Sample records for significantly greater impairment

  1. Quantitative measures of nocturnal insomnia symptoms predict greater deficits across multiple daytime impairment domains.

    PubMed

    Drake, Christopher L; Vargas, Ivan; Roth, Thomas; Friedman, Naomi P

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the associations between reported quantitative sleep measures and multiple daytime impairment domains. We collected data from a subsample of adults (n = 513) from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study and Community Twin Study. Results revealed that greater insomnia symptom frequency (days per week) significantly predicted greater global sleep-related functional impairment and depressive symptoms. Sleep onset latency was also positively associated with depressive symptoms. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated 3-4 nights per week and 36-40 min provided optimal sensitivity and specificity for impairment. Thus, insomnia frequency and sleep latency are critical in understanding the impact of insomnia on multiple impairment domains. Using functional impairment as criterion, these findings also support the use of specific quantitative cutoffs for sleep measures in diagnostic systems. PMID:24617964

  2. Prefrontal recruitment during social rejection predicts greater subsequent self-regulatory imbalance and impairment: neural and longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    Chester, David S; DeWall, C Nathan

    2014-11-01

    Social rejection impairs self-regulation, yet the neural mechanisms underlying this relationship remain unknown. The right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) facilitates self-regulation and plays a robust role in regulating the distress of social rejection. However, recruiting this region's inhibitory function during social rejection may come at a self-regulatory cost. As supported by prominent theories of self-regulation, we hypothesized that greater rVLPFC recruitment during rejection would predict a subsequent self-regulatory imbalance that favored reflexive impulses (i.e., cravings), which would then impair self-regulation. Supporting our hypotheses, rVLPFC activation during social rejection was associated with greater subsequent nucleus accumbens (NAcc) activation and lesser functional connectivity between the NAcc and rVLPFC to appetitive cues. Over seven days, the effect of daily felt rejection on daily self-regulatory impairment was exacerbated among participants who showed a stronger rVLPFC response to social rejection. This interactive effect was mirrored in the effect of daily felt rejection on heightened daily alcohol cravings. Our findings suggest that social rejection likely impairs self-regulation by recruiting the rVLPFC, which then tips the regulatory balance towards reward-based impulses. PMID:25094019

  3. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  4. Autistic Features in Young Children with Significant Cognitive Impairment: Autism or Mental Retardation?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan Vig; Eleonora Jedrysek

    1999-01-01

    This review addresses the issues and challenges related to the differential diagnosis of autism in preschool children with significant cognitive impairment. Issues affecting differential diagnosis include the use of traditional diagnostic guidelines for preschoolers with developmental delays, developmental changes in behavioral characteristics, the involvement of cognitive factors in symptom expression, and the overlap between autism and mental retardation in individuals

  5. Iconic Language Design for People with Significant Speech and Multiple Impairments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia L. Albacete; Shi-kuo Chang; Giuseppe Polese

    1998-01-01

    We present an approach of iconic language design for people with significant speech and multiple impairments (SSMI), based\\u000a upon the theory of Icon Algebra and the theory of Conceptual Dependency (CD) to derive the semantics of iconic sentences.\\u000a A knowledge based design environment supporting the phases of this approach is described.

  6. Iconic language design for people with significant speech and multiple impairments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia L. Albacete; Shi-Kuo Chang; Giuseppe Polese; Bruce R. Baker

    1994-01-01

    We present an approach of iconic language design for people with significant speech and multiple impairments (SSMI), based upon the theory of Icon Algebra and the theory of Conceptual Dependency (CD) to derive the meaning of iconic sentences. An interactive design environment based upon this methodology is described.

  7. Ankle trauma significantly impairs posture control--a study in basketball players and controls.

    PubMed

    Perrin, P P; Béné, M C; Perrin, C A; Durupt, D

    1997-07-01

    Both ankle and hip movements are used to maintain balance in strategies defined as bottom up and top down models. This suggests that pathological impairment of either of these articulations could modify the parameters of balance control. In order to appreciate the bearing of ankle damage on the proper control of equilibrium, posturographic recordings were compared, in a static and two dynamic tests, between 15 professional national basketball players, with histories of 10 to 15 ankle sprains, and 50 controls. In statokinesigrams obtained with eyes open or closed, center of foot pressure displacements were of similar length (way) between controls and players, while the area covered was increased for the latter and related to the history of ankle trauma. In a toes-up dynamic test (4 degrees, 50 degrees/s) coupled with electromyographic recordings, the short latency response (myotatic reflex in the triceps surae muscle) normalized to one meter body height, was shorter in players without relationship to histories of ankle damage. In a prolonged sinusoidal dynamic test, players with the largest number of ankle trauma showed greater difficulties in maintaining posture control. These data pinpoint the role of ankles in the control of both static and dynamic balance and demonstrate that the role of the hip joints becomes more important (top down strategy) in the case of damaged ankles. PMID:9298781

  8. Osteoarthritis of the knee or hip significantly impairs driving ability (cross-sectional survey)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Advising patients about when they can drive after surgery is common practice after arthroplasty of the knee or hip. In the literature, the preoperative braking performance values of the patients are frequently taken as the “safe” landmark. We hypothesised that osteoarthritis (OA), the most frequent reason for arthroplasty, already compromises the ability to perform an emergency stop. We expected that both Reaction Time (RT) and Movement Time (MT) as components of the Total Brake Response Time (TBRT), would be prolonged in patients with OA of the knee or hip in comparison with healthy subjects. We also expected maximum pressure levels on the brake pedal to be reduced in such cases. Methods A real car cabin was equipped with pressure sensors on the accelerator and brake pedals to measure RT, MT, TBRT and maximum Brake Force (BF) under realistic spatial constraints. Patients with OA of the knee (right n?=?18, left n?=?15) or hip (right n?=?20, left n?=?19) were compared with a healthy control group (n?=?21). Results All measured values for TBRT in the control group remained below 600 ms. OA of the right hip or knee significantly prolonged the braking performance (right hip: TBRT p?=?0.025, right knee: TBRT p?impair driving ability (TBRT p?=?0.228). Intriguingly, OA of the left knee prolonged RT and MT to the same degree as OA on the contralateral side (RT p?=?0.001, MT p?impaired; OA can significantly increase the total braking distance. To ensure safe traffic participation the safety margin for TBRT should be strictly set, under our experimental conditions, at around 600 ms. Moreover, therapeutic approaches to OA, such as physiotherapy, and patients receiving surgery of the left knee should take into account that left knee OA can also impair driving ability. Trial registration Clinical trial registration number: Project number of the ethics committee of the University of Tübingen: 268/2009BO2; 267/2009BO2. PMID:24433417

  9. Clobazam and Its Active Metabolite N-desmethylclobazam Display Significantly Greater Affinities for ?2- versus ?1-GABAA–Receptor Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Nichol, Kathryn; Lee, Deborah; Ebert, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    Clobazam (CLB), a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD), was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN) is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA ?1-subunit–selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the ?2 subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB), CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of ? (?1, ?2, ?3, or ?5), ?2, and ?2 subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for ?2- vs. ?1-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between ?2 and ?1 receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for ?1 receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB. PMID:24533090

  10. Less Wiring, More Firing: Low-Performing Older Adults Compensate for Impaired White Matter with Greater Neural Activity

    E-print Network

    Cabeza, Roberto

    , Cambridge, CB2 3EB, UK, 4 Memory Disorders Research Center, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston University Healthcare System, Boston, MA 02130, USA Address correspondence to Dr Sander M. Daselaar. Email: s.daselaars@donder.ru.nl The reliable neuroimaging finding that older adults often show greater activity (over-recruitment) than younger

  11. much higher concentrations. Concentrations of isoprene and terpene emitted from Mango and Eucalyptus were significantly greater than emissions from

    E-print Network

    much higher concentrations. Concentrations of isoprene and terpene emitted from Mango greater than from Pine and Eucalyptus whereas terpene emissions were highest from Mango and Avocado. Leaf level emissions of the isoprene and terpenes (-pinene, - pinene, -terpinene, linalool and limonene) were

  12. Quality of life is significantly Impaired in long-term survivors of Acute Liver Failure and particularly in Acetaminophen Overdose patients

    PubMed Central

    Rangnekar, Amol S.; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie; McGuire, Brendan; Lee, William M.; Fontana, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Functional outcomes in long-term survivors of acute liver failure (ALF) are not well-characterized. The aim of this prospective study was to determine health related quality of life (HRQOL) in long-term adult ALF survivors. ALFSG registry participants completed the CDC HRQOL-14 and SF-36 questionnaires at a 1 and/or 2 year follow-up study visit. Responses were compared among ALF subgroups and to available U.S. general population controls. Among the 282 adult ALF patients, 125 had undergone liver transplantation (LT) while 157 were spontaneous survivors (SS), including 95 acetaminophen overdose (APAP) patients and 62 non-APAP SS. Acetaminophen SS patients reported significantly lower general health scores and more days of impaired mental and physical health, activity limitations due to poor health, pain, depression, and anxiety compared to the other groups (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in coma grade, use of mechanical ventilation or ICP monitoring among the patient groups during their ALF hospitalization but the APAP SS had a significantly higher rate of psychiatric disease and substance abuse (p< 0.001). Compared to the U.S. general population, a greater proportion of the combined SS patients reported fair/poor health and >14 days of impaired physical/mental health and activity limitations due to poor health. In addition, a greater proportion of LT recipents reported >14 days of impaired physical/mental health. Similar results were observed using the SF-36 across the three ALF subgroups and compared to population controls. In conclusion, long-term adult ALF survivors report significantly lower quality of life scores compared to U.S. population controls. Furthermore, APAP SS patients report the lowest quality of life scores, possibly due to a higher rate of pre-morbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23780824

  13. Quality of life is significantly impaired in long-term survivors of acute liver failure and particularly in acetaminophen-overdose patients.

    PubMed

    Rangnekar, Amol S; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie; McGuire, Brendan; Lee, William M; Fontana, Robert J

    2013-09-01

    Functional outcomes for long-term survivors of acute liver failure (ALF) are not well characterized. The aim of this prospective study was to determine health-related quality of life in long-term adult ALF survivors. Acute Liver Failure Study Group registry participants completed the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health-Related Quality of Life 14 and Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires at 1- and/or 2-year follow-up study visits. Responses were compared among ALF subgroups and to those for available general US population controls. Among the 282 adult ALF patients, 125 had undergone liver transplantation (LT), whereas 157, including 95 acetaminophen overdose (APAP) patients and 62 non-APAP patients, were spontaneous survivors (SSs). APAP SS patients reported significantly lower general health scores and more days of impaired mental and physical health, activity limitations due to poor health, pain, depression, and anxiety in comparison with the other groups (P???0.001). There were no significant differences in coma grade or in the use of mechanical ventilation or intracranial pressure monitoring among the patient groups during their ALF hospitalization, but APAP SSs had significantly higher rates of psychiatric disease and substance abuse (P?greater proportion of the combined SS patients reported fair or poor health and ?14 days of impaired physical/mental health and activity limitations due to poor health. In addition, a greater proportion of LT recipients reported ?14 days of impaired physical/mental health. Similar results were observed with the SF-36 across the 3 ALF subgroups and in comparison with population controls. In conclusion, long-term adult survivors of ALF reported significantly lower quality of life scores than US population controls. Furthermore, APAP SS patients reported the lowest quality of life scores, possibly because of higher rates of premorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23780824

  14. Use of Direct Instruction to Teach Reading to Students with Significant Cognitive Impairments: Student Outcomes and Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanfush, Philip Michael, III.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether students with significant cognitive impairments make measurable gains in reading skills as measured by the Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests--Revised when taught using Direct Instruction reading programs. Additionally, the study explored teacher perceptions of the effectiveness of Direct Instruction…

  15. Rethinking stimulation of the brain in stroke rehabilitation: why higher motor areas might be better alternatives for patients with greater impairments.

    PubMed

    Plow, Ela B; Cunningham, David A; Varnerin, Nicole; Machado, Andre

    2015-06-01

    Stimulating the brain to drive its adaptive plastic potential is promising to accelerate rehabilitative outcomes in stroke. The ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) is invariably facilitated. However, evidence supporting its efficacy is divided, indicating that we may have overgeneralized its potential. Since the M1 and its corticospinal output are frequently damaged in patients with serious lesions and impairments, ipsilesional premotor areas (PMAs) could be useful alternates instead. We base our premise on their higher probability of survival, greater descending projections, and adaptive potential, which is causal for recovery across the seriously impaired. Using a conceptual model, we describe how chronically stimulating PMAs would strongly affect key mechanisms of stroke motor recovery, such as facilitating the plasticity of alternate descending output, restoring interhemispheric balance, and establishing widespread connectivity. Although at this time it is difficult to predict whether PMAs would be "better," it is important to at least investigate whether they are reasonable substitutes for the M1. Even if the stimulation of the M1 may benefit those with maximum recovery potential, while that of PMAs may only help the more disadvantaged, it may still be reasonable to achieve some recovery across the majority rather than stimulate a single locus fated to be inconsistently effective across all. PMID:24951091

  16. Stroke Survivors Scoring Zero on the NIH Stroke Scale Score Still Exhibit Significant Motor Impairment and Functional Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Hand, Brittany; Page, Stephen J.; White, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale's (NIHSS's) association with upper extremity (UE) impairment and functional outcomes. Design. Secondary, retrospective analysis of randomized controlled trial data. Setting. Not applicable. Participants. 146 subjects with stable, chronic stroke-induced hemiparesis. Intervention. The NIHSS, the UE Fugl-Meyer (FM), and the Arm Motor Ability Test (AMAT) were administered prior to their participation in a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Main Outcome Measures. The NIHSS, FM, and AMAT. Results. The association between the NIHSS and UE impairment was statistically significant (P = ?0.204; p = 0.014) but explained less than 4% of the variance among UE FM scores. The association between NIHSS total score and function as measured by the AMAT was not statistically significant (P = ?0.141; p = 0.089). Subjects scoring a “zero” on the NIHSS exhibited discernible UE motor deficits and varied scores on the UE FM and AMAT. Conclusion. While being used in stroke trials, the NIHSS may have limited ability to discriminate between treatment responses, even when only a relatively narrow array of impairment levels exists among patients. Given these findings, NIHSS use should be restricted to acute stroke studies and clinical settings with the goal of reporting stroke severity. PMID:24772367

  17. Dexrazoxane significantly impairs the induction of doxorubicin resistance in the human leukaemia line, K562

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, J M; Williamson, C J; Yardley, C; Taylor, C G; Hellmann, K

    2001-01-01

    Dexrazoxane combined with doxorubicin (+ 5-fluorouracil?+?cyclophosphamide – the FAC regime) leads to a significant decrease in doxorubicin cardiotoxicity and a significant increase in median survival time for patients with advanced breast cancer responsive to FAC. The reason for this increase in survival may be due to interference with the mechanism involved in the emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR). In order to test this hypothesis, we induced resistance to doxorubicin in the K562 cell line by growing cells in increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (10–30?nM) in the presence and absence of dexrazoxane (20?nM). The doxorubicin sensitivity of all resultant sublines was measured using the MTT assay. Flow cytometry was used to assess the MDR1 phenotype, measuring P-glycoprotein expression with MRK 16 antibody and drug accumulation in the presence and absence of PSC 833 for functional P-glycoprotein. Long-term growth in doxorubicin increased the cellular resistance (IC 50) of K562 cells in a concentration-dependent manner (r2?=?0.908). Doxorubicin resistance was not induced in the presence of dexrazoxane (P< 0.0001) for several months. In parallel, the expression of functional P-glycoprotein was delayed after concomitant addition of dexrazoxane to the selecting medium (P< 0.001). Dexrazoxane did not act as a conventional modulator of P-glycoprotein. These results suggest that dexrazoxane may delay the development of MDR1, thus allowing responders to the FAC regime to continue to respond. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11286477

  18. Cost and effectiveness of an eye care adherence program for Philadelphia children with significant visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Pizzi, Laura T; Snitzer, Melanie; Amos, Tony; Prioli, Katherine M; Steele, Deon; Levin, Alex V

    2015-06-01

    The follow-up rate among children with vision problems in the authors' outreach programs has been <5%. The authors therefore developed a social worker (SW) intervention, the Children's Eye Care Adherence Program (CECAP), for Philadelphia school children. The objective of this study was to measure CECAP's effectiveness and cost, as well as to identify barriers to care through a conceptual framework and geomapping software. A SW reviewed records to identify children needing follow-up and phoned families to identify and resolve barriers to eye care and scheduled appointments. Effectiveness was defined as the percent completing ?1 follow-up visit within the physician-recommended time frame. Cost was measured for SW time (SW wage rates+benefits) and additional materials (forms, postage, phone charges). Barriers were organized into a conceptual framework depicting predisposing factors, system factors, and financial factors. Geomapping software was used to illustrate follow-up rates. In all, 120 patients required additional pediatric ophthalmic care; 71 patients were contacted and returned for care (59.2%); 49 patients were contacted but did not return (40.8%). SW time was 3hrs/patient for those who returned and 2hrs/patient for those who did not return. Based on the CECAP program total cost ($14,249) and the reimbursement payment ($6265.66), the net cost of the CECAP program was $7983.59. Predisposing factors were the primary barrier theme for patients who did not follow up. CECAP significantly improved adherence to eye care but comes at an additional cost. Future efforts should focus on reducing operational efficiencies and targeting CECAP based on predictors of follow-up. (Population Health Management 2015;18:223-231). PMID:25647611

  19. Partners met via sex parties present significantly greater odds for condomless anal sex among MSM: an event-level analysis of venues where male partners are met.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H J; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-12-15

    One hundred forty-seven men who have sex with men completed time-line follow-back interviews about the venues where they met their male partners (n = 1180 sexual events with first-time partners, <30 days). We ran multivariate models to determine the association between venues and condomless anal sex (CAS). After adjusting for known correlates of CAS, partners met at sex parties presented significantly greater odds for CAS compared with meeting a partner at a gay bar/club (adjusted odds ratio = 0.44), online (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42), bathhouse (adjusted odds ratio = 0.35), or via "other" venues (adjusted odds ratio = 0.35), all P < 0.01. These findings highlight the need to develop innovative HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention initiatives for men who attend sex parties. PMID:25226209

  20. Sepsis otopathy: experimental sepsis leads to significant hearing impairment due to apoptosis and glutamate excitotoxicity in murine cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Schmutzhard, Joachim; Glueckert, Rudolf; Pritz, Christian; Blumer, Michael J. F.; Bitsche, Mario; Lackner, Peter; Fille, Manfred; Riechelmann, Herbert; Harkamp, Matthias; Sitthisak, Thongrong; Schrott-Fischer, Annelies

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Hearing loss is frequent in intensive care patients and can be due to several causes. However, sepsis has not been examined as a possible cause. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of experimental sepsis on hearing thresholds and to evaluate pathological changes in the cochlea. The cecal ligation puncture technique was used to induce sepsis in 18 mice. Results were compared with those from 13 sham-operated and 13 untreated control mice. The hearing thresholds of the animals were evaluated with auditory evoked brainstem responses prior to the induction of sepsis and again at the peak of the disease. Immediately after the second measurement, the mice were sacrificed and the inner ears harvested and prepared for further evaluation. The cochleae were examined with light microscopy, electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry for Bax, cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2. The mice with sepsis showed a significant hearing loss but not the control groups. Induction of apoptosis could be shown in the supporting cells of the organ of Corti. Furthermore, excitotoxicity could be shown at the basal pole of the inner hair cells. In this murine model, sepsis leads to significant hearing impairment. The physiological alteration could be linked to apoptosis in the supporting cells of the organ of Corti and to a disturbance of the synapses of the inner hair cells. PMID:23471916

  1. Blood plasma IgG Fc glycans are significantly altered in Alzheimer's disease and progressive mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Susanna L; Yang, Hongqian; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Zubarev, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    Blood-based anti-amyloid-? (A?) immunoglobulins (IgGs) and peripheral inflammation are factors correlating with development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). IgG functionality can drastically change from anti- to pro-inflammatory via alterations in the IgG-Fc N-glycan structure. Herein, we tested if IgG-Fc glycosylation in plasma is indeed altered during the development of AD. Samples from age-matched subjects of 23 controls, 58 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI), 34 patients with progressive (P)MCI, and 31 patients with AD were investigated. Label-free shotgun proteomics was applied without glycoprotein enrichment. Glycans on peptides EEQYNSTYR (IgG1) and EEQFNSTFR (IgG2) were quantified, and their abundances were normalized to total IgGn glycoform abundance. Univariate and multivariate statistics were employed to investigate the correlations between the patients groups and the abundances of the IgG glycoforms as well as those of inflammatory mediating proteins. Significant differences (p ? 0.05) were found, with a lower abundance of complex galactosylated and sialylated forms in AD. For females, a decline in glycoform complexity correlated with disease progress but an inverse change was found in males prior to the onset of AD. Principal component analysis (PCA; Males: R(2)X(cum) = 0.65, Q(2)(cum) = 0.34; Females: R(2)X(cum) = 0.62, Q(2)(cum) = 0.36), confirmed the gender similarities (for controls, SMCI and AD) as well as differences (for PMCI), and showed a close correlation between pro-inflammatory protein markers, AD, female PMCI, and truncated IgG-Fc glycans. The differences observed between genders prior to the onset of AD may indicate a lower ability in females to suppress peripheral inflammation, which may lead to exacerbated disease progression. PMID:24028868

  2. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  3. Greater India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Ali; Jonathan C. Aitchison

    2005-01-01

    Greater India” is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India–Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and\\/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924)

  4. Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2005-10-01

    "Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean west of Australia, in particular the Wallaby-Zenith Plateau Ridge and the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. We suggest that the Indian continent probably extended no more than 950 km in the central portion of the Main Boundary Thrust, up to the Wallaby-Zenith Fracture Zone. At the Western Syntaxis, the extension was about 600 km. These estimates are broadly compatible with some of the geophysically-derived models depicting subducted Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet, as well as estimates of Himalayan shortening. Models requiring sub-continent extensions > 9° ahead of the craton are probably wrong. We also suggest that northern India did not have a thinned rifted passive margin due to the earlier rifting of blocks away from it when it formed part of Gondwana. Instead, the boundary developed as a transform fault and probably had a very narrow ocean-continent transition zone (5-10 km wide), similar to the Romanche Fracture Zone offshore of Ghana, West Africa.

  5. Inactivation of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in Myelinating Glial Cells Results in Significant Loss of Adult Spiral Ganglion Neurons Accompanied by Age-Related Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S. J.; Furusho, M.; D’Sa, C.; Kuwada, S.; Conti, L.; Morest, D. K.; Bansal, R.

    2010-01-01

    Hearing loss has been attributed to many factors, including degeneration of sensory neurons in the auditory pathway and demyelination along the cochlear nerve. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), which signal through four receptors (Fgfrs), are produced by auditory neurons and play a key role in embryonic development of the cochlea and in neuroprotection against sound-induced injury. However, the role of FGF signaling in the maintenance of normal auditory function in adult and aging mice remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, the contribution of glial cells, which myelinate the cochlear nerves, is poorly understood. To address these questions, we generated transgenic mice in which Fgfr1 and Fgfr2 were specifically inactivated in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes but not in neurons. Adult mutant mice exhibited late onset of hearing impairment, which progressed markedly with age. The hearing impairment was accompanied by significant loss of myelinated spiral ganglion neurons. The pathology extended into the cochlear nucleus, without apparent loss of myelin or of the deletion-bearing glial cells themselves. This suggests that perturbation of FGF receptor-mediated glial function leads to the attenuation of glial support of neurons, leading to their loss and impairment of auditory functions. Thus, FGF/FGF receptor signaling provides a potentially novel mechanism of maintaining reciprocal interactions between neurons and glia in adult and aging animals. Dysfunction of glial cells and FGF receptor signaling may therefore be implicated in neurodegenerative hearing loss associated with normal aging. PMID:19598249

  6. Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

  7. Structural significance of galectin design: impairment of homodimer stability by linker insertion and partial reversion by ligand presence.

    PubMed

    Vértesy, Sabine; Michalak, Malwina; Miller, Michelle C; Schnölzer, Martina; André, Sabine; Kopitz, Jürgen; Mayo, Kevin H; Gabius, Hans-Joachim

    2015-07-01

    Lectins translate information encoded in glycan chains of cellular glycoconjugates into bioeffects. The topological presentation of contact sites for cognate sugar binding is a crucial factor toward this end. To dissect the significance of such phylogenetically conserved properties, the design and engineering of non-natural variants are attractive approaches. Here, a homodimeric human lectin, i.e. adhesion/growth-regulatory galectin-1, is converted into a tandem-repeat display by introducing the 33-amino-acid linker of another family member (i.e. galectin-8). The yield of variant was reduced by about a third. This protein had ?10-fold higher activity in hemagglutination. Nearly complete sequence determination by mass-spectrometric in-source decay and fingerprinting excluded the presence of any modifications. When (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence data on the (15)N-labeled variant and wild-type protein were compared, changes in chemical shifts, signal intensities and resonance multiplicities revealed reduction of stability of interfacial contacts between the lectin domains and an increase in inter-domain flexibility. When both binding sites in the variant were loaded with ligand, association of the two carbohydrate recognition domains was enhanced, corroborated by gel filtration. Dynamic changes in the spatial presentation of the two lectin domains in the context of a tandem-repeat display can alter counterreceptor targeting relative to the fixed positions found in the proto-type galectin homodimer. PMID:25796447

  8. ACAT1-associated Late Endosomes/Lysosomes Significantly Improve Impaired Intracellular Cholesterol Metabolism and the Survival of Niemann-Pick Type C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Masashi; Lei, XiaoFeng; Fujiwara, Yukio; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro; Sakashita, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that macrophages exhibit endoplasmic reticulum fragmentation under cholesterol-rich conditions, which results in the generation of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1)-associated late endosomes/lysosomes (ACAT1-LE). ACAT1-LE efficiently esterify free cholesterol in loco, even with abnormal egress of free cholesterol from late endosomes. Because impaired free cholesterol transport from late endosomes results in Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC), the induction of ACAT1-LE is a potential therapeutic intervention for NPC. To examine the effects of ACAT1-LE induction on intracellular cholesterol metabolism, we incubated bone marrow-derived macrophages possessing NPC phenotype (npc1–/–) with methyl-?-cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex (m?CD-cho), a cholesterol donor. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that m?CD-cho treatment of npc1–/– macrophages resulted in significant colocalization of signals from ACAT1 and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, a late endosome/lysosome marker. npc1–/– macrophages contained significant amounts of free cholesterol with negligible amounts of cholesteryl ester, while wild-type macrophages possessed the same amounts of both cholesterols. m?CD-cho treatment also induced marked restoration of cholesterol esterification activity. m?CD-cho administration in neonate npc1–/– mice improved survival. These results indicate that ACAT1-LE induction in npc1–/– mice corrects impaired intracellular cholesterol metabolism and that restoring cholesterol esterification improves prognosis of npc1–/–. These data suggest that ACAT1-LE induction is a potential alternative therapeutic strategy for NPC. PMID:25221362

  9. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  10. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ?8?sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24?hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24?hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2?hr, in addition to the standard 24?hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2?hr, but not 24?hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2?hr later. In the 24?hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock. PMID:24691725

  11. Greater Yellowstone Bibliography

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Van Arsdale William

    The Greater Yellowstone Bibliography is a database with over 28,900 bibliographic citations to scholarly, popular, professional, and creative literature about the greater Yellowstone region. It includes citations for journal, magazine, and newspaper articles, as well as books, book chapters, conference papers, government documents, theses, maps, CDs, and other materials. Citations can be searched by author, subject keyword, and geographic location.

  12. The Experience of Cognitive Impairment in People with Psychosis.

    PubMed

    Wood, Helen; Cupitt, Caroline; Lavender, Tony

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment has been widely studied in people with psychosis. However, research is lacking into the subjective experience of cognitive impairment, its impact and ways in which individuals cope. This study aimed to provide an account of the experience of cognitive impairment in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, including what difficulties people experience, how these difficulties are understood, how people respond to these difficulties and how they perceive others' views of these difficulties. A semi-structured interview was carried out with eight participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia focusing on participants' experiences of difficulties with cognitive functioning. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to analyse interview transcripts. Experience of cognitive impairment was understood in terms of six master themes: impaired controlled thinking, physical sensations and impaired movement, explanations for the impairment and comparisons to the past, managing the impairment, how others see the impairment and anticipating the future. This study is the first rigorous qualitative study of the subjective experience of cognitive impairment in people with psychosis, and it provides greater context for empirical findings. The results have significant implications for clinical psychology, including education about cognitive difficulties and the importance of cognitive functioning to formulation. New areas for research include coping strategies in relation to functioning and future perspectives, ascertaining staff understanding of cognitive impairment, and reflective conversation style as an intervention for metacognitive difficulties. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message Difficulties with cognitive functioning should be considered in clinical practitioners' formulations of clients' difficulties in the context of psychosis. Services should consider providing service user and carer education about cognitive impairment in psychosis. Staff may need further training in order to support people with psychosis who have difficulties with cognitive functioning. PMID:24281753

  13. Impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: inter-rater reliability and factor structure of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in patients, significant others and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Brian E.; Morrison, Todd G.; Barker, Lynne A.; Morton, Nicholas; McBrinn, Judith; Caldwell, Sheena; Wilson, Colin F.; McCann, John; Carton, Simone; Delargy, Mark; Walsh, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study sought to address two questions: (1) what is the inter-rater reliability of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) when completed by patients, their significant others, and clinicians; and (2) does the factor structure of the DEX vary for these three groups? Methods: We obtained DEX ratings for 113 patients with an acquired brain injury from two brain injury services in the UK and two services in Ireland. We gathered data from two groups of raters—“significant others” (DEX-SO) such as partners and close family members and “clinicians” (DEX-C), who were psychologists or rehabilitation physicians working closely with the patient and who were able to provide an opinion about the patient’s level of everyday executive functioning. Intra-class correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated between each of the three groups (self, significant other, clinician). Principal axis factor (PAF) analyses were also conducted for each of the three groups. Results: The factor analysis revealed a consistent one-factor model for each of the three groups of raters. However, the inter-rater reliability analyses showed a low level of agreement between the self-ratings and the ratings of the two groups of independent raters. We also found low agreement between the significant others and the clinicians. Conclusion: Although there was a consistent finding of a single factor solution for each of the three groups, the low level of agreement between significant others and clinicians raises a question about the reliability of the DEX. PMID:25346668

  14. Sensory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keating; R. Neill Hadder

    Anthropological studies of sensory impairment address biological conditions and cultural disablement while contributing to theoretical discussions of cultural competence, communicative practices, the role of narrative, and features of identity, ideologies, and technology. As boundary cases, impairments can disclose essential aspects of the senses in human life. Sensory impairment studies navigate the complexities of comparing dominant sensory discourses with individual sense

  15. Sensory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Keating; R. Neill Hadder

    2010-01-01

    Anthropological studies of sensory impairment address biological conditions and cultural disablement while contributing to theoretical discussions of cultural competence, communicative practices, the role of narrative, and features of identity, ideologies, and technology. As boundary cases, impairments can disclose essential aspects of the senses in human life. Sensory impairment studies navigate the complexities of comparing dominant sensory discourses with individual sense

  16. Greater Good Science Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    Housed at the University of California, Berkeley, the Greater Good Science Center (GGSC) is "devoted to the scientific understanding of happy and compassionate individuals, strong social bonds, and altruistic behavior." To achieve this goal, the GGSC enlists a broad range of scholars from various disciplines, publishes a quarterly magazine ("Greater Good"), and maintains an outreach program that includes a website designed for parents who wish to foster emotional intelligence in their children. On their homepage, visitors can look over the "Most Recent" area to learn about recent findings, view webcasts with experts from the Center, and also read about their latest publications. Visitors can also view the Greater Good tip of the week on the homepage to read a highlighted article.

  17. Manganese-Enhanced MRI (MEMRI) via Topical Loading of Mn2+ Significantly Impairs Mouse Visual Acuity: A Comparison with Intravitreal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsen-Hsuan; Chiang, Chia-Wen; Trinkaus, Kathryn; Spees, William M.; Sun, Peng; Song, Sheng-Kwei

    2014-01-01

    Manganese enhanced MRI (MEMRI) with topical loading of MnCl2 provides comparable optic nerve enhancement as seen by intravitreal injection. However, the impact of this novel and noninvasive Mn2+ loading method on visual function requires further assessments. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal topical Mn2+ loading dosage for MEMRI and to assess visual function after MnCl2 loading. Intravitreal administration was performed to compare the two approaches of MnCl2 loading. Twenty-four hours after topical loading of 0, 0.5, 0.75, and 1M MnCl2, T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), diffusion tensor image (DTI) and visual acuity were performed to determine the best topical loading dosage for MEMRI measurements and to assess the integrity of retina and optic nerves. Mice were perfusion fixed immediately after in vivo experiments for H&E and immunohistochemistry staining. Topical loading of 1 M MnCl2 damaged the retinal photoreceptor layer with no detectable damage to retina ganglion cell layers or prechiasmatic optic nerves. For the topical loading, 0.75-M MnCl2 was required to see sufficient enhancement of optic nerve. At this concentration the visual function was significantly affected, followed by a slow recovery. Intravitreal injection (0.25 ?L of 0.2 M MnCl2) slightly affected visual acuity with full recovery a day later. To conclude, intravitreal MnCl2 injection provides more reproducible results with less adverse side effects than topical loading. PMID:24436112

  18. Greater Yellowstone Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountain Prairie Institute

    This site features a collection of papers and maps about the Yellowstone hotspot by Dr. Ken Pierce of the Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, an expert in the field. Papers on this site address topics such as Yellowstone glaciation, tracking the hotspot, the Yellowstone plume head, and a seven-day field trip guide to the quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Each downloadable paper map is listed with a brief description and a full citation.

  19. Parents of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: psychological and attentional impairment.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K R; Barkley, R A

    1996-01-01

    Biological parents of ADHD children were compared with parents of nonclinical children on measures of psychological impairment and attentional performance. Parents of children with severe ADHD demonstrated greater impairment in social and psychological functioning. However, no significant differences were found on laboratory measures of sustained attention, memory, cognitive flexibility, encoding, or impulsivity. The possibility that parental adjustment would be more usefully assessed by measures of current adaptive functioning than by means of laboratory tests is discussed. PMID:8720646

  20. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nissen, M J; Genevay, S

    2015-03-11

    Trochanteric bursitis, also known as "greater trochanter pain syndrome", is a frequent and often under-diagnosed cause of pain in the lateral hip region. The diagnosis is essentially based on the clinical examination; however various forms of imaging may be useful to confirm the diagnosis and particularly to ex- clude other aetiologies. The different therapeutic options include non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, physiotherapy, local injections of cortisone and local anaesthetic, and extra-corporeal shock wave therapy. Surgical intervention is only indicated in rare cases. PMID:25946869

  1. Assessment of pain in the cognitively impaired older adult in long-term care.

    PubMed

    Mezinskis, Patricia M; Keller, Ann W; Luggen, Ann Schmidt

    2004-01-01

    This study's objectives were twofold: to identify pain assessment methods used by caregivers of cognitively impaired older adults in long-term care, and to identify medications ordered and administered to them. Over 60% of RNs, with fewer LPNs and CNAs, used formal pain assessment tools. Patient records identified that 77.5% of cognitively impaired patients had a regularly ordered pain medication and 91% had a PRN pain medication order. Thirty percent of patients received at least one PRN medication in a 1-week period. No one diagnosis was significantly associated with a greater tendency for PRN pain medications to be administered, with cancer a possible exception. Eighty-two percent of cognitively impaired patients had a PRN order for acetaminophen. Using minimum data set (MDS) criteria, this study found that patients with greater communication impairments received fewer pain medications. PMID:15107794

  2. Everyday action impairment in Parkinson's disease dementia.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Tania; Britnell, Priscilla; Brennan, Laura; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray; Libon, David J; Bettcher, Brianne M; Rouzard, Francesca; Eppig, Joel; Seidel, Gregory A

    2012-09-01

    This study examined everyday action impairment in participants with Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) by comparison with participants with Parkinson's disease-no dementia (PD) or Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in reference to a neuropsychological model. Participants with PDD (n = 20), PD (n = 20), or AD (n = 20) were administered performance-based measures of everyday functioning that allowed for the quantification of overall performance and error types. Also, caregiver ratings of functional independence were obtained. On performance-based tests, the PDD group exhibited greater functional impairment than the PD group but comparable overall impairment relative to the AD group. Error patterns did not differ between PDD and PD participants but the PDD group demonstrated a higher proportion of commission errors and lower proportion of omission errors relative to the AD group. Hierarchical regression analyses showed omission errors were significantly predicted by neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, whereas commission errors were predicted by both measures of general dementia severity (MMSE) and executive control. Everyday action impairment in PDD differs quantitatively from PD but qualitatively from AD and may be characterized by a relatively high proportion of commission errors-an error type associated with executive control deficits. (JINS, 2012, 18, 1-12). PMID:22621995

  3. Impairment of human proprioception by high-frequency cutaneous vibration

    PubMed Central

    Weerakkody, N S; Mahns, D A; Taylor, J L; Gandevia, S C

    2007-01-01

    These experiments assessed whether the impairment in proprioceptive acuity in the hand during ‘interfering’ cutaneous stimulation could be caused by inputs from Pacinian corpuscles. The ability to detect passive movements at the proximal interphalangeal joint of the index finger was measured when vibrotactile stimuli were applied to the adjacent middle finger and thenar eminence at frequencies and amplitudes that favour activation of rapidly adapting cutaneous afferents. Inputs from Pacinian corpuscles are favoured with high-frequency vibration (300 Hz), while those from Meissner corpuscles are favoured by lower frequencies (30 Hz). Detection of movement was significantly impaired when 300 Hz (20 ?m peak-to-peak amplitude) complex vibration or 300 Hz (50 ?m) sinusoidal vibration was applied to the middle finger and thenar eminence. In contrast, detection of movements was not altered by low-frequency sinusoidal vibration at 30 Hz with an amplitude of 50 ?m or with a larger amplitude matched in subjective intensity to the 300 Hz sinusoidal stimulus. Thus it is unlikely that the impairment in detection was due to attention being diverted by vibration of an adjacent digit. In addition, an increase in amplitude of 300 Hz vibration led to a greater impairment of movement detection, so that the impairment was graded with the input. The time taken to nominate the direction of applied movement also increased during 300 Hz but not during 30 Hz sinusoidal vibration. These findings suggest that stimuli which preferentially activate Pacinian, but not Meissner corpuscles, impair proprioceptive acuity in a movement detection task. PMID:17412774

  4. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    All Vision Impairment Listen Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment is defined as the best-corrected visual acuity ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  5. Evaluation of Impaired Driving Assessments and Special Management Reviews in Reducing Impaired Driving Fatal Crashes in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James; Auld-Owens, Amy; Snowden, Cecelia

    2013-01-01

    Since 1991, State Impaired-Driving Assessments (IDAs) and Special Management Reviews (SMRs) have been conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) to serve as a mechanism to assess the impaired-driving problem in the State, document the existing system, recommend improvements, and garner both political and public support to fund and implement improvements. Did these assessments and reviews serve the States as intended and provide a catalyst to reduce impaired driving? Almost half of the priority recommendations from IDAs in seven States and 60% of the priority recommendations in SMR States were implemented. Barriers to the implementation of some recommendations are discussed. IDAs and SMRs implemented at varying times were examined using logistic regression analyses of the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) for the years 1990 to 2008 to determine the effect they may have triggered on impaired driving rates in fatal crashes. States receiving IDAs and SMRs were compared to similar States not receiving them. Paired comparisons of similar States (e.g. IDA-State vs. non-IDA State) did not reveal any significant differences in impaired driving rates, but IDA and SMR States as a group showed significantly greater impaired driving declines in fatal crashes compared to non-IDA and non-SMR States as a group. IDAs and SMRs appear to provide a mechanism to examine the State’s impaired-driving program by an external team of experts and reveal areas where improvement is needed and confirm strategies that appear to be effective. PMID:24406944

  6. Greater Seattle Area Career Resources

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Tim

    Greater Seattle Area Career Resources Seattle Pacific University 2nd Floor, Student Union Building-660-4441 ea@bluebridgecoaching.com www.bluebridgecoaching.com Carol Foltz Career Pathways Aries Building 2366.nextstep-careers.com The JANUS group 100 West Harrison Street South Tower, Suite 580 Seattle, WA 98119 206-374-0323 www

  7. Depression and academic impairment in college students.

    PubMed

    Heiligenstein, E; Guenther, G; Hsu, K; Herman, K

    1996-09-01

    Impairment from depression and its impact on productivity are of profound societal importance. We report the results of an evaluation of depression and academic impairment in university students, using standardized measures. Sixty-three students completed the Beck Depression Inventory and the work role section from the Social Adjustment Scale-Self Report. Academic impairment, manifested as missed time from class, decreased academic productivity, and significant interpersonal problems at school, was seen in 92% of the students. More severe depression was related to a higher level of impairment. At all levels of depression, affective impairment-inadequacy, distress, and disinterest in school-was more prevalent than was academic impairment. The risk of academic impairment became likely at only moderate-to-severe levels of depression. Discussing the implications of depression with students and aggressively pursuing both medication and nonmedication therapies are essential in preventing the high morbidity associated with untreated depression. PMID:8908879

  8. Everyday Action Impairment in Parkinson’s Disease Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Giovannetti, Tania; Britnell, Priscilla; Brennan, Laura; Siderowf, Andrew; Grossman, Murray; Libon, David J.; Bettcher, Brianne M.; Rouzard, Francesca; Eppig, Joel; Seidel, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined everyday action impairment in participants with Parkinson’s disease dementia (PDD) by comparison with participants with Parkinson’s disease-no dementia (PD) or Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and in reference to a neuropsychological model. Participants with PDD (n=20), PD (n=20), or AD (n = 20) were administered performance-based measures of everyday functioning that allowed for the quantification of overall performance and error types. Also, caregiver ratings of functional independence were obtained. On performance-based tests, the PDD group exhibited greater functional impairment than the PD group but comparable overall impairment relative to the AD group. Error patterns did not differ between PDD and PD participants but the PDD group demonstrated a higher proportion of commission errors and lower proportion of omission errors relative to the AD group. Hierarchical regression analyses showed omission errors were significantly predicted by neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, whereas commission errors were predicted by both measures of general dementia severity (MMSE) and executive control. Everyday action impairment in PDD differs quantitatively from PD but qualitatively from AD and may be characterized by a relatively high proportion of commission errors—an error type associated with executive control deficits. PMID:22621995

  9. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  10. Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Park Service

    The Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center is a portal to information about the natural and cultural resources of Yellowstone and Grand Teton (including John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway) national parks and Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. By reporting on what has been learned from research and monitoring in these parks, we hope to increase public awareness of new findings and encourage studies that will help guide park management decisions. The National Park Service has set up Research Learning Centers as public-private partnerships that promote the sharing of scientific knowledge about the parks.

  11. Quality of life in adolescents with hearing deficiencies and visual impairments

    PubMed Central

    Marques Freire Torres, Vanthauze; Lidianne Alencar Marinho, Christielle; Gabriela Gomes de Oliveira, Carolina; Conceição Maria Vieira, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Summary Introduction:?The term quality of life (in Portuguese, Qualidade de Vida; QV) has been expanded and modified over the years and has come to signify social development in terms of education, health, and leisure as well as economic issues. Objective:?To analyze the perception of QV in adolescents with hearing and visual impairments and the effects of socio-demographic characteristics on the domains of QV. Method:?This descriptive series study comprised 42 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years who were students at Recife's state schools. The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated questionnaire was used to evaluate QV. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests with a significance level of p?impairments than among those with hearing impairments. Among the individual components of QV, the environment domain garnered the lowest scores independent of the type of impairment. The subjects with visual impairments reported higher scores for social relationships, while the psychological domain scored higher among those with hearing impairments. The students integrated into normal classrooms perceived better QV in the psychological and social relationships domains than did those who sat in special classrooms. Conclusion:?The environmental domain was the worst component of the QV of handicapped adolescents, suggesting a need for greater investments in policies to improve the QV of this population. PMID:26029272

  12. The Tree-Drawing Test (Koch's Baum Test): A Useful Aid to Diagnose Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Stanzani Maserati, Michelangelo; Matacena, Corrado; Sambati, Luisa; Oppi, Federico; Poda, Roberto; De Matteis, Maddalena; Gallassi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To study the Tree-Drawing Test in a group of demented patients and compare it with a group of mild cognitively impaired patients (MCI) and controls. Methods. Consecutive outpatients were classified as affected by dementia (Alzheimer's disease (AD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and vascular dementia (VD)) or by MCI. Patients and controls underwent the Tree-Drawing Test and MMSE. Results. 118 AD, 19 FTD, 46 VD, and 132 MCI patients and 90 controls were enrolled. AD patients draw trees globally smaller than other patients and controls. FTD patients draw trees with a wider space occupation than AD and MCI patients but smaller than controls as well as VD patients. Trees drawn by MCI patients are intermediate in size between AD patients and controls. The trunk-to-crown ratio of trees drawn by cognitive impaired patients is greater than controls while the tree size-relative-to-page space index is significantly smaller. The tree size-relative-to-page space index of trees drawn by AD patients is smaller than that of the other cognitively impaired patients. Tree height and the trunk-to-crown ratio are independent predictors of cognitive impairment. Conclusions. Trees drawn by cognitively impaired patients are different from those drawn by healthy subjects with a progressive differentiation from mild to more relevant degrees of cognitive impairment.

  13. Gender Differences in Alcohol Impairment of Simulated Driving Performance and Driving-Related Skills

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Melissa A.; Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Considerable laboratory research indicates that moderate doses of alcohol impair a broad range of skilled activities related to driving performance in young adults. Although laboratory studies show that the intensity of impairment is generally dependent on the blood alcohol concentration, some reviews of this literature suggest that women might be more sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol than men. The present study tested this hypothesis. Methods: Drawing on data from previous experiments in our laboratory, we compared men and women in terms of the degree to which a challenge dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) impaired their simulated driving performance and measures of three separate behavioral and cognitive functions important to driving performance: motor coordination, speed of information processing and information-processing capacity. Results: Alcohol significantly impaired all aspects of performance. Moreover, women displayed greater impairment than men on all behavioral tests and also reported higher levels of subjective intoxication compared with men. Conclusions: Both biological and social–cultural factors have been implicated in gender differences in the behavioral responses to alcohol. The current evidence of heightened sensitivity to alcohol in women highlights the need for better understanding the biological and environmental factors underlying this gender difference. PMID:19786725

  14. Respiratory Impairment and Systemic Inflammation in Cedar Asthmatics Removed from Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, Chris; Dybuncio, Anne; Pui, Mandy M.; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown that removing occupational asthmatics from exposure does not routinely lead to significant improvements in respiratory impairment. These studies were of limited duration and factors determining recovery remain obscure. Our objective was to evaluate residual respiratory impairment and associated sputum and blood biomarkers in subjects with Western red cedar asthma after exposure cessation. Methods Subjects previously diagnosed with cedar asthma, and removed from exposure to cedar dust for at least one year, were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire and spirometry. PC20 (methacholine concentration that produces 20% fall in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at 1 second)) sputum cellularity and select Th1/Th2 (T helper cells 1 and 2) cytokine concentrations in peripheral blood were determined. The asthma impairment class was determined and multivariate analyses were performed to determine its relationship with sputum cell counts and serum cytokines. Results 40 non-smoking males (mean age 62) were examined at a mean interval of 25 years from cedar asthma diagnosis and 17 years from last cedar exposure. 40% were in impairment class 2/3. On average, the PC20 had increased by 2.0 mg/ml; the FEV1 decreased by 1.5 L, with greater decrease in those with greater impairment. Higher impairment was associated with serum interferon-gamma (mean?=?1.3 pg/ml in class 2/3 versus 0.62 pg/ml in class 0/1, p?=?0.04), mainly due to the FEV1 component (correlation with interferon-gamma?=??0.46, p?=?0.005). Conclusion Years after exposure cessation, patients with Western red cedar asthma have persistent airflow obstruction and respiratory impairment, associated with systemic inflammation. PMID:23468925

  15. Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This article may help the user understand the concept of statistical significance and the meaning of the numbers produced by The Survey System. This article is presented in two parts. The first part simplifies the concept of statistical significance as much as possible; so that non-technical readers can use the concept to help make decisions based on their data. The second part provides more technical readers with a fuller discussion of the exact meaning of statistical significance numbers.

  16. Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhi-ya; Tang, Yan; Li, Hui-min; Lin, Zhi-min; Zheng, Jin-ping; Chen, Rong-chang; Zhong, Nan-shan

    2014-01-01

    Background Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood. Objectives To determine the factors associated with lung function impairment and to compare changes in spirometry during bronchiectasis exacerbation and convalescence (1 week following 14-day antibiotic therapy). Methods We recruited 142 patients with steady-state bronchiectasis, of whom 44 with acute exacerbations in the follow-up were included in subgroup analyses. Baseline measurements consisted of chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), sputum volume, purulence and bacteriology, spirometry and diffusing capacity. Spirometry, but not diffusing capacity, was examined during acute exacerbations and convalescence. Results In the final multivariate models, having bronchiectasis symptoms for 10 years or greater (OR?=?4.75, 95%CI: 1.46–15.43, P?=?0.01), sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OR?=?4.93, 95%CI: 1.52–15.94, P<0.01) and HRCT total score being 12 or greater (OR?=?7.77, 95%CI: 3.21–18.79, P<0.01) were the major variables associated with FEV1 being 50%pred or less; and the only variable associated with reduced DLCO was 4 or more bronchiectatic lobes (OR?=?5.91, 95%CI: 2.20–17.23, P<0.01). Overall differences in FVC and FEV1 during exacerbations and convalescence were significant (P<0.05), whereas changes in other spirometric parameters were less notable. This applied even when stratified by the magnitude of FEV1 and DLCO reduction at baseline. Conclusion Significant lung function impairment should raise alert of chest HRCT abnormality and sputum culture positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in patients with predominantly mild to moderate steady-state bronchiectasis. Acute exacerbations elicited reductions in FVC and FEV1. Changes of other spirometric parameters were less significant during exacerbations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01761214 PMID:25405614

  17. Striatal degeneration impairs language learning: evidence from Huntington's disease

    PubMed Central

    De Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Couette, Marylin; Dolbeau, Guillaume; Dürr, Alexandra; Youssov, Katia; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Although the role of the striatum in language processing is still largely unclear, a number of recent proposals have outlined its specific contribution. Different studies report evidence converging to a picture where the striatum may be involved in those aspects of rule-application requiring non-automatized behavior. This is the main characteristic of the earliest phases of language acquisition that require the online detection of distant dependencies and the creation of syntactic categories by means of rule learning. Learning of sequences and categorization processes in non-language domains has been known to require striatal recruitment. Thus, we hypothesized that the striatum should play a prominent role in the extraction of rules in learning a language. We studied 13 pre-symptomatic gene-carriers and 22 early stage patients of Huntington’s disease (HD), both characterized by a progressive degeneration of the striatum and 21 late stage patients HD (18 stages II, 2 stage III and 1 stage IV) where cortical degeneration accompanies striatal degeneration. When presented with a simplified artificial language where words and rules could be extracted, early stage HD patients (stage I) were impaired in the learning test, demonstrating a greater impairment in rule than word learning compared to the twenty age- and education- matched controls. HD patients at later stages were impaired both on word and rule learning. While spared in their overall performance, gene-carriers having learned a set of abstract artificial language rules were then impaired in the transfer of those rules to similar artificial language structures. The correlation analyses among several neuropsychological tests assessing executive function showed that rule learning correlated with tests requiring working memory and attentional control, while word learning correlated with a test involving episodic memory. These learning impairments significantly correlated with the bicaudate ratio. The overall results support striatal involvement in rule extraction from speech and suggest that language acquisition requires several aspects of memory and executive functions for word and rule learning. PMID:18842608

  18. Gender Differences in Reading Impairment and in the Identification of Impaired Readers: Results from a Large-Scale Study of At-Risk Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Reading impairment is more common in males, but the magnitude and origin of this gender difference are debated. In a large-scale study of reading impairment among 491,103 beginning second-graders, gender differences increased with greater severity of reading impairment, peaking at a ratio of 2.4:1 for a broad measure of fluency and a ratio of…

  19. Alcohol, Pot Combo Impairs Driving More Than Either Alone

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the combined impact leads to greater behind-the-wheel impairment, it didn't double the effect. The ... for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department ...

  20. Speech impairment (adult)

    MedlinePLUS

    Language impairment; Impairment of speech; Inability to speak; Aphasia; Dysarthria; Slurred speech; Dysphonia voice disorders ... Common speech and language disorders include: APHASIA Aphasia is loss of the ability to understand or express spoken or ...

