Sample records for significantly greater impairment

  1. Greater syntactic impairments in native language in bilingual Parkinsonian patients

    PubMed Central

    Zanini, S; Tavano, A; Vorano, L; Schiavo, F; Gigli, G; Aglioti, S; Fabbro, F

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the presence of syntactic impairments in native language in Parkinson's disease. Methods: Twelve bilingual patients, with Friulian as their first language (L1) and Italian as their second (L2), with Parkinson's disease and 12 normal controls matched for age, sex, and years of schooling, were studied on three syntactic tasks. Results: Patients with Parkinson's disease showed a greater impairment of L1 than L2. Conclusions: These findings provide evidence of greater basal ganglia involvement in the acquisition and further processing of grammar in L1 v L2 possibly due to a major involvement of procedural memory in representing L1 grammar. PMID:15548481

  2. Greater impairment of extension movements as compared to flexion movements in Parkinson’s disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie A. Robichaud; Kerstin D. Pfann; Cynthia L. Comella; Melanie Brandabur; Daniel M. Corcos

    2004-01-01

    Research on isometric contractions in subjects with Parkinson’s disease (PD) has shown that anti-parkinsonian medication results in a greater increase in extensor strength than flexor strength. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that there is a greater impairment in neural activation of extensor muscles as compared to flexor muscles in subjects with PD. Such a hypothesis is physiologically feasible

  3. Depressive Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment Predict Greater Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease-

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Paul

    associated with in- creased risk of dementia (8,9). We previously demonstrated that depressive symptomsDepressive Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment Predict Greater Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease, we examined the neuroanatomical changes associated with depressive symptoms in MCI. Methods: Two

  4. Greater relative impairment of object recognition than of visuospatial abilities in Alzheimer's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel D. Kurylo; Suzanne Corkin; John H. Growdon

    1996-01-01

    Histological investigation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has indicated that the concentration of neurofibrillary tangles in inferotemporal cortex (IT) is greater than that found in posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Researchers hypothesized that the relative degree of impairment of visual function subserved by each of these cortical areas should reflect the disproportionate distribution of neuropathological changes. Eleven AD patients and 16 elderly

  5. Greater Relative Impairment of Object Recognition Than of Visuospatial Abilities in Alzheimer's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel D. Kurylo; Suzanne Corkin; Joseph F. Rizzo; John H. Growdon

    1996-01-01

    Histological investigation in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has indicated that the concentration of neurofibrillary tangles in inferotemporal cortex (IT) is greater than that found in posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Researchers hypothesized that the relative degree of impairment of visual function subserved by each of these cortical areas should reflect the disproportionate distribution of neuropathological changes. Eleven AD patients and 16 elderly

  6. A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter; Johnson, Kirk R.; Zamuner, Alba B.; Rubén Cúneo, N.; Matheos, Sergio D.; Singer, Bradley S.

    2007-10-01

    Few South American macrofloras of Paleocene age are known, and this limits our knowledge of diversity and composition between the end-Cretaceous event and the Eocene appearance of high floral diversity. We report new, unbiased collections of 2516 compression specimens from the Paleocene Salamanca Formation (ca. 61.7 Ma) from two localities in the Palacio de los Loros exposures in southern Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina. Our samples reveal considerably greater richness than was previously known from the Paleocene of Patagonia, including 36 species of angiosperm leaves as well as angiosperm fruits, flowers, and seeds; ferns; and conifer leaves, cones, and seeds. The floras, which are from siltstone and sandstone channel-fills deposited on low-relief floodplain landscapes in a humid, warm temperate climate, are climatically and paleoenvironmentally comparable to many quantitatively collected Paleocene floras from the Western Interior of North America. Adjusted for sample size, there are >50% more species at each Palacio de los Loros quarry than in any comparable U.S. Paleocene sample. These results indicate more vibrant terrestrial ecosystems in Patagonian than in North American floodplain environments ˜4 m.y. after the end-Cretaceous extinction, and they push back the time line 10 m.y. for the evolution of high floral diversity in South America. The cause of the dis parity is unknown but could involve reduced impact effects because of greater distance from the Chicxulub site, higher latest Cretaceous diversity, or faster recovery or immigration rates.

