive functions and visuoconstructional abilities. A more detailed analysis of the pattern of semantic memory performance among patient groups revealed that the LOAD was more profoundly impaired, in tasks of both spontaneous recall and semantic recognition. Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) analyses showed that impaired semantic performance in patients was associated with reduced gray matter volume in the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) region, while PET-FDG analyses revealed that poorer semantic performance was associated with greater hypometabolism in the left temporoparietal region, both areas reflecting key regions of the semantic network. Results of this study indicate that EOAD and LOAD patients present with distinct patterns of memory impairment, and that a genuine semantic impairment may represent one of the clinical hallmarks of LOAD. PMID:26694580

  20. Olfactory impairment in adults.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Carla R; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Murphy, Claire; Huang, Guan-Hua; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Nieto, F Javier; Pankow, James S; Tweed, Ted S

    2009-07-01

    Olfactory function may be important for environmental and nutritional safety and enjoyment. Population-based epidemiological studies of olfaction are needed to understand the magnitude of the health burden, identify modifiable risk factors, and develop and test prevention and treatment strategies for olfactory impairment. However, measuring olfaction in large studies is challenging, requiring repeatable, efficient methods that can measure change over time. Two large cohort studies, the Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study (EHLS) and the Beaver Dam Offspring Study (BOSS), included olfactory testing. In both studies, the San Diego Odor Identification Test (SDOIT) was used to measure olfaction. Subjects were asked to identify eight common household odors (such as coffee and chocolate). Olfactory impairment was defined as correctly identifying fewer than six out of eight odorants after two trials. The EHLS participants were age 53-95 years at the time of the first measurement (1998-2000), and participants in the BOSS were age 21-84 years. The prevalence of olfactory impairment in the EHLS was 25% overall, more common in men than women, and increased with age. Five years later olfaction was measured a second time and the majority (84%) of the EHLS participants were classified the same. Among those with impairment at the base line nearly one-third (31%) improved to unimpaired. This heterogeneity in olfactory impairment has unique implications for data analyses and predicting outcomes and associations. Preliminary data from the BOSS suggest the prevalence of olfactory impairment may be lower in younger generations. All these factors point to a continuing need for epidemiological studies of olfaction. PMID:19686189

  1. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

  2. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  3. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  4. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  5. Psychological wellbeing, physical impairments and rural aging in a developing country setting

    PubMed Central

    Abas, Melanie A; Punpuing, Sureeporn; Jirapramupitak, Tawanchai; Tangchonlatip, Kanchana; Leese, Morven

    2009-01-01

    Background There has been very little research on wellbeing, physical impairments and disability in older people in developing countries. Methods A community survey of 1147 older parents, one per household, aged sixty and over in rural Thailand. We used the Burvill scale of physical impairment, the Thai Psychological Wellbeing Scale and the brief WHO Disability Assessment Schedule. We rated received and perceived social support separately from children and from others and rated support to children. We used weighted analyses to take account of the sampling design. Results Impairments due to arthritis, pain, paralysis, vision, stomach problems or breathing were all associated with lower wellbeing. After adjusting for disability, only impairment due to paralysis was independently associated with lowered wellbeing. The effect of having two or more impairments compared to none was associated with lowered wellbeing after adjusting for demographic factors and social support (adjusted difference -2.37 on the well-being scale with SD = 7.9, p < 0.001) but after adjusting for disability the coefficient fell and was non-significant. The parsimonious model for wellbeing included age, wealth, social support, disability and impairment due to paralysis (the effect of paralysis was -2.97, p = 0.001). In this Thai setting, received support from children and from others and perceived good support from and to children were all independently associated with greater wellbeing whereas actual support to children was associated with lower wellbeing. Low received support from children interacted with paralysis in being especially associated with low wellbeing. Conclusion In this Thai setting, as found in western settings, most of the association between physical impairments and lower wellbeing is explained by disability. Disability is potentially mediating the association between impairment and low wellbeing. Received support may buffer the impact of some impairments on wellbeing in this setting. Giving actual support to children is associated with less wellbeing unless the support being given to children is perceived as good, perhaps reflecting parental obligation to support adult children in need. Improving community disability services for older people and optimizing received social support will be vital in rural areas in developing countries. PMID:19607711

  6. The biological basis of language: insight from developmental grammatical impairments.

    PubMed

    van der Lely, Heather K J; Pinker, Steven

    2014-11-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI), a genetic developmental disorder, offers insights into the neurobiological and computational organization of language. A subtype, Grammatical-SLI (G-SLI), involves greater impairments in 'extended' grammatical representations, which are nonlocal, hierarchical, abstract, and composed, than in 'basic' ones, which are local, linear, semantic, and holistic. This distinction is seen in syntax, morphology, and phonology, and may be tied to abnormalities in the left hemisphere and basal ganglia, consistent with new models of the neurobiology of language which distinguish dorsal and ventral processing streams. Delineating neurolinguistic phenotypes promises a better understanding of the effects of genes on the brain circuitry underlying normal and impaired language abilities. PMID:25172525

  7. Impaired Decision Making is Associated with Poor Inhibition Control in Nonpathological Lottery Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaolong; Zheng, Lili; Li, Xianchun

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies by questionnaires have demonstrated that lottery gamblers who have not meet the criteria of pathological gambler show greater gambling acceptability. However, few empirical evidence of whether such nonpathological lottery gamblers (NPLGs) display the same impairments of decision making with pathological gamblers has been found so far. In present study, NPLGs and matched controls (MCs) were asked to perform the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and inter-temporal choice task (ICT). We found that compared to MCs, NPLGs displayed much lower IGT scores, net gains and proportions of advantageous decks in the IGT task and much higher percentages of trials during which smaller-but-sooner rewards were chosen in the ICT. These findings indicate that NPLGs display much more risky and impulsive decision makings, just like pathological gamblers in the previous studies. Next, the Go/NoGo task was employed to explore the role of response inhibition in the impairment of decision making in NPLGs. We found that NPLGs did show much higher commission errors compared to MCs. Moreover, IGT scores, net gain and proportions of advantageous decks were significantly negatively correlated with commission errors, which indicates that poor response inhibition might be involved in the impairments of decision making in NPLGs. To our knowledge, we provided the first empirical evidence of impairment of decision making and its cognitive mechanisms in NPLGs. PMID:25348253

  8. Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders.

    PubMed

    Young, Susan; Gudjonsson, Gisli; O'Rourke, Linda; Woodhouse, Emma; Ashwood, Karen; Murphy, Declan; Asherson, Philip

    2015-12-15

    This study examines the rate of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and associated functional impairments in mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). One hundred and thirty-one male MDOs with a primary diagnosis of either severe mental illness (SMI) or personality disorder (PD) completed screening questionnaires for ADHD. If positive, they were invited for a comprehensive diagnostic interview. Additional data pertaining to self-rated impairments, and objective records of critical incidents and episodes of seclusion were obtained from patient records. Twenty-six patients screened positive (7 with SMI, 19 with PD). On further assessment, no SMI patients met criteria for ADHD. Four PD patients met criteria for persistent 'syndromatic' ADHD, whereas six met 'symptomatic' ADHD criteria, giving overall prevalence estimates of 8.6% and 12.9% respectively. Greater functional impairments were self-reported by the PD+ADHD screener positive group, compared with screener negative peers, with large effect sizes. A significant but small effect was found for spending longer in seclusion. Compared with population norms, a high rate of ADHD and associated impairments are present in MDO's with a primary diagnosis of PD. These individuals have complex needs and both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are required for their rehabilitation. PMID:26410772

  9. Neurocognitive impairment and medication adherence in HIV patients with and without cocaine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Meade, Christina S.; Conn, Nina A.; Skalski, Linda M.; Safren, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine abuse among HIV patients is associated with faster disease progression and mortality. This study examined the relationship between neurocognitive functioning and medication adherence in HIV patients with (n= 25) and without (n= 39) current cocaine dependence. Active users had greater neurocognitive impairment (mean T-score= 35.16 vs. 40.97, p < .05) and worse medication adherence (mean z-score= −0.44 vs. 0.27, p < .001). In a multiple regression model, neurocognitive functioning (β= .33, p < .01) and cocaine dependence (β= −.36, p < .01) were predictive of poorer adherence. There was a significant indirect effect of cocaine dependence on medication adherence through neurocognitive impairment (estimate= −0.15, p < .05), suggesting that neurocognitive impairment partially mediated the relationship between cocaine dependence and poorer adherence. These results confirm that cocaine users are at high risk for poor HIV outcomes and underscore the importance of treating both neurocognitive impairment and cocaine dependence among HIV patients. PMID:20857187

  10. Posterior Cingulate Lactate as a Metabolic Biomarker in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Kurt E.; Richards, Todd L.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; McGough, Ellen L.; Minoshima, Satoshi; Aylward, Elizabeth H.; Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; McCurry, Susan M.; Teri, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a central factor within the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) spectrum. We hypothesized that in vivo measurements of lactate (lac), a by-product of glycolysis, would correlate with functional impairment and measures of brain health in a cohort of 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) individuals. Lac was quantified from the precuneus/posterior cingulate (PPC) using 2-dimensional J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Additionally, standard behavioral and imaging markers of aMCI disease progression were acquired. PPC lac was negatively correlated with performance on the Wechsler logical memory tests and on the minimental state examination even after accounting for gray matter, cerebral spinal fluid volume, and age. No such relationships were observed between lac and performance on nonmemory tests. Significant negative relationships were also noted between PPC lac and hippocampal volume and PPC functional connectivity. Together, these results reveal that aMCI individuals with a greater disease progression have increased concentrations of PPC lac. Because lac is upregulated as a compensatory response to mitochondrial impairment, we propose that J-resolved MRS of lac is a noninvasive, surrogate biomarker of impaired metabolic function and would provide a useful means of tracking mitochondrial function during therapeutic trials targeting brain metabolism. PMID:26417597

  11. Impaired top-down control of visual search in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Gold, James M; Fuller, Rebecca L; Robinson, Benjamin M; Braun, Elsie L; Luck, Steven J

    2007-08-01

    This study examined top-down and bottom-up control of attention in a group of 24 patients with schizophrenia and 16 healthy volunteers. Participants completed a visual search task in which they reported whether a target oval contained a gap. The target was accompanied by 5, 11, or 17 distractors. On some trials, the target was identified by a highly salient feature that was shared by only 2 distractors, causing this feature to "pop out" from the display. This feature provided strong bottom-up information that could be used to direct attention to the target. On other trials, half of the distractors contained this feature making these distractors no more salient than the other distractors requiring greater use of top-down control to restrict processing to items containing this feature. Patient visual search efficiency closely approximated control performance in the first trial type. In contrast, patients demonstrated significant slowing of search in the second trial type, which required top-down control. These results suggest that schizophrenia does not impair the ability to implement the selection of a target when attention can be guided by bottom-up information, but it does impair the ability to use top-down control mechanisms to guide attention. These results extend prior studies that have focused on aspects of executive control in complex tasks and suggest that a similar underlying deficit may also impact the performance of perceptual systems. PMID:17544632

  12. Binaural speech discrimination under noise in hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Rao, A. B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of speech discrimination by hearing-impaired listeners (sensori-neural, conductive, and mixed groups) under binaural free-field listening in the presence of background noise. Subjects with pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz were presented with a version of the W-22 list of phonetically balanced words under three conditions: (1) 'quiet', with the chamber noise below 28 dB and speech at 60 dB; (2) at a constant S/N ratio of +10 dB, and with a background white noise at 70 dB; and (3) same as condition (2), but with the background noise at 80 dB. The mean speech discrimination scores decreased significantly with noise in all groups. However, the decrease in binaural speech discrimination scores with an increase in hearing impairment was less for material presented under the noise conditions than for the material presented in quiet.

  13. Clinical significance of translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I

    1994-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications. PMID:8125386

  14. Aids for visual impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, N J

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue. Images FIG 1 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 FIG 8 FIG 9 FIG 10 PMID:2252929

  15. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Treatments About Mild Cognitive Impairment Prevalence of MCI Long-term studies suggest that 10 to 20 percent of ... and Alzheimer's Pathology 2002 William Van Nostrand A Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study ... Stewart Apololipoprotein-E4 & Cognitive Function in ...

  16. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and appliances, Braille, closed circuit TVs, guide dog schools, low vision, and technology. http://www.nfb.org/living Education for Students with Blindness or Visual Impairment | Entire section of Perkins School for the Blind’s website. http://www.perkins.org/ ...

  17. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    Some forgetfulness can be a normal part of aging. However, some people have more memory problems than other people their age. This condition is called mild cognitive impairment, or MCI. People with MCI can take care of themselves and do their normal activities. MCI memory problems may include ...

  18. Telomerase deficiency delays renal recovery in mice after ischemia reperfusion injury by impairing autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huifang; Fan, Xiaofeng; Lawson, William E.; Paueksakon, Paisit; Harris, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    The aged population suffers increased morbidity and higher mortality in response to episodes of acute kidney injury (AKI). Aging is associated with telomere shortening, and both telomerase reverse transcriptase (TerT) and RNA (TerC) are essential to maintain telomere length. To define a role of telomerase deficiency in susceptibility to AKI, we used ischemia/reperfusion injury in wild type mice or mice with either TerC or TerT deletion. Injury induced similar renal impairment at day 1 in each genotype, as assessed by azotemia, proteinuria, acute tubular injury score and apoptotic tubular epithelial cell index. However, either TerC or TerT knockout significantly delayed recovery compared to wild type mice. Electron microscopy showed increased autophagosome formation in renal tubular epithelial cells in wild type mice but a significant delay of their development in TerC and TerT knockout mice. There were also impeded increases in the expression of the autophagosome marker LC3 II, prolonged accumulation of the autophagosome protein P62, an increase of the cell cycle regulator p16, and greater activation of the mTOR pathway. The mTORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin, partially restored the ischemia/reperfusion-induced autophagy response, without a significant effect on either p16 induction or tubule epithelial cell proliferation. Thus, muting the maintenance of normal telomere length in mice impaired recovery from AKI, due to an increase in tubule cell senescence and impairment of mTOR-mediated autophagy. PMID:25760322

  19. Right hemisphere brain damage impairs strategy updating.

    PubMed

    Danckert, James; Stttinger, Elisabeth; Quehl, Nadine; Anderson, Britt

    2012-12-01

    Our behavior is predicated on mental models of the environment that must be updated to accommodate incoming information. We had 13 right-brain-damaged (RBD) patients and 10 left-brain-damaged (LBD) patients play the children's game "rock, paper, scissors" against a computer opponent that covertly altered its strategy. Healthy age-matched controls and LBD patients quickly detected extreme departures from uniform play ("paper" chosen on 80% of trials), but the RBD patient group did not. Seven RBD patients presented with neglect and although this was associated with greater impairment in strategy updating, there were exceptions: 2 of 7 neglect patients performed above the median of the patient group and 1 of the 6 nonneglect participants was severely impaired. Although speculative, lesion analyses contrasting high and low performing patients showed that severe impairments were associated with insula and putamen lesions. Interestingly, relative to the controls, the LBD group tended to "maximize" choices in the strongly biased condition (i.e., optimal strategy chosen on 100% of the trials), whereas controls "matched" the computer's strategy (i.e., optimal strategy chosen on 80% of the trials). We conclude that RBD leads to impaired updating of mental models to exploit environmental changes. PMID:22178711

  20. Cognitive speed of processing training in older adults with visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Amanda F.; O’Connor, Melissa L.; Edwards, Jerri D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether older adults with vision impairment differentially benefit from cognitive speed of processing training (SPT) relative to healthy older adults. Methods Secondary data analyses were conducted from a randomised trial on the effects of SPT among older adults. The effects of vision impairment as indicated by (1) near visual acuity, (2) contrast sensitivity, (3) self-reported cataracts and (4) self-reported other eye conditions (e.g., glaucoma, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, optic neuritis, and retinopathy) among participants randomised to either SPT or a social- and computer-contact control group was assessed. The primary outcome was Useful Field of View Test (UFOV) performance. Results Mixed repeated-measures ancovas demonstrated that those randomized to SPT experienced greater baseline to post-test improvements in UFOV performance relative to controls (p’s < 0.001), regardless of impairments in near visual acuity, contrast sensitivity or presence of cataracts. Those with other eye conditions significantly benefitted from training (p = 0.044), but to a lesser degree than those without such conditions. Covariates included age and baseline measures of balance and depressive symptoms, which were significantly correlated with baseline UFOV performance. Conclusions Among a community-based sample of older adults with and without visual impairment and eye disease, the SPT intervention was effective in enhancing participants’ UFOV performance. The analyses presented here indicate the potential for SPT to enhance UFOV performance among a community-based sample of older adults with visual impairment and potentially for some with self-reported eye disease; further research to explore this area is warranted, particularly to determine the effects of eye diseases on SPT benefits. PMID:25160890

  1. Significant sequelae after bacterial meningitis in Niger: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beside high mortality, acute bacterial meningitis may lead to a high frequency of neuropsychological sequelae. The Sahelian countries belonging to the meningitis belt experience approximately 50% of the meningitis cases occurring in the world. Studies in Africa have shown that N. meningitidis could cause hearing loss in up to 30% of the cases, exceeding sometimes measles. The situation is similar in Niger which experiences yearly meningitis epidemics and where rehabilitation wards are rare and hearing aids remain unaffordable. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of neuropsychological sequelae after acute bacterial meningitis in four of the eight regions of Niger. Methods Subjects exposed to acute bacterial meningitis were enrolled into a cohort with non exposed subjects matched on age and gender. Consenting subjects were interviewed during inclusion and at a control visit two months later. If clinical symptoms or psychological troubles persisted at both visits among the exposed subjects with a frequency significantly greater than that observed among the non exposed subjects, a sequelae was retained. The comparison of the frequency of sequelae between non exposed and exposed subjects to bacterial meningitis was also calculated using the Fisher exact test. Results Three persisting functional symptoms were registered: headaches, asthenia, and vertigo among 31.3, 36.9, and 22.4% respectively of the exposed subjects. A significant motor impairment was retrieved among 12.3% of the exposed versus 1.6% of the non exposed subjects. Hearing loss significantly disabled 31.3% of the exposed subjects and 10.4% exhibited a serious deafness. Conclusions This study carried out in Niger confirms two serious neurological sequelae occurring at high frequencies after bacterial meningitis: severe and profound hearing loss and motor impairment. Cochlear implantation and hearing aids are too expensive for populations living in developing countries. Neurological sequelae occurring after meningitis should sensitize African public health authorities on the development of rehabilitation centers. All these challenges can be met through existing strategies and guidelines. PMID:23687976

  2. Association Between Reduced Heart Rate Variability and Cognitive Impairment in Older Disabled Women in the Community: Womens Health and Aging Study I

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Varadhan, Ravi; Guralnik, Jack M.; Carlson, Michelle C.; Fleisher, Lee A.; Fried, Linda P.; Chaves, Paulo H. M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the independent association between heart rate variability (HRV), a marker of cardiac autonomic function, and cognitive impairment. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from Womens Health and Aging Study I. SETTING Urban community in Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS A subset of 311 physically disabled, community-dwelling women aged 65 and older whose HRV data were obtained. MEASUREMENTS Reduced HRV was defined as the lowest quartile of each of several HRV measures exploring time and frequency domains and compared with the remaining three quartiles. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score less than 24. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the independent relationship between reduced HRV and prevalent cognitive impairment. RESULTS The age-, education-, and race-adjusted prevalence of cognitive impairment was higher in those with reduced HRV than in those with nonreduced HRV. After adjusting for relevant demographic and clinical characteristics, participants with reduced HRV were significantly more likely than those with nonreduced HRV to have cognitive impairment; these findings were consistent across different HRV indices. In particular, reduced high-frequency power, indicative of decreased parasympathetic activity, was associated with 6.7 times greater odds of cognitive impairment (95% confidence interval = 2.2720.0). CONCLUSION Cardiac autonomic dysfunction, particularly decreased parasympathetic activity, was independently associated with cognitive impairment in older disabled women in the community. This finding may improve understanding of the pathophysiological basis of cognitive impairment. The potential role of HRV as a cause or consequence of cognitive impairment needs to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:17087704

  3. Comparison of health related quality of life of primary school deaf children with and without motor impairment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of primary school-age deaf children with or without motor impairment to that of typically developing peers. Methods This study was a prospective, cross sectional study. With age-matched controls, 100 children were analyzed in each of the following three categories: normal hearing, hearing impaired without motor impairment, and hearing impairment with motor impairment. The Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) version 4.0 was used to assess the HRQOL. Results Hearing impairment along with motor impairment in children is associated with significantly increased proportions of suboptimal levels of function and significantly lower HRQOL. Children with hearing impairment and no motor impairment had significantly lower scores in the emotional health and school function domains of the PedsQL than children with normal hearing, but there was no significant difference in the physical and social health domain scores. Children with hearing impairment and motor impairment showed significantly lower scores in all domains of the PedsQL compared to children with normal hearing. Scores in all four domains of the PedsQL differed between children with hearing impairment and no motor impairment and children with hearing impairment and motor impairment. Conclusion These findings indicate that children with hearing impairment, both with and without motor impairment, have a diminished health-related quality of life. PMID:21070679

  4. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving: Implications for Evaluating Driver Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy; Milavetz, Gary; Murry, Daryl J.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired driving is a significant traffic safety problem, and alcohol and drugs taken before driving contribute substantially to this problem. With the increase in use of prescription medication and the decriminalization of some drugs, it has become increasingly important to understand the manifestation of driver impairment. Building upon previous alcohol research conducted at the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS), this study enrolled commercial bus drivers to evaluate the effect of triazolam on driving performance to assess difference between placebo, 0.125, and 0.25 mg doses in a randomized and double-blind design. On each of three randomized visits, subjects drove a simulator scenario that had previously been used to demonstrate effects of alcohol on driving performance. Plasma triazolam levels were obtained before the simulator drive. The protocol included participants receiving study medication and placebo over a 3-week period of time one to two weeks apart. The simulator drives used for this analysis occurred approximately 140 minutes after dosingafter the subjects had completed four bus simulator drives and neuropsychological tests over a 2-hour period of time surrounding dosing. The driving scenario contained representative situations on three types of roadways (urban, freeway, and rural) under nighttime driving conditions. Lane keeping performance (ability to drive straight in the lane) under the three doses of triazolam demonstrates that at the 0.25 mg dose, statistically significant effects on performance are observed, but no effects are found at the 0.125 mg level when testing at this time period after dosing. This differs from the effects of alcohol, which shows impairing effects at a 0.05% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and a greater effect at 0.10% BAC. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding how different types of drugs affect driving performance in realistic driving environments. Although some compounds may have an effect that correlates linearly to dosage, that is not always the case. An understanding of these differences and how they vary across driving tasks is essential to developing a robust evaluation protocol that can accurately describe the effects of a wide variety of drugs on driver impairment. This information can be used to reduce the risk of deleterious effects of therapeutic medications while ensuring their safe and beneficial use. PMID:24406943

  5. Grammatical Impairments in PPA

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cynthia K.; Mack, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Grammatical impairments are commonly observed in the agrammatic subtype of primary progressive aphasia (PPA-G), whereas grammatical processing is relatively preserved in logopenic (PPA-L) and semantic (PPA-S) subtypes. Aims We review research on grammatical deficits in PPA and associated neural mechanisms, with discussion focused on production and comprehension of four aspects of morphosyntactic structure: grammatical morphology, functional categories, verbs and verb argument structure, and complex syntactic structures. We also address assessment of grammatical deficits in PPA, with emphasis on behavioral tests of grammatical processing. Finally, we address research examining the effects of treatment for progressive grammatical impairments. Main Contribution PPA-G is associated with grammatical deficits that are evident across linguistic domains in both production and comprehension. PPA-G is associated with damage to regions including the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and dorsal white matter tracts, which have been linked to impaired comprehension and production of complex sentences. Detailing grammatical deficits in PPA is important for estimating the trajectory of language decline and associated neuropathology. We, therefore, highlight several new assessment tools for examining different aspects of morphosyntactic processing in PPA. Conclusions Individuals with PPA-G present with agrammatic deficit patterns distinct from those associated with PPA-L and PPA-S, but similar to those seen in agrammatism resulting from stroke, and patterns of cortical atrophy and white matter changes associated with PPA-G have been identified. Methods for clinical evaluation of agrammatism, focusing on comprehension and production of grammatical morphology, functional categories, verbs and verb argument structure, and complex syntactic structures are recommended and tools for this are emerging in the literature. Further research is needed to investigate the real-time processes underlying grammatical impairments in PPA, as well as the structural and functional neural correlates of grammatical impairments across linguistic domains. Few studies have examined the effects of treatment for grammatical impairments in PPA; research in this area is needed to better understand how (or if) grammatical processing ability can be improved, the potential for spared neural tissue to be recruited to support this, and whether the neural connections within areas of dysfunctional tissue required for grammatical processing can be enhanced using cortical stimulation. PMID:25642014

  6. GP consortia: navigating ambiguity to produce greater public value?

    PubMed

    Holbeche, Linda

    2011-05-01

    The UK's NHS is about to be significantly remodelled according to a white paper published in July 2010 that outlines the devolution of commissioning responsibilities away from strategic health authorities and primary care trusts to consortia of GPs, which are to be established at local level. Details of how the new GP consortia will operate are as yet unclear, but in essence they will be strategic alliances and it is likely that they will develop more or less formal arrangements between consortia partners, such as those of a commercial joint venture. This article draws on primary research into strategic alliances between organizations in all sectors. It suggests that there can be significant challenges for those working within strategic alliances, given that these tend to be beset by ambiguity and political tensions. In a context of ever greater transparency and accountability, it will be crucial to attend to the human aspects of strategic alliances since these represent significant risk if neglected. Conversely, alliances also offer the opportunity to develop the synergy of people, organizations and communities to deliver greater public value. Successful collaborations need to get three things right: governance, operations and behaviours. Relationships between consortia partners have a significant bearing on their ability to deliver desired outcomes. They must be able to build and maintain trust. Consortia partners will need sophisticated negotiating and stakeholder management skills and must be able to engage the public in setting the strategic goals for which they will be accountable. They also need strategic and operational management skills and must be able to cope with ambiguity and manage complexity. This paper argues that specific forms of leadership are needed in collaborative arrangements to mobilize people for positive action. People must work together by willingly and effectively pooling their initiative and expertise, and create a product or energy that is greater than the sum of their parts. The nature of leadership required to produce such high performance outcomes is likely to supersede leadership that is the result of structural relationships or of individual action. In particular, distributed leadership is likely to be relevant. PMID:21692401

  7. Chemistry for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Judy L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses modifications to general education or introductory chemistry courses that allow visually impaired students to participate productively. Describes a strategy for teaching about elements and density, and the construction of a conductivity tester for visually impaired students. (JRH)

  8. Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

  9. Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the

  10. A possible contributory mechanism for impaired idiom perception in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sela, Tal; Lavidor, Michal; Mitchell, Rachel L C

    2015-09-30

    In this review, we focus on the ability of people with schizophrenia to correctly perceive the meaning of idioms; figurative language expressions in which intended meaning is not derived from the meaning of constituent words. We collate evidence on how idiom perception is impaired, ascertain the clinical relevance of this impairment, and consider possible psychological and neural mechanisms behind the impairment. In reviewing extant literature, we searched the PubMed database, from 1975-2014, focussing on articles that directly concerned schizophrenia and idioms, with follow up searches to explore the viability of possible underlying mechanisms. We learn that there is clear evidence of impairment, with a tendency to err towards literal interpretations unless the figurative meaning is salient, and despite contextual cues to figurative interpretations. Given the importance of idioms in everyday language, the potential impact is significant. Clinically, impaired idiom perception primarily relates to positive symptoms of schizophrenia, but also to negative symptoms. The origins of the impairment remain speculation, with impaired executive function, impaired semantic functions, and impaired context processing all proposed to explain the phenomenon. We conclude that a possible contributory mechanism at the neural level is an impaired dorsolateral prefrontal cortex system for cognitive control over semantic processing. PMID:26216166

  11. Assessment of Hearing Impaired Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The issue of Directions contains 11 articles on assessment of hearing impaired individuals. Entries have the following titles and authors: "Classroom Assessment Techniques for Hearing Impaired Students--A Literature Review" (B. McKee, M. Hausknecht); "Informal Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students In the Classroom" (B. Culhane, R. Hein);

  12. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  13. Mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Howard H; Jacova, Claudia

    2005-08-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) describes a state of cognitive functioning that is below defined norms, yet falls short of dementia in severity. It exists across a cognitive continuum with borders that are difficult to define precisely. Within our "graying" western societies, its prevalence increases with age. A number of subtypes of MCI, including age-associated memory impairment (AAMI), age-associated cognitive decline (AACD), amnestic MCI (MCIa), and cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND) have contributed to our understanding of MCI. Recent efforts have been directed at developing a uniform diagnostic classification for MCI that reflects the maturation of knowledge about this state. There is considerable etiological and clinical heterogeneity within MCI; however, there is a unifying increased risk of progression to dementia. The diagnostic process for MCI involves assessment of multiple cognitive domains, with particular attention to episodic and semantic memory, while neuroimaging with structural MRI and PET both add to the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of MCI. Although there are no pharmacological treatments at present that are capable of delaying the long-term progression of MCI to dementia, there is some evidence of short-term symptomatic benefits with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. MCI is an important clinical problem, which clinicians can expect to face with increasing frequency. The essentials of management include a thorough assessment directed at etiological determination and counseling and judicious use of available therapeutics. PMID:16085780

  14. Health impairments and labour market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Drydakis, Nick

    2010-10-01

    Our analysis is based on the 2008 Athens Area Study and exploits detailed information regarding health impairments and labour market outcomes for Greek males. Distinguishing between healthy and heath-impaired employees who have or do not have work limitations, the unobserved productivity effect of health is separated from discrimination. We then estimate a regression model that includes terms to correct for employment selection and endogenous stratification of self-reported health condition. A penalty for productivity limitation exists. Evidence of wage discrimination is also found. Both findings are statistically significant and highlight the necessity for instituting active policies against unequal treatment. PMID:19771458

  15. Social Cognition in Visually Impaired and Sighted Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Teri J.

    1983-01-01

    Findings of the comparison of spatial role taking, social role taking, and referential communication in 56 congenitally visually impaired and sighted children (seven to nine years old) revealed that visually impaired Ss need not differ from sighted Ss in cognitive social functioning if they have had significant verbal interaction with others.