  1. Conifer Cover Increase in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Frequency,

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Conifer Cover Increase in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem: Frequency, Rates, and Spatial in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) garnered much attention for causing a significant decrease of the magnitude of carbon uptake by conifer cover increase. Key words: Yellowstone; conifer expansion; bio

  2. Cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Jeremy; Alty, Jane Elizabeth; Jamieson, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Cognitive impairment is a significant non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Longitudinal cohort studies have demonstrated that approximately 50% of those with PD develop dementia after 10?years, increasing to over 80% after 20?years. Deficits in cognition can be identified at the time of PD diagnosis in some patients and this mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) has been studied extensively over the last decade. Although PD-MCI is a risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease dementia there is evidence to suggest that PD-MCI might consist of distinct subtypes with different pathophysiologies and prognoses. The major pathological correlate of Parkinson's disease dementia is Lewy body deposition in the limbic system and neocortex although Alzheimer's related pathology is also an important contributor. Pathological damage causes alteration to neurotransmitter systems within the brain, producing behavioural change. Management of cognitive impairment in PD requires a multidisciplinary approach and accurate communication with patients and relatives is essential. PMID:25814509

  3. Nutrition and cognitive impairment in the elderly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. González-Gross; Ascensión Marcos; Klaus Pietrzik

    2001-01-01

    As the number of older people is growing rapidly worldwide and the fact that elderly people are also apparently living longer, dementia, the most common cause of cognitive impairment is getting to be a greater public health problem. Nutrition plays a role in the ageing process, but there is still a lack of knowledge about nutrition-related risk factors in cognitive

  4. Adapting for Impaired Patrons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuyler, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a library, with an MCI Corporation grant, approached the process of setting up computers for the visually impaired. Discusses preparations, which included hiring a visually-impaired user as a consultant and contacting the VIP (Visually Impaired Persons) group; equipment; problems with the graphical user interface; and training.…

  5. COMPLICATED GRIEF SYMPTOMS IN ANXIETY DISORDERS: PREVALENCE AND ASSOCIATED IMPAIRMENT

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Luana; Bui, Eric; LeBlanc, Nicole; Porter, Eliora; Robinaugh, Donald; Dryman, Taylor; Nadal-Vicens, Mireya; Worthington, John; Simon, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has identified high rates of comorbid anxiety disorders among individuals presenting with primary CG. In the present study, we examined the prevalence of comorbid CG in bereaved primary anxiety disorder (AD) patients compared to bereaved healthy controls. We also examined the impairment associated with comorbid CG in AD. Methods Participants were 242 bereaved adults (mean (SD) age = 41.5 (13.1), 44.2% women) with a primary AD diagnosis, including generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 57), panic disorder (PD; n = 49), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; n = 29), and generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD; n = 107), as well as 155 bereaved healthy controls with no current DSM-IV Axis I diagnosis (mean (SD) age = 43.0 (13.6), 51.0% women). CG symptoms were measured using the 19-item inventory of complicated grief (ICG), with threshold CG defined as an ICG score of ?30. Quality of life and functional impairment were assessed with the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q) and the Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT), respectively. Results Participants with primary ADs had significantly higher rates of threshold CG symptoms than bereaved controls (12.0% vs. 0.65%; Fisher’s Exact P < 0.001). Rates of threshold CG were significantly elevated for each AD when compared to bereaved controls. After adjustment for age, sex, education, and comorbid major depressive disorder, threshold CG was associated with lower quality of life (? = ?0.140, P = 0.023) and greater impairment (? = 0.141, P = 0.035) among individuals with AD. Conclusions Our findings suggest that threshold CG is of clinical relevance in bereaved individuals with a primary anxiety disorder. Screening for CG in patients with ADs may be warranted. PMID:23495105

  6. Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy Impairs Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Swastik; Umapathy, Sridharan; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2014-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is the mildest form of the spectrum of neurocognitive impairment in cirrhosis. It is a frequent occurrence in patients of cirrhosis and is detectable only by specialized neurocognitive testing. MHE is a clinically significant disorder which impairs daily functioning, driving performance, work capability and learning ability. It also predisposes to the development of overt hepatic encephalopathy, increased falls and increased mortality. This results in impaired quality of life for the patient as well as significant social and economic burden for health providers and care givers. Early detection and treatment of MHE with ammonia lowering therapy can reverse MHE and improve quality of life.

  7. Acquisition of Spoken and Signed English by Hearing-Impaired Children of Hearing-Impaired or Hearing Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Ann E.; Schick, Brenda

    1988-01-01

    The study compared signed and spoken English in hearing-impaired children (N=50) of hearing-impaired parents (HIP) with another group of hearing-impaired children (N=50) of hearing parents (HP). At ages seven and eight, HIP children demonstrated a significant linguistic advantage in both their spoken and signed English over HP children. (Author/DB)

  8. Impaired consciousness in epilepsy investigated by a prospective responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Shklyar, Irina; Lee, Hyang Woon; Ezeani, Celestine C.; Anaya, Joseph; Balakirsky, Samantha; Han, Xiao; Enamandram, Sheila; Men, Clara; Cheng, Joyce Y.; Nunn, Abigail; Mayer, Tanya; Francois, Czestochowa; Albrecht, Molly; Hutchison, Alan L.; Yap, Ee-Lynn; Ing, Kevin; Didebulidze, Gvantsa; Xiao, Bo; Hamid, Hamada; Farooque, Pue; Detyniecki, Kamil; Giacino, Joseph T.; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Impaired consciousness in epileptic seizures has a major negative impact on patient quality of life. Prior work on epileptic unconsciousness has mainly used retrospective and nonstandardized methods. Our goal was to validate and to obtain initial data using a standardized prospective testing battery. Methods The responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES) was used on 52 patients during continuous video/EEG monitoring. RES begins with higher-level questions and commands, and switches adaptively to more basic sensorimotor responses depending on patient performance. RES continues after seizures and includes postictal memory testing. Scoring was conducted based on video review. Key Findings Testing on standardized seizure simulations yielded good intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. We captured 59 seizures from 18 patients (35% of participants) during 1420 hours of RES monitoring. RES impairment was greatest during and after tonic-clonic seizures, less in partial seizures, and minimal in auras and subclinical seizures. In partial seizures, ictal RES impairment was significantly greater if EEG changes were present. Maximum RES impairment (lowest ictal score) was also significantly correlated with long postictal recovery time, and poor postictal memory. Significance We found that prospective testing of responsiveness during seizures is feasible and reliable. RES impairment was related to EEG changes during seizures, as well as to postictal memory deficits and recovery time. With a larger patient sample it is hoped that this approach can identify brain networks underlying specific components of impaired consciousness in seizures. This may allow the development of improved treatments targeted at preventing dysfunction in these networks. PMID:22150524

  9. Public Computer Assisted Learning Facilities for Children with Visual Impairment: Universal Design for Inclusive Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Kin Wai Michael; Lam, Mei Seung

    2012-01-01

    Although computer assisted learning (CAL) is becoming increasingly popular, people with visual impairment face greater difficulty in accessing computer-assisted learning facilities. This is primarily because most of the current CAL facilities are not visually impaired friendly. People with visual impairment also do not normally have access to…

  10. Early diagnosis of diabetic vascular complications: impairment of red blood cell deformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sehyun; Ku, Yunhee; Park, Cheol-Woo; Suh, Jang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Reduced deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) may play an important role on the pathogenesis of chronic vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. However, available techniques for measuring RBC deformability often require washing process after each measurement, which is not optimal for day-to-day clinical use at point of care. The objectives of the present study are to develop a device and to delineate the correlation of impaired RBC deformability with diabetic nephropathy. We developed a disposable ektacytometry to measure RBC deformability, which adopted a laser diffraction technique and slit rheometry. The essential features of this design are its simplicity (ease of operation and no moving parts) and a disposable element which is in contact with the blood sample. We studied adult diabetic patients divided into three groups according to diabetic complications. Group I comprised 57 diabetic patients with normal renal function. Group II comprised 26 diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Group III consisted of 30 diabetic subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. According to the renal function for the diabetic groups, matched non-diabetic groups were served as control. We found substantially impaired red blood cell deformability in those with normal renal function (group I) compared to non-diabetic control (P = 0.0005). As renal function decreases, an increased impairment in RBC deformability was found. Diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (group II) when compared to non-diabetic controls (CRF) had an apparently greater impairment in RBC deformability (P = 0.07). The non-diabetic cohort (CRF), on the other hand, manifested significant impairment in red blood cell deformability compared to healthy control (P = 0.0001). The newly developed slit ektacytometer can measure the RBC deformability with ease and accuracy. In addition, progressive impairment in cell deformability is associated with renal function loss in all patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. In diabetic patients, early impairment in RBC deformability appears in patients with normal renal function.

  11. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  12. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  13. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  14. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  15. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...which significance is reached. For example, an action that would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...

  16. Major Depressive Disorder is Associated with Broad Impairments on Neuropsychological Measures of Executive Function: A Meta-Analysis and Review

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive impairments are now widely acknowledged as an important aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD), and it has been proposed that executive function (EF) may be particularly impaired in patients with MDD. However, the existence and nature of EF impairments associated with depression remain strongly debated. While many studies have found significant deficits associated with MDD on neuropsychological measures of EF, others have not, potentially due to low statistical power, task impurity, and diverse patient samples, and there have been no recent, comprehensive, meta-analyses investigating EF in patients with MDD. The current meta-analysis uses random effects models to synthesize 113 previous research studies that compared participants with MDD to healthy control participants on at least one neuropsychological measure of EF. Results of the meta-analysis demonstrate that MDD is reliably associated with impaired performance on neuropsychological measures of EF, with effect sizes ranging from d = 0.32–0.97. While patients with MDD also have slower processing speed, motor slowing alone cannot account for these results. In addition, some evidence suggests that deficits on neuropsychological measures of EF are greater in patients with more severe current depression symptoms, and those taking psychotropic medications, while evidence for effects of age was weaker. The results are consistent with the theory that MDD is associated with broad impairment in multiple aspects of EF. Implications for treatment of MDD and theories of EF are discussed. Future research is needed to establish the specificity and causal link between MDD and EF impairments. PMID:22642228

  17. Impairment in the cognitive functioning of men with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS).

    PubMed

    Grigsby, Jim; Brega, Angela G; Jacquemont, Sébastien; Loesch, Danuta Z; Leehey, Maureen A; Goodrich, Glenn K; Hagerman, Randi J; Epstein, Jennifer; Wilson, Rebecca; Cogswell, Jennifer B; Jardini, Tristan; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Paul J

    2006-10-25

    Disorders associated with fragile X syndrome involve a trinucleotide (CGG) repeat expansion in the FMR1 gene. Recently, a progressive movement disorder (fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome [FXTAS]) has been identified in premutation carriers, persons with 55 to 200 CGG repeats. In addition to ataxia, action tremor, and Parkinsonism, early case reports suggested that FXTAS involves impaired cognition, but the precise nature of the impairment has not been elucidated. In this first, preliminary study of the subject, circumscribed aspects of cognitive functioning were examined in 25 men with FXTAS. Subjects' performance on the cognitive tests was compared with normative data. Scores on two measures of executive cognitive functioning showed a high prevalence of substantial impairment. Capacity for inhibition was severely affected in one-quarter of this highly educated sample; information processing speed was profoundly impaired in most subjects. Although mean verbal and performance IQ scores were not significantly different from the general population, they were quite low given the sample's educational level. Cognitive and functional impairment was greater for men with more CGG repeats, although number of repeats was not associated with age of onset of either tremor or ataxia. The results provide evidence that FXTAS involves marked impairment of executive cognitive abilities. PMID:16780889

  18. Cognitive Impairment in Older Patients With Breast Cancer Before Systemic Therapy: Is There an Interaction Between Cancer and Comorbidity?

    PubMed Central

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.; Stern, Robert A.; Luta, Gheorghe; McGuckin, Meghan; Clapp, Jonathan D.; Hurria, Arti; Jacobsen, Paul B.; Faul, Leigh Anne; Isaacs, Claudine; Denduluri, Neelima; Gavett, Brandon; Traina, Tiffany A.; Johnson, Patricia; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Turner, R. Scott; Howard, Darlene; Van Meter, John W.; Saykin, Andrew; Ahles, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine if older patients with breast cancer have cognitive impairment before systemic therapy. Patients and Methods Participants were patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic breast cancer and matched friend or community controls age > 60 years without prior systemic treatment, dementia, or neurologic disease. Participants completed surveys and a 55-minute battery of 17 neuropsychological tests. Biospecimens were obtained for APOE genotyping, and clinical data were abstracted. Neuropsychological test scores were standardized using control means and standard deviations (SDs) and grouped into five domain z scores. Cognitive impairment was defined as any domain z score two SDs below or ? two z scores 1.5 SDs below the control mean. Multivariable analyses evaluated pretreatment differences considering age, race, education, and site; comparisons between patient cases also controlled for surgery. Results The 164 patient cases and 182 controls had similar neuropsychological domain scores. However, among patient cases, those with stage II to III cancers had lower executive function compared with those with stage 0 to I disease, after adjustment (P = .05). The odds of impairment were significantly higher among older, nonwhite, less educated women and those with greater comorbidity, after adjustment. Patient case or control status, anxiety, depression, fatigue, and surgery were not associated with impairment. However, there was an interaction between comorbidity and patient case or control status; comorbidity was strongly associated with impairment among patient cases (adjusted odds ratio, 8.77; 95% CI, 2.06 to 37.4; P = .003) but not among controls (P = .97). Only diabetes and cardiovascular disease were associated with impairment among patient cases. Conclusion There were no overall differences between patients with breast cancer and controls before systemic treatment, but there may be pretreatment cognitive impairment within subgroups of patient cases with greater tumor or comorbidity burden. PMID:24841981

  19. Is number sense impaired in chronic pain patients?

    PubMed Central

    Wolrich, J.; Poots, A. J.; Kuehler, B. M.; Rice, A. S. C.; Rahman, A.; Bantel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in imaging have improved our understanding of the role of the brain in painful conditions. Discoveries of morphological changes have been made in patients with chronic pain, with little known about the functional consequences when they occur in areas associated with ‘number-sense’; thus, it can be hypothesized that chronic pain impairs this sense. Methods First, an audit of the use of numbers in gold-standard pain assessment tools in patients with acute and chronic pain was undertaken. Secondly, experiments were conducted with patients with acute and chronic pain and healthy controls. Participants marked positions of numbers on lines (number marking), before naming numbers on pre-marked lines (number naming). Finally, subjects bisected lines flanked with ‘2’ and ‘9’. Deviations from expected responses were determined for each experiment. Results Four hundred and ninety-four patients were audited; numeric scores in the ‘moderate’ and ‘severe’ pain categories were significantly higher in chronic compared with acute pain patients. In experiments (n=150), more than one-third of chronic pain patients compared with 1/10th of controls showed greater deviations from the expected in number marking and naming indicating impaired number sense. Line bisection experiments suggest prefrontal and parietal cortical dysfunction as cause of this impairment. Conclusions Audit data suggest patients with chronic pain interpret numbers differently from acute pain sufferers. Support is gained by experiments indicating impaired number sense in one-third of chronic pain patients. These results cast doubts on the appropriateness of the use of visual analogue and numeric rating scales in chronic pain in clinics and research. PMID:25082664

  20. Neuropsychological impairment in incest offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Langevin; G. Wortzman; R. Dickey; P. Wright; L. Handy

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-one incest perpetrators were compared to 36 nonviolent nonsex offenders for the presence of neuropsychological impairment. The WAIS-R, Halstead-Reitan battery, and CT scans of the brain were used. The sex offenders were also examined for the presence of substance abuse, violence, pedophilia, and biological relationship to the victim. Incest offenders had significantly lower IQ scores than controls but generally were

  1. ?-ADRENOCEPTOR-MEDIATED VASOCONSTRICTION IS NOT INVOLVED IN IMPAIRED FUNCTIONAL VASODILATION IN THE OBESE ZUCKER RAT

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Jay S; Xiang, Lusha; Hodnett, Benjamin L; Hester, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Obesity/metabolic syndrome is associated with augmented ?-adrenoceptor sensitivity and impaired hyperaemic responses to exercise. Thus, it is possible that this elevated ?-adrenoceptor constriction contributes to the blunted hyperaemic response. 2. Male lean and obese Zucker rats were instrumented for acute measurements of blood pressure (BP) and iliac blood flow (BF). Changes in BP and BF were determined in anaesthetized animals in response to intravenous administration of increasing doses of the ?1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (PE). Once BF and BP returned to normal, a single bolus of the ?-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (0.5 mg) was administered. In separate animals, the spinotrapezius muscle was exteriorized for direct in situ observation of the microcirculation in response to phentolamine and muscle contraction. 3. Administration of PE demonstrated that iliac BF is highly autoregulated in the face of increasing perfusion pressure. Iliac conductance following phentolamine was significantly greater in obese rats. Following phentolamine administration, iliac vascular conductance was significantly greater in obese rats compared with lean animals. However, ?-adrenoceptor blockade did not significantly alter arteriolar diameter in the spinotrapezius muscle during muscle contraction in either lean or obese animals. 4. These results suggest a greater contribution of the ?-adrenoceptors in basal hindlimb vascular tone in obese rats. Furthermore, an augmented ?-adrenoceptor-mediated vasoconstriction may not contribute to the impaired functional dilation in anaesthetized obese rats. PMID:18177478

  2. New Refinements in Greater Omentum Free Flap Transfer for Severe Secondary Lymphedema Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pinilla, Carmen; Castellano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Lymphedema is a chronic debilitating disease, affecting a considerable part of the population; it results from impairment of the lymphatic system. It is highly prevalent among patients subjected to axillary and groin nodal dissection after surgery for breast cancer, abdominopelvic surgery, and lymphadenectomy after melanoma surgery. Interestingly, among the surgical treatment options for lymphedema, groin lymph node transfer is gaining popularity; however, in some cases, dissection at this site can cause significant morbidity, including possible development of iatrogenic lymphedema. To avoid these complications, new donor nodal groups are being proposed (eg, submental or supraclavicular). We have used the greater omentum as a lymph node and lymph vessel donor site. Dissection of the omentum is easy to perform and can even be done in patients who have undergone previous abdominal surgeries. We present refinements in the surgical technique for free omentum transfer in the management of secondary lymphedema: the first free omental flap dissection performed laparoscopically and the use of a primary flap as the recipient pedicle of a free greater omentum flap for anatomical repair after chest osteoradionecrosis and simultaneous functional repair of chronic lymphedema.

  3. Odor sensitivity is impaired in HIV-positive cognitively impaired patients.

    PubMed

    Razani, J; Murphy, C; Davidson, T M; Grant, I; McCutchan, A

    1996-01-01

    An estimated 7-28% of patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) develop dementia and at least 50% develop mild neurocognitive impairment. Past studies have shown odor identification impairments in HIV + neurocognitively impaired patients. It is difficult, however, based on an odor identification test to state with certainty that individuals with cognitive impairment have sensory olfactory deficits, because odor identification tests are known to draw upon cognitive skills. In the present study odor detection sensitivity was evaluated using an ascending, forced-choice, two-alternative, odor threshold test for butanol. Subjects were divided into three groups, HIV seropositive (HIV+) neurocognitively impaired, HIV+ neurocognitively unimpaired, and HIV negative, based on neurological and psychological testing. An analysis of variance revealed significantly poorer odor sensitivity for the HIV+ neurocognitively impaired group than for the two control groups. A significant negative correlation between degree of cognitive impairment and olfactory sensitivity was also found. We suspect that the olfactory deficits found in the HIV+ neurocognitively impaired subjects are primarily due to damage to the central nervous system; however, nasal infection may be a contributing etiology. PMID:8778881

  4. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association - www.asha.org National Dissemination Center for Children ...

  5. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  6. Heritable risk factors associated with language impairments.

    PubMed

    Barry, J G; Yasin, I; Bishop, D V M

    2007-02-01

    There is a strong genetic contribution to children's language and literacy impairments. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of the phenotype are familial by comparing 34 parents of probands with language/literacy impairments and 33 parents of typically developing probands. The parents responded to questionnaires regarding previous history for language/reading impairment and participated in psychometric testing. The psychometric test battery consisted of tests assessing non-verbal IQ, short-term memory, articulation, receptive grammar, reading abilities and spelling. Self-report measures demonstrated a higher prevalence of language and literacy impairments in parents of affected probands (32%) compared with parents of unaffected probands (6%). The two groups of parents differed significantly in their performance on the non-word repetition, oromotor and digit span tasks. Non-word repetition gave the best discrimination between the parent groups even when the data from the parents who actually were impaired as ascertained by direct testing or self-report were removed from the analyses. This suggests that non-word repetition serves as a marker of a family risk for language impairment. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues associated with ascertainment of specific language impairment (SLI). PMID:17233642

  7. Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures: role of cortical slow activity.

    PubMed

    Englot, Dario J; Yang, Li; Hamid, Hamada; Danielson, Nathan; Bai, Xiaoxiao; Marfeo, Anthony; Yu, Lissa; Gordon, Aliza; Purcaro, Michael J; Motelow, Joshua E; Agarwal, Ravi; Ellens, Damien J; Golomb, Julie D; Shamy, Michel C F; Zhang, Heping; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Vives, Kenneth; Spencer, Dennis D; Spencer, Susan S; Schevon, Catherine; Zaveri, Hitten P; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2010-12-01

    Impaired consciousness requires altered cortical function. This can occur either directly from disorders that impair widespread bilateral regions of the cortex or indirectly through effects on subcortical arousal systems. It has therefore long been puzzling why focal temporal lobe seizures so often impair consciousness. Early work suggested that altered consciousness may occur with bilateral or dominant temporal lobe seizure involvement. However, other bilateral temporal lobe disorders do not impair consciousness. More recent work supports a 'network inhibition hypothesis' in which temporal lobe seizures disrupt brainstem-diencephalic arousal systems, leading indirectly to depressed cortical function and impaired consciousness. Indeed, prior studies show subcortical involvement in temporal lobe seizures and bilateral frontoparietal slow wave activity on intracranial electroencephalography. However, the relationships between frontoparietal slow waves and impaired consciousness and between cortical slowing and fast seizure activity have not been directly investigated. We analysed intracranial electroencephalography recordings during 63 partial seizures in 26 patients with surgically confirmed mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Behavioural responsiveness was determined based on blinded review of video during seizures and classified as impaired (complex-partial seizures) or unimpaired (simple-partial seizures). We observed significantly increased delta-range 1-2 Hz slow wave activity in the bilateral frontal and parietal neocortices during complex-partial compared with simple-partial seizures. In addition, we confirmed prior work suggesting that propagation of unilateral mesial temporal fast seizure activity to the bilateral temporal lobes was significantly greater in complex-partial than in simple-partial seizures. Interestingly, we found that the signal power of frontoparietal slow wave activity was significantly correlated with the temporal lobe fast seizure activity in each hemisphere. Finally, we observed that complex-partial seizures were somewhat more common with onset in the language-dominant temporal lobe. These findings provide direct evidence for cortical dysfunction in the form of bilateral frontoparietal slow waves associated with impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures. We hypothesize that bilateral temporal lobe seizures may exert a powerful inhibitory effect on subcortical arousal systems. Further investigations will be needed to fully determine the role of cortical-subcortical networks in ictal neocortical dysfunction and may reveal treatments to prevent this important negative consequence of temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:21081551

  8. Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-grouse

    E-print Network

    Torgersen, Christian

    Conservation Assessment of Greater Sage-grouse and Sagebrush Habitats J. W. Connelly S. T. Knick M CONSERVATION ASSESSMENT OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE and SAGEBRUSH HABITATS John W. Connelly Idaho Department Fish@vib.tv San J. Stiver Wildlife Coordinator, National Sage-Grouse Conservation Framework Planning Team 2184

  9. Ontogeny of Larval Greater Redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi)

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    and Mohr, 1978a; Fuiman, 1979), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum, Buynak and Mohr, 1979Ontogeny of Larval Greater Redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi) CHRISTOPHER M. BUNT1 AND STEVEN J.--Adult greater redhorse Moxostoma valenciennesi, were seined from the Grand River, Ontario, and artificially

  10. Visual impairment and spectacle coverage rate in Baoshan district, China: population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment associated with refractive error and the unmet need for spectacles in a special suburban senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai, one of several rural areas undergoing a transition from rural to urban area, where data of visual impairment are limited. Methods The study was a population based survey of 4545 Chinese aged (age: >60 years or older ) at Baoshan, Shanghai, in 2009. One copy of questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. Results The prevalence of mild (6/12 to 6/18), moderate (6/18 to 6/60) and severe visual impairment was 12.59%, 8.38% and 0.44%, respectively, and 5.26%, 3.06% and 0.09% with refractive correction. Visual impairment was associated with age, gender, education and career, but not insurance . The prevalence of correctable visual impairment was 5.81% (using 6/18 cutoff) and 13.18% (using 6/12 cutoff). Senior people and women were significantly at a higher risk of correctable visual impairment, while the well-educated on the contrary. The prevalence of undercorrected refractive error (improves by 2 or more lines with refraction) was 24.84%, and the proportion with undercorrected refractive error for mild, moderate , severe and no visual impairment was 61.54%, 67.98%, 60.00% and 14.10%, respectively. The spectacle coverage rate was 44.12%. Greater unmet need for spectacles was observed among elderly people, females, non-peasant, and subjects with less education and astigmatism only. Conclusions High prevalence of visual impairment, visual impairment alleviated by refractive correction, and low spectacle coverage existed among the senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai. Education for the public of the importance of regular examination and appropriate and accessible refraction service might be helpful to solve the problem. PMID:23566106

  11. Neurological Impairment Among Elderly African-American Nursing Home Residents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gloriajean L. Wallace

    1993-01-01

    :In this pilot study, 288 elderly African-American and 482 white residents of 10 nursing homes in Wayne County, Michigan, were compared for neurological impairment. The frequency of diagnosis of neurological impairment was equivalent for African-American and white males, but greater for African-American females than for white females. Cerebral vascular accident (CVA, or stroke) and nonspecific dementia were the most common

  12. Neurological Impairment Among Elderly African-American Nursing Home Residents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    In this pilot study, 288 elderly African-American and 482 white residents of 10 nursing homes in Wayne County, Michigan, were compared for neurological impairment. The frequency of diagnosis of neurological impairment was equivalent for African-American and white males, but greater for African-American females than for white females. Cerebral vascular accident (CVA, or stroke) and nonspecific dementia were the most common

  13. Spared and impaired aspects of motivated cognitive control in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Mann, Claire L; Footer, Owen; Chung, Yu Sun; Driscoll, Lori L; Barch, Deanna M

    2013-08-01

    The ability to upregulate cognitive control in motivationally salient situations was examined in individuals with schizophrenia (patients) and healthy controls. Fifty-four patients and 39 healthy controls were recruited. A computerized monetary response conflict task required participants to identity a picture, over which was printed a matching (congruent), neutral, or incongruent word. This baseline condition was followed by an incentive condition, in which participants were given the opportunity to win money on reward-cued trials. These reward-cued trials were interleaved with nonreward cued trials. Reaction times (RT) were examined for both incentive context effects (difference in RT between baseline and nonreward cue trials in the incentive condition) and incentive cue effects (difference in RT between nonreward and reward cue trials in the incentive condition). Compared with baseline, controls showed a speeding of responses during both the nonreward (incentive context effect) and reward cued (incentive cue effect) trials during the incentive condition, but with a larger incentive context than incentive cue effect, suggesting a reliance on proactive control strategies. Although patients also showed a speeding of responses to both nonreward and reward cued trials, they showed a significantly smaller incentive context effect than controls, suggesting a reduction in the use of proactive control and a greater reliance on the use of "just-in-time," reactive control strategies. These results are discussed in light of the relationship between motivation and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, and the potential role of impairments in prefrontally mediated active maintenance mechanisms. PMID:23834064

  14. Binaural speech discrimination under noise in hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Rao, A. B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of speech discrimination by hearing-impaired listeners (sensori-neural, conductive, and mixed groups) under binaural free-field listening in the presence of background noise. Subjects with pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz were presented with a version of the W-22 list of phonetically balanced words under three conditions: (1) 'quiet', with the chamber noise below 28 dB and speech at 60 dB; (2) at a constant S/N ratio of +10 dB, and with a background white noise at 70 dB; and (3) same as condition (2), but with the background noise at 80 dB. The mean speech discrimination scores decreased significantly with noise in all groups. However, the decrease in binaural speech discrimination scores with an increase in hearing impairment was less for material presented under the noise conditions than for the material presented in quiet.

  15. Trainable Mentally Impaired/Severely Multiply Impaired/Autistic Impaired/Severely Mentally Impaired. Product Evaluation Report 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Richard N.; And Others

    The evaluation report describes special education services provided to trainable mentally impaired (TMI), autistic impaired (AI), severely multiply impaired (SXI), and severely mentally impaired (SMI) students at and through the Melvin G. Millet Learning Center (Bridgeport, Michigan). The eight program components are described individually and…

  16. Effects of gender, age, diabetes mellitus and renal and hepatic impairment on tadalafil pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Forgue, S Thomas; Phillips, Diane L; Bedding, Alun W; Payne, Christopher D; Jewell, Hayley; Patterson, Beverley E; Wrishko, Rebecca E; Mitchell, Malcolm I

    2007-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effects of gender, age, diabetes mellitus, renal and hepatic impairment on tadalafil pharmacokinetics and tolerability. Methods Six single-dose (5, 10 or 20 mg orally) clinical pharmacology studies were conducted in the UK, Belgium, Poland and Germany in healthy male and female subjects, elderly subjects and subjects with diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) or hepatic impairment. The gender study also incorporated administration of 10 mg tadalafil daily for 10 days. Results Systemic exposure in the elderly was 25% greater than in young subjects (mean AUC ratio 1.25; 90% confidence interval 0.972, 1.61). The AUC was 19% lower in subjects with diabetes mellitus than in healthy age/gender-matched controls. Pharmacokinetics in female subjects were essentially similar to those in males. Exposure in subjects with mild or moderate renal insufficiency was approximately twice that in healthy subjects. The mean AUC for the major metabolite (total methylcatechol glucuronide) in the presence of ESRF was three times the mean for healthy subjects. Haemodialysis contributed negligibly to elimination of tadalafil or the metabolite. Hepatic impairment had negligible effects on exposure. The most common adverse events in these six studies were headache, back pain and myalgia. A 10-mg dose was not well tolerated by subjects with moderate renal dysfunction in this study. Conclusions No clinically significant effect of gender, age, diabetes mellitus or hepatic impairment on tadalafil pharmacokinetics was observed. Renal insufficiency resulted in increased systemic exposure. Tadalafil was not associated with any serious clinically significant adverse events or study discontinuations due to adverse events. PMID:16869816

  17. Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery from Negative Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Javaras, Kristin N.; Schaefer, Stacey M.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Lapate, Regina C.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Bachhuber, David R.; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Ryff, Carol D.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Greater levels of conscientiousness have been associated with lower levels of negative affect. We focus on one mechanism through which conscientiousness may decrease negative affect: effective emotion regulation, as reflected by greater recovery from negative stimuli. In 273 adults who were 35 - 85 years old, we collected self-report measures of personality including conscientiousness and its self-control facet, followed on average 2 years later by psychophysiological measures of emotional reactivity and recovery. Among middle-aged adults (35 - 65 years old), the measures of conscientiousness and self-control predicted greater recovery from, but not reactivity to, negative emotional stimuli. The effect of conscientiousness and self-control on recovery was not driven by other personality variables or by greater task adherence on the part of high conscientiousness individuals. In addition, the effect was specific to negative emotional stimuli and did not hold for neutral or positive emotional stimuli. PMID:22642343

  18. Aging impairs heat loss, but when does it matter?

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jill M; Poirier, Martin P; Flouris, Andreas D; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Malcolm, Janine; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-02-01

    Aging is associated with an attenuated physiological ability to dissipate heat. However, it remains unclear if age-related impairments in heat dissipation only occur above a certain level of heat stress and whether this response is altered by aerobic fitness. Therefore, we examined changes in whole body evaporative heat loss (HE) as determined using whole body direct calorimetry in young (n = 10; 21 ± 1 yr), untrained middle-aged (n = 10; 48 ± 5 yr), and older (n = 10; 65 ± 3 yr) males matched for body surface area. We also studied a group of trained middle-aged males (n = 10; 49 ± 5 yr) matched for body surface area with all groups and for aerobic fitness with the young group. Participants performed intermittent aerobic exercise (30-min exercise bouts separated by 15-min rest) in the heat (40°C and 15% relative humidity) at progressively greater fixed rates of heat production equal to 300 (Ex1), 400 (Ex2), and 500 (Ex3) W. Results showed that HE was significantly lower in middle-aged untrained (Ex2: 426 ± 34; and Ex3: 497 ± 17 W) and older (Ex2: 424 ± 38; and Ex3: 485 ± 44 W) compared with young (Ex2: 472 ± 42; and Ex3: 558 ± 51 W) and middle-aged trained (474 ± 21; Ex3: 552 ± 23 W) males at the end of Ex2 and Ex3 (P < 0.05). No differences among groups were observed during recovery. We conclude that impairments in HE in older and middle-aged untrained males occur at exercise-induced heat loads of ?400 W when performed in a hot environment. These impairments in untrained middle-aged males can be minimized through regular aerobic exercise training. PMID:25505030

  19. Cognitive impairment influences drinking outcome by altering therapeutic mechanisms of change.

    PubMed

    Bates, Marsha E; Pawlak, Anthony P; Tonigan, J Scott; Buckman, Jennifer F

    2006-09-01

    Serious neuropsychological impairments are seen in a minority of addiction treatment clients, and, theoretically, these impairments should undermine behavioral changes targeted by treatment; however, little evidence supports a direct influence of impairment on treatment response. To address this paradox, the authors used structural equation modeling and Project MATCH data (N=1,726) to examine direct, mediated, and moderated paths between cognitive impairment, therapeutic processes, and treatment outcome. Mediated relations were found, wherein impairment led to less treatment compliance, lower self-efficacy, and greater Alcoholics Anonymous Involvement, which, in turn, more proximally predicted drinking. Impairment further moderated the effect of self-efficacy, making it a poor predictor of drinking outcomes in impaired clients, thereby suggesting that impaired and unimpaired clients traverse different pathways to addiction recovery. PMID:16938062

  20. Alcohol, drugs and driving: implications for evaluating driver impairment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy; Milavetz, Gary; Murry, Daryl J

    2013-01-01

    Impaired driving is a significant traffic safety problem, and alcohol and drugs taken before driving contribute substantially to this problem. With the increase in use of prescription medication and the decriminalization of some drugs, it has become increasingly important to understand the manifestation of driver impairment. Building upon previous alcohol research conducted at the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS), this study enrolled commercial bus drivers to evaluate the effect of triazolam on driving performance to assess difference between placebo, 0.125, and 0.25 mg doses in a randomized and double-blind design. On each of three randomized visits, subjects drove a simulator scenario that had previously been used to demonstrate effects of alcohol on driving performance. Plasma triazolam levels were obtained before the simulator drive. The protocol included participants receiving study medication and placebo over a 3-week period of time one to two weeks apart. The simulator drives used for this analysis occurred approximately 140 minutes after dosing-after the subjects had completed four bus simulator drives and neuropsychological tests over a 2-hour period of time surrounding dosing. The driving scenario contained representative situations on three types of roadways (urban, freeway, and rural) under nighttime driving conditions. Lane keeping performance (ability to drive straight in the lane) under the three doses of triazolam demonstrates that at the 0.25 mg dose, statistically significant effects on performance are observed, but no effects are found at the 0.125 mg level when testing at this time period after dosing. This differs from the effects of alcohol, which shows impairing effects at a 0.05% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and a greater effect at 0.10% BAC. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding how different types of drugs affect driving performance in realistic driving environments. Although some compounds may have an effect that correlates linearly to dosage, that is not always the case. An understanding of these differences and how they vary across driving tasks is essential to developing a robust evaluation protocol that can accurately describe the effects of a wide variety of drugs on driver impairment. This information can be used to reduce the risk of deleterious effects of therapeutic medications while ensuring their safe and beneficial use. PMID:24406943

  1. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving: Implications for Evaluating Driver Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Timothy; Milavetz, Gary; Murry, Daryl J.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired driving is a significant traffic safety problem, and alcohol and drugs taken before driving contribute substantially to this problem. With the increase in use of prescription medication and the decriminalization of some drugs, it has become increasingly important to understand the manifestation of driver impairment. Building upon previous alcohol research conducted at the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS), this study enrolled commercial bus drivers to evaluate the effect of triazolam on driving performance to assess difference between placebo, 0.125, and 0.25 mg doses in a randomized and double-blind design. On each of three randomized visits, subjects drove a simulator scenario that had previously been used to demonstrate effects of alcohol on driving performance. Plasma triazolam levels were obtained before the simulator drive. The protocol included participants receiving study medication and placebo over a 3-week period of time one to two weeks apart. The simulator drives used for this analysis occurred approximately 140 minutes after dosing—after the subjects had completed four bus simulator drives and neuropsychological tests over a 2-hour period of time surrounding dosing. The driving scenario contained representative situations on three types of roadways (urban, freeway, and rural) under nighttime driving conditions. Lane keeping performance (ability to drive straight in the lane) under the three doses of triazolam demonstrates that at the 0.25 mg dose, statistically significant effects on performance are observed, but no effects are found at the 0.125 mg level when testing at this time period after dosing. This differs from the effects of alcohol, which shows impairing effects at a 0.05% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and a greater effect at 0.10% BAC. These results demonstrate the importance of understanding how different types of drugs affect driving performance in realistic driving environments. Although some compounds may have an effect that correlates linearly to dosage, that is not always the case. An understanding of these differences and how they vary across driving tasks is essential to developing a robust evaluation protocol that can accurately describe the effects of a wide variety of drugs on driver impairment. This information can be used to reduce the risk of deleterious effects of therapeutic medications while ensuring their safe and beneficial use. PMID:24406943

  2. The prevalence of peripheral and central hearing impairment and its relation to cognition in older adults.

    PubMed

    Quaranta, Nicola; Coppola, Francesco; Casulli, Mara; Barulli, Maria Rosa; Barulli, Orietta; Panza, Francesco; Lanza, Francesco; Tortelli, Rosanna; Capozzo, Rosa; Leo, Antonio; Tursi, Marianna; Grasso, Alessandra; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sobbà, C; Logroscino, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and dementia are two highly prevalent conditions in the adult population. Recent studies have suggested that hearing loss is independently associated with poorer cognitive functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of ARHL and cognitive impairment in a large sample of subjects older than 65 years and to correlate hearing function with cognitive function. A total of 488 subjects older than 65 years (mean age 72.8 years) participating in the Great Age Study underwent a complete audiological, neurological and neuropsychological evaluation as part of a multidisciplinary assessment. The prevalence of a hearing loss greater than 25 dB HL was 64.1%, of Central Auditory Processing Disorder (CAPD) was 14.3 and 25.3% of the subjects reported a hearing handicap as reported on the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly Screening Version questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analysis corrected for gender, age and education duration showed that mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was significantly associated with hearing impairment (CAPD and hearing threshold; odds ratio 1.6, p = 0.05) and that Alzheimer's disease (AD) was significantly associated with CAPD (odds ratio 4.2, p = 0.05). Given that up to 80% of patients affected by MCI convert to AD, adding auditory tests to a screening cognitive battery might have value in the early diagnosis of cognitive decline. PMID:25733360

  3. Mental health impairment in underweight women: do body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behavior play a role?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We sought to evaluate the hypothesis that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is due to an association between low body weight and elevated levels of body dissatisfaction and/or eating-disordered behaviour. Methods Subgroups of underweight and normal-weight women recruited from a large, general population sample were compared on measures of body dissatisfaction, eating-disordered behaviour and mental health. Results Underweight women had significantly greater impairment in mental health than normal-weight women, even after controlling for between-group differences in demographic characteristics and physical health. However, there was no evidence that higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour accounted for this difference. Rather, underweight women had significantly lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour than normal-weight women. Conclusions The findings suggest that mental health impairment in underweight women, where this occurs, is unlikely to be due to higher levels of body dissatisfaction or eating-disordered behaviour. Rather, lower levels of body dissatisfaction and eating-disordered behaviour among underweight women may counterbalance, to some extent, impairment due to other factors. PMID:21740596

  4. Do greater mouse-eared bats experience a trade-off between energy conservation and learning?

    PubMed

    Ruczy?ski, Ireneusz; Clarin, Theresa M A; Siemers, Bjoern M

    2014-11-15

    Bats, some species of rodents and some birds are able to save energy during the summer period by decreasing their body temperature and falling into torpor. Some studies indicate that torpor prevents sleeping and causes effects similar to sleep deprivation. Impairment of processes stabilizing memory slows down learning accuracy and speed. We conducted two experiments to test whether greater mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis, which commonly use torpor during the summer period, experience a trade-off between energy savings and learning abilities. We compared learning speed and accuracy in bats that were exposed to low (7°C) and higher ambient temperatures (22°C) between training and experimental sessions. Tests were conducted in experiments with food reward (food search) and without food reward (perch search). Time spent with the skin temperature above 30°C was significantly longer for bats exposed to 22°C than for those exposed to 7°C, and longer in experiments with food reward than without food reward. We observed only a very weak tendency for better accuracy and shorter search times in bats exposed to 22°C than in those exposed to 7°C. Our data indicate that memory consolidation of bats under natural conditions is not affected by daily torpor when bats are in good condition and may therefore defend against a rapid fall into torpor. We suggest that homeostatic processes connected with the circadian rhythm allow protection of the consolidation of memory for relatively simple tasks despite time spent in torpor. PMID:25392460

  5. CO2 injection impairment due to halite precipitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nadja Muller; Ran Qi; Elizabeth Mackie; Karsten Pruess; Martin J. Blunt

    2009-01-01

    The injection of dry supercritical CO2 into brine aquifers has the potential to dry saline formation waters, due to evaporation effects [1], leading to severe increases in salinity and salt precipitation. This can significantly impair injection rates, as has been noted in gas-storage reservoirs. [2] This is of interest for CO2 storage in saline aquifers. An injection impairment study was

  6. Caregivers with Visual Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Patti; Martinez, Bethany; Williams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Persons who are elderly, visually impaired, and primary caregivers for ailing or disabled spouses or significant others are a unique population that has not been studied previously. By definition, "informal caregivers" are family members or friends who provide unpaid day-to-day assistance with activities of daily living and are familiar with the…

  7. Differences in somatosensory processing due to dominant hemispheric motor impairment in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cerebral palsy (CP) is usually defined as a group of permanent motor disorders due to non-progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant brain, recent research has shown that CP individuals are also characterized by altered somatosensory perception, increased pain and abnormal activation of cortical somatosensory areas. The present study was aimed to examine hemispheric differences on somatosensory brain processing in individuals with bilateral CP and lateralized motor impairments compared with healthy controls. Nine CP individuals with left-dominant motor impairments (LMI) (age range 5–28 yrs), nine CP individuals with right-dominant motor impairments (RMI) (age range 7–29 yrs), and 12 healthy controls (age range 5–30 yrs) participated in the study. Proprioception, touch and pain thresholds, as well as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) elicited by tactile stimulation of right and left lips and thumbs were compared. Results Pain sensitivity was higher, and lip stimulation elicited greater beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with CP than in healthy controls. In addition, although there was no significant differences between individuals with RMI and LMI on pain or touch sensitivity, lip and thumb stimulation elicited smaller beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with LMI than with RMI. Conclusions Our data revealed that brain processing of somatosensory stimulation was abnormal in CP individuals. Moreover, this processing was different depending if they presented right- or left-dominant motor impairments, suggesting that different mechanisms of sensorimotor reorganization should be involved in CP depending on dominant side of motor impairment. PMID:24410983

  8. Mild Cognitive Impairment in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Geda, Yonas E.

    2014-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the intermediate stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and dementia. Individuals with MCI show cognitive impairment greater than expected for their age, but otherwise are functioning independently and do not meet the criteria for dementia. MCI is important because it constitutes a high risk group for dementia. Ideally, prevention strategies should target individuals who are not even symptomatic. Indeed, the field is now moving towards identification of asymptomatic individuals who have underlying Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology that can be detected by using biomarkers and neuroimaging technologies. To this effect, the Alzheimer’s Association and the National Institute on Aging have developed a new classification scheme that has categorized AD into a preclinical phase (research category), MCI due to AD, and dementia of Alzheimer’s type. On the other hand, there are also ongoing researches to understand high risk groups for non-Alzheimer’s dementia as well. PMID:22773365

  9. Emotionally Impaired Elementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others

    The Jackson County (Michigan) Intermediate School District curriculum for teaching emotionally impaired elementary students is presented. The curriculum document describes program management techniques, strategies for developing and maintaining teacher-student relationships, and therapy/change systems. It outlines referral and eligibility…

  10. Emotionally Impaired Elementary Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulbee, Dianne R.; And Others

    A curriculum is presented for teaching emotionally impaired elementary students. The curriculum document describes program management techniques, strategies for developing and maintaining teacher-student relationships, and therapy/change systems. It outlines referral and eligibility procedures and exit criteria. It contains job descriptions for…

  11. Greater Rochester Nursing Home Quality Consortium

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    , underserved nursing homes in Western N.Y. Supported by a Comprehensive Geriatric Education Program grant (D62Greater Rochester Nursing Home Quality Consortium Innovations in Nursing Home Quality Improvement 3, School of Nursing University of Rochester Medical Center, 255 Crittenden Blvd., Rochester, NY Conference

  12. Management and Conservation Disturbance Factors Influencing Greater

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    large declines in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations; thus, understanding-grouse leks. ß 2012 The Wildlife Society. KEY WORDS big sagebrush, Centrocercus urophasianus, cumulative-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are the larg- est grouse species in North America and once occupied 1,200,483 km2

  13. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  14. Selenium Concentrations in Greater Scaup and Dreissenid Mussels During Winter on Western Lake Ontario

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. WareS; S. A. Petrie; S. S. Badzinski; R. C. Bailey

    2011-01-01

    One hypothesis for the decline of the North American greater (Aythya marila) and lesser (A. affinis) scaup population is that contaminant burdens acquired on wintering or staging areas impair reproduction or cause lethal\\u000a or sublethal health effects. Recent studies have found increased selenium (Se) concentrations in scaup but have focused on\\u000a the fall and spring staging periods. From January to

  15. Sexual Dimorphism in Healthy Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A DTI Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O’Neill, Desmond; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Previous PET and MRI studies have indicated that the degree to which pathology translates into clinical symptoms is strongly dependent on sex with women more likely to express pathology as a diagnosis of AD, whereas men are more resistant to clinical symptoms in the face of the same degree of pathology. Here we use DTI to investigate the difference between male and female white matter tracts in healthy older participants (24 women, 16 men) and participants with mild cognitive impairment (21 women, 12 men). Differences between control and MCI participants were found in fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusion (DR), axial diffusion (DA) and mean diffusion (MD). A significant main effect of sex was also reported for FA, MD and DR indices, with male control and male MCI participants having significantly more microstructural damage than their female counterparts. There was no sex by diagnosis interaction. Male MCIs also had significantly less normalised grey matter (GM) volume than female MCIs. However, in terms of absolute brain volume, male controls had significantly more brain volume than female controls. Normalised GM and WM volumes were found to decrease significantly with age with no age by sex interaction. Overall, these data suggest that the same degree of cognitive impairment is associated with greater structural damage in men compared with women. PMID:22768288

  16. Health impairments and labour market outcomes.

    PubMed

    Drydakis, Nick

    2010-10-01

    Our analysis is based on the 2008 Athens Area Study and exploits detailed information regarding health impairments and labour market outcomes for Greek males. Distinguishing between healthy and heath-impaired employees who have or do not have work limitations, the unobserved productivity effect of health is separated from discrimination. We then estimate a regression model that includes terms to correct for employment selection and endogenous stratification of self-reported health condition. A penalty for productivity limitation exists. Evidence of wage discrimination is also found. Both findings are statistically significant and highlight the necessity for instituting active policies against unequal treatment. PMID:19771458

  17. The application of facial expressions to the assessment of orofacial pain in cognitively impaired older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Tung Hsu; Stephen K. Shuman; Darryl T. Hamamoto; James S. Hodges; Karen S. Feldt

    Background. The anticipated rapid growth in the number of cognitively impaired older adults, declining edentulism and increasing oral health expectations suggest a greater need for comprehensive dental care and effective ways to evaluate orofacial pain in people with compro- mised mental function and impaired communication skills. The authors con- ducted a study to evaluate facial expressions as a means of

  18. The Benefits of Art for Mainstreamed Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Philip; James, Carol

    1980-01-01

    Art experiences can promote feelings of confidence in mainstreamed hearing impaired children. Because of the emphasis on the production of visual/tactile images and objects and the lower demands for verbal communication within the art class, children with low language comprehension and limited verbal facility have a greater opportunity for success…

  19. Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Older Vietnamese

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H.; Hoang, Chuong N.; Nguyen, Ha T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined correlates of cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment among older adults living in Da Nang, Vietnam and surrounding rural areas. Methods The analytic sample consisted of 489 adults 55 and older stratified by gender, age, and rural/urban status. The sample was 46% rural, 44% women, with a mean age of 69.04. Interviews were conducted in individuals’ homes by trained interviewers. The dependent variable was a Vietnamese version of the MMSE. A multiple linear regression was run with the MMSE continuous scores reflecting cognitive functioning, while a binary logistic regression was conducted with an education-adjusted cut-off score reflecting possible cognitive impairment. Age, gender, education, material hardship, depressive symptoms (CES-D), war injury, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease conditions served as correlates, controlling for marital status and rural/urban residence. Results About 33% of the sample scored below the standard cutoff of 23 on the MMSE. However only 12.9% of the sample would be considered impaired using the education-adjusted cutoff score. Cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment as indicated by MMSE scores were significantly associated with being older, completing fewer years of education, and material hardship. Gender, depressive symptoms, and cerebrovascular disease were associated with cognitive functioning, but not cognitive impairment. Conclusion These results show that social characteristics, physical illness, and mental health are associated with cognitive functioning. The study also raises questions about the need for standardization of screening measures on Vietnamese populations. PMID:23697847

  20. Significant sequelae after bacterial meningitis in Niger: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beside high mortality, acute bacterial meningitis may lead to a high frequency of neuropsychological sequelae. The Sahelian countries belonging to the meningitis belt experience approximately 50% of the meningitis cases occurring in the world. Studies in Africa have shown that N. meningitidis could cause hearing loss in up to 30% of the cases, exceeding sometimes measles. The situation is similar in Niger which experiences yearly meningitis epidemics and where rehabilitation wards are rare and hearing aids remain unaffordable. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of neuropsychological sequelae after acute bacterial meningitis in four of the eight regions of Niger. Methods Subjects exposed to acute bacterial meningitis were enrolled into a cohort with non exposed subjects matched on age and gender. Consenting subjects were interviewed during inclusion and at a control visit two months later. If clinical symptoms or psychological troubles persisted at both visits among the exposed subjects with a frequency significantly greater than that observed among the non exposed subjects, a sequelae was retained. The comparison of the frequency of sequelae between non exposed and exposed subjects to bacterial meningitis was also calculated using the Fisher exact test. Results Three persisting functional symptoms were registered: headaches, asthenia, and vertigo among 31.3, 36.9, and 22.4% respectively of the exposed subjects. A significant motor impairment was retrieved among 12.3% of the exposed versus 1.6% of the non exposed subjects. Hearing loss significantly disabled 31.3% of the exposed subjects and 10.4% exhibited a serious deafness. Conclusions This study carried out in Niger confirms two serious neurological sequelae occurring at high frequencies after bacterial meningitis: severe and profound hearing loss and motor impairment. Cochlear implantation and hearing aids are too expensive for populations living in developing countries. Neurological sequelae occurring after meningitis should sensitize African public health authorities on the development of rehabilitation centers. All these challenges can be met through existing strategies and guidelines. PMID:23687976

  1. Cycling performance decrement is greater in hypobaric versus normobaric hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether cycling time trial (TT) performance differs between hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) at the same ambient PO2 (93 mmHg, 4,300-m altitude equivalent). Methods Two groups of healthy fit men were matched on physical performance and demographic characteristics and completed a 720-kJ time trial on a cycle ergometer at sea level (SL) and following approximately 2 h of resting exposure to either HH (n?=?6, 20?±?2 years, 75.2?±?11.8 kg, mean?±?SD) or NH (n?=?6, 21?±?3 years, 77.4?±?8.8 kg). Volunteers were free to manually increase or decrease the work rate on the cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected every 5 min during the TT, and the mean was calculated. Results Both groups exhibited similar TT performance (min) at SL (73.9?±?7.6 vs. 73.2?±?8.2), but TT performance was longer (P?greater (P?impaired to a greater degree in HH versus NH at the same ambient PO2 equivalent to 4,300 m despite similar cardiorespiratory responses. PMID:24778792

  2. Neonatal hypoxia, hippocampal atrophy, and memory impairment: evidence of a causal sequence.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Janine M; Gadian, David G; Jentschke, Sebastian; Goldman, Allan; Munoz, Monica; Pitts, Georgia; Banks, Tina; Chong, W Kling; Hoskote, Aparna; Deanfield, John; Baldeweg, Torsten; de Haan, Michelle; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-06-01

    Neonates treated for acute respiratory failure experience episodes of hypoxia. The hippocampus, a structure essential for memory, is particularly vulnerable to such insults. Hence, some neonates undergoing treatment for acute respiratory failure might sustain bilateral hippocampal pathology early in life and memory problems later in childhood. We investigated this possibility in a cohort of 40 children who had been treated neonatally for acute respiratory failure but were free of overt neurological impairment. The cohort had mean hippocampal volumes (HVs) significantly below normal control values, memory scores significantly below the standard population means, and memory quotients significantly below those predicted by their full scale IQs. Brain white matter volume also fell below the volume of the controls, but brain gray matter volumes and scores on nonmnemonic neuropsychological tests were within the normal range. Stepwise linear regression models revealed that the cohort's HVs were predictive of degree of memory impairment, and gestational age at treatment was predictive of HVs: the younger the age, the greater the atrophy. We conclude that many neonates treated for acute respiratory failure sustain significant hippocampal atrophy as a result of the associated hypoxia and, consequently, show deficient memory later in life. PMID:24343890

  3. Gender Differences in Reading Impairment and in the Identification of Impaired Readers: Results From a Large-Scale Study of At-Risk Readers.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K

    2015-07-01

    Reading impairment is more common in males, but the magnitude and origin of this gender difference are debated. In a large-scale study of reading impairment among 491,103 beginning second-graders, gender differences increased with greater severity of reading impairment, peaking at a ratio of 2.4:1 for a broad measure of fluency and a ratio of 1.6:1 for a narrow measure of decoding. Results from three tests indicate that gender differences in reading impairment are attributable primarily to male vulnerability rather than ascertainment bias. Correspondence between identification as an impaired reader by our study criteria and school identification as learning disabled was poor overall and worse for girls: Only 1 out of 4 boys and 1 out of 7 girls identified as reading impaired in our study was school identified as learning disabled. PMID:24153403

  4. Moderate noise induced cognition impairment of mice and its underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Wang, Shao-Hui; Chen, Qi-Cai; Liao, Xiao-Mei

    2011-10-24

    Noise pollution is recognized as a serious human health problem in modern society. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of moderate-intensity white noise exposure on learning and memory of mice, and the underlying mechanisms. The learning and memory ability of mice were evaluated by water maze and step-down inhibitory avoidance experiments respectively, following 1, 3, and 6 weeks noise exposure (80 dB SPL, 2h/day). To explore potential mechanisms, we determined levels of oxidative stress in the inferior colliculus (IC), auditory cortex (AC), and hippocampus (the structures comprising the critical encephalic region associated with the acoustic lemniscal ascending pathway), the phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau in the hippocampus (important role in learning and memory), and the basic auditory response properties of neurons in the IC. Moderate-intensity noise exposure impaired the learning and memory ability of mice in both water maze and step-down inhibitory avoidance experiments, and the longer the noise exposure time the greater the impairment. At 6 weeks after noise exposure, there was also evidence of oxidative damage in the IC, AC, and hippocampus, hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the hippocampus, and significant changes in the auditory response properties of neurons in the IC. These data results suggest that moderate-intensity noise can progressively impair the learning and memory ability of mice, which may result from peroxidative damage, tau hyperphosphorylation, and auditory coding alteration. PMID:21726571

  5. Progressive temporal lobe grey matter loss in adolescents with schizotypal traits and mild intellectual impairment.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, Thomas William James; Stanfield, Andrew; Spencer, Michael; Hall, Jeremy; McIntosh, Andrew; Owens, David Cunningham; Lawrie, Stephen; Johnstone, Eve

    2009-11-30

    Adolescents with mild intellectual impairment are known to have an increased risk of schizophrenia compared to the general population. However, little is known regarding the association between potential risk markers for later schizophrenia within this population. We therefore set out to examine the association between schizotypal traits and progressive grey matter loss in adolescents with mild intellectual impairment. Ninety-eight adolescents receiving educational assistance were divided into two groups based on their degree of schizotypal features, measured using the Structured Interview for Schizotypy (SIS). Each participant received two structural magnetic resonance imaging scans approximately 16 months apart. Changes over time in the voxel-wise presentation of tissue were evaluated using tensor based morphometry. Those with marked schizotypal features exhibited significantly greater grey matter losses in the left medial temporal lobe than those without. Three focal locations were identified, two within the left amygdala and one in the left parahippocampal gyrus. Thus, adolescents with cognitive impairment and schizotypal features show changes in brain structure over time, changes that are consistent with those identified in other high risk populations. Medial temporal grey matter loss may therefore represent a common neuroanatomical substrate of risk for schizophrenia, common to familial, prodromal and cognitive high risk groups. PMID:19833484

  6. Comparison of Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autistic Children on a Test of Motor Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manjiviona, Janine; Prior, Margot

    1995-01-01

    This study found that motor impairment levels of 12 Asperger syndrome children and 9 high functioning autistic children (ages 7-17) did not differ. Intelligence level was negatively correlated with motor impairment. Fifty percent of Asperger children and 67% of children with autism showed a clinically significant level of motor impairment.…

  7. Differences in Socialization between Visually Impaired Student-Athletes and Non-Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Movahedi, Ahmadreza; Mojtahedi, Hossein; Farazyani, Fateh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a significant difference in measure of socialization between visually impaired student-athletes and non-athletes. We compared the social skills of Iranian visually impaired student-athletes (n = 51) and visually impaired student non-athletes (n = 56) with ages ranging from 13 to…

  8. Vision Impairment and Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blindness in the United States are age-related eye diseases: macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma. Other eye disorders, ... and braille books. The sooner vision loss or eye disease is found and treated, the greater your chances ...