  7. Less wiring, more firing: low-performing older adults compensate for impaired white matter with greater neural activity.

    PubMed

    Daselaar, Sander M; Iyengar, Vijeth; Davis, Simon W; Eklund, Karl; Hayes, Scott M; Cabeza, Roberto E

    2015-04-01

    The reliable neuroimaging finding that older adults often show greater activity (over-recruitment) than younger adults is typically attributed to compensation. Yet, the neural mechanisms of over-recruitment in older adults (OAs) are largely unknown. Rodent electrophysiology studies have shown that as number of afferent fibers within a circuit decreases with age, the fibers that remain show higher synaptic field potentials (less wiring, more firing). Extrapolating to system-level measures in humans, we proposed and tested the hypothesis that greater activity in OAs compensates for impaired white-matter connectivity. Using a neuropsychological test battery, we measured individual differences in executive functions associated with the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and memory functions associated with the medial temporal lobes (MTLs). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared activity for successful versus unsuccessful trials during a source memory task. Finally, we measured white-matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging. The study yielded 3 main findings. First, low-executive OAs showed greater success-related activity in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs showed greater success-related activity in the MTLs. Second, low-executive OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the PFC, whereas low-memory OAs displayed white-matter deficits in the MTLs. Finally, in both prefrontal and MTL regions, white-matter decline and success-related activations occurred in close proximity and were negatively correlated. This finding supports the less-wiring-more-firing hypothesis, which provides a testable account of compensatory over-recruitment in OAs. PMID:24152545

  8. Clobazam and its active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam display significantly greater affinities for ??- versus ??-GABA(A)-receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Nichol, Kathryn; Lee, Deborah; Ebert, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    Clobazam (CLB), a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD), was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN) is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA ??-subunit-selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the ?? subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB), CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of ? (??, ??, ??, or ??), ??, and ?? subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for ??- vs. ??-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between ?? and ?? receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for ?? receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB. PMID:24533090

  9. Clobazam and Its Active Metabolite N-desmethylclobazam Display Significantly Greater Affinities for ?2- versus ?1-GABAA–Receptor Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Nichol, Kathryn; Lee, Deborah; Ebert, Bjarke

    2014-01-01

    Clobazam (CLB), a 1,5-benzodiazepine (BZD), was FDA-approved in October 2011 for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years and older. BZDs exert various CNS effects through allosteric modulation of GABAA receptors. The structurally distinct, 1,4-BZD clonazepam (CLN) is also approved to treat LGS. The precise mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy of both are unknown. Data show that the GABAA ?1-subunit–selective compound zolpidem [ZOL] exhibits hypnotic/sedative effects. Conversely, data from knock-in mice carrying BZD binding site mutations suggest that the ?2 subunit mediates anticonvulsant effects, without sedative actions. Hence, the specific pattern of interactions across the GABAA receptor complexes of BZDs might be reflected in their clinical efficacies and adverse effect profiles. In this study, GABAA-receptor binding affinities of CLB, N-desmethylclobazam (N-CLB, the major metabolite of CLB), CLN, and ZOL were characterized with native receptors from rat-brain homogenates and on cloned receptors from HEK293 cells transfected with combinations of ? (?1, ?2, ?3, or ?5), ?2, and ?2 subtypes. Our results demonstrate that CLB and N-CLB have significantly greater binding affinities for ?2- vs. ?1-receptor complexes, a difference not observed for CLN, for which no distinction between ?2 and ?1 receptors was observed. Our experiments with ZOL confirmed the high preference for ?1 receptors. These results provide potential clues to a new understanding of the pharmacologic modes of action of CLB and N-CLB. PMID:24533090

  10. Quality of life is significantly Impaired in long-term survivors of Acute Liver Failure and particularly in Acetaminophen Overdose patients