  16. Gestural Abilities of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Charlotte; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Alcock, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when language is significantly below chronological age expectations in the absence of other developmental disorders, sensory impairments or global developmental delays. It has been suggested that gesture may enhance communication in children with SLI by providing an alternative means to…

  17. Gestural Abilities of Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Charlotte; Norbury, Courtenay Frazier; Alcock, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Specific language impairment (SLI) is diagnosed when language is significantly below chronological age expectations in the absence of other developmental disorders, sensory impairments or global developmental delays. It has been suggested that gesture may enhance communication in children with SLI by providing an alternative means to

  18. Impaired cerebrovascular hemodynamics are associated with cerebral white matter damage

    PubMed Central

    Purkayastha, Sushmita; Fadar, Otite; Mehregan, Aujan; Salat, David H; Moscufo, Nicola; Meier, Dominik S; Guttmann, Charles RG; Fisher, Naomi DL; Lipsitz, Lewis A; Sorond, Farzaneh A

    2014-01-01

    White matter hyperintensities (WMH) in elderly individuals with vascular diseases are presumed to be due to ischemic small vessel diseases; however, their etiology is unknown. We examined the cross-sectional relationship between cerebrovascular hemodynamics and white matter structural integrity in elderly individuals with vascular risk factors. White matter hyperintensity volumes, fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained from MRI in 48 subjects (757years). Pulsatility index (PI) and dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) was assessed using transcranial Doppler ultrasound of the middle cerebral artery. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was calculated from transfer function analysis (phase and gain) of spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations in the low (LF, 0.03 to 0.15?Hz) and high (HF, 0.16 to 0.5?Hz) frequency ranges. Higher PI was associated with greater WMH (P<0.005). Higher phase across all frequency ranges was associated with greater FA and lower MD (P<0.005). Lower gain was associated with higher FA in the LF range (P=0.001). These relationships between phase and FA were significant in the territories limited to the middle cerebral artery as well as across the entire brain. Our results show a strong relationship between impaired cerebrovascular hemodynamics (PI and dCA) and loss of cerebral white matter structural integrity (WMH and DTI metrics) in elderly individuals. PMID:24129749

  19. Nutrition in neurologically impaired children.

    PubMed

    2009-07-01

    Malnutrition, either under- or overnutrition, is a common condition among neurologically impaired children. Energy needs are difficult to define in this heterogeneous population, and there is a lack of information on what normal growth should be in these children. Non-nutritional factors may influence growth, but nutritional factors such as insufficient caloric intake, excessive nutrient losses and abnormal energy metabolism also contribute to growth failure. Malnutrition is associated with significant morbidity, while nutritional rehabilitation improves overall health. Nutritional support should be an integral part of the management of neurologically impaired children, and should focus not only on improving nutritional status but also on improving quality of life for patients and their families. When considering nutritional intervention, oromotor dysfunction, gastroesophageal reflux and pulmonary aspiration must be addressed and a multidisciplinary team should be involved. Children at risk for nutrition-related problems should be identified early. An assessment of nutritional status should be performed at least yearly, and more frequently in infants and young children, or in children at risk for malnutrition. Oral intake should be optimized if safe, but enteral tube feedings should be initiated in children with oromotor dysfunction, leading to clinically significant aspiration, or in children unable to maintain an adequate nutritional status with oral intake. Nasogastric tube feeding should be used for short-term intervention, but if long-term nutritional intervention is required, a gastrostomy should be considered. Antireflux procedures should be reserved for children with significant gastroesophageal reflux. The patient's response to nutritional intervention should be carefully monitored to avoid excessive weight gain after initiation of enteral nutrition, and paediatric formulas should be used to avoid micronutrient deficiencies. PMID:20592978

  20. Time-dependent neuromuscular parameters in the plantar flexors support greater fatigability of old compared with younger males.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jonathan W; Power, Geoffrey A; Rice, Charles L; Dalton, Brian H

    2016-02-01

    Older adults are more fatigable than young during dynamic tasks, especially those that involve moderate to fast unconstrained velocity shortening contractions. Rate of torque development (RTD), rate of velocity development (RVD) and rate of neuromuscular activation are time-dependent neuromuscular parameters which have not been explored in relation to age-related differences in fatigability. The purpose was to determine whether these time-dependent measures affect the greater age-related fatigability in peak power during moderately fast and maximal effort shortening plantar flexions. Neuromuscular properties were recorded from 10 old (~78years) and 10 young (~24years) men during 50 maximal-effort unconstrained velocity shortening plantar flexions against a resistance equivalent to 20% maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque. At task termination, peak power, and angular velocity, and torque at peak power were decreased by 30, 18, and 16%, respectively, for the young (p<0.05), and 46, 28, 30% for the old (p<0.05) compared to pre-fatigue values with the old exhibiting greater reductions across all measures (p<0.05). Voluntary RVD and RTD decreased, respectively, by 24 and 26% in the young and by 47 and 40% in the old at task termination, with greater decrements in the old (p<0.05). Rate of neuromuscular activation of the soleus decreased over time for both age groups (~47%; p<0.05), but for the medial gastrocnemius (MG) only the old experienced significant decrements (46%) by task termination. All parameters were correlated strongly with the fatigue-related reduction in peak power (r=0.81-0.94, p<0.05), except for MG and soleus rates of neuromuscular activation (r=0.25-0.30, p>0.10). Fatigue-related declines in voluntary RTD and RVD were both moderately correlated with MG rate of neuromuscular activation (r=0.51-0.52, p<0.05), but exhibited a trend with soleus (r=0.39-0.41, p=0.07-0.09). Thus, time-dependent factors, RVD and RTD, are likely important indicators of intrinsic muscle properties leading to the greater age-related decline in peak power when performing a repetitive dynamic fatigue task, which may be due to greater fatigue-related central impairments for the older men than young. PMID:26657724

  1. Chronic Hyponatremia Causes Neurologic and Psychologic Impairments.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Haruki; Sugimura, Yoshihisa; Takagi, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hiroyuki; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Izumida, Hisakazu; Nakashima, Kohtaro; Ochiai, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Seiji; Kiyota, Atsushi; Fukumoto, Kazuya; Iwama, Shintaro; Takagishi, Yoshiko; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Arima, Hiroshi; Komatsu, Yukio; Murata, Yoshiharu; Oiso, Yutaka

    2016-03-01

    Hyponatremia is the most common clinical electrolyte disorder. Once thought to be asymptomatic in response to adaptation by the brain, recent evidence suggests that chronic hyponatremia may be linked to attention deficits, gait disturbances, risk of falls, and cognitive impairments. Such neurologic defects are associated with a reduction in quality of life and may be a significant cause of mortality. However, because underlying diseases such as adrenal insufficiency, heart failure, liver cirrhosis, and cancer may also affect brain function, the contribution of hyponatremia alone to neurologic manifestations and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Using a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone rat model, we show here that sustained reduction of serum sodium ion concentration induced gait disturbances; facilitated the extinction of a contextual fear memory; caused cognitive impairment in a novel object recognition test; and impaired long-term potentiation at hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses. In vivo microdialysis revealed an elevated extracellular glutamate concentration in the hippocampus of chronically hyponatremic rats. A sustained low extracellular sodium ion concentration also decreased glutamate uptake by primary astrocyte cultures, suggesting an underlying mechanism of impaired long-term potentiation. Furthermore, gait and memory performances of corrected hyponatremic rats were equivalent to those of control rats. Thus, these results suggest chronic hyponatremia in humans may cause gait disturbance and cognitive impairment, but these abnormalities are reversible and careful correction of this condition may improve quality of life and reduce mortality. PMID:26376860

  2. Executive Function Impairments in High IQ Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Thomas E.; Reichel, Philipp C.; Quinlan, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To demonstrate that high IQ adults diagnosed with ADHD suffer from executive function (EF) impairments that: a) can be identified with a combination of standardized measures and self-report data; and b) occur more commonly in this group than in the general population. Method: 157 ADHD adults with IQ greater than or equal to 120 were

  3. Color synesthesia improves color but impairs motion perception.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J Daniel; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2014-05-01

    A recent study showed that color synesthetes have increased color sensitivity but impaired motion perception. This is exciting because little research has examined how synesthesia affects basic perceptual processes outside the context of synesthetic experiences. The results suggest that synesthesia broadly impacts perception with greater neural implications than previously considered. PMID:24581557

  4. Color synesthesia improves color but impairs motion perception

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, J. Daniel; Caplovitz, Gideon Paul

    2014-01-01

    A recent study showed that color synesthetes have increased color sensitivity but impaired motion perception. This is exciting because little research examines how synesthesia affects basic perceptual processes outside the context of the synesthetic experiences. The results suggest that synesthesia broadly impacts perception with greater neural implications than previously considered. PMID:24581557

  5. Temporal Resolution of the Normal Ear in Listeners with Unilateral Hearing Impairment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Dey, Ratul; Davessar, Jai Lal

    2015-12-01

    Unilateral hearing loss (UHL) leads to an imbalanced input to the brain and results in cortical reorganization. In listeners with unilateral impairments, while the perceptual deficits associated with the impaired ear are well documented, less is known regarding the auditory processing in the unimpaired, clinically normal ear. It is commonly accepted that perceptual consequences are unlikely to occur in the normal ear for listeners with UHL. This study investigated whether the temporal resolution in the normal-hearing (NH) ear of listeners with long-standing UHL is similar to those in listeners with NH. Temporal resolution was assayed via measuring gap detection thresholds (GDTs) in within- and between-channel paradigms. GDTs were assessed in the normal ear of adults with long-standing, severe-to-profound UHL (N?=?13) and age-matched, NH listeners (N?=?22) at two presentation levels (30 and 55dB sensation level). Analysis indicated that within-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were not significantly different than those for the NH subject group, but the between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL were poorer (by greater than a factor of 2) than those for the listeners with NH. The hearing thresholds in the normal or impaired ears were not associated with the elevated between-channel GDTs for listeners with UHL. Contrary to the common assumption that auditory processing capabilities are preserved for the normal ear in listeners with UHL, the current study demonstrated that a long-standing unilateral hearing impairment may adversely affect auditory perception-temporal resolution-in the clinically normal ear. From a translational perspective, these findings imply that the temporal processing deficits in the unimpaired ear of listeners with unilateral hearing impairments may contribute to their overall auditory perceptual difficulties. PMID:26197871

  6. Differences in somatosensory processing due to dominant hemispheric motor impairment in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cerebral palsy (CP) is usually defined as a group of permanent motor disorders due to non-progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant brain, recent research has shown that CP individuals are also characterized by altered somatosensory perception, increased pain and abnormal activation of cortical somatosensory areas. The present study was aimed to examine hemispheric differences on somatosensory brain processing in individuals with bilateral CP and lateralized motor impairments compared with healthy controls. Nine CP individuals with left-dominant motor impairments (LMI) (age range 528yrs), nine CP individuals with right-dominant motor impairments (RMI) (age range 729yrs), and 12 healthy controls (age range 530yrs) participated in the study. Proprioception, touch and pain thresholds, as well as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) elicited by tactile stimulation of right and left lips and thumbs were compared. Results Pain sensitivity was higher, and lip stimulation elicited greater beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with CP than in healthy controls. In addition, although there was no significant differences between individuals with RMI and LMI on pain or touch sensitivity, lip and thumb stimulation elicited smaller beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with LMI than with RMI. Conclusions Our data revealed that brain processing of somatosensory stimulation was abnormal in CP individuals. Moreover, this processing was different depending if they presented right- or left-dominant motor impairments, suggesting that different mechanisms of sensorimotor reorganization should be involved in CP depending on dominant side of motor impairment. PMID:24410983

  7. Role of ophthalmic nurses with visually impaired patients.

    PubMed

    Barton, W

    1998-03-01

    In 1987, it was estimated that over 13 million people in the world were visually impaired, and more than 27 to 35 million were classified as blind. Greater than 6 million visually impaired people live in the United States. There are many causes of visual impairment, including age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, autoimmune deficiency syndrome, and trauma. Some patients may be helped or visual loss delayed with surgery. Many may have dramatic visual improvement with optical devices, large-print publications, and improved lighting. The ophthalmic nurse may assist in accurately assessing the patient's vision and identifying his or her lifestyle and ability to function independently. Assisting the patient to overcome psychosocial and economic barriers and helping to obtain assistance is critical to enable patients to function independently. Ophthalmic nurses may be instrumental in increasing patients' awareness of community resources and services available to those who are visually impaired. PMID:9866521

  8. Non-Back-Drivable Gearboxes With Greater Efficiencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy R.

    1996-01-01

    Non-back-drivable gearboxes with power-transfer efficiencies greater than conventional non-back-drivable gearboxes undergoing development. Greater efficiencies made possible by novel design concept utilizing input torques in such way as to reduce frictional losses.

  9. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ransmayr, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease is the second most frequent neurodegenerative disorder. There is significantly elevated risk of cognitive decline and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms. Dementia may develop insidiously several years after manifestation of Parkinson motor symptoms (dementia associated with Parkinson's disease; Parkinson's disease dementia) or in close temporal relationship (within one year) after onset of motor symptoms (Dementia with Lewy bodies). There are clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutic similarities between these two conditions. Men are more frequently affected than women. Risk factor or indicators are advanced age at disease onset, disease duration, rigidity, akinesia and posture and gait impairment and falls as opposed to tremor dominance, and associated neuropsychiatric symptoms (depression, apathy, hallucinosis, delirium). Dementia is treatable with cholinesterase inhibitors (rivastigmine, donepezil), memantine, and adjustment of the pharmacological regimen of parkinsonian motor symptoms. Concomitant autonomic nervous system symptoms and neuropsychiatric complications warrant early clinical awareness and are accessible to pharmacological therapy. PMID:26609664

  10. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2014-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition. PMID:24765105

  11. [Multiple myeloma and renal impairment].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoto

    2015-01-01

    Renal impairment (RI) is a common complication and it impacts on a survival of patients with systemic multiple myeloma (MM). In a cohort study in Akita, about 20-26% patients with MM showed RI at diagnosis and it was independently associated with overall survival. Cast nephropathy, amyloidosis, and monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (Randall type) are known as three pathological findings of kidney in MM patients with RI. Recently, the term monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS) was proposed because of a causal relationship between the monoclonal gammopathy and the renal damage. Bortezomib-based regimens may improve renal function in the majority of MM patients with RI. We discussed an epidemiology, clinic-pathological findings and treatments of MM with RI in this review. PMID:25626301

  12. Impairment of the non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination pathways of DNA double strand break repair: Impact on spontaneous and radiation-induced mammary and intestinal tumour risk in Apc(min/+) mice.

    PubMed

    Haines, Jackie W; Coster, Margaret; Bouffler, Simon D

    2015-11-01

    Female Apc(min/+) mice carrying the BALB/c variant of Prkdc or heterozygous knockout for Xrcc2, were sham- or 2Gy X-irradiated as adults to compare the effect of mild impairments of double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways, non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) respectively on spontaneous and radiation-induced mammary and intestinal tumorigenesis. Mice with impaired NHEJ showed no difference in incidence of spontaneous mammary tumours, compared with matched controls, (2.46 fold, P=0.121) and significantly less following irradiation (radiation-induced excess; 0.35 fold, P=0.008). In contrast mice with impaired HR presented with significantly less spontaneous mammary tumours than matched controls (0.33 fold, P=0.027) and significantly more following irradiation (radiation-induced excess; 3.3 fold, P=0.016). Spontaneous and radiation-induced intestinal adenoma multiplicity in the same groups were significantly greater than matched controls for mice with impaired NHEJ (sham; 1.29 fold, P<0.001, radiation-induced excess; 2.55 fold, P<0.001) and mice with impaired HR showed no significant differences (sham; 0.92 fold, P=0.166, radiation-induced excess; 1.16, P=0.274). Genetic insertion events were common in spontaneous tumours from NHEJ impaired mice compared with matched controls. ?H2AX foci analysis suggests a significantly faster rate of DSB repair (MANOVA P<0.001) in intestinal than mammary tissue; apoptosis was also higher in irradiated intestine. To conclude, results suggest that pathway of choice for repair of spontaneous and radiation-induced DSBs is influenced by tissue type. NHEJ appears to play a greater role in DSB repair in intestinal tissue since impairment by functional change of Prkdc significantly increases the rate of mis-repair in intestinal but not mammary tissue. HR appears to play a greater role in DSB repair in adult mammary tissue since impaired HR results in significant changes in mammary but not in the intestinal tumorigenesis. This indicates that early DNA damage response and repair is important for cancer susceptibility and plays a role in determining tissue specificity of cancer risk. PMID:26435054

  13. Visual impairment in severe and profound sensorineural deafness.

    PubMed Central

    Armitage, I M; Burke, J P; Buffin, J T

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of reversible and irreversible visual impairment was determined in children with severe and profound sensorineural deafness, as subnormal vision can adversely affect their educational and social development. Eighty three of 87 such children attending an audiology service were examined to assess the incidence and severity of visual impairment. Each child underwent a detailed ophthalmic assessment. The criteria for visual impairment were visual acuity < 6/9 Snellen or equivalent and/or abnormal binocular vision. Forty five had a normal ophthalmic examination (54.2%). Twenty nine had visual impairment (34.9%) and nine had ophthalmological abnormalities that did not interfere with vision (10.9%). A higher proportion of children with risk factors for visual pathology demonstrated visual impairment than those in whom there were no risk factors. None the less, 44% of visual impairment was among patients without risk factors. The results underline the need to examine all children with severe and profound sensorineural deafness soon after diagnosis and indicate that children with multiple handicaps have a greater likelihood of visual impairment (11 of 14 cases). PMID:7639551

  14. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements....

  15. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall comply... greater family or medical leave entitlements to employees than those provided under this subpart. Nothing... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements....

  16. Impaired processing of self-face recognition in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hirot, France; Lesage, Marine; Pedron, Lya; Meyer, Isabelle; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi

    2016-03-01

    Body image disturbances and massive weight loss are major clinical symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of body changes and eating attitudes on self-face recognition ability in AN. Twenty-seven subjects suffering from AN and 27 control participants performed a self-face recognition task (SFRT). During the task, digital morphs between their own face and a gender-matched unfamiliar face were presented in a random sequence. Participants' self-face recognition failures, cognitive flexibility, body concern and eating habits were assessed with the Self-Face Recognition Questionnaire (SFRQ), Trail Making Test (TMT), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), respectively. Subjects suffering from AN exhibited significantly greater difficulties than control participants in identifying their own face (p = 0.028). No significant difference was observed between the two groups for TMT (all p > 0.1, non-significant). Regarding predictors of self-face recognition skills, there was a negative correlation between SFRT and body mass index (p = 0.01) and a positive correlation between SFRQ and EDI-2 (p < 0.001) or BSQ (p < 0.001). Among factors involved, nutritional status and intensity of eating disorders could play a part in impaired self-face recognition. PMID:26420298

  17. Sexual Dimorphism in Healthy Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A DTI Study

    PubMed Central

    ODwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; ONeill, Desmond; Bartley, Mirad; Collins, Rnn; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Previous PET and MRI studies have indicated that the degree to which pathology translates into clinical symptoms is strongly dependent on sex with women more likely to express pathology as a diagnosis of AD, whereas men are more resistant to clinical symptoms in the face of the same degree of pathology. Here we use DTI to investigate the difference between male and female white matter tracts in healthy older participants (24 women, 16 men) and participants with mild cognitive impairment (21 women, 12 men). Differences between control and MCI participants were found in fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusion (DR), axial diffusion (DA) and mean diffusion (MD). A significant main effect of sex was also reported for FA, MD and DR indices, with male control and male MCI participants having significantly more microstructural damage than their female counterparts. There was no sex by diagnosis interaction. Male MCIs also had significantly less normalised grey matter (GM) volume than female MCIs. However, in terms of absolute brain volume, male controls had significantly more brain volume than female controls. Normalised GM and WM volumes were found to decrease significantly with age with no age by sex interaction. Overall, these data suggest that the same degree of cognitive impairment is associated with greater structural damage in men compared with women. PMID:22768288

  18. Extent and neural basis of semantic memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Emmanuel J; Didic, Mira; Joubert, Sven; Guedj, Eric; Koric, Lejla; Felician, Olivier; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick; Ceccaldi, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of studies indicate that semantic memory is impaired in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, the extent and the neural basis of this impairment remain unknown. The aim of the present study was: 1) to evaluate whether all or only a subset of semantic domains are impaired in MCI patients; and 2) to assess the neural substrate of the semantic impairment in MCI patients using voxel-based analysis of MR grey matter density and SPECT perfusion. 29 predominantly amnestic MCI patients and 29 matched control subjects participated in this study. All subjects underwent a full neuropsychological assessment, along with a battery of five tests evaluating different domains of semantic memory. A semantic memory composite Z-score was established on the basis of this battery and was correlated with MRI grey matter density and SPECT perfusion measures. MCI patients were found to have significantly impaired performance across all semantic tasks, in addition to their anterograde memory deficit. Moreover, no temporal gradient was found for famous faces or famous public events and knowledge for the most remote decades was also impaired. Neuroimaging analyses revealed correlations between semantic knowledge and perirhinal/entorhinal areas as well as the anterior hippocampus. Therefore, the deficits in the realm of semantic memory in patients with MCI is more widespread than previously thought and related to dysfunction of brain areas beyond the limbic-diencephalic system involved in episodic memory. The severity of the semantic impairment may indicate a decline of semantic memory that began many years before the patients first consulted. PMID:22112550

  19. Detection of phenazepam in impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Sarah; Mellon, Monica Brady; Hinners, Paige

    2013-10-01

    Phenazepam is a potent 1,4-benzodiazepine that has gained notoriety among recreational drug users. First synthesized in Ukraine in the 1970s, it is one of the most commonly prescribed benzodiazepines in Russia and other commonwealth of independent state nations, where it is used therapeutically as a prescription drug. Reports of abuse are widespread and several European countries have taken steps to control its use. However, in the USA, phenazepam is not approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration, nor scheduled under the Federal Controlled Substances Act. Phenazepam is widely available on the Internet, and recreational drug users report a potency 10-fold greater than that of nordiazepam. We report a case of a 24-year-old male driver who was apprehended for impaired driving following a two-vehicle crash. The subject exhibited slurred speech and profound psychomotor impairment. Toxicology testing revealed phenazepam at a concentration of 76 ng/mL in blood, with no other drugs detected. This case report not only demonstrates the potential for adverse traffic safety consequences following the misuse of phenazepam, but also highlights the importance of analytical factors such as immunoassay cutoff concentration, cross-reactivity and comprehensive screening using chromatographic-based techniques for impaired driving investigations. PMID:24022117

  20. Gray and White Matter Changes in Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: A Voxel-Based Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kitamura, Soichiro; Taoka, Toshiaki; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Tanimura, Masami; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Ikawa, Daisuke; Toritsuka, Michihiro; Hashimoto, Kazumichi; Makinodan, Manabu; Kosaka, Jun; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25093415

  1. Greater diaphragm fatigability in individuals with recurrent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Lotte; Brumagne, Simon; McConnell, Alison K; Hermans, Greet; Troosters, Thierry; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine

    2013-08-15

    The diaphragm plays an important role in spinal control. Increased respiratory demand compromises spinal control, especially in individuals with low back pain (LBP). The objective was to determine whether individuals with LBP exhibit greater diaphragm fatigability compared to healthy controls. Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressures (TwPdi) were recorded in 10 LBP patients and 10 controls, before and 20 and 45 min after inspiratory muscle loading (IML). Individuals with LBP showed a significantly decreased potentiated TwPdi, 20 min (-20%) (p=0.002) and 45 min (-17%) (p=0.006) after IML. No significant decline was observed in healthy individuals, 20 min (-9%) (p=0.662) and 45 min (-5%) (p=0.972) after IML. Diaphragm fatigue (TwPdi fall ? 10%) was present in 80% (20 min after IML) and 70% (45 min after IML) of the LBP patients compared to 40% (p=0.010) and 30% (p=0.005) of the controls, respectively. Individuals with LBP exhibit propensity for diaphragm fatigue, which was not observed in controls. An association with reduced spinal control warrants further study. PMID:23727158

  2. Linking sleep to hypertension: greater risk for blacks.

    PubMed

    Pandey, A; Williams, N; Donat, M; Ceide, M; Brimah, P; Ogedegbe, G; McFarlane, S I; Jean-Louis, G

    2013-01-01

    Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hour) sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18-85 years). Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hours) sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR?=?1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P < 0.01). Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension. PMID:23710339

  3. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210270) was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37) in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA), and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA). Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22) and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons). PMID:18590546

  4. Early life exposure to sevoflurane impairs adulthood spatial memory in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaofeng; Liu, Yusheng; Xu, Shiqin; Zhao, Qingsong; Guo, Xirong; Shen, Rong; Wang, Fuzhou

    2013-12-01

    Sevoflurane is a general anesthetic commonly used in the pediatric setting because it is sweet-smelling, nonflammable, fast acting and has a very short recovery time. Although recent clinical data suggest that early anesthesia exposure is associated with subsequent learning and memory problems, it is difficult to determine the exact scope of developmental neurotoxicity associated with exposure to specific anesthetics such as sevoflurane. This is largely due to inconsistencies in the literature. Thus, in the present studies we evaluated the effect of early life exposure to sevoflurane (1%, 2%, 3% or 4%) on adulthood memory impairment in Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were exposed to different regimens of sevoflurane anesthesia on postnatal days (PNDs) 3, 7, or 14 or at 7 weeks (P7W) of age and spatial memory performance was assessed in adulthood using the Morris Water Maze (MWM). Rats exposed to sevoflurane exhibited significant memory impairment which was concentration and exposure duration dependent. Disruption of MWM performance was more severe in animals exposed on both PNDs 3 and 7 than in animals exposed on both PNDs 3 and 14. The younger the animal's age at the time of exposure, the more significant the effect on later MWM performance. Compared to the neonates, animals exposed at P7W were relatively insensitive to sevoflurane: memory was impaired in this group only after repeated exposures to low doses or single exposures to high doses. Early life exposure to sevoflurane can result in spatial memory impairments in adulthood and the shorter the interval between exposures, the greater the deficit. PMID:23994303

  5. Major Depressive Disorder is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. While many studies have found significant deficits associated with MDD on neuropsychological measures of EF, others have not, potentially due to low statistical power, task impurity, and diverse patient samples, and there have been no recent, comprehensive, meta-analyses investigating EF in patients with MDD. The current meta-analysis uses random effects models to synthesize 113 previous research studies that compared participants with MDD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrate that MDD is reliably associated with impaired performance on neuropsychological measures of EF, with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.32–0.97. While patients with MDD also have slower processing speed, motor slowing alone cannot account for these results. In addition, some evidence suggests that deficits on neuropsychological measures of EF are greater in patients with more severe current depression symptoms, and those taking psychotropic medications, while evidence for effects of age was weaker. The results are consistent with the theory that MDD is associated with broad impairment in multiple aspects of EF. Implications for treatment of MDD and theories of EF are discussed. Future research is needed to establish the specificity and causal link between MDD and EF impairments. PMID:22642228

  6. Effects of late visual impairment on mental representations activated by visual and tactile stimuli.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Vecchi, Tomaso; Monegato, Maura; Pece, Alfredo; Cornoldi, Cesare

    2007-05-01

    Similarly to sighted people, individuals congenitally affected by a severe visual impairment can maintain and mentally manipulate spatial information about tactile stimuli [Vecchi, T., Cattaneo, Z., Monegato, M., Pece, A., Cornoldi, C., Pietrini, P., 2006. Why Cyclops could not compete with Ulysses: monocular vision and mental images. NeuroReport 17, 723-726]. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the onset timing of a severe (but not total) sight loss may influence spatial imagery abilities based on haptic input. To this purpose, a group of late severe visually impaired people and a matched group of normally sighted participants (all blindfolded) were presented with an imagery task requiring to memorize and retrieve a number of locations presented on tactile matrices. Results indicate that a severe visual deficit occurring later in life significantly impairs spatial imagery abilities to a greater extent than in the case of congenital blindness, probably as a consequence of a modest development of specific compensatory mechanisms associated with congenital deficits. PMID:17368576

  7. Age of first exposure to football and later-life cognitive impairment in former NFL players

    PubMed Central

    Stamm, Julie M.; Bourlas, Alexandra P.; Baugh, Christine M.; Fritts, Nathan G.; Daneshvar, Daniel H.; Martin, Brett M.; McClean, Michael D.; Tripodis, Yorghos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between exposure to repeated head impacts through tackle football prior to age 12, during a key period of brain development, and later-life executive function, memory, and estimated verbal IQ. Methods: Forty-two former National Football League (NFL) players ages 40–69 from the Diagnosing and Evaluating Traumatic Encephalopathy using Clinical Tests (DETECT) study were matched by age and divided into 2 groups based on their age of first exposure (AFE) to tackle football: AFE <12 and AFE ≥12. Participants completed the Wisconsin Card Sort Test (WCST), Neuropsychological Assessment Battery List Learning test (NAB-LL), and Wide Range Achievement Test, 4th edition (WRAT-4) Reading subtest as part of a larger neuropsychological testing battery. Results: Former NFL players in the AFE <12 group performed significantly worse than the AFE ≥12 group on all measures of the WCST, NAB-LL, and WRAT-4 Reading tests after controlling for total number of years of football played and age at the time of evaluation, indicating executive dysfunction, memory impairment, and lower estimated verbal IQ. Conclusions: There is an association between participation in tackle football prior to age 12 and greater later-life cognitive impairment measured using objective neuropsychological tests. These findings suggest that incurring repeated head impacts during a critical neurodevelopmental period may increase the risk of later-life cognitive impairment. If replicated with larger samples and longitudinal designs, these findings may have implications for safety recommendations for youth sports. PMID:25632088

  8. Risk factors for behavioral abnormalities in mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Apostolova, Liana G.; Di, Li Jie; Duffy, Erin L.; Brook, Jenny; Elashoff, David; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Fairbanks, Lynn; Cummings, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral symptoms are common in both MCI and AD. Methods We analyzed the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire data of 3456 MCI and 2641 mild AD NACC participants. Using factor analysis and logistic regression we estimated the effects of age, sex, race, education, MMSE, functional impairment, marital status and family history on presence of behavioral symptoms. We also compared the observed prevalence of behavioral symptoms between amnestic and nonamnestic MCI. Results Four factors were identified: affective behaviors (depression, apathy and anxiety); distress/tension behaviors (irritability and agitation); impulse control behaviors (disinhibition, elation and aberrant motor behavior), and psychotic behaviors (delusions and hallucinations). Male gender was significantly associated with all factors. Younger age was associated with higher prevalence of distress/tension, impulse control and psychotic behaviors. Being married was protective against psychotic behaviors. Lower education was associated with the presence of distress/tension behaviors. Caucasians showed higher prevalence of affective behaviors. Functional impairment was strongly associated with all behavioral abnormalities. Amnestic MCI had more elation and agitation relative to nonamnestic MCI. Conclusions Younger age, male gender and greater functional impairment were associated with higher overall presence of behavioral abnormalities in MCI and mild AD. Marital status, lower education and race had effect on selected behaviors. PMID:24481207

  9. Cognitive impairment and PD patients' capacity to consent to research

    PubMed Central

    Cary, Mark; Moelter, Stephen T.; Siderowf, Andrew; Sullo, Elizabeth; Xie, Sharon; Weintraub, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine how cognitive impairment affects Parkinson disease (PD) patients' research consent capacity. Methods: A cross-sectional study of 90 patients with PD, divided using Mattis Dementia Rating Scale2 scores into 3 groups of 30 (normal, borderline, and impaired), and 30 neurologically normal older adults completed 2 capacity interviews (an early-phase randomized and controlled drug trial and a sham-controlled surgical implantation of genetic tissue) using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research. Expert clinicians used the interviews to classify the patients as either capable or not capable of providing their own informed consent. These judgments were compared with performance on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Results: Cognitively normal PD patients typically scored well on the capacity measures. In contrast, patients with impaired cognition were not capable of providing their own informed consent: 17% (5/30) on the drug trial and 3% (1/30) on the surgery trial were judged capable. Patients with borderline impairment showed adequate performance on measures of appreciation and reasoning, but impaired performance on understanding the drug trial compared with normal controls and normal PD patients, and on understanding the surgery trial compared with normal controls. Sixty-seven percent (20/30) on the drug trial and 57% (17/30) on the surgery trial were judged capable of consent. Receiver operating characteristic analyses showed that the MMSE and MoCA could detect the likelihood of impaired capacity, with the MoCA demonstrating greater sensitivity. Conclusions: PD patients with borderline cognitive impairment have impairments in their decisional capacity. The MoCA may be useful to identify the patients at risk of impaired capacity. PMID:23892706

  10. Greater volumes of static and dynamic stretching within a warm-up do not impair star excursion balance performance.

    PubMed

    Belkhiria-Turki, L; Chaouachi, A; Turki, O; Hammami, R; Chtara, M; Amri, M; Drinkwater, E J; Behm, D G

    2014-06-01

    Based on the conflicting static stretching (SS) literature and lack of dynamic stretching (DS) literature regarding the effects of differing volumes of stretching on balance, the present study investigated the effects of 4, 8, and 12 sets of SS and DS following a 5 min aerobic running warm-up on the star excursion balance test (SEBT). The objective was to examine an optimal stretch modality and volume to enhance dynamic balance. A randomized, within-subjects experimental design with repeated measures for stretching (SS and DS) versus no-stretching treatment was used to examine the acute effects of 10 (4 sets), 20 (8 sets), and 30 (12 sets) min, of 15s repetitions per muscle of SS and/or DS following a 5 min aerobic warm-up on the performance of the SEBT. Results indicated that a warm-up employing either SS or DS of any volume generally improves SEBT by a "small" amount with effect sizes ranging from 0.06 to 0.50 (11 of 18 conditions>75% likely to exceed the 1.3-1.9% smallest worthwhile change). Secondly, the difference between static and dynamic warm-up on this observed improvement with warm-up improvement was "trivial" to "moderate" (d=0.04 to 0.57) and generally "unclear" (only two of nine conditions>75% likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change). Finally, the effect of increasing the volume of warm-up on the observed improvement with a warm-up is "trivial" to "small" (d<0.40) and generally "unclear" (only three of 12 conditions>75% likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change). In summary, an aerobic running warm-up with stretching that increases core and muscle temperature whether it involves SS or DS may be expected to provide small improvements in the SEBT. PMID:24739290

  11. Spontaneous Language Production in Bilingual Parkinson's Disease Patients: Evidence of Greater Phonological, Morphological and Syntactic Impairments in Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Sergio; Tavano, Alessandro; Fabbro, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Nine early non-demented bilingual (L1--Friulian, L2--Italian) patients with Parkinson's disease and nine normal controls matched for age, sex and years of education were studied on a spontaneous language production task. All subjects had acquired L1 from birth in a home environment and L2 at the age of six at school formally. Patients with PD

  12. Spontaneous Language Production in Bilingual Parkinson's Disease Patients: Evidence of Greater Phonological, Morphological and Syntactic Impairments in Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Sergio; Tavano, Alessandro; Fabbro, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Nine early non-demented bilingual (L1--Friulian, L2--Italian) patients with Parkinson's disease and nine normal controls matched for age, sex and years of education were studied on a spontaneous language production task. All subjects had acquired L1 from birth in a home environment and L2 at the age of six at school formally. Patients with PD…

  13. Differences in Socialization between Visually Impaired Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to

  14. Neonatal hypoxia, hippocampal atrophy, and memory impairment: evidence of a causal sequence.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Jentschke, Sebastian; Goldman, Allan; Munoz, Monica; Pitts, Georgia; Banks, Tina; Chong, W Kling; Hoskote, Aparna; Deanfield, John; Baldeweg, Torsten; de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-06-01

    Neonates treated for acute respiratory failure experience episodes of hypoxia. The hippocampus, a structure essential for memory, is particularly vulnerable to such insults. Hence, some neonates undergoing treatment for acute respiratory failure might sustain bilateral hippocampal pathology early in life and memory problems later in childhood. We investigated this possibility in a cohort of 40 children who had been treated neonatally for acute respiratory failure but were free of overt neurological impairment. The cohort had mean hippocampal volumes (HVs) significantly below normal control values, memory scores significantly below the standard population means, and memory quotients significantly below those predicted by their full scale IQs. Brain white matter volume also fell below the volume of the controls, but brain gray matter volumes and scores on nonmnemonic neuropsychological tests were within the normal range. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that the cohort's HVs were predictive of degree of memory impairment, and gestational age at treatment was predictive of HVs: the younger the age, the greater the atrophy. We conclude that many neonates treated for acute respiratory failure sustain significant hippocampal atrophy as a result of the associated hypoxia and, consequently, show deficient memory later in life. PMID:24343890

  15. Neonatal Hypoxia, Hippocampal Atrophy, and Memory Impairment: Evidence of a Causal Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Janine M.; Gadian, David G.; Jentschke, Sebastian; Goldman, Allan; Munoz, Monica; Pitts, Georgia; Banks, Tina; Chong, W. Kling; Hoskote, Aparna; Deanfield, John; Baldeweg, Torsten; de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-01-01

    Neonates treated for acute respiratory failure experience episodes of hypoxia. The hippocampus, a structure essential for memory, is particularly vulnerable to such insults. Hence, some neonates undergoing treatment for acute respiratory failure might sustain bilateral hippocampal pathology early in life and memory problems later in childhood. We investigated this possibility in a cohort of 40 children who had been treated neonatally for acute respiratory failure but were free of overt neurological impairment. The cohort had mean hippocampal volumes (HVs) significantly below normal control values, memory scores significantly below the standard population means, and memory quotients significantly below those predicted by their full scale IQs. Brain white matter volume also fell below the volume of the controls, but brain gray matter volumes and scores on nonmnemonic neuropsychological tests were within the normal range. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that the cohort's HVs were predictive of degree of memory impairment, and gestational age at treatment was predictive of HVs: the younger the age, the greater the atrophy. We conclude that many neonates treated for acute respiratory failure sustain significant hippocampal atrophy as a result of the associated hypoxia and, consequently, show deficient memory later in life. PMID:24343890

  16. [Mild cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Soichiro; Hanyu, Haruo

    2016-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment(MCI) is considered to be a transition state between normal cognition and dementia. The subtypes of MCI are highly heterogeneous in terms of etiology, presentation, and prognosis. Patients with the amnestic subtype of MCI are at a high risk of progression to Alzheimer disease (AD); this subtype may represent the prodromal stage of AD. Moreover, patients with MCI who are not aware of their memory deficits and in whom practice effects are not observed exhibit parietotemporal hypoperfusion on single photon emission CT, indicating that these findings are predictors of progression to AD. In this review, I have discussed the most current aspects related to the concept and clinical presentation of MCI. PMID:27025086

  17. Aberrant intra- and inter-network connectivity architectures in Alzheimer’s disease and mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pan; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Hongxiang; Zhan, Yafeng; Zhang, Zengqiang; Cui, Yue; Xu, Kaibin; Ma, Jianhua; Wang, Luning; An, Ningyu; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients and those with high-risk mild cognitive impairment are increasingly considered to have dysfunction syndromes. Large-scale network studies based on neuroimaging techniques may provide additional insight into AD pathophysiology. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the impaired network functional connectivity with the disease progression. For this purpose, we explored altered functional connectivities based on previously well-defined brain areas that comprise the five key functional systems [the default mode network (DMN), dorsal attention network (DAN), control network (CON), salience network (SAL), sensorimotor network (SMN)] in 35 with AD and 27 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) subjects, compared with 27 normal cognitive subjects. Based on three levels of analysis, we found that intra- and inter-network connectivity were impaired in AD. Importantly, the interaction between the sensorimotor and attention functions was first attacked at the MCI stage and then extended to the key functional systems in the AD individuals. Lower cognitive ability (lower MMSE scores) was significantly associated with greater reductions in intra- and inter-network connectivity across all patient groups. These profiles indicate that aberrant intra- and inter-network dysfunctions might be potential biomarkers or predictors of AD progression and provide new insight into AD pathophysiology. PMID:26439278

  18. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  19. Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage

    SciTech Connect

    Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-12-01

    The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% (mean +/- S.E.M.) vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury.