  9. Route Learning Impairment in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Memory impairment on neuropsychological tests is relatively common in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. But memory rarely has been evaluated in more naturalistic settings. This study assessed TLE (n = 19) and control (n = 32) groups on a real-world route learning (RL) test. Compared to the controls, the TLE group committed significantly more total errors across the three RL test trials. RL errors correlated significantly with standardized auditory and visual memory and visual-perceptual test scores in the TLE group. In the TLE subset for whom hippocampal data were available (n = 14), RL errors also correlated significantly with left hippocampal volume. This is one of the first studies to demonstrate real-world memory impairment in TLE patients and its association with both mesial temporal lobe integrity and standardized memory test performance. The results support the ecological validity of clinical neuropsychological assessment. PMID:23041173

  10. Specific Language Impairment Across Languages

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Laurence B.

    2014-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a significant and longstanding deficit in spoken language ability that adversely affects their social and academic well-being. Studies of children with SLI in a wide variety of languages reveal diverse symptoms, most of which seem to reflect weaknesses in grammatical computation and phonological short-term memory. The symptoms of the disorder are sensitive to the type of language being acquired, with extraordinary weaknesses seen in those areas of language that are relatively challenging for younger typically developing children. Although these children's deficits warrant clinical and educational attention, their weaknesses might reflect the extreme end of a language aptitude continuum rather than a distinct, separable condition. PMID:24765105

  11. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  12. Clean Cities Award Winning Coalition: Greater Philadelphia

    SciTech Connect

    ICF Kaiser.

    1999-05-20

    Always going beyond expectations, the Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Program provides its stakeholders with excellent resources to implement alternative fuel projects. They are known as one of the most successful coalitions in the Clean Cities Program, and are a member-funded organization comprised of large government organizations, utilities, and non-profit groups in the Philadelphia metropolitan area. The coalition aggressively promotes alternative fuel vehicle acquisitions; their public outreach efforts target all stakeholders and provide numerous resources to advance the alternative fuel choice.

  13. Is UV-induced DNA damage greater at higher elevation?

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Wei; Hidema, Jun; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2014-04-18

    • Premise of the study: Although ultraviolet radiation (UV) is known to have negative effects on plant growth, there has been no direct evidence that plants growing at higher elevations are more severely affected by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, which is known to increase with elevation. We examined damage to DNA, a primary target of UV-B, in the widespread species Polygonum sachalinense (Fallopia sachalinensis) and Plantago asiatica at two elevations.• Methods: We sampled leaves of both species at 300 and 1700 m above sea level every 2 h for 11 d across the growing season and determined the level of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), a major product of UV damage to DNA.• Key results: The CPD level was significantly influenced by the time of day, date, elevation, and their interactions in both species. The CPD level tended to be higher at noon or on sunny days. DNA damage was more severe at 1700 m than at 300 m: on average, 8.7% greater at high elevation in P. asiatica and 7.8% greater in P. sachalinense. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the CPD level was explained mainly by UV-B and had no significant relationship with other environmental factors such as temperature and photosynthetically active radiation.• Conclusions: UV-induced DNA damage in plants is greater at higher elevations. PMID:24748608

  14. Retrieval and encoding of episodic memory in normal aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing Song; Zhou, Jiang Ning

    2002-01-01

    We investigated retrieval and encoding of episodic memory in normal aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). There was significant decline in the function of orientation, language and praxis besides memory impairment in the MCI group. Impairment of encoding and retrieval of episodic memory was observed in the MCI group. Encoding of episodic memory is vulnerable to be impaired in the MCI group. PMID:11744002

  15. Subjective Cognitive Complaints Contribute to Misdiagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Emily C.; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Galasko, Douglas R.; Salmon, David P.; Bondi, Mark W.

    2014-01-01

    Subjective cognitive complaints are a criterion for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), despite their uncertain relationship to objective memory performance in MCI. We aimed to examine self-reported cognitive complaints in subgroups of the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort to determine whether they are a valuable inclusion in the diagnosis of MCI or, alternatively, if they contribute to misdiagnosis. Subgroups of MCI were derived using cluster analysis of baseline neuropsychological test data from 448 ADNI MCI participants. Cognitive complaints were assessed via the Everyday Cognition (ECog) questionnaire, and discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-report. Cluster analysis revealed Amnestic and Mixed cognitive phenotypes as well as a third Cluster-Derived Normal subgroup (41.3%), whose neuropsychological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer’s disease (AD) biomarker profiles did not differ from a “robust” normal control group. This cognitively intact phenotype of MCI participants overestimated their cognitive problems relative to their informant, whereas Amnestic MCI participants with objective memory impairment underestimated their cognitive problems. Underestimation of cognitive problems was associated with positive CSF AD biomarkers and progression to dementia. Overall, there was no relationship between self-reported cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning, but significant correlations were observed with depressive symptoms. The inclusion of self-reported complaints in MCI diagnostic criteria may cloud rather than clarify diagnosis and result in high rates of misclassification of MCI. Discrepancies between self- and informant-report demonstrate that overestimation of cognitive problems is characteristic of normal aging while underestimation may reflect greater risk for cognitive decline. PMID:25156329

  16. Subjective cognitive complaints contribute to misdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Emily C; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Galasko, Douglas R; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2014-09-01

    Subjective cognitive complaints are a criterion for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), despite their uncertain relationship to objective memory performance in MCI. We aimed to examine self-reported cognitive complaints in subgroups of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort to determine whether they are a valuable inclusion in the diagnosis of MCI or, alternatively, if they contribute to misdiagnosis. Subgroups of MCI were derived using cluster analysis of baseline neuropsychological test data from 448 ADNI MCI participants. Cognitive complaints were assessed via the Everyday Cognition (ECog) questionnaire, and discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-report. Cluster analysis revealed Amnestic and Mixed cognitive phenotypes as well as a third Cluster-Derived Normal subgroup (41.3%), whose neuropsychological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker profiles did not differ from a "robust" normal control group. This cognitively intact phenotype of MCI participants overestimated their cognitive problems relative to their informant, whereas Amnestic MCI participants with objective memory impairment underestimated their cognitive problems. Underestimation of cognitive problems was associated with positive CSF AD biomarkers and progression to dementia. Overall, there was no relationship between self-reported cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning, but significant correlations were observed with depressive symptoms. The inclusion of self-reported complaints in MCI diagnostic criteria may cloud rather than clarify diagnosis and result in high rates of misclassification of MCI. Discrepancies between self- and informant-report demonstrate that overestimation of cognitive problems is characteristic of normal aging while underestimation may reflect greater risk for cognitive decline. PMID:25156329

  17. Recognition of Facial Emotional Expression in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Varjassyová, Alexandra; Ho?ínek, Daniel; Andel, Ross; Amlerova, Jana; Laczó, Jan; Sheardová, Kate?ina; Magerová, Hana; Holmerová, Iva; Vyhnálek, Martin; Bradá?, Ond?ej; Geda, Yonas E.; Hort, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether recognition of facial emotional expression would be affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A total of 50 elderly persons met the initial inclusion criteria, 10 were subsequently excluded (Geriatric Depression Score >5). 22 subjects were classified with aMCI based on published criteria (single domain aMCI [SD-aMCI], n = 10; multiple domain aMCI [MD-aMCI], n = 12); 18 subjects were cognitively normal. All underwent standard neurological and neuropsychological evaluations as well as tests of facial emotion recognition (FER) and famous faces identification (FFI). Among normal controls, FFI was negatively correlated with MMSE and positively correlated with executive function. Among patients with aMCI, FER was correlated with attention/speed of processing. No other correlations were significant. In a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and education, a poorer score on FER, but not on FFI, was associated with greater odds of being classified as MD-aMCI (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–13.91; p = 0.042). This association was not explained by memory or global cognitive score. There was no association between FER or FFI and SD-aMCI (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.36–3.57; p = 0.836). Therefore, FER, but not FFI, may be impaired in MD-aMCI. This implies that in MD-aMCI, the tasks of FER and FFI may involve segregated neurocognitive networks. PMID:22954669

  18. Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As Boston was once known as the "Athens of America", it will probably not be a surprise to learn that the metropolitan area has more arts and cultural organizations per capita than any other place in the United States. One organization that is dedicated to strengthen this vibrant arts community is the Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston. They provide pro bono legal services for artists, training workshops to serve artists and art administrators, and they also train business professionals to serve on nonprofit boards of directors. The Council is also a chapter of the American for the Arts organization, and their homepage provides an event calendar, announcements, and talks. Along the right-hand side of the page visitors will find easy-to-use links such as "I need legal help" and "I want to be a more successful artist." Also, the site contains links to sign up for their Twitter feed and to join their Facebook network.

  19. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  20. Clinical assessment of lumbar impairment.

    PubMed

    Waddell, G

    1987-08-01

    Assessment of severity in low back injuries may be based on diagnosis, pain, disability, physical impairment, and capacity for work. It is important to distinguish between impairment and disability. Physical impairment is objective structural limitation; disability is the resulting loss of function. Disability can be assessed by the patient's report of restriction in activities of daily living: bending and lifting, sitting, standing, walking, traveling, socializing, sleep, sex, and putting on or taking off footwear. Detailed statistical analysis of 480 patients identified the most important elements of lumbar impairment as the anatomic and time patterns of pain, lumbar flexion, straight leg raising, neurologic signs, previous surgery, and spinal fractures. Methods of examination need to be improved. An anatomic chart is provided to calculate impairment in the individual patient. The patient's report of pain, disability, and capacity for work should then be compared with the physician's objective assessment of the injury, diagnosis, and lumbar impairment. PMID:2955983

  1. The Impaired Physician and You

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Merville O.

    1980-01-01

    This article deals with the question “What should you do when you suspect that a colleague's ability to practice medicine has become impaired?” The scope of the problem is now known, and the medical profession's response has been to organize provincial committees to help the impaired doctor. Several patterns suggesting impairment are summarized in this article. An affirmative response is needed; suggestions as to how one may respond are outlined. PMID:21293655

  2. Neuropsychological criteria for mild cognitive impairment improves diagnostic precision, biomarker associations, and progression rates.

    PubMed

    Bondi, Mark W; Edmonds, Emily C; Jak, Amy J; Clark, Lindsay R; Delano-Wood, Lisa; McDonald, Carrie R; Nation, Daniel A; Libon, David J; Au, Rhoda; Galasko, Douglas; Salmon, David P

    2014-01-01

    We compared two methods of diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI): conventional Petersen/Winblad criteria as operationalized by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) and an actuarial neuropsychological method put forward by Jak and Bondi designed to balance sensitivity and reliability. 1,150 ADNI participants were diagnosed at baseline as cognitively normal (CN) or MCI via ADNI criteria (MCI: n = 846; CN: n = 304) or Jak/Bondi criteria (MCI: n = 401; CN: n = 749), and the two MCI samples were submitted to cluster and discriminant function analyses. Resulting cluster groups were then compared and further examined for APOE allelic frequencies, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker levels, and clinical outcomes. Results revealed that both criteria produced a mildly impaired Amnestic subtype and a more severely impaired Dysexecutive/Mixed subtype. The neuropsychological Jak/Bondi criteria uniquely yielded a third Impaired Language subtype, whereas conventional Petersen/Winblad ADNI criteria produced a third subtype comprising nearly one-third of the sample that performed within normal limits across the cognitive measures, suggesting this method's susceptibility to false positive diagnoses. MCI participants diagnosed via neuropsychological criteria yielded dissociable cognitive phenotypes, significant CSF AD biomarker associations, more stable diagnoses, and identified greater percentages of participants who progressed to dementia than conventional MCI diagnostic criteria. Importantly, the actuarial neuropsychological method did not produce a subtype that performed within normal limits on the cognitive testing, unlike the conventional diagnostic method. Findings support the need for refinement of MCI diagnoses to incorporate more comprehensive neuropsychological methods, with resulting gains in empirical characterization of specific cognitive phenotypes, biomarker associations, stability of diagnoses, and prediction of progression. Refinement of MCI diagnostic methods may also yield gains in biomarker and clinical trial study findings because of improvements in sample compositions of 'true positive' cases and removal of 'false positive' cases. PMID:24844687

  3. Impaired allocentric spatial memory underlying topographical disorientation.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Neil; Trinkler, Iris; King, John; Kennedy, Angus; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    The cognitive processes supporting spatial navigation are considered in the context of a patient (CF) with possible very early Alzheimer's disease who presents with topographical disorientation. Her verbal memory and her recognition memory for unknown buildings, landmarks and outdoor scenes was intact, although she showed an impairment in face processing. By contrast, her navigational ability, quantitatively assessed within a small virtual reality (VR) town, was significantly impaired. Interestingly, she showed a selective impairment in a VR object-location memory test whenever her viewpoint was shifted between presentation and test, but not when tested from the same viewpoint. We suggest that a specific impairment in locating objects relative to the environment rather than relative to the perceived viewpoint (i.e. allocentric rather than egocentric spatial memory) underlies her topographical disorientation. We discuss the likely neural bases of this deficit in the light of related studies in humans and animals, focusing on the hippocampus and related areas. The specificity of our test indicates a new way of assessing topographical disorientation, with possible application to the assessment of progressive dementias such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:16703955

  4. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  5. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that approximate each other sufficiently closely to constitute a majority for the purpose of quantifying reliability. This criterion is, simply, that if there do not exist at least three sensors having weights greater than a prescribed minimum acceptable value, then the array as a whole is deemed to have failed.

  6. Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, R.; Malis, V.; Hodgson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4–5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11–12% vs. SW: 6–8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction. PMID:24505104

  7. Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes

    PubMed Central

    RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

  8. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  9. Water quality improvement plan for Greater Vancouver

    SciTech Connect

    Foellmi, S.N. (Black and Veatch, Irvine, CA (United States). Environmental Div.); Neden, D.G. (Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)); Dawson, R.N. (Stanley Associates Engineering Ltd., Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))

    1993-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District commissioned an 18-month planning and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water and predesign study to define the components in a comprehensive water quality improvement plan for its 2,500-ML/d (660-mgd) system. The study included three primary tasks: (1) predesign of disinfection and corrosion control facilities, (2) a 12-month pilot testing program using parallel pilot plants at the Seymour and Capilano water supply reservoirs, and (3) planning for future filtration plants. The results of the study identified chlorine, ammonia, sulfur dioxide, soda ash, and carbon dioxide in a two-stage treatment approach as the recommended disinfection and corrosion control scheme for the low-pH, low-alkalinity water supplies. The pilot-plant studies confirmed that direct filtration using deep-bed monomedium filters operating at a loading rate of 22.5 m/h provided excellent treatment performance and productivity over a wide range of raw-water quality. Ozonation was studied extensively and found not to be beneficial in the overall treatment performance. The phased improvement plan for the disinfection, corrosion control, and filtration facilities has an estimated capital cost of about Can$459 million.

  10. Cognitive impairment in epilepsy: the role of network abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L

    2015-06-01

    The challenges to individuals with epilepsy extend far beyond the seizures. Co-morbidities in epilepsy are very common and are often more problematic to individuals than the seizures themselves. In this review, the pathophysiological mechanisms of cognitive impairment are discussed. While aetiology of the epilepsy has a significant influence on cognition, there is increasing evidence that prolonged or recurrent seizures can cause or exacerbate cognitive impairment. Alterations in signalling pathways and neuronal network function play a major role in both the pathophysiology of epilepsy and the epilepsy comorbidities. However, the biological underpinnings of cognitive impairment can be distinct from the pathophysiological processes that cause seizures. PMID:25905906

  11. Diabetes Cognitive Impairments and the Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Leilei; Tian, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    The problem of cognitive impairment resulting from diabetes is gaining more acceptance and attention. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been proved to be associated with reduced performance on numerous domains of cognitive function. Although the exact mechanisms of cognitive impairments in diabetes have not been completely understood, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance seem to play significant roles. And other possible risk factors such as hypoglycemia, insulin deficiency, vascular risk factors, hyperactive HPA axis, depression, and altered neurotransmitters will also be examined. In the meanwhile, this review analyzed the role of the active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes cognitive impairments. PMID:24386004

  12. Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

  13. Horizontal sound localization skills of unilaterally hearing-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Humes, L E; Allen, S K; Bess, F H

    1980-01-01

    The present study assessed the horizontal sound localization skills of three groups of subjects; normal-hearing adults, normal-hearing children, and unilaterally hearing-impaired children. The ability of these subjects to localize pure tones to 500 and 3000 Hz in quiet and in a background of cafeteria noise was evaluated using an array of thirteen loudspeakers mounted in a large anechoic chamber. Results indicated a significant effect of signal frequency in all three groups of listeners. In addition, the hearing-impaired children performed significantly poorer than their normal-hearing counterparts in all conditions. Individual differences in sound localization ability among the hearing-impaired listeners could be explained largely through effects of age and degree of hearing impairment. PMID:7425955

  14. RESEARCH ARTICLE Recovery of Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Features

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    of prescribed fire to enhance habitat features for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming tripartita, Bromus tectorum, Centrocercus urophasianus, Cheatgrass, fire ecology, forbs, Greater Sage

  15. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE TO EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH WEST NILE VIRUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Clark; Jeffrey Hall; Robert McLean; Michael Dunbar; Kaci Klenk; Richard Bowen

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined 45- 80% in North America since 1950. Although much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss, recent field studies have indicated that West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant negative impact on local populations of grouse. We confirm the susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to WNV infection in laboratory experimental

  16. Hearing aid fitting in older persons with hearing impairment: the influence of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss on hearing aid benefit

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Hartmut; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin; Margolf-Hackl, Sabine; Kießling, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss with clinically assessed hearing aid benefit in older hearing-impaired persons. Methods Hearing aid benefit was assessed using objective measures regarding speech recognition in quiet and noisy environments as well as a subjective measure reflecting everyday situations captured using a standardized questionnaire. A broad range of general cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and intelligence were determined using different neuropsychological tests. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the outcome of the neuropsychological tests as well as age and hearing loss as independent variables and the benefit measures as dependent variables. Thirty experienced older hearing aid users with typical age-related hearing impairment participated. Results Most of the benefit measures revealed that the participants obtained significant improvement with their hearing aids. Regression models showed a significant relationship between a fluid intelligence measure and objective hearing aid benefit. When individual hearing thresholds were considered as an additional independent variable, hearing loss was the only significant contributor to the benefit models. Lower cognitive capacity – as determined by the fluid intelligence measure – was significantly associated with greater hearing loss. Subjective benefit could not be predicted by any of the variables considered. Conclusion The present study does not give evidence that hearing aid benefit is critically associated with cognitive function in experienced hearing aid users. However, it was found that lower fluid intelligence scores were related to higher hearing thresholds. Since greater hearing loss was associated with a greater objective benefit, these results strongly support the advice of using hearing aids regardless of age and cognitive function to counter hearing loss and the adverse effects of age-related hearing impairment. Still, individual cognitive capacity might be relevant for hearing aid benefit during an initial phase of hearing aid provision if acclimatization has not yet taken place. PMID:25709417

  17. Bringing greater transparency to "black box" warnings.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Nick A; Rossi, Simone

    2011-07-01

    The number of drugs with boxed warnings and the detail in the box are much greater in the USA than Australia. US warnings are up to ten times longer and often include a great deal of detail and qualified advice. Australian warnings are usually just a few sentences long and the expected response unequivocal. Other details are relegated to the relevant section within the product information. The restriction of warnings such that they are succinct and used sparingly are explicitly highlighted in the guidelines for boxed warnings in Australia. In addition, the range of other risk management strategies used may be broader. Widespread prescription drug subsidies and mechanisms set up to implement the "Quality Use of Medicines" policy provide a complementary range of options. Withdrawal of registration, removal of subsidies for all or selected indications, changed product information and labels, consumer-targeted information, prescriber mail outs, education programmes, restriction to authorised prescribers, and changed pack size and packaging have all been applied at some time in response to safety concerns. The diversity of approaches around the world provides an opportunity for a systematic approach to look at the effects of boxed warnings on prescribing practices so that we might discover what works best. While there are many studies on the effect of warnings from the USA, there are few comparable studies done where different approaches are used. Further, it is not possible to easily examine the total number and purpose of boxed warnings via any government websites. If there were always explicit and potentially verifiable changes in practice as the stated goal for each boxed warning in each jurisdiction and a requirement that the effectiveness of the intervention was measured against these goals, then we might have the evidence base for better policy around boxed warnings. PMID:21824055

  18. Early presentation of gait impairment in Wolfram Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Classically characterized by early onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, diabetes insipidus, and neurological abnormalities, Wolfram syndrome (WFS) is also associated with atypical brainstem and cerebellar findings in the first decade of life. As such, we hypothesized that gait differences between individuals with WFS and typically developing (TD) individuals may be detectable across the course of the disease. Methods Gait was assessed for 13 individuals with WFS (min 6.4?yrs, max 25.8?yrs) and 29 age-matched, typically developing individuals (min 5.6?yrs, max 28.5?yrs) using a GAITRite ® walkway system. Velocity, cadence, step length, base of support and double support time were compared between groups. Results Across all tasks, individuals with WFS walked slower (p = 0.03), took shorter (p ? 0.001) and wider (p ? 0.001) steps and spent a greater proportion of the gait cycle in double support (p = 0.03) compared to TD individuals. Cadence did not differ between groups (p = 0.62). Across all tasks, age was significantly correlated with cadence and double support time in the TD group but only double support time was correlated with age in the WFS group and only during preferred pace forward (rs= 0.564, p = 0.045) and dual task forward walking (rs= 0.720, p = 0.006) tasks. Individuals with WFS also had a greater number of missteps during tandem walking (p ? 0.001). Within the WFS group, spatiotemporal measures of gait did not correlate with measures of visual acuity. Balance measures negatively correlated with normalized gait velocity during fast forward walking (rs = ?0.59, p = 0.03) and percent of gait cycle in double support during backward walking (rs = ?0.64, p = 0.03). Conclusions Quantifiable gait impairments can be detected in individuals with WFS earlier than previous clinical observations suggested. These impairments are not fully accounted for by the visual or balance deficits associated with WFS, and may be a reflection of early cerebellar and/or brainstem abnormalities. Effective patient-centered treatment paradigms could benefit from a more complete understanding of the progression of motor and other neurological symptom presentation in individuals with WFS. PMID:23217193

  19. Functional impairment in depressed inpatients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Goethe; Edward H. Fischer

    1995-01-01

    The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) was administered to 95 patients with major depression. The SIP includes 12 subscales, each representing a specific area of sickness-related dysfunction. To relate these measures to psychiatric symptoms, patients also completed a measure of depression severity. Consistent with earlier findings, there were high levels of functional impairment. Impairment was correlated with symptoms but, as noted

  20. Impaired IL-2 expression in latent HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Shin, YoungHyun; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Lim, Hoyong; Park, Jihwan; Roh, Tae-Young; Kang, Chun; Choi, Byeong-Sun

    2015-08-01

    Regarding the T cell function in HIV-1 infection, activation of T cells is enhanced in acutely HIV-1-infected T cells upon stimuli. However, T cell immune responses underlying the activation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling molecules and interleukin (IL)-2 production in latently HIV-1-infected cells are poorly understood. The expression and activation of TCR components and its downstream molecules in acutely and latently HIV-1-infected T cells were compared using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for levels of IL-2 in phytohemagglutinin M (PHA-M). The levels of T cell surface molecules and TCR signaling molecules in latently HIV-1-infected cells were greatly decreased without changes in their mRNA levels. In addition, downstream TCR-signaling molecules in latently HIV-1-infected cells were not activated even in the presence of PHA-M. The phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the presence of PHA-M was weakly induced in latently HIV-1-infected cells but was greater in acutely HIVNL4-3-infected cells. Finally, the production of IL-2 was significantly decreased in latently HIV-1-infected cells compared with uninfected parent cells. Thus, IL-2-related immunological functions in latently HIV-1-infected T cells were markedly impaired even in the presence of stimuli. PMID:26086100

  1. Impaired Laparotomy Wound Healing in Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Liyu; Culbertson, Eric J.; Wen, Yuan; Robson, Martin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity increases the risk of laparotomy dehiscence and incisional hernia. The aim of this study was to measure the biological effect of obesity on laparotomy wound healing and the formation of incisional hernias. Methods Normal-weight Sprague–Dawley (SD) and obese Zucker rats were used in an established laparotomy wound healing and incisional ventral hernia model. Mechanical testing was performed on abdominal wall strips collected from laparotomy wounds. Hernia size was measured by digital imaging. Picrosirius staining for collagen isoforms was observed with polarized microscopy. Abdominal wall fibroblasts were cultured to measure collagen matrix remodeling and proliferation. Results Laparotomy wound healing was significantly impaired in obese rats. Mechanical strength was lower than in normal-weight rats. Yield load was reduced in the obese group at all time points. Picrosirius red staining showed increased immature type III collagen content and disorganized type I collagen fibers within laparotomy wounds of obese rats. Wound size was significantly larger in the obese group. Collagen matrix remodeling was impaired with fibroblasts from obese rats, but there was no difference in fibroblast proliferation between the obese and normal-weight groups. Conclusions We observed for the first time that laparotomy wound healing is impaired in obese rats. The recovery of laparotomy wound strength is delayed due to abnormal collagen maturation and remodeling, possibly due to a defect in fibroblast function. Strategies to improve outcomes for laparotomy wound healing in obese patients should include correcting the wound healing defect, possibly with growth factor or cell therapy. PMID:21347822

  2. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  3. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

  4. Enhanced large conductance K+ channel activity contributes to the impaired myogenic response in the cerebral vasculature of Fawn Hooded Hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Pabbidi, Mallikarjuna R.; Mazur, Olga; Fan, Fan; Farley, Jerry M.; Gebremedhin, Debebe; Harder, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the myogenic response (MR) in cerebral arteries is impaired in Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH) rats and that transfer of a 2.4 megabase pair region of chromosome 1 (RNO1) containing 15 genes from the Brown Norway rat into the FHH genetic background restores MR in a FHH.1BN congenic strain. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. The present study examined the role of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in impairing the MR in FHH rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp studies of cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) revealed that iberiotoxin (IBTX; BK inhibitor)-sensitive outward potassium (K+) channel current densities are four- to fivefold greater in FHH than in FHH.1BN congenic strain. Inside-out patches indicated that the BK channel open probability (NPo) is 10-fold higher and IBTX reduced NPo to a greater extent in VSMCs isolated from FHH than in FHH.1BN rats. Voltage sensitivity of the BK channel is enhanced in FHH as compared with FHH.1BN rats. The frequency and amplitude of spontaneous transient outward currents are significantly greater in VSMCs isolated from FHH than in FHH.1BN rats. However, the expression of the BK-? and -?-subunit proteins in cerebral vessels as determined by Western blot is similar between the two groups. Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) isolated from FHH rats exhibited an impaired MR, and administration of IBTX restored this response. These results indicate that there is a gene on RNO1 that impairs MR in the MCAs of FHH rats by enhancing BK channel activity. PMID:24464756

  5. Preventing Impaired Driving Opportunities and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested. PMID:22330222

  6. Central nervous system impairment in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Kolev, O I; Milanov, I

    1999-12-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the function of the central motor control system in interaction with the vestibular and auditory systems (measured by H-reflex changes in response to vestibular and acoustic stimulations) in diabetics without clinical data for CNS impairment, in order to establish whether the disease affects these CNS mechanisms; and to assess this approach in detecting subclinical CNS diabetic pathology. The results show the same mode of change of H-reflex amplitude in response to acoustic and vestibular stimulations in diabetics as in normal subjects. However the degree of facilitation and inhibition was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in diabetics which indicates subclinical CNS dysfunction. Therefore it was concluded that the test is useful in early diagnosis of the diabetic CNS impairment. PMID:10627933

  7. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002.

    PubMed Central

    Resnikoff, Serge; Pascolini, Donatella; Etya'ale, Daniel; Kocur, Ivo; Pararajasegaram, Ramachandra; Pokharel, Gopal P.; Mariotti, Silvio P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment and its causes in 2002, based on the best available evidence derived from recent studies. Estimates were determined from data on low vision and blindness as defined in the International statistical classification of diseases, injuries and causes of death, 10th revision. The number of people with visual impairment worldwide in 2002 was in excess of 161 million, of whom about 37 million were blind. The burden of visual impairment is not distributed uniformly throughout the world: the least developed regions carry the largest share. Visual impairment is also unequally distributed across age groups, being largely confined to adults 50 years of age and older. A distribution imbalance is also found with regard to gender throughout the world: females have a significantly higher risk of having visual impairment than males. Notwithstanding the progress in surgical intervention that has been made in many countries over the last few decades, cataract remains the leading cause of visual impairment in all regions of the world, except in the most developed countries. Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma. PMID:15640920

  8. Inhalation of the nerve gas sarin impairs ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zhuang Jianguo [Immunology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States); Xu Fadi [Immunology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States)], E-mail: fxu@lrri.org; Campen, Matthew J.; Zhang Cancan; Pena-Philippides, Juan C.; Sopori, Mohan L. [Immunology Program, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive, SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Sarin, a highly toxic nerve gas, is believed to cause bronchoconstriction and even death primarily through respiratory failure; however, the mechanism underlying the respiratory failure is not fully understood. The goals of this study were to ascertain whether sarin affects baseline ventilation (V{sub E}) and V{sub E} chemoreflexes as well as airway resistance and, if so, whether these changes are reversible. Four groups of F344 rats were exposed to vehicle (VEH) or sarin at 2.5, 3.5, and 4.0 mg h m{sup -3} (SL, SM, and SH, respectively). V{sub E} and V{sub E} responses to hypercapnia (7% CO{sub 2}) or hypoxia (10% O{sub 2}) were measured by plethysmography at 2 h and 1, 2, and 5 days after VEH or sarin exposure. Total pulmonary resistance (R{sub L}) also was measured in anesthetized VEH- and SH-exposed animals 2 h after exposure. Our results showed that within 2 h after exposure 11% of the SM- and 52% of the SH- exposed groups died. Although the SM and SH significantly decreased hypercapnic and hypoxic V{sub E} to similar levels (64 and 69%), SH induced greater respiratory impairment, characterized by lower baseline V{sub E} (30%; P < 0.05), and total loss of the respiratory frequency response to hypercapnia and hypoxia. V{sub E} impairment recovered within 1-2 days after sarin exposure; interestingly, SH did not significantly affect baseline R{sub L}. Moreover, sarin induced body tremors that were unrelated to the changes in the V{sub E} responses. Thus, LC{sub 50} sarin causes a reversible impairment of V{sub E} that is not dependent on the sarin-induced body tremors and not associated with changes in R{sub L}.

  9. Inter-Individual Differences in Neurobehavioural Impairment following Sleep Restriction Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm Phase

    PubMed Central

    Sletten, Tracey L.; Segal, Ahuva Y.; Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.

    2015-01-01

    Although sleep restriction is associated with decrements in daytime alertness and neurobehavioural performance, there are considerable inter-individual differences in the degree of impairment. This study examined the effects of short-term sleep restriction on neurobehavioural performance and sleepiness, and the associations between individual differences in impairments and circadian rhythm phase. Healthy adults (n = 43; 22 M) aged 22.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD) years maintained a regular 8:16 h sleep:wake routine for at least three weeks prior to laboratory admission. Sleep opportunity was restricted to 5 hours time-in-bed at home the night before admission and 3 hours time-in-bed in the laboratory, aligned by wake time. Hourly saliva samples were collected from 5.5 h before until 5 h after the pre-laboratory scheduled bedtime to assess dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) as a marker of circadian phase. Participants completed a 10-min auditory Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and had slow eye movements (SEM) measured by electrooculography two hours after waking. We observed substantial inter-individual variability in neurobehavioural performance, particularly in the number of PVT lapses. Increased PVT lapses (r = -0.468, p < 0.01), greater sleepiness (r = 0.510, p < 0.0001), and more slow eye movements (r = 0.375, p = 0.022) were significantly associated with later DLMO, consistent with participants waking at an earlier circadian phase. When the difference between DLMO and sleep onset was less than 2 hours, individuals were significantly more likely to have at least three attentional lapses the following morning. This study demonstrates that the phase of an individual’s circadian system is an important variable in predicting the degree of neurobehavioural performance impairment in the hours after waking following sleep restriction, and confirms that other factors influencing performance decrements require further investigation. PMID:26043207

  10. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  11. Exercise training and impaired glucose tolerance in obese humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Margaret McNeilly; Conor McClean; Marie Murphy; Jane McEneny; Tom Trinick; George Burke; Ellie Duly; James McLaughlin; Gareth Davison

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at greater risk of developing diabetes than in normoglycaemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 12-weeks exercise training in obese humans with IGT. Eleven participants (6 males and 5 females; 49±9 years; mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 32.4 kg · m), completed a 12-week brisk walking intervention (30 min per

  12. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  13. The Word Length Effect in Children with Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Catherine H.

    2003-01-01

    Two types of serial word recall tasks (full verbal recall and probed recall) were administered to 11 children with language impairment and 22 controls matched for productive language or age. The only significant group differences were in the full list recall condition, in which subjects' performance was significantly worse than controls. (Contains…

  14. Microbial contamination of artificially incubated Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) eggs.

    PubMed

    Lábaque, M C; Navarro, J L; Martella, M B

    2003-07-01

    1. This paper is a report of biological agents that contaminate Greater Rhea (Rhea americana) eggs during artificial incubation. 2. The cleanliness of eggs when collected, and the period of storage prior to incubation, were investigated to assess their effects on microbial contamination and hatchability. 3. A total of 14 bacteria and 4 fungi species were isolated within the egg in the laboratory. 4. Microbial contamination was higher (24%) in very dirty eggs than in eggs which were clean or dirty (16%). Hatching success was lower (30%) for very dirty eggs, compared with 42% for clean or dirty eggs. 5. The percentage of microbial contamination of stored eggs (10%) did not differ significantly from that of non-stored ones (5%). 6. The extreme lower and upper limits of infection rate estimated for artificially incubated Greater Rhea eggs were 4% and 40%, respectively, being higher than in poultry species. 7. It is concluded that collecting eggs soon after laying will reduce the risk of microbial contamination. PMID:12964617

  15. Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

    2008-04-01

    Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds. PMID:18436686

  16. Childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment among older Chinese people

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhenmei; Gu, Danan; Hayward, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Late-life cognitive impairment may have its origins in childhood. Here, we examine the associations between markers of childhood nutritional deprivation and cognitive impairment in older adults. We made use of the 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine these associations for persons aged 65–105 (N = 15,444). Anthropometric measures (arm length, knee height) and self-reported hunger were used to measure early-life nutritional deficiencies. Cognitive impairment was measured using the Chinese version of the Mini Mental State Examination. Results from multivariate logistic regression models show that both anthropometric measures and self-report markers of early-life nutritional status were significantly associated with the odds of cognitive impairment at baseline for both men and women after controlling for age and ethnicity. Adjustments for childhood and adulthood socioeconomic status, adulthood health, and lifestyle habits had little effect on these associations except for the effect of hunger among men. Results from multinomial logistic regression models show that during the three-year follow-up period, arm length was significantly associated with the onset of cognitive impairment after controlling for various confounders in men, but not in women. Our findings suggest that early-life nutritional deprivation may contribute to cognitive impairment among older Chinese adults. PMID:20591545

  17. Miranda Rights Comprehension in Young Adults With Specific Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McGregor, Karla K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether citizens with language impairment understand legal rights as conveyed in Miranda warnings. Method Grisso's Instruments for Assessing Understanding and Appreciation of Miranda Rights (1998) was administered to 34 young adults, half of whom met the diagnostic criteria for specific language impairment (SLI). A correlational analysis of the relationship between language scores and Miranda rights comprehension was conducted, as were tests of differences between individuals with SLI (n = 17) and individuals without SLI. Results Language ability was positively correlated with overall performance on the Miranda measure. As a group, individuals with SLI were significantly poorer than their peers with normal language at defining Miranda vocabulary and applying Miranda rights in hypothetical situations. The group with SLI was also marginally less able to paraphrase Miranda sentences. Conclusion Language impairment limits comprehension of Miranda warnings. As a result, citizens with language impairment are at risk of being denied their constitutional rights. PMID:22230180

  18. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    PubMed

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders. PMID:21072692

  19. Acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction memory in humans.

    PubMed

    Raio, Candace M; Brignoni-Perez, Edith; Goldman, Rachel; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    Extinction training is a form of inhibitory learning that allows an organism to associate a previously aversive cue with a new, safe outcome. Extinction does not erase a fear association, but instead creates a competing association that may or may not be retrieved when a cue is subsequently encountered. Characterizing the conditions under which extinction learning is expressed is important to enhancing the treatment of anxiety disorders that rely on extinction-based exposure therapy as a primary treatment technique. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which plays a critical role in the expression of extinction memory, has been shown to be functionally impaired after stress exposure. Further, recent work in rodents has demonstrated that exposure to stress leads to deficits in extinction retrieval, although this has yet to be tested in humans. To explore how stress might influence extinction retrieval in humans, participants underwent a differential aversive learning paradigm, in which one image was probabilistically paired with an aversive shock while the other image denoted safety. Extinction training directly followed, at which point reinforcement was omitted. A day later, participants returned to the lab and either completed an acute stress manipulation (i.e., cold pressor), or a control task, before undergoing an extinction retrieval test. Skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured throughout each session as indices of fear arousal and neuroendocrine stress response, respectively. The efficacy of our stress induction was established by observing significant increases in cortisol for the stress condition only. We examined extinction retrieval by comparing conditioned responses during the last trial of extinction (day 1) with that of the first trial of re-extinction (day 2). Groups did not differ on initial fear acquisition or extinction, however, a day later participants in the stress group (n=27) demonstrated significantly lower extinction retrieval (i.e., greater fear recovery) than those in the control group (n=25). Our results suggest that acute stress impairs the retrieval of extinction learning and offers insight into why treatment strategies used in the clinic may be challenging to recruit in daily life where stress is pervasive. PMID:24508065

  20. Language Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis 

    E-print Network

    Stahl, Hillary

    2011-11-23

    There is little research on language involvement in MS, though the studies that do exist indicate a wide variety of language impairments. No comprehensive study has yet been done investigating MS abilities in all the major ...

  1. Contrast nephropathy in patients with impaired renal function: High versus low osmolar media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brendan J Barrett; Patrick S Parfrey; Hilary M Vavasour; Jackie McDonald; Gloria Kent; Donna Hefferton; Frank O'Dea; Eric Stone; Raj Reddy; Patrick J McManamon

    1992-01-01

    Contrast nephropathy in patients with impaired renal function: High versus low osmolar media. Prescription of low osmolar contrast to prevent nephrotoxicity in subjects with pre-existing renal impairment is costly and has not been clearly shown to be effective. We entered 249 subjects with a pre-contrast serum creatinine greater than 120 \\/xmol\\/liter (1.35 mg\\/dl) having cardiac catheterization or intravenous contrast into

  2. Contextual strategy instruction: Socially\\/emotionally maladjusted adolescents with language impairments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Betty Z. Liles; Steven V. Owen

    1996-01-01

    Ten socially\\/emotionally maladjusted adolescents with language impairments (SEM\\/LI) and ten non-impaired adolescents received four treatment sessions in the use of a “context clues strategy” for facilitating comprehension of unfamiliar words in four sentence types. Both groups improved their ability to use a context clues strategy following direct instruction. The SEM\\/LI subjects exhibited greater difficulty with the appositive sentence type than

  3. Neurocognitive impairment in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Lal, Chitra; Strange, Charlie; Bachman, David

    2012-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder with far-reaching health implications. One of the major consequences of OSAS is an impact on neurocognitive functioning. Several studies have shown that OSAS has an adverse effect on inductive and deductive reasoning, attention, vigilance, learning, and memory. Neurocognitive impairment can be measured objectively with tests such as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, the Psychomotor Vigilance Task, the Steer Clear Performance Test, and tests of repetitive finger tapping. In children, OSAS may cause attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in addition to behavioral problems and learning disabilities. Risk factors for cognitive impairment include increasing age, male sex, apolipoprotein E ?4 allele positivity, current cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, Down syndrome, hypothyroidism, significant alcohol consumption, stroke, and the use of psychoactive medications. At a cellular level, OSAS likely causes cognitive impairment through intermittent hypoxia, hormonal imbalance, and/or systemic inflammation, either independently or via the resultant endothelial dysfunction that occurs. Excessive daytime sleepiness should be measured and minimized in all studies of neurocognitive impairment. Recent studies have used functional and structural neuroimaging to delineate the brain areas affected in patients with OSAS with neurocognitive dysfunction. A common finding in several of these studies is decreased hippocampal volume. Other affected brain areas include the frontal and parietal lobes of the brain, which show focal reductions in gray matter. These changes can be reversed at least partially with the use of CPAP, which highlights the importance of early recognition and treatment of OSAS. The currently available data in this field are quite limited, and more research is needed. PMID:22670023

  4. The Effects of Fast ForWord Language on the Phonemic Awareness and Reading Skills of School-Age Children With Language Impairments and Poor Reading Skills

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Diane Frome; Gillam, Ronald B.; Hoffman, LaVae; Brandel, Jayne; Marquis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the efficacy of Fast For-Word Language (FFW-L) and 2 other interventions for improving the phonemic awareness and reading skills of children with specific language impairment with concurrent poor reading skills. Method A total of 103 children (age 6;0 to 8;11 [years;months]) with language impairment and poor reading skills participated. The children received either FFW-L computerized intervention, a computer-assisted language intervention (CALI), an individualized language intervention (ILI), or an attention control (AC) computer program. Results The children in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI conditions made significantly greater gains in blending sounds in words compared with the AC group at immediate posttest. Long-term gains 6 months after treatment were not significant but yielded a medium effect size for blending sounds in words. None of the interventions led to significant changes in reading skills. Conclusion The improvement in phonemic awareness, but not reading, in the FFW-L, CALI, and ILI interventions limits their use with children who have language impairment and poor reading skills. Similar results across treatment conditions suggest that acoustically modified speech was not a necessary component for improving phonemic awareness. PMID:19564439

  5. Could language deficits really differentiate Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) from mild Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Tsantali, E; Economidis, D; Tsolaki, M

    2013-01-01

    Naming abilities seem to be affected in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, though MCI individuals tend to exhibit greater impairments in category fluency. In this study we: (1) detect language deficits of amnestic MCIs (aMCIs) and mild AD (mAD) participants and present their language performance (the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination - BDAE scores) according to educational level, (2) study the diagnostic value of language deficits according to the cognitive state of the participants. One hundred nineteen participants, 38 normal controls (NC), 28 aMCIs and 53 mADs, were recruited randomly as outpatients of 2 clinical departments and administered clinical, neuropsychological and neuroimaging assessment. Language abilities were assessed by the adapted Greek edition of the BDAE (2nd edition). Our results indicate that verbal fluency, auditory, reading comprehension and narrative ability are the main language abilities to be affected in mADs, although they are almost intact in NCs and less vulnerable in aMCIs. Narrative ability seems to be significantly impaired in mADs but not so in aMCIs. Six language subtests of the BDAE assess safely the above deficits. This brief version of the BDAE discriminated mADs from the other 2 groups 92.5% of the time, NCs 86.8% and aMCI 67.9% of the time in order to save time and to be accurate in clinical practice. PMID:23628238

  6. Road Test and Naturalistic Driving Performance in Healthy and Cognitively Impaired Older Adults: Does Environment Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer D.; Papandonatos, George D.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Hewitt, Scott D.; Festa, Elena K.; Heindel, William C.; Ott, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The road test is regarded as the gold standard for determining driving competence in older adults, but it is unclear how well the road test relates to naturalistic driving. The study objective was to relate the standardized road test to video recordings of naturalistic driving in older adults with a range of cognitive impairment. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Academic medical center memory disorders clinic. Participants 103 older drivers (44 healthy and 59 with cognitive impairment) who passed a road test. Measurements Error rate and global ratings of safety (pass with and without recommendations, marginal with restrictions or training, or fail) made by a professional driving instructor. Results There was fair agreement between global ratings on the road test and naturalistic driving. More errors were detected in the naturalistic environment, but this did not impact global ratings. Error scores between settings were significantly correlated, and the types of errors made were similar. History of crashes corrected for miles driven per week was related to road test error scores, but not naturalistic driving error scores. Global cognition (MMSE) was correlated with both road test and naturalistic driving errors. In the healthy older adults, younger age was correlated with fewer errors on the road test and greater errors in naturalistic driving. Conclusion Road test performance is a reasonable proxy for estimating fitness to drive in older individuals’ typical driving environments. The differences between performance assessed by these two methods, however, remain poorly understood and deserve further study. PMID:23110378

  7. Prevalence and documentation of impaired mental status in elderly emergency department patients

    PubMed

    Hustey; Meldon; Palmer

    2000-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and assess documentation by emergency department (ED) physicians (EPs) of impaired mental status in elderly ED patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional, observational study. Subjects: convenience sampling of ED patients greater than or equal to 70 years of age. Patients were screened for cognitive impairment with the Orientation Memory Concentration exam (OMC), and for delirium with the Confusion. Assessment Method screening tool (CAM). A positive OMC or CAM was considered indicative of impaired mental status. Patients with delirium were excluded from the cognitive impairment screen. EPs were blinded to screening results. Physician documentation, dispositions, and referrals were abstracted from chart review. Proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. RESULTS: 180 patients were screened. 46 patients (26%; 95% CI = 19% to 32%) had impaired mental status. 22 of these (12%; 95% CI = 7% to 17%) had delirium, and 24 (13%; 95% CI = 8% to 18%) had moderate to severe cognitive impairment. Of all patients with impaired mental status, only 14 (30%; 95% CI = 18% to 46%) had documentation of any impairment by the EP (10 with delirium (46%; 95% CI = 24% to 68%), and 5 with cognitive impairment (21%; 95% CI = 7% to 42%). 7 of 22 (32%; 95% CI = 14% to 55%) patients with delirium were discharged home. Only 2 of 16 patients with impaired mental status (12.5%) were discharged home with plans noted to address the impairment. CONCLUSIONS: Impairment in mental status is highly prevalent among older ED patients. Lack of documentation and referrals by EPs suggests lack of recognition of these problems. Further education of physicians is needed to improve care in these areas. PMID:11015259

  8. Minimizing Significant Figure Fuzziness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lawrence D.; Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the principles and problems associated with the use of significant figures. Explains uncertainty, the meaning of significant figures, the Simple Rule, the Three Rule, and the 1-5 Rule. Also provides examples of the Rules. (ML)

  9. Peer Reviewed Movements and Survival of Juvenile Greater

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    contributing to declines in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. We evaluated movements(4):1070­ 1078; 2006) Key words Centrocercus urophasianus, greater sage-grouse, Idaho, juvenile survival, power-line collisions, predation, seasonal movements. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) historically

  10. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. PMID:11914550

  11. Tests of Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lacey, Michelle

    This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

  12. Impairment Rating Ambiguity in the United States: The Utah Impairment Guides for Calculating Workers' Compensation Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Bradley; Bunkall, Larry D.; Holmes, Edward B.

    2009-01-01

    Since the implementation of workers' compensation, accurately and consistently rating impairment has been a concern for the employee and employer, as well as rating physicians. In an attempt to standardize and classify impairments, the American Medical Association (AMA) publishes the AMA Guides ("Guides"), and recently published its 6th edition of the AMA Guides. Common critiques of the AMA Guides 6th edition are that they are too complex, lacking in evidence-based methods, and rarely yield consistent ratings. Many states mandate use of some edition of the AMA Guides, but few states are adopting the current edition due to the increasing difficulty and frustration with their implementation. A clearer, simpler approach is needed. Some states have begun to develop their own supplemental guides to combat problems in complexity and validity. Likewise studies in Korea show that past methods for rating impairment are outdated and inconsistent, and call for measures to adapt current methods to Korea's specific needs. The Utah Supplemental Guides to the AMA Guides have been effective in increasing consistency in rating impairment. It is estimated that litigation of permanent impairment has fallen below 1% and Utah is now one of the least costly states for obtaining workers' compensation insurance, while maintaining a medical fee schedule above the national average. Utah's guides serve as a model for national or international impairment guides. PMID:19503678

  13. Different Pathophysiology of Impaired Glucose Tolerance in First Degree Relatives of Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Peter; Van Haeften, Timon W.; Pimenta, Walkyria; Plummer, Elena; Woerle, Hans J; Mitrakou, Asimina; Szoke, Ervin; Gerich, John; Meyer, Christian

    2009-01-01

    To assess whether an increased genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) influences the contributions of insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 437 subjects not known to have T2DM underwent an OGTT and a 3-hour hyperglycemic clamp. Plasma insulin responses and insulin sensitivity were compared between all subjects (unselected for demographic or anthropometric characteristics) that had normal glucose homeostasis and no first degree T2DM relative (NGH; N=133), IGT with a first degree T2DM relative (IGT/FH+; N=74) or IGT without a first degree T2DM relative (IGT/FH?; N=50). Compared to NGH, first and second phase plasma insulin responses were reduced ~45% and 30%, respectively (both P<0.001) in IGT/FH+, whereas insulin sensitivity was only ~20% reduced (P=0.011). In contrast, in IGT/FH?, first phase plasma insulin responses were only ~20% reduced (P=0.016), second phase plasma insulin responses were not reduced, but insulin sensitivity was ~40% reduced (P<0.001). IGT/FH+ differed significantly from IGT/FH? by having 25–30% lower first phase plasma insulin responses (P=0.026) and 25–30% greater insulin sensitivity (P=0.027). Adjustment for obesity abolished the differences in insulin resistance but not plasma insulin responses. However, when the IGT groups were stratified into subgroups based on body mass index (BMI), first phase plasma insulin responses were ~30% lower in IGT/FH+ with a BMI ?27 kg/m2 (P=0.018) but similar in IGT/FH+ with a BMI <27 kg/m2 compared to the corresponding IGT/FH? subgroups. We conclude that in IGT an increased genetic predisposition for T2DM increases the contribution of impaired insulin secretion to its pathophysiology. This effect is enhanced by obesity. PMID:19375581

  14. Care mapping in clinical neuroscience settings: Cognitive impairment and dependency.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Andrew James; O'Hanlon, Katie; Sheldrick, Russell; Surr, Claire; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2015-08-01

    Person-centred care can improve the well-being of patients and is therefore a key driver in healthcare developments in the UK. The current study aims to investigate the complex relationship between cognitive impairment, dependency and well-being in people with a wide range of acquired brain and spinal injuries. Sixty-five participants, with varied acquired brain and spinal injuries, were selected by convenience sampling from six inpatient clinical neuroscience settings. Participants were observed using Dementia Care Mapping - Neurorehabilitation (DCM-NR) and categorised based on severity of cognitive impairment. A significant difference in the behaviours participants engaged in, their well-being and dependency was found between the severe cognitive impairment group and the mild, moderate or no cognitive impairment groups. Dependency and cognitive impairment accounted for 23.9% of the variance in well-ill-being scores and 17.2% of the variance in potential for positive engagement. The current study highlights the impact of severe cognitive impairment and dependency on the behaviours patients engaged in and their well-being. It also affirms the utility of DCM-NR in providing insights into patient experience. Consideration is given to developing DCM-NR as a process that may improve person-centred care in neuroscience settings. PMID:25233395

  15. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270) was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37) in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA), and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA). Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22) and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons). PMID:18590546

  16. Greater volumes of static and dynamic stretching within a warm-up do not impair star excursion balance performance.

    PubMed

    Belkhiria-Turki, L; Chaouachi, A; Turki, O; Hammami, R; Chtara, M; Amri, M; Drinkwater, E J; Behm, D G

    2014-06-01

    Based on the conflicting static stretching (SS) literature and lack of dynamic stretching (DS) literature regarding the effects of differing volumes of stretching on balance, the present study investigated the effects of 4, 8, and 12 sets of SS and DS following a 5 min aerobic running warm-up on the star excursion balance test (SEBT). The objective was to examine an optimal stretch modality and volume to enhance dynamic balance. A randomized, within-subjects experimental design with repeated measures for stretching (SS and DS) versus no-stretching treatment was used to examine the acute effects of 10 (4 sets), 20 (8 sets), and 30 (12 sets) min, of 15s repetitions per muscle of SS and/or DS following a 5 min aerobic warm-up on the performance of the SEBT. Results indicated that a warm-up employing either SS or DS of any volume generally improves SEBT by a "small" amount with effect sizes ranging from 0.06 to 0.50 (11 of 18 conditions>75% likely to exceed the 1.3-1.9% smallest worthwhile change). Secondly, the difference between static and dynamic warm-up on this observed improvement with warm-up improvement was "trivial" to "moderate" (d=0.04 to 0.57) and generally "unclear" (only two of nine conditions>75% likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change). Finally, the effect of increasing the volume of warm-up on the observed improvement with a warm-up is "trivial" to "small" (d<0.40) and generally "unclear" (only three of 12 conditions>75% likely to exceed the smallest worthwhile change). In summary, an aerobic running warm-up with stretching that increases core and muscle temperature whether it involves SS or DS may be expected to provide small improvements in the SEBT. PMID:24739290

  17. Exhausting stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise causes greater impairment in SSC performance than in pure concentric performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Horita; P. Komi; I. Hämäläinen; J. Avela

    2003-01-01

    .   The purpose of the present study was to investigate the fatigue effect of repeated exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC)\\u000a exercise on concentric muscle function. Ten healthy male subjects performed SSC exercise [92 (30) jumps] on a special sledge\\u000a apparatus. Exhaustion occurred on average within 3 min. A squat jump (SJ) test utilizing a concentric-only action was performed\\u000a immediately before and after

  18. Exhausting stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise causes greater impairment in SSC performance than in pure concentric performance.