    PubMed Central

    Rangnekar, Amol S.; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Durkalski, Valerie; McGuire, Brendan; Lee, William M.; Fontana, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Functional outcomes in long-term survivors of acute liver failure (ALF) are not well-characterized. The aim of this prospective study was to determine health related quality of life (HRQOL) in long-term adult ALF survivors. ALFSG registry participants completed the CDC HRQOL-14 and SF-36 questionnaires at a 1 and/or 2 year follow-up study visit. Responses were compared among ALF subgroups and to available U.S. general population controls. Among the 282 adult ALF patients, 125 had undergone liver transplantation (LT) while 157 were spontaneous survivors (SS), including 95 acetaminophen overdose (APAP) patients and 62 non-APAP SS. Acetaminophen SS patients reported significantly lower general health scores and more days of impaired mental and physical health, activity limitations due to poor health, pain, depression, and anxiety compared to the other groups (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences in coma grade, use of mechanical ventilation or ICP monitoring among the patient groups during their ALF hospitalization but the APAP SS had a significantly higher rate of psychiatric disease and substance abuse (p< 0.001). Compared to the U.S. general population, a greater proportion of the combined SS patients reported fair/poor health and >14 days of impaired physical/mental health and activity limitations due to poor health. In addition, a greater proportion of LT recipents reported >14 days of impaired physical/mental health. Similar results were observed using the SF-36 across the three ALF subgroups and compared to population controls. In conclusion, long-term adult ALF survivors report significantly lower quality of life scores compared to U.S. population controls. Furthermore, APAP SS patients report the lowest quality of life scores, possibly due to a higher rate of pre-morbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders. PMID:23780824

  11. Cognitive impairment in patients with chronic pain: The significance of stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Hart; James B. Wade; Michael F. Martelli

    2003-01-01

    This review article examines the role of emotional distress and other aspects of suffering in the cognitive impairment that\\u000a often is apparent in patients with chronic pain. Research suggests that pain-related negative emotions and stress potentially\\u000a impact cognitive functioning independent of the effects of pain intensity. The anterior cingulate cortex is likely an integral\\u000a component of the neural system that

  12. Increasing Comprehension of Students with Significant Intellectual Disabilities and Visual Impairments during Shared Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mims, Pamela J.; Browder, Diane M.; Baker, Joshua N.; Lee, Angel; Spooner, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Shared stories have been shown to help increase emerging literacy skills in students with significant intellectual disabilities. One important literacy skill is the development of listening comprehension. In this study, least-to-most prompt system was used to promote listening comprehension during shared stories for two students with significant

  13. Interactive cervical motion kinematics: Sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.

    PubMed

    Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. PMID:25456272

  14. Diabetes is associated with impaired myocardial performance in patients without significant coronary artery disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Andersson; Gunnar H Gislason; Peter Weeke; Søren Hoffmann; Peter R Hansen; Christian Torp-Pedersen; Peter Søgaard

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have high risk of heart failure. Whether some of the risk is directly linked to metabolic derangements in the myocardium or whether the risk is primarily caused by coronary artery disease (CAD) and hypertension is incompletely understood. Echocardiographic tissue Doppler imaging was therefore performed in DM patients without significant CAD to examine whether DM

  15. Plasmodium falciparum Infection Significantly Impairs Placental Cytokine Profile in HIV Infected Cameroonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kfutwah, Anfumbom; Mary, Jean Yves; Lemen, Brigitte; Leke, Robert; Rousset, Dominique; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Nerrienet, Eric; Menu, Elisabeth; Ayouba, Ahidjo