  20. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive

  1. Impaired Verb Fluency: A Sign of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostberg, Per; Fernaeus, Sven-Erik; Hellstrom, Ake; Bogdanovic, Nenad; Wahlund, Lars Olof

    2005-01-01

    We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive…

  2. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome: Epidemiology and Associated Factors

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Neil A.; Felson, David T.; Torner, James C.; Zhu, Yanyan; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To describe the prevalence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS); to determine whether GTPS is associated with iliotibial band (ITB) tenderness, knee osteoarthritis (OA), body mass index (BMI), or low back pain (LBP); and to assess whether GTPS is associated with reduced hip internal rotation, physical activity, and mobility. Design Cross-sectional, population-based study. Setting Multicenter observational study. Participants Community-dwelling adults (N=3026) ages 50 to 79 years. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures Greater trochanteric tenderness to palpation in subjects with complaints of hip pain and no signs of hip OA or generalized myofascial tenderness. Results The prevalence of unilateral and bilateral GTPS was 15.0% and 8.5% in women and 6.6% and 1.9% men. Odds ratio (OR) for women was 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.674.25), but age and race were not significantly associated with GTPS. In a multivariate model, adjusting for age, sex, ITB tenderness, ipsilateral and contralateral knee OA, BMI, and LBP, ITB tenderness (OR=1.72; 95% CI, 1.342.19), knee OA ipsilaterally (OR=3.47; 95% CI, 2.724.42) and con-tralaterally (OR=1.74; 95% CI, 1.322.28), and LBP (OR=2.79; 95% CI, 2.223.50) were positively related to GTPS. In this complete model, BMI was not associated with GTPS (OR=1.10; 95% CI, 0.801.52 when comparing ? 30 with <25kg/m2). Hip internal rotation range of motion did not differ based on GTPS status. After multivariate adjustment, GTPS did not alter physical activity score, but bilateal GTPS was significantly associated with a higher 20-meter walk time and chair stand time. Conclusions The higher prevalence of GTPS in women and in adults with ITB pain or knee OA indicates that altered lower-limb biomechanics may be related to GTPS. Slower functional performance in those with GTPS suggests that the study of targeted rehabilitation may be useful. A longitudinal study will be necessary to identify causal factors and outcomes of interventions. PMID:17678660

  3. Case Marking in Hungarian Children with Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lukcs, gnes; Kas, Bence; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether children with specific language impairment (SLI) acquiring a language with a rich case marking system (Hungarian) have difficulty with case, and, if so, whether the difficulty is comparable for spatial and nonspatial meanings. Data were drawn from narrative samples and from a sentence repetition task. Suffixes were tested both in their spatial and nonspatial meanings. Participants with SLI were compared to same-age peers and younger typically developing children matched on receptive vocabulary scores ( VC children ). Results show that although case-marking errors are very rare in spontaneous speech in Hungarian children with SLI, the number of case marked nouns and of different case markers is significantly lower in children with SLI. In the elicited production task, overall performance of the children with SLI was significantly below that of VC children, but children with SLI and VC children scored higher with spatial than with nonspatial meanings. The results are in line with expectations based on processing accounts which posit greater difficulties with less transparent details of grammar. PMID:25995530

  4. Progesterone Impairs Social Recognition in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppresses AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependant behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment lead to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. PMID:22366506

  5. Progesterone impairs social recognition in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bychowski, Meaghan E; Auger, Catherine J

    2012-04-01

    The influence of progesterone in the brain and on the behavior of females is fairly well understood. However, less is known about the effect of progesterone in the male system. In male rats, receptors for progesterone are present in virtually all vasopressin (AVP) immunoreactive cells in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BST) and the medial amygdala (MeA). This colocalization functions to regulate AVP expression, as progesterone and/or progestin receptors (PR)s suppress AVP expression in these same extrahypothalamic regions in the brain. These data suggest that progesterone may influence AVP-dependent behavior. While AVP is implicated in numerous behavioral and physiological functions in rodents, AVP appears essential for social recognition of conspecifics. Therefore, we examined the effects of progesterone on social recognition. We report that progesterone plays an important role in modulating social recognition in the male brain, as progesterone treatment leads to a significant impairment of social recognition in male rats. Moreover, progesterone appears to act on PRs to impair social recognition, as progesterone impairment of social recognition is blocked by a PR antagonist, RU-486. Social recognition is also impaired by a specific progestin agonist, R5020. Interestingly, we show that progesterone does not interfere with either general memory or olfactory processes, suggesting that progesterone seems critically important to social recognition memory. These data provide strong evidence that physiological levels of progesterone can have an important impact on social behavior in male rats. PMID:22366506

  6. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and exercise impairment.

    PubMed

    Reusch, Jane E B; Bridenstine, Mark; Regensteiner, Judith G

    2013-03-01

    Limitations in physical fitness, a consistent finding in individuals with both type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus, correlate strongly with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. These limitations may significantly contribute to the persistent excess cardiovascular mortality affecting this group. Exercise impairments in VO2 peak and VO2 kinetics manifest early on in diabetes, even with good glycemic control and in the absence of clinically apparent complications. Subclinical cardiac dysfunction is often present but does not fully explain the observed defect in exercise capacity in persons with diabetes. In part, the cardiac limitations are secondary to decreased perfusion with exercise challenge. This is a reversible defect. Similarly, in the skeletal muscle, impairments in nutritive blood flow correlate with slowed (or inefficient) exercise kinetics and decreased exercise capacity. Several correlations highlight the likelihood of endothelial-specific impairments as mediators of exercise dysfunction in diabetes, including insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, decreased myocardial perfusion, slowed tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation, and impairment in mitochondrial function. Both exercise training and therapies targeted at improving insulin sensitivity and endothelial function improve physical fitness in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Optimization of exercise functions in people with diabetes has implications for diabetes prevention and reductions in mortality risk. Understanding the molecular details of endothelial dysfunction in diabetes may provide specific therapeutic targets for the remediation of this defect. Rat models to test this hypothesis are under study. PMID:23299658

  7. [Parenting Stress Index and specific language impairment].

    PubMed

    Schaunig, Ines; Willinger, Ulrike; Diendorfer-Radner, Gabriele; Hager, Veronika; Jörgl, Gudrun; Sirsch, Ulrike; Sams, Judith

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to get a differentiated view of stress experience of mothers of children with a specific language impairment with a standardised questionnaire. Our sample consisted of 63 mothers of language impaired children between 3.0 and 6.5 years consecutively recruited at the University-ENT clinic of Vienna. Parenting stress was assessed by the "Parenting Stress Index" of Abidin (1995) and the results were compared to mothers of a control group matched by sex and age of the children. The results showed significant mean differences between mothers of the clinical and the control group. In nearly all subscales mothers of language impaired children have higher stress scores than mothers of the control group. 68% of mothers of the clinical group are exposed to above-average stress levels whereas only 1.5% of mothers of children with normal language development show above-average parenting stress. For a successful intervention on children with a specific language impairment it seems to be very important to identify parental stressors and to treat and support parents too. PMID:15376614

  8. Subjective cognitive complaints contribute to misdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Emily C; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Galasko, Douglas R; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2014-09-01

    Subjective cognitive complaints are a criterion for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), despite their uncertain relationship to objective memory performance in MCI. We aimed to examine self-reported cognitive complaints in subgroups of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort to determine whether they are a valuable inclusion in the diagnosis of MCI or, alternatively, if they contribute to misdiagnosis. Subgroups of MCI were derived using cluster analysis of baseline neuropsychological test data from 448 ADNI MCI participants. Cognitive complaints were assessed via the Everyday Cognition (ECog) questionnaire, and discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-report. Cluster analysis revealed Amnestic and Mixed cognitive phenotypes as well as a third Cluster-Derived Normal subgroup (41.3%), whose neuropsychological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker profiles did not differ from a "robust" normal control group. This cognitively intact phenotype of MCI participants overestimated their cognitive problems relative to their informant, whereas Amnestic MCI participants with objective memory impairment underestimated their cognitive problems. Underestimation of cognitive problems was associated with positive CSF AD biomarkers and progression to dementia. Overall, there was no relationship between self-reported cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning, but significant correlations were observed with depressive symptoms. The inclusion of self-reported complaints in MCI diagnostic criteria may cloud rather than clarify diagnosis and result in high rates of misclassification of MCI. Discrepancies between self- and informant-report demonstrate that overestimation of cognitive problems is characteristic of normal aging while underestimation may reflect greater risk for cognitive decline. PMID:25156329

  9. Executive attention impairment in first-episode schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We compared the attention abilities of a group of first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients and a group of healthy participants using the Attention Network Test (ANT), a standard procedure that estimates the functional state of three neural networks controlling the efficiency of three different attentional behaviors, i.e., alerting (achieving and maintaining a state of high sensitivity to incoming stimuli), orienting (ability to select information from sensory input), and executive attention (mechanisms for resolving conflict among thoughts, feelings, and actions). Methods We evaluated 22 FES patients from 17 to 29?years of age with a recent history of a single psychotic episode treated only with atypical neuroleptics, and 20 healthy persons matched with FES patients by sex, age, and educational level as the control group. Attention was estimated using the ANT in which participants indicate whether a central horizontal arrow is pointing to the left or the right. The central arrow may be preceded by spatial or temporal cues denoting where and when the arrow will appear, and may be flanked by other arrows (hereafter, flankers) pointing in the same or the opposite direction. Results The efficiency of the alerting, orienting, and executive networks was estimated by measuring how reaction time was influenced by congruency between temporal, spatial, and flanker cues. We found that the control group only demonstrated significantly greater attention efficiency than FES patients in the executive attention network. Conclusions FES patients are impaired in executive attention but not in alerting or orienting attention, suggesting that executive attention deficit may be a primary impairment during the progression of the disease. PMID:22998680

  10. Observation of own exploration movements impairs haptic spatial perception.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Stephanie; Habermann, Stefanie; Dudda, Janett; Grunwald, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The present study was designed to assess whether the visibility of ones' own exploratory movements impairs or enhances perceptual speed and precision of haptic stimuli with varying complexity. Previous studies have shown that noninformative vision of steady surroundings improves haptic spatial perception. However, due to the serial nature of haptic processing and limited capacity of working memory resources, we hypothesized that noninformative vision of limb movements may impair haptic perception. The study sample consisted of ninety-eight healthy adults who were randomized into two groups, matched for sex and age. Participants were required to explore two-dimensional haptic stimuli with varying complexity and to recognize them visually. The difference between the two experimental groups was a screen that would prevent the participants from viewing their hands during exploration in the nonobservation condition (NonOb). The other half of participants were able to see their hands in the manual movement observation condition (MovOb) thanks to the special design of the stimuli. As hypothesized, the persons in the MovOb condition made significantly more errors. The difference in error frequency between participants of the MovOb and NonOb condition was greater for complex stimuli than for simple ones. These results suggest that incoming visual information about own manual exploration movements increases competitive pressure for limited working memory resources, and therefore, more recognition errors are made. Covering the hands during exploration may constitute a helpful simplification of the task's demands by supporting the maintenance of information in working memory. Additionally, the relation of haptic complexity and stimulus characteristics was analyzed. PMID:24071924

  11. Astrocytes Underlie Neuroinflammatory Memory Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Osso, Lindsay A.; Chan, Jonah R.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation is being increasingly recognized as a potential mediator of cognitive impairments in various neurological conditions. Habbas et al. demonstrate that the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha signals through astrocytes to alter synaptic transmission and impair cognition in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26687350

  12. Impaired Driving. Prevention Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Amy

    This booklet focuses on impaired driving. The first section presents 21 facts on impaired driving. These include the number of people who lost their lives in alcohol-related crashes; the leading cause of death for young people; the average amount of alcohol consumed by people arrested for driving under the influence; the estimation that a tax

  13. Late life depression with cognitive impairment: Evaluation and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Consuelo H; Mathews, Jose; Sheline, Yvette I

    2009-01-01

    Older adults with depression often present with signs and symptoms indicative of functional or cognitive impairment. These somatic symptoms make evaluating and treating depression in older adults more complex. Late life depression (LLD), depression in adults over the age of 65, is more frequently associated with cognitive changes. Cognitive impairment in LLD may be a result of the depressive disorder or an underlying dementing condition. Memory complaints are also common in older adults with depression. There is a wide range of cognitive impairment in LLD including decreased central processing speed, executive dysfunction, and impaired short-term memory. The etiology of cognitive impairment in LLD may include cerebrovascular disease, a significant risk factor for LLD, which likely interrupts key pathways between frontal white matter and subcortical structures important in mood regulation. Because depressive symptoms often coexist with dementia, it is important to determine the temporal relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive change. If depressive symptoms pre-date the cognitive impairment and cognitive symptoms are mild and temporary, LLD is the likely etiology of the cognitive impairment. If cognitive changes appear prior to depressive symptoms and persist after LLD is successfully treated, an underlying dementia is more likely. Clinicians should be exclude common conditions such as thyroid disease which can contribute to depressive symptoms and cognitive impairment prior to treating LLD. Both antidepressants and psychotherapy can be effective in treating LLD. Subsequent evaluations following treatment should also reassess cognition. PMID:19503765

  14. An Examination of Psychopathology and Daily Impairment in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C.; Bunnell, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n?=?16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n?=?14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group. PMID:24691406

  15. Grape powder prevents cognitive, behavioral and biochemical impairments in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Naimesh; Alkadhi, Isam; Atrooz, Fatin; Patki, Gaurav; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Previously, using the single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder, we reported that moderate treadmill exercise, via modulation of oxidative stress related mechanisms, rescued anxiety and depression-like behaviors and reversed SPS-induced memory impairment. In this study using the SPS model (2 h restrain, 20 min forced swimming, 15 min rest, and 1–2 min diethyl ether exposure), we hypothesized that antioxidant rich grape powder (GP) prevents SPS-induced behavioral and memory impairment in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into: Control (CON; provided tap water), SPS (provided tap water), GP-SPS (provided 15 g/L GP in tap water for 3 wk followed by SPS), or GP-CON (3 wk of GP followed by control exposure). Anxiety and depression-like behaviors were significantly greater in SPS rats when compared to CON or GP treated rats and GP reversed these behavioral deficits. SPS rats made significantly more errors in both short- and long-term memory tests compared to CON or GP treated rats, which were prevented in GP-SPS rats. GP prevented SPS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone level. Furthermore, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were significantly decreased in amygdala of SPS rats but not in GP-SPS rats compared to CON or GP-CON rats. Additionally, GP significantly increased acetylated Histone3, Histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC 5) in hippocampus and amygdala of SPS rats as compared to CON or GP-CON rats. In conclusion, we suggest protective role of GP in SPS-induced behavioral, cognitive and biochemical impairments in rats. Perhaps, epigenetic regulation of BDNF enables GP-mediated prevention of SPS-induced deficits in rats. PMID:25533441

  16. Grape powder prevents cognitive, behavioral, and biochemical impairments in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Naimesh; Alkadhi, Isam; Atrooz, Fatin; Patki, Gaurav; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Previously, using the single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder, we reported that moderate treadmill exercise, via modulation of oxidative stress-related mechanisms, rescued anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and reversed SPS-induced memory impairment. In this study using the SPS model (2-hour restrain, 20-minute forced swimming, 15-minute rest, and 1-2-minute diethyl ether exposure), we hypothesized that antioxidant rich grape powder (GP) prevents SPS-induced behavioral and memory impairment in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into control (CON) (provided tap water), SPS (provided tap water), GP-SPS (provided 15 g/L GP in tap water for 3 weeks followed by SPS), or GP-CON (3 weeks of GP followed by CON exposure). Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were significantly greater in SPS rats, when compared with CON- or GP-treated rats, and GP reversed these behavioral deficits. Single-prolonged stress rats made significantly more errors in both short- and long-term memory tests compared with CON- or GP-treated rats, which were prevented in GP-SPS rats. Grape powder prevented SPS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone level. Furthermore, brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were significantly decreased in amygdala of SPS rats but not in GP-SPS rats compared with CON or (GP-CON) rats. In addition, GP significantly increased acetylated histone 3 and histone deacetylase 5 in hippocampus and amygdala of SPS rats as compared with CON or GP-CON rats. In conclusion, we suggest protective role of GP in SPS-induced behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical impairments in rats. Perhaps, epigenetic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor enables GP-mediated prevention of SPS-induced deficits in rats. PMID:25533441

  17. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights

  18. Verbal declarative memory impairments in specific language impairment are related to working memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Lum, Jarrad A G; Ullman, Michael T; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-03-01

    This study examined verbal declarative memory functioning in SLI and its relationship to working memory. Encoding, recall, and recognition of verbal information was examined in children with SLI who had below average working memory (SLILow WM), children with SLI who had average working memory (SLIAvg. WM) and, a group of non-language impaired children with average working memory (TDAvg. WM). The SLILow WM group was significantly worse than both the SLIAvg. WM and TDAvg. WM groups at encoding verbal information and at retrieving verbal information following a delay. In contrast, the SLIAvg. WM group showed no verbal declarative memory deficits. The study demonstrates that verbal declarative memory deficits in SLI only occur when verbal working memory is impaired. Thus SLI declarative memory is largely intact and deficits are likely to be related to working memory impairments. PMID:25660053

  19. Verbal declarative memory impairments in specific language impairment are related to working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Ullman, Michael T.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined verbal declarative memory functioning in SLI and its relationship to working memory. Encoding, recall, and recognition of verbal information was examined in children with SLI who had below average working memory (SLILow WM), children with SLI who had average working memory (SLIAvg. WM) and, a group of non-language impaired children with average working memory (TDAvg. WM). The SLILow WM group was significantly worse than both the SLIAvg. WM and TDAvg. WM groups at encoding verbal information and at retrieving verbal information following a delay. In contrast, the SLIAvg. WM group showed no verbal declarative memory deficits. The study demonstrates that verbal declarative memory deficits in SLI only occur when verbal working memory is impaired. Thus SLI declarative memory is largely intact and deficits are likely to be related to working memory impairments. PMID:25660053

  20. Renal impairment in a rural African antiretroviral programme

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background There is little knowledge regarding the prevalence and nature of renal impairment in African populations initiating antiretroviral treatment, nor evidence to inform the most cost effective methods of screening for renal impairment. With the increasing availability of the potentially nephrotixic drug, tenofovir, such information is important for the planning of antiretroviral programmes Methods (i) Retrospective review of the prevalence and risk factors for impaired renal function in 2189 individuals initiating antiretroviral treatment in a rural African setting between 2004 and 2007 (ii) A prospective study of 149 consecutive patients initiating antiretrovirals to assess the utility of urine analysis for the detection of impaired renal function. Severe renal and moderately impaired renal function were defined as an estimated GFR of ? 30 mls/min/1.73 m2 and 3060 mls/min/1.73 m2 respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine odds ratio (OR) of significantly impaired renal function (combining severe and moderate impairment). Co-variates for analysis were age, sex and CD4 count at initiation. Results (i) There was a low prevalence of severe renal impairment (29/2189, 1.3% 95% C.I. 0.81.8) whereas moderate renal impairment was more frequent (287/2189, 13.1% 95% C.I. 11.614.5) with many patients having advanced immunosuppression at treatment initiation (median CD4 120 cells/?l). In multivariable logistic regression age over 40 (aOR 4.65, 95% C.I. 3.546.1), male gender (aOR 1.89, 95% C.I. 1.392.56) and CD4<100 cells/ul (aOR 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.071.82) were associated with risk of significant renal impairment (ii) In 149 consecutive patients, urine analysis had poor sensitivity and specificity for detecting impaired renal function. Conclusion In this rural African setting, significant renal impairment is uncommon in patients initiating antiretrovirals. Urine analysis alone may be inadequate for identification of those with impaired renal function where resources for biochemistry are limited. PMID:19715590

  1. Role of thromboxane in impaired renal vasodilatation response to acetylcholine in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bank, N; Aynedjian, H S

    1992-01-01

    Short-term cholesterol feeding has been shown to cause impaired vasodilatation in response to acetylcholine. The present study of renal hemodynamics was carried out to examine the role of thromboxane/PGH2 in mediating this abnormal response. In normal rats (ND), infusion of acetylcholine into the suprarenal aorta caused marked increases in renal blood flow, GFR, single nephron glomerular filtration rate, single nephron afferent plasma flow, and ultrafiltration coefficient, accompanied by a fall in preglomerular resistance. In cholesterol fed rats (CSD), the response to acetylcholine was markedly blunted. Infusion of L-arginine, the precursor to nitric oxide (NO), caused comparable renal vasodilatation in ND and CSD rats, implying that the ability to synthesize NO from its precursor was not severely impaired in the CSD animals. The observations do not exclude, however, the possibility of impaired synthesis of NO from endogenous precursor. In additional experiments, we infused a TxA2/PGH2 receptor antagonist in CSD rats and then administered acetylcholine. Renal vasodilatation occurred to a degree indistinguishable from that in ND rats given acetylcholine alone. When ND rats were infused with the same combination of the TxA2/PGH2 receptor antagonist and acetylcholine, renal vasodilatation was also significantly greater than with acetylcholine alone. This suggests that acetylcholine initiates release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids as well as NO from vascular endothelium. This was observed in ND as well as in CSD animals. Because LDL increases the supply of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin synthesis, we postulate that greater amounts of PGH2/TxA2 are synthesized via calcium activation of phospholipase A2 when acetylcholine is administered to CSD animals. This may account in large measure for the blunted vasodilatation to acetylcholine. PMID:1569203

  2. Multiple sclerosis with predominant, severe cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Nathan P.; Lucchinetti, Claudia F.; Keegan, B. Mark

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe the characteristics of multiple sclerosis (MS) presenting with severe cognitive impairment as its primary disabling manifestation. Design Retrospective case series. Setting Tertiary referral center. Patients Patients were identified through the Mayo Clinic data retrieval system (19962008) with definite MS (McDonald criteria) and severe cognitive impairment as their primary neurological symptom without accompanying significant MS-related impairment or alternative diagnosis for cognitive dysfunction. Twenty-three patients meeting inclusion criteria were compared regarding demographics, clinical course and radiological features. Main Outcome Measures Demographic, clinical, and radiological characteristics of the disease. Results Twelve patients were men. The median age of the first clinical symptom suggestive of CNS demyelination was 33 years, and severe MS-related cognitive impairment developed at a median of 39 years. Cognitive impairment could be dichotomized as subacute fulminant (n=9) or chronic progressive (n=14) in presentation, which corresponded to subsequent relapsing or progressive MS courses. Study patients commonly exhibited psychiatric (65%), mild cerebellar (57%) and cortical symptoms and signs (e.g. seizure, aphasia, apraxia) (39%). Fourteen of 21 (67%), where documented, smoked cigarettes. Brain MRI demonstrated diffuse cerebral atrophy in 16 and gadolinium enhancing lesions in 11. Asymptomatic spinal cord MRI lesions were present in 12 of 16 patients (75%). Immunomodulatory therapies were generally ineffective in improving these patients. Conclusions We describe patients with MS whose clinical phenotype is characterized by severe cognitive dysfunction and prominent cortical and psychiatric signs presenting as a subacute fulminant or chronic progressive clinical course. Cigarette smokers may be over represented in this phenotype. PMID:19752304

  3. Interhemispheric temporal lobe connectivity predicts language impairment in adolescents born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Northam, Gemma B.; Ligeois, Frdrique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways connecting frontal and temporal language regions. To investigate this, we performed a comprehensive assessment of language and academic abilities in a group of adolescents born prematurely, some of whom had evidence of brain injury at birth (n = 50, mean age: 16 years, mean gestational age: 27 weeks) and compared them to a term-born control group (n = 30). Detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tractography analyses of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric white matter bundles were performed. Analysis of intrahemispheric pathways included the arcuate fasciculus (dorsal language pathway) and uncinate fasciculus/extreme capsule (ventral language pathway). Analysis of interhemispheric pathways (in particular, connections between the temporal lobes) included the two major commissural bundles: the corpus callosum and anterior commissure. We found language impairment in 38% of adolescents born preterm. Language impairment was not related to abnormalities of the arcuate fasciculus (or its subsegments), but was associated with bilateral volume reductions in the ventral language pathway. However, the most significant volume reduction was detected in the posterior corpus callosum (splenium), which contains interhemispheric connections between the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. Diffusion tractography showed that of the three groups of interhemispheric fibres within the splenium, only those connecting the temporal lobes were reduced. Crucially, we found that language impairment was only detectable if the anterior commissure (a second temporal lobe commissural pathway) was also small. Regression analyses showed that a combination of anatomical measures of temporal interhemispheric connectivity (through the splenium of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure) explained 57% of the variance in language abilities. This supports recent theories emphasizing the importance of interhemispheric connections for language, particularly in the developing brain. PMID:23144265

  4. Association between impairment, function, and daily life task management in children and adolescents with autism

    PubMed Central

    KAO, YING-CHIA; KRAMER, JESSICA M; LILJENQUIST, KENDRA; COSTER, WENDY J

    2014-01-01

    AIM This cross-sectional study examined whether impairments or functional skills are associated with the level of responsibility for life tasks for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). METHOD Parents of 263 children and adolescents with ASDs (215 males; 48 females; mean age 12y 6mo [SD 4y 6mo], range 3y to 21y) completed an online survey that included the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory-Computer Adaptive Test – Autism Spectrum Disorders (PEDI-CAT-ASD) Daily Activities, Social/Cognitive, and Responsibility domains, a demographic questionnaire, and the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) Current. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Framework guided the selection of model variables. We used hierarchical multiple regression to examine the relationship between impairment and functional skill predictor variables and the outcome variable, Responsibility. Age was entered in step 1 to control for the impact of development. SCQ Current, IQ, and remaining PEDI-CAT-ASD domains were then entered in step 2. RESULTS After controlling for age, the model showed that step 2 predictor variables representing both impairments and functional skill improved the model (p <0.001). All variables except the SCQ score were significant predictors of Responsibility. The variance explained by the Daily Activities (2.7%) and Social/ Cognitive (4.8%) domain scores was greater than IQ (0.3%). INTERPRETATION The functional skills of Daily Activities and Social/Cognitive domains were more strongly associated with the management of life tasks than impairments after controlling for age. PMID:25312547

  5. The Significance of Replication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKrubre, Michael C. H.; Tanzella, Francis L.; Violante, Vittorio

    2008-03-01

    Much has been made of an apparent lack of reproducibility in so called ``cold fusion'' experiments. In this paper we will demonstrate that this failure, while real, was the result of inability to meet critical threshold criteria: a thermodynamic loading, dynamic flux and disequilibrium trigger. Recent experiments, performed independently at SRI and ENEA, have successfully replicated powerful excess heat results obtained initially by Energetics in Israel. This success and high levels of experiment reproducibility are attributed to two critical factors that allow these threshold barriers to be surpassed: i)achievement and maintenance of a high level of control of the metallurgy of the bulk palladium metal host and the cathode surface morphology, guided by initial studies at ENEA and the University of Rome,ii) use of a novel non steady-state cathode current stimulus, proposed and developed by Energetics. With simultaneous high deuterium loading and high flux, excess heat effects were measured in both Isoperibolic and Mass Flow calorimeters at factors several times greater than the electrical input power and several orders of magnitude larger than the sum of all conceivable chemical reactions.

  6. Subcutaneous Interferon ?-1a May Protect against Cognitive Impairment in Patients with RelapsingRemitting Multiple Sclerosis: 5-Year Follow-up of the COGIMUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Patti, Francesco; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Amato, Maria Pia; Trojano, Maria; Bastianello, Stefano; Tola, Maria Rosalia; Cottone, Salvatore; Plant, Andrea; Picconi, Orietta

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of subcutaneous (sc) interferon (IFN) -1a on cognition over 5 years in mildly disabled patients with relapsingremitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods Patients aged 1850 years with RRMS (Expanded Disability Status Scale score ?4.0) who had completed the 3-year COGIMUS study underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging, neurological examination, and neuropsychological testing at years 4 and 5. Predictors of cognitive impairment at year 5 were identified using multivariate analysis. Results Of 331 patients who completed the 3-year COGIMUS study, 265 participated in the 2-year extension study, 201 of whom (75.8%; sc IFN ?-1a three times weekly: 44 g, n?=?108; 22 g, n?=?93) completed 5 years' follow-up. The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment in the study population overall remained stable between baseline (18.0%) and year 5 (22.6%). The proportion of patients with cognitive impairment also remained stable in both treatment groups between baseline and year 5, and between year 3 and year 5. However, a significantly higher proportion of men than women had cognitive impairment at year 5 (26.5% vs 14.4%, p?=?0.046). Treatment with the 22 versus 44 g dose was predictive of cognitive impairment at year 5 (hazard ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval 0.480.97). Conclusions This study suggests that sc IFN ?-1a dose-dependently stabilizes or delays cognitive impairment over a 5-year period in most patients with mild RRMS. Women seem to be more protected against developing cognitive impairment, which may indicate greater response to therapy or the inherently better prognosis associated with female sex in MS. PMID:24137499

  7. Diabetes Cognitive Impairments and the Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Leilei; Tian, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    The problem of cognitive impairment resulting from diabetes is gaining more acceptance and attention. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been proved to be associated with reduced performance on numerous domains of cognitive function. Although the exact mechanisms of cognitive impairments in diabetes have not been completely understood, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance seem to play significant roles. And other possible risk factors such as hypoglycemia, insulin deficiency, vascular risk factors, hyperactive HPA axis, depression, and altered neurotransmitters will also be examined. In the meanwhile, this review analyzed the role of the active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes cognitive impairments. PMID:24386004

  8. Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) for Older Adults with Major Depression and Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kiosses, Dimitris N.; Ravdin, Lisa D.; Gross, James J; Raue, Patrick; Kotbi, Nabil; Alexopoulos, George S.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Problem Adaptation Therapy (PATH) is a treatment for older adults with major depression, cognitive impairment (from mild cognitive deficits to moderate dementia) and disability. Antidepressants have limited efficacy in this population and psychosocial interventions are inadequately investigated. Objective To test the efficacy of 12-week PATH vs. Supportive Therapy for Cognitively Impaired patients (ST-CI) in reducing depression and disability in 74 older adults with major depression, cognitive impairment and disability. Design Randomized Controlled Trial from April 1, 2006 until September 31, 2011. Setting Weill-Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry; interventions were administered at participants’ homes. Participants Seventy-four older participants (age≥65 years) with major depression and cognitive impairment up to the level of moderate dementia were recruited through collaborating community agencies of Weill-Cornell Institute of Geriatric Psychiatry and were randomly assigned to 12 weekly sessions of PATH or ST-CI (14.8% attrition rate). Interventions Home-delivered PATH vs. home-delivered ST-CI. PATH integrates a problem solving approach with compensatory strategies, environmental adaptations, and caregiver participation to improve patients’ emotion regulation. ST-CI focuses on expression of affect, understanding and empathy. Main Outcome Measures Mixed-effects models for longitudinal data compared the efficacy of PATH to that of ST-CI in reducing depression (MADRS) and disability (WHODAS-II) over 12 weeks of treatment. Results PATH participants had significantly greater reduction in depression (treatment X time: F[1,179]=8.03, p=0.0051; Cohen’s D at 12 weeks: 0.60) and disability (treatment X time: F[1,169]=14.86, p=0.0002; Cohen’s D at 12 weeks: 0.67) than ST-CI participants over the 12-week period (primary outcomes). Further, PATH participants had significantly greater depression remission rates than ST-CI participants (37.84% vs. 13.51%; Chi-square: 5.74, df=1, p=0.0174; Number Needed to Treat (NNT)=4.11) (secondary outcome). Exploratory analysis showed that PATH led to greater reduction in depression than ST-CI even in the subgroup of participants with drug treatment resistant depression (F[1,72.7]=6.01, p=0.0166; Cohen’s d: week 12: 0.95). Conclusions and Relevance PATH was more efficacious than ST-CI in reducing depression and disability. PATH may provide relief to a large group of depressed, cognitively impaired older adults with few treatment options. PMID:25372657

  9. Velocity Drives Greater Power Observed During Back Squat Using Cluster Sets.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Kreutzer, Andreas; Jenke, Shane C; Phillips, Melody D; Mitchell, Joel B; Jones, Margaret T

    2016-01-01

    Oliver, JM, Kreutzer, A, Jenke, SC, Phillips, MD, Mitchell, JB, and Jones, MT. Velocity drives greater power observed during back squat using cluster sets. J Strength Cond Res 30(1): 235-243, 2016-This investigation compared the kinetics and kinematics of cluster sets (CLU) and traditional sets (TRD) during back squat in trained (RT) and untrained (UT) men. Twenty-four participants (RT = 12, 25 1 year, 179.1 2.2 cm, 84.6 2.1 kg; UT = 12, 25 1 year, 180.1 1.8 cm, 85.4 3.8 kg) performed TRD (4 10, 120-second rest) and CLU (4 (2 5) 30 seconds between clusters; 90 seconds between sets) with 70% one repetition maximum, randomly. Kinematics and kinetics were sampled through force plate and linear position transducers. Resistance-trained produced greater overall force, velocity, and power; however, similar patterns were observed in all variables when comparing conditions. Cluster sets produced significantly greater force in isolated repetitions in sets 1-3, while consistently producing greater force due to a required reduction in load during set 4 resulting in greater total volume load (CLU, 3302.4 102.7 kg; TRD, 3274.8 102.8 kg). Velocity loss was lessened in CLU resulting in significantly higher velocities in sets 2 through 4. Furthermore, higher velocities were produced by CLU during later repetitions of each set. Cluster sets produced greater power output for an increasing number of repetitions in each set (set 1, 5 repetitions; sets 2 and 3, 6 repetitions; set 4, 8 repetitions), and the difference between conditions increased over subsequent sets. Time under tension increased over each set and was greater in TRD. This study demonstrates greater power output is driven by greater velocity when back squatting during CLU; therefore, velocity may be a useful measure by which to assess power. PMID:26121432

  10. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  11. Chronic stress impairs collateral blood flow recovery in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Lassance-Soares, Roberta M; Sood, Subeena; Chakraborty, Nabarun; Jhamnani, Sunny; Aghili, Nima; Nashin, Hajra; Hammamieh, Rasha; Jett, Marti; Epstein, Stephen E; Burnett, Mary Susan

    2014-11-01

    Chronic stress is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Aging is also associated with vascular dysfunction. We hypothesize that chronic stress accelerates collateral dysfunction in old mice. Mice were subjected to either chronic social defeat (CSD) or chronic cold stress (CCS). The CSD mice were housed in a box inside an aggressor's cage and exposed to the aggressor. The CCS group was placed in iced water. After chronic stress, mice underwent femoral artery ligation (FAL) and flow recovery was measured. For the CSD group, appearance and use scores of the foot and a behavioral test were performed. CSD impaired collateral flow recovery after FAL. Further, stressed mice had greater ischemic damage, impaired foot function, and altered behavior. The CCS mice also showed impaired collateral flow recovery. Chronic stress causes hind limb collateral dysfunction in old mice, a conclusion reinforced by the fact that two types of stress produced similar changes. PMID:25315467

  12. [Drug-induced cognitive impairment].

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Moeko; Yamada, Masahito

    2012-12-01

    Compared to young people, elderly people are more likely to develop cognitive impairments associated with medications. Dementia and delirium (acute confusional state) are known to be associated with drug toxicity. Anticholinergic medications are important causes of acute and chronic cognitive impairment. Psychoactive drugs, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants can cause delirium and dementia. In addition, non-psychoactive drugs such as histamine H2 receptor antagonists, cardiac medications, and antibiotics may cause acute and chronic cognitive impairments. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent is essential for treating drug-induced dementia and delirium. PMID:23209067

  13. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this

  14. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)

  15. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  16. Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence with Reading Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Two family aggregation studies involving 25 children (ages 5-10) with specific language impairment (SLI) report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments and reading impairments. Results indicate that when language impairments occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with reading impairments.…

  17. Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence with Reading Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Two family aggregation studies involving 25 children (ages 5-10) with specific language impairment (SLI) report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments and reading impairments. Results indicate that when language impairments occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with reading impairments.