    PubMed

    Horita, T; Komi, P V; Hämäläinen, I; Avela, J

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the fatigue effect of repeated exhaustive stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) exercise on concentric muscle function. Ten healthy male subjects performed SSC exercise [92 (30) jumps] on a special sledge apparatus. Exhaustion occurred on average within 3 min. A squat jump (SJ) test utilizing a concentric-only action was performed immediately before and after the SSC exercise, and then 10 min, 20 min, 2 days and 4 days later. In addition, a drop jump (DJ) test using an SSC was also performed immediately before and 20 min after the SSC exercise, and 2 days and 4 days later. During jump tests, lower limb joint moment, power, and work contributions were analyzed by using the kinetic and kinematic data. The fatigue exercise was characterized by a relatively high blood lactate concentration [7.2 (0.8) mmol x l(-1)] and a 2-day delayed increase in serum creatine kinase activity [486 (300) U x l(-1)]. SJ performance decreased markedly immediately after the SSC exercise (P<0.05) and then recovered within 10 min. In contrast, DJ performance and knee joint contribution showed a delayed decrease 2 days after the SSC exercise bout. The surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the lower limb muscles showed no obvious change in the SJ in comparison to the DJ, although in the latter there was a delayed decrease of knee extensor EMG during the pre-activation and braking phases. The results suggest that isolated concentric muscle function is affected mainly by acute metabolic fatigue after SSC exercise. During a follow-up period after the exercise, changes in hip and knee joint contribution in SJ showed a different recovery pattern compared to those in eccentric DJ. It could be suggested that exhaustive SSC exercise would mainly influence the relative power-work balance between the hip and knee joints during the eccentric phase of SSC. Thus different motor control strategies may account for the distinctive fatigue responses observed in SJ and DJ. PMID:12560951

  19. Objective and subjective cognitive impairment following chemotherapy for cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Amanda D; Hosking, Jessica R; Kichenadasse, Ganessan; Mattiske, Julie K; Wilson, Carlene

    2012-11-01

    Evidence suggests that some cancer survivors experience cognitive difficulties following chemotherapy. However, perceived or subjective cognitive impairment is more frequently reported than prevalence revealed by objective assessments. The aim of this review was to examine the relationship between subjective and objective measures of cognitive impairment following treatment for cancer and to determine the number of studies that found a significant relationship between these measures of cognition. A comprehensive search for articles, published between 1980 and 2012, comparing subjective and objective cognition in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy was conducted. Of 818 potentially relevant articles, 23 studies met the inclusion criteria for the current review and one article was sourced from reference lists of included studies. Only eight of 24 included studies found a significant relationship between objective and subjective measures of cognitive performance. These studies were more likely to involve breast cancer patients and to assess the relationship between memory and perceived cognitive impairment. The failure to consistently find an association between subjective and objective measures of cognition could be explained by variations in assessment methods or the definition of impairment. Alternatively, objective and perceived cognitive impairment may be unrelated because perceived impairment may be an indicator of psychological distress rather than cognitive impairment. Despite these discrepancies, patients' perceptions of impairment are important due to its significant impact on quality of life. Further research is required to explore whether objective measures of everyday functioning better predict the impact of chemotherapy related cognitive impairment on daily functioning. PMID:22658913

  20. Animal models of memory impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, M

    1997-01-01

    Memory impairment in the elderly resembles a mild temporal lobe dysfunction. Alterations in the hippocampal formation are also a probable basis for cognitive deficits in some animal models of ageing. For example, aged rats are impaired in hippocampal-dependent tests of spatial memory. Recent studies have revealed considerable structural integrity in the aged hippocampus, even in aged rats with the most impaired spatial memory. In contrast, atrophy/loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain and deficiency in cholinergic transduction in hippocampus correlate with the severity of spatial memory impairment in aged rats. This evidence supports the longstanding view that age-related loss of memory has a cholinergic basis. In this context, it is somewhat surprising that the use of a selective cholinergic immunotoxin in young rats to further test this hypothesis has revealed normal spatial memory after removing septo-hippocampal cholinergic neurons. Young rats with immunotoxic lesions, however, have other behavioural impairments in tests of attentional processing. These lines of research have implications for understanding the neurobiological basis of memory deficits in ageing and for selecting an optimal behavioural setting in which to examine therapies aimed at restoring neurobiological function. PMID:9415923

  1. Geohelminths: public health significance.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Jaide, Chayannan; Jinawath, Natini; Rotjanapan, Porpon; Baral, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of geohelminths and their unique place in evolutionary biology have attracted research focus. These major soil-transmitted intestinal nematodes that cause human diseases are the nematode roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the two hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), often collectively referred as geohelminths. Studies of geohelminthiasis in poorly nourished children in developing regions report that geohelminths contribute to stunted growth and cognitive impairment. Insights into immunology have shed light on the modulatory role of the parasite on the host immune system and have defined the role of T cells in controlling geohelminthic infection. Recent molecular biological techniques have created an opportunity to analyse the interaction between parasites and their hosts at the molecular level. This paper is a review of the recent literature that examined the prevalence of geohelminthiasis in developing countries, the association between geohelminths in relation to public health, parasitological/diagnostic features, and therapeutic and preventive aspects of these major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) pathogens in humans. PMID:24423707

  2. A meta-analysis of cognitive impairment and decline associated with adjuvant chemotherapy in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ono, Miyuki; Ogilvie, James M; Wilson, Jennifer S; Green, Heather J; Chambers, Suzanne K; Ownsworth, Tamara; Shum, David H K

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to quantify the magnitude and nature of the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and performance on a range of cognitive domains among breast cancer patients. A total of 27 studies (14 cross-sectional, 8 both cross-sectional and prospective, and 5 prospective) were included in the analyses, involving 1562 breast cancer patients who had undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and 2799 controls that included breast cancer patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 737 effect sizes (Cohen's d) were calculated for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies separately and classified into eight cognitive domains. The mean effect sizes varied across cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from -1.12 to 0.62 and -0.29 to 1.12, respectively). Each cognitive domain produced small effect sizes for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from -0.25 to 0.41). Results from cross-sectional studies indicated a significant association between adjuvant chemotherapy and cognitive impairment that held across studies with varied methodological approaches. For prospective studies, results generally indicated that cognitive functioning improved over time after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Greater cognitive impairment was reported in cross-sectional studies comparing chemotherapy groups with healthy control groups. Results suggested that cognitive impairment is present among breast cancer patients irrespective of a history of chemotherapy. Prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of cognitive impairment present both before and after chemotherapy, with comparisons made to participants' cognitive function prior to diagnosis. Accurate understanding of the effects of chemotherapy is essential to enable informed decisions regarding treatment and to improve quality of life among breast cancer patients. PMID:25806355

  3. Warfarin Dosing in Patients With Impaired Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Limdi, Nita A; Limdi, Mohit A; Cavallari, Larisa; Anderson, Aaron M; Crowley, Michael R; Baird, Melissa F; Allon, Michael; Beasley, T.Mark

    2010-01-01

    Background Warfarin, a drug primarily metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system, is initiated at similar doses and managed similarly in patients with kidney impairment as in the general medical population. Unfortunately, few data exist to guide dose adjustment in patients with reduced kidney function. Herein we determine the degree of warfarin dose reduction associated with kidney impairment and make recommendations for warfarin dosing. Study Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting & Participants Chronic warfarin users followed at anticoagulation clinics (n=980); 708 participants from the University of Alabama (UAB) and 272 participants from the University of Chicago (UIC). Predictor No/mild (eGFR?60ml/min/1.73 m2), moderate (eGFR=30–59ml/min/1.73 m2) and severe (eGFR<30ml/min/1.73 m2) kidney impairment, CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotype, age, race, gender, body mass, socio-demographic factors, smoking status, alcohol, vitamin K intake, comorbid conditions (e.g. CHF, etc.) and drug interactions (e.g. amiodarone, statins, etc.). Outcome & Measurement Warfarin dose (mg/day) was evaluated using linear regression after adjustment for clinical demographic and genetic factors. Results The prevalence of moderate kidney impairment (31.8% and 27.6%) and severe kidney impairment (8.9% and 6.6%) was similar in the UAB and UIC cohorts. Warfarin dose requirements were significantly lower in patients with moderate and severe kidney impairment compared to those with none/mild kidney impairment in the UAB (p<0.001) and UIC (p<0.001) cohorts. Compared to patients with no/mild kidney impairment, patients with moderate kidney impairment required 9.5% lower doses (p<0.001) and patients with severe kidney impairment required 19% lower doses (p<0.001). Limitations No measurement of warfarin, serum albumin, vitamin K and clotting factor levels, no evaluation of other markers (e.g. cystatin). Conclusion Moderate and severe kidney impairment were associated with a reduction in warfarin dose requirements. PMID:20709439

  4. Connecting impairment, disability, and handicap in immune mediated polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Merkies, I; Schmitz, P; van der Meche, F G A; Samijn, J; van Doorn, P A

    2003-01-01

    Background: In the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities, and Handicaps (ICIDH), it is suggested that various levels of outcome are associated with one another. However, the ICIDH has been criticised on the grounds that it only represents a general, non-specific relation between its entities. Objective: To examine the significance of the ICIDH in immune mediated polyneuropathies. Methods: Four impairment measures (fatigue severity scale, MRC sum score, "INCAT" sensory sum score, grip strength with the Vigorimeter), five disability scales (nine hole peg test, 10 metres walking test, an overall disability sum score (ODSS), Hughes functional grading scale, Rankin scale), and a handicap scale (Rotterdam nine items handicap scale (RIHS9)) were assessed in 113 clinically stable patients (83 with Guillain–Barré syndrome, 22 with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, eight with a gammopathy related polyneuropathy). Regression analyses with backward and forward stepwise strategies were undertaken to determine the correlation between the various levels of outcome (impairment on disability, impairment on handicap, disability leading to handicap, and impairment plus disability on handicap). Results: Impairment measures explained a substantial part of disability (R2 = 0.64) and about half of the variance in handicap (R2 = 0.52). Disability measures showed a stronger association with handicap (R2 = 0.76). Combining impairment and disability scales accounted for 77% of the variance in handicap (RIHS9) scores. Conclusions: In contrast to some suggestions, support for the ICIDH model is found in the current study because significant associations were shown between its various levels in patients with immune mediated polyneuropathies. Further studies are required to examine other possible contributors to deficits in daily life and social functioning in these conditions. PMID:12486276

  5. Cognitive Impairment Associated with Atrial Fibrillation: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kalantarian, Shadi; Stern, Theodore A.; Mansour, Moussa; Ruskin, Jeremy N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been linked with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Purpose To complete a meta-analysis of studies examining the association between AF and cognitive impairment. Data Sources Electronic search of 5 large databases and hand search of article references. Study Selection Prospective and non-prospective studies reporting adjusted risk estimates for the relationship between AF and cognitive impairment. Data Extraction Two abstracters independently extracted data on study characteristics, risk estimates, methods of AF and outcome ascertainment, and methodological quality. Data Synthesis Twenty one studies were included in the meta-analysis. AF was significantly associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment independent of stroke history (relative risk (RR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] =1.34 [1.13, 1.58]), in patients with first-ever or recurrent stroke (RR [95%] =2.7 [1.82, 4.00]) and in a broader population including patients with or without a history of stroke (RR [95% CI] =1.4 [1.19, 1.64]). However, there was significant heterogeneity among studies of the broader population (I2 =69.4 %). Limiting the analysis to prospective studies yielded similar results (RR [95% CI] =1.36 [1.12, 1.65]). Restricting the analysis to studies of dementia eliminated the significant heterogeneity (P value =0.137) but did not alter the pooled estimate substantially (RR [95% CI] = 1.38 [1.22, 1.56]). Limitations There is an inherent bias due to confounding variables in observational studies. There was significant heterogeneity among included studies. Conclusions Evidence suggests that AF is associated with a higher risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, with or without a history of clinical stroke. Further studies are required to elucidate the relationship between AF and subtypes of dementia as well as the etiology of cognitive impairment. PMID:23460057

  6. Teaching Significant Figures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy H. Logan

    1964-01-01

    It is suggested that students would not be so careless about significant figures if they could actually see a demonstration of figures which are not significant. Such a demonstration is described, as is a simple teaching machine designed to give students facility in identifying insignificant figures in their calculations.

  7. Selenium concentrations in greater scaup and dreissenid mussels during winter on Western lake ontario.

    PubMed

    Ware, L L; Petrie, S A; Badzinski, S S; Bailey, R C

    2011-08-01

    One hypothesis for the decline of the North American greater (Aythya marila) and lesser (A. affinis) scaup population is that contaminant burdens acquired on wintering or staging areas impair reproduction or cause lethal or sublethal health effects. Recent studies have found increased selenium (Se) concentrations in scaup but have focused on the fall and spring staging periods. From January to March 2006 and December to March 2006 and 2007, we analyzed liver tissues collected from greater scaup wintering in western Lake Ontario for 16 trace elements. We also measured Se concentrations in greater scaup blood and Dreissenid mussel tissue. Se was the only trace element that occurred at increased concentrations (>10 ?g/g liver dry weight) in a substantial proportion (99%) of greater scaup livers. We also found that hepatic Se concentrations increased throughout winter and were increased in nearly all birds from January to March, suggesting that accumulation of this trace element occurred soon after their arrival in fall. Se concentrations were similar in male and female birds, but juvenile birds had higher concentrations than did adults. Blood Se concentrations were correlated to liver Se concentrations in 2006 only, suggesting that blood Se concentration is an unreliable predictor of liver concentration. Se in Dreissenid mussels generally decreased with mussel size and did not change throughout winter. Overall, our results suggest that greater scaup wintering on western Lake Ontario acquire sufficiently high Se concentrations to potentially impact their health. Thus, several indicators of health and survival should be examined in relation to Se concentrations in wintering scaup. PMID:21120462

  8. Correlation between degree of subvoxel spinal cord compression measured with super-resolution tract density imaging and neurological impairment in cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Benjamin M; Salamon, Noriko; Woodworth, Davis C; Holly, Langston T

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The purpose of this study was to explore the use of super-resolution tract density images derived from probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography of the spinal cord as an imaging surrogate for microstructural integrity and functional impairment in patients with cervical spondylosis. METHODS Structural MRI and DTI images were collected for 27 patients with cervical spondylosis with (n= 21) and without (n= 6) functional impairment as defined by the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association Scale (mJOA). DTI was performed axially through the site of compression in a total of 20 directions with 10 averages. Probabilistic tractography was performed at 0.5-mm isotropic spatial resolution using the streamline technique combined with constrained spherical deconvolution. The following measurements were calculated for each patient: maximum tract density at the site of compression, average tract density in rostral normal-appearing spinal cord, and the ratio of maximum density to normal density. RESULTS Compared with normal tissue, the site of compression exhibited elevated fiber tract density in all patients, and a higher fiber tract density was also noted in focal areas at the site of compression in patients with functional impairment. There was a strong negative correlation between maximum tract density and mJOA score (R(2)= 0.6324, p < 0.0001) and the ratio of maximum tract density to normal tract density (R(2)= 0.6647, p < 0.0001). When grouped according to severity of neurological impairment (asymptomatic, mJOA score of 18; mild, mJOA score of 15-17; moderate, mJOA score of 11-14; and severe, mJOA score < 11), the results showed a significant difference in the ratio between severe and both no impairment (p= 0.0009) and any impairment (p= 0.036). A ratio of maximum fiber tract density at the site of compression to fiber tract density at C-2 greater than 1.45 had 82% sensitivity and 70% specificity for identifying patients with moderate to severe impairment (ROC AUC= 0.8882, p= 0.0009). CONCLUSIONS These results support the use of DTI as a surrogate for determining spinal cord integrity in patients with cervical spondylosis. Probabilistic tractography provides spinal cord microstructural information that can help discern clinical status in cervical spondylosis patients with varying degrees of neurological impairment. PMID:25746116

  9. Relatives' assessment of pain in cognitively impaired nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska

    2002-12-01

    To assess the utility of relatives' assessments of pain in cognitively impaired nursing home residents, the internal consistency of these assessments, and their relationship to other assessments of pain, was examined in a correlational study of 79 residents of a large suburban nursing home. The cohort was 85% female and had an average age of 87 years. The sample included moderately and severely cognitively impaired residents, some of whom were taking pain medication. The results demonstrated that relatives were less likely to rate the pain of the resident when the resident's cognitive level was more impaired and when they had a longer stay in the nursing home. The internal consistency of the relatives' ratings were good and, when only relatives who visited at least once a week were included, correlated significantly with most Minimum Data Set (MDS), resident, physician, and nursing staff ratings. They also correlated significantly with frequency of visits, higher cognitive function, type of relationship with the resident, and with a shorter stay in the nursing home. Relatives' ratings of pain and of past sources of pain may prove useful in the detection of pain in cognitively impaired persons. However, relative's pain ratings are only useful when relatives visit regularly. Like other informants, relatives have more difficulty rating pain when the resident is severely cognitively impaired. PMID:12551805

  10. Sulforaphane alleviates scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Siyoung; Kim, Jisung; Seo, Sang Gwon; Choi, Bo-Ryoung; Han, Jung-Soo; Lee, Ki Won; Kim, Jiyoung

    2014-07-01

    Sulforaphane, an organosulfur compound present in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. To determine whether sulforaphane can preserve cognitive function, we examined its effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze test. Sulforaphane (10 or 50mg/kg) was administered to C57BL/6 mice by oral gavage for 14 days (days 1-14), and memory impairment was induced by intraperitoneal injection of scopolamine (1mg/kg) for 7 days (days 8-14). Mice that received scopolamine alone showed impaired learning and memory retention and considerably decreased cholinergic system reactivity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex, as indicated by a decreased acetylcholine (ACh) level and an increased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Sulforaphane significantly attenuated the scopolamine-induced memory impairment and improved cholinergic system reactivity, as indicated by an increased ACh level, decreased AChE activity, and increased choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. These effects of sulforaphane on cholinergic system reactivity were confirmed in vitro. Sulforaphane (10 or 20?M) increased the ACh level, decreased the AChE activity, and increased ChAT expression in scopolamine-treated primary cortical neurons. These observations suggest that sulforaphane might exert a significant neuroprotective effect on cholinergic deficit and cognitive impairment. PMID:24836869

  11. Impairment of colour vision in workers exposed to organic solvents

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S; Dick, F; Osborne, A; Cherrie, J; Soutar, A; Seaton, A; Haites, N

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate loss of colour vision related to exposure to solvents and the role of three enzyme polymorphisms in modifying the risk in exposed workers.?METHODS—A sample was studied of 68 male dockyard workers and 42 male community controls with and without neuropsychological symptoms from a previous cross sectional study. Indices of cumulative and intensity based exposure to solvents were calculated for all subjects. Alcohol, drug, and smoking histories were obtained. Colour vision was tested by Lanthony D15d colour vision test. Genotype of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 and N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms were determined.?RESULTS—The relation between impairment of colour vision and exposure to solvents was investigated with multiple regression techniques. Increasing annual exposure to solvents was significantly associated with reduced colour vision (p=0.029). Impairment of colour vision was not associated with neuropsychological symptoms as measured by the Q16 solvent symptom questionnaire. No significant association was found between acquired impairment of colour vision and genetic polymorphisms when GSTM1, GSTT1 or NAT2 phenotypes were included in the analyses.?CONCLUSIONS—Exposure to mixed solvents is associated with impairment in colour vision, the risk increases with increasing exposure. The risk of impairment of colour vision was not altered in this study by the presence of different GSTM1, GSTT1 or NAT2 polymorphisms.???Keywords: colour vision; organic solvents; genetic polymorphisms PMID:10935938

  12. Episodic memory and executive function impairments in non-demented older adults: which are the respective and combined effects on gait performances?

    PubMed

    Beauchet, Olivier; Launay, Cyrille P; Fantino, Bruno; Annweiler, Cédric; Allali, Gilles

    2015-08-01

    Gait control depends in part on cognition. This study aims to examine the separate and combined effects of episodic memory and executive function impairments on the mean value and the coefficient of variation (CoV) of stride time among non-demented older community dwellers. Based on a cross-sectional design, 1458 older community dwellers without dementia (70.6 ± 4.9 years; 49.2 % female) were recruited and separated into cognitively healthy individuals (CHI) and individuals with cognitive impairment. A score ?5/6 on the Short Mini-Mental State Examination defined episodic memory impairment. Impaired executive function was defined by errors on the clock-drawing test. Mean value and CoV of stride time were measured by the GAITRite® system. A total of 517 participants (35.5 %) had cognitive impairment in at least one cognitive domain. Participants with memory impairment (P = 0.006) and those with combined cognitive impairments (P < 0.001) had greater (i.e., worse gait performance) mean value of stride time (P = 0.006) compared to CHI. Participants with combined cognitive impairment had a greater CoV of stride time (i.e., worse gait performance) compared to CHI (P = 0.004) and to those with separate memory impairment (P = 0.037). Among participants with combined cognitive impairments, mean value and CoV of stride time had the highest effect size (respectively, effect size = 0.49 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.27;0.71] and effect size = 0.40 [95 %CI 0.18;0.62]). Participants with episodic memory or executive impairments had a greater mean value and CoV of stride time compared to those with no cognitive impairment. Combined episodic memory and executive impairments exceeded the sum of separate impairments on gait performances, suggesting a complex interplay going beyond a simple additive effect. PMID:26160251

  13. Vitamin C supplementation restores the impaired vitamin E status of guinea pigs fed oxidized frying oil.

    PubMed

    Liu, J F; Lee, Y W

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the effect of dietary oxidized frying oil (OFO) on tissue retention of vitamin C, and to explore the effect of vitamin C supplementation on tissue vitamin E concentrations and lipid peroxidation, male weanling guinea pigs were divided into four groups. Guinea pigs were fed 15% OFO diets supplemented with vitamin C at 300, 600 or 1500 mg/kg diet. Control animals were fed a diet containing 15% fresh untreated soybean oil with 300 mg/kg of vitamin C. After 60 d of feeding, body weight gain, food intake, feed efficiency and plasma triglyceride concentration were significantly lower in guinea pigs fed OFO diets than in controls (P < 0.05). However, plasma cholesterol concentration was highest in guinea pigs fed the OFO diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg vitamin C. Increasing vitamin C in OFO diets significantly reduced plasma cholesterol concentration. Plasma and tissue vitamins C and E concentrations were significantly lower in the OFO-fed guinea pigs receiving 300 mg/kg vitamin C than in controls. Greater levels of supplemental vitamin C increased tissue vitamins C and E. Guinea pigs fed OFO diets had significantly higher tissue levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (P < 0.05) than controls. Our results demonstrated that OFO feeding, which impaired alpha-tocopherol retention and increased TBARS, could be alleviated somewhat by vitamin C supplementation. PMID:9430612

  14. ALCOHOL AND DISTRACTION INTERACT TO IMPAIR DRIVING PERFORMANCE

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Emily L. R.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recognition of the risks associated with alcohol intoxication and driver distraction has led to a wealth of simulated driving research aimed at studying the adverse effects of each of these factors. Research on driving has moved beyond the individual, separate examination of these factors to the examination of potential interactions between alcohol intoxication and driver distraction. In many driving situations, distractions are commonplace and might have little or no disruptive influence on primary driving functions. Yet, such distractions might become disruptive to a driver who is intoxicated. Methods The present study examined the interactive impairing effects of alcohol intoxication and driver distraction on simulated driving performance in 40 young adult drivers using a divided attention task as a distracter activity. The interactive influence of alcohol and distraction was tested by having drivers perform the driving task under four different conditions: 0.65 g/kg alcohol; 0.65 g/kg alcohol + divided attention; placebo; and placebo + divided attention. Results As hypothesized, divided attention had no impairing effect on driving performance in sober drivers. However, under alcohol, divided attention exacerbated the impairing effects of alcohol on driving precision. Conclusions Alcohol and distraction continue to be appropriate targets for research into ways to reduce the rates of driving-related fatalities and injuries. Greater consideration of how alcohol and distraction interact to impair aspects of driving performance can further efforts to create prevention and intervention measures to protect drivers, particularly young adults. PMID:21277119

  15. Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized. PMID:21450966

  16. Autobiographical memory in amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Bizzozero, Ilaria; Lucchelli, Federica; Saetti, Maria Cristina; Spinnler, Hans

    2012-10-01

    Autobiographical memory (ABM) was evaluated in 19 patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI) by means of the standardized enquiry developed by Borrini et al. (Psychol Med 19:215-224, 1989). Longitudinal assessments were carried out by re-testing participants at 9-month intervals up to three assessments over 18 months. Although aMCI patients performed significantly worse than age-, gender- and education-matched normal controls, all of them achieved above normal scores according to Italian norms. No evidence of disproportionate sparing of remote memories (i.e., classical temporal gradient, TG) was found. These findings contrast with the previously reported significant impairment of memory for public events (Bizzozero et al. in J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 31:48-56, 2009). Such a discrepancy might be attributed to the adopted ABM enquiry tapping "personal semantics", presumed to rely largely on prefrontal functions, in contrast with the mainly episodic qualification of memory for past public events, which is mostly dependent on hippocampal structures. Our results also support the hypothesis that the contents of remote memory archives may be differentially affected in aMCI. PMID:22271258

  17. Genetic variation in the myeloperoxidase gene and cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manna, I; Valentino, P; La Russa, A; Condino, F; Nisticò, R; Liguori, M; Clodomiro, A; Andreoli, V; Pirritano, D; Cittadella, R; Quattrone, A

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that multiple sclerosis (MS) may associated with cognitive impairment in 25 to 40% of cases. The gene encoding myeloperoxidase (MPO) is involved in molecular pathways leading to beta-amyloid deposition. We investigated a functional biallelic (G/A) polymorphism in the promoter region (-463) of the MPO gene in 465 patients affected by MS, divided into 204 cognitively normal and 261 impaired. We did not find significant differences in allele or genotype distributions between impaired and preserved MS patients. Our findings suggest that MPO polymorphism is not a risk factor for cognitive impairment in MS. PMID:16504169

  18. La48Br81Os8: isolated clusters in an unusual superstructure with significantly greater intercluster bonding.

    PubMed

    Hong, S T; Hoistad, L M; Corbett, J D

    2000-01-10

    Exploration of reactions in the La-Br-Z system for Z = Fe, Ru, and Os in welded Nb containers at 900-950 degrees C resulted in only the title phase. The La48Br81Os8 stoichiometry is very close to that of known triclinic Pr6Br10Os but with an approximately 32-times larger cell, 138 independent atoms, and completely different intercluster connectivities in a complex monoclinic superstructure (a = 33.076(5) A, b = 23.466(3) A, c = 23.537(2) A, beta = 110.701(4) degrees, P2(1)/c (No. 14), Z = 4, 23 degrees C). Tetragonally compressed, approximately 16 e- lanthanum octahedra centered by Os are heavily interbridged by Br, including Br(f-a) (f = face) and Br(i-a-a) functions, to increase coordination numbers about some Br (to 4) and La (to 6) and to give an average of 19.63 bonded Br/La6Os vs the usual 18. These result in a cell volume 10% less than for an equivalent (hypothetical) La6Br10Os and Br-Br contacts as short as 3.30 A. Increased polar La-Br interactions presumably drive these changes. Optimal atom sizes for this structure have been found so far only in this novel compound. PMID:11229040

  19. Student Attitudes toward Impairment: An Assessment of Passive and Active Learning Methods in Urban Planning Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John L.

    2011-01-01

    Designing for the needs of people with impairments has rarely been a significant feature of urban planning theory and education. Given the role of urban planners as shapers of the built environment and public policy, the prevalence of negative and misinformed attitudes among planners toward impaired populations has been highlighted as requiring…

  20. Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Disorders: The Consequences of Severity and Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. JANE COSTELLO; ADRIAN ANGOLD; GORDON P. KEELER

    1999-01-01

    ObjectiveTo examine the adolescent consequences of clinical and threshold-level psychiatric disorders, with and without significant functional impairment; to predict serious emotional disturbance (SED: clinical-level diagnosis with impairment); and to examine sex differences in the consequences of emotional and behavioral disorders.

  1. Application of the Strange Situation Attachment Paradigm to a Neurologically Impaired Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahlecker, James E.; Cohen, Marlene Cresci

    1985-01-01

    Examines 24 mother/impaired infant dyads to study the quality of interaction using the Ainsworth-Wittig attachment paradigm. Measures of general development and degree of child impairment significantly differentiated "classifiability" of attachment in the Ainsworth scheme. Infants rated higher on a social responsiveness measure were more likely to…

  2. Role of pancreatic impairment in growth recovery during gluten-free diet in childhood celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Carroccio; G Iacono; P Lerro; F Cavataio; E Malorgio; M Soresi; M Baldassarre; A Notarbartolo; N Ansaldi; G Montalto

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Clinical significance and duration of insufficient release of pancreatic enzymes in childhood celiac disease have not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role that pancreatic impairment plays in growth recovery and the duration of this impairment. METHODS: Forty-six patients with celiac disease who had a median age of 2.5 years were enrolled.

  3. Neural Processing of Spoken Words in Specific Language Impairment and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helenius, Paivi; Parviainen, Tiina; Paetau, Ritva; Salmelin, Riitta

    2009-01-01

    Young adults with a history of specific language impairment (SLI) differ from reading-impaired (dyslexic) individuals in terms of limited vocabulary and poor verbal short-term memory. Phonological short-term memory has been shown to play a significant role in learning new words. We investigated the neural signatures of auditory word recognition…

  4. Bilateral luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vikas; Pradhan, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture and luxatio erecta, both are rare by themselves, with only few reports of each. We report an unusual case of posttraumatic bilateral symmetrical shoulder dislocation involving luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture in a young male. To our knowledge, this is the first case of symmetrical bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture involving luxatio erecta dislocation from Indian subcontinent.

  5. Arthroscopic treatment for malunions of the proximal humeral greater tuberosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angel Antonio Martinez; Angel Calvo; Javier Domingo; Jorge Cuenca; Antonio Herrera

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to report an arthroscopic treatment method for greater tuberosity malunion. Eight patients\\u000a with malunion of the greater tuberosity were treated by arthroscopic acromioplasty, detachment of rotator cuff, tuberoplasty\\u000a of the greater tuberosity and repair of the rotator cuff. On the basis of the UCLA rating scale, the overall score increased\\u000a from 11.1 (range 9–14)

  6. Impairment-Aware Offline RWA for Transparent Optical Networks

    E-print Network

    Varvarigo, Emmanouel "Manos"

    is error free. However, signal transmission is significantly affected by physical limitations of fibersImpairment-Aware Offline RWA for Transparent Optical Networks Konstantinos Manousakis, Konstantinos assignment (RWA) problem in transparent all-optical networks. In such networks and in the absence

  7. Siblings of Children with Speech Impairment: Cavalry on the Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Jacqueline; McLeod, Sharynne; Daniel, Graham

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to examine the experiences of siblings of children with speech impairment, an underresearched area of family-centered practice. Method: Using naturalistic inquiry, we interviewed 6 siblings and 15 significant others. Interview transcripts were analyzed for meaning statements, and meaning statements were…

  8. Emotion Regulation in Children with Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; Clarke, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Teachers were asked to rate the emotion regulation behaviors of 41 children (ages 6-13) with specific language impairment (SLI) and 41 typical peers. Overall, children with SLI received significantly lower ratings than typical children. Sex differences were also found, with boys with SLI having notably lower ratings than other groups on the…

  9. Remote Laboratory Access for Students with Vision Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iain Murray; Helen Armstrong

    2009-01-01

    The delivery of laboratory exercises to students that are unable to attend in person due to physical disabilities is a significant issue. Both Netlab and Packet Tracer are inaccessible to many students who use assistive technology, particularly those with vision impairment. This paper presents the development of an accessible, cost effective, remote laboratory and describes the modification to laboratory sessions

  10. Impaired host defence mechanisms in intensive care unit patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Zimmerli

    1985-01-01

    ICU patients have defects in various host defence mechanisms. The significance of these defects remains unclear, as conflicting results are reported in the literature. The good correlation between impaired cellular-immunity or chemotaxis and septic complications is not necessarily a causal one, but rather an epiphenomenon. Determination of host defence mechanisms in ICU patients is therefore mainly of scientific value, since

  11. Training and the Early Years Professional: Understanding Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Colette

    2005-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in the incidence of visual impairment (VI) in early years children, research has afforded the subject scant attention. Perhaps as a result of underfunding, research into VI typically adopts a single case study approach, with the training needs of early years professionals largely ignored. This paper seeks to inform…

  12. Emotional Status and Development in Children Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophir-Cohen, Michal; Ashkenazy, Eyal; Cohen, Ayala; Tirosh, Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the developmental attainments of children with visual impairments, aged 6-59 months, with and without emotional deficits, behavioral deficits, or both. It found that an emotional or behavioral deficit was significantly related to gross motor and visual motor integration, expressive and receptive language, and social or personal…

  13. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  14. Contextual Social Cognition Impairments in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Villarin, Lilian; Theil, Donna; Gonzalez-Gadea, María Luz; Gomez, Pedro; Mosquera, Marcela; Huepe, David; Strejilevich, Sergio; Vigliecca, Nora Silvana; Matthäus, Franziska; Decety, Jean; Manes, Facundo; Ibañez, Agustín M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The ability to integrate contextual information with social cues to generate social meaning is a key aspect of social cognition. It is widely accepted that patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders have deficits in social cognition; however, previous studies on these disorders did not use tasks that replicate everyday situations. Methodology/Principal Findings This study evaluates the performance of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders on social cognition tasks (emotional processing, empathy, and social norms knowledge) that incorporate different levels of contextual dependence and involvement of real-life scenarios. Furthermore, we explored the association between social cognition measures, clinical symptoms and executive functions. Using a logistic regression analysis, we explored whether the involvement of more basic skills in emotional processing predicted performance on empathy tasks. The results showed that both patient groups exhibited deficits in social cognition tasks with greater context sensitivity and involvement of real-life scenarios. These deficits were more severe in schizophrenic than in bipolar patients. Patients did not differ from controls in tasks involving explicit knowledge. Moreover, schizophrenic patients’ depression levels were negatively correlated with performance on empathy tasks. Conclusions/Significance Overall performance on emotion recognition predicted performance on intentionality attribution during the more ambiguous situations of the empathy task. These results suggest that social cognition deficits could be related to a general impairment in the capacity to implicitly integrate contextual cues. Important implications for the assessment and treatment of individuals with schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, as well as for neurocognitive models of these pathologies are discussed. PMID:23520477

  15. Epigenetic Treatments for Cognitive Impairments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy J Day; J David Sweatt

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms integrate signals from diverse intracellular transduction cascades and in turn regulate genetic readout. Accumulating evidence has revealed that these mechanisms are critical components of ongoing physiology and function in the adult nervous system, and are essential for many cognitive processes, including learning and memory. Moreover, a number of psychiatric disorders and syndromes that involve cognitive impairments are associated

  16. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  17. Prevalence of visual and hearing impairment in a Dutch institutionalized population with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, H M; Theunissen, M; Denkers, I; Verschuure, H; Kemme, H

    2001-10-01

    A screening of hearing and visual function was performed using clinical assessment methods in a Dutch institutionalized population of 672 people with mild to profound intellectual disability (ID). Because the studied population was not comparable to the total Dutch population with ID, subgroups were distinguished according to level of ID, age younger and older than 50 years, and the presence or absence of Down's syndrome (DS). The prevalences of both hearing and visual impairment were considerably increased in all subgroups, as compared with the general population. In the least affected group, i.e. those < 50 years with a mild or moderate ID by other causes than DS, the prevalences of hearing and visual impairment were 21% and 4%, respectively (as opposed to 2-7% and 0.2-1.9% in the general Dutch population <50 years, respectively). The prevalence of hearing impairment showed a sharp and highly significant increase in individuals with DS and subjects > or = 50 years. To a lesser extent, young adults with severe or profound ID had an increased risk of hearing impairment. Visual impairment and blindness were specifically highly prevalent in people with severe or profound ID (51% < 50 years of age). Down's syndrome and an age > or = 50 years were also significant risk factors for visual impairment. There was an alarmingly high prevalence of combined sensory impairment, especially in those with severe or profound ID (20%). Although hearing impairment had been diagnosed prior to this screen in 138 people and visual impairment in 65 individuals, a first diagnosis of hearing impairment was made in 128 subjects and of visual impairment in 90 cases. This highlights the tendency for sensory impairments to go unnoticed in people with ID, which is not restricted to those with severe or profound ID. Therefore, the present authors stress the importance of regular screening as outlined in the existing IASSID international consensus statement. PMID:11679051

  18. Shared decision making and behavioral impairment: a national study among children with special health care needs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine has prioritized shared decision making (SDM), yet little is known about the impact of SDM over time on behavioral outcomes for children. This study examined the longitudinal association of SDM with behavioral impairment among children with special health care needs (CSHCN). Method CSHCN aged 5-17?years in the 2002-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were followed for 2?years. The validated Columbia Impairment Scale measured impairment. SDM was measured with 7 items addressing the 4 components of SDM. The main exposures were (1) the mean level of SDM across the 2 study years and (2) the change in SDM over the 2?years. Using linear regression, we measured the association of SDM and behavioral impairment. Results Among 2,454 subjects representing 10.2 million CSHCN, SDM increased among 37% of the population, decreased among 36% and remained unchanged among 27%. For CSHCN impaired at baseline, the change in SDM was significant with each 1-point increase in SDM over time associated with a 2-point decrease in impairment (95% CI: 0.5, 3.4), whereas the mean level of SDM was not associated with impairment. In contrast, among those below the impairment threshold, the mean level of SDM was significant with each one point increase in the mean level of SDM associated with a 1.1-point decrease in impairment (0.4, 1.7), but the change was not associated with impairment. Conclusion Although the change in SDM may be more important for children with behavioral impairment and the mean level over time for those below the impairment threshold, results suggest that both the change in SDM and the mean level may impact behavioral health for CSHCN. PMID:22998626

  19. my Head to clearer thinking, my Heart to greater loyalty,

    E-print Network

    Jawitz, James W.

    , state, and national contests. Suwannee County 4H Day Camps are another fun activity 2771 at least five working days prior to the event. Hearing impaired can access the foregoing to travel to new places. You can explore the outdoors at 4H Camp, become a legislator for a day

  20. Metoprolol impairs resistance artery function in mice

    PubMed Central

    El Beheiry, Mostafa H.; Heximer, Scott P.; Voigtlaender-Bolz, Julia; Mazer, C. David; Connelly, Kim A.; Wilson, David F.; Beattie, W. Scott; Tsui, Albert K. Y.; Zhang, Hangjun; Golam, Kabir; Hu, Tina; Liu, Elaine; Lidington, Darcy; Bolz, Steffen-Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Acute ?-blockade with metoprolol has been associated with increased mortality by undefined mechanisms. Since metoprolol is a relatively high affinity blocker of ?2-adrenoreceptors, we hypothesized that some of the increased mortality associated with its use may be due to its abrogation of ?2-adrenoreceptor-mediated vasodilation of microvessels in different vascular beds. Cardiac output (CO; pressure volume loops), mean arterial pressure (MAP), relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF; laser Doppler), and microvascular brain tissue Po2 (G2 oxyphor) were measured in anesthetized mice before and after acute treatment with metoprolol (3 mg/kg iv). The vasodilatory dose responses to ?-adrenergic agonists (isoproterenol and clenbuterol), and the myogenic response, were assessed in isolated mesenteric resistance arteries (MRAs; ?200-?m diameter) and posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs ?150-?m diameter). Data are presented as means ± SE with statistical significance applied at P < 0.05. Metoprolol treatment did not effect MAP but reduced heart rate and stroke volume, CO, rCBF, and brain microvascular Po2, while concurrently increasing systemic vascular resistance (P < 0.05 for all). In isolated MRAs, metoprolol did not affect basal artery tone or the myogenic response, but it did cause a dose-dependent impairment of isoproterenol- and clenbuterol-induced vasodilation. In isolated PCAs, metoprolol (50 ?M) impaired maximal vasodilation in response to isoproterenol. These data support the hypothesis that acute administration of metoprolol can reduce tissue oxygen delivery by impairing the vasodilatory response to ?2-adrenergic agonists. This mechanism may contribute to the observed increase in mortality associated with acute administration of metoprolol in perioperative patients. PMID:21799135

  1. Quality improvement and substance abuse: rethinking impaired provider policies.

    PubMed

    Corsino, B V; Morrow, D H; Wallace, C J

    1996-01-01

    Substance abuse is known to be our nation's number one public health problem. Physicians and other health providers can develop chemical dependency problems that create significant quality assurance and risk management dilemmas. Not all of society understands drug dependence to be a treatable medical disease and behavioral problem. Sometimes impaired providers are ignored or punished rather than treated and rehabilitated. This results in an enormous waste of human and monetary resources. In the last 10 years, impaired physician programs have developed focus and credibility. But certain difficulties exist in these programs: namely, that such programs are affected by tensions between medical societies and state licensing boards; that substance-dependent providers escape detection by moving to other states; that existing impaired provider programs have limited practical application within the federal health care system; and that liability risks are incurred if institutions rely on impaired provider policies that do not include all members of the medical staff. Hence, we argue that existing impaired provider policies might be worth rethinking. To promote that dialogue, we offer a sample policy for consideration and review. It includes specific actions and procedures for the identification, referral, and reentry of impaired providers and allows for National Practitioner Data Bank reporting in that process. The Data Bank has been in place for only a few years and offers society and the health community a new opportunity to better control chemically dependent, licensed medical staff without dismantling existing impaired provider programs. The policies for managing chemically dependent health professionals are changing from a focus on stigma and prosecution to one of early identification, rehabilitation, and reentry. We hope to advance that process. PMID:8704503

  2. Molluscan Mariculture in the Greater Caribbean: An Overview

    E-print Network

    Molluscan Mariculture in the Greater Caribbean: An Overview DARRYL E. JORY and EDWIN S. IVERSEN mariculture in the greater Caribbean area (Fig. 1). Sea- food is and has been a staple for Carib- bean people since pre-Columbian times. ABSIRACF-Marine mollusks suitable for mariculture in the Caribbean area have

  3. COMPLETION REPORT Identifying Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse Population

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    COMPLETION REPORT Identifying Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse Population Persistence within-Central Local Sage-Grouse Work Group, and Wyoming Game and Fish Department 23 January 2012 Christopher P. Kirol habitat quality and source and sink habitats for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the 1

  4. Do Open-Access Articles Have a Greater Research Impact?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristin Antelman

    2005-01-01

    Although many authors believe that their work has a greater research impact if it is freely available, studies to demonstrate that impact are few. This study looks at articles in four disciplines at varying stages of adoption of open access—philosophy, political science, electrical and electronic engineering and mathematics—to see whether they have a greater im- pact as measured by citations

  5. TREATMENT OF GREATER-ZAB WATER BY DIRECT FILTRATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuokr Q. Aziz

    In this research, a water treatment plant is designed to treat Greater-Zab River water by direct filtration. Direct filtration comprises of intakes, coagulation, flocculation, and filtration is not preceded by in-plant sedimentation of flocculated water. To ensure which season is suitable for using direct filtration process; turbidity values of Greater- Zab water recorded throughout fourteen months, October 2004 to May

  6. Population Ecology Demography of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    E-print Network

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    Population Ecology Demography of Greater Prairie-Chickens: Regional Variation in Vital Rates that is an indicator species for tallgrass prairie, the greater prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), during a 4-year survival, and annual adult female survival for 3 populations of prairie-chickens across an ecological

  7. Questioning greater Yellowstone's Future Climate, Land Use, and Invasive Species

    E-print Network

    Hansen, Andrew J.

    Questioning greater Yellowstone's Future Climate, Land Use, and Invasive Species The 10th Biennial Scientific Conference on the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Conference Proceedings October 11­13, 2010 Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming #12;iii Table of Contents Foreword

  8. Ranchland Ownership Change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 19902001: Implications

    E-print Network

    Kurapov, Alexander

    Ranchland Ownership Change in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 1990­2001: Implications understanding of ecological threat on the important private lands of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem- mants, we assess trends and patterns of ownership change around Yellowstone National Park. The main

  9. Teaching Technology Education to Visually Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Rene

    1987-01-01

    Discusses various types of visual impairments and how the learning environment can be adapted to limit their effect. Presents suggestions for adapting industrial arts laboratory activities to maintain safety standards while allowing the visually impaired to participate. (CH)

  10. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

  11. Assessment of subjective cognitive impairment among older adults.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nikki L; Mogle, Jacqueline M; Munoz, Elizabeth; Wion, Rachel; Colancecco, Elise M

    2015-04-01

    Subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) refers to an individual's everyday concerns related to cognitive functioning, which can exist even in the absence of objectively assessed impairment. SCI is common among older adults, and although symptoms may be mild, SCI is associated with subsequent cognitive decline as well as significant negative effects on everyday functional ability, mood, and social engagement. Despite the potential consequences, SCI is often underreported and undetected. Thus, it is critical to consider assessing for SCI among older adults to determine cognitive impairment risk and support early intervention to promote functional well-being and health management. The current article reviews factors related to SCI, evaluates existing methods for the assessment of SCI, and proposes a person-centered framework for enhancing assessment. Application of the framework is further illustrated through the use of clinical examples. PMID:25800031

  12. Lack of Statistical Significance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kawano, Takuji

    2007-01-01

    Criticism has been leveled against the use of statistical significance testing (SST) in many disciplines. However, the field of school psychology has been largely devoid of critiques of SST. Inspection of the primary journals in school psychology indicated numerous examples of SST with nonrandom samples and/or samples of convenience. In this…

  13. Propagation of Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lowell M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that the rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Also describes two procedures for performing this propagation more reliably than the rules of thumb. However, both require considerably more calculational effort than do the rules. (JN)

  14. White matter changes in mild cognitive impairment and AD: A diffusion tensor imaging study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Medina; Leyla deToledo-Morrell; Fabio Urresta; John D. E. Gabrieli; Michael Moseley; Debra Fleischman; David A. Bennett; Sue Leurgans; David A. Turner; Glenn T. Stebbins

    2006-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can detect, in vivo, the directionality of molecular diffusion and estimate the microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) tracts. In this study, we examined WM changes in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who are at greater risk for developing AD. A DTI index of WM integrity, fractional

  15. Reactivity to novelty in cognitively-impaired and cognitively-unimpaired aged rats and young rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. B Rowe; E Spreekmeester; M. J Meaney; J Rochford

    1998-01-01

    Two distinct populations of aged, Long–Evans rats can be identified on the basis of performance in the Morris water maze task. Aged (24 month) unimpaired rats perform similarly to young (six month) animals. Aged, impaired rats display latencies to find the submerged platform greater than two standard deviations from the mean of the young animals. A hallmark of efficient cognitive

  16. Hospitalization of Nursing Home Residents with Cognitive Impairments: The Influence of Organizational Features and State Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruneir, Andrea; Miller, Susan C.; Intrator, Orna; Mor, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of specific nursing home features and state Medicaid policies on the risk of hospitalization among cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Design and Methods: We used multilevel logistic regression to estimate the odds of hospitalization among long-stay (greater than 90 days)…

  17. Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

  18. Economic Impact of Visual Impairment and Blindness in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin D. Frick; Emily W. Gower; John H. Kempen; Jennifer L. Wolff

    2007-01-01

    Results: Blindness and visual impairment were signifi- cantly associated with higher medical care expendi- tures, a greater number of informal care days, and a de- crease in health utility. The home care component of expenditures was most affected by blindness. The aggre- gateannualeconomicimpactincluded$5.5billionspent for medical care and the value of informal care as well as a loss of more than

  19. IMPAIRED VERBAL COMPREHENSION OF QUANTIFIERS IN CORTICOBASAL SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Troiani, Vanessa; Clark, Robin; Grossman, Murray

    2011-01-01

    Objective Patients with Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) have atrophy in posterior parietal cortex. This region of atrophy has been previously linked with their quantifier comprehension difficulty, but previous studies used visual stimuli, making it difficult to account for potential visuospatial deficits in CBS patients. The current study evaluated comprehension of generalized quantifiers using strictly verbal materials. Method CBS patients, a brain-damaged control group (consisting of Alzheimer's Disease and frontotemporal dementia), and age-matched controls participated in this study. We assessed familiar temporal, spatial, and monetary domains of verbal knowledge comparatively. Judgment accuracy was only evaluated in statements for which patients demonstrated accurate factual knowledge about the target domain. Results We found that patients with CBS are significantly impaired in their ability to evaluate quantifiers compared to healthy seniors and a brain-damaged control group, even in this strictly visual task. This impairment was seen in the vast majority of individual CBS patients. Conclusions These findings offer additional evidence of quantifier impairment in CBS patients and emphasize that this impairment cannot be attributed to potential spatial processing impairments in patients with parietal disease. PMID:21381823

  20. Chroman amide 12P inhibition of lipid peroxidation and protection against learning and memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Vajragupta, O; Monthakantirat, O; Wongkrajang, Y; Watanabe, H; Peungvicha, P

    2000-08-25

    Structure modification of the cerebroprotective chroman amide 12 to improve the drug delivery to the target organ by protecting the active hydroxy functional group was carried out in this study. Chroman amide 12P, which the O-acetyl group was served to protect the active group to be delivered to the target organ, was synthesized. Ex vivo antilipid peroxidation activity of 12P was significantly greater than the activity of 12 while the in vitro inhibition of 12P was found to be lower. These indicated that 12P with protected active group effectively reached the brain, the target site, but in vitro, 12P was unable to release its parent or released slowly. Neuropharmacological effect of 12P was investigated in mice. 12 and 12P (50-100 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant suppression on the hypermotility induced by methamphetamine. 12P (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was more potent than 12, 54.36% and 38.73% suppression, respectively. The result suggested the enhancement of brain delivery and the antagonism against aberrant dopamine release. In the water maze test, 12P (200 mg/kg) as well as tacrine (3 mg/kg) significantly reduced the learning and memory impairment induced by scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg). The results support the enhanced brain delivery and the additional role of radical scavengers in the modulation of brain neurotransmitters in the aberrant condition. PMID:11021357

  1. Displacement as a predictor of functional impairment in tsunami-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher; Du, Ye Beverly; Christina, Desy; Palfrey, Judith; O'Rourke, Edward; Belfer, Myron

    2015-01-01

    Thirty months after the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, thousands of families in Aceh Province, Indonesia, remained in temporary barracks while sanitation conditions and non-governmental organisation support deteriorated. This study sought to determine the factors associated with functional impairment in a sample of 138 displaced and non-displaced Acehnese children. Using multivariate linear regression models, it was found that displacement distance was a consistent predictor of impairment using the Brief Impairment Scale. Exposure to tsunami-related trauma markers was not significantly linked with impairment in the model. Paternal employment was a consistent protective factor for child functioning. These findings suggest that post-disaster displacement and the subsequent familial economic disruption are significant predictors of impaired functioning in children's daily activities. Post-disaster interventions should consider the disruption of familiar environments for families and children when relocating vulnerable populations to avoid deleterious impacts on children's functioning. PMID:25231556

  2. Prospective memory impairment in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Habota, Tina; McLennan, Skye N; Cameron, Jan; Henry, Julie D; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Rendell, Peter G

    2015-03-01

    Although cognitive deficits are common in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), no study to date has investigated whether these deficits extend to the capacity to execute delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). This is a surprising omission given the critical role PM plays in correctly implementing many important CHF self-care behaviors. The present study aimed to provide the first empirical assessment of PM function in people with CHF. The key dependent measure was a laboratory measure of PM that closely simulates PM tasks in daily life - Virtual Week. A group comparison design was used, with 30 CHF patients compared to 30 demographically matched controls. Background measures assessing executive functions, working memory, and verbal memory were also administered. The CHF group exhibited significant PM impairment, with difficulties generalizing across different types of PM tasks (event, time, regular, irregular). The CHF group also had moderate deficits on several of the background cognitive measures. Given the level of impairment remained consistent even on tasks that imposed minimal demands on memory for task content, CHF-related difficulties most likely reflects problems with the prospective component. However, exploratory analyses suggest that difficulties with retrospective memory and global cognition (but not executive control), also contribute to the PM difficulties seen in this group. The implications of these data are discussed, and in particular, it is argued that problems with PM may help explain why patient engagement in CHF self-care behaviors is often poor. (JINS, 2015, 21, 1-10). PMID:25818386

  3. Vision impairment predicts five-year mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, H R; McCarty, C A; Nanjan, M B

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe predictors of mortality in the 5-year follow-up of the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project (VIP) cohort. METHODS: The Melbourne VIP was a population-based study of the distribution and determinants of age-related eye disease in a cluster random sample of Melbourne residents aged 40 years and older. Baseline examinations were conducted between 1992 and 1994. In 1997, 5-year follow-up examinations of the original cohort commenced. Causes of death were obtained from the National Death Index for all reported deaths. RESULTS: Of the original 3,271 participants, 231 (7.1%) were reported to have died in the intervening 5 years. Of the remaining 3,040 participants eligible to return for follow-up examinations, 2,594 (85% of eligible) did participate, 51 (2%) had moved interstate or overseas, 83 (3%) could not be traced, and 312 (10%) refused to participate. Best corrected visual acuity < 6/12 and cortical cataract were associated with a significantly increased risk of mortality, as were increasing age, male sex, increased duration of cigarette smoking, increased duration of hypertension, and arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: Even mild visual impairment increases the risk of death more than twofold. PMID:11190044

  4. The Relationship between Visual Impairment and Gestures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frame, Melissa J.