    2009-01-01

    Background Placental cytokines play crucial roles in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy as well as protecting the foetus from infections. Previous studies have suggested the implication of infections such as P. falciparum and HIV in the stimulation of placental cytokines. This study assessed the impact of P. falciparum on placental cytokine profiles between HIV-1 positive and negative women. Materials and Methods P. falciparum infection was checked in peripheral and placental blood of HIV-1 negative and positive women by the thick blood smear test. Cytokines proteins and messenger RNAs were quantified by ELISA and real time PCR, respectively. Non-parametric tests were used for statistical analyses. Results Placental and peripheral P. falciparum infections were not significantly associated with HIV-1 infection (OR: 1.4; 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 0.5–4.2; p?=?0.50 and OR: 0.6; 95%CI: 0.3–1.4; p?=?0.26, respectively). Conversely, placental P. falciparum parasitemia was significantly higher in the HIV-1 positive group (p?=?0.04). We observed an increase of TNF-? mRNA median levels (p?=?0.02) and a trend towards a decrease of IL-10 mRNA (p?=?0.07) in placenta from HIV-1 positive women compared to the HIV negative ones leading to a median TNF-?/IL-10 mRNA ratio significantly higher among HIV-1 positive than among HIV-1 negative placenta (p?=?0.004; 1.5 and 0.8, respectively). Significant decrease in median secreted cytokine levels were observed in placenta from HIV-1 positive women as compared to the HIV negative however these results are somewhat indicative since it appears that differences in cytokine levels (protein or mRNA) between HIV-1 positive and negative women depend greatly on P.falciparum infection. Within the HIV-1 positive group, TNF-? was the only cytokine significantly associated with clinical parameters linked with HIV-1 MTCT such as premature rupture of membranes, CD4 T-cell number, plasma viral load and delay of NVP intake before delivery. Conclusions These results show that P. falciparum infection profoundly modifies the placenta cytokine environment and acts as a confounding factor, masking the impact of HIV-1 in co-infected women. This interplay between the two infections might have implications in the in utero MTCT of HIV-1 in areas where HIV-1 and P. falciparum co-circulate. PMID:19956547

  16. Partners met via sex parties present significantly greater odds for condomless anal sex among MSM: an event-level analysis of venues where male partners are met.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Rendina, H J; Ventuneac, Ana; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2014-12-15

    One hundred forty-seven men who have sex with men completed time-line follow-back interviews about the venues where they met their male partners (n = 1180 sexual events with first-time partners, <30 days). We ran multivariate models to determine the association between venues and condomless anal sex (CAS). After adjusting for known correlates of CAS, partners met at sex parties presented significantly greater odds for CAS compared with meeting a partner at a gay bar/club (adjusted odds ratio = 0.44), online (adjusted odds ratio = 0.42), bathhouse (adjusted odds ratio = 0.35), or via "other" venues (adjusted odds ratio = 0.35), all P < 0.01. These findings highlight the need to develop innovative HIV/sexually transmitted infection prevention initiatives for men who attend sex parties. PMID:25226209

  17. Alzheimer’s disease and memory-monitoring impairment: Alzheimer’s patients show a monitoring deficit that is greater than their accuracy deficit

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Chad S.; Spaniol, Maggie; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Deason, Rebecca G.; Ally, Brandon A.; Budson, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the ability of two groups of patients with mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and two groups of older adults to monitor the likely accuracy of recognition judgments and source identification judgments about who spoke something earlier. Alzheimer’s patients showed worse performance on both memory judgments and were less able to monitor with confidence ratings the likely accuracy of both kinds of memory judgments, as compared to a group of older adults who experienced the identical study and test conditions. Critically, however, when memory performance was made comparable between the AD patients and the older adults (e.g., by giving AD patients extra exposures to the study materials), AD patients were still greatly impaired at monitoring the likely accuracy of their recognition and source judgments. This result indicates that the monitoring impairment in AD patients is actually worse than their memory impairment, as otherwise there would have been no differences between the two groups in monitoring performance when there were no differences in accuracy. We discuss the brain correlates of this memory-monitoring deficit and also propose a Remembrance-Evaluation model of memory-monitoring. PMID:21620877

  18. Blood plasma IgG Fc glycans are significantly altered in Alzheimer's disease and progressive mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lundström, Susanna L; Yang, Hongqian; Lyutvinskiy, Yaroslav; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Soininen, Hilkka; Zubarev, Roman A