  18. Taurine improves the spatial learning and memory ability impaired by sub-chronic manganese exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive manganese exposure induced cognitive deficit. Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that taurine improves cognitive impairment induced by numerous neurotoxins. However, the role of taurine on manganese-induced damages in learning and memory is still elusive. This goal of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of taurine on learning and memory capacity impairment by manganese exposure in an animal model. Results The escape latency in the Morris Water Maze test was significantly longer in the rats injected with manganese than that in the rats received both taurine and manganese. Similarly, the probe trial showed that the annulus crossings were significantly greater in the taurine plus manganese treated rats than those in the manganese-treated rats. However, the blood level of manganese was not altered by the taurine treatment. Interestingly, the exposure of manganese led to a significant increase in the acetylcholinesterase activity and an evidently decrease in the choline acetyltransferase activity, which were partially restored by the addition of taurine. Additionally, we identified 9 differentially expressed proteins between the rat hippocampus treated by manganese and the control or the manganese plus taurine in the proteomic analysis using the 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Most of these proteins play a role in energy metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and neuron synapse. Conclusions In summary, taurine restores the activity of AChE and ChAT, which are critical for the regulation of acetylcholine. We have identified seven differentially expressed proteins specifically induced by manganese and two proteins induced by taurine from the rat hippocampus. Our results support that taurine improves the impaired learning and memory ability caused by excessive exposure of manganese. PMID:24885898

  19. Impaired intracellular trafficking defines early Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hunn, Benjamin H.M.; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Bolam, J. Paul; Spillantini, Maria-Grazia; Wade-Martins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is an insidious and incurable neurodegenerative disease, and represents a significant cost to individuals, carers, and ageing societies. It is defined at post-mortem by the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra together with the presence of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites. We examine here the role of α-synuclein and other cellular transport proteins implicated in PD and how their aberrant activity may be compounded by the unique anatomy of the dopaminergic neuron. This review uses multiple lines of evidence from genetic studies, human tissue, induced pluripotent stem cells, and refined animal models to argue that prodromal PD can be defined as a disease of impaired intracellular trafficking. Dysfunction of the dopaminergic synapse heralds trafficking impairment. PMID:25639775

  20. Lancet Dynamics in Greater Horseshoe Bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

    PubMed Central

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C.; Gupta, Anupam K.; Simmons, James A.; Mller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages (noseleaves) that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate thatin addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinnahorseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information. PMID:25853738

  1. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  2. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    PubMed

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Mller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information. PMID:25853738

  3. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  4. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  5. Doctors' Group Urges Greater Use of Generic Drugs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Doctors' Group Urges Greater Use of Generic Drugs Lower-cost options are usually just as safe ... HealthDay News) -- Whenever possible, doctors should prescribe generic drugs for their patients, the American College of Physicians ...

  6. Surgical Treatment of Displaced Greater Tuberosity Fractures of the Humerus.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Dominique M; Mutch, Jennifer; Laflamme, Georges-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Greater tuberosity fractures of the humerus can be successfully treated nonsurgically in most patients. However, as little as 3 to 5 mm of superior greater tuberosity displacement may adversely affect rotator cuff biomechanics and lead to subacromial impingement in patients who are active. In these cases, surgical treatment is recommended. Multiple surgical techniques include open and arthroscopic options tailored to fracture morphology, and strategies for repair include the use of suture anchors, transosseous sutures, tension bands, and plates/screws. Three classification systems are commonly used to describe greater tuberosity fractures: the AO, Neer, and morphologic classifications. Several hypotheses have been discussed for the mechanism of greater tuberosity fractures and the deforming forces of the rotator cuff, and the use of advanced imaging is being explored. PMID:26700632

  7. Smoking Linked to Greater Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154711.html Smoking Linked to Greater Risk for Type 2 Diabetes ... over time once smokers kick the habit. "Cigarette smoking should be considered as a key modifiable risk ...

  8. Military Deployment Tied to Greater Odds of Child Abuse, Neglect

    MedlinePLUS

    ... html Military Deployment Tied to Greater Odds of Child Abuse, Neglect Periods during and just after deployment ... said Dr. Bob Sege, a pediatrician specializing in child abuse and vice president of Health Resources in ...

  9. Study: Extremely Premature Babies At Greater Risk for Autism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Study: Extremely Premature Babies at Greater Risk for Autism Researchers identified differences in the brains of these ... very prematurely are at higher risk for developing autism spectrum disorder, a new study suggests. Researchers found ...

  10. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning: at the lower levels (up to 1500 m) they are recorded for a longer period and higher than 2000 m only 2-3 months. In terms of genesis the following types of debris flows are registered: rain, glacial and mixed. Rain mudflows are formed due to intensive rains (the daily amount is about 25 U 100 mm). A critical norm of precipitation forming debris 1 flows varies from west to east. In the western part it is 75-100 mm, central U 50-75 mm and eastern U 25-50 mm. Also the norm varies from north to south, in particular on advanced ridges it is higher but on the Glavny and Bokovoy ridges it is less. The difference is about 2 times. Glacial mudflows are observed only in the areas of modern glaciation. They form under high air temperature (20 U 25C) leading to an intensive melting of snow and ice on glaciers. High air temperature should be recorded not less than 5-10 days. Mixed mudflows form under high air temperature in the glaciers area and significant rainstorms in the glacial zone. Rainstorms cause debris flow formation in focal points. Frontal precipitation with a significant amount of rain cause debris flows at vast territories often covering several kilometers. In total rain mudflows prevail on the Greater Caucasus northern slope and equal 60 - 80% of all the mudflows. Glacial mudflows constitute 30-40% and mixed mudflows U 10-20%. In the western and eastern parts rain mudflows are the principal and their share is 80-90% of all the mudflows. In the central part glacial mudflows prevail (60- 0%). Technogenic mudflows are recorded in the areas with developed mining industry, highways, forestry, and pastures. In the given region debris flows distribute from north to south depending on genesis and volume. On advanced ridges (Lesisty, Pastbishny, Skalisty) only rain mudflows are registered with the volume up to 100,000 m3. Eluvial-deluvial, alluvial-proluvial and eolian-proluvial deposits compose their solid constituents. This is a zone of weak mudflow hazard. The most often are mudflows with volume up to 5000-10,000 m3. More powerful mudflows are less frequent (once

  11. Piracetam in elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, G; Annable, L; Ross-Chouinard, A; Olivier, M; Fontaine, F

    1983-01-01

    In a 12-week double-blind study, piracetam at two dose levels (2.4 and 4.8 g/day) was compared to placebo in the treatment of 60 elderly psychiatric patients with mild diffuse cerebral impairment, but no signs of focal brain lesion. The psychiatric illness, schizophrenia or affective disorder, of patients selected was in remission at the time of the study. Monthly evaluations by the nurse revealed that piracetam improved overall functioning, particularly alertness, socialization, and cooperation, relative to the control group. Patients treated with 2.4 g/day piracetam also showed significant improvement in scores for the full IQ and the memory quotient on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence and Memory Scales; greater response was seen in those with lower initial scores. Piracetam at 4.8 g/day had a more rapid onset of action on behavioral variables than 2.4 g/day, but its therapeutic effect tended to diminish at 12 weeks, possibly as the result of overstimulation. Piracetam did not appear to interfere with concomitant psychotropic maintenance medication or affect the psychiatric illness itself. PMID:6415738

  12. The Neuropsychology of Cocaine Addiction: Recent Cocaine Use Masks Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Woicik, Patricia A; Moeller, Scott J; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Maloney, Thomas; Lukasik, Tanya M; Yeliosof, Olga; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) form a heterogeneous group, making sensitive neuropsychological (NP) comparisons with healthy individuals difficult. The current study examined the effects on NP functioning of four factors that commonly vary among CUD: urine status for cocaine (positive vs negative on study day), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and dysphoria. Sixty-four cocaine abusers were matched to healthy comparison subjects on gender and race; the groups also did not differ in measures of general intellectual functioning. All subjects were administered an extensive NP battery measuring attention, executive function, memory, facial and emotion recognition, and motor function. Compared with healthy control subjects, CUD exhibited performance deficits on tasks of attention, executive function, and verbal memory (within one standard deviation of controls). Although CUD with positive urine status, who had higher frequency and more recent cocaine use, reported greater symptoms of dysphoria, these cognitive deficits were most pronounced in the CUD with negative urine status. Cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol consumption, and dysphoria did not alter these results. The current findings replicate a previously reported statistically significant, but relatively mild NP impairment in CUD as compared with matched healthy control individuals and further suggest that frequent/recent cocaine may mask underlying cognitive (but not mood) disturbances. These results call for development of pharmacological agents targeted to enhance cognition, without negatively impacting mood in individuals addicted to cocaine. PMID:18496524

  13. Impaired Comprehension of Alternating Syntactic Constructions in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Stockbridge, Melissa D; Happ, Francesca G E; White, Sarah J

    2014-01-01

    Individuals on the higher-functioning end of the autism spectrum have significant impairments in communication. Language delay can occur, particularly in syntactic or structural linguistic knowledge. However, classically observed semantic deficits generally overshadow these structural deficits. This research examined the potential effects on comprehension of dative expressions that exhibited syntactic alternation versus those that were restricted, whether in syntactic construction or through marked semantic differences in construction. Children with autism and matched neurotypical control participants were presented with a sentence battery of dative statements representing these variations in construction and were asked to display basic comprehension of the sentence meaning by identifying the recipient, or indirect object, of the dative verb. Construction, restriction, and semantic differentiation variables were analyzed for potential effects on the rate of accurate comprehension. Both groups performed with greater accuracy when dative expressions used a prepositional phrase than when the dative action was expressed in the syntax. The autism group performed more poorly when the dative expression could syntactically alternate than when it was restricted. These effects improve our knowledge of how children with autism understand alternating grammatical constructions. Autism Res 2014, 7: 314321. 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24227788

  14. Impaired comprehension of alternating syntactic constructions in autism.

    PubMed

    Stockbridge, Melissa D; Happ, Francesca G E; White, Sarah J

    2014-06-01

    Individuals on the higher-functioning end of the autism spectrum have significant impairments in communication. Language delay can occur, particularly in syntactic or structural linguistic knowledge. However, classically observed semantic deficits generally overshadow these structural deficits. This research examined the potential effects on comprehension of dative expressions that exhibited syntactic alternation versus those that were restricted, whether in syntactic construction or through marked semantic differences in construction. Children with autism and matched neurotypical control participants were presented with a sentence battery of dative statements representing these variations in construction and were asked to display basic comprehension of the sentence meaning by identifying the recipient, or indirect object, of the dative verb. Construction, restriction, and semantic differentiation variables were analyzed for potential effects on the rate of accurate comprehension. Both groups performed with greater accuracy when dative expressions used a prepositional phrase than when the dative action was expressed in the syntax. The autism group performed more poorly when the dative expression could syntactically alternate than when it was restricted. These effects improve our knowledge of how children with autism understand alternating grammatical constructions. PMID:24227788

  15. Obstructive pulmonary function impairment among Korean male workers exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, and welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ji Young; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20-41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74-10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

  16. Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes

    PubMed Central

    RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

  17. IMPAIRED ENDOGENOUS FIBRINOLYTIC CAPACITY IN PREHYPERTENSIVE MEN

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Kyle J.; Weil, Brian R.; Greiner, Jared J.; Wright, Kenneth P.; Stauffer, Brian L.; DeSouza, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Prehypertension (BP 120139/8089 mmHg) is associated with an increased risk for future atherothrombotic events. Although the mechanisms underlying this elevated risk are not completely understood, one possibility is that prehypertension is associated with impaired endothelial fibrinolytic capacity. We tested the hypothesis that vascular endothelial release of t-PA is impaired in prehypertensive men. Net endothelial release of t-PA was determined, in vivo, in response to intrabrachial infusions of bradykinin (12.5, 25, 50 ng/100 mL tissue/min) and sodium nitroprusside at (1.0, 2.0, 4.0 g/100 mL tissue/min) in 42 middle-age and older men: 16 normotensive (BP range: 100119/5779 mmHg); 16 prehypertensive (BP range: 120139/7689 mmHg); and 10 hypertensive (BP range: 140150/74100 mmHg). Net release of t-PA antigen was ~25% lower (P < 0.05) in the prehypertensive (?0.9 0.8 to 42.4 5.3 ng/100 mL tissue/min) compared with the normotensive (0.5 1.0 to 53.9 6.5 ng/100 mL tissue/min) men. There was no significant difference in t-PA release between the hypertensive (?1.81.6 to 40.86.6 ng/100 mL tissue/min) and prehypertensive groups. Sodium nitroprusside did not significantly alter t-PA release in any group. These data indicate that endothelial t-PA release is diminished in prehypertensive men. Further, the level of impairment in t-PA release seen with clinical hypertension is already apparent in the prehypertensive state. Impaired endothelial fibrinolytic function may underlie the increased atherothrombotic risk associated with blood pressure in the prehypertensive range. PMID:25566873

  18. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  19. Serving the Visually Impaired User.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Gretchen L.

    2003-01-01

    Providing service to visually impaired persons can provide a special challenge to librarians. This article provides suggestions on making libraries more accessible. Both technological solutions and staff training are addressed. (Author)

  20. Psychiatric Issues in Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aarsland, Dag; Taylor, John-Paul; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as depression, hallucinations and apathy commonly occur in Parkinsons disease (PD) and have major clinical consequences including a negative impact on quality of life. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and treatment issues of NPS in PD and related disorders in the perspective of cognitive impairment, focusing on depression, anxiety, visual hallucinations, apathy, sleep disturbances, impulse control disorder and non-motor fluctuations. The majority of NPS are more common in PD patients with dementia, possibly related to shared underlying pathologies. Recent studies also suggest that NPS are associated with mild cognitive impairment in PD, in particular with the amnestic type. Accurate diagnosis of NPS is important but can be difficult, due to overlapping symptoms and similar appearance of symptoms of motor symptoms of parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, mood disorders and apathy. There are few systematic studies focusing on the management of NPS in PD with cognitive impairment. PMID:24757113

  1. Human skeletal muscle metabolic economy in vivo: effects of contraction intensity, age, and mobility impairment

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Anita D.; Tonson, Anne; Larsen, Ryan G.; DeBlois, Jacob P.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that older muscle has greater metabolic economy (ME) in vivo than young, in a manner dependent, in part, on contraction intensity. Twenty young (Y; 24 ± 1 yr, 10 women), 18 older healthy (O; 73 ± 2, 9 women) and 9 older individuals with mild-to-moderate mobility impairment (OI; 74 ± 1, 7 women) received stimulated twitches (2 Hz, 3 min) and performed nonfatiguing voluntary (20, 50, and 100% maximal; 12 s each) isometric dorsiflexion contractions. Torque-time integrals (TTI; Nm·s) were calculated and expressed relative to maximal fat-free muscle cross-sectional area (cm2), and torque variability during voluntary contractions was calculated as the coefficient of variation. Total ATP cost of contraction (mM) was determined from flux through the creatine kinase reaction, nonoxidative glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and used to calculate ME (Nm·s·cm−2·mM ATP−1). While twitch torque relaxation was slower in O and OI compared with Y (P ≤ 0.001), twitch TTI, ATP cost, and economy were similar across groups (P ≥ 0.15), indicating comparable intrinsic muscle economy during electrically induced isometric contractions in vivo. During voluntary contractions, normalized TTI and total ATP cost did not differ significantly across groups (P ≥ 0.20). However, ME was lower in OI than Y or O at 20% and 50% MVC (P ≤ 0.02), and torque variability was greater in OI than Y or O at 20% MVC (P ≤ 0.05). These results refute the hypothesis of greater muscle ME in old age, and provide support for lower ME in impaired older adults as a potential mechanism or consequence of age-related reductions in functional mobility. PMID:25163917

  2. Significances of Multimedia Technologies Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fulei

    The use of multimedia technologies in education has enabled teachers to simulate final outcomes and assist s-tudents in applying knowledge learned from textbooks, thereby compensating for the deficiency of traditional teach- ing methods. It is important to examine how effective these technologies are in practical use. This study developed online learning-teaching resource platforms using Flash multimedia, providing interactive and integrated features in an easy-to-use user interface, in order to discuss Computer-Aided Drawing (CAD). The study utilized a teaching experiment with a non-equivalent pretest-posttest control group design to test and discuss students' professional cognition, operating skill cognition, and level of learning satisfaction during the learning process. No significant differences emerged between the groups in regards to professional cognition or operation skills cognition. However, a significant difference in learning satisfaction was noted, indicating that the coursework with multimedia Flash produced greater satisfaction than with traditional learning methods. Results are explained in detail and recommendations for further research provided.

  3. Greater loss of object than spatial mnemonic discrimination in aged adults.

    PubMed

    Reagh, Zachariah M; Ho, Huy D; Leal, Stephanie L; Noche, Jessica A; Chun, Amanda; Murray, Elizabeth A; Yassa, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies across species have established that the aging process adversely affects certain memory-related brain regions earlier than others. Behavioral tasks targeted at the function of vulnerable regions can provide noninvasive methods for assessing the integrity of particular components of memory throughout the lifespan. The present study modified a previous task designed to separately but concurrently test detailed memory for object identity and spatial location. Memory for objects or items is thought to rely on perirhinal and lateral entorhinal cortices, among the first targets of Alzheimer's related neurodegeneration. In line with prior work, we split an aged adult sample into "impaired" and "unimpaired" groups on the basis of a standardized word-learning task. The "impaired" group showed widespread difficulty with memory discrimination, whereas the "unimpaired" group showed difficulty with object, but not spatial memory discrimination. These findings support the hypothesized greater age-related impacts on memory for objects or items in older adults, perhaps even with healthy aging. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26691235

  4. Comparison of Asperger syndrome and high-functioning autistic children on a test of motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Manjiviona, J; Prior, M

    1995-02-01

    Compared the motor impairment levels of Asperger syndrome and high functioning autistic children using a standardized test, the Test of Motor Impairment-Henderson Revision. The two groups did not differ on either total or subscale impairment scores. Intelligence level was negatively correlated with motor impairment although the relationship was mostly accounted for by the Asperger children. There was considerable variability within both clinical groups but 50% of Asperger children and 67% of autistic children showed a clinically significant level of motor impairment. Results offer no support for clumsiness as a diagnostically differentiating feature of these disorders. PMID:7608032

  5. Cognitive impairment in older people living in the community.

    PubMed

    Inocian, Ergie; Patalagsa, Joel Gonzales

    2016-02-26

    Aim To investigate the prevalence and severity of cognitive impairment among older people living in the community in Cebu City, the Philippines. Method The cognitive function of 120 older people living in the community was assessed using the mini-mental state examination translated into the Cebuano language. Details of age, gender, education level and number of health problems were noted for all participants. Results On average, participants had mild cognitive impairment. Cognitive status differed significantly when participants were grouped according to age, education level and number of concurrent health problems. The male participants were less likely (odds ratio (OR) =0.34, P=0.02; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.134, 0.840) to have mild cognitive impairment than no cognitive impairment. Participants aged 75 and older were more likely (OR=1.42, P=0.003; 95% CI 1.131, 1.789) to have moderate or severe cognitive impairment than no cognitive impairment. Conclusion Cognitive decline was more prevalent in older participants. Implementation of cost-effective, early detection and interventions in primary care is needed to prevent the potential debilitating effects of cognitive impairment. PMID:26917187

  6. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, Serge; Pascolini, Donatella; Etya'ale, Daniel; Kocur, Ivo; Pararajasegaram, Ramachandra; Pokharel, Gopal P.; Mariotti, Silvio P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma. PMID:15640920

  7. Retrosplenial cortex lesions of area Rgb (but not of area Rga) impair spatial learning and memory in the rat.

    PubMed

    van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga; Wyss, J Michael

    2004-10-01

    The retrosplenial cortex, which is situated in a critical position in the flow of information between the hippocampal formation and the neocortex, contributes to spatial memory, but no studies have examined the distinct contribution of each area of the retrosplenial cortex to this behavior. This study tests the hypothesis that the two areas of the retrosplenial granular cortex play distinct roles in spatial learning and memory. Adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats with small, bilateral lesions (ibotenic acid) of the retrosplenial granular cortex were tested for 2 weeks in a repeated acquisition water maze task. Compared to controls, rats with complete lesions of the retrosplenial granular b cortex (Rgb) were slightly, but significantly impaired, whereas rats with lesions of the retrosplenial granular a cortex (Rga) displayed no impairment. Further, the Rgb-lesioned (but not the Rga-lesioned) group was impaired in the probe trials at the end of the first week of training. All animals were tested in the same paradigm for a second week to determine if the learning and memory impairment in the Rgb-lesioned rats simply reflected "delayed learning." All animals improved their maze performance during the second week of testing, but the Rgb-lesioned group still had no preference for the correct quadrant in the probe trial. Together, these data indicate that Rgb plays a small, independent role in spatial learning and memory. Further, although selective lesions of Rga or Rgb do not cause a large deficit in learning, concomitant destruction of both areas causes a much greater impairment in learning than would be predicted from their independent contributions. The data highlight the unique and complex contribution of each area of the retrosplenial cortex to behavior. PMID:15313037

  8. A Human Alcohol Self-Administration Paradigm to Model Individual Differences in Impaired Control over Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Nogueira, Christine; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.; OMalley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an alcohol self-administration paradigm to model individual differences in impaired control. The paradigm includes moderate drinking guidelines meant to model limits on alcohol consumption, which are typically exceeded by people with impaired control. Possible payment reductions provided a disincentive for excessive drinking. Alcohol use above the guideline, despite possible pay reductions, was considered to be indicative of impaired control. Heavy-drinking 2125 year-olds (N = 39) were randomized to an experimental condition including the elements of the impaired control paradigm or to a free-drinking condition without these elements. Alcohol self-administration was compared between these two conditions to establish the internal validity of the experimental paradigm. In both conditions, participants self-administered beer and non-alcoholic beverages for 3 hours in a bar setting with 13 other participants. Experimental condition participants self-administered significantly fewer beers and drank to lower blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) on average than those in the free-drinking condition. Experimental condition participants were more likely than free-drinking condition participants to intersperse non-alcoholic beverages with beer and to drink at a slower pace. Although experimental condition participants drank more moderately than those in the free-drinking condition overall, their range of drinking was considerable (BAC range = .024.097) with several participants drinking excessively. A lower initial subjective response to alcohol and earlier age of alcohol use onset were associated with greater alcohol self-administration in the experimental condition. Given the variability in response, the impaired control laboratory paradigm may have utility for preliminary tests of novel interventions in future studies and for identifying individual differences in problem-drinking risk. PMID:23937598

  9. Efficacy and safety of cognitive enhancers for patients with mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tricco, Andrea C.; Soobiah, Charlene; Berliner, Shirra; Ho, Joanne M.; Ng, Carmen H.; Ashoor, Huda M.; Chen, Maggie H.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda; Straus, Sharon E.

    Background: Cognitive enhancers, including cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine, are used to treat dementia, but their effectiveness for mild cognitive impairment is unclear. We conducted a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment. Methods: Our eligibility criteria were studies of the effects of donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine or memantine on mild cognitive impairment reporting cognition, function, behaviour, global status, and mortality or harms. We identified relevant material by searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, Embase), the references of included studies, trial registries and conference proceedings, and by contacting experts. Two reviewers independently screened the results of the literature search, abstracted data and appraised risk of bias using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Results: We screened 15 554 titles and abstracts and 1384 full-text articles. Eight randomized clinical trials and 3 companion reports met our inclusion criteria. We found no significant effects of cognitive enhancers on cognition (MiniMental State Examination: 3 randomized clinical trials [RCTs], mean difference [MD] 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] ?0.22 to 0.50; Alzheimers Disease Assessment Scale cognition subscale: 3 RCTs, standardized MD ?0.07, 95% CI?0.16 to 0.01]) or function (Alzheimers Disease Cooperative Study activities of daily living inventory: 2 RCTs, MD 0.30, 95% CI ?0.26 to 0.86). Cognitive enhancers were associated with higher risks of nausea, diarrhea and vomiting than placebo. Interpretation: Cognitive enhancers did not improve cognition or function among patients with mild cognitive impairment and were associated with a greater risk of gastrointestinal harms. Our findings do not support the use of cognitive enhancers for mild cognitive impairment. PMID:24043661

  10. Research With Cognitively Impaired Participants

    PubMed Central

    Oruche, Ukamaka M.

    2011-01-01

    Illnesses that cause cognitive impairment are a considerable health problem in the United States. These include Alzheimers disease, Huntingtons chorea, cerebrovascular disease, psychiatric disorders, chronic alcoholism, and AIDS dementia complex. Illness associated with cognitive impairment may cause great suffering to the affected patients and their families. Research involving individuals who may be at risk for or have cognitive impairment is necessary to improve our understanding of these illnesses. For example, this may occur during efforts to develop effective therapies to treat them. However, research with participants who have cognitive impairment presents additional ethical concerns because they may be vulnerable to coercion. Therefore, nurse researchers must not only understand the principles of informed consent (i.e., autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice), but also the additional safeguards provided in the common rule to protect cognitively impaired participants in research. These safeguards include advanced informed consent, legal representative, and assent. Gaps exist in federal regulations related to adhering to these safeguards such as how to assess for decision-making capacity and variations on who can be a legal representative. The nurse researchers have potential roles as educators and advocates in research involving participants with cognitive impairment. PMID:21814457

  11. Hippocampal endosomal, lysosomal, and autophagic dysregulation in mild cognitive impairment: correlation with a? and tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sylvia E; He, Bin; Nadeem, Muhammad; Wuu, Joanne; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Mufson, Elliott J

    2015-04-01

    Endosomal-lysosomal and autophagic dysregulation occurs in the hippocampus in prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD), but its relationship with ?-amyloid (A?) and tau pathology remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we performed immunoblot analysis of hippocampal homogenates from cases with an antemortem clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD. Western blot analysis revealed significant increases in the acid hydrolase cathepsin D and early endosome marker rabaptin5 in the MCI group compared with AD, whereas levels of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin proteins (pmTOR), total mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p62, traf6, and LilrB2 were comparable across clinical groups. Hippocampal A?1-40 and A?1-42 concentrations and AT8-immunopositive neurofibrillary tangle density were not significantly different across the clinical groups. Greater cathepsin D expression was associated with global cognitive score and episodic memory score but not with mini mental state examination or advanced neuropathology criteria. These results indicate that alterations in hippocampal endosomal-lysosomal proteins in MCI are independent of tau or A? pathology. PMID:25756588

  12. Mental Rotation as an Indicator of Motor Representation in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bourrelier, Julien; Kubicki, Alexandre; Rouaud, Olivier; Crognier, Lionel; Mourey, France

    2015-01-01

    This internal representation of movement of part(s) of the body is involved during Implicit Motor Imagery tasks (IMI); the same representations are employed in the laterality judgment task. Few studies have looked at the consequences of aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) on the processes of motor preparation but none showed evidence of an alteration of action representation in patient with amnestic MCI. In the present study, the IMI task was used to assess the action representation abilities in MCI patients and healthy counterparts. A total of 24 elderly participants aged between 65 and 90 years old (12 women, 73.4 ± 6 years, mean ± S.D.) were recruited: 12 patients with MCI (MCI group) and 12 healthy aged adults (HAA group). The results showed that MCI patients have significantly a greater response time (RT) than HAA subjects only in IMI task and more precisely when performing their mental rotation at the challenging conditions. Furthermore, the IMI task related to the non-dominant hand induced a significant increase of RT only in MCI subjects. At the light of these results, we assume that MCI patients are able to engage themselves in IMI processes, still showing a compelling impairment of this mental ability across its complexity. PMID:26779010

  13. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    PubMed

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p < .05). Grip strength relative to body weight declined with age (p < .05) and was greater in ACT compared with SED subjects in both hands (p < .05). Similarly, relative maximal isometric knee extension torque declined with age (p < .05) and was higher in ACT versus SED individuals in both legs (p < .05). Absolute and relative 1 repetition maximum knee extension declined with age (p < .05) and were greater in ACT versus SED groups (p < .05). Knee extensor strength was associated with a greater amount of leg lean mass in the ACT subjects (p < .05). In summary, long-term aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits. PMID:23213030

  14. The role of carotid stenosis in vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Rao, R

    2002-11-15

    As the contribution of carotid stenosis to cognitive impairment still remains unclear, neuropsychological function and soft neurological signs were examined in patients aged 65 and over. Twenty-five patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (CS) of 75% or more were compared with 25 patients with first anterior circulation stroke, 25 with peripheral vascular disease and 25 healthy controls. All patients were assessed using CAMCOG (Cambridge Cognitive Examination), tests examining frontal lobe function (Behavioural Dyscontrol Scale [BDYS], Trail-Making Tests A and B, Controlled Word Association Test) and a scale for primitive reflexes (Frontal Release Signs Scale). Patients with symptomatic CS showed greater global impairment on CAMCOG and more severe impairment in frontal lobe function than controls. Those patients scoring less than 15 on the BDYS were more likely to have experienced transient ischemic attacks (TIA) for 5 or more years. Frontal lobe dysfunction, suicidal thinking and age were all independent predictors of global cognitive impairment. Mean number of frontal release signs was higher in patients with CS than in controls, with a higher proportion of patients showing all release signs except glabellar, paratonia and snout reflexes. The study is limited by small numbers and the absence of brain imaging, but provides some evidence for an association between severe carotid stenosis and neuropsychological impairment. The presence of clinically 'silent' cerebrovascular disease affecting frontal lobe function may be missed in routine clinical practice. PMID:12417366

  15. Inter-Individual Differences in Neurobehavioural Impairment following Sleep Restriction Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm Phase

    PubMed Central

    Sletten, Tracey L.; Segal, Ahuva Y.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sleep restriction is associated with decrements in daytime alertness and neurobehavioural performance, there are considerable inter-individual differences in the degree of impairment. This study examined the effects of short-term sleep restriction on neurobehavioural performance and sleepiness, and the associations between individual differences in impairments and circadian rhythm phase. Healthy adults (n = 43; 22 M) aged 22.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD) years maintained a regular 8:16 h sleep:wake routine for at least three weeks prior to laboratory admission. Sleep opportunity was restricted to 5 hours time-in-bed at home the night before admission and 3 hours time-in-bed in the laboratory, aligned by wake time. Hourly saliva samples were collected from 5.5 h before until 5 h after the pre-laboratory scheduled bedtime to assess dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) as a marker of circadian phase. Participants completed a 10-min auditory Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and had slow eye movements (SEM) measured by electrooculography two hours after waking. We observed substantial inter-individual variability in neurobehavioural performance, particularly in the number of PVT lapses. Increased PVT lapses (r = -0.468, p < 0.01), greater sleepiness (r = 0.510, p < 0.0001), and more slow eye movements (r = 0.375, p = 0.022) were significantly associated with later DLMO, consistent with participants waking at an earlier circadian phase. When the difference between DLMO and sleep onset was less than 2 hours, individuals were significantly more likely to have at least three attentional lapses the following morning. This study demonstrates that the phase of an individual’s circadian system is an important variable in predicting the degree of neurobehavioural performance impairment in the hours after waking following sleep restriction, and confirms that other factors influencing performance decrements require further investigation. PMID:26043207

  16. Impairment Rating Ambiguity in the United States: The Utah Impairment Guides for Calculating Workers' Compensation Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Bradley; Bunkall, Larry D.; Holmes, Edward B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the implementation of workers' compensation, accurately and consistently rating impairment has been a concern for the employee and employer, as well as rating physicians. In an attempt to standardize and classify impairments, the American Medical Association (AMA) publishes the AMA Guides ("Guides"), and recently published its 6th edition of the AMA Guides. Common critiques of the AMA Guides 6th edition are that they are too complex, lacking in evidence-based methods, and rarely yield consistent ratings. Many states mandate use of some edition of the AMA Guides, but few states are adopting the current edition due to the increasing difficulty and frustration with their implementation. A clearer, simpler approach is needed. Some states have begun to develop their own supplemental guides to combat problems in complexity and validity. Likewise studies in Korea show that past methods for rating impairment are outdated and inconsistent, and call for measures to adapt current methods to Korea's specific needs. The Utah Supplemental Guides to the AMA Guides have been effective in increasing consistency in rating impairment. It is estimated that litigation of permanent impairment has fallen below 1% and Utah is now one of the least costly states for obtaining workers' compensation insurance, while maintaining a medical fee schedule above the national average. Utah's guides serve as a model for national or international impairment guides. PMID:19503678

  17. Assessment of community noise problem in Greater Beirut Area, Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Korfali, Samira Ibrahim; Massoud, May

    2003-06-01

    Over the last two decades, urban noise has been increasing rapidly, primarily in urban areas, due to population growth and the increase of certain noise sources. The main objective of this paper is to assess the sources and possible impacts of the community noise problems in Lebanese urban areas, particularly the Greater Beirut Area. The causes and effects of community noise pollution are briefly presented. Sound pressure levels that were measured to define existing noise exposure levels in various locations in the Greater Beirut Area are also presented. The attitudes toward noise pollution and perceived annoyance impact on a sample of 1,038 exposed residents are described. The association between measured noise levels and sources, as well as annoyance, is examined using correlation analysis and linear and multiple linear regressions. A set of recommendations is presented to reduce community noise problem in Greater Beirut Area. PMID:12807261

  18. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights. PMID:22230180

  19. Genetic Risk Score Predicts Late-Life Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wollam, Mariegold E.; Weinstein, Andrea M.; Saxton, Judith A.; Morrow, Lisa; Snitz, Beth; Fowler, Nicole R.; Suever Erickson, Barbara L.; Roecklein, Kathryn A.; Erickson, Kirk I.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. A family history of Alzheimer's disease is a significant risk factor for its onset, but the genetic risk associated with possessing multiple risk alleles is still poorly understood. Methods. In a sample of 95 older adults (Mean age = 75.1, 64.2% female), we constructed a genetic risk score based on the accumulation of risk alleles in BDNF, COMT, and APOE. A neuropsychological evaluation and consensus determined cognitive status (44 nonimpaired, 51 impaired). Logistic regression was performed to determine whether the genetic risk score predicted cognitive impairment above and beyond that associated with each gene. Results. An increased genetic risk score was associated with a nearly 4-fold increased risk of cognitive impairment (OR = 3.824, P = .013) when including the individual gene polymorphisms as covariates in the model. Discussion. A risk score combining multiple genetic influences may be more useful in predicting late-life cognitive impairment than individual polymorphisms. PMID:26366299

  20. Hearing Impairment in Congenitally Hypothyroid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Hovsepian, Silva; Hashemi, Mostafa; Amini, Massoud; Kelishadi, Roya; Sadeghi, Somaye

    2012-01-01

    Objective Thyroid hormone is necessary for normal development of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of hearing impairment in congenitally hypothyroid (CH) patients, and its relation with factors such as CH severity and age at starting treatment, during CH screening program in Isfahan. Methods Hearing acuity was assessed in two groups of children with (94 patients aged 4 months – 3 years) and without CH (450), between 2000-2006. Otoacostic emission (OAE) was performed by a two step method. After two tests without OAE signals bilaterally, they were referred for auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. Subjects with both OAE and ABR abnormal test results were considered to have hearing problem. Obtained data was compared in case and control group and also CH patients with and without hearing impairment. Findings Three (3.2%) of patients and 1 of control group (0.2%) were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss. The rate of hearing loss was not different significantly in two studied groups (P>0.05). There was no difference between age of starting treatment and first T4 and TSH level in CH patients with and without hearing loss (P>0.05). CH neonates with hearing impairment had thyroid dyshormonogenesis according to the follow up results. Conclusion The rate of hearing loss was low among our studied CH patients. It may be due to proper management of CH patients. In view of the fact that all CH neonates were dyshormonogentic and considering the relation between certain gene mutations and hearing impairment in CH patients, further studies with larger sample size, with regard to different etiologies of CH should be investigated to indicate the possible gene mutations related to hearing loss in CH. PMID:23056865

  1. Neurocognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Lal, Chitra; Strange, Charlie; Bachman, David

    2012-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder with far-reaching health implications. One of the major consequences of OSAS is an impact on neurocognitive functioning. Several studies have shown that OSAS has an adverse effect on inductive and deductive reasoning, attention, vigilance, learning, and memory. Neurocognitive impairment can be measured objectively with tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, the Steer Clear Performance Test, and tests of repetitive finger tapping. In children, OSAS may cause attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in addition to behavioral problems and learning disabilities. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include increasing age, male sex, apolipoprotein E ?4 allele positivity, current cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, Down syndrome, hypothyroidism, significant alcohol consumption, stroke, and the use of psychoactive medications. At a cellular level, OSAS likely causes cognitive impairment through intermittent hypoxia, hormonal imbalance, and/or systemic inflammation, either independently or via the resultant endothelial dysfunction that occurs. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be measured and minimized in all studies of neurocognitive impairment. Recent studies have used functional and structural neuroimaging to delineate the brain areas affected in patients with OSAS with neurocognitive dysfunction. A common finding in several of these studies is decreased hippocampal volume. Other affected brain areas include the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain, which show focal reductions in gray matter. These changes can be reversed at least partially with the use of CPAP, which highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment of OSAS. The currently available data in this field are quite limited, and more research is needed. PMID:22670023

  2. Tumor significant dose

    SciTech Connect

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/.