    2000-01-01

    A study found the gestural activity of 15 adolescents with visual impairments differed from that of 15 adolescents with sight. Subjects with visual impairments used more adapters (especially finger-to-hand gestures) and fewer conversational gestures. Differences in gestural activity by degree of visual impairment and grade in school were also…

  5. Mobile Device Impairment ... Similar Problems, Similar Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz; Chen, Tianyi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained…

  6. Gestural Interfaces for Hearing-Impaired Communication

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Gestural Interfaces for Hearing-Impaired Communication Oya Aran1 , Thomas Burger2 , Lale Akarun1 in this area of HCI for the hearing impaired. Gestural interfaces developed for hearing impaired communication.burger@lis.inpg.fr, alice.caplier@lis.inpg.fr Abstract. Gestural interfaces, besides providing natural means of human

  7. Nature Trails for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jonathan R.

    Many interpretive nature trails have been established for the visually impaired in recent years. The objectives of the investigation were to (a) identify what has been done in the past in the way of nature trail design for the visually impaired, (b) compare this with what professional workers for the visually impaired consider important in the…

  8. Recent research about mild cognitive impairment in China

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, Yan; XIAO, Shifu

    2014-01-01

    Summary: The rapid aging of the Chinese population has spurred interest in research about the cause and prevention of dementia and its precursor, mild cognitive impairment (MCI). This review summarizes the last decade of research in China about MCI. Extensive research about the epidemiology, neuropsychological characteristics, diagnosis, genetic etiology, neuroimaging and electrophysiological changes, and treatment of MCI has provided some new insights but few breakthroughs. Further advances in the prevention and treatment of MCI will require a greater emphasis on multi-disciplinary prospective studies with large, representative samples that use standardized methods to assess and monitor changes in cognitive functioning over time. PMID:25114476

  9. Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duckworth, William

    Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "Â?Â?Practice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

  10. Measures of Clinical Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HELENA CHMURA KRAEMER; GEORGE A. MORGAN; NANCY L. LEECH; JEFFREY A. GLINER; JERRY J. VASKE; ROBERT J. HARMON

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral scientists are interested in answering three basic questions when examining the relationships between vari- ables (Kirk, 2001). First, is an observed result real or should it be attributed to chance (i.e., statistical significance)? Sec- ond, if the result is real, how large is it (i.e., effect size)? Third, is the result large enough to be meaningful and useful (i.e.,

  11. Individual differences in acute alcohol impairment of inhibitory control predict ad libitum alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Research has begun to examine how acute cognitive impairment from alcohol could contribute to alcohol abuse. Specifically, alcohol-induced impairment of inhibitory control could compromise the drinker’s ability to stop the self-administration of alcohol, increasing the risk of binge drinking. Objective The present study was designed to test this hypothesis by examining the relation between acute alcohol impairment of inhibitory control and alcohol consumption during a single drinking episode. Materials and methods Twenty-six healthy adults performed a cued go/no-go task that measured inhibitory control. The study tested the degree to which their inhibitory control was impaired by a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) versus a placebo and the extent to which individual differences in this impairment predicted levels of alcohol consumption as assessed by ad lib drinking in the laboratory. Results In accord with the hypothesis, greater impairment of inhibitory control from alcohol was associated with increased ad lib consumption. Conclusion Acute impairment of inhibitory control might be an important cognitive effect that contributes to abuse in addition to the positive rewarding effects of the drug. PMID:18758758

  12. Open-label study of the safety and pharmacokinetics of solifenacin in subjects with hepatic impairment.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Mirjam; Smulders, Ronald; Krauwinkel, Walter; Hoon, Timothy

    2006-12-01

    Determining the pharmacokinetics and safety of solifenacin succinate, a once-daily, oral antimuscarinic agent indicated for treatment of overactive bladder, in subjects with hepatic impairment. In this open-label study, 16 subjects (eight with moderate hepatic impairment [defined as a Child-Pugh score of 7 - 9], eight healthy) received a single oral 10 mg solifenacin dose. Blood and urine were collected for pharmacokinetic assessments. Pharmacokinetic parameters (primary: area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity [AUC(0-infinity)] and maximum plasma concentration [C(max)]) and safety were evaluated for solifenacin and its metabolites. There were no clinically relevant differences in safety. Moderate hepatic impairment increased AUC(0-infinity) by 60%, and the mean elimination half-life of solifenacin and several of its metabolites was longer versus healthy subjects. Mean C(max) values were comparable between the groups. A single oral dose of solifenacin was well tolerated in hepatically impaired and healthy subjects; however, moderate hepatic impairment influenced solifenacin pharmacokinetics. In patients with mild hepatic impairment, solifenacin may be used without special caution; however, in patients with moderate hepatic impairment, doses greater than 5 mg are not recommended and the 5 mg dose should be used with caution. PMID:17170513

  13. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ? 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (? 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ? 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (? 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  14. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging. PMID:25639372

  15. Acromial impression fracture of the greater tuberosity with massive rotator cuff tear: this need not be a nightmare!

    PubMed Central

    Fahmy, Amr; Antonakopoulos, Nick; Khan, Amer

    2011-01-01

    An avulsion fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus with associated rotator cuff tear is rare. The authors describe the unusual case of a shoulder injury with an isolated, displaced greater tuberosity fracture associated with a massive rotator cuff tear. Due to the rotator cuff dysfunction, this patient presented with significant functional loss. PMID:22707607

  16. Challenges and prospects for malaria elimination in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liwang Cui; Guiyun Yan; Jetsumon Sattabongkot; Bin Chen; Yaming Cao; Qi Fan; Daniel Parker; Jeeraphat Sirichaisinthop; Xin-zhuan Su; Henglin Yang; Zhaoqing Yang; Baomin Wang; Guofa Zhou

    Despite significant improvement in the malaria situation of the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), malaria control for the region continues to face a multitude of challenges. The extremely patchy malaria distribution, especially along international borders, makes disease surveillance and targeted control difficult. The vector systems are also diverse with dramatic differences in habitat ecology, biting behavior, and vectorial capacity, and there

  17. Systemic Wisdom, the "Selving" of Nature, and Knowledge Transformation: Education for the "Greater Whole"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnett, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Considerations arising in the context of burgeoning concerns about the environment can provoke an exploration of issues that have significance both for environmental education in particular and education more generally. Notions of the "greater whole" and "systemic wisdom" that feature in some strands of environmental discourse are a case in point.…

  18. Tourism Demand Modeling and Forecasting: A Review of Literature Related to Greater China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Li

    2009-01-01

    Greater China, including Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan, contributes significantly to both regional and global tourism developments. Empirical research on tourism demand modeling and forecasting has attracted increasing attention of scholars both within and beyond this region. One hundred eighty articles are identified that were published in both English? and Chinese?language journals since the beginning of the 1990s.

  19. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  20. Malaria research in the Greater Mekong Subregion: an overview.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Walter R J

    2013-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) has low transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax and is a prime region for malaria elimination based on evidence. The extent of GMS based research is unknown. Pub Med-identified research articles from the GMS were selected based on defined criteria and classified into 24 research areas. A research questionnaire was sent to WHO country offices, national malaria control programs (NMCPs), national research institutes and non governmental organizations (NGOs). Two thousand eight hundred ninety of 3,319 identified publications were included, dating from 1933 to June 2012; 1,485 (51.8%) of 2,890 since 2000. Ten research areas accounted for 2,264 (78.3%) publications: drug resistance 12.8% (n=371), entomology 11.42% (n=330), clinical trials 10.45% (n=302), pathophysiology 9.34% (n=270), epidemiology 8.96% (n=259), pharmacology 6.06% (n=175), parasite biology 5.19% (n=150), malaria control 4.88% (n=141), diagnosis/diagnostics 4.6% (n=133) and clinical studies 4.6% (n=133). Thailand produced most publications, 1,684 (58.27%), followed by Viet Nam (365, 12.63%), Cambodia (139, 4.81%), Myanmar (132, 4.57%), Yunnan Province, China (124, 4.3%) and Lao PDR (79, 2.73%). Other publications were multicountry, including >or=1 GMS country (n=269), or reviews (n=98). Publication numbers increased significantly over time. Eleven questionnaires were received. Principal research areas were treatment seeking behavior, knowledge, attitude and practice surveys, bed net use, access to treatment by migrants, and malaria diagnostics. Research in GMS is broad. Biomedical research dominates peer reviewed publications. NMCP and NGOs focus more on downstream malaria implementation issues. The challenge is to engage GMS research capacity to build quality evidence for malaria elimination. PMID:24159834

  1. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  2. EPIC: A Program to Accelerate Academic Progress in Profoundly Hearing-Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moog, Jean; Geers, Ann

    1985-01-01

    Fifteen hearing impaired elementary students who participated in the EPIC (Experimental Project in Instructional Concentration) program, which was characterized by intensive and systematic instruction, demonstrated a significantly accelerated rate of progress compared to a control group of 18 children. (CL)

  3. Cognitive Impairment and 1-Year Outcome in Elderly Patients with Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongzhi; Sun, Tiansheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Shaoguang; Liu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Background Hip fracture is common in elderly patients. However, few effective studies had linked cognitive impairment to patient clinical outcome. Material/Methods A total of 244 elderly hip fracture patients were prospectively followed up for 12 months. At 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year after hip repair surgery, patients and/or primary caregivers were interviewed by phone by trained, blinded interviewers. Functional evaluation, from pre-injury through 1 year after the operation, was assessed using the Barthel Index. Results Among 244 patients, 43 were diagnosed as having cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score <24). Compared to those without cognitive impairment, the 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year mortalities in the impaired patients were significantly higher than that of the cognitively intact patients. Six months after hip repair surgery, the cognitively intact patients presented significantly higher activities of daily living (ADL) scores than the cognitively impaired patients, and only 38.5% of impaired patients returned to their pre-operation baseline levels afterwards. The ADL scores in the impaired patients were similar to the intact ones at 1 year after the operation. Conclusions Although they had a higher risk of mortality in hip fracture, functional gain in the cognitively impaired patients was similar to that in the cognitively intact patients at 1-year follow-up. PMID:25323014

  4. Concentration of ozone in surface air over greater Boston

    E-print Network

    Widen, Donald Allen

    1966-01-01

    Surface ozone concentrations were measured in the Greater Boston area from November, 1964 to December, 1965. Ozone was monitored continuosly using a Mast microcoulombmetric sensor. A chromium trioxide filter was fitted to ...

  5. Statins Pose No Greater Harm to Memory, Study Suggests

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 152965.html Statins Pose No Greater Harm to Memory, Study Suggests Review of more than a million ... who take statin drugs might experience short-term memory loss, a large new study finds they are ...

  6. Incidence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome in active duty US military servicemembers.

    PubMed

    Blank, Elizabeth; Owens, Brett D; Burks, Robert; Belmont, Philip J

    2012-07-01

    Although greater trochanteric pain syndrome is thought to be a common musculoskeletal disorder, little has been reported on the incidence rates of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and demographic risk factors of greater trochanteric pain syndrome in a United States military population. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the rate of greater trochanteric pain syndrome per 1000 person-years, controlling for sex, race, age, rank, and branch of service. The overall unadjusted incidence rate of greater trochanteric pain syndrome was 2.03 per 1000 person-years. Women had a significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio for greater trochanteric pain syndrome of 5.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.91-5.16). The adjusted incidence rate ratio for White servicemembers compared with Black servicemembers was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.32-1.40). The adjusted incidence rate ratio for the 40+ age group compared with the 25 to 29 age group was 2.81 (95% CI, 2.68-2.95). Compared with junior officers, junior and senior enlisted ranks had an increased adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.94 (95% CI, 1.84-2.04) and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.12-1.23), respectively. Compared with the Navy, each branch of service had an increased adjusted incidence rate ratio, with the Army at 2.90 (95% CI, 2.80-3.01), the Marines at 1.96 (95% CI, 1.87-2.07), and the Air Force at 1.33 (95% CI, 1.27-1.38). Female servicemembers had a five-fold greater incidence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Increasing age, enlisted rank groups, and service in the Army, Marines, or Air Force were also significant risk factors. PMID:22784894

  7. Tactile and Proprioceptive Temporal Discrimination Are Impaired in Functional Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Peretti, Alessia; Bove, Francesco; Conte, Antonella; Dall'Occhio, Carlo; Arbasino, Carla; Defazio, Giovanni; Fiorio, Mirta; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Methods In order to obtain further information on the pathophysiology of functional tremor, we assessed tactile discrimination threshold and proprioceptive temporal discrimination motor threshold values in 11 patients with functional tremor, 11 age- and sex-matched patients with essential tremor and 13 healthy controls. Results Tactile discrimination threshold in both the right and left side was significantly higher in patients with functional tremor than in the other groups. Proprioceptive temporal discrimination threshold for both right and left side was significantly higher in patients with functional and essential tremor than in healthy controls. No significant correlation between discrimination thresholds and duration or severity of tremor was found. Conclusions Temporal processing of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli is impaired in patients with functional tremor. The mechanisms underlying this impaired somatosensory processing and possible ways to apply these findings clinically merit further research. PMID:25051180

  8. Semantic memory impairment in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Daum, I; Riesch, G; Sartori, G; Birbaumer, N

    1996-10-01

    The present study investigated semantic memory and the presence of category-specific impairments in patients with dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT). Patients in advanced stages of Parkinson's disease (PD) and matched control subjects served as comparison groups. Semantic memory was assessed by a range of verbal and visual tasks and by direct and indirect memory tests. The DAT patients showed severe deficits on all semantic knowledge tasks. Performance was poorer on animate relative to inanimate items, on naming with and without cues, and on semantic knowledge probes, indicating a category-specific knowledge loss on these tasks. Indirect memory tests yielded significantly better preservation of knowledge compared to the traditional semantic memory tasks. Analyses of the nature of the semantic breakdown in DAT suggested combined storage and access deficits and a disturbance of the structural description and phonological output systems. PMID:8941851

  9. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron L. Aldridge; Scott E. Nielsen; Hawthorne L. Beyer; Mark S. Boyce; John W. Connelly; Steven T. Knick; Michael A. Schroeder

    2008-01-01

    Aim Greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape

  10. HIV protease inhibitors acutely impair glucose-stimulated insulin release.

    PubMed

    Koster, Joseph C; Remedi, Maria S; Qiu, Haijun; Nichols, Colin G; Hruz, Paul W

    2003-07-01

    HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) acutely and reversibly inhibit the insulin-responsive glucose transporter Glut 4, leading to peripheral insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance. Minimal modeling analysis of glucose tolerance tests on PI-treated patients has revealed an impaired insulin secretory response, suggesting additional pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. To determine whether beta-cell function is acutely affected by PIs, we assayed glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in rodent islets and the insulinoma cell line MIN6. Insulin release from MIN6 cells and rodent islets was significantly inhibited by the PI indinavir with IC(50) values of 1.1 and 2.1 micro mol/l, respectively. The uptake of 2-deoxyglucose in MIN6 cells was similarly inhibited (IC(50) of 2.0 micro mol/l), whereas glucokinase activity was unaffected at drug levels as high as 1 mmol/l. Glucose utilization was also impaired at comparable drug levels. Insulin secretogogues acting downstream of glucose transport mostly reversed the indinavir-mediated inhibition of insulin release in MIN6 cells. Intravenous infusion of indinavir during hyperglycemic clamps on rats significantly suppressed the first-phase insulin response. These data suggest that therapeutic levels of PIs are sufficient to impair glucose sensing by beta-cells. Thus, together with peripheral insulin resistance, beta-cell dysfunction likely contributes to altered glucose homeostasis associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:12829635

  11. Polysomnographic and Subjective Sleep Markers of Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hita-Yañez, Eva; Atienza, Mercedes; Cantero, Jose L.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Growing evidence suggests that sleep disturbances precede by years the clinical onset of Alzheimer disease (AD). The goal of the current study is to determine whether changes in polysomnographic (PSG) sleep patterns accompany subjective sleep complaints in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We further examine whether meaningful changes in objective sleep physiology are predicted by self-reported sleep measures in MCI patients, and whether incipient neurodegeneration contributes to exacerbate sleep misperception. Design, Setting, and Participants: Overnight PSG recordings and self-reported sleep measures were obtained from 25 healthy elderly (HE) subjects and 25 patients with MCI at the sleep laboratory. Results: Both PSG and self-reported sleep measures confirmed that sleep is altered in patients with MCI. Whereas subjective sleep responses predicted fragmentation of slow wave sleep (SWS) in HE individuals, this relationship was not evident in MCI patients. Furthermore, patients with MCI showed significant discrepancies in the estimation of sleep onset latency when compared with HE subjects. Conclusions: Sleep is significantly impaired in patients with mild cognitive impairment at both the objective and subjective level, which may be used as a surrogate marker of preclinical Alzheimer disease. Taken together, these findings aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies devoted to improve sleep in the elderly population at risk of developing Alzheimer disease. Citation: Hita-Yañez E; Atienza M; Cantero JL. Polysomnographic and subjective sleep markers of mild cognitive impairment. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1327-1334. PMID:23997365

  12. Amyrin attenuates scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Se Jin; Ahn, Young Je; Oh, Sa Rang; Lee, Younghwan; Kwon, Guyoung; Woo, Hyun; Lee, Hyung Eun; Jang, Dae Sik; Jung, Ji Wook; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease, a neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by progressive cognitive impairment associated with the disruption of cholinergic neurotransmission. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ?- or ?-amyrin, a type of pentacyclic triterpene, on the cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist. To measure the abilities of various types of learning and memory, we conducted step-through passive avoidance task. Scopolamine induced deficits in learning and memory processes in mice, which were antagonized by a single administration of ?-amyrin (2 or 4 mg/kg) or ?-amyrin (4 mg/kg), respectively. Additionally, in vitro analysis revealed that acetylcholinesterase activity was inhibited by ?-amyrin, but not by ?-amyrin. Furthermore, Western blot analysis revealed that the expression levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (pERK) and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3? (pGSK-3?) were significantly enhanced by a single administration of ?- and ?-amyrin in the hippocampus. Finally, the memory ameliorating effects of ?- or ?-amyrin on the scopolamine-induced cognitive impairments were significantly blocked by ERK inhibitor U0126. The present study suggests that ?- and ?-amyrin may ameliorate the cognitive impairment induced by hypocholinergic neurotransmission via the activation of ERK as well as GSK-3? signaling. PMID:24989012

  13. Post-stroke cognitive impairment at 3 months

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Uma; Adwani, Sikandar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vascular cognitive impairment, being the only treatable cause of dementia in the early stages, and having a diverse etiology, requires sensitive criteria for definition. Aim: This study aimed to study cognitive functions at 3 months post-stroke, utilising the Mini mental scale examination (MMSE) and the Frontal assessment battery (FAB), and to correlate the same with subgroups of ischemic stroke. Results: 164 patients were studied, 108 of these having multiple infarcts. Pure cortical infarcts were seen in 41 patients. At 3 months, 112/164 patients had MMSE more than 24, with no frontal executive dysfunction. MMSE score less than 24 was seen in 24 patients, all of them having FAB score below 10. Normal MMSE with impaired FAB was seen in 28 patients. Conclusions: Impairment on either the MMSE or the FAB was thus seen in 31.7% patients (52/164), at 3 months after stroke. FAB impairment alone, with MMSE in normal range, was seen in 28/52 (53.8%) patients. Memory was significantly more commonly affected in muti-infarct strokes as compared to single infarcts. Frontal executive dysfunction was not significantly different when single and multiple infarcts, or cortical and subcortical infarcts, were compared. PMID:20436746

  14. Historical Significant Events Imagery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Historical Significant Events Imagery database (HSEI) is maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). It contains hundreds of selected satellite images capturing some of the more important weather and environmental events over the last 30 years. One can search for images of a specific type of event or for a specific date range, go to a " What's New" section for images added in the past 7 days, or visit a "Most Popular" section for frequently-requested images. The images can be viewed on-line or downloaded for free, or one can order hardcopy matte or glossy finish prints for a small fee. Image dates range from 1960 (the first image from space) to present, and cover phenomena such as dust storms, fire, floods, hurricanes, snow cover, oil spills, severe weather and volcanoes.

  15. Impaired sustained attention and altered reactivity to errors in an animal model of prenatal cocaine exposure.

    PubMed

    Gendle, Mathew H; Strawderman, Myla S; Mactutus, Charles F; Booze, Rosemarie M; Levitsky, David A; Strupp, Barbara J

    2003-12-30

    Although correlations have been reported between maternal cocaine use and impaired attention in exposed children, interpretation of these findings is complicated by the many risk factors that differentiate cocaine-exposed children from SES-matched controls. For this reason, the present dose-response study (0, 0.5, 1.0, or 3.0 mg/kg cocaine HCl) was designed to explore the effect of prenatal cocaine exposure on visual attention in a rodent model, using an intravenous injection protocol that closely mimics the pharmacokinetic profile and physiological effects of human recreational cocaine use. In adulthood, animals were tested on an attention task in which the duration, location, and onset time of a brief visual cue varied randomly between trials. The 3.0 mg/kg exposed males committed significantly more omission errors than control males during the final 1/3 of each testing session, specifically on trials that followed an error, which implicates impaired sustained attention and increased reactivity to committing an error. During the final 1/3 of each testing session, the 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg exposed females took longer to enter the testing alcove at trial onset, and failed to enter the alcove more frequently than control females. Because these effects were not seen in other tasks of similar duration and reinforcement density, these findings suggest an impairment of sustained attention. This inference is supported by the finding that the increase in omission errors in the final block of trials in each daily session (relative to earlier in the session) was significantly greater for the 1.0 mg/kg females than for controls, a trend also seen for the 0.5 mg/kg group. Unlike the cocaine-exposed males, who remain engaged in the task when attention is waning, the cocaine-exposed females appear to opt for another strategy; namely, refusing to participate when their ability to sustain attention is surpassed. PMID:14741754

  16. Delinquency and alcohol-impaired driving among young males: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.; Colder, Craig; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    The present study assessed how the trajectory of delinquency affects the growth curve of alcohol-impaired driving using three-waves of data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). Using the structural equation modeling method, latent growth modeling was utilized to assess four age cohorts of sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, and nineteen years of age at the first wave. The data indicated that the growth rate of delinquency significantly and positively affects the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the respondents who were sixteen at the first wave. The growth rate of drinking was also significantly and positively associated with the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for this age cohort. Although the growth rate of delinquency had no significant effect on the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the age cohort which was seventeen at Wave 1, the growth rates of both drinking and drug use did affect for this age cohort. The data, however, showed that alcohol-impaired driving had a significant increase across the waves for the eighteen year old cohort, but there was no significant variation in the rate across respondents. Finally, for the nineteen year old cohort there was no significant increase in alcohol-impaired driving across the waves, and also no significant variation of the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving across the respondents. These findings indicated that interventions focused on reducing delinquency, alcohol and drug use by sixteen and seventeen year old male adolescents will also reduce their alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:20802847

  17. Delinquency and alcohol-impaired driving among young males: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F; Welte, John W; Colder, Craig; Nochajski, Thomas H

    2010-07-01

    The present study assessed how the trajectory of delinquency affects the growth curve of alcohol-impaired driving using three-waves of data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Survey of Young Men (BLSYM). Using the structural equation modeling method, latent growth modeling was utilized to assess four age cohorts of sixteen, seventeen, eighteen, and nineteen years of age at the first wave. The data indicated that the growth rate of delinquency significantly and positively affects the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the respondents who were sixteen at the first wave. The growth rate of drinking was also significantly and positively associated with the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for this age cohort. Although the growth rate of delinquency had no significant effect on the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving for the age cohort which was seventeen at Wave 1, the growth rates of both drinking and drug use did affect for this age cohort. The data, however, showed that alcohol-impaired driving had a significant increase across the waves for the eighteen year old cohort, but there was no significant variation in the rate across respondents. Finally, for the nineteen year old cohort there was no significant increase in alcohol-impaired driving across the waves, and also no significant variation of the growth rate of alcohol-impaired driving across the respondents. These findings indicated that interventions focused on reducing delinquency, alcohol and drug use by sixteen and seventeen year old male adolescents will also reduce their alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:20802847

  18. 20 CFR 416.921 - What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits ...921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s). An...

  19. 20 CFR 416.921 - What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits ...921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s). An...

  20. 20 CFR 416.921 - What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits ...921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s). An...

  1. 20 CFR 416.921 - What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... false What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. 416.921 Section 416.921 Employees' Benefits ...921 What we mean by a not severe impairment(s) in an adult. (a) Non-severe impairment(s). An...

  2. Impaired development of intrinsic connectivity networks in children with medically intractable localization-related epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, George M; Morgan, Benjamin R; Lee, Wayne; Smith, Mary Lou; Donner, Elizabeth J; Wang, Frank; Beers, Craig A; Federico, Paolo; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter

    2014-11-01

    Typical childhood development is characterized by the emergence of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) by way of internetwork segregation and intranetwork integration. The impact of childhood epilepsy on the maturation of ICNs is, however, poorly understood. The developmental trajectory of ICNs in 26 children (8-17 years) with localization-related epilepsy and 28 propensity-score matched controls was evaluated using graph theoretical analysis of whole brain connectomes from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired development of regional hubs in nodes of the salience and default mode networks (DMN). Seed-based connectivity and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed significantly decreased intranetwork connections, and greater internetwork connectivity in children with epilepsy compared to controls. Significant interactions were identified between epilepsy duration and the expected developmental trajectory of ICNs, indicating that prolonged epilepsy may cause progressive alternations in large-scale networks throughout childhood. DMN integration was also associated with better working memory, whereas internetwork segregation was associated with higher full-scale intelligence quotient scores. Furthermore, subgroup analyses revealed the thalamus, hippocampus, and caudate were weaker hubs in children with secondarily generalized seizures, relative to other patient subgroups. Our findings underscore that epilepsy interferes with the developmental trajectory of brain networks underlying cognition, providing evidence supporting the early treatment of affected children. PMID:24976288

  3. Judgments of impairment and distress associated with symptoms of internalizing and externalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Howell, Andrew J; Watson, David C

    2008-04-01

    The pattern of dysfunction (i.e. impairment vs. distress) judged to be associated with disorders empirically identified by Krueger, Caspi, Moffitt and Silva (1998) as internalizing (e.g. major depressive episode; agoraphobia) was compared to the pattern characterizing disorders classified as externalizing (e.g. antisocial personality disorder; alcohol dependence). In Study 1, lay raters (N=270) judged the social impairment, occupational impairment, and personal distress associated with symptoms of seven internalizing and four externalizing disorders. As predicted, symptoms composing internalizing disorders were perceived as involving a greater degree of distress, and a lesser degree of impairment, relative to symptoms composing externalizing disorders. In Study 2, conducted with a small sample of clinician judges (N=21), symptoms composing internalizing disorders were again judged as involving a greater degree of distress (but, in this case, not a lesser degree of impairment) relative to symptoms composing externalizing disorders. This research provides a novel means of validating the distinction between internalizing and externalizing groups of disorders. PMID:18350393

  4. The importance of saccular function to motor development in children with hearing impairments.

    PubMed

    Shall, Mary S

    2009-01-01

    Children with hearing deficits frequently have delayed motor development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate saccular function in children with hearing impairments using the Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP). The impact of the saccular hypofunction on the timely maturation of normal balance strategies was examined using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). Thirty-three children with bilateral severe/profound hearing impairment between 4 and 7 years of age were recruited from a three-state area. Approximately half of the sample had one or bilateral cochlear implants, one used bilateral hearing aids, and the rest used no amplification. Parents reported whether the hearing impairment was diagnosed within the first year or after 2 years of age. No VEMP was evoked in two thirds of the hearing impaired (HI) children in response to the bone-conducted stimulus. Children who were reportedly hearing impaired since birth had significantly poorer scores when tested with the Movement ABC. PMID:20148080

  5. The Importance of Saccular Function to Motor Development in Children with Hearing Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Shall, Mary S.

    2009-01-01

    Children with hearing deficits frequently have delayed motor development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate saccular function in children with hearing impairments using the Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP). The impact of the saccular hypofunction on the timely maturation of normal balance strategies was examined using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC). Thirty-three children with bilateral severe/profound hearing impairment between 4 and 7 years of age were recruited from a three-state area. Approximately half of the sample had one or bilateral cochlear implants, one used bilateral hearing aids, and the rest used no amplification. Parents reported whether the hearing impairment was diagnosed within the first year or after 2 years of age. No VEMP was evoked in two thirds of the hearing impaired (HI) children in response to the bone-conducted stimulus. Children who were reportedly hearing impaired since birth had significantly poorer scores when tested with the Movement ABC. PMID:20148080

  6. A key role for an impaired detoxification mechanism in the etiology and severity of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a syndrome with a number of etiologies and different mechanisms that lead to abnormal development. The identification of autism biomarkers in patients with different degrees of clinical presentation (i.e., mild, moderate and severe) will give greater insight into the pathogenesis of this disease and will enable effective early diagnostic strategies and treatments for this disorder. Methods In this study, the concentration of two toxic heavy metals, lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), were measured in red blood cells, while glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and vitamin E, as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, respectively, were measured in the plasma of subgroups of autistic patients with different Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores. The results were compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Results The obtained data showed that the patients with autism spectrum disorder had significantly higher Pb and Hg levels and lower GST activity and vitamin E concentrations compared with the controls. The levels of heavy metals (Hg and Pb), GST and vitamin E were correlated with the severity of the social and cognitive impairment measures (SRS and CARS). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis and predictiveness curves indicated that the four parameters show satisfactory sensitivity, very high specificity and excellent predictiveness. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that higher levels of Hg and Pb, together with lower levels of GST and vitamin E, can be used to predict social and cognitive impairment in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Conclusion This study confirms earlier studies that implicate toxic metal accumulation as a consequence of impaired detoxification in autism and provides insight into the etiological mechanism of autism. PMID:24776096

  7. Adiponectin deficiency exacerbates age-related hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tanigawa, T; Shibata, R; Ouchi, N; Kondo, K; Ishii, M; Katahira, N; Kambara, T; Inoue, Y; Takahashi, R; Ikeda, N; Kihara, S; Ueda, H; Murohara, T

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related disorders are closely associated with the development of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI). Adiponectin (APN) exerts protective effects against obesity-related conditions including endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the impact of APN on ARHI. APN-knockout (APN-KO) mice developed exacerbation of hearing impairment, particularly in the high frequency range, compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Supplementation with APN prevented the hearing impairment in APN-KO mice. At 2 months of age, the cochlear blood flow and capillary density of the stria vascularis (SV) were significantly reduced in APN-KO mice as compared with WT mice. APN-KO mice also showed a significant increase in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive apoptotic cells in the organ of Corti in the cochlea at 2 months of age. At the age of 6 months, hair cells were lost at the organ of Corti in APN-KO mice. In cultured auditory HEI-OC1 cells, APN reduced apoptotic activity under hypoxic conditions. Clinically, plasma APN levels were significantly lower in humans with ARHI. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified APN as a significant and independent predictor of ARHI. Our observations indicate that APN has an important role in preventing ARHI. PMID:24763046

  8. Speech Perception in Older Hearing Impaired Listeners: Benefits of Perceptual Training

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Doss, Zoe; Herron, Timothy J.; Arbogast, Tanya; Younus, Masood; Ettlinger, Marc; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    Hearing aids (HAs) only partially restore the ability of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners to understand speech in noise, due in large part to persistent deficits in consonant identification. Here, we investigated whether adaptive perceptual training would improve consonant-identification in noise in sixteen aided OHI listeners who underwent 40 hours of computer-based training in their homes. Listeners identified 20 onset and 20 coda consonants in 9,600 consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables containing different vowels (/?/, /i/, or /u/) and spoken by four different talkers. Consonants were presented at three consonant-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) spanning a 12 dB range. Noise levels were adjusted over training sessions based on d’ measures. Listeners were tested before and after training to measure (1) changes in consonant-identification thresholds using syllables spoken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers, and (2) sentence reception thresholds (SeRTs) using two different sentence tests. Consonant-identification thresholds improved gradually during training. Laboratory tests of d’ thresholds showed an average improvement of 9.1 dB, with 94% of listeners showing statistically significant training benefit. Training normalized consonant confusions and improved the thresholds of some consonants into the normal range. Benefits were equivalent for onset and coda consonants, syllables containing different vowels, and syllables presented at different SNRs. Greater training benefits were found for hard-to-identify consonants and for consonants spoken by familiar than unfamiliar talkers. SeRTs, tested with simple sentences, showed less elevation than consonant-identification thresholds prior to training and failed to show significant training benefit, although SeRT improvements did correlate with improvements in consonant thresholds. We argue that the lack of SeRT improvement reflects the dominant role of top-down semantic processing in processing simple sentences and that greater transfer of benefit would be evident in the comprehension of more unpredictable speech material. PMID:25730330

  9. Impaired Biomechanical Properties of Diabetic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Dustin M.; Herdrich, Benjamin J.; Xu, Junwang; Lind, Robert; Beason, David P.; Mitchell, Marc E.; Soslowsky, Louis J.; Liechty, Kenneth W.

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic skin is known to have deficient wound healing properties, but little is known of its intrinsic biomechanical properties. We hypothesize that diabetic skin possesses inferior biomechanical properties at baseline, rendering it more prone to injury. Skin from diabetic and nondiabetic mice and humans underwent biomechanical testing. Real-time PCR was performed for genes integral to collagen synthesis and degradation. MMP-2 and MMP-9, and TIMP-1 protein levels were assessed by ELISA and zymography. Collagen I and III content was assessed using Western blot analysis. At baseline, both murine and human diabetic skin was biomechanically inferior compared to nondiabetic skin, with decreased maximum stress and decreased modulus (P < 0.001 and < 0.05, respectively). Surprisingly, the expression of genes involved in collagen synthesis were significantly up-regulated, and genes involved in collagen degradation were significantly down-regulated in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.01). In addition, MMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 protein ratios were significantly lower in murine diabetic skin (P < 0.05). Collagen I levels and I:III ratios were lower in diabetic skin (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that the predisposition of diabetics to wounds may be the result of impaired tissue integrity at baseline, and are due, in part, to a defect in the regulation of collagen protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. PMID:21514435

  10. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    PubMed Central

    Kobbe, Philipp; Pfeifer, Roman; Campbell, Graeme C.; Tohidnezhad, Mersedeh; Bergmann, Christian; Kadyrov, Mamed; Fischer, Horst; Glüer, Christian C.; Pape, Hans-Christoph; Pufe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 35?mmHg for 90 minutes). Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-?) were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. ?CT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing. PMID:26106256

  11. Poka-yoke process controller: designed for individuals with cognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, R F; Sant, D

    1998-01-01

    Poka-yoke is a Japanese term meaning "error proofing." Poka-yoke techniques were developed to achieve zero defects in manufacturing and assembly processes. The application of these techniques tends to reduce both the physical and cognitive demands of tasks and thereby make them more accessible. Poka-yoke interventions create a dialogue between the worker and the process, and this dialogue provides the feedback necessary for workers to prevent errors. For individuals with cognitive impairments, weighing and counting tasks can be difficult or impossible. Interventions that provide sufficient feedback to workers without disabilities tend to be too subtle for workers with cognitive impairments; hence, the feedback must be enhanced. The Poka-Yoke Controller (PYC) was designed to assist individuals with counting and weighing tasks. The PYC interfaces to an Ohaus CT6000 digital scale for weighing parts and for counting parts by weight. It also interfaces to sensors and switches for object counting tasks. The PYC interfaces to a variety of programmable voice output devices so that voice feedback or prompting can be provided at specific points in the weighing or counting process. The PYC can also be interfaced to conveyor systems, indexed turntables, and other material handling systems for coordinated counting and material handling operations. In all of our applications to date, we have observed improved worker performance, improved process quality, and greater worker independence. These observed benefits have also significantly reduced the need for staff intervention. The process controller is described and three applications are presented: a weighing task and two counting applications. PMID:10339278

  12. Hearing impairment among workers exposed to excessive levels of noise in ginning industries.

    PubMed

    Dube, Kamalesh J; Ingale, Lalit T; Ingale, Sopan T

    2011-01-01

    Cotton ginning workers have a risk of hearing loss due to excessive noise levels at the workplace environment. In this study, estimates of typical sound levels prevailing at the workplace environment and its effects on hearing ability of the exposed workers were made among cotton ginning workers. Data on self-reported health status was collected by a questionnaire survey at 10 cotton ginning industries located at Jalgaon district of Maharashtra state, India. The cotton ginning workers were exposed to continuous noise levels between 89 and 106 dBA. The hearing ability of the subjects was accessed by pure tone audiometry. The results of audiometry show mild, moderate and moderately severe degree of hearing impairment among the cotton ginning workers. The data generated during the study show that hearing loss was significantly associated with period of exposure to the workplace noise (P <0.0001). The prevalence of audiometric hearing impairment defined as a threshold average greater than 25 dB hearing level was 96% for binaural low-frequency average, 97% for binaural mid frequency average and 94% for binaural high-frequency average in the cotton ginning workers. We recommend the compulsory use of personal protective equipment like ear plug by the cotton ginning workers at the workplace environment. A regular maintenance of ginning and pressing machineries will avoid the emission of excessive noise at the workplace environment of cotton gins. A regular periodic medical examination is necessary to measure the impact of workplace noise on the health of cotton ginning workers. PMID:21959115

  13. ADULTS WITH DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY EXHIBIT IMPAIRMENTS IN MULTI-TASKING AND OTHER EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Rucker, Jason L.; Jernigan, Stephen D.; McDowd, Joan M.; Kluding, Patricia M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) contributes to functional impairment, and there is growing evidence that neuropsychological factors also influence physical function. We compared cognitive and executive function in adults with DPN to an age-matched comparison group, and examined the relationships between DPN, executive function, and physical function. METHODS Twenty subjects with DPN and 20 comparison subjects were assessed. DPN was quantified via the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument and nerve conduction velocity testing. Subjects were administered Beck’s Depression Inventory, the Mini Mental Status Examination, and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG). Each participant also completed a battery of 7 executive function tasks, including the Cognitive Timed Up and Go test (cTUG), in which a concurrent mental subtraction task was added to the standard TUG test. RESULTS The DPN group demonstrated poorer letter fluency (34.2±11.6 vs. 46.2±12.2 words, p=0.001), category fluency (47.0±8.1 vs. 56.3±8.5 words, p=0.003), and Rey Osterrieth scores (25.9±4.3 vs. 31.7±2.4 points, p<0.001), and took longer to complete both the TUG (10.3±2.8 vs. 5.9±1.0 seconds, p<0.001) and cTUG (13.0±5.8 vs. 6.9±1.6 seconds, p<0.001). Poorer global cognitive performance and greater depression symptoms were significantly related to each other (r=?0.46, p=0.04) and to slower TUG times (r=?0.53, p=0.02 and 0.54, p=0.02, respectively). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Verbal, visuospatial, and multi-tasking measures of executive function may be impaired in adults with DPN. Future research should examine how these and other cognitive and psychological factors, such as depression, affect physical function in this population. PMID:24384943

  14. Diagnostic and screening power of neuropsychological testing in detecting mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Biundo, Roberta; Weis, Luca; Pilleri, Manuela; Facchini, Silvia; Formento-Dojot, Patrizia; Vallelunga, Annamaria; Antonini, Angelo

    2013-04-01

    Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson's disease (PD) is variable likely due to methodological differences in classification criteria and lack of consensus about neuropsychological tests used for cognitive profiling. The main objective of our study was to identify the most suitable neuropsychological tests and determine their screening and diagnostic cutoff scores for PD-MCI. A series of 104 consecutive PD patients performed an extensive neuropsychological evaluation. Individual test values were converted into Z-scores using relative published normative data. According to published criteria, PD patients were categorized as PD-CNT (PD without cognitive impairment), PD-MCI (patients performing -1.5 SDs below the mean score in at least one cognitive domain), and PDD. We used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and K-means clustering analyses to calculate the best discriminating power of each neuropsychological tests in detecting PD-MCI. PD patients were categorized as follows: 55 PD-CNT (53 %), 34 PD-MCI (33 %), and 15 PDD (14 %). PD-MCI had lower education, longer disease duration and greater frequency of hallucinations than PD-CNT. We found that only the Trail Making test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) copy, Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB), Digit Span Backward, and Rey's word auditory verbal learning test (RVLT) immediate recall reached significant screening and diagnostic validity in predicting PD-MCI (AUC 0.705-0.795) with cutoff scores calculated by ROC analyses lying within normal range for normative data. Specific neuropsychological tests covering verbal memory, attention/set-shifting, and visual-spatial deficits are the best predictors of MCI in PD if valid cutoff scores are used. These results have consequences for cognitive diagnosis and potentially in establishing the rate of PD cognitive decline. PMID:23483334

  15. Using negative feedback to guide behavior: impairments on the first 4 cards of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test predict negative symptoms of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Sally J; Strauss, Gregory P; Allen, Daniel N

    2013-12-01

    Research has demonstrated that individuals with schizophrenia fail to appropriately use negative feedback to guide learning. These learning deficits are thought to arise from abnormalities in midbrain dopamine activity. Primary and enduring negative symptoms are also associated with abnormal dopamine activity and are expected to produce more severe deficits in learning when they present in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study examines this matter by comparing individuals with deficit syndrome schizophrenia, which is characterized by primary and enduring negative symptoms, to individuals with nondeficit syndrome schizophrenia and to normal controls in their use of positive feedback and negative feedback to guide learning on the first four cards of the WCST. Participants included 67 individuals with schizophrenia (15 deficit; 52 nondeficit syndrome) and 51 healthy controls. Accuracy data from the first 4 cards of the WCST and measures of global test performance were examined. Individuals with schizophrenia were significantly less accurate than controls in their performance on early (pre-shift) WCST trials, and this impairment was significantly greater in patients with deficit than nondeficit schizophrenia. Additionally, accuracy across the first 4 WCST cards significantly predicted the number of categories completed and percentage of perseverative errors across the entire test. These findings suggest that negative symptoms of schizophrenia are associated with difficulty using negative feedback to adaptively guide behavior, and are consistent with the notion that abnormal DA signaling contributes to the higher-order executive functioning impairments seen in schizophrenia with severe negative symptoms. PMID:24210530

  16. Recognition of patient-reported impairment in oral aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Dannemand, K; Ozhayat, E B

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of effective recognition by professionals of patient-estimated oral aesthetic impairment and the most reliable aspects in such recognition. Participants consisted of 95 patients with partial dentition in need of prosthodontic replacements. The oral aesthetics was professionally evaluated using the Prosthetic Esthetic Index (PEI), compiling 13 aesthetic aspects and an overall evaluation. The patient-reported impairment was evaluated using the Oral Health Impact Profile Aesthetic (OHIP-Aes) and the Oral Esthetic Scale (OES). Background variables were as follows: gender, age, work situation, education level, marital status, number and location of teeth, wearing a removable dental prosthesis (RDP) and smile line. A significant correlation was found between the overall professional evaluation and the OHIP-Aes score (R = 0·43, P < 0·05), the OES score (R = 0·46, P < 0·05) and the overall patient evaluation (0·35, P < 0·05). Correlations of the 13 specific aspects of the PEI with the patient-reported evaluations were generally small to moderate: the aspect 'discoloration of the teeth' showed the highest correlation. The multivariate analyses showed that up to 57% of the patient-reported impairment could be explained by the professionally evaluated oral aesthetic in combination with background variables. Discoloration of the teeth was the greatest explanatory variable, but also dental arch symmetry, and position and colour of the teeth were significant aspects. A high percentage of the patient-reported aesthetic impairment can be recognised by the professionals. The most reliable aspect is discoloration of the teeth, but also dental arch symmetry, and the position and colour of the teeth are important for recognising the aesthetic impairment. PMID:24836917

  17. Impairment of Bone Health in Pediatric Patients with Hemolytic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Schündeln, Michael M.; Goretzki, Sarah C.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Wieland, Regina; Bauer, Jens; Baeder, Lena; Eggert, Angelika; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia result in impaired bone health in both adults and youths. Children with other types of chronic hemolytic anemia may also display impaired bone health. Study Design To assess bone health in pediatric patients with chronic hemolytic anemia, a cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 patients with different forms of hemolytic anemia (i.e., 17 homozygous sickle cell disease and 14 hereditary spherocytosis patients). Biochemical, radiographic and anamnestic parameters of bone health were assessed. Results Vitamin D deficiency with 25 OH-vitamin D serum levels below 20 ng/ml was a common finding (80.5%) in this cohort. Bone pain was present in 31% of patients. Analysis of RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin levels indicated an alteration in bone modeling with significantly elevated RANKL/OPG ratios (control: 0.08+0.07; patients: 0.26+0.2, P?=?0.0007). Osteocalcin levels were found to be lower in patients compared with healthy controls (68.5+39.0 ng/ml vs. 118.0+36.6 ng/ml, P?=?0.0001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant (P<0.025) influence of LDH (partial r2?=?0.29), diagnosis of hemolytic anemia (partial r2?=?0.05) and age (partial r2?=?0.03) on osteocalcin levels. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were more frequently and more severely affected by impaired bone health than patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Conclusion Bone health is impaired in pediatric patients with hemolytic anemia. In addition to endocrine alterations, an imbalance in the RANKL/OPG system and low levels of osteocalcin may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25299063

  18. Subducted, detached, and torn slabs during early orogeny: evidence from deep earthquakes under the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumladze, T.; Forte, A. M.; Cowgill, E.; Trexler, C.; Niemi, N. A.; Kellogg, L. H.; Yikilmaz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Arabia-Eurasian collision is the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate the role that pre-suturing tectonism plays in defining the deformational response of the upper plate to continental collision and suturing. The Greater Caucasus Mountains, which define the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone between the Black and Caspian seas, result from late Cenozoic closure of the Greater Caucasus basin, a Mesozoic back-arc basin that opened during northward subduction of Neotethys beneath the Lesser Caucasus island arc. However, both the extent to which the basin closed by subduction and its original width remain controversial. Many previous estimates suggest that the basin was very narrow and that no subduction occurred during the formation of the Greater Caucasus. However, newly compiled earthquake locations show that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab. We assembled the new catalog of earthquake locations by combining earthquake records from local networks in Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan with previously published data. Our dataset includes records from 3820 events with magnitudes M>2. Visualization of the final catalogue in an immersive visualization environment at the UC Davis Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES) provides a clear image of a northeast-dipping zone of seismicity beneath the Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as the remnant of a subducted slab. Beneath the central Greater Caucasus (45°E), the zone of seismicity extends to a depth of at least 158 km and dips to the northeast at ~40°. In contrast, beneath the western GC (i.e., west of 45°E) there is a pronounced lack of events below 25 km, which we infer to reflect slab breakoff. We also observe a gap in intermediate-depth seismicity (30 to 60 km) at the western end of the subducted slab beneath the central Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as an eastward-propagating tear. This tear coincides with a region of minimum horizontal GPS convergence rates between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, as expected in a region of active slab breakoff. Evidence of subduction beneath the Greater Caucasus suggests that the relict back-arc basin was significantly wider than previously estimated. This further suggests that closure of this basin may have been an important mechanism for accommodating plate convergence in this nascent orogen and that the Greater Caucasus may represent a form of cryptic suture. Such relict-basin closure may also be an important, but overlooked process in the early stages of other orogens where it has proven difficult to reconcile total crustal shortening with estimates of total plate convergence.

  19. Effects of sulfur dioxide or ammonium sulfate exposure, alone or combined, for 4 or 8 months on normal and elastase-impaired rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.G.; Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.; Cannon, W.C.; Loscutoff, S.M.; Morris, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    Normal and lung-impaired rats were compared after exposure to SO2 and/or (NH4)2SO4 for 4 or 8 months, or for 8 months plus 3 months recovery. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated intratracheally with either physiologic saline (normal lungs) or porcine pancreatic elastase (impaired lungs). Rats from each pretreatment group were exposed to filtered air (control), to SO2 (1 ppm) or (NH4)2SO4 (0.5 mg/m3), or to combined SO2 + (NH4)2SO4 for 5 hr/day, 5 days/week. Morphologic, physiologic, and immunologic criteria were evaluated. At 4 months cellular immunologic responsiveness was not impaired, but physiologic changes were detected. Morphologic changes were apparent in all time periods. Elastase-induced changes included greater lung volumes, emphysema, and alveolar interstitial fibrosis. Pollutant effects included bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and changes in alveolar mean chord length (MCL). Relative to controls, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and MCL increased in saline/pollutant groups, but decreased in elastase/pollutant rats at 4 months. The pretreatment/pollutant interaction was not observed at 8 months. Elastase effects persisted throughout the recovery period. Pollutant effects were more transitory, although alveolar septal fibrosis was greater in saline/(NH4)2SO4 rats at 8 months. Pulmonary function changes associated with elastase included increases in residual volume, functional residual capacity, and the residual volume/total lung capacity ratios. The alveolar plateau of single-breath washout (N2 slope) was significantly steeper in elastase-treated rats but less steep in animals exposed to SO2 or to (NH4)2SO4 than in those exposed to air only.