    2014-01-01

    Blood-based anti-amyloid-? (A?) immunoglobulins (IgGs) and peripheral inflammation are factors correlating with development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). IgG functionality can drastically change from anti- to pro-inflammatory via alterations in the IgG-Fc N-glycan structure. Herein, we tested if IgG-Fc glycosylation in plasma is indeed altered during the development of AD. Samples from age-matched subjects of 23 controls, 58 patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (SMCI), 34 patients with progressive (P)MCI, and 31 patients with AD were investigated. Label-free shotgun proteomics was applied without glycoprotein enrichment. Glycans on peptides EEQYNSTYR (IgG1) and EEQFNSTFR (IgG2) were quantified, and their abundances were normalized to total IgGn glycoform abundance. Univariate and multivariate statistics were employed to investigate the correlations between the patients groups and the abundances of the IgG glycoforms as well as those of inflammatory mediating proteins. Significant differences (p ? 0.05) were found, with a lower abundance of complex galactosylated and sialylated forms in AD. For females, a decline in glycoform complexity correlated with disease progress but an inverse change was found in males prior to the onset of AD. Principal component analysis (PCA; Males: R(2)X(cum) = 0.65, Q(2)(cum) = 0.34; Females: R(2)X(cum) = 0.62, Q(2)(cum) = 0.36), confirmed the gender similarities (for controls, SMCI and AD) as well as differences (for PMCI), and showed a close correlation between pro-inflammatory protein markers, AD, female PMCI, and truncated IgG-Fc glycans. The differences observed between genders prior to the onset of AD may indicate a lower ability in females to suppress peripheral inflammation, which may lead to exacerbated disease progression. PMID:24028868

  19. Impaired Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 08% or greater. 1 Nearly half of the alcohol-impaired motorcyclists killed each year are age 40 or older, and motorcyclists ages 40-44 have the highest percentage of deaths with BACs of 0.08% or ...

  20. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  1. Group Therapy for Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Their Significant Others: Results of a Waiting-List Controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liesbeth W. A. Joosten-Weyn Banningh; Judith B. Prins; Myrra J. F. J. Vernooij-Dassen; Hugo H. Wijnen; Marcel G. M. Olde Rikkert; Roy P. C. Kessels

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have to deal with an uncertain prognosis and also face a multitude of memory-related problems and psychosocial consequences. A newly developed group programme proved to be feasible, however, it needed confirmation by a controlled study. Aim: This controlled study evaluates this group therapy for MCI patients aimed to help them accept and manage

  2. Postural tachycardia syndrome is associated with significant symptoms and functional impairment predominantly affecting young women: a UK perspective

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Claire; Koshi, Sharon; Busner, Lorna; Kavi, Lesley; Newton, Julia L

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine a large UK cohort of patients with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), to compare demographic characteristics, symptoms and treatment of PoTS at one centre compared to the largest patient group PoTS UK and to verify if their functional limitation is similar to patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Design A cross-sectional study assessed the frequency of symptoms and their associated variables. Patients and setting Two PoTS cohorts were: (1) recruited via PoTS UK, (2) diagnosed at Newcastle Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust 2009–2012. Patients with PoTS were then compared to a matched cohort with CFS. Main outcome measures Patients’ detailed demographics, time to diagnosis, education, disability, medications, comorbidity and precipitants. Symptom assessment tools captured, Fatigue Impact Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Orthostatic Grading Scale (OGS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Cognitive Failures Questionnaire. Results 136 patients with PoTS participated (84 members of PoTS UK (170 cohort; 50% return) and 52 (87 cohort; 60%) from Newcastle Clinics). The PoTS UK population was significantly younger than the clinic patients, with significantly fewer men (p=0.005). Over 60% had a university or postgraduate degree. Significantly more of the PoTS UK cohort were working, with hours worked being significantly higher (p=0.001). Time to diagnosis was significantly longer in the PoTS UK cohort (p=0.04). Symptom severity was comparable between cohorts. The PoTS total group was compared with a matched CFS cohort; despite comparable levels of fatigue and sleepiness, autonomic symptom burden (OGS) was statistically significantly higher. The most common treatment regime included ?-blockers. Overall, 21 treatment combinations were described. Up to 1/3 were taking no treatment. Conclusions Patients with PoTS are predominantly women, young, well educated and have significant and debilitating symptoms that impact significantly on quality of life. Despite this, there is no consistent treatment. PMID:24934205