  3. Enhanced large conductance K+ channel activity contributes to the impaired myogenic response in the cerebral vasculature of Fawn Hooded Hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Pabbidi, Mallikarjuna R.; Mazur, Olga; Fan, Fan; Farley, Jerry M.; Gebremedhin, Debebe; Harder, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the myogenic response (MR) in cerebral arteries is impaired in Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH) rats and that transfer of a 2.4 megabase pair region of chromosome 1 (RNO1) containing 15 genes from the Brown Norway rat into the FHH genetic background restores MR in a FHH.1BN congenic strain. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. The present study examined the role of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in impairing the MR in FHH rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp studies of cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) revealed that iberiotoxin (IBTX; BK inhibitor)-sensitive outward potassium (K+) channel current densities are four- to fivefold greater in FHH than in FHH.1BN congenic strain. Inside-out patches indicated that the BK channel open probability (NPo) is 10-fold higher and IBTX reduced NPo to a greater extent in VSMCs isolated from FHH than in FHH.1BN rats. Voltage sensitivity of the BK channel is enhanced in FHH as compared with FHH.1BN rats. The frequency and amplitude of spontaneous transient outward currents are significantly greater in VSMCs isolated from FHH than in FHH.1BN rats. However, the expression of the BK-? and -?-subunit proteins in cerebral vessels as determined by Western blot is similar between the two groups. Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) isolated from FHH rats exhibited an impaired MR, and administration of IBTX restored this response. These results indicate that there is a gene on RNO1 that impairs MR in the MCAs of FHH rats by enhancing BK channel activity. PMID:24464756

  4. Profile of Cognitive Complaints in Vascular Mild Cognitive Impairment and Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Corinne E.; Saposnik, Gustavo; Schweizer, Tom A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Vascular mild cognitive impairment (VaMCI) is differentiated from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by the presence of vascular events such as stroke or small vessel disease. Typically, MCI and VaMCI patients present with subjective complaints regarding cognition; however, little is known about the specific nature of these complaints. We aimed to create a profile of subjective cognitive complaints in MCI and VaMCI patients with similar levels of objective cognitive performance. Methods. Twenty MCI and twenty VaMCI patients were recruited from a Memory Disorders Clinic in Toronto. Subjective cognitive complaints were assessed and categorized using the Neuropsychological Impairment Scale. Results. MCI and VaMCI patients achieved similar scores on measures of objective cognitive function (P > 0.100). However, the VaMCI group had more subjective complaints than the MCI group (P = 0.050), particularly in the critical items, cognitive efficiency, memory, and verbal learning domains of the Neuropsychological Impairment Scale. Conclusions. Our findings support the idea that VaMCI and MCI differ in their clinical profiles, independent of neuroimaging. VaMCI patients have significantly more subjective cognitive complaints and may be exhibiting particular deficits in memory, verbal learning, and cognitive efficiency. Our findings promote the need for further research into VaMCI-specific cognitive deficits. PMID:24288623

  5. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. The Word Length Effect in Children with Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Catherine H.

    2003-01-01

    Two types of serial word recall tasks (full verbal recall and probed recall) were administered to 11 children with language impairment and 22 controls matched for productive language or age. The only significant group differences were in the full list recall condition, in which subjects' performance was significantly worse than controls. (Contains

  7. 20 CFR 416.923 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evaluation of Disability 416.923 Multiple impairments. In... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple impairments. 416.923 Section 416.923... impairments, the combined impact of the impairments will be considered throughout the disability...

  8. Motor impairment and its relationship to fitness in children

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Martyn; Dawes, Helen; Howells, Ken; Janssen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this work was to explore the physiological and perceptual limits to exercise in children with varying degrees of motor impairment, and the relationships to measures of health. Design and methods In a group comparison design, 35 boys aged 1215?years completed the Movement ABC test for the assessment of motor impairment, followed by an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten participants classified as having either high or no motor impairment also performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the assessment of lower limb extensor strength. Results 18 boys were classified as having high motor impairment. There was a significant difference in peak (34.9 vs 48.5?mL?kg/min), workload (12.5 vs 10.0?mL?W), maximal HR (176 vs 188?bpm), maximal oxygen pulse (12.1 vs 15.9?mL?beat) and MVIC (5.7 vs 9.1?Nm?kg) between the high and non-motor impaired participants, respectively, (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the RER or RPE between groups. Conclusions When performing cycling ergometry, perceived exertion was not a limiting factor in children with high motor impairment. The lower maximal HR, coupled with reduced movement efficiency and muscle strength reported in this group, suggests that exercise is limited by impairment at the muscular level. This finding was supported by high RER values despite low maximal HR values attained at exercise cessation and reduced maximal strength. Perception of effort is not heightened in children with high motor impairment and future-exercise interventions should be focused on improving muscular condition in these participants to enable them to be better prepared to engage in physical activity for health. PMID:23847266

  9. Attitude and help-seeking for hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, R H; Wit, H P; Kempen, G I; van Heuvelen, M J

    1996-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate help-seeking for hearing impairment in the elderly, and to compare groups showing dissimilar help-seeking on their attitude toward hearing loss and hearing aids. Attitude factors were based on a revised version of the Health Belief Model, and included beliefs about: the severity of the hearing problems, the benefits of a hearing aid, barriers to hearing aid use, and the opinions of significant others. Hearing threshold levels were determined for a random sample (N = 624) of subjects aged 57 years or older from 12 general practices. Those with a mean loss of 35 dBHL in both ears (23.1%) were considered hearing impaired. Of every four hearing impaired subjects, approximately one had not discussed the impairment with his doctor and one had discussed it but did not have a hearing aid trial. About 40% of the hearing impaired individuals had a hearing aid, and relatively few had given up using it (6% of those who had an aid). These results showed a higher incidence of help-seeking for hearing impairment than comparable British studies. After the influence of hearing impairment was controlled for, the following relationships between attitude and help-seeking were found: (1) non-consulters perceived their impairment as relatively inconsequential, most frequently demonstrated a passive acceptance of hearing problems with increasing age, saw least benefits of hearing aid use, and experienced little social pressure to seek help; (2) those who did not try an aid after consulting their doctor stood out because they saw most stigma-related barriers to hearing aid use and felt their significant others agreed with them on this negative evaluation of aids; and (3) current users had the most favourable attitude toward hearing aids. PMID:8922696

  10. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans

    PubMed Central

    Raio, Candace M.; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays an important role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent research in rodents found that exposure to stress led to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress responses, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, one day later participants in the stress group (n = 27) demonstrated significantly less extinction retrieval (i.e., greater fear recovery) than those in the control group (n = 25). Our results suggest that acute stress impairs extinction memory retrieval and offers insight into why treatment strategies used in the clinic may be challenging to recruit in daily life where stress is pervasive. PMID:24508065

  11. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  12. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors influencing their growth and the various susceptible commodities that are contaminated. Finally, decision trees are included to assist the user in making informed choices about the likely mycotoxins present in the various crops. PMID:23477193

  13. Cognitive impairment and driving safety.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J

    2012-11-01

    As the populations of many countries continue to age, cognitive impairment will likely become more common. Individuals with cognitive impairment pose special challenges for families, health professionals, driving safety professionals, and the larger community, particularly if these older adults depend on driving as their primary means of community mobility. It is vital that we continue to extend our knowledge about the driving behavior of individuals' with cognitive impairment, as well as try to develop effective means of screening and assessing these individuals for fitness to drive and help facilitate their transition to non-driving when appropriate. This special issue is intended to provide researchers and practitioners an opportunity to present the most recent research findings on driving-related issues among older adults with cognitive impairment. The issue contains 11 original contributions from seven countries. The topics covered by these papers are: crash risks; screening, assessment, and fitness to drive; driving performance using a driving simulator; and driving behaviors and driving-related decisions of people with cognitive impairments. PMID:22766131

  14. Spatial navigational impairments in hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alastair D; Buckley, Matthew G

    2012-08-01

    Whilst much is known about the neuropathological consequences of hydrocephalus, there have been comparatively few studies of the cognitive impairments associated with it. Studies using standardised tests of cognitive function have identified a general pattern of impairments, with patients exhibiting particular difficulty on tests of spatial memory and executive function. A strong prediction is that these deficits are likely to affect daily wayfinding behaviour, and we report a study of spatial and navigational abilities in a group of patients with hydrocephalus but without spina bifida. Participants completed a range of experimental tasks assessing spatial cueing behaviour, landmark memory and route-learning, and idiothetic path integration. This patient group was compared to a control sample matched on verbal, spatial, and intelligence measures, and hydrocephalus was found to be associated with relative impairments in each of the tasks. Patients exhibited reduced sensitivity to spatial cueing, less accurate route-learning, poorer memory for landmark objects, and less accurate spatial updating (with particular impairments in the calculation of heading). Overall, these data represent the first empirical demonstration of navigational impairments in hydrocephalus, and we suggest some of the cognitive, neural, and individual differences factors that may contribute to the pattern of performance reported. PMID:22806680

  15. Systemic Wisdom, the "Selving" of Nature, and Knowledge Transformation: Education for the "Greater Whole"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Considerations arising in the context of burgeoning concerns about the environment can provoke an exploration of issues that have significance both for environmental education in particular and education more generally. Notions of the "greater whole" and "systemic wisdom" that feature in some strands of environmental discourse are a case in point.

  16. The Impact of Impairment Criteria on Rates of ADHD Diagnoses in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Dione M.; Miller, Carlin J.; Castelli, Katia L.; Marks, David J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of ADHD are common among preschool children, and as such, their clinical significance is oftentimes difficult to ascertain. Thus a focus on impairment is essential in determining the clinical significance of these behaviors. In order to explore the impact of impairment criteria on rates of diagnoses in

  17. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of

  18. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those

  19. Laparoscopic Greater Curve Plication as an Outpatient Weight Loss Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Ilvia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic greater curve plication is emerging as a weight loss procedure that avoids many of the complications of other surgeries that require gastrointestinal division, amputation, or use of a foreign body. Cost savings and affordability have also been promoted, as plication does not require the use of stapling devices, adjustable gastric bands, or prolonged hospitalization. The ability to predictably perform plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as a therapeutic option for treating morbid obesity. We present the 30-day outcomes and supplementary 12-month data in a series of 141 laparoscopic greater curve plication surgeries performed as outpatient procedures. Methods: Laparoscopic greater curve plication was performed as outpatient surgery in 141 consecutive patients. Outcomes including perioperative complications, incidental 12-month follow-up for weight loss, and change in diabetic and hypertensive medication are reported. Results: Of the 141 plications performed, 138 patients were discharged from the recovery room and 6 were readmitted. There was no conversion to open surgery and no mortality. Conclusions: The ability to reliably perform greater curve plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as an additional weight loss surgery technique. PMID:26508824

  20. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Anita N.; Moyo, Freeman

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26272573

  1. Isolated fractures of the greater tuberosity of the proximal humerus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose The diagnosis and treatment of isolated greater tuberosity fractures of the proximal humerus is not clear-cut. We retrospectively assessed the clinical and radiographic outcome of isolated greater tuberosity fractures. Patients and methods 30 patients (mean age 58 (2685) years, 19 women) with 30 closed isolated greater tuberosity fractures were reassessed after an average follow-up time of 3 years with DASH score and Constant score. Radiographic outcome was assessed on standard plain radiographs. Results 14 of 17 patients with undisplaced or slightly displaced fractures (? 5 mm) were treated nonoperatively and had good clinical outcome (mean DASH score of 13, mean Constant score of 71). 8 patients with moderately displaced fractures (610 mm) were either treated nonoperatively (n = 4) or operatively (n = 4), with good functional results (mean DASH score of 10, mean Constant score of 72). 5 patients with major displaced fractures (> 10 mm) were all operated with good clinical results (mean DASH score of 14, mean Constant score of 69). The most common discomfort at the follow-up was an impingement syndrome of the shoulder, which occurred in both nonoperatively treated patients (n = 3) and operatively treated patients (n = 4). Only 1 nonoperatively treated patient developed a non-union. By radiography, all other fractures healed. Interpretation We found that minor to moderately displaced greater tuberosity fractures may be treated successfully without surgery. PMID:21895502

  2. On Kchle varieties with Picard number greater than 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    We describe the geometry of Kchle varieties (that is, Fano fourfolds of index 1 contained in Grassmannians as zero loci of sections of equivariant vector bundles) with Picard number greater than 1. We also describe the structure of their derived categories.

  3. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is

  4. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  5. Governing Greater Boston: Meeting the Needs of the Region's People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euchner, Charles C., Ed.

    This paper asserts that if a single theme prevails in the story of Greater Boston's new immigration, it is diversity. No single group dominates in metro Boston. Diversity in country of origin is compounded by differences in ethnicity, socioeconomic background, legal status, and language. Issues of particular salience to immigrant communities

  6. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  7. Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

  8. Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional, national,

  9. WEST NILE VIRUS: PENDING CRISIS FOR GREATER SAGE-GROUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a ...

  10. Mediated and Moderated Effects of Neurocognitive Impairment on Outcomes of Treatment for Substance Dependence and Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Matthew J.; Tate, Susan R.; Granholm, Eric; Brown, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurocognitive impairment has not consistently predicted substance use treatment outcomes but has been linked to proximal mediators of outcome. These indirect effects have not been examined in adults with substance dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. We examined mediators and moderators of the effects of neurocognitive impairment on substance use among adults in treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression (MDD). Method Participants were veterans (N =197, mean age = 49.3 years, 90% male, 75% Caucasian) in a trial of two group interventions for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD. Measures examined here included intake neurocognitive assessments and percent days drinking (PDD), percent days using drugs (PDDRG), self-efficacy, 12-step affiliation, and depressive symptoms measured every 3 months from intake to the 18-month follow-up. Results Greater intake neurocognitive impairment predicted lower self-efficacy, lower 12-step affiliation, and greater depression severity, and these time-varying variables mediated the effects of impairment on future PDD and PDDRG. The prospective effects of 12-step affiliation on future PDD were greater for those with greater neurocognitive impairment. Impairment also interacted with depression to moderate the effects of 12-step affiliation and self-efficacy on PDD. Adults with greater impairment and currently severe depression had the strongest associations between 12-step affiliation/self-efficacy and future drinking. Conclusions Greater neurocognitive impairment may lead to poorer outcomes from group therapy for alcohol/drug dependence and MDD due to compromised change in therapeutic processes. Distal factors such as neurocognitive impairment can interact with dynamic risk factors to modulate the association between therapeutic processes and future drinking outcomes. PMID:24588403

  11. Relationship between linear and nonlinear dynamics of heart rate and impairment of lung function in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Mazzuco, Adriana; Medeiros, Wladimir Musetti; Sperling, Milena Pelosi Rizk; de Souza, Aline Soares; Alencar, Maria Clara Noman; Arbex, Flvio Ferlin; Neder, Jos Alberto; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Background In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), functional and structural impairment of lung function can negatively impact heart rate variability (HRV); however, it is unknown if static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity negatively impacts HRV responses. We investigated whether impairment of static lung volumes and lung diffusion capacity could be related to HRV indices in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods Sixteen sedentary males with COPD were enrolled in this study. Resting blood gases, static lung volumes, and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were measured. The RR interval (RRi) was registered in the supine, standing, and seated positions (10 minutes each) and during 4 minutes of a respiratory sinus arrhythmia maneuver (M-RSA). Delta changes (?supine-standing and ?supine-M-RSA) of the standard deviation of normal RRi, low frequency (LF, normalized units [nu]) and high frequency (HF [nu]), SD1, SD2, alpha1, alpha2, and approximate entropy (ApEn) indices were calculated. Results HF, LF, SD1, SD2, and alpha1 deltas significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second, DLCO, airway resistance, residual volume, inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity ratio, and residual volume/total lung capacity ratio. Significant and moderate associations were also observed between LF/HF ratio versus total gas volume (%), r=0.53; LF/HF ratio versus residual volume, %, r=0.52; and HF versus total gas volume (%), r=?0.53 (P<0.05). Linear regression analysis revealed that ?RRi supine-M-RSA was independently related to DLCO (r=?0.77, r2=0.43, P<0.05). Conclusion Responses of HRV indices were more prominent during M-RSA in moderate to severe COPD. Moreover, greater lung function impairment was related to poorer heart rate dynamics. Finally, impaired lung diffusion capacity was related to an altered parasympathetic response in these patients. PMID:26316739

  12. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) deficiency impairs NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) priming and defense against Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Schramm, Michael; Wiegmann, Katja; Schramm, Sandra; Gluschko, Alexander; Herb, Marc; Utermhlen, Olaf; Krnke, Martin

    2014-03-01

    Riboflavin, also known as vitamin B2 , is converted by riboflavin kinase (RFK) into flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), which are essential cofactors of dehydrogenases, reductases, and oxidases including the phagocytic NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2). Riboflavin deficiency is common in young adults and elderly individuals, who are at the coincidental risk for listeriosis. To address the impact of acute riboflavin deficiency on host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (L.m.), we generated conditional RFK knockout (KO) strains of mice. Phagocyte-specific RFK KO impaired the capability of phagocytes to control intracellular L.m., which corresponded to a greater susceptibility of mice to in vivo challenge with L.m. The oxidative burst of RFK-deficient phagocytes in response to L.m. infection was significantly reduced. Mechanistically, TNF-induced priming of Nox2, which is needed for oxidative burst, was defective in RFK-deficient phagocytes. Lack of riboflavin in wild-type macrophages for only 6 h shut down TNF-induced, RFK-mediated de novo FMN/FAD generation, which was accompanied by diminished ROS production and impaired anti-listerial activity. Vice versa, ROS production by riboflavin-deprived macrophages was rapidly restored by riboflavin supplementation. Our results suggest that acute riboflavin deficiency immediately impairs priming of Nox2, which is of crucial relevance for an effective phagocytic immune response in vivo. PMID:24272050

  13. Short-term urinary flow impairment deregulates PAX2 and PCNA expression and cell survival in fetal sheep kidneys.

    PubMed Central

    Attar, R.; Quinn, F.; Winyard, P. J.; Mouriquand, P. D.; Foxall, P.; Hanson, M. A.; Woolf, A. S.

    1998-01-01

    Renal malformations account for most children with chronic renal failure and are often associated with urinary tract anatomical obstruction. We examined cellular and molecular events after experimental urinary flow impairment in fetal sheep. Ovine gestation lasts 144 to 150 days with the metanephros appearing at 27 to 30 days. We generated complete unilateral ureteric anatomical obstruction at 90 days when a few layers of glomeruli had formed. After 10 days, we recorded ureteric and pelvic dilatation with renal parenchymal weight greater than contralateral organs or those from unoperated fetuses. The nephrogenic cortex was replaced by disorganized cells separated by edema and prominent vascular spaces. Cortical histology was dominated by cysts associated with malformed glomerular tufts. Cystic epithelia expressed PAX2, a growth-stimulating transcription factor down-regulated during normal maturation, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a surrogate marker of cycling cells. Detection of apoptosis using propidium iodide and in situ end labeling showed a significant increase of the point prevalence of death in the obstructed cortex. Hence, PAX2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression as well as death were deregulated, as we previously reported in human kidney malformations. Medullary collecting ducts and loops of Henle were also disrupted, correlating with impaired urinary dilution and sodium reabsorption. Therefore, complex aberrations of morphogenesis, gene expression, cell turnover, and urine composition occur relatively early after experimental impairment of fetal urinary flow. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:9588891

  14. Mild cognitive impairment with suspected nonamyloid pathology (SNAP)

    PubMed Central

    Caroli, Anna; Prestia, Annapaola; Galluzzi, Samantha; Ferrari, Clarissa; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Ossenkoppele, Rik; Van Berckel, Bart; Barkhof, Frederik; Teunissen, Charlotte; Wall, Anders E.; Carter, Stephen F.; Schöll, Michael; Choo, Il Han; Grimmer, Timo; Redolfi, Alberto; Nordberg, Agneta; Scheltens, Philip; Drzezga, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of progressive cognitive deterioration in patients with suspected non–Alzheimer disease pathology (SNAP) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: We measured markers of amyloid pathology (CSF β-amyloid 42) and neurodegeneration (hippocampal volume on MRI and cortical metabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose–PET) in 201 patients with MCI clinically followed for up to 6 years to detect progressive cognitive deterioration. We categorized patients with MCI as A+/A− and N+/N− based on presence/absence of amyloid pathology and neurodegeneration. SNAPs were A−N+ cases. Results: The proportion of progressors was 11% (8/41), 34% (14/41), 56% (19/34), and 71% (60/85) in A−N−, A+N−, SNAP, and A+N+, respectively; the proportion of APOE ε4 carriers was 29%, 70%, 31%, and 71%, respectively, with the SNAP group featuring a significantly different proportion than both A+N− and A+N+ groups (p ≤ 0.005). Hypometabolism in SNAP patients was comparable to A+N+ patients (p = 0.154), while hippocampal atrophy was more severe in SNAP patients (p = 0.002). Compared with A−N−, SNAP and A+N+ patients had significant risk of progressive cognitive deterioration (hazard ratio = 2.7 and 3.8, p = 0.016 and p < 0.001), while A+N− patients did not (hazard ratio = 1.13, p = 0.771). In A+N− and A+N+ groups, none of the biomarkers predicted time to progression. In the SNAP group, lower time to progression was correlated with greater hypometabolism (r = 0.42, p = 0.073). Conclusions: Our findings support the notion that patients with SNAP MCI feature a specific risk progression profile. PMID:25568301

  15. My Speech Problem, Your Listening Problem, and My Frustration: The Experience of Living with Childhood Speech Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Jane; McLeod, Sharynne; McAllister, Lindy; Harrison, Linda J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to understand the experience of speech impairment (speech sound disorders) in everyday life as described by children with speech impairment and their communication partners. Method: Interviews were undertaken with 13 preschool children with speech impairment (mild to severe) and 21 significant others

  16. Cognitively impaired elderly exhibit insulin resistance and no memory improvement with infused insulin.

    PubMed

    Morris, Jill K; Vidoni, Eric D; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Robert N; Johnson, David K; Thyfault, John P; Burns, Jeffrey M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance is a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), although its role in AD etiology is unclear. We assessed insulin resistance using fasting and insulin-stimulated measures in 51 elderly subjects with no dementia (ND; n = 37) and with cognitive impairment (CI; n = 14). CI subjects exhibited either mild CI or AD. Fasting insulin resistance was measured using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal was assessed using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to calculate glucose disposal rate into lean mass, the primary site of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Because insulin crosses the blood-brain barrier, we also assessed whether insulin infusion would improve verbal episodic memory compared to baseline. Different but equivalent versions of cognitive tests were administered in counterbalanced order in the basal and insulin-stimulated state. Groups did not differ in age or body mass index. Cognitively impaired subjects exhibited greater insulin resistance as measured at fasting (HOMA-IR; ND: 1.09 [1.1] vs. CI: 2.01 [2.3], p = 0.028) and during the hyperinsulinemic clamp (glucose disposal rate into lean mass; ND: 9.9 (4.5) vs. AD 7.2 (3.2), p = 0.040). Cognitively impaired subjects also exhibited higher fasting insulin compared to ND subjects, (CI: 8.7 [7.8] vs. ND: 4.2 [3.8] μU/mL; p = 0.023) and higher fasting amylin (CI: 24.1 [39.1] vs. 8.37 [14.2]; p = 0.050) with no difference in fasting glucose. Insulin infusion elicited a detrimental effect on one test of verbal episodic memory (Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test) in both groups (p < 0.0001) and no change in performance on an additional task (delayed logical memory). In this study, although insulin resistance was observed in cognitively impaired subjects compared to ND controls, insulin infusion did not improve memory. Furthermore, a significant correlation between HOMA-IR and glucose disposal rate was present only in ND (p = 0.0002) but not in cognitively impaired (p = 0.884) subjects, indicating potentially important physiological differences between these cohorts. PMID:26923398

  17. Specific sleepiness symptoms are indicators of performance impairment during sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Mark E; Jackson, Melinda L; Berlowitz, David; O'Donoghue, Fergal; Swann, Philip; Westlake, Justine; Wilkinson, Vanessa; Pierce, Rob J

    2014-01-01

    Drivers are not always aware that they are becoming impaired as a result of sleepiness. Using specific symptoms of sleepiness might assist with recognition of drowsiness related impairment and help drivers judge whether they are safe to drive a vehicle, however this has not been evaluated. In this study, 20 healthy volunteer professional drivers completed two randomized sessions in the laboratory - one under 24h of acute sleep deprivation, and one with alcohol. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) and a 30min simulated driving task (AusEdTM) were performed every 3-4h in the sleep deprivation session, and at a BAC of 0.00% and 0.05% in the alcohol session, while electroencephalography (EEG) and eye movements were recorded. After each test session, drivers completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the Sleepiness Symptoms Questionnaire (SSQ), which includes eight specific sleepiness and driving performance symptoms. A second baseline session was completed on a separate day by the professional drivers and in an additional 20 non-professional drivers for test-retest reliability. There was moderate test-retest agreement on the SSQ (r=0.59). Significant correlations were identified between individual sleepiness symptoms and the KSS score (r values 0.50-0.74, p<0.01 for all symptoms). The frequency of all SSQ items increased during sleep deprivation (?(2) values of 28.4-80.2, p<0.01 for all symptoms) and symptoms were related to increased subjective sleepiness and performance deterioration. The symptoms "struggling to keep your eyes open", "difficulty maintaining correct speed", "reactions were slow" and "head dropping down" were most closely related to increased alpha and theta activity on EEG (r values 0.49-0.59, p<0.001) and "nodding off to sleep" and "struggling to keep your eyes open" were related to slow eye movements (r values 0.67 and 0.64, p<0.001). Symptoms related to visual disturbance and impaired driving performance were most accurate at detecting severely impaired driving performance (AUC on ROC curve of 0.86-0.91 for detecting change in lateral lane position greater than the change at a BAC of 0.05%). Individual sleepiness symptoms are related to impairment during acute sleep deprivation and might be able to assist drivers in recognizing their own sleepiness and ability to drive safely. PMID:24125802

  18. Necrotizing Fasciitis Following Endoscopic Harvesting of the Greater Saphenous Vein for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft

    PubMed Central

    Liliav, Benjamin; Kasabian, Armen

    2011-01-01

    The greater saphenous vein (GSV) remains the most commonly harvested conduit for revascularization in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Published literature shows that minimally invasive vein harvesting techniques have a significantly lower incidence of wound infection rates than conventional open vein harvesting techniques have. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis, an infection with a mortality rate of 30% to 50%, after endoscopic harvesting of the greater saphenous vein to be used as a conduit in a CABG procedure. Though minimally invasive vein harvesting techniques have advantages of smaller incisions and a decreased overall rate of wound infection, clinicians should be aware of this potentially lethal infection that may occur. PMID:21902951

  19. Greater than the Sum of Its Parts: A Heterodinuclear Polymerization Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Garden, Jennifer A; Saini, Prabhjot K; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-12-01

    Homodinuclear catalysts have good precedent for epoxide and carbon dioxide/anhydride copolymerizations; in contrast, so far pure heterodinuclear catalysts are unknown. The synthesis and properties of a heterodinuclear Zn(II)/Mg(II) complex coordinated by a symmetrical macrocyclic ligand are reported. It shows high polymerization selectivity, control, and significantly greater activity compared to either of the homodinuclear analogues or any combinations of them. Indeed, compared to a 50:50 mixture of the homodinuclear complexes, it shows 5 times (CO2/epoxide) or 40 times (anhydride/epoxide) greater activity. PMID:26618526

  20. Type 2 Diabetes Restricts Multipotency of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Impairs Their Capacity to Augment Postischemic Neovascularization in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jinglian; Tie, Guodong; Wang, Shouying; Messina, Katharine E.; DiDato, Sebastian; Guo, Sujuan; Messina, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study tested the hypothesis that type 2 diabetes restricts multipotency of db/db mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), promotes their terminal differentiation into adipocytes rather than endothelial cells, thereby promotes adipocytic infiltration into ischemic muscles, and reduces their capacity to participate in postischemic neovascularization. Methods and Results To test this hypothesis, we transplanted MSCs from db/db or wild-type (WT) mice into WT recipients after induction of hind limb ischemia. WT recipients of db/db MSCs demonstrated adipocyte infiltration of ischemic muscle and impaired neovascularization; WT recipients of WT MSCs showed no intramuscular adipocyte infiltration and had significantly enhanced neovascularization (P<0.05; n=6). Confocal microscopy showed that the percentage of MSCs that differentiated into an adipocyte phenotype was greater and into an endothelial cell was less in WT recipients transplanted with db/db MSCs than those transplanted with WT MSCs (P<0.05; n=6). In vitro, db/db MSCs exhibited greater oxidant stress, greater adipocyte differentiation, and less endothelial differentiation than WT MSCs, and these differences were reversed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine or Nox4 siRNA (P<0.05; n=6). Insulin increased Nox4 expression, oxidant stress, and adipocyte differentiation in WT MSCs, and these insulin-induced effects were reversed by Nox4 siRNA (P<0.05; n=6). Reversal of db/db MSC oxidant stress by in vivo pretreatment with Nox4 siRNA before transplantation reversed their impaired capacity to augment postischemic neovascularization. Conclusions Type 2 diabetes–induced oxidant stress restricts the multipotency of MSCs and impairs their capacity to increase blood flow recovery after the induction of hind-limb ischemia. Reversal of MSC oxidant stress might permit greater leverage of the therapeutic potential of MSC transplantation in the setting of diabetes. PMID:23316315

  1. A Fresh Look at Greater Confinement Boreholes for Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkay, D.W.; Joyce, J.L.; Cochran, J.R.