  20. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  1. Small airway impairment in moderate to severe asthmatics without significant proximal airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Perez, Thierry; Chanez, Pascal; Dusser, Daniel; Devillier, Philippe

    2013-11-01

    Asthma is a disease characterized by inflammation which affects both proximal and distal airways. We evaluated the prevalence of small airway obstruction (SAO) in a group of clinically stable asthmatics with both normal forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and normal FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and treated with an association of inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long acting ?2-agonists (LABAs). Clinical evaluation included the measurement of dyspnea, asthma control test and drug compliance. The prevalence of SAO was estimated by spirometry and plethysmography and defined by the presence of one or more of the following criteria: functional residual capacity (FRC) > 120% predicted (pred), residual volume (RV) > pred + 1.64 residual standard deviation (RSD), RV/total lung capacity (TLC) > pred + 1.64 RSD, forced expiratory flow (FEF)25-75% < pred - 1.64 RSD, FEF50% < pred - 1.64 RSD, slow vital capacity (SVC) - FVC > 10%. Among the 441 patients who were included, 222 had normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. At least one criteria of SAO was found in 115 (52%) mainly lung hyperinflation (39% based on high FRC, RV or RV/TLC) and more rarely distal airflow limitation (15% based on FEF25-75% or FEF50%) or expiratory trapping (10% based on increased SVC - FVC). In the patients with only SAO (no PAO), there was no relationship between SAO, asthma history and the scores of dyspnea, asthma control or drug compliance. These results suggest that in asthmatics with normal FEV1 and FEV1/FVC, treated with ICSs and LABAs, SAO is found in more than half of the patients indicating that the routinely used lung function tests can underestimate dysfunctions occurring in the small airways. PMID:24025779

  2. Obesity impairs apoptotic cell clearance in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Boyanapalli, Ruby; Goleva, Elena; Kolakowski, Christena; Min, Elysia; Day, Brian; Leung, Donald Y. M.; Riches, David W. H.; Bratton, Donna L.; Sutherland, E. Rand

    2014-01-01

    Background Asthma in obese adults is typically more severe and less responsive to glucocorticoids than asthma in nonobese adults. Objective We sought to determine whether the clearance of apoptotic inflammatory cells (efferocytosis) by airway macrophages was associated with altered inflammation and reduced glucocorticoid sensitivity in obese asthmatic patients. Methods We investigated the relationship of efferocytosis by airway (induced sputum) macrophages and blood monocytes to markers of monocyte programming, in vitro glucocorticoid response, and systemic oxidative stress in a cohort of adults with persistent asthma. Results Efferocytosis by airway macrophages was assessed in obese (n = 14) and nonobese (n = 19) asthmatic patients. Efferocytosis by macrophages was 40% lower in obese than nonobese subjects, with a mean efferocytic index of 1.77 (SD, 1.07) versus 3.00 (SD, 1.25; P < .01). A similar reduction of efferocytic function was observed in blood monocytes of obese participants. In these monocytes there was also a relative decrease in expression of markers of alternative (M2) programming associated with efferocytosis, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and CX3 chemokine receptor 1. Macrophage efferocytic index was significantly correlated with dexamethasone-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 expression (? = 0.46, P < .02) and baseline glucocorticoid receptor ? expression (? = 0.44, P < .02) in PBMCs. Plasma 4-hydroxynonenal levels were increased in obese asthmatic patients at 0.33 ng/mL (SD, 0.15 ng/mL) versus 0.16 ng/mL (SD, 0.08 ng/mL) in nonobese patients (P = .006) and was inversely correlated with macrophage efferocytic index (? = ?0.67, P = .02). Conclusions Asthma in obese adults is associated with impaired macrophage/monocyte efferocytosis. Impairment of this anti-inflammatory process is associated with altered monocyte/macrophage programming, reduced glucocorticoid responsiveness, and systemic oxidative stress. PMID:23154082

  3. Anthrax Edema Toxin Impairs Clearance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sastalla, Inka; Tang, Shixing; Crown, Devorah; Liu, Shihui; Eckhaus, Michael A.; Hewlett, Indira K.; Leppla, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    The anthrax edema toxin (ET) of Bacillus anthracis is composed of the receptor-binding component protective antigen (PA) and of the adenylyl cyclase catalytic moiety, edema factor (EF). Uptake of ET into cells raises intracellular concentrations of the secondary messenger cyclic AMP, thereby impairing or activating host cell functions. We report here on a new consequence of ET action in vivo. We show that in mouse models of toxemia and infection, serum PA concentrations were significantly higher in the presence of enzymatically active EF. These higher concentrations were not caused by ET-induced inhibition of PA endocytosis; on the contrary, ET induced increased PA binding and uptake of the PA oligomer in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of the PA receptors TEM8 and CMG2 in both myeloid and nonmyeloid cells. ET effects on protein clearance from circulation appeared to be global and were not limited to PA. ET also impaired the clearance of ovalbumin, green fluorescent protein, and EF itself, as well as the small molecule biotin when these molecules were coinjected with the toxin. Effects on injected protein levels were not a result of general increase in protein concentrations due to fluid loss. Functional markers for liver and kidney were altered in response to ET. Concomitantly, ET caused phosphorylation and activation of the aquaporin-2 water channel present in the principal cells of the collecting ducts of the kidneys that are responsible for fluid homeostasis. Our data suggest that in vivo, ET alters circulatory protein and small molecule pharmacokinetics by an as-yet-undefined mechanism, thereby potentially allowing a prolonged circulation of anthrax virulence factors such as EF during infection. PMID:22104108

  4. Impaired holistic processing in congenital prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Avidan, Galia; Tanzer, Michal; Behrmann, Marlene

    2011-01-01

    It has long been argued that face processing requires disproportionate reliance on holistic or configural processing, relative to that required for non-face object recognition, and that a disruption of such holistic processing may be causally implicated in prosopagnosia. Previously, we demonstrated that individuals with congenital prosopagnosia (CP) did not show the normal face inversion effect (better performance for upright compared to inverted faces) and evinced a local (rather than the normal global) bias in a compound letter global/local (GL) task, supporting the claim of disrupted holistic processing in prosopagnosia. Here, we investigate further the nature of holistic processing impairments in CP, first by confirming, in a large sample of CP individuals, the absence of the normal face inversion effect and the presence of the local bias on the GL task, and, second, by employing the composite face paradigm, often regarded as the gold standard for measuring holistic face processing. In this last task, we show that, in contrast with normal individuals, the CP group perform equivalently with aligned and misaligned faces and was impervious to (the normal) interference from the task-irrelevant bottom part of faces. Interestingly, the extent of the local bias evident in the composite task is correlated with the abnormality of performance on diagnostic face processing tasks. Furthermore, there is a significant correlation between the magnitude of the local bias in the GL and performance on the composite task. These results provide further evidence for impaired holistic processing in CP and, moreover, corroborate the critical role of this type of processing for intact face recognition. PMID:21601583

  5. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Grillon, C; Quispe-Escudero, D; Mathur, A; Ernst, M

    2015-01-01

    As healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over two separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented neutral and negative pictures, with the instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, but not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotion reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. PMID:25706833

  6. Disruptive camouflage impairs object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Richard J.; Hassall, Christopher; Herdman, Chris M.; Godin, Jean-Guy J.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Whether hiding from predators, or avoiding battlefield casualties, camouflage is widely employed to prevent detection. Disruptive coloration is a seemingly well-known camouflage mechanism proposed to function by breaking up an object's salient features (for example their characteristic outline), rendering objects more difficult to recognize. However, while a wide range of animals are thought to evade detection using disruptive patterns, there is no direct experimental evidence that disruptive coloration impairs recognition. Using humans searching for computer-generated moth targets, we demonstrate that the number of edge-intersecting patches on a target reduces the likelihood of it being detected, even at the expense of reduced background matching. Crucially, eye-tracking data show that targets with more edge-intersecting patches were looked at for longer periods prior to attack, and passed-over more frequently during search tasks. We therefore show directly that edge patches enhance survivorship by impairing recognition, confirming that disruptive coloration is a distinct camouflage strategy, not simply an artefact of background matching. PMID:24152693

  7. Mental fatigue impairs emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Grillon, Christian; Quispe-Escudero, David; Mathur, Ambika; Ernst, Monique

    2015-06-01

    Because healthy physical and mental functioning depends on the ability to regulate emotions, it is important to identify moderators of such regulations. Whether mental fatigue, subsequent to the depletion of cognitive resources, impairs explicit emotion regulation to negative stimuli is currently unknown. This study explored this possibility. In a within-subject design over 2 separate sessions, healthy individuals performed easy (control session) or difficult (depletion session) cognitive tasks. Subsequently, they were presented with neutral and negative pictures, with instructions to either maintain or regulate (i.e., reduce) the emotions evoked by the pictures. Emotional reactivity was probed with the startle reflex. The negative pictures evoked a similar aversive state in the control and depletion sessions as measured by startle potentiation. However, subjects were able to down-regulate their aversive state only in the control session, not in the depletion session. These results indicate that mental fatigue following performance of cognitive tasks impairs emotion regulation without affecting emotional reactivity. These findings suggest that mental fatigue needs to be incorporated into models of emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25706833

  8. Acute mountain sickness in athletes with neurological impairments.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A; Hunter, John; Tang, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a symptom complex noticed commonly among high altitude travelers. The occurrence of AMS depends on multiple factors that have been studied extensively. However, AMS in individuals with neurological impairments has not been considered in detail. A total of 168 subjects, including active controls, inactive controls, and those with spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury (TBI), were studied at the National Veterans Winter Sports Clinic in Snowmass, Colorado, from 2007 to 2009 for the occurrence of AMS. Lake Louise Score was used to quantify symptoms. A higher than anticipated occurrence of AMS (42.85%) among the study population was noted, with significantly higher Lake Louis Scores among athletes with neurological impairments. Disability group, prior history of AMS, and prior occurrence of headache at high altitude could be used as predictors for the development of AMS symptoms. More research is warranted specifically targeting the interaction between factors affecting AMS and the pathophysiology of neurological impairments like SCI and TBI to further our understanding about prophylactic medications and treatments for AMS, especially because many military personnel with neurological impairments continue on Active Duty. PMID:23761006

  9. Examining pain in aggressive cognitively impaired older adults.

    PubMed

    Feldt, K S; Warne, M A; Ryden, M B

    1998-11-01

    Few studies have explored the phenomenon of pain in people with severe cognitive impairment. Pain assessment, which depends primarily on people's ability to describe dimensions of pain, becomes problematic when clients' cognitive impairment is so severe they cannot respond to pain assessment tools. The purpose of this study was to describe the phenomenon of pain for a subgroup of aggressive cognitively impaired nursing home residents who were enrolled in a larger study of aggressive behavior. To determine if pain was a possible factor influencing aggression, information was sought from five sources: family members, nursing assistant (NA) caregivers, medical record listings of pain-related diagnoses, use of analgesics, and observations of aggressive behaviors. Families reported pain in 44% of subjects, while NAs reported pain in 66% of subjects. Seventy-six percent of subjects had one or more pain-causing diagnoses. Sixty-four percent of subjects whose family members thought they may have pain were being treated with analgesics, compared to 44% of subjects whose NA reported they may be experiencing pain. Aggression scores were significantly higher in subjects who had two or more pain-related diagnoses and in subjects with arthritis. Nurses who are aware of a history of pain, reports of pain by families and caregivers, presence of pain-related medical diagnoses, and who realize pain may be a trigger for aggressive behavior may be more likely to recognize pain in cognitively impaired older adults. Better pain assessment should lead to improved treatment of pain in this population. PMID:10392090

  10. Evaluation of a roadside impairment test device using alcohol.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Philip R; Clark, Tony; Tiplady, Brian

    2009-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to compare the performance of a portable impairment test device known as roadside impairment testing apparatus (RITA) with the field impairment tests (FIT) that are used at the roadside by UK police. One hundred and twenty two healthy volunteers aged 18-70 years took part in this two-period crossover evaluation. The volunteers received a dose of alcohol and placebo, in the form of a drink, on separate days. Doses were calculated to produce blood alcohol concentrations of 90 mg/100ml and RITA and FIT testing was carried out between 30 and 75 min post-drink. FIT was found to have a diagnostic accuracy of 62.7%. However, there was a substantial age effect for FIT scores, with volunteers aged over 40 showing failure rates on placebo similar to the failure rates on alcohol of younger volunteers. The accuracy of RITA was between 66 and 70%, not significantly higher than that of FIT. However, RITA did not show a marked age effect. Advantageously, this could result in fewer false positives being recorded if RITA were deployed at the roadside. Horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN) was also investigated and posted an accuracy of 74%. The inclusion of HGN as one component of a UK roadside impairment test battery warrants further exploration with other drugs. PMID:19393786

  11. Motor dysfunction in patients with liver cirrhosis: impairment of handwriting.

    PubMed

    Mechtcheriakov, Sergei; Graziadei, Ivo W; Kugener, André; Schuster, Ingrid; Mueller, Joerg; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Vogel, Wolfgang; Marksteiner, Josef

    2006-03-01

    Motor dysfunction is an important clinical finding in patients with liver cirrhosis and mild forms of hepatic encephalopathy. The mechanisms and clinical appearance of motor impairment in patients with liver cirrhosis are not completely understood. We studied fine motor control in forty four patients with advanced liver cirrhosis (excluding those with hepatic encephalopathy grade II) and 48 healthy controls using a kinematic analysis of standardized handwriting tests. We analysed parameters of velocity, the ability to coordinate and the level of automatisation of handwriting movements. Furthermore, we studied the association between impairment of handwriting and clinical neuro-psychiatric symptoms. As compared with control subjects, patients showed a statistically significant reduction of movement peak velocity in all handwriting tasks as well as a substantial increase of number of velocity inversions per stroke. Using a z-score based assessment we found impairment of handwriting in fourteen out of forty four patients (31.8 %). The deterioration of handwriting was associated with clinical symptoms of motor dysfunction, such as bradykinesia, adiadochokinesia, dysmetria of upper extremities and gait ataxia. This is the first study that quantitatively investigates impairment of handwriting in patients with liver cirrhosis. Our findings suggest the application of kinematic analysis of handwriting for diagnostics of motor dysfunction in patients with mild forms of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:16244813

  12. Regulation Disorders Among Children with Visual Impairment a Controlled Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leah Alon; Michal Cohen Ophir; Ayala Cohen; Emanuel Tirosh

    2010-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and type of regulation disorders related to severe visual impairment (SVI) in childhood. Children\\u000a with isolated SVI (n?=?18) and 21 children with motor\\/language developmental delay between 6–36 months were included. An historic control group\\u000a was employed. A questionnaire pertaining to regulatory disorders was administered to all parents. A significantly increased\\u000a number of non optimal items among the

  13. Life Science for Visually Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Larry; De Lucchi, Linda

    1979-01-01

    Describes life science activities for blind or visually impaired students including aquarium studies, plant germination, classroom animals, and outdoor activities designed with a multisensory approach. (MA)

  14. Obesity and hypertriglyceridemia produce cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Farr, Susan A; Yamada, Kelvin A; Butterfield, D Allan; Abdul, H Mohammad; Xu, Lin; Miller, Nicole E; Banks, William A; Morley, John E

    2008-05-01

    Obesity is associated with cognitive impairments. Long-term mechanisms for this association include consequences of hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, or other factors comprising metabolic syndrome X. We found that hypertriglyceridemia, the main dyslipidemia of metabolic syndrome X, is in part responsible for the leptin resistance seen in obesity. Here we determined whether triglycerides have an immediate and direct effect on cognition. Obese mice showed impaired acquisition in three different cognitive paradigms: the active avoidance T-maze, the Morris water maze, and a food reward lever press. These impairments were not attributable to differences in foot shock sensitivity, swim speed, swimming distance, or voluntary milk consumption. Impaired cognition in obese mice was improved by selectively lowering triglycerides with gemfibrozil. Injection into the brain of the triglyceride triolein, but not of the free fatty acid palmitate, impaired acquisition in normal body weight mice. Triolein or milk (97% of fats are triglycerides), but not skim milk (no triglycerides), impaired maintenance of the N-methyl-d-aspartate component of the hippocampal long-term synaptic potential. Measures of oxidative stress in whole brain were reduced by gemfibrozil. We conclude that triglycerides mediate cognitive impairment as seen in obesity, possibly by impairing maintenance of the N-methyl-d-aspartate component of hippocampal long-term potentiation, and that lowering triglycerides can reverse the cognitive impairment and improve oxidative stress in the brain. PMID:18276751

  15. GREATER STRIATAL DOPAMINE TRANSPORTER DENSITY MAY BE ASSOCIATED WITH MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODE

    PubMed Central

    Amsterdam, Jay D.; Newberg, Andrew B.; Soeller, Irene; Shults, Justine

    2012-01-01

    Background We examined striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) distribution volume ratio (DVR) values in subjects with unipolar or bipolar major depressive episode (versus non-depressed healthy volunteers) using the selective DAT radioligand [99mTc]TRODAT-1 and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). We hypothesized that striatal DVR values would be greater in depressed versus non-depressed subjects, and that greater DVR values may represent a possible clinical biomarker of depression. Methods [99mTc]TRODAT-1 SPECT images were acquired from 39 depressed and 103 non-depressed drug-free subjects. The primary outcome measure was the DVR value of [99mTc]TRODAT-1 binding for the putamen region and the combined putamen plus caudate region. Results DVR values were significantly correlated across all striatal regions within both subject groups (p<0.005). Depressed subjects had significantly greater DVR values (versus non-depressed subjects) in the putamen (p<0.0005) and the combined putamen plus caudate (p<0.0005) regions. There was no difference in DVR values between unipolar (n=24) and bipolar (n=15) depressed subjects, and no difference in DVR values for depressed subjects with or without prior antidepressant exposure. The predictive probability of the putamen or combined putamen plus caudate DVR value to distinguish depressed from non-depressed subjects was significant (p<0.0005). Limitations – DAT values could potentially be influenced by age, gender, diagnosis, prior psychotropic dug exposure, illness length, or symptom severity. Conclusion – Results confirm prior observations of greater striatal DAT density in depressed versus non-depressed subjects, and suggest that greater DVR values may possibly represent a potential diagnostic biomarker for distinguish depressed from non-depressed individuals. PMID:22482744

  16. Seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations is greater in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum KL-6 is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, KL-6 has not been used to discriminate different types of ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations can vary depending on antigen exposure levels in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP); however, seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations in ILD have not been determined. We hypothesized that seasonal variation of serum KL-6 is greater in HP than for the other ILD. The aim of this study was to determine seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations in various ILD. Methods Serum KL-6 concentrations in the summer season from June 1 to September 30 and the winter season from November 1 to February 28 were retrospectively analyzed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n?=?16), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n?=?16), collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia (CVD-IP, n?=?33), house-related HP (House-HP, n?=?9), bird-related HP (Bird-HP, n?=?9), and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE, n?=?13). Results Bird-HP and House-HP showed greater seasonal serum KL-6 variation than the other ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations in Bird-HP were significantly increased in the winter and KL-6 concentrations in House-HP were significantly increased in the summer. Serum KL-6 variation was significantly greater in acute HP than chronic HP. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that greater seasonal variation in serum KL-6 concentrations is diagnostic for Bird-HP. Conclusion HP should be considered in ILD with greater seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations. PMID:25098177

  17. Birth synchrony in greater spear-nosed bats (Phyllostomus hastatus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. A. Porter; G. S. Wilkinson

    2001-01-01

    For many animals, strategies for optimally timing reproduction involve monitoring not only the physical environment, but also the social context. To explore the potential for social factors to modulate reproductive seasonality, the influence of social and environmental cues on birth timing was examined in greater spear-nosed bats Phyllostomus hastatus. Births were observed or dated from pup growth curves in three

  18. Greater quinidine-induced QTc interval prolongation in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Benton; Mark Sale; David A. Flockhart; Raymond L. Woosley

    2000-01-01

    Background: Prolongation of the electrocardiographic QT interval by drugs is associated with the occurrence of a potentially lethal form of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia termed torsades de pointes. Women are at greater risk than men for development of this adverse event when taking drugs that prolong the QT interval. To determine whether this may be the result of gender-specific differences in

  19. Unpacking Unpacking: Greater Detail Can Reduce Perceived Likelihood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, Joseph P.; Frederick, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Past research suggests that a categorical event is perceived to be more likely if its subcases are explicitly delineated or "unpacked." In 6 studies, we find that unpacking can often make an event seem less likely, especially when the details being unpacked are already highly accessible. Process evidence shows that the provision of greater detail…

  20. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  1. Classification of insects by echolocating greater horseshoe bats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerhard von der Emde; Hans-Ulrich Schnitzler

    1990-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) detect insects by concentrating on the characteristic amplitude- and frequency modulation pattern fluttering insects impose on the returning echoes. This study shows that horseshoe bats can also further analyse insect echoes and thus recognize and categorize the kind of insect they are echolocating.

  2. Advancing Research on Productive Aging Activities in Greater Chinese Societies.

    PubMed

    Lum, Terry Yat-Sang

    2013-06-01

    The public discourse on productive aging as a research and policy initiative has just begun in greater China. Two conferences in Mainland China in 2009 and 2011 and subsequent conferences in Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2012 have set it in motion. Because applied social science research has just started in greater China, researchers in Chinese societies will benefit from the experience and rich literature accumulated over the last three decades in the West. In this paper, I review and reflect on the research methods used in productive aging research in both Chinese societies and in the West. I believe that to advance productive aging research in greater China, we need to (1) discuss and agree upon a definition of productive aging, (2) identify and differentiate outputs and outcomes of productive aging activities in greater China, (3) develop precise measures for productive aging involvement, (4) focus on institutional (program and public policy) factors that promote productive aging involvement, (5) use a strong research design (such as a quasi-experimental design) to establish the internal validity of productive aging programs, and (6) be theory-driven. Lastly, productive aging should be seen as a choice, not an obligation for older people; otherwise, the productive aging agenda will be seen as exploiting older people. It is important that Chinese researchers and policy-makers have this in mind when they are advocating productive engagement of older people in China. PMID:23645946

  3. PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District

    E-print Network

    PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District by Andrew K. Doi B. A (BMPs) for water conservation are used as evaluative criteria. These BMPs were drawn from California's urban water conservation system. This researched examines 4 case study municipalities from the GVRD

  4. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  5. Adjustment of business expatriates in Greater China: a strategic perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Selmer

    2006-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms that have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms. Based on data collected by a survey, this study compares how business expatriates adjust to life and

  6. Adjustment of business expatriates in Greater China: a strategic perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Selmer

    2008-01-01

    Research has found that due to similarities, firms that have gained business experience elsewhere in Greater China may exhibit relatively better performance in mainland China. Hence, the experience of business expatriates could be of strategic importance for the expansion path of their firms. Based on data collected by a survey, this study compares how business expatriates adjust to life and

  7. The health of manufacturing in the UK is assuming greater

    E-print Network

    Mottram, Nigel

    Issue 04 AUG 2011 The health of manufacturing in the UK is assuming greater political importance of manufacturing which econo- mists use, especially when making international com- parisons, does not however% of exports. Internationally, the market for manufactured goods has grown at a consistent 3% p.a. over

  8. Tackling social exclusion through community transport in Greater Easterhouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Derek Halden; Paul Davison; John Farrington; Martha Wardrop

    2003-01-01

    The Greater Easterhouse area of Glasgow is one of the most deprived areas of Europe. Action programs are tackling this deprivation with investment to improve housing, employment prospects, health, and education. Within many of these programs transport is a key theme and this paper describes how community transport is being developed and co-ordinated with public transport to support the transport

  9. THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM VERSION 2.0 VOLUME III: USER'S MANUAL Eric Directory Structure 19 4.1 gtamain.out Flowchart 23 LIST OF TABLES Page 2.1 Version 2.0 Databank Dimensions 13 2.5 Matrices Using "Extended" Portions of Their Array Space 14 2.6 Summary of GTAModel Zone System

  10. West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse

    E-print Network

    Naugle, Dave

    -grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species that has declined 45­80% and is endangered in Canada and under current scrambling to address surface water and vector control issues in western North America. Keywords Centrocercus urophasianus, emerging infectious disease, endangered species, greater sage- grouse, mosquito, population

  11. WEST NILE VIRUS: PENDING CRISIS FOR GREATER SAGE-GROUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a ...

  12. Governing Greater Boston: Meeting the Needs of the Region's People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euchner, Charles C., Ed.

    This paper asserts that if a single theme prevails in the story of Greater Boston's new immigration, it is diversity. No single group dominates in metro Boston. Diversity in country of origin is compounded by differences in ethnicity, socioeconomic background, legal status, and language. Issues of particular salience to immigrant communities…

  13. The Greater Yellowstone policy debate: What is the policy problem?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven A. Primm; Tim W. Clark

    1996-01-01

    Yellowstone National Park and the surrounding mountainous region comprise the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), a 19 million acre area that is one of the few relatively intact ecosystems in the lower 48 states. Conservationists believe that continuation of present land management practices in the region will disrupt the ecological integrity of the GYE. Many authors have identified and described these

  14. Return transmission among stock markets of Greater China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Chan; Harry W. C. Lo; S. H. Cheung

    1999-01-01

    In this article we study the return transmission among stock markets in Greater China – Mainland China (Shanghai, Shenzhen), Hong Kong and Taiwan – a region which has been enjoying tremendous growth and expansion in the economies and capital markets in the last decade. Using a multiple time series approach we identify explicitly the lead–lag interaction among these markets. The

  15. JWH-018 impairs sensorimotor functions in mice.

    PubMed

    Ossato, A; Vigolo, A; Trapella, C; Seri, C; Rimondo, C; Serpelloni, G; Marti, M

    2015-08-01

    Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-018) is a synthetic cannabinoid agonist illegally marketed in "Spice" and "herbal blend" for its psychoactive effect greater than those produced by cannabis. In rodents JWH-018 reproduces typical effects of (-)-?(9)-THC or Dronabinol® (?(9)-THC) such as hypothermia, analgesia, hypolocomotion and akinesia, while its effects on sensorimotor functions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of acute administration of JWH-018 (0.01-6mg/kg i.p.) on sensorimotor functions in male CD-1 mice and to compare its effects with those caused by the administration of ?(9)-THC (0.01-6mg/kg i.p.). A specific battery of behavioral tests were adopted to investigate effects of cannabinoid agonists on sensorimotor functions (visual, auditory, tactile) and neurological changes (convulsion, myoclonia, hyperreflexia) while video-tracking analysis was used to study spontaneous locomotion. JWH-018 administration inhibited sensorimotor responses at lower doses (0.01-0.1mg/kg), reduced spontaneous locomotion at intermediate/high doses (1-6mg/kg) and induced convulsions, myoclonia and hyperreflexia at high doses (6mg/kg). Similarly, administration of ?(9)-THC reduced sensorimotor responses in mice but it did not inhibit spontaneous locomotion and it did not induce neurological alterations. All behavioral effects and neurological alterations were prevented by the administration of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM 251). For the first time these data demonstrate that JWH-018 impairs sensorimotor responses in mice. This aspect should be carefully evaluated to better understand the potential danger that JWH-018 may pose to public health, with particular reference to decreased performance in driving and hazardous works. PMID:25987201

  16. A Depressive Endophenotype of Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Leigh A.; Hall, James R.; O’Bryant, Sid E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating public health problem that affects over 5.4 million Americans. Depression increases the risk of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and AD. By understanding the influence of depression on cognition, the potential exists to identify subgroups of depressed elders at greater risk for cognitive decline and AD. The current study sought to: 1) clinically identify a sub group of geriatric patients who suffer from depression related cognitive impairment; 2) cross validate this depressive endophenotype of MCI/AD in an independent cohort. Methods and Findings Data was analyzed from 519 participants of Project FRONTIER. Depression was assessed with the GDS30 and cognition was assessed using the EXIT 25 and RBANS. Five GDS items were used to create the Depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD (DepE). DepE was significantly negatively related to RBANS index scores of Immediate Memory (B=-2.22, SE=.37, p<0.001), visuospatial skills (B=-1.11, SE=0.26, p<0.001), Language (B=-1.03, SE=0.21, p<0.001), Attention (B=-2.56, SE=0.49, p<0.001), and Delayed Memory (B=-1.54, SE = 037, p<0.001), and higher DepE scores were related to poorer executive functioning (EXIT25; B=0.65, SE=0.19, p=0.001). DepE scores significantly increased risk for MCI diagnosis (odds ratio [OR] = 2.04; 95% CI=1.54-2.69). Data from 235 participants in the TARCC (Texas Alzheimer’s Research & Care Consortium) were analyzed for cross-validation of findings in an independent cohort. The DepE was significantly related to poorer scores on all measures, and a significantly predicted of cognitive change over 12- and 24-months. Conclusion The current findings suggest that a depressive endophenotype of MCI and AD exists and can be clinically identified using the GDS-30. Higher scores increased risk for MCI and was cross-validated by predicting AD in the TARCC. A key purpose for the search for distinct subgroups of individuals at risk for AD and MCI is to identify novel treatment and preventative opportunities. PMID:23874786

  17. A simulation of hand impairments: Effects on upper extremity function and implications toward medical impairment rating and disability determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Rondinelli; Winnie Dunn; Khatahb M. Hassanein; Christine A. Keesling; Sharon C. Meredith; Trina L. Schulz; Nancy J. Lawrence

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether simulation of significant impairment of the hand will have a predictable impact on degree of functional loss at the wrist and hand.Design: Single subject repeat measures using before-after trial comparisons and healthy volunteer subjects.Setting: Occupational therapy section of a large academic medical center.Other Participants: Twenty adult volunteer student subjects from an occupational therapy education (OTE) department

  18. Correlates of impaired mother-infant bonding in a partial hospital program for perinatal women.

    PubMed

    Sockol, Laura E; Battle, Cynthia L; Howard, Margaret; Davis, Thamara

    2014-10-01

    Maternal psychopathology is a risk factor for impaired mother-infant bonding, but not all women with this illness experience impaired bonding. This study investigated correlates of mother-infant bonding among 180 postpartum women treated in a psychiatric partial hospitalization program. Women completed self-report measures of depressive symptoms and mother-infant bonding, and a retrospective chart review assessed demographic characteristics, clinician-rated diagnoses, and obstetric factors. Symptoms of depression, self-reported suicidality, demographic characteristics, and mode of delivery were significantly associated with impaired bonding. PMID:24643421

  19. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint. PMID:20221997

  20. [Tinnitus in noise-induced hearing impairment].

    PubMed

    Kowalska, S; Su?kowski, W

    2001-01-01

    The analysis of the epidemiological data indicates that exposure to noise is widespread and it is one of the most common causes of tinnitus, estimated at about 20.7% according to Hazell; 28% according to Axelsson; and 42% according to Palmer. Bearing in mind the scantiness of reliable data on the incidence and nature of tinnitus in persons exposed to industrial noise, and especially the need for the objectivity of this subjective symptom, the authors have decided to undertake the study aimed at assessing the interrelation between tinnitus, the magnitude and kind of hearing impairment, and otoacoustic emission. The study group included 191 persons aged 42.5 +/- 7.6 years (range, 25 to 65), occupationally exposed to noise at the levels of 88-92 dB(A) for 26.9 +/- 4.6 years (range, 9 to 30) who had reported hearing disorders and tinnitus. The control group, matched by similar age and duration of employment, consisted of 80 persons with perceptive hearing impairment induced by industrial noise who had not complained of tinnitus. The results of the study revealed that in 59.7% of the study subjects, noise proved to be one of the most probable factors responsible for the development of tinnitus. The presence of tinnitus was found in 22.5% and in 46% of the study subjects after 10 years and 11-20 years of noise exposure, respectively. In 95.8% of workers, tinnitus was associated with hearing loss, and only in 4.2% of cases it occurred in ears with normal hearing. In persons exposed to noise, tinnitus was most frequently (59.2%) bilateral and permanent. Following the audiologic examinations, verified by objective audiometry (tympanometry, ABR), cochlear hearing impairment was found in 68.6%; retrochochlear in 8.37%; mixed and other forms of impairment, e.g. presbyacousis, in 19.4% of subjects. The audiologic assessment of tinnitus demonstrated that in 62.3% of persons, tinnitus occurred at high frequencies and correlated with the magnitude of hearing impairment in the tonal audiogram. The tinnitus intensity ranged between 10-15 dB and 45 dB. In 40.3% of those under study, noise was not the only tinnitus-risk factor. In this group of persons, the presence of predisposing diseases was also observed, e.g. hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis, disturbed lipid metabolism and other etiologic factors that might have impact on the tinnitus incidence, ototoxic drugs, for example. The measurements of evoked otoacoustic emission (EOAE and DPOAE) revealed in 58.63% of persons significant differences (p < 0.01) in the amplitude and spectrum of EOAE in the ears with tinnitus as compared to the ears without tinnitus with a similar hearing threshold. Whereas in 27.74% of subjects, no differences in the EOAE measurements in the ears with or without tinnitus were observed. The results of DPOAE measurements showed in 62% of subjects significant differences in DP-grams in the ears with tinnitus as compared to the ears without tinnitus (p < 0.01). Interestingly, the differences in measurements of both types of evoked emissions (EOAE and DPOAE), expressed by the lowered amplitude, narrowed spectrum, reduction of emission or its complete fading in a limited area of high frequencies, were demonstrated in the ears with tinnitus only in retrocochlear hearing impairment, as compared to those free from tinnitus. The evaluation of the EOAE and DPOAE measurements seems to prove that this method may be useful in assessing the contribution of the cochlear mechanisms to the incidence of tinnitus and in distinguishing between tinnitus generated in cochlea and tinnitus with the source at other levels of the hearing organ or beyond it. Our study failed to determine the interrelation between tinnitus and spontaneous emissions as the emission was registered only in about 12% of persons exposed to noise, including 2% of those with normal hearing. PMID:11828843

  1. Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson Patients

    E-print Network

    Gluck, Mark

    Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson. Gluck, PhDw Abstract: In a study of acquired equivalence in Parkinson disease (PD), in which patients that anticholinergic drugs may particularly impair cognitive abilities that depend on the MT lobe. Key Words: Parkinson

  2. The spatiotemporal distributions and determinants of ambient fungal spores in the Greater Taipei area.

    PubMed

    Kallawicha, Kraiwuth; Tsai, Ying-Jie; Chuang, Ying-Chih; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Wu, Chih-Da; Chen, Tsun-Hsuan; Chen, Pang-Cheng; Chompuchan, Chuphan; Chao, Hsing Jasmine

    2015-09-01

    Airborne fungal spores, a type of bioaerosols, are significant air pollutants. We conducted a study to determine the spatiotemporal distributions of ambient fungi in the Greater Taipei area and develop land use regression (LUR) models for total and major fungal taxa. Four seasonal sampling campaigns were conducted over a year at 44 representative sites. Multiple regressions were performed to construct the LUR models. Ascospores were the most prevalent category, followed by Aspergillus/Penicillium, basidiospores, and Cladosporium. The highest fungal concentrations were found in spring. According to the LUR models, higher concentrations of Aspergillus/Penicillium and basidiospores were respectively present in residential/commercial areas and in areas with shorter road lengths. Various meteorological factors, particulates with aerodynamic diameters of ?10 ?m, and elevation also had significant relationships with fungal concentrations. The LUR models developed in this study can be used to assess spatiotemporal fungal distribution in the Greater Taipei area. PMID:25969377

  3. Stereotype threat can enhance, as well as impair, older adults’ memory

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Sarah J.; Mather, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Negative stereotypes about aging can impair older adults’ memory; however, the mechanisms underlying this are unclear. In two experiments we tested competing predictions derived from two theoretical accounts: executive control interference and regulatory fit. Older adults completed a working memory test either under stereotype threat about their memory or not. Monetary incentives were manipulated such that recall either led to gains or forgetting led to losses. The executive control interference account predicts that threat decreases the availability of executive control resources and hence should impair working memory performance. The regulatory fit account predicts that threat induces a prevention focus. Because of this threat should impair performance when gains are emphasized but improve performance when losses are emphasized. Results were only consistent with the regulatory fit account. Although stereotype threat significantly impaired older adults’ working memory performance when remembering led to gains, it significantly improved performance when forgetting led to losses. PMID:24150969

  4. Working Memory and Specific Language Impairment: An Update on the Relation and Perspectives on Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, James W.; Magimairaj, Beula M.; Finney, Mianisha C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Children with specific language impairment (SLI) demonstrate significant language impairments despite normal-range hearing and nonverbal IQ. Many of these children also show marked deficits in working memory (WM) abilities. However, the theoretical and clinical characterization of the association between WM and language limitations in SLI…

  5. Different Origin of Auditory and Phonological Processing Problems in Children with Language Impairment: Evidence from a Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, D. V. M.; Bishop, Sonia J.; Bright, Peter; James, Cheryl; Delaney, Tom; Tallal, Paula

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 55 children with a language impairment and 76 with normal language investigated the heritability of auditory processing impairment in same-sex twins (ages 7 to 13, selected from a sample of 37 pairs). Although correlations between co-twins were high, lack of significant difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggested…

  6. [Genetics of specific language impairments].

    PubMed

    Bonneau, D; Verny, C; Uzé, J

    2004-10-01

    Specific language impairment (SLI), involving environmental as well as genetic factors, is a complex disorder affecting 5-10% of preschool-age children. This review summarizes current data regarding the genetic factors involved in SLI. Genetic factors were first implicated in SLI on the basis of twin studies and reports of familial cases. Furthermore, several studies have shown that the relative risk of SLI was higher for close relatives of affected individuals. Finally, a specific gene (FOXP2) has been identified on the long arm of chromosome 7 in a family affected with SLI, and several regions of the genome, i.e. 7q31, 16q and 19q, have been found to be strongly linked to SLI. PMID:15475279

  7. Invisible collinear structures impair search.

    PubMed

    Chow, Hiu Mei; Tseng, Chia-huei

    2015-01-01

    Visual attention and perceptual grouping both help us from being overloaded by the vast amount of information, and attentional search is delayed when a target overlaps with a snake-like collinear distractor (Jingling & Tseng, 2013). We assessed whether awareness of the collinear distractor is required for this modulation. We first identified that visible long (=9 elements), but not short (=3 elements) collinear distractor slowed observers' detection of an overlapping target. Then we masked part of a long distractor (=9 elements) with continuous flashing color patches (=6 elements) so that the combined dichoptic percept to observers' awareness was a short collinear distractor (=3 elements). We found that the invisible collinear parts, like visible ones, can form a continuous contour to impair search, suggesting that conscious awareness is not a pre-requisite for contour integration and its interaction with selective attention. PMID:25460240

  8. Pain assessment in cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Peter; Cunningham, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Pain may adversely affect cognition through its effects on mood and sleep, and chronic pain has been associated with brain atrophy. Studies suggest that chronic pain is undertreated in cognitively impaired people. Pain assessment should involve direct enquiry with the patient; where this is not possible, a proxy history from a caregiver or nurse should be obtained, and observational scales may also be useful. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 1, Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the Web site: http://www.paineurope.com, at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication. PMID:25166774

  9. Myc inhibition impairs autophagosome formation

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Pearl P. C.; Luo, Shouqing; Menzies, Fiona M.; Raskó, Tamás; Wanker, Erich E.; Rubinsztein, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, a major clearance route for many long-lived proteins and organelles, has long been implicated in cancer development. Myc is a proto-oncogene often found to be deregulated in many cancers, and thus is an attractive target for design of cancer therapy. Therefore, understanding the relationship between anti-Myc strategies and autophagy will be important for development of effective therapy. Here, we show that Myc depletion inhibits autophagosome formation and impairs clearance of autophagy substrates. Myc suppression has an inhibitory effect on autophagy via reduction of c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1) and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2) phosphorylation. Additionally, the decrease in JNK1 phosphorylation observed with Myc knockdown is associated with a reduction in ROS production. Our data suggest that targeting Myc in cancer therapy might have the additional benefit of inhibiting autophagy in the case of therapy resistance associated with chemotherapy-induced autophagy. PMID:23933736

  10. Gold deposits and occurrences of the Greater Caucasus, Georgia Republic: Their genesis and prospecting criteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergo A. Kekelia; Maren A. Kekelia; Simon I. Kuloshvili; Nino G. Sadradze; Nona E. Gagnidze; Vladimir Z. Yaroshevich; George G. Asatiani; Jeff L. Doebrich; Richard J. Goldfarb; Erin E. Marsh

    2008-01-01

    The south-central part of the Greater Caucasus region, Georgia Republic, represents an extremely prospective region for significant orogenic gold deposits. Gold-bearing quartz veins are concentrated in two extensive WNW-trending belts, the Mestia-Racha and Svaneti districts, within the northern margin of the Southern Slope Zone of the Great Caucasus orogen. This metalliferous region is dominated by Early to Middle Jurassic slates,

  11. Ego depletion impairs implicit learning.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Kelsey R; Sanchez, Daniel J; Wesley, Abigail H; Reber, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

  12. Visual impairment, visual functioning, and quality of life assessments in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine the relation between visual impairment, visual functioning, and the global quality of life in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Visual impairment, defined with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment; visual functioning, measured with the VF-14 and the Field Test Version of the National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); and the global quality of life, assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), were determined in 147 consecutive patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: None of the SF-36 domains demonstrated more than a weak correlation with visual impairment. The VF-14 scores were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual field impairment; vision specific social functioning, near activities, vision specific role difficulties, general vision, vision specific mental health, color vision, and driving were modestly correlated; visual pain was weakly correlated; and two were not significantly correlated. Correcting for visual actuity weakened the strength of the correlation coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36 is unlikely to be useful in determining visual impairment in patients with glaucoma. Based on the moderate correlation between visual field impairment and the VF-14 score, this questionnaire may be generalizable to patients with glaucoma. Several of the NEI-VFQ scales correlate with visual field impairment scores in patients with a wide range of glaucomatous damage. PMID:8981717

  13. Cognitive impairments associated with breast cancer treatments: results from a longitudinal study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Catherine Quesnel; Josée Savard; Hans Ivers

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Published cross-sectional studies have revealed that chemotherapy for breast cancer is associated with significant cognitive\\u000a impairments. However, because these studies included no baseline assessment, it is unknown whether the cognitive impairments\\u000a were pre-existent to cancer treatment or truly secondary to chemotherapy. To resolve this issue, this prospective study aimed\\u000a to compare the effects of chemotherapy to the effect of

  14. Greater collagen-induced platelet aggregation following cyclooxygenase 1 inhibition predicts incident acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Rehan; Becker, Diane M; Yanek, Lisa R; Faraday, Nauder; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Mathias, Rasika; Kral, Brian G; Becker, Lewis C

    2015-02-01

    Greater ex vivo platelet aggregation to agonists may identify individuals at risk of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, increased aggregation to a specific agonist may be masked by inherent variability in other activation pathways. In this study, we inhibited the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) pathway with 2-week aspirin therapy and measured residual aggregation to collagen and ADP to determine whether increased aggregation in a non-COX1 pathway is associated with incident ACS. We assessed ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation in 1,699 healthy individuals with a family history of early-onset coronary artery disease followed for 6±1.2 years. Incident ACS events were observed in 22 subjects. Baseline aggregation was not associated with ACS. After COX1 pathway inhibition, collagen-induced aggregation was significantly greater in participants with ACS compared with those without (29.0 vs. 23.6 ohms, p < 0.001). In Cox proportional hazards models, this association remained significant after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (HR = 1.10, 95%CI = 1.06-1.15; p < 0.001). In contrast, ADP-induced aggregation after COX1 inhibition was not associated with ACS. After COX1 pathway inhibition, subjects with greater collagen-induced platelet aggregation demonstrated a significant excess risk of incident ACS. These data suggest that platelet activation related to collagen may play an important role in the risk of ACS. PMID:25066685

  15. PERCENT OF IMPAIRED WATERS - 1998 IWI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Importance of Clean Water Act Section 303(d) Listing Information Section 303(d) waters show water quality standards impairments or threats to the attainment of beneficial uses or anti-degradation provisions. This map is a representation of threatened and impaired streams, rivers,...

  16. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  17. Hearing-Impaired Formal Inservice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Media Center for the Deaf, Amherst, MA.

    The HI-FI (Hearing-Impaired Formal Inservice) Program is described as a set of inservice materials targeted for workshops of regular classroom teachers and other school personnel concerned with school district and classroom management of hearing impaired (HI) children. An introductory section focuses on the design of the program materials,…

  18. Counseling the Chronically Health Impaired Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brian, Comp.; And Others

    The role of counselors in working with chronically health impaired students is examined, and illustrations of the Chronic Health Impaired/Sickle Cell Anemia Program in Baltimore (MD) are presented. The importance of setting goals with the student is underlined, as is the necessity for counselors to have proper flexibility and time to devote to…

  19. Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Ferrell; Betty R. Ferrell; Lynne Rivera

    1995-01-01

    Pain is an understudied problem in frail elderly patients, especially those with cognitive impairment, delirium, or dementia. The focus of this study was to describe the pain experienced by patients in skilled nursing homes, which have a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. A random sample of 325 subjects was selected from ten community skilled nursing homes. Subjects underwent a cross-sectional

  20. Meniscal root tears: significance, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    Meniscal root tears, less common than meniscal body tears and frequently unrecognized, are a subset of meniscal injuries that often result in significant knee joint disorders. The meniscus root attachment aids meniscal function by securing the meniscus in place and allowing for optimal shock-absorbing function in the knee. With root tears, meniscal extrusion often occurs, and the transmission of circumferential hoop stresses is impaired. This alters knee biomechanics and kinematics and significantly increases tibiofemoral contact pressure. In recent years, meniscal root tears, which by definition include direct avulsions off the tibial plateau or radial tears adjacent to the root itself, have attracted attention because of concerns that significant meniscal extrusion dramatically inhibits normal meniscal function, leading to a condition biomechanically similar to a total meniscectomy. Recent literature has highlighted the importance of early diagnosis and treatment; fortunately, these processes have been vastly improved by advances in magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy. This article presents a review of the clinically relevant anatomic, biomechanical, and functional descriptions of the meniscus root attachments, as well as current strategies for accurate diagnosis and treatment of common injuries to these meniscus root attachments. PMID:24623276

  1. Composite Materials with Viscoelastic Stiffness Greater Than Diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaglinski, T.; Kochmann, D.; Stone, D.; Lakes, R. S.

    2007-02-01

    We show that composite materials can exhibit a viscoelastic modulus (Young's modulus) that is far greater than that of either constituent. The modulus, but not the strength, of the composite was observed to be substantially greater than that of diamond. These composites contain barium-titanate inclusions, which undergo a volume-change phase transformation if they are not constrained. In the composite, the inclusions are partially constrained by the surrounding metal matrix. The constraint stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus arises from stored elastic energy in the inclusions, in contrast to periodic composite metamaterials that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive-stiffness constituents have aggregate properties bounded by a weighted average of constituent properties; their modulus cannot exceed that of the stiffest constituent.

  2. Composite materials with viscoelastic stiffness greater than diamond.

    PubMed

    Jaglinski, T; Kochmann, D; Stone, D; Lakes, R S

    2007-02-01

    We show that composite materials can exhibit a viscoelastic modulus (Young's modulus) that is far greater than that of either constituent. The modulus, but not the strength, of the composite was observed to be substantially greater than that of diamond. These composites contain bariumtitanate inclusions, which undergo a volume-change phase transformation if they are not constrained. In the composite, the inclusions are partially constrained by the surrounding metal matrix. The constraint stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus arises from stored elastic energy in the inclusions, in contrast to periodic composite metamaterials that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive-stiffness constituents have aggregate properties bounded by a weighted average of constituent properties; their modulus cannot exceed that of the stiffest constituent. PMID:17272714

  3. West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Naugle; Cameron L. Aldridge; Brett L. Walker; Todd E. Cornish; Brendan J. Moynahan; Matt J. Holloran; Kimberly Brown; Gregory D. Johnson; Edward T. Schmidtmann; Richard T. Mayer; Cecilia Y. Kato; Marc R. Matchett; Thomas J. Christiansen; Walter E. Cook; Terry Creekmore; Roxanne D. Falise; E. Thomas Rinkes; Mark S. Boyce

    2004-01-01

    Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species that has declined 45-80% and is endangered in Canada and under current consideration for federal listing in the US.

  4. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  5. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  6. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin E. Doherty; David E. Naugle; Brett L. Walker; Jon M. Graham

    2008-01-01

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the

  7. An observation of Clostridium perfringens in Greater Sage-Grouse.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Christian A; Bildfell, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Mortality due to infectious diseases is seldom reported in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). A case of necrotic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A is described in a free-ranging adult male sage-grouse in eastern Oregon. Clostridial enteritis is known to cause outbreaks of mortality in various domestic and wild birds, and should be considered as a potential cause of mortality in sage-grouse populations. PMID:17699098

  8. Urbanization and green space dynamics in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Talukder Byomkesh; Nobukazu Nakagoshi; Ashraf M. Dewan

    Green space is particularly indispensable for proper functioning of the ecosystem in an urban environment. This study was\\u000a an attempt to dynamically map and monitor green spaces in Greater Dhaka of Bangladesh. Both primary and secondary data were\\u000a acquired to document the spatial–temporal dynamics of green spaces in the study area. Using a supervised classification algorithm,\\u000a multi-temporal land use\\/cover data

  9. The adequacy of the minimum data set assessment of pain in cognitively impaired nursing home residents.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska

    2004-04-01

    This paper examines the validity of the Minimum Data Set (MDS), a comprehensive functional assessment used in most United States nursing homes, for recognizing pain in cognitively impaired nursing home residents. Eighty nursing home residents participated in the study. They were initially divided into four groups, along two dimensions: severe vs. mild/moderate cognitive impairment, and pain-medicated vs. non-medicated for pain. Three indicators of pain were derived from the MDS: pain frequency, pain intensity, and number of sites with pain. Geriatricians from outside the nursing home assessed the medical condition of the residents and their associated pain levels. Residents were asked to report on their level of pain. The three MDS indicators were highly intercorrelated. According to these indicators, 34-39% of the residents suffered from pain. Some correlations between self-report of pain and MDS ratings were significant among those with mild/moderate impairment, but not for those with severe impairment. Similarly, some correlations between MDS ratings and the geriatricians' ratings were significant for those with mild/moderate impairment but not for those with severe impairment. Persons with mild/moderate cognitive impairment were rated by the MDS as having more pain than those with severe impairment. The findings reveal that the MDS underreports pain in cognitively impaired residents. Given the centrality of the MDS in the U.S. as a tool for clinical decision-making in long-term care, there seems to be an urgent need to improve either the MDS pain assessment tools or the procedures used for completing them. PMID:15050662

  10. Cognitive impairment in multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Iva; Krismer, Florian; Jesic, Aleksandar; Antonini, Angelo; Benke, Thomas; Brown, Richard G.; Burn, David J.; Holton, Janice L.; Kaufmann, Horacio; Kostic, Vladimir S.; Ling, Helen; Meissner, Wassilios G.; Poewe, Werner; Semnic, Marija; Seppi, Klaus; Takeda, Atsushi; Weintraub, Daniel; Wenning, Gregor K.

    2014-01-01

    Consensus diagnostic criteria for multiple system atrophy consider dementia as a non-supporting feature, despite emerging evidence demonstrating that cognitive impairments are an integral part of the disease. Cognitive disturbances in multiple system atrophy occur across a wide spectrum from mild single domain deficits to impairments in multiple domains and even to frank dementia in some cases. Frontal-executive dysfunction is the most common presentation, while memory and visuospatial functions may also be impaired. Imaging and neuropathological findings support the concept that cognitive impairments in MSA originate from striatofrontal deafferentation with additional contributions from intrinsic cortical degeneration and cerebellar pathology. Based on a comprehensive evidence-based review we here propose future avenues of research that may ultimately lead to diagnostic criteria for cognitive impairment and dementia associated with multiple system atrophy. PMID:24753321

  11. Perceived emotional intelligence is impaired and associated with poor community functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Green, Michael F; Wynn, Jonathan K; Proudfit, Greg H; Altshuler, Lori; Horan, William P

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been associated with shared and distinct emotion processing abnormalities. Initial findings indicate that these disorders differ with respect to the domain of emotional intelligence (EI). Individuals with schizophrenia display deficits on performance measures of EI, whereas those with bipolar disorder do not. However, no research has examined patients' subjective beliefs about their own EI (referred to as "perceived EI"). This study examined perceived EI, assessed with the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), and its clinical and functional correlates in outpatients with schizophrenia (n=35) or bipolar disorder I (n=38) and matched healthy controls (n=35). The TMMS includes three subscales that assess beliefs about one's ability to attend to (Attention to Feelings), understand (Clarity of Feelings), and repair emotions (Mood Repair). Participants in the clinical groups also completed community functioning and symptom assessments. Both clinical groups reported significantly lower perceived EI than controls, but did not differ from each other. Higher total TMMS correlated with higher levels of independent living in the schizophrenia group (r=.36) and better social functioning in the bipolar group (r=.61). In addition, although higher Attention to Feelings scores correlated with greater psychiatric symptoms in the schizophrenia group, higher scores across all subscales correlated with less manic symptoms in the bipolar group. The findings suggest that perceived EI is impaired and related to community functioning in both disorders. PMID:25579055

  12. Cognitive impairment in generalized anxiety disorder revealed by event-related potential N270

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yingxue; Zhang, Xiating; Zhu, Yu; Dai, Yakang; Liu, Ting; Wang, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    Background Cognitive function in anxiety disorders has been the subject of limited investigation, especially in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the cognitive function in subjects with GAD using mismatch-triggered negativity N270. Methods Fifteen medication-free patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD, and 15 well-matched healthy controls performed a dual-feature delayed matching task while event-related potentials were recorded from their scalp. Results The GAD group was characterized by the decreased N270 amplitude in the left hemisphere. The smaller N270 amplitude was associated with greater symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusion Since N270 is thought to index cognitive function in different domains, including attention and memory, our results suggest that individuals with GAD have an impaired cognitive function, particularly in selective attention and working memory. These cognitive deficits may have clinical significance in subjects with GAD and should be considered in treatment planning.

  13. Impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation by adrenomedullin in monocrotaline-treated rat arteries.