  3. Metabolomics reveals significant impairments in the immune system of the APP/PS1 transgenic mice of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    González-Domínguez, Raúl; García-Barrera, Tamara; Vitorica, Javier; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory processes and other failures related to the immune system are common features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), in both brain and the peripheral system. Thus, the study of the main organs of the immune system may have a great potential for the elucidation of pathological mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. This is the first metabolomic investigation performed in spleen and thymus from transgenic mice of AD. Tissues were fingerprinted using a metabolomic platform comprising GC-MS and ultra-HPLC-MS. Multivariate statistics demonstrated significant differences in numerous metabolites between the APP/PS1 mice and wild-type controls, and it was proven that multiple biochemical pathways are disturbed in these organs including abnormal metabolism of phospholipids, energy deficiencies, altered homeostasis of amino acids, oxidative stress, and others. Therefore, these findings highlight the importance of the proper metabolic functioning of peripheral immune system in the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. PMID:25393935

  4. Recumbent Cross-Training Is a Feasible and Safe Mode of Physical Activity for Significantly Motor-Impaired Adults With Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Lukasik, Leah; Muth, Timothy; Esposito, Phil; Haapala, Heidi; Gordon, Paul M.; IglayReger, Heidi; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of using recumbent cross-training for nonambulatory adults with cerebral palsy (CP). Design Observational. Setting Clinical center for CP treatment and rehabilitation. Participants Significantly motor-impaired adults with CP (NZ = 11) with a mean age ± SD of 36.3 ± 13.2 years and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) III and IV. Interventions Participants completed a 40-minute session of aerobic exercise using the NuStep Recumbent Cross Trainer, in which resistance was progressively increased at 5-minute intervals. Main Outcome Measures Every 5 minutes during the exercise session, heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption (V.O2), energy expenditure, and respiratory exchange ratios (RERs) were recorded along with rating of perceived exertion. Immediately after, and 24 hours postexercise, participants received a standard survey to assess levels of pain and discomfort. Results All participants were able to complete the 40-minute exercise protocol. Five of the 11 participants achieved a heart rate of at least 60% maximum throughout the duration, 10 participants had a significant elevation in V.O2 from baseline, and all participants had elevated RER values. Six participants reported pain during exercise, but only 2 reported pain after exercise was over. Conclusions The NuStep Recumbent Cross Trainer is a feasible exercise modality for significantly motor-impaired adults with CP, GMFCS III and IV. Moreover, this mode was sufficient to stimulate a significant cardiorespiratory response in all participants, and thus it and similar devices may serve as a viable option for aerobic exercise interventions in this population, to prevent obesity and related cardiometabolic consequences. PMID:23063881

  5. A home education program for older adults with hearing impairment and their significant others: a randomized trial evaluating short- and long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Sophia E; Allessie, G Hella M; Dondorp, Agaath W; Zekveld, Adriana A; Kapteyn, Theo S

    2005-05-01

    This paper addresses the development and effectiveness of a home education program. The program, designed for hearing-impaired elders and their significant others (SO), deals with communication strategies and speech reading. Participants were randomly assigned to a training group (hearing aid fitting+home education program) or a control group (hearing aid fitting). The training group included 24 hearing-impaired subjects and 24 SO's. Controls were 24 affected individuals and 22 SO's. Questionnaires addressing emotional response, communication strategies and the IOI-HA, IOI-AI and IOI-SO were used. A repeated measures analysis of variance was applied to test group differences between pre, post, and 6-months follow-up measures. Increased awareness of benefits of speech reading and improved interaction with the SO were observed in the training group only (p < 0.05). No group difference on 'emotional response' was found. IOI-AI and IOI-SO demonstrated favorable attitudes towards the program. Follow-up measures showed improved quality of life and satisfaction in the training group, while a decrease was observed among the controls (p < 0.05). Some effects differed between first-time and experienced hearing aid users. Addition of services to amplification and involvement of the SO are relevant in aural rehabilitation. PMID:16028788

  6. ACAT1-associated Late Endosomes/Lysosomes Significantly Improve Impaired Intracellular Cholesterol Metabolism and the Survival of Niemann-Pick Type C Mice.