    2007-07-01

    The United States Federal government has responsibility for disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) with concentrations of radionuclides that exceed limits established by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for Class C LLW. Since Greater-Than-Class-C (GTCC) LLW is from activities licensed by NRC or NRC Agreement States, a disposal facility by law must be licensed by NRC. The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) has the responsibility to site, design, construct, operate, decommission, and provide long-term care for GTCC LLW disposal facilities. On May 11, 2005, DOE issued an advance notice of intent to begin preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for GTCC LLW disposal. Since the initiation of the EIS, analysis has focused on compiling the inventory of commercial GTCC LLW and DOE GTCC-like wastes, reviewing disposal technologies, and other preliminary studies. One of the promising disposal technologies being considered is intermediate depth greater confinement boreholes. Greater confinement boreholes have been used effectively to safely dispose of long-lived radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The DOE took a fresh look at global experiences with the use of greater confinement borehole disposal, including current considerations being given for future applications in the U.S., and concluded that the U.S. is positioned to benefit from international collaboration on borehole disposal technology, and could ultimately become a pilot project, if the technology is selected. (authors)

  2. Driving Simulator Performance Remains Impaired In Patients With Severe OSA after CPAP Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vakulin, Andrew; Baulk, Stuart D.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Antic, Nick A.; van den Heuvel, Cameron J.; Dorrian, Jillian; McEvoy, R. Doug

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of CPAP treatment in improving 90-minute driving simulator performance in severe OSA patients compared to age/gender matched controls. Design: Driving simulator performance was assessed at baseline and 3 months later, with OSA patients treated with CPAP during the interval. Setting: University Teaching Hospital. Participants: Patients with severe OSA (n = 11) and control subjects without OSA (n = 9). Interventions: CPAP Measurements and Results: Simulator driving parameters of steering deviation, braking reaction time and crashes were measured at baseline and ∼3 months follow-up. At baseline, OSA subjects demonstrated significantly greater steering deviation compared to controls (mean [95% CI], OSA group, 49.9 cm [43.7 to 56.0 cm] vs control group, 34.9 cm [28.1 to 41.7 cm], p = 0.003). Following ∼3 months of CPAP treatment (mean ± SD 6.0 ± 1.4 h/night), steering deviation in OSA subjects improved by an average of 3.1 cm (CI, 1.4 to 4.9), p < 0.001, while no significant steering changes were observed in the control group. Despite the improvement, steering deviation in the OSA group remained significantly higher than in controls (OSA group, 46.7 cm [CI, 40.6 to 52.8 cm] vs control group, 36.1 cm [CI, 29.3 to 42.9 cm], p = 0.025). Conclusions: While driving simulator performance improved after ∼3 months of CPAP treatment with high adherence in patients with severe OSA, performance remained impaired compared to control subjects. These results add to the growing body of evidence that some neurobehavioral deficits in patients with severe OSA are not fully reversed by treatment. Further studies are needed to assess causes of residual driving simulator impairment and to determine whether this is associated with persistent elevated real-life accident risk. Trial Registration: Data presented in this manuscript was collected as part of a clinical trial “Experimental Investigations of Driving Impairment in Obstructive Sleep Apnoea” ACTRN12610000009011, http://www.anzctr.org.au/trial_view.aspx?ID=334979 Citation: Vakulin A; Baulk SD; Catcheside PG; Antic NA; van den Heuvel CJ; Dorrian J; McEvoy RD. Driving simulator performance remains impaired in patients with severe OSA after CPAP treatment. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(3):246-253. PMID:21677893

  3. Inflammatory remodeling of the HDL proteome impairs cholesterol efflux capacity.

    PubMed

    Vaisar, Tom; Tang, Chongren; Babenko, Ilona; Hutchins, Patrick; Wimberger, Jake; Suffredini, Anthony F; Heinecke, Jay W

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that HDL's ability to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages associates strongly with cardioprotection in humans independently of HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and apoA-I, HDL's major protein. However, the mechanisms that impair cholesterol efflux capacity during vascular disease are unclear. Inflammation, a well-established risk factor for cardiovascular disease, has been shown to impair HDL's cholesterol efflux capacity. We therefore tested the hypothesis that HDL's impaired efflux capacity is mediated by specific changes of its protein cargo. Humans with acute inflammation induced by low-level endotoxin had unchanged HDL-C levels, but their HDL-C efflux capacity was significantly impaired. Proteomic analyses demonstrated that HDL's cholesterol efflux capacity correlated inversely with HDL content of serum amyloid A (SAA)1 and SAA2. In mice, acute inflammation caused a marked impairment of HDL-C efflux capacity that correlated with a large increase in HDL SAA. In striking contrast, the efflux capacity of mouse inflammatory HDL was preserved with genetic ablation of SAA1 and SAA2. Our observations indicate that the inflammatory impairment of HDL-C efflux capacity is due in part to SAA-mediated remodeling of HDL's protein cargo. PMID:25995210

  4. Galectin-9 Functionally Impairs Natural Killer Cells in Humans and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Golden-Mason, Lucy; McMahan, Rachel H.; Strong, Michael; Reisdorph, Richard; Mahaffey, Spencer; Palmer, Brent E.; Cheng, Linling; Kulesza, Caroline; Hirashima, Mitsuomi; Niki, Toshiro

    2013-01-01

    Galectin-9 is a pleiotropic immune modulator affecting numerous cell types of innate and adaptive immunity. Patients with chronic infection with either hepatitis C virus (HCV) or HIV have elevated circulating levels. Limited data exist on the regulation of natural killer (NK) cell function through interaction with galectin-9. We found that galectin-9 ligation downregulates multiple immune-activating genes, including eight involved in the NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity pathway, impairs lymphokine-activated killing, and decreases the proportion of gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing NK cells that had been stimulated with interleukin-12 (IL-12)/IL-15. We demonstrate that the transcriptional and functional changes induced by galectin-9 are independent of Tim-3. Consistent with these results for humans, we find that the genetic absence of galectin-9 in mice is associated with greater IFN-γ production by NK cells and enhanced degranulation. We also show that in the setting of a short-term (4-day) murine cytomegalovirus infection, terminally differentiated NKs accumulate in the livers of galectin-9 knockout mice, and that hepatic NKs spontaneously produce significantly more IFN-γ in this setting. Taken together, our results indicate that galectin-9 engagement impairs the function of NK cells, including cytotoxicity and cytokine production. PMID:23408620

  5. Impaired sensorimotor gating in unmedicated adults with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Ahmari, Susanne E; Risbrough, Victoria B; Geyer, Mark A; Simpson, H Blair

    2012-04-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms arise from dysfunction in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. It has therefore been hypothesized that neurophysiological tasks subserved by these circuits should be abnormal in OCD patients. One neurocognitive probe associated with this circuitry is prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. PPI deficits are thought to reflect abnormalities in processing and integration of sensory and motor information. Two prior studies found that OCD patients had PPI deficits at single prepulse (PP) intensities. However, most patients in these studies were taking psychotropic medications at the time of PPI testing, and preclinical studies have demonstrated effects of psychotropic medications on PPI. We examined PPI in 22 unmedicated OCD patients and 22 matched healthy controls at three different PP intensities (74, 78, and 86 dB). OCD patients had significantly less PPI across all three PP intensities compared with controls. Exploratory analyses indicated that OCD patients with a history of tics had lower levels of PPI. Our results demonstrate that unmedicated OCD patients have impaired sensorimotor gating as measured by PPI. This indicates that PPI deficits are present in OCD patients and are not the result of medication effects. Our findings also suggest that OCD patients with a history of tics may have greater impairment in sensorimotor gating than the general OCD population. Future studies should be designed to examine whether PPI deficits characterize tic-related OCD. PMID:22218093

  6. Reduction of hippocampal hyperactivity improves cognition in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold; Krauss, Gregory L; Albert, Marilyn S; Speck, Caroline L; Jones, Lauren R; Stark, Craig E; Yassa, Michael A; Bassett, Susan S; Shelton, Amy L; Gallagher, Michela

    2012-05-10

    Elevated hippocampal activation is observed in conditions that confer risk for Alzheimer's disease, including amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Studies in relevant animal models have indicated that overactivity in selective hippocampal circuits contributes to cognitive impairment. Here, we tested the effect of reducing hippocampal activation in aMCI. Under placebo treatment, hippocampal activation in the dentate gyrus/CA3 was elevated in aMCI patients compared to a healthy control group. By using a low dose of the antiepileptic levetiracetam hippocampal activation in aMCI was reduced to a level that did not differ from the control group. Compared to aMCI memory performance under placebo, performance in the scanning task was significantly improved under drug treatment. Contrary to the view that greater hippocampal activation might serve a beneficial function, these results support the view that increased hippocampal activation in aMCI is a dysfunctional condition and that targeting excess hippocampal activity has therapeutic potential. PMID:22578498

  7. Functional neuroanatomical correlates of episodic memory impairment in early phase psychosis.

    PubMed

    Francis, Michael Matthew; Hummer, Tom A; Vohs, Jenifer L; Yung, Matthew G; Liffick, Emily; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F; Radnovich, Alexander J; McDonald, Brenna C; Saykin, Andrew J; Breier, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Studies have demonstrated that episodic memory (EM) is often preferentially disrupted in schizophrenia. The neural substrates that mediate EM impairment in this illness are not fully understood. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have employed EM probe tasks to elucidate the neural underpinnings of impairment, though results have been inconsistent. The majority of EM imaging studies have been conducted in chronic forms of schizophrenia with relatively few studies in early phase patients. Early phase schizophrenia studies are important because they may provide information regarding when EM deficits occur and address potential confounds more frequently observed in chronic populations. In this study, we assessed brain activation during the performance of visual scene encoding and recognition fMRI tasks in patients with earlyphase psychosis (n = 35) and age, sex, and race matched healthy control subjects (n = 20). Patients demonstrated significantly lower activation than controls in the right hippocampus and left fusiform gyrus during scene encoding and lower activation in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and left middle temporal cortex during recognition of target scenes. Symptom levels were not related to the imaging findings, though better cognitive performance in patients was associated with greater right hippocampal activation during encoding. These results provide evidence of altered function in neuroanatomical circuitry subserving EM early in the course of psychotic illness, which may have implications for pathophysiological models of this illness. PMID:25749917

  8. Exploring the recollective experience during autobiographical memory retrieval in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Irish, Muireann; Lawlor, Brian A; O'Mara, Shane M; Coen, Robert F

    2010-05-01

    Autonoetic consciousness refers to the ability to mentally transport oneself back in subjective time to relive elements of, or all, of a past event, and is compromised in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we investigate autobiographical memory (ABM) and the recollective experience in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). aMCI participants exhibited significant deficits compared with healthy elderly controls for both personal semantic and event detail components of ABM. These decrements were evident across all life epochs for episodic recall. Recall of an event that occurred 1 week previously, was tested in the same spatiotemporal context, and provided the greatest group dissociation, with elderly controls benefitting from a context-dependent memory effect. This reinstantiation of context did not ameliorate the anterograde deficits in the aMCI cohort, nor did it facilitate the mental reliving of these memories for either participant group. Whereas reliving judgments were comparable in both groups, aMCI participants exhibited a compromised capacity to generate vivid, self-referential visual imagery and to re-experience the original emotion of events. These contextual and experiential deficits extended beyond recently encountered events into remote epochs, and suggest a greater level of ABM impairment in aMCI than previously assumed. PMID:20298640

  9. Impaired Sensorimotor Gating in Unmedicated Adults with ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ahmari, Susanne E; Risbrough, Victoria B; Geyer, Mark A; Simpson, H Blair

    2012-01-01

    Functional and structural imaging studies suggest that obsessivecompulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms arise from dysfunction in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. It has therefore been hypothesized that neurophysiological tasks subserved by these circuits should be abnormal in OCD patients. One neurocognitive probe associated with this circuitry is prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response. PPI deficits are thought to reflect abnormalities in processing and integration of sensory and motor information. Two prior studies found that OCD patients had PPI deficits at single prepulse (PP) intensities. However, most patients in these studies were taking psychotropic medications at the time of PPI testing, and preclinical studies have demonstrated effects of psychotropic medications on PPI. We examined PPI in 22 unmedicated OCD patients and 22 matched healthy controls at three different PP intensities (74, 78, and 86?dB). OCD patients had significantly less PPI across all three PP intensities compared with controls. Exploratory analyses indicated that OCD patients with a history of tics had lower levels of PPI. Our results demonstrate that unmedicated OCD patients have impaired sensorimotor gating as measured by PPI. This indicates that PPI deficits are present in OCD patients and are not the result of medication effects. Our findings also suggest that OCD patients with a history of tics may have greater impairment in sensorimotor gating than the general OCD population. Future studies should be designed to examine whether PPI deficits characterize tic-related OCD. PMID:22218093

  10. Visual Impairment and Eye Care among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Haymes, Sharon A.; Leston, Jessica D.; Ferucci, Elizabeth D.; Schumacher, Mary Catherine; Etzel, Ruth A.; Lanier, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence of visual impairment, eye disease and eye care in the Alaska Native (AN) population, by demographic and socioeconomic factors. Methods Population-based cross-sectional study of 3,793 Alaska Native (AN) adults aged 18-94 years enrolled in the Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study from March 2004-March 2006. Data on self-reported visual impairment, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic eye disease and previous dilated eye examinations were collected using audio computer-assisted self-administered questionnaires. Results The unadjusted prevalence of self-reported visual impairment was 8.7% (95% CI: 7.9-9.7), cataract 5.9% (95% CI: 5.2-6.7), glaucoma 2.5% (95% CI: 2.0-3.0) and diabetic eye disease 1.3% (95% CI: 0.9-1.7). In all cases, age-sex adjusted prevalence estimates for the AN population were greater than available estimates for the general U.S. population. Prevalence of visual impairment and each eye disease increased with age (P < 0.01). Additional factors associated with visual impairment were education and annual household income. Overall, 70.0% (95% CI: 68.5-71.6) of participants reported a dilated eye examination within the previous two years. Dilated eye examination within the previous two years was associated with increasing age (P < 0.001). However, men and participants with lower formal education were less likely to report recent dilated eye examination. Among those with diabetes, only 67.7% (95% CI: 60.8-74.1) reported a dilated eye examination within the recommended previous one year. Conclusions Self-reported visual impairment, cataract, glaucoma and diabetic eye disease are prevalent in the AN population. These data may be useful in healthcare planning and education programs. PMID:19437311

  11. Composite Materials with Viscoelastic Stiffness Greater Than Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglinski, T.; Kochmann, D.; Stone, D.; Lakes, R. S.

    2007-02-01

    We show that composite materials can exhibit a viscoelastic modulus (Young's modulus) that is far greater than that of either constituent. The modulus, but not the strength, of the composite was observed to be substantially greater than that of diamond. These composites contain barium-titanate inclusions, which undergo a volume-change phase transformation if they are not constrained. In the composite, the inclusions are partially constrained by the surrounding metal matrix. The constraint stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus arises from stored elastic energy in the inclusions, in contrast to periodic composite metamaterials that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive-stiffness constituents have aggregate properties bounded by a weighted average of constituent properties; their modulus cannot exceed that of the stiffest constituent.

  12. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  13. Advances in the treatment of cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a frequent complication, with significant interindividual variability in clinical symptoms, severity, timing, and neural substrates. Recent studies have focused not only on understanding PD dementia, but also mild cognitive impairment in PD, which may represent a prodromal stage for dementia. In recent years, there have been important advances regarding clinical characterizations, definitions, associated biomarkers, and risk factors for both mild cognitive impairment in PD and PD dementia. However, there is a paucity of effective therapies for cognitive impairment in PD, whether for mild symptoms or for moderate to severe dementia. At present, only rivastigmine is U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved for PD dementia, an indication received nearly a decade ago. Given the frequency of PD cognitive impairment and its substantial impact on both patients and families, the lack of available and effective treatments represents a striking gap in the field, especially when compared to the large number of available therapies for PD motor symptoms and complications. Improved symptomatic therapies, as well as potential disease-modifying agents, for PD cognitive impairment are needed. Most therapeutic trials for PD dementia and mild cognitive impairment in PD have focused on drugs developed for and tested in Alzheimer's disease, such as cholinesterase inhibitors and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, memantine, though recent and ongoing trials examine the effects of pharmacological agents affecting other neurotransmitters, as well as nonpharmacological therapies, including mental and physical exercise and neurostimulation. This review summarizes the design and outcomes of trials for PD cognitive impairment published since 2013 and highlights future therapeutic research opportunities and challenges. PMID:26297863

  14. Behavioral and Neurophysiological Signatures of Benzodiazepine-Related Driving Impairments.

    PubMed

    Stone, Bradly T; Correa, Kelly A; Brown, Timothy L; Spurgin, Andrew L; Stikic, Maja; Johnson, Robin R; Berka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Impaired driving due to drug use is a growing problem worldwide; estimates show that 18-23.5% of fatal accidents, and up to 34% of injury accidents may be caused by drivers under the influence of drugs (Drummer et al., 2003; Walsh et al., 2004; NHTSA, 2010). Furthermore, at any given time, up to 16% of drivers may be using drugs that can impair one's driving abilities (NHTSA, 2009). Currently, drug recognition experts (DREs; law enforcement officers with specialized training to identify drugged driving), have the most difficult time with identifying drivers potentially impaired on central nervous system (CNS) depressants (Smith et al., 2002). The fact that the use of benzodiazepines, a type of CNS depressant, is also associated with the greatest likelihood of causing accidents (Dassanayake et al., 2011), further emphasizes the need to improve research tools in this area which can facilitate the refinement of, or additions to, current assessments of impaired driving. Our laboratories collaborated to evaluate both the behavioral and neurophysiological effects of a benzodiazepine, alprazolam, in a driving simulation (miniSim(TM)). This drive was combined with a neurocognitive assessment utilizing time synched neurophysiology (electroencephalography, ECG). While the behavioral effects of benzodiazepines are well characterized (Rapoport et al., 2009), we hypothesized that, with the addition of real-time neurophysiology and the utilization of simulation and neurocognitive assessment, we could find objective assessments of drug impairment that could improve the detection capabilities of DREs. Our analyses revealed that (1) specific driving conditions were significantly more difficult for benzodiazepine impaired drivers and (2) the neurocognitive tasks' metrics were able to classify "impaired" vs. "unimpaired" with up to 80% accuracy based on lane position deviation and lane departures. While this work requires replication in larger studies, our results not only identified criteria that could potentially improve the identification of benzodiazepine intoxication by DREs, but also demonstrated the promise for future studies using this approach to improve upon current, real-world assessments of impaired driving. PMID:26635697

  15. Posttraumatic pseudocyst of the greater omentum: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ratan, S K; Roychoudhary, S; Bhardwaj, M

    2001-01-01

    Posttraumatic intra-abdominal cysts generally develop in relation to solid abdominal organs and most originate as a result of the organization of fluid or blood collection after trauma. They lack true endothelial lining and are hence called "pseudocysts." We report herein the rare case of a traumatic pseudocyst of the greater omentum in a 6-year-old child who was successfully treated by laparotomy and excision of the cyst. PMID:11510611

  16. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  17. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  18. Impaired competence for pretense in children with autism: exploring potential cognitive predictors.

    PubMed

    Bigham, Sally

    2010-01-01

    Lack of pretense in children with autism has been explained by a number of theoretical explanations, including impaired mentalising, impaired response inhibition, and weak central coherence. This study aimed to empirically test each of these theories. Children with autism (n = 60) were significantly impaired relative to controls (n = 65) when interpreting pretense, thereby supporting a competence deficit hypothesis. They also showed impaired mentalising and response inhibition, but superior local processing indicating weak central coherence. Regression analyses revealed that mentalising significantly and independently predicted pretense. The results are interpreted as supporting the impaired mentalising theory and evidence against competing theories invoking impaired response inhibition or a local processing bias. The results of this study have important implications for treatment and intervention. PMID:19633941

  19. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  20. Blood supply of the greater trochanter after trochanterotomy.

    PubMed

    Najima, H; Gagey, O; Cottias, P; Huten, D

    1998-04-01

    The human vascular anatomy to the greater trochanter after a trochanterotomy (digastric, standard) was examined using injection techniques. Three major sources of blood supply to the greater trochanter were found: the proximal soft tissues, including the gluteus medius and minimus vascularized mainly from the internal iliac artery system; the distal soft tissues, including the vastus lateralis, vascularized from the descending branches of the lateral circumflex femoral artery; and a third possible source of blood circulation came from the transverse branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. Many vascular structures from the lateral circumflex femoral artery were concentrated in the anterior half of the vastus lateralis muscle. Perfusion with a latex oxide mixture and angiography after trochanterotomy proves that by using a digastric trochanterotomy, the transverse and descending branches of the lateral circumflex femoral artery to the greater trochanter thus can be preserved. With a standard trochanterotomy, the supply from the transverse and descending branches of the lateral circumflex artery are lost. These results therefore suggest that a digastric trochanterotomy is superior to a standard trochanterotomy because the blood supply of the trochanter is preserved. PMID:9584388

  1. Counterconditioned fear responses exhibit greater renewal than extinguished fear responses.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Nathan M; Leung, Hiu T; Westbrook, R Frederick

    2016-04-01

    This series of experiments used rats to compare counterconditioning and extinction of conditioned fear responses (freezing) with respect to the effects of a context shift. In each experiment, a stimulus was paired with shock in context A, extinguished or counterconditioned through pairings with sucrose in context B, and then tested for renewal outside of context B. Counterconditioned fear responses exhibited greater ABA renewal than extinguished fear responses. This result was observed using a between-subjects design (Experiment 1) and a within-subject design in which counterconditioned and extinguished stimuli were equated in all respects other than their signaling of sucrose (Experiment 2). Counterconditioned fear responses also exhibited greater ABC renewal than extinguished fear responses (Experiment 3). This result was observed using a within-subject design in which context C was identical to context B in terms of its associative history, and when counterconditioned and extinguished CSs were tested in compounds matched for their association with both shock and sucrose (Experiment 4). These results are consistent with models which hold that context regulates expression of associations formed in counterconditioning and extinction, and allow the level of regulation to be greater following counterconditioning than extinction, as noted in previous studies. PMID:26980781

  2. Morphometry of the Greater Palatal Canal in Adult Skulls.

    PubMed

    Soto, Reinaldo A; Cáceres, Felipe; Vera, Cristóbal

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in dry skulls the length and angle between the greater palatine foramen and the foramen rotundum in both the frontal and sagittal planes. In 50 human skulls from the department of morphology, the distance and angulation required to reach the foramen rotundum through the greater palatine canal were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes. A stylet was introduced up to the foramen rotundum in each greater palatine canal and fixed. The skulls were then photographed from a front and lateral view (both right and left). Finally, the stylets were photographed on graph paper. These images were analyzed with Photoshop software. In the frontal plane, mean angulations of 5.32 degrees on the right side and 6.15 degrees on the left side were obtained. In the sagittal plane, mean angulations of 61.66 degrees on the right side and 61.81 degrees on the left side were obtained. Finally, the mean length required to reach the foramen rotundum was 31.95  mm on the right side and 32.49  mm on the left side. Some of these results differ from those stated in the foreign literature (10 degrees front, 70 degrees sagittal). These differences should be considered for both clinical practice and teaching in Chile. PMID:26079119

  3. Can genetically based clines in plant defence explain greaterherbivory at higher latitudes?

    PubMed

    Anstett, Daniel N; Ahern, Jeffrey R; Glinos, Julia; Nawar, Nabanita; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-12-01

    Greater plant defence is predicted to evolve at lower latitudes in response to increased herbivore pressure. However, recent studies question the generality of this pattern. In this study, we tested for genetically based latitudinal clines in resistance to herbivores and underlying defence traits of Oenothera biennis. We grew plants from 137 populations from across the entire native range of O. biennis. Populations from lower latitudes showed greater resistance to multiple specialist and generalist herbivores. These patterns were associated with an increase in total phenolics at lower latitudes. A significant proportion of the phenolics were driven by the concentrations of two major ellagitannins, which exhibited opposing latitudinal clines. Our analyses suggest that these findings are unlikely to be explained by local adaptation of herbivore populations or genetic variation in phenology. Rather greater herbivory at high latitudes can be explained by latitudinal clines in the evolution of plant defences. PMID:26482702

  4. Language Impairment in Autistic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Ann Virginia

    Discussed is the language impairment of children with infantile autism. The speech patterns of autistic children, including echolalia, pronomial reversal, silent language, and voice imitation, are described. The clinical picture of the autistic child is compared to that of children with such other disorders as deafness, retardation, and

  5. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,

  6. Clinical Correlates of Co-occurring Psychiatric and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Symptom-Induced Impairment in Children with ASD.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Perlman, Greg; Ramdhany, Lianne; de Ruiter, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric symptom severity and impairment are overlapping but nevertheless distinct illness parameters, little research has examined whether variables found to be associated with the severity are also correlated with symptom-induced impairment. Parents and teachers completed ratings of symptom-induced impairment for DSM-IV-referenced syndromes, and parents completed a background questionnaire for a consecutively referred sample of primarily male (81%) 6-to-12year olds with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (N?=?221). Some clinical correlates (e.g., IQ?impairment for several disorders, whereas others were correlated with only a few syndromes (e.g., gender, co-morbid medical conditions) or were not related to impairment in any disorder (e.g., family psychopathology). There was little convergence in findings for parents' versus teachers' ratings. Some clinical correlates (e.g., season of birth, current psychotropic medication, maternal education) were unique predictors of three or more disorders. Pregnancy complications were uniquely associated with social anxiety and schizoid personality symptom-induced impairment. IQ was a unique predictor of schizophrenia, ASD, oppositional defiant disorder symptom-induced impairment. Children whose mothers had relatively fewer years of education had greater odds for symptom-induced impairment in social anxiety, depression, aggression, and mania and greater number of impairing conditions. Season of birth was the most robust correlate of symptom-induced impairment as rated by teachers but not by parents. Children born in fall evidenced higher rates of co-occurring psychiatric and ASD symptom-induced impairment and total number of impairing conditions. Many variables previously linked with symptom severity are also correlated with impairment. PMID:25640910

  7. Peripheral Insulin Resistance and Impaired Insulin Signaling Contribute to Abnormal Glucose Metabolism in Preterm Baboons

    PubMed Central

    McGill-Vargas, Lisa L.; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Seidner, Steven R.; McCurnin, Donald C.; Leland, Michelle M.; Anzueto, Diana G.; Johnson, Marney C.; Liang, Hanyu; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Musi, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Premature infants develop hyperglycemia shortly after birth, increasing their morbidity and death. Surviving infants have increased incidence of diabetes as young adults. Our understanding of the biological basis for the insulin resistance of prematurity and developmental regulation of glucose production remains fragmentary. The objective of this study was to examine maturational differences in insulin sensitivity and the insulin-signaling pathway in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of 30 neonatal baboons using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Preterm baboons (67% gestation) had reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity shortly after birth (M value 12.5 1.5 vs 21.8 4.4 mg/kg min in term baboons) and at 2 weeks of age (M value 12.8 2.6 vs 16.3 4.2, respectively). Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation, but these responses were significantly lower in preterm baboons during the first week of life (3.2-fold vs 9.8-fold). Preterm baboons had lower glucose transporter-1 protein content throughout the first 2 weeks of life (8%-12% of term). In preterm baboons, serum free fatty acids (FFAs) did not decrease in response to insulin, whereas FFAs decreased by greater than 80% in term baboons; the impaired suppression of FFAs in the preterm animals was paired with a decreased glucose transporter-4 protein content in adipose tissue. In conclusion, peripheral insulin resistance and impaired non-insulin-dependent glucose uptake play an important role in hyperglycemia of prematurity. Impaired insulin signaling (reduced Akt) contributes to the defect in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Counterregulatory hormones are not major contributors. PMID:25560831

  8. Subducted, detached, and torn slabs during early orogeny: evidence from deep earthquakes under the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumladze, T.; Forte, A. M.; Cowgill, E.; Trexler, C.; Niemi, N. A.; Kellogg, L. H.; Yikilmaz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Arabia-Eurasian collision is the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate the role that pre-suturing tectonism plays in defining the deformational response of the upper plate to continental collision and suturing. The Greater Caucasus Mountains, which define the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone between the Black and Caspian seas, result from late Cenozoic closure of the Greater Caucasus basin, a Mesozoic back-arc basin that opened during northward subduction of Neotethys beneath the Lesser Caucasus island arc. However, both the extent to which the basin closed by subduction and its original width remain controversial. Many previous estimates suggest that the basin was very narrow and that no subduction occurred during the formation of the Greater Caucasus. However, newly compiled earthquake locations show that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab. We assembled the new catalog of earthquake locations by combining earthquake records from local networks in Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan with previously published data. Our dataset includes records from 3820 events with magnitudes M>2. Visualization of the final catalogue in an immersive visualization environment at the UC Davis Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES) provides a clear image of a northeast-dipping zone of seismicity beneath the Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as the remnant of a subducted slab. Beneath the central Greater Caucasus (45E), the zone of seismicity extends to a depth of at least 158 km and dips to the northeast at ~40. In contrast, beneath the western GC (i.e., west of 45E) there is a pronounced lack of events below 25 km, which we infer to reflect slab breakoff. We also observe a gap in intermediate-depth seismicity (30 to 60 km) at the western end of the subducted slab beneath the central Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as an eastward-propagating tear. This tear coincides with a region of minimum horizontal GPS convergence rates between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, as expected in a region of active slab breakoff. Evidence of subduction beneath the Greater Caucasus suggests that the relict back-arc basin was significantly wider than previously estimated. This further suggests that closure of this basin may have been an important mechanism for accommodating plate convergence in this nascent orogen and that the Greater Caucasus may represent a form of cryptic suture. Such relict-basin closure may also be an important, but overlooked process in the early stages of other orogens where it has proven difficult to reconcile total crustal shortening with estimates of total plate convergence.

  9. Impaired Statistical Learning in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Holt, Lori L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Developmental dyslexia (DD) is commonly thought to arise from phonological impairments. However, an emerging perspective is that a more general procedural learning deficit, not specific to phonological processing, may underlie DD. The current study examined if individuals with DD are capable of extracting statistical regularities across sequences of passively experienced speech and nonspeech sounds. Such statistical learning is believed to be domain-general, to draw upon procedural learning systems, and to relate to language outcomes. Method DD and control groups were familiarized with a continuous stream of syllables or sine-wave tones, the ordering of which was defined by high or low transitional probabilities across adjacent stimulus pairs. Participants subsequently judged two 3-stimulus test items with either high or low statistical coherence as being the most similar to the sounds heard during familiarization. Results As with control participants, the DD group was sensitive to the transitional probability structure of the familiarization materials as evidenced by above-chance performance. However, the performance of participants with DD was significantly poorer than controls across linguistic and nonlinguistic stimuli. In addition, reading-related measures were significantly correlated with statistical learning performance of both speech and nonspeech material. Conclusion Results are discussed in light of procedural learning impairments among participants with DD. PMID:25860795

  10. Impaired conditional discrimination learning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hofer, E; Doby, D; Anderer, P; Dantendorfer, K

    2001-09-01

    Learning deficits have repeatedly been found in patients with schizophrenia. Eyelid conditional discrimination learning (ECDL) is a test of discriminative aversive conditioning and places minimal demands on motivation. An ECDL task was used to examine residual and paranoid type individuals with schizophrenia and age- and gender-equivalent healthy controls. In the experiment two differently colored light stimuli were randomly presented. Only one of the stimuli (in reinforced trials) was followed by an aversive airpuff to the cornea, as opposed to unreinforced trials where the stimulus was not followed by an aversive airpuff. Conditioned responses develop to both trial types during the course of the experiment. These conditioned responses consist of reflectory eyelid closures already upon light presentation. The patients showed significantly impaired conditional discrimination learning abilities. There was no significant difference between the results in the two schizophrenia subtypes. Patients failed to increase response frequencies on reinforced trials during the course of the experiment, while controls showed appropriate conditional discrimination ability. Thus the results show an impairment of adequate behavior modification in an aversive conditioning task in individuals with schizophrenia. It is concluded that ECDL might be a trait marker for schizophrenia. PMID:11518633

  11. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children With Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the efficacy of Fast For-Word Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills participated. The children received either FFW-L computerized intervention, a computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), an individualized language intervention (ILI), or an attention control (AC) computer program. Results The children in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI conditions made significantly greater gains in blending sounds in words compared with the AC group at immediate posttest. Long-term gains 6 months after treatment were not significant but yielded a medium effect size for blending sounds in words. None of the interventions led to significant changes in reading skills. Conclusion The improvement in phonemic awareness, but not reading, in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI interventions limits their use with children who have language impairment and poor reading skills. Similar results across treatment conditions suggest that acoustically modified speech was not a necessary component for improving phonemic awareness. PMID:19564439

  12. Impairments in Negative Facial Emotion Recognition in Chinese Schizophrenia Patients Detected With a Newly Designed Task.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuqing; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Huang, Yueqin; Wang, Xiangqun; Wang, Xilin; Zhang, Fuquan; Kwan, Johnny Sheung Him; Chan, Oi Chi; Wang, Zhiren; Ungvari, Gabor S; Correll, Christoph U; Zaroff, Charles

    2015-09-01

    Facial emotion recognition has been found to be impaired in schizophrenia, although overall results have been inconclusive. A new set of facial emotion stimuli with Chinese faces was developed, using static and dynamic avatars, the identification of which were subsequently validated in 562 healthy control subjects. This test was then used to identify facial emotion recognition accuracy in 44 patients with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Overall, patients identified facial emotions significantly worse than healthy controls (p = 0.018) with a significant main effect for type of emotion (p = 0.016). Patients performed significantly worse in fear (p = 0.029) and sadness (p = 0.037), and marginally worse in anger (p = 0.052). No significant differences were evident in contempt (p = 0.254) or happiness (p = 0.943). Regarding error rates of misattribution, patients overidentified contempt (p = 0.035) and sadness (p = 0.01), but not anger, fear, or happiness. Conclusion, patients of Chinese ethnicity with schizophrenia may have significantly greater difficulties identifying negative, but not positive emotions. PMID:26252822

  13. Quality of life and impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Isaksson, A; Ahlstrom, G; Gunnarsson, L

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to describe the quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) given immunological treatment and in those not given immunological treatment and to investigate the relationship between impairment and quality of life. Methods: Twenty nine patients given immunological treatment were matched with the same number of patients not given such treatment. Matching variables were sex, Kurtzke's Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), years since diagnosis, and age (total n = 58). The patients were interviewed using the self-reported impairment checklist and they answered two questionnaires on quality of life, the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Subjective Estimation of Quality of Life (SQoL). Results: The self-reported impairment checklist captured a more differentiated picture of the patients' symptoms of MS than the EDSS. Health related quality of life was markedly reduced, while the subjective quality of life was less affected. There was a stronger association between self-reported ratings of impairment and health related quality of life on the SF-36 than between impairment and global ratings of quality of life on the SQoL. Subjective quality of life on the SQoL was not directly dependent on impairment expressed in physical limitations. There were no statistically significant differences between the treated and untreated groups. A non-significant trend towards better health related quality of life was found in favour of the treated group with respect to emotional role, physical role, and social function on the SF-36. Conclusions: The self-reported impairment checklist and SF-36 proved to be valuable complements to the well established EDSS in describing the diverse symptoms of MS. Measuring both health related quality of life and subjective wellbeing provides valuable knowledge about the consequences of MS. PMID:15607997

  14. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  15. Motor planning poststroke: impairment in vector-coded reach plans.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Hudson, Todd E; Abdou, Andrew; Rashbaum, Ira G; George, Ajax E; Raghavan, Preeti; Landy, Michael S

    2015-12-01

    Healthy individuals appear to use both vector-coded reach plans that encode movements in terms of their desired direction and extent, and target-coded reach plans that encode the desired endpoint position of the effector. We examined whether these vector and target reach-planning codes are differentially affected after stroke. Participants with stroke and healthy controls made blocks of reaches that were grouped by target location (providing target-specific practice) and by movement vector (providing vector-specific practice). Reach accuracy was impaired in the more affected arm after stroke, but not distinguishable for target- versus vector-grouped reaches. Reach velocity and acceleration were not only impaired in both the less and more affected arms poststroke, but also not distinguishable for target- versus vector-grouped reaches. As previously reported in controls, target-grouped reaches yielded isotropic (circular) error distributions and vector-grouped reaches yielded error distributions elongated in the direction of the reach. In stroke, the pattern of variability was similar. However, the more affected arm showed less elongated error ellipses for vector-grouped reaches compared to the less affected arm, particularly in individuals with right-hemispheric stroke. The results suggest greater impairment to the vector-coded movement-planning system after stroke, and have implications for the development of personalized approaches to poststroke rehabilitation: Motor learning may be enhanced by practice that uses the preserved code or, conversely, by retraining the more impaired code to restore function. PMID:26660558

  16. [Effect of anticholinergic drugs on cognitive impairment in the elderly].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lpez-lvarez J; Zea Sevilla MA; Agera Ortiz L; Fernndez Blzquez M; Valentí Soler M; Martnez-Martn P

    2015-01-01

    The use of anticholinergic drugs is common in the elderly, even in people with cognitive impairment. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed (anticholinergic effects, anticholinergic and dementia) to define the effects of anticholinergic drugs in the elderly. We emphasized the search in patterns of use, the combined use with AChEIs, the measurement of the Serum Anticholinergic Activity, and the short-term and long-term cognitive effects. The conclusions are that the use of anticholinergic drugs is common in the elderly, even more so than the medical prescription of AChEIs in Alzheimer's disease. The use of anticholinergic drugs may result in cognitive impairment. In long-term use it may generate a worsening of cognitive functions. It can lead to a wrong diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia, and they can also initiate signs of dementia. Greater cognitive effects appear when there is a previous deficit, but cognitive effects from anticholinergic drugs disappear in severe dementia. The presence of ApoE?4 increases the vulnerability for cognitive impairment when these drugs are employed.