    PubMed

    Gout, B; Quiniou, M J; Khandoudi, N; Le Dantec, C; Saïag, B

    1999-09-01

    The effects of adrenomedullin were evaluated in isolated vascular rings from rats treated with monocrotaline (60 mg/kg, s.c.) causing pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy within 3 to 4 weeks. Sham animals (NaCl-treated rats) were used for comparison. The relaxing effects of adrenomedullin (10(-8) M) and acetylcholine (10(-6) M) were determined in thoracic aorta and pulmonary artery rings precontracted with phenylephrine (10(-7) M). In sham animals, adrenomedullin caused significant vasorelaxation of aorta and pulmonary artery although of different amplitude (24 +/- 3% and 40 +/- 2%, respectively). A greater relaxation was observed in response to acetylcholine. Monocrotaline-treated rats exhibited a reduction in adrenomedullin relaxation in pulmonary artery (54 and 68% loss of effect, at 3 and 4 weeks, respectively, P < 0.01 vs. sham) and comparable reductions in acetylcholine responses. The decrease in adrenomedullin relaxing effect was less pronounced in aorta than in pulmonary artery, suggesting a distinct tissue sensitivity to monocrotaline. In contrast, the relaxing effect of acetylcholine on aorta was decreased at 4 weeks (36% reduction, P < 0.01 vs. sham). In this model, the adrenomedullin-induced relaxation of the pulmonary artery was impaired due to a severe endothelial dysfunction which may contribute partly to the evolving pathophysiological process. PMID:10513556

  14. Endocrine disruption and reproduction impairment in zebrafish after long-term exposure to DE-71.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liqin; Liu, Chunsheng; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on fish reproduction over 2 generations. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (F0) were exposed to low concentrations (3?µg/L, 10?µg/L, and 30?µg/L) of the PBDE mixture DE-71 until they were sexually mature, and steroid hormone production, expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, gonadal development, and gamete characteristics were examined. Exposure of female zebrafish to DE-71 resulted in lower estradiol production and downregulation of cytochrome P450 aromatase mRNA. In males, exposure to DE-71 resulted in greater testosterone production and greater cytochrome P450 c17 ?-hydroxylase,17,20-lase mRNA expression. Moreover, hepatic vitellogenin mRNA and estrogenic receptor ? gene transcription were downregulated in females and males. Expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone ? gene in the pituitary was upregulated, and the expression of luteinizing hormone ? was downregulated in both sexes. Histological examination showed inhibition of oocyte maturation in females and retarded spermiation in males. The average number of eggs (F1) produced was also reduced. Additionally, exposure of F0 embryos to DE-71 did not result in developmental toxicity, whereas delayed hatching, reduced survival, and decreased growth were observed in the F1 embryos derived from parent fish exposed to DE-71. Therefore, long-term exposure to low concentrations of PBDEs in zebrafish could cause reproductive impairment, suggesting that PBDEs might have significant adverse effects on fish population in the highly PBDEs-contaminated aquatic environment. PMID:24596126

  15. A decade of extraordinary progress: biosciences in the Greater Kansas City region.

    PubMed

    Getman, Daniel P

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Kansas City region has made significant progress as a national center for animal health and the biosciences. Each of our stakeholder institutions have continued to make significant advances in key programs, which collectively have elevated the region's bioscience effort, with total R&D expenditures approaching $500M. In considering the future, through collaborative efforts the region will continue to advance and build upon the major successes, while seeking additional opportunities to leverage regional and institutional strengths. Further progress will be reported at the KCALSI website. PMID:21736070

  16. Ovariectomy ameliorates dextromethorphan - induced memory impairment in young female rats

    PubMed Central

    Jahng, Jeong Won; Cho, Hee Jeong; Kim, Jae Goo; Kim, Nam Youl; Lee, Seoul; Lee, Yil Seob

    2006-01-01

    We have previously found that dextromethorphan (DM), over-the-counter cough suppressant, impairs memory retention in water maze task, when it is repeatedly administrated to adolescent female rats at high doses. In this study we examined first if ovariectomy ameliorates the DM-induced memory impairment in female rats, and then whether or not the DM effect is revived by estrogen replacement in ovariectomized female rats. Female rat pups received bilateral ovariectomy or sham operation on postnatal day (PND) 21, and then intraperitoneal DM (40 mg/kg) daily during PND 28–37. Rats were subjected to the Morris water maze task from PND 38, approximately 24 h after the last DM injection. In probe trial, goal quadrant dwell time was significantly reduced by DM in the sham operated group, however, the reduction by DM did not occur in the ovariectomy group. When 17?-estradiol was supplied to ovariectomized females during DM treatment, the goal quadrant dwell time was significantly decreased, compared to the vehicle control group. Furthermore, a major effect of estrogen replacement was found in the escape latency during the last 3 days of initial learning trials. These results suggest that ovariectomy may ameliorate the adverse effect of DM treatment on memory retention in young female rats, and that estrogen replacement may revive it, i.e. estrogen may take a major role in DM-induced memory impairment in female rats. PMID:16563229

  17. Working memory and reward association learning impairments in obesity.

    PubMed

    Coppin, Géraldine; Nolan-Poupart, Sarah; Jones-Gotman, Marilyn; Small, Dana M

    2014-12-01

    Obesity has been associated with impaired executive functions including working memory. Less explored is the influence of obesity on learning and memory. In the current study we assessed stimulus reward association learning, explicit learning and memory and working memory in healthy weight, overweight and obese individuals. Explicit learning and memory did not differ as a function of group. In contrast, working memory was significantly and similarly impaired in both overweight and obese individuals compared to the healthy weight group. In the first reward association learning task the obese, but not healthy weight or overweight participants consistently formed paradoxical preferences for a pattern associated with a negative outcome (fewer food rewards). To determine if the deficit was specific to food reward a second experiment was conducted using money. Consistent with Experiment 1, obese individuals selected the pattern associated with a negative outcome (fewer monetary rewards) more frequently than healthy weight individuals and thus failed to develop a significant preference for the most rewarded patterns as was observed in the healthy weight group. Finally, on a probabilistic learning task, obese compared to healthy weight individuals showed deficits in negative, but not positive outcome learning. Taken together, our results demonstrate deficits in working memory and stimulus reward learning in obesity and suggest that obese individuals are impaired in learning to avoid negative outcomes. PMID:25447070

  18. Automatic morphometry in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment???

    PubMed Central

    Heckemann, Rolf A.; Keihaninejad, Shiva; Aljabar, Paul; Gray, Katherine R.; Nielsen, Casper; Rueckert, Daniel; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Hammers, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, publicly available repository of anatomically segmented brain images of healthy subjects as well as patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The underlying magnetic resonance images have been obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database. T1-weighted screening and baseline images (1.5 T and 3 T) have been processed with the multi-atlas based MAPER procedure, resulting in labels for 83 regions covering the whole brain in 816 subjects. Selected segmentations were subjected to visual assessment. The segmentations are self-consistent, as evidenced by strong agreement between segmentations of paired images acquired at different field strengths (Jaccard coefficient: 0.802 ± 0.0146). Morphometric comparisons between diagnostic groups (normal; stable mild cognitive impairment; mild cognitive impairment with progression to Alzheimer's disease; Alzheimer's disease) showed highly significant group differences for individual regions, the majority of which were located in the temporal lobe. Additionally, significant effects were seen in the parietal lobe. Increased left/right asymmetry was found in posterior cortical regions. An automatically derived white-matter hypointensities index was found to be a suitable means of quantifying white-matter disease. This repository of segmentations is a potentially valuable resource to researchers working with ADNI data. PMID:21397703

  19. Impaired metacognitive capacities in individuals with problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Bechara, Antoine; Greisen, Max; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Impaired insight into behavior may be one of the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling. In the present study, we tested whether the capacity to evaluate accurately the quality of one's own decisions during a non-gambling task was impaired in problem gamblers. Twenty-five problem gamblers and 25 matched healthy participants performed an artificial grammar-learning paradigm, in which the quality of choice remains uncertain throughout the task. After each trial of this task, participants had to indicate how confident they were in the grammaticality judgements using a scale ranging from 1 (low confidence) to 7 (high confidence). Results showed that (i), problem gamblers' performance on the grammaticality test was lower than controls'; (ii) there was a significant correlation between grammaticality judgments and confidence for control participants, which indicates metacognitive insight and the presence of conscious knowledge; (iii) this correlation was not significant in problem gamblers, which suggests a disconnection between performance and confidence in this group. These findings suggest that problem gamblers are impaired in their metacognitive abilities on a non-gambling task, which suggests that compulsive gambling is associated with poor insight as a general factor. Clinical interventions tailored to improve metacognition in gambling could be a fruitful avenue of research in order to prevent pathological gambling. PMID:23149513

  20. Microcontaminants and reproductive impairment of the Forster's tern on Green Bay, Lake Michigan--1983.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, T J; Harris, H J; Smith, L M; Schwartz, T R; Stalling, D L; Trick, J A; Sileo, L; Docherty, D E; Erdman, T C

    1989-09-01

    For the 1983 nesting season, Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) reproductive success was significantly impaired on organochlorine contaminated Green Bay, Lake Michigan compared to a relatively uncontaminated inland location at Lake Poygan, Wisconsin. Compared with tern eggs from Lake Poygan, eggs from Green Bay had significantly higher median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total (three congeners) non-ortho, ortho' PCBs, five individual PCB congeners known to induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and several other organochlorine contaminants. Conversions of analytical concentrations of TCDD and PCB congeners based on relative AHH induction potencies allowed for estimation of total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Two PCB congeners, 2,3,3',4,4'- and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PeCB) accounted for more than 90% of the median estimated TCDD equivalents at both Green Bay and Lake Poygan. The median estimated TCDD equivalents were almost 11-fold higher in tern eggs from Green Bay than in eggs from Lake Poygan (2175 and 201 pg/g). The hatching success of Green Bay sibling eggs from nests where eggs were collected for contaminant analyses was 75% lower at Green Bay than at Lake Poygan. Hatchability of eggs taken from other nests and artificially incubated was about 50% lower for Green Bay than for Lake Poygan. Among hatchlings from laboratory incubation, those from Green Bay weighed approximately 20% less and had a mean liver weight to body weight ratio 26% greater than those from Lake Poygan. In both field and laboratory, mean minimum incubation periods were significantly longer for eggs from Green Bay compared to Lake Poygan (8.25 and 4.58 days, respectively). Mean minimum incubation time for Green Bay eggs in the field was 4.37 days longer than in the laboratory. Hatchability was greatly improved when Green Bay eggs were incubated by Lake Poygan adults in an egg-exchange experiment, but was sharply decreased in Lake Poygan eggs incubated in Green Bay nests. Nest abandonment and egg disappearance were substantial at Green Bay but nil at Lake Poygan. Thus, not only factors intrinsic to the egg, but also extrinsic factors (parental attentiveness), impaired reproductive outcome at Green Bay. The epidemiological evidence from this study strongly suggested that contaminants were a causal factor. AHH-active PCB congeners (intrinsic effects) and PCBs in general (extrinsic effects) appeared to be the only contaminants at the concentrations measured in eggs, capable of producing the effects that were observed at Green Bay. PMID:2802675

  1. Hippocampal Dosimetry Predicts Neurocognitive Function Impairment After Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Benign or Low-Grade Adult Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gondi, Vinai; Hermann, Bruce P.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Tomé, Wolfgang A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To prospectively evaluate the association between hippocampal dose and long-term neurocognitive function (NCF) impairment for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors treated with fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT). Methods and Materials Adult patients with benign or low-grade adult brain tumors were treated with FSRT per institutional practice. No attempt was made to spare the hippocampus. NCF testing was conducted at baseline and 18 months follow-up, on a prospective clinical trial. Regression-based standardized z scores were calculated by using similar healthy control individuals evaluated at the same test–retest interval. NCF impairment was defined as a z score ? ?1.5. After delineation of the bilateral hippocampi according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group contouring atlas, dose–volume histograms were generated for the left and right hippocampi and for the composite pair. Biologically equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) assuming an ?/? ratio of 2 Gy were computed. Fisher’s exact test and binary logistic regression were used for univariate and multivariate analyses, respectively. Dos–eresponse data were fit to a nonlinear model. Results Of 29 patients enrolled in this trial, 18 completed both baseline and 18-month NCF testing. An EQD2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi >7.3 Gy was associated with impairment in Wechsler Memory Scale-III Word List (WMS-WL) delayed recall (odds ratio [OR] 19.3; p = 0.043). The association between WMS-WL delayed recall and EQD2 to 100% of the bilateral hippocampi >0.0 Gy trended to significance (OR 14.8; p = 0.068). Conclusion EQD2 to 40% of the bilateral hippocampi greater than 7.3 Gy is associated with long-term impairment in list-learning delayed recall after FSRT for benign or low-grade adult brain tumors. Given that modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques can reduce the dose to the bilateral hippocampi below this dosimetric threshold, patients should be enrolled in ongoing prospective trials of hippocampal sparing during cranial irradiation to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:22209148

  2. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...impairment if the condition is severe enough to adversely affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability to maneuver in educational or non-educational...

  3. 45 CFR 1308.12 - Eligibility criteria: Orthopedic impairment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...impairment if the condition is severe enough to adversely affect a child's learning. An orthopedic impairment involves muscles, bones, or joints and is characterized by impaired ability to maneuver in educational or non-educational...

  4. Impact of Breathing 100% Oxygen on Radiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Payne, Valerie; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Walb, Matthew C.; Munley, Michael T.; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2015-01-01

    Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O2 for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O2) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O2 received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O2 was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. PMID:25338095

  5. The Impact of Forced Transitions on the Most Functionally Impaired Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Kali S.; Dosa, David; Hyer, Kathryn; Brown, Lisa M.; Swamination, Shailender; Feng, Zhanlian; Mor, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives To examine the hospitalization rate and mortality associated with forced mass transfer of nursing home residents with the highest levels of functional impairment. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting 119 Texas and Louisiana nursing homes that were identified as being “at-risk” for evacuation for Hurricane Gustav. Participants 6,464 long-stay residents residing in “at-risk” nursing homes for at least three consecutive months prior to landfall of Hurricane Gustav. Measurements Using Medicare claims and instrumental variable analysis, we compared the differential mortality (death at 30 and 90 days) and hospitalization rates (at 30 and 90 days) of the most functionally-impaired long-stay residents who evacuated for Hurricane Gustav relative to the most functionally impaired residents who did not evacuate. Results Results suggest that the effect of evacuation was associated with an 8% increase in hospitalizations by 30 and 90 days for the most functionally impaired residents. Evacuation was not significantly related to mortality for the most functionally impaired residents. Conclusion Our results suggest that the most functionally impaired nursing home residents experience an increase in hospitalizations but not mortality as a consequence of forced mass transfer. With the inevitability of nursing home evacuations for many different reasons, harm mitigation strategies focused on the most impaired residents are needed. PMID:23002792

  6. Stability of Early Identified Aggressive Victim Status in Elementary School and Associations with Later Mental Health Problems and Functional Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Linnea R.; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Park, Jong-Hyo; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Klein, Marjorie H.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2011-01-01

    Aggressive victims--children who are both perpetrators and victims of peer aggression--experience greater concurrent mental health problems and impairments than children who are only aggressive or only victimized. The stability of early identified aggressive victim status has not been evaluated due to the fact that most studies of aggressor/victim…

  7. Two types of impairments in OCD: obsessions, as problems of thought suppression; compulsions, as behavioral-executive impairment.

    PubMed

    Harsányi, András; Csigó, Katalin; Rajkai, Csaba; Demeter, Gyula; Németh, Attila; Racsmány, Mihály

    2014-03-30

    Impairments in executive functioning have been identified as an underlying cause of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Obsessive patients attempt to suppress certain unwanted thoughts through a mechanism that Wegner referred to as 'chronic thought suppression', whereas compulsive patients are unable to inhibit their rituals. We tested 51 OCD patients using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI) and the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Executive functions were tested using a cognitive test battery. We found that the total WBSI score was correlated with the Y-BOCS obsessive score but not with the Y-BOCS compulsive score. A stronger correlation was observed between the Y-BOCS obsessive score and the 'unwanted intrusive thoughts' factor based on Blumberg's 3-factor model of the WBSI. The total WBSI score was not correlated with the cognitive test results. The DEX score was significantly correlated with the Y-BOCS compulsive score; however, no correlation was found between the DEX score and the Y-BOCS obsessive score. A stronger correlation was observed between the Y-BOCS compulsive score and the 'inhibition' component of the DEX score, as defined by Burgess's 5-factor model. The DEX scores were correlated with cognitive test results measuring attention, cognitive flexibility and inhibitory processes. We conclude that obsessions indicate a failure of cognitive inhibition but do not involve significant impairment of executive functions, whereas compulsions indicate ineffective behavior inhibition and impaired executive functions. PMID:24418048

  8. Sociodemographic, behavioral, and cognitive predictors of alcohol-impaired driving in a sample of U.S. college students.

    PubMed

    Fairlie, Anne M; Quinlan, Kristen J; Dejong, William; Wood, Mark D; Lawson, Doreen; Witt, Caren Francione

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol-impaired driving continues to be a major public health concern, particularly among college students. The current study examined whether sociodemographic, behavioral, and cognitive variables predicted alcohol-impaired driving in a sample of college students. Data were collected via telephone interviews from a random sample of undergraduates, ages 18-25 years old, stratified by sex and class in school. Using hierarchical logistic regression analyses (n = 330), results revealed that higher levels of weekly alcohol use, being age 21 or older, and perceived difficulty in obtaining alternative transportation were associated with a greater likelihood of drinking and driving. In addition, perceived likelihood of drinking and driving-related consequences was associated with a lower likelihood of drinking and driving. Knowledge of the .08% per se and zero tolerance laws did not predict alcohol-impaired driving. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for college media campaigns designed to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:20390988

  9. Impaired Long Distance Functional Connectivity and Weighted Network Architecture in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Yu, Chunshui; Zhang, Xinqing; Liu, Jieqiong; Duan, Yunyun; Alexander-Bloch, Aaron F.; Liu, Bing; Jiang, Tianzi; Bullmore, Ed

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is increasingly recognized as a disconnection syndrome, which leads to cognitive impairment due to the disruption of functional activity across large networks or systems of interconnected brain regions. We explored abnormal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting-state dynamics, functional connectivity, and weighted functional networks, in a sample of patients with severe AD (N = 18) and age-matched healthy volunteers (N = 21). We found that patients had reduced amplitude and regional homogeneity of low-frequency fMRI oscillations, and reduced the strength of functional connectivity, in several regions previously described as components of the default mode network, for example, medial posterior parietal cortex and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. In patients with severe AD, functional connectivity was particularly attenuated between regions that were separated by a greater physical distance; and loss of long distance connectivity was associated with less efficient global and nodal network topology. This profile of functional abnormality in severe AD was consistent with the results of a comparable analysis of data on 2 additional groups of patients with mild AD (N = 17) and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI; N = 18). A greater degree of cognitive impairment, measured by the mini-mental state examination across all patient groups, was correlated with greater attenuation of functional connectivity, particularly over long connection distances, for example, between anterior and posterior components of the default mode network, and greater reduction of global and nodal network efficiency. These results indicate that neurodegenerative disruption of fMRI oscillations and connectivity in AD affects long-distance connections to hub nodes, with the consequent loss of network efficiency. This profile was evident also to a lesser degree in the patients with less severe cognitive impairment, indicating that the potential of resting-state fMRI measures as biomarkers or predictors of disease progression in AD. PMID:23314940

  10. Improvement of impaired glucose tolerance by oral administration of vanadyl sulfate by gavage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tsunajima, T; Tatsuki, R; Satoh, K; Yamamoto, A; Hoshi, K; Ichihara, K

    1997-11-01

    We examined the effect of oral administration of vanadyl sulfate by gavage on the levels of blood glucose and plasma insulin during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin at the dose of 32 mg/kg. Nondiabetic control animals were injected with an equal volume of saline. Vanadyl sulfate at a dose of 25, 50, or 75 mg/kg was given orally by gavage for 2 weeks, starting 12 hours after streptozotocin injection. When vanadyl sulfate was given twice a day, half of the one-day-dosage was given in the morning and the remaining half in the evening. Glucose tolerance test with 5 g/kg of glucose was carried out 2 weeks after administration of vanadyl sulfate. The fasting the blood glucose level in the diabetic rats was higher than that in the non-diabetic rats, whereas the plasma insulin level in the diabetic rats was lower. An increase in blood glucose seen in the glucose tolerance test was significantly greater in the diabetic rats than in the non-diabetic rats. The level of plasma insulin was increased by glucose tolerance test in the non-diabetic rats, while it was not changed in diabetic rats. Oral administration of vanadyl sulfate by gavage significantly improved the impaired glucose tolerance in the the diabetic rats in a dose-dependent manner without any change in plasma insulin level. In conclusion, oral administration of vanadyl sulfate by gavage is effective on impaired glucose tolerance in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:9467827

  11. Olfactory impairment after chronic occupational cadmium exposure.

    PubMed

    Rose, C S; Heywood, P G; Costanzo, R M

    1992-06-01

    Disorders of olfaction affect millions of Americans, but the extent to which occupational and environmental exposures contribute to these disorders is unknown. We examined 55 workers with chronic occupational exposure to cadmium fumes in a brazing operation. We estimated cadmium body burden using urinary cadmium levels and assessed cadmium-induced renal damage by urinary beta 2-microglobulin levels. We quantified olfactory function using a standardized test that measured two components of olfaction, butanol detection threshold and odor identification, and compared workers with a reference group. Forty-four percent of the cadmium-exposed workers were mildly hyposmic, and 13% were either moderately or severely hyposmic. In the reference group, 31% were mildly hyposmic, and the rest were normosmic. The workers with both high urinary cadmium levels and tubular proteinuria had the most significant olfactory dysfunction, with a selective defect in odor detection threshold. Our findings suggest that chronic occupational cadmium exposure sufficient to cause renal damage also is associated with impairment in olfactory function. PMID:1619490

  12. Impaired somatosensation in tongue mucosa of smokers.

    PubMed

    Yekta, Sareh Said; Lückhoff, Andreas; Risti?, Dejan; Lampert, Friedrich; Ellrich, Jens

    2012-02-01

    Smoking has been indicated as a risk factor for oral diseases and can lead to altered sense of taste. So far, the effects of sensory changes on the tongue are not investigated. In this study, quantitative sensory testing was used to evaluate somatosensory function in the lingual region. Eighty healthy volunteers were investigated (20 smokers, 20 non-smokers). Subjects were bilaterally tested in innervation areas of lingual nerves. Thresholds of cold and warm detection, cold and heat pain, and mechanical detection were determined. As control for systemic, extraoral effects of smoking, tests were additionally performed in 40 volunteers (20 smokers, 20 non-smokers) on the skin of the chin innervated by the mental branch of the trigeminal nerve. Cold (p < 0.001), warm detection thresholds (p < 0.001), and thermal sensory limen (p < 0.001) showed higher sensitivity in non-smokers as compared to smokers. Heat pain and mechanical detection, as well as all tests in the skin of the chin, showed no significant differences. The impaired temperature perception in smokers indicates a reduction of somatosensory functions in the tongue, possibly caused by nerve degeneration associated with smoking. Possible systemic effects of smoking do not seem to affect extraoral trigeminal branches. PMID:20938792

  13. Statins impair glucose uptake in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Nowis, Dominika; Malenda, Agata; Furs, Karolina; Oleszczak, Bozenna; Sadowski, Radoslaw; Chlebowska, Justyna; Firczuk, Malgorzata; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Staruch, Adam D; Zagozdzon, Radoslaw; Glodkowska-Mrowka, Eliza; Szablewski, Leszek; Golab, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    Objective Considering the increasing number of clinical observations indicating hyperglycemic effects of statins, this study was designed to measure the influence of statins on the uptake of glucose analogs by human cells derived from liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Design Flow cytometry and scintillation counting were used to measure the uptake of fluorescently labeled or tritiated glucose analogs by differentiated visceral preadipocytes, skeletal muscle cells, skeletal muscle myoblasts, and contact-inhibited human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A bioinformatics approach was used to predict the structure of human glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and to identify the presence of putative cholesterol-binding (cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC)) motifs within this transporter. Mutagenesis of CRAC motifs in SLC2A1 gene and limited proteolysis of membrane GLUT1 were used to determine the molecular effects of statins. Results Statins significantly inhibit the uptake of glucose analogs in all cell types. Similar effects are induced by methyl-?-cyclodextrin, which removes membrane cholesterol. Statin effects can be rescued by addition of mevalonic acid, or supplementation with exogenous cholesterol. Limited proteolysis of GLUT1 and mutagenesis of CRAC motifs revealed that statins induce conformational changes in GLUTs. Conclusions Statins impair glucose uptake by cells involved in regulation of glucose homeostasis by inducing cholesterol-dependent conformational changes in GLUTs. This molecular mechanism might explain hyperglycemic effects of statins observed in clinical trials. PMID:25452863

  14. Acute lesions that impair affective empathy

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Kenichi; Hsu, John; Lindquist, Martin; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Jarso, Samson; Crainiceanu, Ciprian; Mori, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of healthy participants and previous lesion studies have provided evidence that empathy involves dissociable cognitive functions that rely on at least partially distinct neural networks that can be individually impaired by brain damage. These studies converge in support of the proposal that affective empathy—making inferences about how another person feels—engages at least the following areas: prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal gyrus, anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, temporal pole, amygdala and temporoparietal junction. We hypothesized that right-sided lesions to any one of these structures, except temporoparietal junction, would cause impaired affective empathy (whereas bilateral damage to temporoparietal junction would be required to disrupt empathy). We studied 27 patients with acute right hemisphere ischaemic stroke and 24 neurologically intact inpatients on a test of affective empathy. Acute impairment of affective empathy was associated with infarcts in the hypothesized network, particularly temporal pole and anterior insula. All patients with impaired affective empathy were also impaired in comprehension of affective prosody, but many patients with impairments in prosodic comprehension had spared affective empathy. Patients with impaired affective empathy were older, but showed no difference in performance on tests of hemispatial neglect, volume of infarct or sex distribution compared with patients with intact affective empathy. PMID:23824490

  15. Moderate Versus Light Pressure Massage Therapy Leads to Greater Weight Gain in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel A.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Deeds, Osvelia; Figuereido, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sixty-eight preterm infants (M GA=3Owks.) were randomly assigned to a moderate or to a light pressure massage therapy group to receive 15 massages 3 times per day for 5 days. Behavior state, stress behaviors and heart rate were recorded for 15 minutes before and during the first 15-minute therapy session. Weight gain was recorded over the 5 day therapy period. The moderate versus light pressure massage group gained significantly more weight per day. During the behavior observations the moderate versus light pressure massage group showed significantly lower increases from the pre-session to the session recording on: 1) active sleep; 2) fussing; 3) crying; 4) movement; and 5) stress behavior (hiccupping). They also showed a smaller decrease in deep sleep, a greater decrease in heart rate and a greater increase in vagal tone. Thus, the moderate pressure massage therapy group appeared to be more relaxed and less aroused than the light pressure massage group which may have contributed to the greater weight gain of the moderate pressure massage therapy group. PMID:17138310

  16. Language impairment in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Azambuja, Mariana Jardim; Radanovic, Marcia; Haddad, Mônica Santoro; Adda, Carla Cristina; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Mansur, Letícia Lessa

    2012-06-01

    Language alterations in Huntington's disease (HD) are reported, but their nature and correlation with other cognitive impairments are still under investigation. This study aimed to characterize the language disturbances in HD and to correlate them to motor and cognitive aspects of the disease. We studied 23 HD patients and 23 controls, matched for age and schooling, using the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination, Boston Naming Test, the Token Test, Animal fluency, Action fluency, FAS-COWA, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, the Stroop Test and the Hooper Visual Organization Test (HVOT). HD patients performed poorer in verbal fluency (p<0.0001), oral comprehension (p<0.0001), repetition (p<0.0001), oral agility (p<0.0001), reading comprehension (p=0.034) and narrative writing (p<0.0001). There was a moderate correlation between the Expressive Component and Language Competency Indexes and the HVOT (r=0.519, p=0.011 and r=0.450, p=0.031, respectively). Language alterations in HD seem to reflect a derangement in both frontostriatal and frontotemporal regions. PMID:22699537

  17. Silver Impairs Neurodevelopment: Studies in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Christina M.; Wrench, Nicola; Ryde, Ian T.; Smith, Amanda M.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Exposure to silver is increasing because of silver nanoparticles in consumer products. Objectives and methods Many biological effects of silver entail actions of Ag+ (monovalent silver ions), so we used neuronotypic PC12 cells to evaluate the potential for silver to act as a developmental neurotoxicant, using chlorpyrifos (CPF), a pesticide known to evoke developmental neurotoxicity, as a positive control for comparison. Results In undifferentiated cells, a 1-hr exposure to 10 ?M Ag+ inhibited DNA synthesis more potently than did 50 ?M CPF; it also impaired protein synthesis but to a lesser extent than its effect on DNA synthesis, indicating a preferential effect on cell replication. Longer exposures led to oxidative stress, loss of viability, and reduced numbers of cells. With the onset of cell differentiation, exposure to 10 ?M Ag+ evoked even greater inhibition of DNA synthesis and more oxidative stress, selectively impaired neurite formation without suppressing overall cell growth, and preferentially suppressed development into the acetylcholine phenotype in favor of the dopamine phenotype. Lowering the exposure to 1 ?M Ag+ reduced the net effect on undifferentiated cells. However, in differentiating cells, the lower concentration produced an entirely different pattern, enhancing cell numbers by suppressing ongoing cell death and impairing differentiation in parallel for both neurotransmitter phenotypes. Conclusions Our results show that silver has the potential to evoke developmental neurotoxicity even more potently than known neurotoxicants, such as CPF, and that the spectrum of effects is likely to be substantially different at lower exposures that do not show signs of outright toxicity. PMID:20056586

  18. Relative clause reading in hearing impairment: different profiles of syntactic impairment

    PubMed Central

    Szterman, Ronit; Friedmann, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Children with hearing impairment show difficulties in sentences derived by Wh-movement, such as relative clauses and Wh-questions. This study examines the nature of this deficit in 48 hearing impaired children aged 9–12 years and 38 hearing controls. The task involved reading aloud and paraphrasing of object relatives that include a noun-verb heterophonic homograph. The correct pronunciation of the homograph in these sentences depended upon the correct construction of the syntactic structure of the sentence. An analysis of the reading and paraphrasing of each participant exposed two different patterns of syntactic impairment. Some hearing-impaired children paraphrased the object relatives incorrectly but could still read the homograph, indicating impaired assignment of thematic roles alongside good syntactic structure building; other hearing-impaired children could neither read the homograph nor paraphrase the sentence, indicating a structural deficit in the syntactic tree. Further testing of these children confirmed the different impairments: some are impaired only in Wh-movement, whereas others have CP impairment. The syntactic impairment correlated with whether or not a hearing device was fitted by the age of 1 year, but not with the type of hearing device or the depth of hearing loss: children who had a hearing device fitted during the first year of life had better syntactic abilities than children whose hearing devices were fitted later. PMID:25426086

  19. Association of hearing impairment with brain volume changes in older adults.

    PubMed

    Lin, F R; Ferrucci, L; An, Y; Goh, J O; Doshi, Jimit; Metter, E J; Davatzikos, C; Kraut, M A; Resnick, S M

    2014-04-15

    Hearing impairment in older adults is independently associated in longitudinal studies with accelerated cognitive decline and incident dementia, and in cross-sectional studies, with reduced volumes in the auditory cortex. Whether peripheral hearing impairment is associated with accelerated rates of brain atrophy is unclear. We analyzed brain volume measurements from magnetic resonance brain scans of individuals with normal hearing versus hearing impairment (speech-frequency pure tone average>25 dB) followed in the neuroimaging substudy of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging for a mean of 6.4 years after the baseline scan (n=126, age 56-86 years). Brain volume measurements were performed with semi-automated region-of-interest (ROI) algorithms, and brain volume trajectories were analyzed with mixed-effect regression models adjusted for demographic and cardiovascular factors. We found that individuals with hearing impairment (n=51) compared to those with normal hearing (n=75) had accelerated volume declines in whole brain and regional volumes in the right temporal lobe (superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, parahippocampus, p<.05). These results were robust to adjustment for multiple confounders and were consistent with voxel-based analyses, which also implicated right greater than left temporal regions. These findings demonstrate that peripheral hearing impairment is independently associated with accelerated brain atrophy in whole brain and regional volumes concentrated in the right temporal lobe. Further studies investigating the mechanistic basis of the observed associations are needed. PMID:24412398

  20. Comprehension of Indefinite Pronouns and Quantifiers by Hearing-Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Goodhart, Wendy C.

    1985-01-01

    Deaf students' recognition of indefinite pronouns and quantifiers was tested using written materials in the form of comic strips. The subjects were 187 profoundly hearing-impaired students, aged 7 to 23 years. Findings showed significant developmental trends for both forms. Quantifiers were found to be significantly more difficult than indefinite…

  1. Semantic Knowledge for Famous Names in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Seidenberg, Michael; Guidotti, Leslie; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Durgerian, Sally; Zhang, Qi; Gander, Amelia; Antuono, Piero; Rao, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Person identification represents a unique category of semantic knowledge that is commonly impaired in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), but has received relatively little investigation in patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). The current study examined the retrieval of semantic knowledge for famous names from three time epochs (recent, remote, and enduring) in two participant groups; 23 aMCI patients and 23 healthy elderly controls. The aMCI group was less accurate and produced less semantic knowledge than controls for famous names. Names from the enduring period were recognized faster than both recent and remote names in both groups, and remote names were recognized more quickly than recent names. Episodic memory performance was correlated with greater semantic knowledge particularly for recent names. We suggest that the anterograde memory deficits in the aMCI group interferes with learning of recent famous names and as a result produces difficulties with updating and integrating new semantic information with previously stored information. The implications of these findings for characterizing semantic memory deficits in MCI are discussed. PMID:19128524

  2. Theory of mind impairments in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hezel, Dianne M; McNally, Richard J

    2014-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent, excessive fear and avoidance of social and performance situations. Research on cognitive biases indicates individuals with SAD may lack an accurate view of how they are perceived by others, especially in social situations when they allocate important attentional resources to monitoring their own actions as well as external threat. In the present study, we explored whether socially anxious individuals also have impairments in theory of mind (ToM), or the ability to comprehend others' mental states, including emotions, beliefs, and intentions. Forty socially anxious and 40 non-socially-anxious comparison participants completed two ToM tasks: the Reading the Mind in the Eyes and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition. Participants with SAD performed worse on ToM tasks than did non-socially-anxious participants. Relative to comparison participants, those with SAD were more likely to attribute more intense emotions and greater meaning to what others were thinking and feeling. These group differences were not due to interpretation bias. The ToM impairments in people with SAD are in the opposite direction of those in people with autism spectrum conditions whose inferences about the mental states of other people are absent or very limited. This association between SAD and ToM may have important implications for our understanding of both the maintenance and treatment of social anxiety disorder. PMID:24912465

  3. Maternal obesity impairs specific regulatory pathways in human myometrial arteries.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Christina E; Cowley, Elizabeth J; Mills, Tracey A; Sibley, Colin P; Wareing, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Obese women (body mass index ?30 kg/m(2)) are at greater risk than normal weight women of pregnancy complications associated with maternal and infant morbidity, particularly the development of cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders in later life; why this occurs is unknown. Nonpregnant, obese individuals exhibit systemic vascular endothelial dysfunction. We tested the hypothesis that obese pregnant women have altered myometrial arterial function compared to pregnant women of normal (18-24 kg/m(2)) and overweight (25-29 kg/m(2)) body mass index. Responses to vasoconstrictors, U46619 (thromboxane mimetic) and arginine vasopressin, and vasodilators, bradykinin and the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, were assessed by wire myography in myometrial arteries from normal weight (n = 18), overweight (n = 18), and obese (n = 20) women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Thromboxane-prostanoid receptor expression was assessed using immunostaining in myometrial arteries of normal weight and obese women. Vasoconstriction and vasodilatation were impaired in myometrial arteries from obese women with otherwise uncomplicated pregnancies. Disparate agonist responses suggest that vascular function in obese women is not globally dysregulated but may be specific to thromboxane and nitric oxide pathways. Because obesity rates are escalating, it is important to identify the mechanisms underlying impaired vascular function and establish why some obese women compensate for vascular dysfunction and some do not. Future studies are needed to determine whether central adiposity results in an altered endocrine milieu that may promote vascular dysfunction by altering the function of perivascular adipose tissue. PMID:24478391

  4. A paradox for significant freedom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Almeida

    2003-01-01

    According to one view about significant freedom a moral agent has significant freedom in doing A at a time t if an only if A is morally significant for the agent and the agent’s options at t are not logically entailed by any set of propositions describing facts or causal laws holding antecedent to t .A morally significant action is

  5. Meniscal Repair Outcomes at Greater Than Five Years

    PubMed Central

    Nepple, Jeffrey J.; Dunn, Warren R.; Wright, Rick W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Meniscal repair offers the potential to avoid the long-term articular cartilage deterioration that has been shown to result after meniscectomy. Failure of the meniscal repair can occur several years postoperatively. Limited evidence on the long-term outcomes of meniscal repair exists. Methods: We performed a systematic review of studies reporting the outcomes of meniscal repair at a minimum of five years postoperatively. Pooling of data and meta-analysis with a random-effects model were performed to evaluate the results. Results: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled rate of meniscal repair failure (reoperation or clinical failure) was 23.1% (131 of 566). The pooled rate of failure varied from 20.2% to 24.3% depending on the status of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the meniscus repaired, and the technique utilized. The rate of failure was similar for the medial and the lateral meniscus as well as for patients with an intact and a reconstructed ACL. Conclusions: A systematic review of the outcomes of meniscal repair at greater than five years postoperatively demonstrated very similar rates of meniscal failure (22.3% to 24.3%) for all techniques investigated. The outcomes of meniscal repair at greater than five years postoperatively have not yet been reported for modern all-inside repair devices. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:23318612

  6. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  7. Local Subsidence in Greater Mahala, Egypt, Detected by Radar Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aly, M. H.; Giardino, J. R.; Klein, A. G.

    2005-12-01

    Land subsidence is a major geomorphic problem in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Long-term subsidence monitoring is needed for sustainable development of the Nile Delta. Satellite radar interferometry is a powerful tool for monitoring land subsidence. Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) provides more cost-effective and higher spatial resolution subsidence measurements than traditional survey tools. Several challenges exist for the application of Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR) to subsidence measurement in the Nile Delta because it is densely vegetated with high soil moisture and water vapor contents. Limitations in DInSAR as a result of temporal and geometrical decorrelations and atmospheric artifacts are overcome by carrying out the analysis on urban areas in the delta using thirty nine descending scenes acquired by the European Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS1 and 2) in the 1993-2000 period. Greater Mahala is one of the biggest cities in the delta and it is a home for approximately 500,000 people. Interferometric measurements of urban subsidence in Greater Mahala as well as in other cities in the delta will provide a good understanding of the pattern and magnitude of land subsidence in the entire delta. This, in turn, will help mitigate the impacts of geomorphic hazards associated with the land subsidence in the Nile Delta.

  8. Sympathetic preganglionic efferent and afferent neurons mediated by the greater splanchnic nerve in rabbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torigoe, Yasuhiro; Cernucan, Roxana D.; Nishimoto, Jo Ann S.; Blanks, Robert H. I.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the study of the vestibular-autonomic pathways involved in motion sickness, the location and the morphology of preganglionic sympathetic neurons (PSNs) projecting via the greater splanchnic nerve were examined. Retrograde labeling of neurons was obtained by application of horseradish peroxidase to the cut end of the greater splanchnic nerve. Labeled PSNs were found, ipsilaterally, within the T1 to T11 spinal cord segments, with the highest density of neurons in T6. Most PSNs were located within the intermediolateral column, but a significant portion also occurred within the lateral funiculus, the intercalated region, and the central autonomic area; the proportion of labeling between the four regions depended on the spinal cord segment.

  9. A 110-year perspective of significant tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazulis, Thomas P.

    A tornado documentation project began in 1980 as an effort to resolve differences between the two independently designed tornado data bases used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One was established for the NRC at the University of Chicago (UC) by T. T. Fujita for the years 1916-1985. In addition, the NRC assisted the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) in adding F scale ratings to the existing NSSFC data base in Kansas City, from 1950 to the present. The final task of this effort (hereinafter called the project) was to locate and list all significant tornadoes from 1880 through 1989. Significant is defined here as all tornadoes doing confirmable F-2 or greater damage or causing a death.

  10. Microglial beclin 1 regulates retromer trafficking and phagocytosis and is impaired in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lucin, Kurt M; O'Brien, Caitlin E; Bieri, Gregor; Czirr, Eva; Mosher, Kira I; Abbey, Rachelle J; Mastroeni, Diego F; Rogers, Joseph; Spencer, Brian; Masliah, Eliezer; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2013-09-01

    Phagocytosis controls CNS homeostasis by facilitating the removal of unwanted cellular debris. Accordingly, impairments in different receptors or proteins involved in phagocytosis result in enhanced inflammation and neurodegeneration. While various studies have identified extrinsic factors that modulate phagocytosis in health and disease, key intracellular regulators are less understood. Here we show that the autophagy protein beclin 1 is required for efficient phagocytosis in vitro and in mouse brains. Furthermore, we show that beclin 1-mediated impairments in phagocytosis are associated with dysfunctional recruitment of retromer to phagosomal membranes, reduced retromer levels, and impaired recycling of phagocytic receptors CD36 and Trem2. Interestingly, microglia isolated from human Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains show significantly reduced beclin 1 and retromer protein levels. These findings position beclin 1 as a link between autophagy, retromer trafficking, and receptor-mediated phagocytosis and provide insight into mechanisms by which phagocytosis is regulated and how it may become impaired in AD. PMID:24012002

  11. Acute pentobarbital treatment impairs spatial learning and memory and hippocampal long-term potentiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tan, Tao; Tu, Man; He, Wenting; Dong, Zhifang; Han, Huili

    2015-10-01

    Reports of the effects of pentobarbital on learning and memory are contradictory. Some studies have not shown any interference with learning and memory, whereas others have shown that pentobarbital impairs memory and that these impairments can last for long periods. However, it is unclear whether acute local microinjections of pentobarbital affect learning and memory, and if so, the potential mechanisms are also unclear. Here, we reported that the intra-hippocampal infusion of pentobarbital (8.0mM, 1?l per side) significantly impaired hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory retrieval. Moreover, in vitro electrophysiological recordings revealed that these behavioral changes were accompanied by impaired hippocampal CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) and suppressed neuronal excitability as reflected by a decrease in the number of action potentials (APs). These results suggest that acute pentobarbital application causes spatial learning and memory deficits that might be attributable to the suppression of synaptic plasticity and neuronal excitability. PMID:26056078

  12. Microglial beclin 1 regulates retromer trafficking and phagocytosis and is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Lucin, Kurt M.; O’Brien, Caitlin E.; Bieri, Gregor; Czirr, Eva; Mosher, Kira I.; Abbey, Rachelle J.; Mastroeni, Diego F.; Rogers, Joseph; Spencer, Brian; Masliah, Eliezer; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Phagocytosis controls CNS homeostasis by facilitating the removal of unwanted cellular debris. Accordingly, impairments in different receptors or proteins involved in phagocytosis result in enhanced inflammation and neurodegeneration. While various studies have identified extrinsic factors that modulate phagocytosis in health and disease, key intracellular regulators are less understood. Here we show that the autophagy protein beclin 1 is required for efficient phagocytosis in vitro and in mouse brains. Furthermore, we show that beclin 1-mediated impairments in phagocytosis are associated with dysfunctional recruitment of retromer to phagosomal membranes, reduced retromer levels, and impaired recycling of phagocytic receptors CD36 and Trem2. Interestingly, microglia isolated from human Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains show significantly reduced beclin 1 and retromer protein levels. These findings position beclin 1 as a link between autophagy, retromer trafficking, and receptor-mediated phagocytosis and provide insight into mechanisms by which phagocytosis is regulated and how it may become impaired in AD. PMID:24012002

  13. Characterizing mild cognitive impairment in incident Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Yarnall, Alison J.; Breen, David P.; Duncan, Gordon W.; Khoo, Tien K.; Coleman, Shirley Y.; Firbank, Michael J.; Nombela, Cristina; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Evans, Jonathan R.; Rowe, James B.; Mollenhauer, Brit; Kruse, Niels; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F.; O’Brien, John T.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Wesnes, Keith; Brooks, David J.; Barker, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the frequency of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Parkinson disease (PD) in a cohort of newly diagnosed incident PD cases and the associations with a panel of biomarkers. Methods: Between June 2009 and December 2011, 219 subjects with PD and 99 age-matched controls participated in clinical and neuropsychological assessments as part of a longitudinal observational study. Consenting individuals underwent structural MRI, lumbar puncture, and genotyping for common variants of COMT, MAPT, SNCA, BuChE, EGF, and APOE. PD-MCI was defined with reference to the new Movement Disorder Society criteria. Results: The frequency of PD-MCI was 42.5% using level 2 criteria at 1.5 SDs below normative values. Memory impairment was the most common domain affected, with 15.1% impaired at 1.5 SDs. Depression scores were significantly higher in those with PD-MCI than the cognitively normal PD group. A significant correlation was found between visual Pattern Recognition Memory and cerebrospinal ?-amyloid 1–42 levels (? standardized coefficient = 0.350; p = 0.008) after controlling for age and education in a linear regression model, with lower ?-amyloid 1–42 and 1–40 levels observed in those with PD-MCI. Voxel-based morphometry did not reveal any areas of significant gray matter loss in participants with PD-MCI compared with controls, and no specific genotype was associated with PD-MCI at the 1.5-SD threshold. Conclusions: In a large cohort of newly diagnosed PD participants, PD-MCI is common and significantly correlates with lower cerebrospinal ?-amyloid 1–42 and 1–40 levels. Future longitudinal studies should enable us to determine those measures predictive of cognitive decline. PMID:24363137

  14. Central Pulse Pressure and Its Hemodynamic Determinants in Middle-Aged Adults With Impaired Fasting Glucose and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Chirinos, Julio A.; Segers, Patrick; Gillebert, Thierry C.; De Buyzere, Marc L.; Van daele, Caroline M.; Khan, Zubair A.; Khawar, Umair; De Bacquer, Dirk; Rietzschel, Ernst R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Pulse pressure (PP), a strong predictor of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes, is a composite measure affected by several hemodynamic factors. Little is known about the hemodynamic determinants of central PP in type 2 diabetes or whether abnormalities in central pulsatile hemodynamics are already present in individuals with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). In a population-based study, we aimed to compare central PP and its hemodynamic determinants among adults with normal fasting glucose (n = 1654), IFG (n = 240), and type 2 diabetes (n = 33). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured carotid pressure, left ventricular outflow, aortic root diameter, carotid artery flow, and distension in order to measure various structural and hemodynamic arterial parameters. RESULTS IFG was associated with a greater mean arterial pressure (MAP) but was not associated with intrinsic aortic stiffening or abnormal aortic pulsatile indices after adjustment for MAP. After adjustment for age, sex, and MAP, type 2 diabetes was associated with a higher aortic root characteristic impedance (Zc), aortic root elastance-thickness product (Eh), and aortic root pulse wave velocity (but not aortic root diameter), a greater carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and lower total arterial compliance and wave reflection magnitude. Carotid size, Zc, distensibility, or Eh did not significantly differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS Type 2 diabetes, but not IFG, is associated with greater large artery stiffness, without abnormalities in aortic root diameter or carotid stiffness. Subjects with type 2 diabetes demonstrate a decreased reflection magnitude, which may indicate an increased penetration of pulsatile energy to distal vascular beds. PMID:23610081

  15. Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Health and Human Services FDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health A to ... page Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Some Sleep Drugs Can Impair Driving Search the Consumer Updates Section ...

  16. Impairment of probabilistic reward-based learning in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Julia A; Bellebaum, Christian; Brüne, Martin; Juckel, Georg; Daum, Irene

    2009-09-01

    Recent models assume that some symptoms of schizophrenia originate from defective reward processing mechanisms. Understanding the precise nature of reward-based learning impairments might thus make an important contribution to the understanding of schizophrenia and the development of treatment strategies. The present study investigated several features of probabilistic reward-based stimulus association learning, namely the acquisition of initial contingencies, reversal learning, generalization abilities, and the effects of reward magnitude. Compared to healthy controls, individuals with schizophrenia exhibited attenuated overall performance during acquisition, whereas learning rates across blocks were similar to the rates of controls. On the group level, persons with schizophrenia were, however, unable to learn the reversal of the initial reward contingencies. Exploratory analysis of only the subgroup of individuals with schizophrenia who showed significant learning during acquisition yielded deficits in reversal learning with low reward magnitudes only. There was further evidence of a mild generalization impairment of the persons with schizophrenia in an acquired equivalence task. In summary, although there was evidence of intact basic processing of reward magnitudes, individuals with schizophrenia were impaired at using this feedback for the adaptive guidance of behavior. PMID:19702411

  17. [Electrophysiological impairment profile of patients with Wilson's disease].

    PubMed

    Hermann, W; Villmann, T; Wagner, A

    2003-10-01

    In addition to hepatic and extrapyramidal motor clinical symptoms, Wilson's disease patients also exhibit subclinical disorders of other central nervous pathways. In this study, an impairment profile is described by means of eight electrophysiological tests (EAEP, MSEP, TSEP, T-VEP, MEP, EEG, heart frequency variability, and SSR) for 37 patients (28 with neurological, nine with tnon-neurological form) undergoing long-term drug therapy. The occurrence in 64.3% of a delayed wave III and/or IPL III-V prolongation in patients with the neurological form makes pathological FAEP the most common form of the disorder, followed by disorders in MSEP, TSEP, MEP, and T-VEP. Patients with the non-neurological form usually have normal values, although latency prolongations occur in isolated cases. The range of evoked potential findings is characterised primarily by latency prolongations, i.e. a demyelinising impairment type, and significant losses of potential hardly occur (except in the MEP). The electrophysiological impairment profile does not include EEG changes or vegetative disorders. PMID:14551693

  18. Elastin Insufficiency Predisposes Mice to Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    DeMarsilis, Antea J; Walji, Tezin A; Maedeker, Justine A; Stoka, Kellie V; Kozel, Beth A; Mecham, Robert P; Wagenseil, Jessica E; Craft, Clarissa S

    2015-01-01

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is the consequence of a large contiguous-gene deletion on the seventh human chromosome that includes the elastin gene. Elastin is an extracellular matrix protein responsible for the cardiovascular abnormalities associated with Williams’s syndrome, including hypertension and aortic stenosis. A high percentage of individuals with Williams’s syndrome also have impaired glucose tolerance, independent of traditional risk factors for diabetes. Here, we show that murine adipose tissue does assemble elastic fibers; however, isolated elastin insufficiency (Eln+/?) in mice does not independently influence glucose metabolism or tissue lipid accumulation. Similarly, isolated ApoE deficiency (ApoE?/?), a model of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, does not impair insulin sensitivity. However, Eln+/?; ApoE?/? double mutant mice exhibit notable hyperglycemia, adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammation of adipose tissue, and ectopic lipid accumulation in liver tissue. Further, Eln+/?; ApoE?/? mutants have significant impairment of insulin sensitivity by insulin tolerance testing, independent of body weight or diet, suggesting that elastin insufficiency predisposes to metabolic disease in susceptible individuals.

  19. The effects of juvenile capsaicin desensitization in rats: behavioral impairments.

    PubMed

    Petrovszki, Zita; Adam, Gábor; Kekesi, Gabriella; Tuboly, Gábor; Morvay, Zita; Nagy, Endre; Benedek, György; Horvath, Gyöngyi

    2014-02-10

    Capsaicin desensitization leads to behavioral changes, some of which are related to schizophrenia, but investigations into these effects have been scarce. The goal of this study was to characterize the consequences of juvenile capsaicin desensitization on different functions: acute and inflammation-induced thermal and mechanical sensitivity, urinary bladder capacity and thermoregulation, and also on the potentially schizophrenia-related impairments in sensory-motor gating, motor activity and cognitive functioning. Male Wistar rats desensitized with increasing doses of subcutaneous capsaicin after weaning were investigated. Heat and mechanical pain sensitivity did not change significantly; however, morphine produced a prolonged decrease in the nociceptive response to inflammation in desensitized animals. Ultrasound examination of the bladder revealed enhanced bladder volume in treated animals. Capsaicin-treated animals had higher body temperature at 22 °C in both dark and light periods, and they also showed prolonged hyperthermia in new environmental circumstances. Warm environment induced a profound impairment of thermoregulation in desensitized animals. The treated animals also showed higher levels of activity during the active phase and at both cool and warm temperatures. The amplitude of the responses to auditory stimuli and prepulse inhibition did not differ between the two groups, but the desensitized animals showed learning impairments in the novel object recognition test. These results suggest that juvenile capsaicin desensitization leads to sustained changes in several functions that may be related to schizophrenia. We propose that capsaicin desensitization, together with other interventions, may lead to an improved chronic animal model of schizophrenia. PMID:24291382

  20. Impaired context reversal learning, but not cue reversal learning, in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kelemen, Oguz; Gluck, Mark A; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2011-10-01

    It has been proposed that reversal learning is impaired following damage to the orbitofrontal and ventromedial frontal cortex (OFC/VMFC) and to the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampal formation. However, the exact characteristics of the MTL-associated reversal learning deficit are not known. To investigate this issue, we assessed 30 newly diagnosed patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 30 matched healthy controls. All patients fulfilled the aMCI criteria of the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and underwent head magnetic resonance imaging that confirmed MTL atrophy. Reversal learning was assessed using a novel reinforcement learning task. Participants first acquired and then reversed stimulus-outcome associations based on negative and positive feedback (losing and gaining points). Stimuli consisted of a cue (geometric shapes) and a spatial context (background color or pattern). Neuropsychological assessment included tasks related to the MTL (paired associates learning), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (extradimensional shift, One-touch Stockings of Cambridge), and OFC/VMFC (Holiday Apartment Task). Results revealed that, relative to controls, patients with aMCI exhibited a marked reversal learning deficit, which was highly selective for the reversal of context. The acquisition of stimulus-outcome associations and cue reversal learning were spared. Performance on the context reversal learning task significantly correlated with the right hippocampal volume. In addition, patients with aMCI had deficits on tests related to DLPFC but not to OFC/VMFC. However, DLPFC dysfunctions were not associated with context reversal learning. These results suggest that MTL deficits in aMCI selectively affect context reversal learning when OFC/VMFC functions are spared. This deficit is not influenced by the valence of the outcome (positive or negative feedback) and by executive dysfunctions. PMID:21856321

  1. Measures of impairment for children and adolescents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kay Hodges; Jean Gust

    1995-01-01

    Measuring the degree of impairment in children and adolescents due to emotional or behavioral disorders is a recent development\\u000a that will become increasingly important to states and their mental health administrators. A survey of the 50 states was conducted\\u000a to identify impairment measures that were used on a statewide basis. The results of the survey are presented; five measures\\u000a were

  2. Cognitive Impairments, HCI and Daily Living

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simeon Keates; James Kozloski; Philip Varker

    2009-01-01

    As computer systems become increasingly more pervasive in everyday life, it is simultaneously becoming ever more important\\u000a that the concept of universal access is accepted as a design mantra. While many physical impairments and their implications\\u000a for human-computer interaction are well understood, cognitive impairments have received comparatively little attention. One\\u000a of the reasons for this is the general lack of

  3. Cognitive Control Impairments in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Larson; William M. Perlstein; Jason A. Demery; David A. Stigge-Kaufman

    2006-01-01

    The componential nature of impaired cognitive control following traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains uncertain. We examined regulative and evaluative components of cognitive control in mild and moderate-to-severe (M\\/S) TBI patients and demographically-matched comparison participants using the AX-CPT task. We also examined relationships of cognitive control impairment to ratings of cognitive, behavioral, and affective symptomatology on the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX). Results

  4. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679?159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

  5. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network

    PubMed Central

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679?159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

  6. Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

  7. Mutant gene frequencies in cats of the greater London area.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R

    1987-09-01

    The frequencies of seven mutant genes of the domestic cat have been estimated by sampling the population of greater London, specific areas of the capital and adjoining counties. An attempt was made to diversify the method of sampling by concentrating upon certain categories of cats. In addition to the usual sightings of cats in streets and open spaces, surveys were made of cats attending a veterinary clinic, those staying at a boarding cattery, those exhibited in the household pet classes at a cat show and those in rescue centres. Although there are inconsistencies, the general impression from frequencies in present and earlier observations is that the lighter phenotypes (mackerel tabby, blue dilution and orange) are favoured by human preference, as opposed to the darker phenotypes (blotched tabby, black and non-orange). Reasons are discussed for thinking that, while human preference may be a factor in the evolution of the feline polymorphism, it is not the fundamental cause. PMID:24240212

  8. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Brad J; Dewall, C Nathan; Pond, Richard S; Hanus, Michael D

    2014-04-29

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

  9. Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by males and females. However, once the reward contingency was reversed, females were better at inhibiting the previous response and reached criterion twice as fast as males. When reward reversing was repeated, males gradually reduced the number of errors, and the two sexes had a comparable performance after four reversals. We suggest that sex differences in behavioural flexibility in guppies can be explained in terms of the different roles that males and females play in reproduction.

  10. Greater general startle reflex is associated with greater anxiety levels: a correlational study on 111 young women

    PubMed Central

    Poli, Eleonora; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Startle eyeblink reflex is a valid non-invasive tool for studying attention, emotion and psychiatric disorders. In the absence of any experimental manipulation, the general (or baseline) startle reflex shows a high inter-individual variability, which is often considered task-irrelevant and therefore normalized across participants. Unlike the above view, we hypothesized that greater general startle magnitude is related to participants’ higher anxiety level. 111 healthy young women, after completing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), were randomly administered 10 acoustic white noise probes (50 ms, 100 dBA acoustic level) while integrated EMG from left and right orbicularis oculi was recorded. Results showed that participants with greater state anxiety levels exhibited larger startle reflex magnitude from the left eye (r109 = 0.23, p < 0.05). Furthermore, individuals who perceived the acoustic probe as more aversive reported the largest anxiety scores (r109 = 0.28, p < 0.05) and had the largest eyeblinks, especially in the left eye (r109 = 0.34, p < 0.001). Results suggest that general startle may represent a valid tool for studying the neural excitability underlying anxiety and emotional dysfunction in neurological and mental disorders. PMID:25705181

  11. Impaired neural response to negative prediction errors in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Parvaz, Muhammad A; Konova, Anna B; Proudfit, Greg H; Dunning, Jonathan P; Malaker, Pias; Moeller, Scott J; Maloney, Tom; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2015-02-01

    Learning can be guided by unexpected success or failure, signaled via dopaminergic positive reward prediction error (+RPE) and negative reward-prediction error (-RPE) signals, respectively. Despite conflicting empirical evidence, RPE signaling is thought to be impaired in drug addiction. To resolve this outstanding question, we studied as a measure of RPE the feedback negativity (FN) that is sensitive to both reward and the violation of expectation. We examined FN in 25 healthy controls; 25 individuals with cocaine-use disorder (CUD) who tested positive for cocaine on the study day (CUD+), indicating cocaine use within the past 72 h; and in 25 individuals with CUD who tested negative for cocaine (CUD-). EEG was acquired while the participants performed a gambling task predicting whether they would win or lose money on each trial given three known win probabilities (25, 50, or 75%). FN was scored for the period in each trial when the actual outcome (win or loss) was revealed. A significant interaction between prediction, outcome, and group revealed that controls showed increased FN to unpredicted compared with predicted wins (i.e., intact +RPE) and decreased FN to unpredicted compared with predicted losses (i.e., intact -RPE). However, neither CUD subgroup showed FN modulation to loss (i.e., impaired -RPE), and unlike CUD+ individuals, CUD- individuals also did not show FN modulation to win (i.e., impaired +RPE). Thus, using FN, the current study directly documents -RPE deficits in CUD individuals. The mechanisms underlying -RPE signaling impairments in addiction may contribute to the disadvantageous nature of excessive drug use, which can persist despite repeated unfavorable life experiences (e.g., frequent incarcerations). PMID:25653348

  12. Neural oscillatory deficits in schizophrenia predict behavioral and neurocognitive impairments

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Antígona; Gaspar, Pablo A.; Hillyard, Steven A.; Bickel, Stephan; Lakatos, Peter; Dias, Elisa C.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2015-01-01

    Paying attention to visual stimuli is typically accompanied by event-related desynchronizations (ERD) of ongoing alpha (7–14 Hz) activity in visual cortex. The present study used time-frequency based analyses to investigate the role of impaired alpha ERD in visual processing deficits in schizophrenia (Sz). Subjects viewed sinusoidal gratings of high (HSF) and low (LSF) spatial frequency (SF) designed to test functioning of the parvo- vs. magnocellular pathways, respectively. Patients with Sz and healthy controls paid attention selectively to either the LSF or HSF gratings which were presented in random order. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to all stimuli. As in our previous study, it was found that Sz patients were selectively impaired at detecting LSF target stimuli and that ERP amplitudes to LSF stimuli were diminished, both for the early sensory-evoked components and for the attend minus unattend difference component (the Selection Negativity), which is generally regarded as a specific index of feature-selective attention. In the time-frequency domain, the differential ERP deficits to LSF stimuli were echoed in a virtually absent theta-band phase locked response to both unattended and attended LSF stimuli (along with relatively intact theta-band activity for HSF stimuli). In contrast to the theta-band evoked responses which were tightly stimulus locked, stimulus-induced desynchronizations of ongoing alpha activity were not tightly stimulus locked and were apparent only in induced power analyses. Sz patients were significantly impaired in the attention-related modulation of ongoing alpha activity for both HSF and LSF stimuli. These deficits correlated with patients’ behavioral deficits in visual information processing as well as with visually based neurocognitive deficits. These findings suggest an additional, pathway-independent, mechanism by which deficits in early visual processing contribute to overall cognitive impairment in Sz.

  13. Impaired tactile processing in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Puts, Nicolaas A J; Wodka, Ericka L; Tommerdahl, Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Edden, Richard A E

    2014-05-01

    Impaired responses to tactile stimulation are a commonly reported symptom among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Furthermore, impairments in filtering or habituation to tactile input have been described in ASD. This study measured different aspects of tactile processing to investigate atypical touch sensitivity in children with ASD, methodology that has not been previously used in this population. Sixty-seven typically developing children (TDC) and 32 children with ASD (ages 8-12) completed vibrotactile tasks assessing: reaction time (RT); static and dynamic detection threshold (DT); amplitude discrimination with and without single-site adaptation; frequency discrimination; and temporal order judgment (TOJ) with and without concurrent stimulation. Children with ASD showed raised static detection thresholds and an absence of the effect of a dynamically increasing subthreshold stimulus on static detection threshold. Children with ASD also showed poorer amplitude discrimination than TDC, as well as decreased adaptation. There were no significant differences in frequency discrimination or TOJ performance between the groups. Differences in the effect of dynamic stimulation on detection threshold suggest impaired feed-forward inhibition in autism, which may be linked to poor sensory filtering. Increased baseline amplitude discrimination thresholds in ASD suggest that lateral inhibitory connections are weaker in ASD, and an absence of the effect of adaptation suggests impaired modulation of lateral inhibitory connections in ASD, which may relate to aberrant habituation. These results suggest a functional deficit in the somatosensory inhibitory system in autism. Understanding the specific mechanisms underlying sensory symptoms in autism may allow for more specific therapeutic or drug targeting in the near future. PMID:24523518

  14. Neural oscillatory deficits in schizophrenia predict behavioral and neurocognitive impairments.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Antígona; Gaspar, Pablo A; Hillyard, Steven A; Bickel, Stephan; Lakatos, Peter; Dias, Elisa C; Javitt, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    Paying attention to visual stimuli is typically accompanied by event-related desynchronizations (ERD) of ongoing alpha (7-14 Hz) activity in visual cortex. The present study used time-frequency based analyses to investigate the role of impaired alpha ERD in visual processing deficits in schizophrenia (Sz). Subjects viewed sinusoidal gratings of high (HSF) and low (LSF) spatial frequency (SF) designed to test functioning of the parvo- vs. magnocellular pathways, respectively. Patients with Sz and healthy controls paid attention selectively to either the LSF or HSF gratings which were presented in random order. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to all stimuli. As in our previous study, it was found that Sz patients were selectively impaired at detecting LSF target stimuli and that ERP amplitudes to LSF stimuli were diminished, both for the early sensory-evoked components and for the attend minus unattend difference component (the Selection Negativity), which is generally regarded as a specific index of feature-selective attention. In the time-frequency domain, the differential ERP deficits to LSF stimuli were echoed in a virtually absent theta-band phase locked response to both unattended and attended LSF stimuli (along with relatively intact theta-band activity for HSF stimuli). In contrast to the theta-band evoked responses which were tightly stimulus locked, stimulus-induced desynchronizations of ongoing alpha activity were not tightly stimulus locked and were apparent only in induced power analyses. Sz patients were significantly impaired in the attention-related modulation of ongoing alpha activity for both HSF and LSF stimuli. These deficits correlated with patients' behavioral deficits in visual information processing as well as with visually based neurocognitive deficits. These findings suggest an additional, pathway-independent, mechanism by which deficits in early visual processing contribute to overall cognitive impairment in Sz. PMID:26190988

  15. ChemTeacher: Significant Figures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Significant Figures page includes resources for teaching students about understanding and using significant figures in calculations.

  16. The impact of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on preadolescent adjustment may be greater for girls than for boys.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Irene J; Malone, Steve; Keyes, Margaret; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Whether gender differences exist in the impairment associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is still largely unknown, because most samples have few affected girls or include only one sex. The current study evaluated whether ADHD affects adjustment differently for girls than boys in a population-based cohort of 11-year-olds (520 girls, 478 boys). Those with a DSM-IV diagnosis of ADHD (predominantly inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive, or combined) were compared to those without ADHD on teacher, parent, and child reports of academics, peer relationships, self-concept, clinical symptoms, and treatment. Although boys and girls with ADHD experienced difficulties in all areas, girls with ADHD, especially the inattentive subtype, were more negatively affected in academics and peer relationships. Inattentive girls were less popular and more likely to be bullied than girls without ADHD, whereas inattentive boys were not. The social isolation experienced by many girls with ADHD deserves greater attention. PMID:21722026

  17. Diabetes-related impairment in bone strength is established early in the life course

    PubMed Central

    Casazza, Krista; Hanks, Lynae J; Clines, Gregory A; Tse, Hubert M; Eberhardt, Alan W

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate properties of bone quantity/quality using young non-obese Type 1 (T1D)-diabetic (NOD) prone and syngenic non-diabetic (NOD.scid) mice. METHODS: Quantitative bone assessment of tibia was conducted using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for the evaluation of body mass, bone mineral content, body fat mass and lean mass. Qualitative assessment was accomplished by three-point breakage for assessment of force to failure and micro-computed tomography for evaluation of trabecular and cortical properties of bone. In addition, fasting blood was evaluated prior to sacrifice at week eleven and fifteen to evaluate and compare glucose homeostasis between the strains of mice. RESULTS: Our findings support a perturbation in the relationship between bone quantity, quality, and subsequently, the association between structure and strength. There were no differences in DXA-assessed body composition (body fat, % fat mass and lean mass) and bone composition (bone mineral content and bone mineral density) between strains. However, relative to NOD.scid, NOD mice had lower trabecular bone volume, relative trabecular bone volume, trabecular number and trabecular total material density (P < 0.05). Conversely, NOD mice had greater cortical total mean volume (P < 0.05). General linear models analysis adjusted for body weight revealed a significant contribution of T1D to bone health as early as 5 wk. CONCLUSION: It is well-established that diabetes is a significant risk factor for increased fractures, although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Investigation of bone parameters encompassing strength and structure early in the life course will facilitate the elucidation of the pathogenesis of impaired bone integrity. PMID:23961325

  18. Temperament-Based Learning Styles of Visually Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland, Thomas; Banner, Diane; Livingston, Rita

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the learning style preferences of 214 students (ages 10-17) with visual impairments and their sighted peers. Students with visual impairments more frequently preferred practical, thinking, or organized styles. Boys with visual impairments tended to prefer extroverted styles and girls with visual impairments tended to prefer…

  19. Integrated spoken and written English instruction for the hearing-impaired student.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J F; Whitehead, R L

    1983-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of integrated instruction in both spoken and written English on oral expression of hearing-impaired persons. Twenty-five hearing-impaired young adults were enrolled in English courses that focused on reading and writing skills only (control group) or on reading, writing, and complementary oral language instruction (experimental group). The experimental group demonstrated significant improvement in grammatical correctness of spoken English and in speech intelligibility, while the control group failed to demonstrate a significant improvement in these areas. PMID:6645437

  20. Quality of life impairment associated with body dissatisfaction in a general population sample of women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In order to elucidate the individual and community health burden of body dissatisfaction (BD), we examined impairment in quality of life associated with BD in a large, general population sample of women. Methods Self-report measures of BD, health-related quality of life (SF-12 Physical and Mental Component Summary scales) and subjective quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF Psychological Functioning and Social Relationships subscales) were completed by 5,255 Australian women aged 18 to 42 years. Results Most participants (86.9%) reported some level of dissatisfaction with their weight or shape and more than one third (39.4%) reported moderate to marked dissatisfaction. Higher levels of BD were associated with poorer quality of life for all items of both quality of life measures, the degree of impairment being proportional to the degree of BD. Associations were strongest for items tapping mental health and psychosocial functioning, although greater BD was associated with substantially increased risk of impairment in certain aspects of physical health even when controlling for body weight. Post-hoc analysis indicated that the observed associations between BD and quality of life impairment were not accounted for by an association between BD and eating disorder symptoms. Conclusions In women, BD is associated with marked impairment in aspects of quality of life relating to mental health and psycho-social functioning and at least some aspects of physical health, independent of its association with body weight and eating disorder symptoms. Greater attention may need to be given to BD as a public health problem. The fact that BD is “normative” should not be taken to infer that it is benign. PMID:24088248

  1. Hematological and plasma biochemical values of the greater glider in Australia.

    PubMed

    Viggers, K L; Lindenmayer, D B

    2001-04-01

    Reference hematological and plasma biochemical values are presented for the greater glider (Petauroides volans) at Tumut (southeastern New South Wales, Australia). Nineteen animals were sampled during a capture period of 1 wk in August 1999. Values for red cell counts were significantly higher in male animals (mean +/- SE; males: 5.6 +/- 0.1; females: 5.2 +/- 0.1). Young animals had higher white cell counts than older ones (mean +/- SE; young: 4.9 +/- 0.4; older: 2.8 +/- 0.4). Lymphocytes were the predominant white blood cell type in this species. PMID:11310891

  2. Spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic occurrence and association with bedrock geology in greater augusta, maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yang, Q.; Jung, H.B.; Culbertson, C.W.; Marvinney, R.G.; Loiselle, M.C.; Locke, D.B.; Cheek, H.; Thibodeau, H.; Zheng, Yen

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed, and 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic concentrations >10 ??g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ??g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (???40%). This probability differs significantly (p < 0.001) from those in the Silurian - Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%), and the Ordovician - Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium, and high arsenic occurrences in four cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (???1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ??g/L arsenic in groundwater. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  3. Spatial Pattern of Groundwater Arsenic Occurrence and Association with Bedrock Geology in Greater Augusta, Maine, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiang; Jung, Hun Bok; Culbertson, Charles W.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Loiselle, Marc C.; Locke, Daniel B.; Cheek, Heidi; Thibodeau, Hilary; Zheng, Yan

    2009-01-01

    In New England, groundwater arsenic occurrence has been linked to bedrock geology on regional scales. To ascertain and quantify this linkage at intermediate (100-101 km) scales, 790 groundwater samples from fractured bedrock aquifers in the greater Augusta, Maine area are analyzed. 31% of the sampled wells have arsenic >10 ?g/L. The probability of [As] exceeding 10 ?g/L mapped by indicator kriging is highest in Silurian pelite-sandstone and pelite-limestone units (~40%). This probability differs significantly (p<0.001) from those in the Silurian-Ordovician sandstone (24%), the Devonian granite (15%) and the Ordovician-Cambrian volcanic rocks (9%). The spatial pattern of groundwater arsenic distribution resembles the bedrock map. Thus, bedrock geology is associated with arsenic occurrence in fractured bedrock aquifers of the study area at intermediate scales relevant to water resources planning. The arsenic exceedance rate for each rock unit is considered robust because low, medium and high arsenic occurrences in 4 cluster areas (3-20 km2) with a low sampling density of 1-6 wells per km2 are comparable to those with a greater density of 5-42 wells per km2. About 12,000 people (21% of the population) in the greater Augusta area (~1135 km2) are at risk of exposure to >10 ?g/L arsenic in groundwater. PMID:19475939

  4. Susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to experimental infection with West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Clark, Larry; Hall, Jeffrey; McLean, Robert; Dunbar, Michael; Klenk, Kaci; Bowen, Richard; Smeraski, Cynthia A

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined 45-80% in North America since 1950. Although much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss, recent field studies have indicated that West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant negative impact on local populations of grouse. We confirm the susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to WNV infection in laboratory experimental studies. Grouse were challenged by subcutaneous injection of WNV (10(3.2) plaque-forming units [PFUs]). All grouse died within 6 days of infection. The Kaplan-Meier estimate for 50% survival was 4.5 days. Mean peak viremia for nonvaccinated birds was 10(6.4) PFUs/ml (+/-10(0.2) PFUs/ml, standard error of the mean [SEM]). Virus was shed cloacally and orally. Four of the five vaccinated grouse died, but survival time was increased (50% survival=9.5 days), with 1 grouse surviving to the end-point of the experiment (14 days) with no signs of illness. Mean peak viremia for the vaccinated birds was 10(2.3) PFUs/ml (+/-10(0.6) PFUs/ml, SEM). Two birds cleared the virus from their blood before death or euthanasia. These data emphasize the high susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to infection with WNV. PMID:16699144

  5. White Matter Integrity Linked To Functional Impairments in Aging and Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kavcic, Voyko; Ni, Hongyan; Zhu, Tong; Zhong, Jianhui; Duffy, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is associated with changes in cerebral white matter (WM) but the functional significance of such findings is not yet established. We hypothesized that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) might reveal links between regional WM changes and specific neuropsychologically and psychophysically defined impairments in early AD. Methods Older adult control subjects (OA, n=18) and mildly impaired AD patients (n=14) underwent neuropsychological and visual perceptual testing along with DTI of cerebral WM. DTI yielded factional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity () maps for nine ROIs in three brain regions that were then compared to the performance measures. Results AD patients showed non-significant trends toward lower FAs in the posterior region’s callosal and sub-cortical ROIs. However, posterior callosal FA was significantly correlated with verbal fluency and figural memory impairments, whereas posterior subcortical FA was correlated with delayed verbal memory, figural memory, and optic flow perceptual impairments. Conclusions WM changes in early AD are concentrated in posterior cerebral areas with distributions that correspond to specific functional impairments. DTI can be used to assess regional pathology related to individual’s deficits in early AD. PMID:19012862

  6. At What Level of Heat Load Are Age-Related Impairments in the Ability to Dissipate Heat Evident in Females?

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jill M.; Poirier, Martin P.; Flouris, Andreas D.; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J.; Malcolm, Janine; Kenny, Glen P.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have reported that older females have impaired heat loss responses during work in the heat compared to young females. However, it remains unclear at what level of heat stress these differences occur. Therefore, we examined whole-body heat loss [evaporative (HE) and dry heat loss, via direct calorimetry] and changes in body heat storage (?Hb, via direct and indirect calorimetry) in 10 young (23±4 years) and 10 older (58±5 years) females matched for body surface area and aerobic fitness (VO2peak) during three 30-min exercise bouts performed at incremental rates of metabolic heat production of 250 (Ex1), 325 (Ex2) and 400 (Ex3) W in the heat (40°C, 15% relative humidity). Exercise bouts were separated by 15 min of recovery. Since dry heat gain was similar between young and older females during exercise (p=0.52) and recovery (p=0.42), differences in whole-body heat loss were solely due to HE. Our results show that older females had a significantly lower HE at the end of Ex2 (young: 383±34 W; older: 343±39 W, p=0.04) and Ex3 (young: 437±36 W; older: 389±29 W, p=0.008), however no difference was measured at the end of Ex1 (p=0.24). Also, the magnitude of difference in the maximal level of HE achieved between the young and older females became greater with increasing heat loads (Ex1=10.2%, Ex2=11.6% and Ex3=12.4%). Furthermore, a significantly greater ?Hb was measured for all heat loads for the older females (Ex1: 178±44 kJ; Ex2: 151±38 kJ; Ex3: 216±25 kJ, p=0.002) relative to the younger females (Ex1: 127±35 kJ; Ex2: 96±45 kJ; Ex3: 146±46 kJ). In contrast, no differences in HE or ?Hb were observed during recovery (p>0.05). We show that older habitually active females have an impaired capacity to dissipate heat compared to young females during exercise-induced heat loads of ?325 W when performed in the heat. PMID:25790024

  7. Impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation at rest and during isometric exercise in type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    Vianna, Lauro C; Deo, Shekhar H; Jensen, Areum K; Holwerda, Seth W; Zimmerman, Matthew C; Fadel, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2D) have elevated risk of stroke, suggesting that cerebrovascular function is impaired. Herein, we examined dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) at rest and during exercise in T2D patients and determined whether underlying systemic oxidative stress is associated with impairments in CA. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and arterial blood pressure (BP) were measured at rest and during 2-min bouts of low- and high-intensity isometric handgrip performed at 20% and 40% maximum voluntary contraction, respectively, in seven normotensive and eight hypertensive T2D patients and eight healthy controls. Dynamic CA was estimated using the rate of regulation (RoR). Total reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide levels were measured at rest. There were no differences in RoR at rest or during exercise between normotensive and hypertensive T2D patients. However, when compared with controls, T2D patients exhibited lower RoR at rest and during low-intensity handgrip indicating impaired dynamic CA. Moreover, the RoR was further reduced by 29 ± 4% during high-intensity handgrip in T2D patients (0.307 ± 0.012/s rest vs. 0.220 ± 0.014/s high intensity; P < 0.01), although well maintained in controls. T2D patients demonstrated greater baseline total ROS and superoxide compared with controls, both of which were negatively related to RoR during handgrip (e.g., total ROS: r = -0.71, P < 0.05; 40% maximum voluntary contraction). Collectively, these data demonstrate impaired dynamic CA at rest and during isometric handgrip in T2D patients, which may be, in part, related to greater underlying systemic oxidative stress. Additionally, dynamic CA is blunted further with high intensity isometric contractions potentially placing T2D patients at greater risk for cerebral events during such activities. PMID:25599569

  8. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates for the spatial distribution of expected shaking, even for sites with few observations. The resulting probability of severe shaking is ca 35% in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama and ca 10% in Chiba for an average 30 year period, in good agreement with our independent estimate, and thus bolstering our view that Tokyo's hazard looms large. Given $1 trillion estimates for the cost of an M???7.3 shock beneath Tokyo, our probability implies a $13 billion annual probable loss. ?? 2006 The Royal Society.

  9. Exposure to HIV-1 Tat in brain impairs sensorimotor gating and activates microglia in limbic and extralimbic brain regions of male mice.

    PubMed

    Paris, Jason J; Singh, Harminder D; Carey, Amanda N; McLaughlin, Jay P

    2015-09-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with mood disorders and behavioral disinhibition. Impairments in sensorimotor gating and associated neurocognitive disorders are reported, but the HIV-proteins and mechanisms involved are not known. The regulatory HIV-1 protein, Tat, is neurotoxic and its expression in animal models increases anxiety-like behavior concurrent with neuroinflammation and structural changes in limbic and extra-limbic brain regions. We hypothesized that conditional expression of HIV-1 Tat1-86 in the GT-tg bigenic mouse model would impair sensorimotor gating and increase microglial reactivity in limbic and extralimbic brain regions. Conditional Tat induction via doxycycline (Dox) treatment (0-125mg/kg, i.p., for 1-14 days) significantly potentiated the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) of GT-tg mice and impaired prepulse inhibition (PPI) of this response in a dose-dependent manner when Dox (100mg/kg) was administered for brief (1 day) or prolonged (daily for 7 days) intervals. A greater proportion of active/reactive Iba1-labeled microglia was seen in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dentate gyrus, and nucleus accumbens core when Tat protein was induced under either brief or prolonged expression conditions. Other subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampal formation, ventral tegmental area, and ventral pallidum also displayed Tat-induced microglial activation, but only the activation observed in the ACC recapitulated the pattern of ASR and PPI behaviors. Tat exposure also increased frontal cortex GFAP. Pretreatment with indomethacin attenuated the behavioral effects of brief (but not prolonged) Tat-exposure. Overall, exposure to HIV-1 Tat protein induced sensorimotor deficits associated with acute and persistent neuroinflammation in limbic/extralimbic brain regions. PMID:26005128

  10. Pain in cognitively impaired older persons.

    PubMed

    Parmelee, P A

    1996-08-01

    To summarize, there has been shamefully little empirical research directly examining the prevalence and correlates of pain among cognitively impaired older people. Even less is known about techniques for assessing and managing pain in this group. Existing evidence suggests that cognitively impaired older persons may voice fewer complaints about pain, but there is no reason to believe that they are in fact at less risk of pain than their cognitively intact age-mates. Rather, for whatever reason, persons with cognitively deficits appear to be less inclined to report pain than are intact elders of similar health status. This reporting difference may account at least in part for the fact that pain is less likely to be treated aggressively among cognitively impaired individuals. Unfortunately, knowing the reason for this state of affairs does not mitigate its implication: cognitive deficits place frail older persons at risk of unnecessary pain simply because it is not properly identified. Data reviewed in this chapter suggest that accurate assessment of pain in cognitively impaired older persons, far from being impossible, may actually be only slightly more demanding than it is in intact individuals. Even among markedly impaired elders, self-reports should certainly be taken as valid indicators; early evidence suggests promising avenues for developing reliable, clear-cut guidelines for the nonverbal assessment of pain in very severely demented individuals. As the nation grows older and medical care advances, a growing proportion of individuals can expect to live well into their eighth and even ninth decades. Unfortunately, with this extended life span comes increased likelihood of both cognitive impairment and pain. Thus, expansion of our repertoire of techniques for assessing and managing pain among cognitively impaired older persons must be a central priority for research on pain in late life. PMID:8853940

  11. Rapid weight-loss impairs simulated riding performance and strength in jockeys: implications for making-weight.

    PubMed

    Wilson, George; Hawken, Malcolm B; Poole, Ian; Sparks, Andy; Bennett, Simon; Drust, Barry; Morton, James; Close, Graeme L

    2014-01-01

    Despite the performance concerns of dehydration in other sports, there are currently no data on the effects of rapid weight-loss on the physical and cognitive performance of jockeys in a sport-specific context. In a randomised crossover design, eight Great Britain (GB) male licensed jockeys were assessed for chest strength, leg strength, simulated riding performance (assessed by maximum pushing frequency on a mechanical riding simulator during the final two furlongs of a simulated 2 mile race) and simple reaction time after performing 45 min of exercise, during which euhydration was maintained (Control trial) or induced 2% dehydration (Rapid Weight-Loss trial). Reductions in both chest (-13.8 ± 3.03% vs. 0.62 ± 1.04%) and leg strength (-4.8 ± 4.8% vs. -0.56 ± 2.5%) were greater in Rapid Weight-Loss compared with Control (P < 0.01 and P = 0.04, respectively). Similarly, reductions in simulated riding performance were also greater (P = 0.05) in Rapid Weight-Loss (-2.8 ± 4.0%) compared with Control (-0.07 ± 1.5%), whereas there were no significant changes (P = 0.14) in simple reaction time. We conclude that a 2% reduction in body mass, as achieved by 45 min of moderate-intensity exercise undertaken in a sweatsuit (a common method of inducing acute dehydration by jockeys), significantly impairs maximum pushing frequency during a simulated race. In addition, the observed reductions in strength may also increase the occupational hazards associated with race riding. PMID:24015787

  12. Over-reporting significant figures—a significant problem?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert C. Hawkins; Tony Badrick; Peter E. Hickman

    2007-01-01

    BackgroundExcessive use of significant figures in numerical data gives a spurious impression of laboratory imprecision to clinicians. We describe reporting practices in 24 Asia-Pacific laboratories, assess whether these reporting formats and those used in the literature can be justified based on actual laboratory performance and outline how to choose the appropriate number of significant places.

  13. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors, anthropogenic and landscape features, and

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    ARTICLE Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) hen survival: effects of raptors with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus development, antipredation strategy, Centrocercus urophasianus, Greater Sage-Grouse, habitat, parental

  14. Society for Conservation Biology Implications of Global Climate Change for Biogeographic Patterns in the Greater Yellowstone

    E-print Network

    Turner, Monica G.

    in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem Author(s): William H. Romme and Monica G. Turner Source: Conservation;ImplicationsofGlobalClimate ChangeforBiogeographic PatternsintheGreater YellowstoneEcosystem WILLIAMH. ROMME exploredthepotential implica- tionsofglobal climatechangeforbiogeographicpatternsin theGreaterYellowstone

  15. Greater lean tissue and skeletal muscle mass are associated with higher bone mineral content in children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To compare the relationship of skeletal muscle mass with bone mineral content in an ethnically diverse group of 6 to 18 year old boys and girls. Methods 175 healthy children (103 boys; 72 girls) had assessments of body mass, height, and Tanner stage. Whole body bone mineral content, non-bone lean body mass (nbLBM), skeletal muscle mass, and fat mass were assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Muscle mass was estimated from an equation using appendicular lean soft tissue measured by DXA, weight and height. Estimates of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue were also assessed by whole body multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Linear regression was used to determine whether skeletal muscle mass assessed by DXA or by MRI were better predictors of bone mineral content compared with nbLBM after adjusting for sex, age, race or ethnicity, and Tanner stage. Results Greater skeletal muscle mass was associated with greater bone mineral content (p < 0.001). The skeletal muscle mass assessed by MRI provided a better fitting regression model (determined by R2 statistic) compared with assessment by DXA for predicting bone mineral content. The proportion of skeletal muscle mass in nbLBM was significantly associated with greater bone mineral content adjusted for total nbLBM. Conclusions This study is among the first to describe and compare the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone using both MRI and DXA estimates. The results demonstrate that the use of MRI provides a modestly better fitting model for the relationship of skeletal muscle to bone compared with DXA. Skeletal muscle had an impact on bone mineral content independent of total non-bone lean body mass. In addition, Hispanics had greater bone mineral content compared to other race and ethnic groups after adjusting for sex, age, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle mass, and height. PMID:20459832

  16. Diagnosed Mild Cognitive Impairment Due to Alzheimer’s Disease with PET Biomarkers of Beta Amyloid and Neuronal Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hatashita, Shizuo; Yamasaki, Hidetomo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) using amyloid imaging of beta amyloid (A?) deposition and FDG imaging of reflecting neuronal dysfunction as PET biomarkers. Sixty-eight MCI patients underwent cognitive testing, [11C]-PIB PET and [18F]-FDG PET at baseline and follow-up. Regions of interest were defined on co-registered MRI. PIB distribution volume ratio (DVR) was calculated using Logan graphical analysis, and the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) on the same regions was used as quantitative analysis for [18F]-FDG. Thirty (44.1%) of all 68 MCI patients converted to AD over 19.2±7.1 months. The annual rate of MCI conversion was 23.4%. A positive A? PET biomarker significantly identified MCI due to AD in individual MCI subjects with a sensitivity (SS) of 96.6% and specificity (SP) of 42.1%. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 56.8%. A positive A? biomarker in APOE ?4/4 carriers distinguished with a SS of 100%. In individual MCI subjects who had a prominent impairment in episodic memory and aged older than 75 years, an A? biomarker identified MCI due to AD with a greater SS of 100%, SP of 66.6% and PPV of 80%, compared to FDG biomarker alone or both PET biomarkers combined. In contrast, when assessed in precuneus, both A? and FDG biomarkers had the greatest level of certainty for MCI due to AD with a PPV of 87.8%. The A? PET biomarker primarily defines MCI due to AD in individual MCI subjects. Furthermore, combined FDG biomarker in a cortical region of precuneus provides an added diagnostic value in predicting AD over a short period. PMID:23799136

  17. THE LINK BETWEEN EARLY ONSET DRINKING AND EARLY ONSET ALCOHOL-IMPAIRED DRIVING IN YOUNG MALES

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lening; Wieczorek, William F.; Welte, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Young drivers represent a disproportionate number of the individuals involved in alcohol-impaired driving. Although there is a known association between drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in young drivers, the link between early onset drinking and early onset alcohol-impaired driving has not been explored. Objectives The present study aimed to assess this link along with potentially confounding factors. Methods The assessment used a proportional hazards model with data collected from the Buffalo Longitudinal Study of Young Men, a population based sample of 625 males at ages of 16–19 years old. Results Controlling for the effects of potentially relevant confounds, the early onset of drinking was the most influential factor in predicting the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Race and the early onset of other forms of delinquency also played a significant role in the early onset of alcohol-impaired driving. Conclusion Preventing an early start of drinking among adolescents may be the most critical factor to address in preventing an early start of alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:24766089

  18. Verbal and Visual Memory Impairments in Bipolar I and II Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tae Hyon; Kim, Ji Sun; Chang, Jae Seung; Oh, Sung Hee; Her, Ju Young; Cho, Hyun Sang; Park, Tae Sung; Shin, Soon Young

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare verbal and visual memory performances between patients with bipolar I disorder (BD I) and patients with bipolar II disorder (BD II) and to determine whether memory deficits were mediated by impaired organizational strategies. Methods Performances on the Korean-California Verbal Learning Test (K-CVLT) and the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (ROCF) in 37 patients with BD I, 46 patients with BD II and 42 healthy subjects were compared. Mediating effects of impaired organization strategies on poor delayed recall was tested by comparing direct and mediated models using multiple regression analysis. Results Both patients groups recalled fewer words and figure components and showed lower Semantic Clustering compared to controls. Verbal memory impairment was partly mediated by difficulties in Semantic Clustering in both subtypes, whereas the mediating effect of Organization deficit on the visual memory impairment was present only in BD I. In all mediated models, group differences in delayed recall remained significant. Conclusion Our findings suggest that memory impairment may be one of the fundamental cognitive deficits in bipolar disorders and that executive dysfunctions can exert an additional influence on memory impairments. PMID:23251197

  19. Impairments in the Perception of Odor-Induced Tastes and Their Relationship to Impairments in Taste Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Miller, Laurie A.; Thayer, Zoe C.

    2008-01-01

    Certain odors have tastelike qualities when sniffed. To the extent that these qualities are akin to real taste experiences, impairment in perception of odor-induced tastes should be accompanied by taste impairment, and vice versa. Twelve patients were selected with possible odor-induced taste impairments or general taste impairments via a…

  20. A Comparison of Social Skills in Turkish Children with Visual Impairments, Children with Intellectual Impairments and Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkubat, Ufuk; Ozdemir, Selda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the social skills of five groups of children: children with visual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with visual impairments attending schools for the blind, children with intellectual impairments attending inclusive education schools, children with intellectual impairments

  1. Giant solitary fibrous tumor arising from greater omentum

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Liang; Chen, Ping; Wang, Guang-Yao; Zhu, Qun-Shan

    2012-01-01

    Extrathoracic solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been described at almost every anatomic location of human body, but reports of SFT in the abdominal cavity are rare. We herein present a rare case of SFT originating from greater omentum. Computed tomography revealed a 15.8 cm × 21.0 cm solid mass located at superior aspect of stomach. Open laparotomy confirmed its mesenchymal origin. Microscopically, its tissue was composed of non-organized and spindle-shaped cells exhibiting atypical nuclei, which were divided up by branching vessel and collagen bundles. Immunohistochemical staining showed that this tumor was negative for CD117, CD99, CD68, cytokeratin, calretinin, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, F8 and S-100, but positive for CD34, bcl-2, ?-smooth muscle actin and vimentin. The patient presented no evidence of recurrence during follow-up. SFT arising from abdominal cavity can be diagnosed by histological findings and immunohistochemical markers, especially for CD34 and bcl-2 positive cases. PMID:23197901

  2. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  3. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  4. Outbreak of Philophthalmus gralli in four greater rheas (Rhea americana).

    PubMed

    Church, Melanie L; Barrett, Paul M; Swenson, Julie; Kinsella, John M; Tkach, Vasyl V

    2013-01-01

    Using slit-lamp biomicroscopy, conjunctival biopsy, and morphological identification, a flock of four Greater rheas (Rhea americana) in Arizona were diagnosed with conjunctivitis secondary to Philophthalmus gralli (P. gralli) infection. Aquatic snails from the exhibit's water source were identified as Melanoides tuberculatus, a known vector for P. gralli. Comparison of partial sequences of DNA regions from P. gralli adults removed from the rheas and metacercariae from the aquatic snails demonstrated a 100% match, confirming the source of infection. The flock was divided into two treatment groups: the most severely affected rheas received both manual removal of trematodes and praziquantel 1% ointment OU q12?h and the least severely affected rheas were only given praziquantel 1% ointment OU q12?h. The rheas were permanently relocated away from the infected water source and aquatic snails. Initial resolution was seen at 17?weeks in the most severely affected rhea, which had 675 adult P. gralli removed and topical praziquantel. The two rheas that only received topical praziquantel showed resolution within 3 and 15?weeks. Current recommendations for treating P. gralli include: manual removal of trematodes, topical praziquantel 1% ointment, and relocation away from infected water sources and aquatic snails. PMID:22429741

  5. Integrating Alpine Adventure and Citizen Science in the Greater Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, H.

    2014-12-01

    As earth scientists, we are drawn together by our fascination with the natural world. On alpine climbing expeditions in the Greater Ranges of Asia during 2012-14, I had the opportunity to contribute to the scientific understanding and stewardship of the places I visit for personal fulfillment. Using the "matchmaking" services of Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation, I was connected with researchers to conduct field studies in some of the world's highest and most remote mountains. Here, I present work from two projects: 1) Assessing the role of biological weathering in shaping high altitude landscapes in the Pamir Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and 2) Understanding the effects of anthropogenic biomass burning on glacial thinning in the Everest Region, Nepal. Both collaborative efforts succeeded in collecting valuable data from challenging environments using a small research budget. As a scientist with expertise in terrestrial paleoclimate and stable isotope geochemistry, these projects served to expand my research horizons and areas of professional interest. Citizen science can not only add a sense of value to otherwise selfish endeavors such as high altitude climbing, but also serve to connect scientists with the communities who appreciate their efforts most.

  6. Bosonization and fermion liquids in dimensions greater than one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houghton, A.; Marston, J. B.

    1993-09-01

    We develop and describe new approaches to the problem of interacting fermions in spatial dimensions greater than 1. These approaches are based on generalizations of powerful tools previously applied to problems in one spatial dimension. We begin with a review of one-dimensional interacting fermions. We then introduce a simplified model in two spatial dimensions to study the role that spin and perfect nesting play in destabilizing fermion liquids. The complicated functional renormalization-group equations of the full problem are made tractable in our model by replacing the continuum of points that make up the closed Fermi line with four Fermi points. Despite this drastic approximation, the model exhibits physically reasonable behavior both at half-filling (where instabilities occur) and away from half-filling (where a Luttinger liquid arises). Next we implement the bosonization of higher-dimensional Fermi surfaces introduced by Luther and advocated most recently by Haldane. Bosonization incorporates the phase-space and small-angle scattering processes neglected in our model (but does not, as yet, address questions of stability). The charge sector is equivalent to an exactly solvable Gaussian quantum field theory; the spin sector, however, must be solved semiclassically. Using the Luther-Haldane approach we recover the collective mode equation of Fermi-liquid theory and in three dimensions reproduce the T3ln(T) contribution to the specific heat due to small-angle scattering processes. We conclude with a discussion of our results and some speculation about future possibilities.

  7. Malaria trends and challenges in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Delacollette, Charles; D'Souza, Carol; Christophel, Eva; Thimasarn, Krongthong; Abdur, Rashid; Bell, David; Dai, Tran Cong; Gopinath, Deyer; Lu, Shaohong; Mendoza, Raymond; Ortega, Leonard; Rastogi, Rakesh; Tantinimitkul, Chawalit; Ehrenberg, John

    2009-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the epidemiological patterns of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) from 1998 to 2007, and highlights critical challenges facing national malaria control programs and partners in effort to build on their successes as they move towards malaria pre-elimination and elimination as a programmatic goal. Epidemiological data provided by malaria programs show a drastic decline in malaria deaths and confirmed malaria positive cases over the last 10 years in the GMS. More than half of confirmed malaria cases and deaths recorded in the GMS occur in Myanmar, however, reporting methods and data management are not comparable between countries despite effort made by WHO to harmonize data collection, analysis and reporting among WHO Member States. Malaria is concentrated in forested/forest-fringe areas of the region mainly along international borders providing strong rationale to develop harmonized cross-border pre-elimination programs in conjunction with national efforts. Across the Mekong Region, the declining efficacy of recommended first-line antimalarials, eg artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) against falciparum malaria on the Cambodia-Thailand border, the prevalence of counterfeit and substandard antimalarial drugs, the lack of health services in general and malaria services in particular in remote settings, and the lack of information and services targeting migrants and mobile population present important barriers to reach or maintain malaria pre-elimination programmatic goals. Strengthening networking between research institutions and non-government organizations will increase knowledge-based decision and action. PMID:19842400

  8. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  9. Impaired motor learning performance in cerebellar En-2 mutant mice.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, R; Millen, K J; Herrup, K; Fabien, K; Joyner, A L; Roder, J

    1996-02-01

    Mice homozygous for a null mutation in their En-2 gene exhibit cerebellar neuroanatomical alterations including absence and misplacements of specific fissures and size reduction. The present study investigated cerebellar function by comparing the behavior of age-matched homozygous and heterozygous En-2 mutant and wild-type mice. Motor function of the mutants was found normal in several situations. Habituation to novelty in the open field was not significantly different in mutants. However, in a motor learning paradigm, the rotating rod, the performance of homozygous mutant mice improved significantly less than that of the heterozygous mice which were also significantly impaired compared to wild-type mice. Unlike other cerebellar mutants in which severe motor or sensory defects are obvious, the En-2 mouse model offers a unique tool to study the role of cerebellum in complex behavioral phenomena, including motor learning, without confounding effects. PMID:8652061

  10. Daily life impairments associated with self-reported childhood/adolescent attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and experiences of diagnosis and treatment: results from the European Lifetime Impairment Survey.

    PubMed

    Caci, H; Doepfner, M; Asherson, P; Donfrancesco, R; Faraone, S V; Hervas, A; Fitzgerald, M

    2014-06-01

    The Lifetime Impairment Survey assessed impairment and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children/adolescents from six European countries. Parents/caregivers of children/adolescents aged<20 years with ADHD (ADHD group; n = 535) and without ADHD (control group; n=424) participated in an online survey. History of ADHD diagnosis was self-reported. ADHD and control groups were compared using impairment and symptom scales; higher scores indicate greater impairment. Mean (SD) age at ADHD diagnosis was 7.0 (2.8) years, following consultation of 2.7 (2.6) doctors over 20.4 (23.9) months. Parents/caregivers (64%; 344/535) reported frustration with some aspect of the diagnostic procedure; 74% (222/298) were satisfied with their child's current medication. ADHD had a negative impact on children/adolescents in all aspects of life investigated. The ADHD group had a higher mean (SD) school impairment score (2.7 [0.7]) compared with the control group (2.1 [0.7]; P<0.001) and were more likely to be in the bottom of their class (P<0.001). These data provide insights into impairments associated with ADHD in childhood/adolescence, and identify areas for improvement in its management and treatment. PMID:24355601

  11. Abnormal verbal event related potentials in mild cognitive impairment and incipient Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Olichney, J; Morris, S; Ochoa, C; Salmon, D; Thal, L; Kutas, M; Iragui, V

    2002-01-01

    Background: It has been reported that patients with amnesia have a reduced effect of word repetition upon the late positive component of the event related potential (ERP), which peaks at around 600 ms after word onset. Objective: To study a word repetition ERP paradigm in subjects with mild cognitive impairment. Subjects: 14 patients with mild cognitive impairment (mean mini-mental state examination score = 27); 14 normal elderly controls. Methods: Auditory category statements were each followed by a single visual target word (50% "congruous" category exemplars, 50% "incongruous") while ERPs were recorded. N400 (an ERP component elicited by semantically "incongruous" words) and LPC amplitude data were submitted to analysis of variance. Results: The latency of the N400 was slower in mild cognitive impairment. In normal controls, the ERPs to "congruous" targets showed a late positive component to new words, which was greatly diminished with repetition. This repetition effect in normal subjects started before 300 ms at right frontal sites, and peaked at ?600 ms post-stimulus over posterior sites. In contrast, the group with mild cognitive impairment had a reduced repetition effect (p < 0.02), which started around 500 ms, with a more central distribution. Further comparisons within the cognitive impairment group showed no appreciable congruous word repetition effect among seven individuals who subsequently converted to probable Alzheimer's disease. The congruous word repetition effect in the group with mild cognitive impairment was almost entirely accounted for by the non-converters. The amplitude of the congruous late positive component word repetition effect was significantly correlated (0.38 ? r ? 0.73) with several verbal memory measures. Conclusions: The congruous word repetition ERP effect appears sensitive to the memory impairment in mild cognitive impairment and could have value in predicting incipient Alzheimer's disease. PMID:12235303

  12. Shifting South African Learners towards Greater Autonomy in Scientific Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramnarain, Umesh; Hobden, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This report describes how teachers support ninth-grade students who are doing scientific investigations in Natural Sciences in South African schools. This is of interest as allowing students to participate in inquiry-based investigations is a significant shift from traditional practices. It presents a new challenge to teachers as it signals an…

  13. Marital Status and Cognitive Impairment among Community-Dwelling Chinese Older Adults: The Role of Gender and Social Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Lei; Ng, Xue-Ting; Yap, Philip; Li, Jialiang; Lee, Tih-Shih; Håkansson, Krister; Kua, Ee-Heok; Ng, Tze-Pin

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the association between marital status and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling Chinese older adults. Methods We analyzed data from 2,498 Chinese aged 55 and older from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study cohort. Cognitive impairment was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination total score of 23 or below. Odds ratios of associations were reported and adjusted for potential confounders in logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of cognitive impairment was 12.2% (n = 306). Being single was associated with about 2.5 times increased odds of cognitive impairment compared to being married (adjusted OR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.41-4.55). The association between marital status and cognitive impairment was much stronger in men compared to that in women, and was indeed statistically significant only for men. Among the single and widowed persons social engagement was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment. Compared with subjects in the lowest tertile of social engagement scores, the odds of having cognitive impairment was lowered by 50% for subjects in the second and the third tertile. Conclusion Being single or widowed was associated with higher odds of cognitive impairment compared to being married in a cohort of older Chinese men but not women. PMID:25473404

  14. Associations between preschool attendance and developmental impairments in pre-school children in a six-year retrospective survey

    PubMed Central

    Stich, Heribert L; Baune, Bernhard T; Caniato, Riccardo N; Krämer, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Background Many school-aged children suffer physical and mental impairments which can adversely affect their development and result in significant morbidity. A high proportion of children in western countries attend pre-school, and it is likely that the preschool environment influences the prevalence and severity of these impairments. Currently there is insufficient data available on the prevalence of these impairments and their causal associations. The influence that location of a pre-school and the duration of preschool attendance have on the prevalence of these impairments is not known. Methods In a retrospective survey spanning six years (1997–2002) we reviewed the records of 6,230 preschool children who had undergone routine school entry assessments. These children had been assessed utilising a modified manual of the "Bavarian Model" for school entry examinations. This model outlines specific criteria for impairments of motor, cognitive, behavioural and psychosocial functioning. Prevalence rates for physical and behavioural impairments were based on the results of these assessments. The relationship between the prevalence of impairments and the duration of preschool attendance and the location of the preschool attended was estimated utilizing logistic regression models. Results We found that 20.7% of children met the criteria for at least one type of impairment. Highest prevalence rates (11.5%) were seen for speech impairments and lowest (3.5%) for arithmetic impairments. Boys were disproportionately over represented, with 25.5% meeting the criteria for impairment, compared to 13.0% for girls. Children who had attended preschool for less than one year demonstrated higher rates of impairment (up to 19.1% for difficulties with memory, concentration or perseverance) compared to those who had attended for a longer duration (up to 11.6% for difficulties with pronouncation). Children attending preschool in an urban location had slightly elevated rates of impairment (up to 12.7%), compared to their rural counterparts (up to 11.1%). Conclusion Our results demonstrate that there are high prevalence rates for physical and mental impairments among preschool children. Furthermore, children without preschool experience are a risk group for struggling with educational successes. The associations between the duration of preschool attendance and location of preschool attended and rates of impairment need replication and further exploration. Larger prospective studies are needed to examine if these relationships are causal and may therefore lend themselves to specific intervention strategies. PMID:17054777

  15. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 olfactory impairment shows a pattern similar to other major neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Pérez, Luis; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan; Díaz, Rosalinda; González, Ruth Pérez; Ochoa, Nalia Canales; Cruz, Gilberto Sánchez; Mederos, Luis Enrique Almaguer; Góngora, Edilberto Martínez; Hudson, Robyn; Drucker-Colin, René

    2006-09-01

    Olfactory function is affected in different neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, it has been found that some hereditary ataxias are also associated with significant olfactory impairment. However, the initial findings did not examine the nature of the olfactory impairment associated with these ataxias. In the present article the effect of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) on olfactory function was studied in 53 SCA2 patients and 53 healthy control subjects from Holguín, Cuba. Several tests were applied to evaluate olfactory threshold, description, identification and discrimination. The results show significant impairment in SCA2 patients on all olfactory measurements, and the pattern of olfactory deficits found suggests that they have much in common with those reported for other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. PMID:16609806

  16. Greater involvement of people living with HIV in health care

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS represents a mobilising and an organising principle for the involvement of people living with HIV in program and policy responses. People with HIV have been at the forefront of designing and implementing effective HIV treatment, care and prevention activities. However, governments and health systems have yet to act to fully harness the potential and resources of people living with HIV in addressing the epidemic. The lives and experiences of people living with HIV highlight the need for a shift in the existing paradigm of disease management. The high prevalence of HIV amongst health care providers in many countries, exacerbated by stigma towards those with HIV in the health care professions, is seriously undermining the capacity of health systems and signals the need to change the current nature of health care delivery. Moreover, the negative experiences of many people with HIV in relation to their health care as well as in their daily social interactions, coupled with the ever-limited current investment in treatment, care and support, demonstrate that the current system is drastically failing the majority of people with HIV. Current health management systems urgently need to be more effectively maximised, to increase the quality of standards of health care systems and services in resource poor countries. An integrated approach to health care based on a human rights framework, grounded in community realities and delivered in partnership and solidarity with people living with HIV, offers the most viable approach to overcoming the crisis of HIV in the health care system. PMID:19284672

  17. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M. [University of Montana, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  18. P Values and Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hopkins, Will G.

    This resource, created by author Will G. Hopkins, defines what a p-value is, why .05 is significant, and when to use it. It also covers related topics such as one-tailed/two-tailed tests and hypothesis testing. Overall, this is a wonderful resource for students wanting to learn more about statistics, and more specially, significant testing.

  19. Greater physical fitness is associated with better air ventilation efficiency in firefighters.

    PubMed

    Gendron, P; Freiberger, E; Laurencelle, L; Trudeau, F; Lajoie, C

    2015-03-01

    Firefighting is a hazardous task associated with a heavy workload where task duration may be limited by air cylinder capacity. Increased fitness may lead to better air ventilation efficiency and task duration at a given heavy work intensity. This study compared performance, air ventilation and skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during a maximal graded walking test (GWT), a 10 METS (metabolic equivalent) treadmill test (T10) and a simulated work circuit (SWC). Participants (n = 13) who performed the SWC in a shorter time had significantly lower air cylinder ventilation values on the T10 (r = -0.495), better peak oxygen consumption (r = -0.924) during the GWT and significantly greater skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during the SWC (HbDiff, r = 0.768). These results demonstrate that the fastest participants on the SWC had better air ventilation efficiency that could prolong interventions in difficult situations requiring air cylinder use. PMID:25479992

  20. Not lesser but Greater fractional anisotropy in adolescents with alcohol use disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Valerie A.; Greenstein, David; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Ferrett, Helen; Cuzen, Natalie; Stein, Dan J.; Fein, George

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to examine white matter microstructure using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in a sample of adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and no psychiatric or substance co-morbidity. Methods Fifty adolescents with AUD and fifty non-alcohol abusing controls matched on gender and age were studied with DTI, neurocognitive testing, and a clinical assessment that included measures of alcohol use and childhood trauma. Maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were computed, registered to a common template, and voxel-wise statistical analysis used to assess group differences. Associations between regions of altered WM microstructure and clinical or neurocognitive measures were also assessed. Results Compared with controls, adolescent drinkers without co-morbid substance abuse or externalizing disorder, showed 1) no regions of significantly lower FA, 2) increased FA in WM tracts of the limbic system; 3) no MD differences; and 4) within the region of higher FA in AUD, there were no associations between FA and alcohol use, cognition, or trauma. Discussion The most important observation of this study is our failure to observe significantly smaller FA in this relatively large alcohol abuse/dependent adolescent sample. Greater FA in the limbic regions observed in this study may index a risk for adolescent AUD instead of a consequence of drinking. Drinking behavior may be reinforced in those with higher FA and perhaps greater myelination in these brain regions involved in reward and reinforcement. PMID:24179831