  17. [Effect of anticholinergic drugs on cognitive impairment in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Lpez-lvarez, Jorge; Zea Sevilla, Mara Ascensin; Agera Ortiz, Luis; Fernndez Blzquez, Miguel ngel; Valent Soler, Meritxell; Martnez-Martn, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    The use of anticholinergic drugs is common in the elderly, even in people with cognitive impairment. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed (anticholinergic effects, anticholinergic and dementia) to define the effects of anticholinergic drugs in the elderly. We emphasized the search in patterns of use, the combined use with AChEIs, the measurement of the Serum Anticholinergic Activity, and the short-term and long-term cognitive effects. The conclusions are that the use of anticholinergic drugs is common in the elderly, even more so than the medical prescription of AChEIs in Alzheimer's disease. The use of anticholinergic drugs may result in cognitive impairment. In long-term use it may generate a worsening of cognitive functions. It can lead to a wrong diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia, and they can also initiate signs of dementia. Greater cognitive effects appear when there is a previous deficit, but cognitive effects from anticholinergic drugs disappear in severe dementia. The presence of ApoE?4 increases the vulnerability for cognitive impairment when these drugs are employed. PMID:25087132

  18. Peculiarities of hearing impairment depending on interaction with acoustic stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Myshchenko, Iryna; Nazarenko, Vasyl; Kolganov, Anatoliy; Tereshchenko, Pavlo

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The functional state of the auditory analyzer of several operators groups was study. The objective of this study was to determine some characteristics of hearing impairment in relation with features of acoustic stimuli and informative significance of noise. Materials and Methods: 236 employees (middle age 35.4 ± 0.74 years) were divided into four groups according to features of noise perception at the workplaces. The levels of permanent shifts of acoustic thresholds were estimated using audiometric method. Statistical Analysis Used: Common statistical methods were used in research. Mean quantity and mean absolute errors were calculated. Statistical significance between operators' groups was calculated with 0.05 confidential intervals. Results: The peculiarities of hearing impairment in observed groups were different. Operators differentiating acoustic signals had peak of hearing impairment in the field of language frequencies, while the employees who work with noise background at the workplaces had maximal hearing threshold on the 4000 Hz frequency (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: Hearing impairment depends both on energy and human interaction with acoustic irritant. The distinctions in hearing impairment may be related with the necessity of recognizing of acoustic signals and their frequency characteristics. PMID:26957812

  19. The Effect of Early Confirmation of Hearing Loss on the Behaviour in Middle Childhood of Children with Bilateral Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jim; McCann, Donna C.; Law, Catherine M.; Mullee, Mark; Petrou, Stavros; Worsfold, Sarah; Yuen, Ho M.; Kennedy, Colin R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine if the benefit of early confirmation of permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) on children's receptive language development is associated with fewer behavioural problems. Method: Follow-up of a total population cohort of 120 children with PCHI of moderate or greater severity (greater than or equal to 40 decibels relative

  20. Seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations is greater in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum KL-6 is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, KL-6 has not been used to discriminate different types of ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations can vary depending on antigen exposure levels in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP); however, seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations in ILD have not been determined. We hypothesized that seasonal variation of serum KL-6 is greater in HP than for the other ILD. The aim of this study was to determine seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations in various ILD. Methods Serum KL-6 concentrations in the summer season from June 1 to September 30 and the winter season from November 1 to February 28 were retrospectively analyzed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n = 16), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n = 16), collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia (CVD-IP, n = 33), house-related HP (House-HP, n = 9), bird-related HP (Bird-HP, n = 9), and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE, n = 13). Results Bird-HP and House-HP showed greater seasonal serum KL-6 variation than the other ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations in Bird-HP were significantly increased in the winter and KL-6 concentrations in House-HP were significantly increased in the summer. Serum KL-6 variation was significantly greater in acute HP than chronic HP. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that greater seasonal variation in serum KL-6 concentrations is diagnostic for Bird-HP. Conclusion HP should be considered in ILD with greater seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations. PMID:25098177

  1. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  2. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. PMID:20184654

  3. Review of alternative energy resources for the greater Houlton area

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, B.K.

    1981-09-01

    Information is presented for residents, workers, and employers around greater Houlton to help them harness reliable, inexpensive, and safe energy supplies into the year 2000. Present energy consumption in the area is summarized. Means to use solar energy; wood as a fuel; hydropower; wind power; alcohol fuels; methane; and energy from wastes are described. A strategy for seriously practicing automobile fuel efficiency, ridesharing, and using the mass transit systems is reviewed. The efficiencies of district heating systems and cogeneration are noted. Public policy recommendations are summarized. (MCW)

  4. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

  5. A spontaneous transomental hernia through the greater omentum

    PubMed Central

    Tidjane, Anisse; Tabeti, Benali; Serradj, Nabil Boudjenan; Djellouli, Abdessamed; Benmaarouf, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    Transomental hernia is the rarest form of internal hernias. Clinical expression of this pathology is ambiguous and diagnosis is often made at complication phase, after irreversible strangulation of the herniated loop. Radiological diagnosis is still difficult and intraoperative exploration usually allows discovering this pathology when patient is operated for acute intestinal obstruction. Treatment is surgical and aims to treat intestinal obstruction and prevent recurrence. We describe the case of a 65 years old male operated for a preoperatively suspected internal hernia; surgical exploration found a transomental hernia trough the greater omentum. PMID:26185574

  6. A spontaneous transomental hernia through the greater omentum.

    PubMed

    Tidjane, Anisse; Tabeti, Benali; Boudjenan Serradj, Nabil; Djellouli, Abdessamed; Benmaarouf, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    Transomental hernia is the rarest form of internal hernias. Clinical expression of this pathology is ambiguous and diagnosis is often made at complication phase, after irreversible strangulation of the herniated loop. Radiological diagnosis is still difficult and intraoperative exploration usually allows discovering this pathology when patient is operated for acute intestinal obstruction. Treatment is surgical and aims to treat intestinal obstruction and prevent recurrence. We describe the case of a 65 years old male operated for a preoperatively suspected internal hernia; surgical exploration found a transomental hernia trough the greater omentum. PMID:26185574

  7. CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

    1995-01-01

    Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

  8. [Porencephaly in a female Greater Swiss Mountain Dog].

    PubMed

    Siebke, A; Hahn, K; Möller, S; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Stein, V M

    2014-01-01

    A 15-month-old female Greater Swiss Mountain Dog was presented after an epileptic episode. In addition, the owner had noticed a recent marked change in the animal's behaviour. Because of the progressive nature of the neurological signs, a magnetic resonance imaging scan of the brain was performed and porencephaly in the parietal lobe of the right hemisphere was diagnosed. The dog was euthanized and submitted for pathology. Because of the histopathological findings and the history of a craniocerebral injury whilst a puppy, a traumatic genesis of this rare cystic lesion is discussed. PMID:25119633

  9. Scopolamine impairs memory recall in Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Fiorito, G; Agnisola, C; d'Addio, M; Valanzano, A; Calamandrei, G

    1998-09-01

    The involvement of the central cholinergic system in predatory performance, and on the recall of individual and observational memory in Octopus vulgaris was studied by treating the animals with the muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (2 mg/kg). The absence of the effects of the injection of scopolamine on blood circulation was also checked. Scopolamine did not affect the ability of octopuses to prey on live crabs. However, it interfered significantly with memory recall. In fact, the ability to solve the jar problem was impaired within the first hour after injection (short-term effects) and was only partially recovered after 24 h (long-term). Moreover, both individual and observational learning of a visual discrimination were significantly reduced at the short- and long-term testing. These results support a role of the cholinergic system in the processes of memory recall of O. vulgaris. PMID:9774156

  10. Visuoconstructional Impairment in Subtypes of Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Samrah; Brennan, Laura; Eppig, Joel; Price, Catherine C; Lamar, Melissa; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Bangen, Katherine J; Edmonds, Emily C; Clark, Lindsey; Nation, Daniel A; Jak, Amy; Au, Rhoda; Swenson, Rodney; Bondi, Mark W; Libon, David J

    2016-01-01

    Clock Drawing Test performance was examined alongside other neuropsychological tests in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We tested the hypothesis that clock-drawing errors are related to executive impairment. The current research examined 86 patients with MCI for whom, in prior research, cluster analysis was used to sort patients into dysexecutive (dMCI, n=22), amnestic (aMCI, n=13), and multidomain (mMCI, n=51) subtypes. First, principal components analysis (PCA) and linear regression examined relations between clock-drawing errors and neuropsychological test performance independent of MCI subtype. Second, between-group differences were assessed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) where MCI subgroups were compared to normal controls (NC). PCA yielded a 3-group solution. Contrary to expectations, clock-drawing errors loaded with lower performance on naming/lexical retrieval, rather than with executive tests. Regression analyses found increasing clock-drawing errors to command were associated with worse performance only on naming/lexical retrieval tests. ANOVAs revealed no differences in clock-drawing errors between dMCI versus mMCI or aMCI versus NCs. Both the dMCI and mMCI groups generated more clock-drawing errors than the aMCI and NC groups in the command condition. In MCI, language-related skills contribute to clock-drawing impairment. PMID:26397732

  11. Understanding the pathology of vascular cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2005-03-15

    The prevalence, morphology and pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VaD), recently termed vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), and of mixed dementia (Alzheimer disease+vascular encephalopathy) are a matter of discussion and no validated neuropathologic criteria for these disorders are currently available. In Western memory clinic-based series, VaD/CVI is suggested in 8-10% of cognitively impaired elderly; its prevalence in autopsy series ranges from 0.03% to 58% (mean 5-15%). Fairly unusual as an isolated nosological entity, CVI appears to correlate with focal, multifocal or diffuse cortical and/or subcortical microinfarcts and lacunes often affecting strategically important brain areas (thalamus, frontobasal, limbic system), hemispheric white matter and, less often, large brain areas. They result from systemic, cardiac or local large or small vessel disease. The lesion pattern in "pure" VCI with predominant multiple small (subcortical) lesions related to microangiopathies differs from that in "mixed dementia" (AD+VaD), more often associated with large infarcts, suggesting different pathogenesis. In very old subjects, selective hippocampal sclerosis may be accompanied by multiple other vascular pathologies. Minor cerebrovascular lesions (CVL), except for severe amyloid angiopathy, appear not essential for cognitive decline in full-blown AD, while both mild AD-type pathology and small vessel disease may interact synergistically in "unmasking" or promoting dementia. AD pathology is significantly less severe in the presence of cerebrovascular lesions. Further studies are needed to validate diagnostic criteria for VCI and to clarify the impact of vascular lesions on cognitive impairment. PMID:15760620

  12. A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Impairment and Decline Associated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Miyuki; Ogilvie, James M.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Green, Heather J.; Chambers, Suzanne K.; Ownsworth, Tamara; Shum, David H. K.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to quantify the magnitude and nature of the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and performance on a range of cognitive domains among breast cancer patients. A total of 27 studies (14 cross-sectional, 8 both cross-sectional and prospective, and 5 prospective) were included in the analyses, involving 1562 breast cancer patients who had undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and 2799 controls that included breast cancer patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 737 effect sizes (Cohens d) were calculated for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies separately and classified into eight cognitive domains. The mean effect sizes varied across cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from ?1.12 to 0.62 and ?0.29 to 1.12, respectively). Each cognitive domain produced small effect sizes for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from ?0.25 to 0.41). Results from cross-sectional studies indicated a significant association between adjuvant chemotherapy and cognitive impairment that held across studies with varied methodological approaches. For prospective studies, results generally indicated that cognitive functioning improved over time after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Greater cognitive impairment was reported in cross-sectional studies comparing chemotherapy groups with healthy control groups. Results suggested that cognitive impairment is present among breast cancer patients irrespective of a history of chemotherapy. Prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of cognitive impairment present both before and after chemotherapy, with comparisons made to participants cognitive function prior to diagnosis. Accurate understanding of the effects of chemotherapy is essential to enable informed decisions regarding treatment and to improve quality of life among breast cancer patients. PMID:25806355

  13. Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March ... methamphetamine use, such as tobacco smoking. Can the Brain Recover? The UCLA study’s findings underscore the importance ...

  14. Cancer in the Sindhi population of Greater Bombay.

    PubMed

    Jussawalla, D J; Yeole, B B; Natekar, M V; Rajagopalan, T R

    1980-11-01

    The Sindhis are a Hindu subgroup identified by their place of origin and their written spoken language. These are the people who were originally inhabitants of the Province of Sind, which formed a part of the large Bombay Presidency in Undivided India before 1947. The Sindhi Hindus migrated en masse to India after partition. An attempt has been made here to examine the differences found in the site-specific cancer risks among the Sindhi community, the other Hindu groups (such as the Marathi and Gujrati populations) and the Parsi community of Greater Bombay. As the Indian Census Board does not provide age distribution details for the Sindhis, analysis of the data was undertaken employing frequency ratios. Age-standardized cancer ratios (ASCAR) were also utilized for certain calculations. The common sites of cancer appear to vary greatly between the total Bombay population and the Sindhi group. In Sindhi men, for example, cancers of the lung, large bowel, prostate, kidneys and leukemias are most commmonly seen, whereas laryngeal and oesophageal cancers predominate in the general population of Bombay. In Sindhi women the breast, uterus, ovary, and skin are the preferred sites, whereas cancers of the cervix and leukemias are predominant in the general population of Bombay. It is interesting to note that there is a degree of similarity in the incidence of cancer at certain anatomical sites, such as the prostate, large intestine, and leukemias in males, and breast, cervix, ovary and uterus in females, between the Sindhi and Parsi communities of Greater Bombay. PMID:7427916

  15. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-06-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths.

  16. The State of Lithospheric Stress in Greater Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, B.; Furlong, K. P.; Pananont, P.; Pornsopin, P.

    2013-12-01

    Thailand and its surrounding regions occupy an important, but often overlooked, location in terms of plate tectonics and lithospheric deformation. The lateral extrusion of Tibet southeastward and eastward along deep strike slip faults to the north and the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone to the south and west bound the region of greater Thailand. While it is adjacent to some of the most seismically active plate boundaries and intra-plate regions on Earth, this region has experienced only a low level of background seismicity. Thus, the long-term seismic potential of greater Thailand remains highly uncertain. Although historic seismicity is one indicator for future seismicity it is not the only tool we have for determining seismic hazard; we can assess the state of lithospheric stress. The stress conditions in this apparent aseismic region will be controlled by the forces acting on it boundaries. We can analyze those conditions through a study of fault structure, earthquake activity, and kinematics in the boundary area. Using Global Seismic Network (GSN) data augmented with Thai seismic network data to constrain the kinematics, and numerical finite element modeling of crustal and lithospheric deformation of the region, we are able to determine to overall stress conditions. This stress model can be compared to the known fault states in Thailand to assess the potential for earthquake activity.

  17. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  18. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramn A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  19. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  20. Contextual Social Cognition Impairments in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Villarin, Lilian; Theil, Donna; Gonzalez-Gadea, María Luz; Gomez, Pedro; Mosquera, Marcela; Huepe, David; Strejilevich, Sergio; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Matthäus, Franziska; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. Methodology/Principal Findings This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge) that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients’ depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. Conclusions/Significance Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed. PMID:23520477

  1. Sex-Related Differences in Self-Reported Neurocognitive Impairment among High-Risk Cocaine Users in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Copenhaver, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous research has suggested possible sex-related differences in executive functioning among cocaine users; however, no studies specifically explain sex-related differences in neurocognitive impairment (NCI) among cocaine users receiving clinical care. Knowledge about this association can aid in the development of targeted prevention strategies to reduce adverse health outcomes. This study was designed to examine the sex-related differences in NCI among high-risk cocaine users receiving substance-abuse treatment. METHODS The Neuropsychological Impairment Scale (NIS) was administered to 199 cocaine users (98 men; 101 women), receiving methadone maintainance treatment, to assess self-reported NCI by identifying the patients awareness of neuropsychological symptoms. We used T-test comparison to find differences in NCI between men and women and multiple regression analysis to explore the relative contribution of sex to NCI. RESULTS Consistent with prior work, high NCI was evident within this sample, as indicated by high scores on most of the NIS subscales. Women reported greater impairment than men, as evidenced by significantly higher scores on several NIS subscales, after controlling for demographic and other confounding variables. Interestingly, cocaine craving significantly predicted NCI among men but not among women, as suggested by the significant association between cocaine craving and all except one of the NIS subscales. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that cocaine users enter into treatment with a range of NCI with women having significantly more neurocognitive deficits than men that may contribute to differential treatment outcomes. This highlights the need to include additional services such as neuropsychological screening and sex-specific treatment programs to optimally reduce adverse health outcomes in these high-risk, cognitively impaired patients. PMID:25861219

  2. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are

  3. Relative Clause Constructions in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frizelle, Pauline; Fletcher, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that children with specific language impairment (SLI) experience significant grammatical deficits. While much of the focus in the past has been on morphosyntactic difficulties, less is known about their acquisition of multi-clausal constructions such as those containing relative clauses. Aims: To investigate

  4. Siblings of Children with Speech Impairment: Cavalry on the Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Jacqueline; McLeod, Sharynne; Daniel, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the experiences of siblings of children with speech impairment, an underresearched area of family-centered practice. Method: Using naturalistic inquiry, we interviewed 6 siblings and 15 significant others. Interview transcripts were analyzed for meaning statements, and meaning statements were

  5. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  6. Communicating Intentions: How Well Do Language-Impaired Children Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wollner, Sima Gerber

    1983-01-01

    Research on pragmatics and its significance for children with language impairments is reviewed. Topics addressed include the development of speech acts (communicative intentions) and the linguistic orientation of speech acts. The value of a pragmatic orientation in clinical intervention is considered. (CL)

  7. Teaching Oral Hygiene Skills to Elementary Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yeng-Hung; Chang, Chien-Huey Sophie

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of a program that taught oral hygiene skills to students with visual impairments using group instruction and individual coaching. The results showed that the program enhanced the oral hygiene skills of the three participants significantly, and its effectiveness lasted for at least two months after the…

  8. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  9. The Classroom Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed Hearing Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, T. Jordon; Trybus, Raymond J.

    The classroom behavior of 148 hearing impaired children (7-13 years old) was rated by their teachers on the School Behavior Check List. Behavioral descriptions were analyzed in terms of whether or not the student was reproted to have an emotional/behavioral problem or other educationally significant handicapping conditions, and the student's sex

  10. Listening to Children with Communication Impairment Talking through Their Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Erin L.; Harrison, Linda J.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2009-01-01

    Including children as research participants is an important new direction in early childhood research. However, it is rare for such studies to include the voices of children with significant communication impairment. This article suggests that drawing may be an appropriate non-verbal method for "listening" to these children's ideas and recording…

  11. The Role of Spirituality in Coping with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yampolsky, Maya A.; Wittich, Walter; Webb, Gail; Overbury, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Spirituality and coping behaviors were measured in 85 individuals with visual impairments aged 23 to 97. A regression analysis indicated that the religious well-being subscale of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale is a significant predictor of adaptive coping behaviors, indicating that higher religious well-being facilitates adaptive coping. (Contains

  12. Fundamental Vocal Frequency Characteristics of Hearing-Impaired Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of speech characteristics during oral reading by hearing-impaired young adults (N=260) indicated significant relationships between perceptual judgments of pitch level and vocal frequencies for both males and females. While data indicated a wide range of vocal frequencies, most subjects spoke at a level within normal range. (Author/CB)

  13. Linguistic Humor Comprehension of Normal and Language-Impaired Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Cecile C.

    1990-01-01

    Compared to 12 normally achieving students, 12 language-impaired high school students had significantly poorer comprehension of humor elements of riddles, jokes, and puns classified according to their phonological, morphological, or syntactic elements. Especially poor were subjects' ability to grasp the nature of multimeaning words and to segment…

  14. Sociodemographic Correlates of Visual Impairment in Hispanic Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Fangchao; Lee, David J.; Gomez-Marin, Orlando; Lam, Byron L.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 424 Cuban Americans, 1,620 Mexican Americans, and 603 Puerto Ricans found that Mexican Americans with 0-6 and 7-11 years of education had significantly lower risks of visual impairment than those with 12-17 years. Prevalence rates were lower among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans born outside the mainland. (Contains

  15. The spatiotemporal distributions and determinants of ambient fungal spores in the Greater Taipei area.

    PubMed

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Tsai, Ying-Jie; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Wu, Chih-Da; Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Chen, Pang-Cheng; Chompuchan, Chuphan; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2015-09-01

    Airborne fungal spores, a type of bioaerosols, are significant air pollutants. We conducted a study to determine the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient fungi in the Greater Taipei area and develop land use regression (LUR) models for total and major fungal taxa. Four seasonal sampling campaigns were conducted over a year at 44 representative sites. Multiple regressions were performed to construct the LUR models. Ascospores were the most prevalent category, followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium, basidiospores, and Cladosporium. The highest fungal concentrations were found in spring. According to the LUR models, higher concentrations of Aspergillus/Penicillium and basidiospores were respectively present in residential/commercial areas and in areas with shorter road lengths. Various meteorological factors, particulates with aerodynamic diameters of ?10?m, and elevation also had significant relationships with fungal concentrations. The LUR models developed in this study can be used to assess spatiotemporal fungal distribution in the Greater Taipei area. PMID:25969377

  16. Factors That Impair Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristin; Hamm, Rose L.

    2014-01-01

    The body's response to tissue injury in a healthy individual is an intricate, sequential physiologic process that results in timely healing with full re-epithelialization, resolution of drainage, and return of function to the affected tissue. Chronic wounds, however, do not follow this sequence of events and can challenge the most experienced clinician if the underlying factors that are impairing wound healing are not identified. The purpose of this article is to present recent information about factors that impair wound healing with the underlying pathophysiological mechanism that interferes with the response to tissue injury. These factors include co-morbidities (diabetes, obesity, protein energy malnutrition), medications (steroids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs, anti-rejection medications), oncology interventions (radiation, chemotherapy), and life style habits (smoking, alcohol abuse). Successful treatment of any chronic wound depends upon identification and management of the factors for each individual. PMID:26199879

  17. Greater Physiological and Behavioral Effects of Interrupted Stress Pattern Compared to Daily Restraint Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Hetzel, Andrea; Shah, Bijal; Atchley, Derek; Blume, Shannon R.; Padival, Mallika A.; Rosenkranz, J. Amiel

    2014-01-01

    Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated stress on psychiatric disorders. PMID:25014526

  18. Greater amberjack Fsh, Lh, and their receptors: Plasma and mRNA profiles during ovarian development.

    PubMed

    Nyuji, Mitsuo; Kazeto, Yukinori; Izumida, Daisuke; Tani, Kosuke; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hamada, Kazuhisa; Mekuchi, Miyuki; Gen, Koichiro; Soyano, Kiyoshi; Okuzawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    To understand the endocrine regulation of ovarian development in a multiple spawning fish, the relationship between gonadotropins (Gths; follicle-stimulating hormone [Fsh] and luteinizing hormone [Lh]) and their receptors (Gthrs; Fshr and Lhr) were investigated in greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili). cDNAs encoding the Gth subunits (Fshβ, Lhβ, and glycoprotein α [Gpα]) and Gthrs were cloned. The in vitro reporter gene assay using recombinant hormones revealed that greater amberjack Fshr and Lhr responded strongly to their own ligands. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for measuring greater amberjack Fsh and Lh. Anti-Fsh and anti-Lh antibodies were raised against recombinant chimeric single-chain Gths consisting of greater amberjack Fshβ (or Lhβ) with rabbit GPα. The validation study showed that the ELISAs were precise (intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation, <10%) and sensitive (detection limit of 0.2ng/ml for Fsh and 0.8ng/ml for Lh) with low cross-reactivity. A good parallelism between the standard curve and serial dilutions of greater amberjack plasma and pituitary extract were obtained. In female greater amberjack, pituitary fshb, ovarian fshr, and plasma E2 gradually increased during ovarian development, and plasma Fsh significantly increased during the post-spawning period. This suggests that Fsh plays a role throughout ovarian development and during the post-spawning period. Pituitary lhb, ovarian lhr, and plasma Lh were high during the spawning period, suggesting that the synthesis and secretion of Lh, and Lhr expression are upregulated to induce final oocyte maturation and ovulation. PMID:26519759

  19. Alcohol and the Physically Impaired: Special Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boros, Alexander, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The articles in this special issue explore the connections between the dual disabilities of alcohol abuse and physical impairment, and reflect progress made in exploring the causes and treatments of alcohol abuse among the physically impaired. Selected articles include: "Results of a Model Intervention Program for Physically Impaired Persons"…

  20. 20 CFR 220.104 - Multiple impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY Evaluation of Disability 220.104 Multiple impairments. To determine whether the claimant's... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Multiple impairments. 220.104 Section 220.104... throughout the disability evaluation process. If a medically severe combination of impairments is not...

  1. Social Cognition in Children with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pring, Linda; Dewart, Hazel; Brockbank, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Comparison of 16 children (ages 9 to 12) with visual impairment to 16 sighted children found visually impaired children had a poorer understanding than did sighted children of characters in stories, as shown by fewer correct justifications based on mental states. Some subgroup patterns concerning congenital impairments and cognitive style were

  2. Mild cognitive impairment: animal models

    PubMed Central

    Pepeu, Giancarlo

    2004-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an aspect of cognitive aging that is considered to be a transitional state between normal aging and the dementia into which it may convert. Appropriate animal models are necessary in order to understand the pathogenic mechanisms of MCI and develop drugs for its treatment. In this review, we identify the features that should characterize an animal model of MCI, namely old age, subtle memory impairment, mild neuropathological changes, and changes in the cholinergic system, and the age at which these features can be detected in laboratory animals. These features should occur in aging animals with normal motor activity and feeding behavior. The animal models may be middle-aged rats and mice, rats with brain ischemia, transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 (tested at an early stage), or aging monkeys. Memory deficits can be detected by selecting appropriately difficult behavioral tasks, and the deficits can be associated with neuropathological alterations. The reviewed literature demonstrates that, under certain conditions, these animal species can be considered to be MCI models, and that cognitive impairment in these models responds to drug treatment. PMID:22034045

  3. Learning impairment and allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Simons, F E

    1996-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is underestimated as a cause of suffering and diminished quality of life in children and adolescents. If nasal symptoms such as itching, sneezing, rhinorrhea, and congestion are not well controlled during the day, they may contribute to learning problems during school hours. If these symptoms are not well controlled during the night, they may contribute to nocturnal sleep loss, secondary daytime fatigue and learning impairment. Even uncomplicated seasonal allergic rhinitis may be associated with reduced ability to learn, and the likelihood of learning problems may increase in severe perennial rhinitis or in rhinitis associated with complications such as sinusitis or eustachian tube dysfunction and conductive hearing loss. Also, many of the medications used to treat allergic rhinitis may cause central nervous system adverse effects and contribute to learning impairment. For some medications, such as inhaled glucocorticoids and decongestants, the potential effect on central nervous system function and learning has not been tested. For others such as H1-receptor antagonists (antihistamines), well-designed, prospective studies have been performed. The newer relatively nonsedating medications such as terfenadine, astemizole, loratadine, cetirizine, and fexofenadine have less potential to impair central nervous system function and learning than their predecessors. PMID:8871736

  4. The effect of an educational program on the desire for treatment among impaired medical students.

    PubMed

    Marchand, W R

    1988-06-01

    Medical student impairment is recognized as a serious problem. Many medical schools attempt to treat or prevent impairment through the use of educational programs. However, the effectiveness of this method has not been tested. A major difficulty is that impaired students are often unwilling to seek help. I hypothesized that educational programs might help overcome this problem, and used a retrospective study to test for an association between attendance at a series of lectures about impairment and feeling the need for counseling among impaired medical students. A statistically significant association was found between having attended the lectures and feeling the need for counseling. This study supports the hypothesis that educational programs may be useful as a means of encouraging impaired medical students to seek treatment. PMID:3373200

  5. Impaired myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries from overweight rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rats fed high fat (HFD) or high sucrose (HSD) diets develop increased adiposity as well as impaired vasodilatory responsiveness stemming from oxidative stress. Moreover, HFD rats become hypertensive compared to either control (Chow) or HSD fed rats, suggesting elevated vascular tone. We hypothesized that rats with increased adiposity and oxidative stress demonstrate augmented pressure-induced vasoconstriction (i.e. myogenic tone) that could account for the hypertensive state. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Chow, HFD or HSD for 6 weeks. The effects of oxidative stress and endogenous nitric oxide on myogenic responses were examined in small mesenteric arteries by exposing the arteries to incremental intraluminal pressure steps in the presence of antioxidants or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, LNNA (100 μM). Results Contrary to the hypothesis, rats fed either HSD or HFD had significantly impaired myogenic responses despite similar vascular morphology and passive diameter responses to increasing pressures. Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) calcium levels were normal in HFD arteries suggesting that diminished calcium sensitivity was responsible for the impaired myogenic response. In contrast, VSM calcium levels were reduced in HSD arteries but were increased with pre-exposure of arteries to the antioxidants tiron (10 mM) and catalase (1200 U/mL), also resulting in enhanced myogenic tone. These findings show that oxidative stress impairs myogenic tone in arteries from HSD rats by decreasing VSM calcium. Similarly, VSM calcium responses were increased in arteries from HFD rats following treatment with tiron and catalase, but this did not result in improved myogenic tone. Nitric oxide is involved in the impaired myogenic response in HFD, but not HSD, rats since inhibition with LNNA resulted in maximal myogenic responses at lower intraluminal pressures and VSM calcium levels, further implicating reduced calcium sensitivity in the impaired response. Conclusion The impaired myogenic responses observed in isolated arteries from HSD and HFD rats are attributed to changes in VSM calcium signaling. PMID:22424473

  6. Correlation between degree of subvoxel spinal cord compression measured with super-resolution tract density imaging and neurological impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Salamon, Noriko; Woodworth, Davis C; Holly, Langston T

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to explore the use of super-resolution tract density images derived from probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography of the spinal cord as an imaging surrogate for microstructural integrity and functional impairment in patients with cervical spondylosis. METHODS Structural MRI and DTI images were collected for 27 patients with cervical spondylosis with (n= 21) and without (n= 6) functional impairment as defined by the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale (mJOA). DTI was performed axially through the site of compression in a total of 20 directions with 10 averages. Probabilistic tractography was performed at 0.5-mm isotropic spatial resolution using the streamline technique combined with constrained spherical deconvolution. The following measurements were calculated for each patient: maximum tract density at the site of compression, average tract density in rostral normal-appearing spinal cord, and the ratio of maximum density to normal density. RESULTS Compared with normal tissue, the site of compression exhibited elevated fiber tract density in all patients, and a higher fiber tract density was also noted in focal areas at the site of compression in patients with functional impairment. There was a strong negative correlation between maximum tract density and mJOA score (R(2)= 0.6324, p < 0.0001) and the ratio of maximum tract density to normal tract density (R(2)= 0.6647, p < 0.0001). When grouped according to severity of neurological impairment (asymptomatic, mJOA score of 18; mild, mJOA score of 15-17; moderate, mJOA score of 11-14; and severe, mJOA score < 11), the results showed a significant difference in the ratio between severe and both no impairment (p= 0.0009) and any impairment (p= 0.036). A ratio of maximum fiber tract density at the site of compression to fiber tract density at C-2 greater than 1.45 had 82% sensitivity and 70% specificity for identifying patients with moderate to severe impairment (ROC AUC= 0.8882, p= 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS These results support the use of DTI as a surrogate for determining spinal cord integrity in patients with cervical spondylosis. Probabilistic tractography provides spinal cord microstructural information that can help discern clinical status in cervical spondylosis patients with varying degrees of neurological impairment. PMID:25746116

  7. Impaired musical ability in people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Sanae; Sawada, Ken; Akamatsu, Masanori; Doi, Erina; Minese, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Motoshi; Thornton, Allen E.; Honer, William G.; Inoue, Shimpei

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of the musical ability of people with schizophrenia has attracted little interest despite the diverse and substantive findings of impairments in sound perception and processing and the therapeutic effect of music in people with the illness. The present study investigated the musical ability of people with schizophrenia and the association with psychiatric symptoms and cognition. Methods We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls for participation in our study. To measure musical ability and cognitive function, we used the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). We carried out a mediation analysis to investigate a possible pathway to a deficit in musical ability. Results We enrolled 50 patients and 58 controls in the study. The MBEA global score in patients with schizophrenia was significantly lower than that in controls (p < 0.001), and was strongly associated with both the composite cognitive function score (r = 0.645, p < 0.001) and the negative symptom score (r = ?0.504, p < 0.001). Further analyses revealed direct and indirect effects of negative symptoms on musical ability. The indirect effects were mediated through cognitive impairment. Limitations The relatively small sample size did not permit full evaluation of the possible effects of age, sex, education, medication and cultural influences on the results. Conclusion Examining the associations between musical deficits, negative symptoms and cognitive imapirment in patients with schizophrenia may identify shared biological mechanisms. PMID:24119791

  8. Does Stroke Impair Learning in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Sonia das Dores; Ciasca, Sylvia Maria; Guimares, Ins Elcione; da Freiria Elias, Karla Maria Ibraim; Oliveira, Carolina Camargo; de Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana Leme

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To assess cognitive development and learning in children who have had strokes. Method. Twenty-nine stroke patients and 18 children with no brain lesions and no learning impairments were evaluated. For the cognitive assessment, Piaget's clinical method was used. Writing, arithmetic, and reading abilities were assessed by the school performance test. Results. The mean age at evaluation was 9.6 years. Among the 29 children, 20 had early lesions (mean of 2.4 years old). The stroke was ischemic in 18 subjects; there were 7 cases of recurrence. Six children could not answer the tests. A high index of cognitive delay and low performance in writing, arithmetic, and reading were verified. Comparison with the control group revealed that the children who have had strokes had significantly lower performances. Conclusion. In this sample, strokes impaired cognitive development and learning. It is important that children have access to educational support and cognitive rehabilitation after injury. These approaches may minimise the effects of strokes on learning in children. PMID:21776360

  9. Rumination and Impaired Resource Allocation in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Levens, Sara M.; Muhtadie, Luma; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Depression is characterized by a range of cognitive deficits that theorists posit are due to the resource capturing properties of rumination. The present study was designed to examine the relation between rumination and resource allocation in depression. Twenty-five depressed and 25 nondepressed participants completed a modified dual-task version of the recency-probes task, which assesses the controlled allocation of cognitive resources by comparing performance across low- and high-interference conditions. In low-interference conditions, participants performed either the recency-probes task or a tracking task, which required participants to track specific stimuli across trials (i.e., no dual-task interference). In the high-interference condition, participants performed both the recency-probes task and the tracking task, which required the controlled allocation of resources to resolve dual-task interference. Depressed participants performed significantly worse than did their nondepressed counterparts in only the high-interference condition; performance of the 2 groups was comparable in the low-interference conditions. Furthermore, the degree to which depressed participants were impaired in the high-interference condition was correlated .74 with rumination. These findings suggest that an association between rumination and impairments in resource allocation underlies the cognitive difficulties experienced by depressed individuals. PMID:19899845

  10. Damage to left frontal regulatory circuits produces greater positive emotional reactivity in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Virginia E; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Eckart, Janet A; Zakrzewski, Jessica; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Levenson, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Positive emotions foster social relationships and motivate thought and action. Dysregulation of positive emotion may give rise to debilitating clinical symptomatology such as mania, risk-taking, and disinhibition. Neuroanatomically, there is extensive evidence that the left hemisphere of the brain, and the left frontal lobe in particular, plays an important role in positive emotion generation. Although prior studies have found that left frontal injury decreases positive emotion, it is not clear whether selective damage to left frontal emotion regulatory systems can actually increase positive emotion. We measured happiness reactivity in 96 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disease that targets emotion-relevant neural systems and causes alterations in positive emotion (i.e., euphoria and jocularity), and in 34 healthy controls. Participants watched a film clip designed to elicit happiness and a comparison film clip designed to elicit sadness while their facial behavior, physiological reactivity, and self-reported emotional experience were monitored. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed that atrophy in predominantly left hemisphere fronto-striatal emotion regulation systems including left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior insula, and striatum was associated with greater happiness facial behavior during the film (pFWE < .05). Atrophy in left anterior insula and bilateral frontopolar cortex was also associated with higher cardiovascular reactivity (i.e., heart rate and blood pressure) but not self-reported positive emotional experience during the happy film (p < .005, uncorrected). No regions emerged as being associated with greater sadness reactivity, which suggests that left-lateralized fronto-striatal atrophy is selectively associated with happiness dysregulation. Whereas previous models have proposed that left frontal injury decreases positive emotional responding, we argue that selective disruption of left hemisphere emotion regulating systems can impair the ability to suppress positive emotions such as happiness. PMID:25461707

  11. Damage to Left Frontal Regulatory Circuits Produces Greater Positive Emotional Reactivity in Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Virginia E.; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Eckart, Janet A.; Zakrzewski, Jessica; Rosen, Howard J.; Miller, Bruce L.; Seeley, William W.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Positive emotions foster social relationships and motivate thought and action. Dysregulation of positive emotion may give rise to debilitating clinical symptomatology such as mania, risk-taking, and disinhibition. Neuroanatomically, there is extensive evidence that the left hemisphere of the brain, and the left frontal lobe in particular, plays an important role in positive emotion generation. Although prior studies have found that left frontal injury decreases positive emotion, it is not clear whether selective damage to left frontal emotion regulatory systems can actually increase positive emotion. We measured happiness reactivity in 96 patients with frontotemporal dementia, a neurodegenerative disease that targets emotion-relevant neural systems and causes alterations in positive emotion (i.e., euphoria and jocularity), and in 34 healthy controls. Participants watched a film clip designed to elicit happiness and a comparison film clip designed to elicit sadness while their facial behavior, physiological reactivity, and self-reported emotional experience were monitored. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed that atrophy in predominantly left hemisphere fronto-striatal emotion regulation systems including left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior insula, and striatum (pFWE < .05) was associated with greater happiness facial behavior during the film. Atrophy in left anterior insula and bilateral frontopolar cortex was also associated with higher cardiovascular reactivity (i.e., heart rate and blood pressure) but not self-reported positive emotional experience during the happy film (p< .005, uncorrected). No regions emerged as being associated with greater sadness reactivity, which suggests that left-lateralized fronto-striatal atrophy is selectively associated with happiness dysregulation. Whereas previous models have proposed that left frontal injury decreases positive emotional responding, we argue that selective disruption of left hemisphere emotion regulating systems can impair the ability to suppress positive emotions such as happiness. PMID:25461707

  12. Neural Processing of Spoken Words in Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helenius, Paivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition

  13. Use of Noun Morphology by Children with Language Impairment: The Case of Hungarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukacs, Agnes; Leonard, Laurence B.; Kas, Bence

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with language impairment often exhibit significant difficulty in the use of grammatical morphology. Although English-speaking children with language impairment have special difficulties with verb morphology, noun morphology can also be problematic in languages of a different typology. Aims: Hungarian is an agglutinating

  14. Student Attitudes toward Impairment: An Assessment of Passive and Active Learning Methods in Urban Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Designing for the needs of people with impairments has rarely been a significant feature of urban planning theory and education. Given the role of urban planners as shapers of the built environment and public policy, the prevalence of negative and misinformed attitudes among planners toward impaired populations has been highlighted as requiring

  15. Student Attitudes toward Impairment: An Assessment of Passive and Active Learning Methods in Urban Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Designing for the needs of people with impairments has rarely been a significant feature of urban planning theory and education. Given the role of urban planners as shapers of the built environment and public policy, the prevalence of negative and misinformed attitudes among planners toward impaired populations has been highlighted as requiring…

  16. Examination of the Stability of Two Methods of Defining Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Kevin N.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines two methods of differentially classifying language-delayed children as either specifically language impaired (SLI) or developmental-lag language impaired. Results indicated significant differences in classification between the two methods of defining SLI, as well as substantial changes in classification over time using either method. (47…

  17. Neural Processing of Spoken Words in Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helenius, Paivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition…

  18. Use of Noun Morphology by Children with Language Impairment: The Case of Hungarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukacs, Agnes; Leonard, Laurence B.; Kas, Bence

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with language impairment often exhibit significant difficulty in the use of grammatical morphology. Although English-speaking children with language impairment have special difficulties with verb morphology, noun morphology can also be problematic in languages of a different typology. Aims: Hungarian is an agglutinating…

  19. Institution animal care and use committees need greater ethical diversity

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Lawrence Arthur

    2013-01-01

    In response to public outrage stemming from exposés of animal abuse in research laboratories, the US Congress in 1985 mandated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) to oversee animal use at institutions receiving federal grants. IACUCs were enjoined to respect public concern about the treatment of animals in research, but they were not specifically instructed whether or not to perform ethical cost-benefit analyses of animal research protocols that IACUCs have chosen, with approval contingent upon a balancing of animal pain and suffering against a reasonable expectation of resultant human benefit. IACUCs have chosen not to make such ethical judgments but, rather, restrict themselves to an advisory role, often tweaking the details of animal-use protocols, but eventually approving all of them. This disinclination by IACUCs to take a broader ethical view of their authority and responsibilities may reflect a membership composition highly skewed towards animal researchers themselves (67%) and institutional veterinarians (15%), both with vested interests in continuing animal research. The resultant ethical monoculture may impair IACUC's ability to meet public concern for laboratory animal welfare. Psychological research has established that unconscious bias affects us all, that deliberations among the like-minded lead to adapting extremist positions, and that groupthink blinds organisations to alternatives that might be obvious to outsiders. Taken together, skewed IACUC membership composition and psychological research insights into unconscious bias and groupthink suggest that an infusion of ethical diversity by increasing the percentage of institutionally unaffiliated members on IACUCs would broaden their ethical perspectives and enable them to better address public concerns about laboratory animal welfare. PMID:23131895

  20. Unsaturated zone transport modeling of the Greater Confinement Disposal Site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T.

    1994-12-31

    Unsaturated zone transport modeling is being conducted as part of the performance assessment of the Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) facility which is located on the Nevada Test Site. This performance assessment is based on an iterative process of modeling and data collection to assess the likelihood the site will meet the US Environmental Protection Agency`s containment, individual protection and groundwater protection requirements for the disposal of transuranic wastes, high-level wastes and spent fuel. The current iteration of the performance assessment evaluates the potential impact of future events on the transport system. The future events included in this analysis are subsidence, bioturbation, erosion, climate change, irrigated farming and drilling. This paper presents the unsaturated transport model, how it fits into the performance assessment and how the future events are incorporated in the model.

  1. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Brad J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond, Richard S.; Hanus, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

  2. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

    2014-04-29

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

  3. The private hospital industry in the greater Cape Town area.

    PubMed

    Thomson, E M

    1984-07-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed on the role of the private sector in health in South Africa. This article uses the private hospital (PH) industry in the greater Cape Town area as a case study. The development and structure of the industry is described. Access to PHs is found to depend largely on membership of a medical aid fund. The PHs offer a relatively limited service, concentrating mainly on surgical cases. Problems between the PH industry and the medical aid schemes relating to the fixing of tariffs are outlined. Controversy exists over the future of PHs. It is concluded that PHs do not form an alternative to public sector services and may in fact weaken them. PMID:6729652

  4. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5). PMID:24549296

  5. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679?159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

  6. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network

    PubMed Central

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679?159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

  7. Visual Scanning Strategies of Neurologically Impaired, Perceptually Impaired, And Normal Children Viewing the Bender-Gestalt Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locher, Paul J.; Worms, Peter F.

    1977-01-01

    This study describes and compares visual encoding processes and copying performance of normal children and children with perceptual and neurological disabilities viewing the Bender-Gestalt designs. Designs of the neurologically impaired children were significantly different from those of either of the other two diagnostic groups. (Author)

  8. 20 CFR 416.913 - Medical and other evidence of your impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical and other evidence of your impairment(s). 416.913 Section 416.913 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Evidence § 416.913 Medical and other evidence of your impairment(s)....

  9. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Anna N.; Griffiths, Thomas L.; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these “cultural universals” is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of the kinds of errors that can occur in transmission. PMID:23831566

  10. Black breast cancer survivors experience greater upper extremity disability.

    PubMed

    Dean, Lorraine T; DeMichele, Angela; LeBlanc, Mously; Stephens-Shields, Alisa; Li, Susan Q; Colameco, Chris; Coursey, Morgan; Mao, Jun J

    2015-11-01

    Over one-third of breast cancer survivors experience upper extremity disability. Black women present with factors associated with greater upper extremity disability, including: increased body mass index (BMI), more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, and varying treatment type compared with Whites. No prior research has evaluated the relationship between race and upper extremity disability using validated tools and controlling for these factors. Data were drawn from a survey study among 610 women with stage I-III hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (QuickDASH) is an 11-item self-administered questionnaire that has been validated for breast cancer survivors to assess global upper extremity function over the past 7days. Linear regression and mediation analysis estimated the relationships between race, BMI and QuickDASH score, adjusting for demographics and treatment types. Black women (n=98) had 7.3 points higher average QuickDASH scores than White (n=512) women (p<0.001). After adjusting for BMI, age, education, cancer treatment, months since diagnosis, and aromatase inhibitor status, Black women had an average 4-point (95% confidence interval 0.18-8.01) higher QuickDASH score (p=0.04) than White women. Mediation analysis suggested that BMI attenuated the association between race and disability by 40%. Even several years post-treatment, Black breast cancer survivors had greater upper extremity disability, which was partially mediated by higher BMIs. Close monitoring of high BMI Black women may be an important step in reducing disparities in cancer survivorship. More research is needed on the relationship between race, BMI, and upper extremity disability. PMID:26420404

  11. Myiasis in Dogs in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sherry A M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Mbuthia, Paul G; Mande, John D; Afakye, Kofi; Maingi, Ndichu

    2016-01-01

    Myiasis is the infestation of tissues of live vertebrate animals and humans with dipterous larvae. In sub-Saharan Africa, Cordylobia anthropohaga and Cordylobia rodhaini are known to be responsible for cutaneous myiasis in animals and humans. Human cases of myiasis, purportedly acquired in Ghana but diagnosed in other countries, have been reported; however, published data on its occurrence in animals in Ghana is unavailable. This study assessed the prevalence of canine myiasis among owned dogs in the Greater Accra region (GAR) of Ghana. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Greater Accra region of Ghana, selected for being the region with the highest estimated population density of owned dogs. Physical examination and demographic characteristics of the study dogs were assessed. Management of the dogs was assessed through a questionnaire administered to the dog owners. A total of 392 owned dogs were sampled. Twenty-nine (7.4%) had cutaneous myiasis caused by C. rodhaini. In addition, one (0.2%) of the dogs had intestinal myiasis, with Dermatobia hominis as the offending larvae. Among the breeds of dogs with myiasis, the mongrel was most affected, with 24 (82.8%) out of the 29 cases. The mongrels, majority of which (24; 82.8%) were males, were left to roam freely in the community. Results from this study demonstrate that C. rodhaini and D. hominis are important causes of myiasis in owned dogs in the GAR of Ghana. Dogs could play a role in the spread of myiasis to humans, with its attendant public health implications. PMID:26771120

  12. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Eleonora; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline) startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level) while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109 = 0.23, p < 0.05). Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109 = 0.28, p < 0.05) and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p < 0.001). Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders. PMID:25705181

  13. Nicotine treatment of mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Kellar, K.; Aisen, P.; White, H.; Wesnes, K.; Coderre, E.; Pfaff, A.; Wilkins, H.; Howard, D.; Levin, E.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To preliminarily assess the safety and efficacy of transdermal nicotine therapy on cognitive performance and clinical status in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: Nonsmoking subjects with amnestic MCI were randomized to transdermal nicotine (15 mg per day or placebo) for 6 months. Primary outcome variables were attentional improvement assessed with Connors Continuous Performance Test (CPT), clinical improvement as measured by clinical global impression, and safety measures. Secondary measures included computerized cognitive testing and patient and observer ratings. Results: Of 74 subjects enrolled, 39 were randomized to nicotine and 35 to placebo. 67 subjects completed (34 nicotine, 33 placebo). The primary cognitive outcome measure (CPT) showed a significant nicotine-induced improvement. There was no statistically significant effect on clinician-rated global improvement. The secondary outcome measures showed significant nicotine-associated improvements in attention, memory, and psychomotor speed, and improvements were seen in patient/informant ratings of cognitive impairment. Safety and tolerability for transdermal nicotine were excellent. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that transdermal nicotine can be safely administered to nonsmoking subjects with MCI over 6 months with improvement in primary and secondary cognitive measures of attention, memory, and mental processing, but not in ratings of clinician-rated global impression. We conclude that this initial study provides evidence for nicotine-induced cognitive improvement in subjects with MCI; however, whether these effects are clinically important will require larger studies. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class I evidence that 6 months of transdermal nicotine (15 mg/day) improves cognitive test performance, but not clinical global impression of change, in nonsmoking subjects with amnestic MCI. PMID:22232050

  14. Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults with Heart Failure: Prevalence, Documentation, and Impact on Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, John A.; Truong, Tuyet-Trinh N.; Towle, Virginia R.; Kerins, Gerard; Chaudhry, Sarwat I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the fact that 80% of patients with heart failure are over age 65, recognition of cognitive impairment by physicians in this population has received relatively little attention. The purpose of our study was to evaluate physician documentation (as a measure of recognition) of cognitive impairment at time of discharge in a cohort of older adults hospitalized for heart failure. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of older adults hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of heart failure. Cognitive status was evaluated with the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) at the time of hospitalization. A score of 2124 was used to indicate mild cognitive impairment, and a score of ?20 to indicate moderate to severe impairment. To evaluate physician documentation of cognitive impairment, we used a standardized form with a targeted keyword strategy to review hospital discharge summaries. We calculated the proportion of patients with cognitive impairment documented as such by physicians, and compared characteristics between groups with and without documented cognitive impairment. We then analyzed the association of cognitive impairment, and documentation of cognitive impairment, with 6-month mortality or readmission using Cox proportional hazards regression. Results A total of 282 patients completed the cognitive assessment. Their mean age was 80 years of age, 18.8% were nonwhite, and 53.2% were female. Cognitive impairment was present in 132/282 patients (46.8% overall; 25.2% mild, 21.6% moderate-severe). Among those with cognitive impairment, 30/132 (22.7%) were documented as such by physicians. Compared with patients whose cognitive impairment was documented by physicians, those whose impairment was not documented were younger (81.3 years vs. 85.2 years, P<0.05) and had less severe impairment (median MMSE score 22.0 vs. 18.0, P<0.01). After multivariable adjustment, patients whose cognitive impairment was not documented were significantly more likely to experience 6-month mortality or hospital readmission than patients without cognitive impairment. Conclusions Cognitive impairment is common in older adults hospitalized for heart failure, yet frequently not documented by physicians. Implementation of strategies to improve recognition and documentation of cognitive impairment may improve the care of these patients, particularly at the time of hospital discharge. PMID:23331439

  15. Narrative abilities in hearing-impaired children: propositions and cohesion.

    PubMed

    Griffith, P L; Ripich, D N; Dastoli, S L

    1990-01-01

    Two linguistic microstructures, propositions and cohesive devices, were analyzed in story recalls by 11 primary and intermediate level hearing-impaired students. The students were enrolled in total communication, public day classes, and had severe-to-profound hearing losses. Four story conditions were presented: (1) easy structure--T.C.; (2) complex structure--T.C.; (3) complex structure with pictures--T.C.; and (4) create-a-story--pictures. Students watched and then retold or made up a story to a friend. Recalls were videotaped and transcribed by a deaf adult and the first investigator. Recalls of hearing-impaired students were significantly shorter than those found earlier for hearing students. When stories are very simple, hearing-impaired students generate mostly complete propositions, however as complexity increases, semantic errors result in fewer complete propositions. PMID:2346100

  16. Are empathic abilities impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder?

    PubMed

    Nietlisbach, Gabriela; Maercker, Andreas; Rssler, Wulf; Haker, Helene

    2010-06-01

    Trauma survivors with PTSD show social interaction and relationship impairments. It is hypothesized that traumatic experiences lead to known PTSD symptoms, empathic ability impairment, and difficulties in sharing affective, emotional, or cognitive states. A PTSD group (N=16) and a nontraumatized Control group (N=16) were compared on empathic abilities, namely the Empathic Resonance Test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, and Faux Pas Test. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index as a self-report measure of empathy and measures of non-social cognitive functions, namely the Verbal Fluency Test, the Five-Point Test, and the Stroop Test, were also administered. The PTSD group showed lower empathic resonance. No clear indications of other impairments in social cognitive functions were found. The PTSD group had significantly higher personal distress. Empathic resonance impairments did not correlate with subjective severity of PTSD symptomatology. This article discusses whether impaired empathic resonance in PTSD trauma survivors is a consequence of trauma itself or a protective coping strategy. PMID:20712172

  17. Evidence of greater health care needs among older veterans of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Matthew S; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2008-08-01

    This study examined self-rated health, impairments in activities of daily living, and treatment for eight health conditions among Vietnam War-era veterans, comparing those who served in Vietnam with those who served elsewhere. Data were from the nationally representative 2001 National Survey of Veterans (N = 7,907; 3,923 veterans served in Vietnam). Age-stratified (<60 years versus > or =60 years) analyses included multivariate logistic regression. In adjusted analyses, among those <60 years of age, those who served in Vietnam had notably poorer self-rated health and higher stroke risk (odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-1.53); odds of most other conditions were lower. Among those > or =60 years of age, those who served in Vietnam had poorer self-rated health, higher cancer risk (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.35), and more treatment for hypertension, lung conditions, stroke, and hearing loss. Results suggest greater resource use among older veterans who served in Vietnam. Clinicians and the Department of Veterans Affairs should especially note their substantially higher cancer risk. PMID:18751585

  18. The impairment of true glomerular filtration rate in long-term cyclosporine-treated pediatric allograft recipients

    SciTech Connect

    McDiarmid, S.V.; Ettenger, R.B.; Hawkins, R.A.; Senguttvan, P.; Busuttil, R.W.; Vargas, J.; Berquist, W.E.; Ament, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    We performed indium-111-DTPA plasma clearance studies in 61 pediatric kidney and liver recipients treated with cyclosporine to compare true glomerular filtration rate with calculated GFR (cGFR). The mean true GFR of 61.9 +/- 36.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 indicated renal impairment. The mean cGFR of 85.2 +/- 22.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 was significantly higher (P less than 0.001), and overestimated GFR by 38%. cGFR alone did not accurately reflect the degree of renal dysfunction. A group of 48 pediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients was studied in more detail: 73% of these patients had a true GFR less than 70 ml/min/1.73 m2, while 85% had a true GFR below 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, the lower limit for normal GFR in children. The mean true GFR for patients treated more than 24 months with CsA was lower (P = 0.02) than patients treated with CsA for 12 to 24 months. OLT patients with normal true GFR (greater than 90 ml/min/1.73 m2) had significantly lower plasma CsA levels, and 50% of patients with a true GFR less than or equal to 50 ml/min/1.73 m2 had hypertension. There was no effect on true GFR of age, liver function, azathioprine use, or peritransplant treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs. We conclude that true GFR is significantly impaired in long-term CsA-treated allograft pediatric recipients. Calculations of GFR underestimate the degree of renal dysfunction. As patients treated greater than 24 months had the lowest true GFRs, the fall in GFR may be progressive.

  19. Combined deficiency of iron and (n-3) fatty acids in male rats disrupts brain monoamine metabolism and produces greater memory deficits than iron deficiency or (n-3) fatty acid deficiency alone.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Jeannine; Smuts, Cornelius M; Malan, Linda; Arnold, Myrtha; Yee, Benjamin K; Bianco, Laura E; Boekschoten, Mark V; Mller, Michael; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hurrell, Richard F; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2012-08-01

    Deficiencies of iron (Fe) (ID) and (n-3) fatty acids (FA) [(n-3)FAD] may impair brain development and function through shared mechanisms. However, little is known about the potential interactions between these 2 common deficiencies. We studied the effects of ID and (n-3)FAD, alone and in combination, on brain monoamine pathways (by measuring monoamines and related gene expression) and spatial working and reference memory (by Morris water maze testing). Using a 2 2 design, male rats were fed an ID, (n-3)FAD, ID+(n-3)FAD, or control diet for 5 wk postweaning (postnatal d 21-56) after (n-3)FAD had been induced over 2 generations. The (n-3)FAD and ID diets decreased brain (n-3) FA by 70-76% and Fe by 20-32%, respectively. ID and (n-3)FAD significantly increased dopamine (DA) concentrations in the olfactory bulb (OB) and striatum, with an additive 1- to 2-fold increase in ID+(n-3)FAD rats compared with controls (P < 0.05). ID decreased serotonin (5-HT) levels in OB, with a significant decrease in ID+(n-3)FAD rats. Furthermore, norepinephrine concentrations were increased 2-fold in the frontal cortex (FC) of (n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05). Dopa decarboxylase was downregulated in the hippocampus of ID and ID+(n-3)FAD rats (fold-change = -1.33; P < 0.05). ID and (n-3)FAD significantly impaired working memory performance and the impairment positively correlated with DA concentrations in FC (r = 0.39; P = 0.026). Reference memory was impaired in the ID+(n-3)FAD rats (P < 0.05) and was negatively associated with 5-HT in FC (r = -0.42; P = 0.018). These results suggest that the combined deficiencies of Fe and (n-3) FA disrupt brain monoamine metabolism and produce greater deficits in reference memory than ID or (n-3)FAD alone. PMID:22739379

  20. Reporting by Physicians of Impaired Drivers and Potentially Impaired Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Jeffrey T; Rosner, Fred; Kark, Pieter; Bennett, Allen J

    2000-01-01

    Physicians routinely care for patients whose ability to operate a motor vehicle is compromised by a physical or cognitive condition. Physician management of this health information has ethical and legal implications. These concerns have been insufficiently addressed by professional organizations and public agencies. The legal status in the United States and Canada of reporting of impaired drivers is reviewed. The American Medical Association's position is detailed. Finally, the Bioethics Committee of the Medical Society of the State of New York proposes elements for an ethically defensible public response to this problem. PMID:11029682

  1. Correlation of intellectual impairment in Parkinson's disease with FDG PET scan.

    PubMed

    Wu, J C; Iacono, R; Ayman, M; Salmon, E; Lin, S D; Carlson, J; Keator, D; Lee, A; Najafi, A; Fallon, J

    2000-07-14

    This study investigated the relationship between regional glucose metabolism with intellectual impairment in patients with Parkinson's disease using statistical parametric mapping. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism using [18F]deoxyglucose (FDG) PET scans were performed on 10 patients with Parkinson's disease. We used the intellectual impairment score from the UPDRS. PET scans were analyzed with SPM96. Patients showed significant positive correlations with left limbic structures such as the cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and medial frontal gyrus. Patients showed significant negative correlations with associative neocortical posterior structures such as bilateral parietal and occipital gyrus. There were significant relationships between regional glucose metabolism and intellectual impairment. PMID:10923659

  2. Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways

  3. Hospitalization of Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairments: The Influence of Organizational Features and State Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruneir, Andrea; Miller, Susan C.; Intrator, Orna; Mor, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of specific nursing home features and state Medicaid policies on the risk of hospitalization among cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Design and Methods: We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate the odds of hospitalization among long-stay (greater than 90 days)

  4. Accessibility and Mobility of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Historical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasch, B. B.; Stuckey, K. A.

    1995-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of two movements to improve the mobility of people with visual impairments--environmental modifications to increase accessibility, and orientation and mobility training. It also notes how changes in attitudes, effected to a large degree by the introduction of dog guides, have led to greater acceptance…

  5. Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

  6. Accessibility and Mobility of Persons Who Are Visually Impaired: A Historical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasch, B. B.; Stuckey, K. A.

    1995-01-01

    This article traces the historical development of two movements to improve the mobility of people with visual impairments--environmental modifications to increase accessibility, and orientation and mobility training. It also notes how changes in attitudes, effected to a large degree by the introduction of dog guides, have led to greater acceptance

  7. Symptomatic Helicobacter pylori infection in young patients with severe neurologic impairment.

    PubMed

    Proujansky, R; Shaffer, S E; Vinton, N E; Bachrach, S J

    1994-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection was identified in five patients with profound neurologic impairment who were undergoing evaluation for gastrointestinal symptoms, and it was subsequently identified in 7 of 61 patients with symptoms whose condition was evaluated prospectively. Institutionalized patients were at greater risk of infection. Treatment of H. pylori infection resulted in symptomatic improvement for the majority of patients. PMID:7965428

  8. The Effect of Spatial Tasks on Visually Impaired Peoples' Wayfinding Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blades, Mark; Lippa, Yvonne; Golledge, Reginald G.; Jacobson, R. Daniel; Kitchin, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty-eight people with visual impairments learned a 483-meter novel route through a university campus in four groups: verbalization, modeling, pointing, and control. The performance of all four groups improved with greater experience of the route, but the modeling group improved more than the control group. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  9. 45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... A child is visually impaired if: (1) The vision loss meets the definition of legal blindness in the... vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle no greater than 20 degrees. (b..., limited field of vision, cataracts, etc....

  10. 45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... A child is visually impaired if: (1) The vision loss meets the definition of legal blindness in the... vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle no greater than 20 degrees. (b..., limited field of vision, cataracts, etc....

  11. 45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... A child is visually impaired if: (1) The vision loss meets the definition of legal blindness in the... vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle no greater than 20 degrees. (b..., limited field of vision, cataracts, etc....

  12. 45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... A child is visually impaired if: (1) The vision loss meets the definition of legal blindness in the... vision such that the widest diameter of the visual field subtends an angle no greater than 20 degrees. (b..., limited field of vision, cataracts, etc....

  13. Trends Affecting the Prevalence of Visual Impairment and Demand for Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirchner, Corinne

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the prevalence of people with visual impairment and trends affecting prevalence, including increased overall populations and a growth in the older population, greater ability to preserve lives of high-risk populations, improved fitness, medical advances in prevention, expanding role of computers among other increasing visual demands, and

  14. Psychopathology among a sample of hearing impaired adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mosaku, Kolawole; Akinpelu, Victoria; Ogunniyi, Grace

    2015-12-01

    Hearing impairment is a recognized cause of emotional and psychological disturbances worldwide, however little is known about this condition in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to compare the prevalence of psychopathology between hearing impaired adolescents and healthy adolescents. Students attending two special schools for the hearing impaired were assessed for psychopathology with the help of a trained signer and their teacher, using the International Classification of Diseases Diagnostic Criteria (ICD 10). Fifty two hearing impaired students and 52 age and sex matched controls from the same school were also interviewed using the same instrument. The mean age of the hearing impaired students was 16 (sd=3.8), while for the controls the mean age was 16 (sd=2.5). Psychopathology was present in 10 (19%) of the hearing impaired adolescents compared to 2 (4%) among the control group, this difference was statistically significant (?(2)=4.62 p=0.03). The most common diagnosis was generalized anxiety disorder 4 (8%), followed by depression 2 (4%). Years spent in school (t=4.81, p=0.001), primary guardian (?(2)=18.3, p=0.001) and mean income of guardian (t=7.10, p=0.001) were all significantly different between the two groups. Psychopathology is relatively common in this population. Proper assessment and treatment should be made available for this population group. A limitation to this study is communication difficulty which made only a third party assessment possible; this may affect the generalizability of the findings. PMID:26514446

  15. Outcomes of Greater Occipital Nerve Injections in Pediatric Patients with Chronic Primary Headache Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Amy A.; Reider, Amanda C.; Goadsby, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic migraine is common in pediatrics and generally disabling. In adults, infiltration of the area around the greater occipital nerve can provide short to medium term benefit in some patients. This study reports the efficacy of greater occipital nerve infiltrations in pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Methods Retrospective chart review of patients <18 years with a chronic primary headache disorder undergoing a first-time injection. Infiltrations were unilateral and consisted of a mixture of methylprednisolone acetate, adjusted for weight, and lidocaine 2%. Results Forty-six patients were treated. Thirty-five (76%) had chronic migraine, nine (20%) New Daily Persistent Headache (NDPH), and two (4%) a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia. Medication overuse was present in 26%. Ages ranged from 717 years. Follow-up data were available for 40 (87%). Overall, 53% (21/40) benefitted, 52% (11/21) significantly. Benefit onset ranged from 014 days, mean 4.7(SD 4.3), with mean benefit duration of 5.4(SD 4.9) weeks. In chronic migraine, 62% (18/29) benefitted, 56% (10/18) significantly. In NDPH, 33% (3/9) benefitted; 33% (n=1) significantly. Neither child with a chronic trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia benefitted. In logistic regression modeling, medication overuse, age, sex, and sensory change in the distribution of the infiltrated nerve did not predict outcome. There were no serious side effects. Conclusions Greater occipital nerve injections benefitted 53% of pediatric patients with chronic primary headache disorders. Efficacy appeared higher in chronic migraine than NDPH. Given the benign side effect profile, a greater occipital nerve infiltration prior to more aggressive approaches seems appropriate. PMID:24268688

  16. Daily or weekly? The role of treatment frequency in the effectiveness of grammar treatment for children with specific language impairment.

    PubMed

    Smith-Lock, Karen; Leito, Suze; Lambert, Lara; Prior, Polly; Dunn, Anne; Cronje, Julia; Newhouse, Sara; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2013-06-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a school-based treatment for expressive grammar in 5-year-olds with specific language impairment delivered in two different dose frequencies: eight sessions delivered daily over 8 consecutive school days or eight sessions delivered weekly over 8 consecutive weeks. Eighteen children received treatment daily and 13 children received treatment weekly. In both groups, treatment consisted of eight 1-hour sessions of small group activities in a classroom setting. Techniques included explicit instruction, focused stimulation, recasting, and imitation. Results were analysed at the group level and as a case series with each child as their own control in a single-subject design. The 8-weeks group showed significantly greater gain in test scores over the treatment period than in an equal time period prior to treatment, whereas the 8-days group did not (Cohen's d = 1.64 for 8-weeks group). Single-subject analyses indicated that 46% of children in the 8-week group and 17% of children in the 8-day group showed a significant treatment effect. It is concluded that expressive grammar treatment was most effective when dose frequency was weekly over 8 weeks rather than daily over 8 days for 5-year-old children with specific language impairment. PMID:23586584

  17. Geochronology and magma sources of Elbrus volcano (Greater Caucasus, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Elbrus volcano (5642m), the largest Quaternary volcano in the European part of the Russia, is situated within the central part of Greater Caucasus mountain system at the watershed of Black and Caspian seas. Complex isotope-geochronological studies showed that the Elbrus volcano experienced long (approximately 200-250 thousands years) discrete evolution, with protracted periods of igneous quiescence (approximately 50 ka) between large-scale eruptions. The volcanic activity of Elbrus is subdivided into three phases: Middle-Neopleistocene (225-170 ka), Late Neopleistocene (110-70 ka), and Late Neopleistocene-Holocene (less than 35 ka). No eruptions presumably occurred during 'quiescence' periods, while the volcano was dormant or revealed only insignificant explosive eruptions and postmagmatic activity. Volcanic rocks of the Elbrus volcano are represented by biotite-hypersthene-plagioclase calc-alcaline dacites (65.2-70.4% SiO2, and 6.4-7.9% K2O+Na2O at 2.7-3.9% K2O). Petrogeochemical and isotope-geochemical signatures of Elbrus dacitic lavas (87Sr/86Sr - 0.70535-0.70636, Eps(Nd) from +0.8 to -2.3, 206Pb/204Pb - 18.631-18.671, 207Pb/204Pb - 15.649-15.660, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.811-38.847) point to their mantle-crustal origin. It was found that hybrid parental magmas of the volcano were formed due to mixing and/or contamination of deep-seated mantle melts by Paleozoic upper crustal material of the Greater Caucasus. The temporal evolution of isotope characteristics for lavas of Elbrus volcano is well described by a Sr-Nd mixing hyperbole between mantle source of 'Common'-type and estimated average composition of the Paleozoic upper crust of the Greater Caucasus. It was shown that, with time, the proportions of mantle material in the parental magmas of Elbrus gently increased: from ~60% at the Middle-Neopleistocene phase of activity to ~80% at the Late Neopleistocene-Holocene phase, which indicates an increase of the activity of deep-seated source at decreasing input of crustal melts or contamination with time. Unraveled evolution of the volcano with discrete eruption events, lacking signs of cessation of the Late Neopleistocene-Holocene phase, increasing contribution of deep-seated mantle source in the genesis of Elbrus lavas with time as deduced from isotope-geochemical data, as well as numerous geophysical and geological evidence including presence of fumaroles in the summit part and thermal springs along the periphery of volcano indicate that Elbrus is a potentially active volcano and its eruptions may be resumed. One of possible scenarios for evolution of the volcano, if its eruptive activity were to continue, suggests the formation of large collapse caldera and catastrophic decomposition of volcanic edifice with large-scale pyroclastic ejection and melting of glaciers at the summit part of volcano.

  18. JP-8 jet fuel can promote auditory impairment resulting from subsequent noise exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Fechter, Laurence D; Gearhart, Caroline; Fulton, Sherry; Campbell, Jerry; Fisher, Jeffrey; Na, Kwangsam; Cocker, David; Nelson-Miller, Alisa; Moon, Patrick; Pouyatos, Benoit

    2007-08-01

    We report on the transient and persistent effects of JP-8 jet fuel exposure on auditory function in rats. JP-8 has become the standard jet fuel utilized in the United States and North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries for military use and it is closely related to Jet A fuel, which is used in U.S. domestic aviation. Rats received JP-8 fuel (1000 mg/m(3)) by nose-only inhalation for 4 h and half of them were immediately subjected to an octave band of noise ranging between 97 and 105 dB in different experiments. The noise by itself produces a small, but permanent auditory impairment. The current permissible exposure level for JP-8 is 350 mg/m(3). Additionally, a positive control group received only noise exposure, and a fourth group consisted of untreated control subjects. Exposures occurred either on 1 day or repeatedly on 5 successive days. Impairments in auditory function were assessed using distortion product otoacoustic emissions and compound action potential testing. In other rats, tissues were harvested following JP-8 exposure for assessment of hydrocarbon levels or glutathione (GSH) levels. A single JP-8 exposure by itself at 1000 mg/m(3) did not disrupt auditory function. However, exposure to JP-8 and noise produced an additive disruption in outer hair cell function. Repeated 5-day JP-8 exposure at 1000 mg/m(3) for 4 h produced impairment of outer hair cell function that was most evident at the first postexposure assessment time. Partial though not complete recovery was observed over a 4-week postexposure period. The adverse effects of repeated JP-8 exposures on auditory function were inconsistent, but combined treatment with JP-8 + noise yielded greater impairment of auditory function, and hair cell loss than did noise by itself. Qualitative comparison of outer hair cell loss suggests an increase in outer hair cell death among rats treated with JP-8 + noise for 5 days as compared to noise alone. In most instances, hydrocarbon constituents of the fuel were largely eliminated in all tissues by 1-h postexposure with the exception of fat. Finally, JP-8 exposure did result in a significant depletion of total GSH that was observable in liver with a nonsignificant trend toward depletion in the brain and lung raising the possibility that the promotion of noise-induced hearing loss by JP-8 might have resulted from oxidative stress. PMID:17483120

  19. An Overview of Dual Sensory Impairment in Older Adults: Perspectives for Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Gabrielle H.; Echt, Katharina V.

    2007-01-01

    Dual sensory impairment (DSI) refers to the presence of both hearing loss and vision loss. The occurrence of DSI is particularly prevalent among the aging population, with studies showing between 9% and 21% of adults older than 70 years having some degree of DSI. Despite this, there is little direction regarding recommended clinical practice and rehabilitation of individuals with DSI. It is assumed that the problems encountered by individuals with DSI are considerably greater than the effects of vision impairment or hearing impairment alone, because when these two sensory impairments are combined, the individual is seriously deprived of compensatory strategies that make use of the nonimpaired sense. In this article, the literature available regarding DSI is summarized, and research needs regarding rehabilitation strategies are outlined and discussed. Simple suggestions for addressing DSI are provided that use available tools and technology. PMID:18003868

  20. Impairment in Proverb Interpretation as an Executive Function Deficit in Patients with Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Leyhe, Thomas; Saur, Ralf; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Milian, Monika

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Proverb interpretation is assumed to reflect executive functions. We hypothesized that proverb interpretation is impaired in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) diagnosed as single-domain impairment by common neuropsychological testing. Methods We compared performance in a proverb interpretation test in single-domain aMCI patients and patients with early Alzheimer's disease (EAD). Results The groups with aMCI and EAD performed significantly worse than healthy controls. Both patient groups gave concrete answers with a similar frequency. However, patients with EAD tended to give senseless answers more frequently. Conclusions Our data suggest that in patients diagnosed as single-domain aMCI, deterioration of executive functions is detectable with subtle and appropriate neuropsychological testing. Implementation of these procedures may improve the early prediction of AD. PMID:22163233