    PubMed

    Kamikawa, Masashi; Lei, XiaoFeng; Fujiwara, Yukio; Nishitsuji, Kazuchika; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Takeya, Motohiro; Sakashita, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that macrophages exhibit endoplasmic reticulum fragmentation under cholesterol-rich conditions, which results in the generation of acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1)-associated late endosomes/lysosomes (ACAT1-LE). ACAT1-LE efficiently esterify free cholesterol in loco, even with abnormal egress of free cholesterol from late endosomes. Because impaired free cholesterol transport from late endosomes results in Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC), the induction of ACAT1-LE is a potential therapeutic intervention for NPC. To examine the effects of ACAT1-LE induction on intracellular cholesterol metabolism, we incubated bone marrow-derived macrophages possessing NPC phenotype (npc1 (-/-)) with methyl-?-cyclodextrin-cholesterol complex (m?CD-cho), a cholesterol donor. Immunofluorescence confocal microscopy revealed that m?CD-cho treatment of npc1 (-/-) macrophages resulted in significant colocalization of signals from ACAT1 and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2, a late endosome/lysosome marker. npc1 (-/-) macrophages contained significant amounts of free cholesterol with negligible amounts of cholesteryl ester, while wild-type macrophages possessed the same amounts of both cholesterols. m?CD-cho treatment also induced marked restoration of cholesterol esterification activity. m?CD-cho administration in neonate npc1 (-/-) mice improved survival. These results indicate that ACAT1-LE induction in npc1 (-/-) mice corrects impaired intracellular cholesterol metabolism and that restoring cholesterol esterification improves prognosis of npc1 (-/-). These data suggest that ACAT1-LE induction is a potential alternative therapeutic strategy for NPC. PMID:25221362

  7. Studies of IRAS sources at high galactic latitudes. I - Source counts at /b/greater than 60 deg and evidence for a north-south anisotropy of cosmological significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan-Robinson, M.; Walker, D.; Chester, T.; Soifer, T.; Fairclough, J.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the IRAS sky at b with an absolute value greater than 60 deg is conducted. Source counts at 12, 25, 60 and 100 microns are presented, and it is shown that emission from interstellar dust at 100 microns is localized to a few small areas of tathe galactic polar caps. At 12 and 25 microns, the sky is dominated by stars; at 60 and 100 microns, by galaxies. Comparison with the minisurvey source counts indicates the 12and 25-micron source denstiy is lower at the present latitude than at a latitude whereby the absolute value of b equals 10-40 deg. Due to the greatly reduced effects of emission from interstellar dust, the 100 micron survey reaches a factor 1.6 deeper in flux at the present latitude than the minisurvey. An anisotropy significant at the 4-sigma level was found between the north and south galactic polar caps at 60 and 100 microns, after exclusion of the Virgo cluster and of the few remaining areas significantly affected by interstellar-dust emission. It is suggested that this anisotropy represents a cosmologically significant anisotropy in the galaxy distribution. The scale of associated inhomogeneity is of the order of at least 100(50/H)Mpc.

  8. Explanation of Significant Differences Between Models used to Assess Groundwater Impacts for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Greater-Than-Class C-Like Waste Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0375-D) and the

    SciTech Connect

    Annette Schafer; Arthur S. Rood; A. Jeffrey Sondrup

    2011-08-01

    Models have been used to assess the groundwater impacts to support the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Disposal of Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) Low-Level Radioactive Waste and GTCC-Like Waste (DOE-EIS 2011) for a facility sited at the Idaho National Laboratory and the Environmental Assessment for the INL Remote-Handled Low-Level Waste Disposal Project (INL 2011). Groundwater impacts are primarily a function of (1) location determining the geologic and hydrologic setting, (2) disposal facility configuration, and (3) radionuclide source, including waste form and release from the waste form. In reviewing the assumptions made between the model parameters for the two different groundwater impacts assessments, significant differences were identified. This report presents the two sets of model assumptions and discusses their origins and implications for resulting dose predictions. Given more similar model parameters, predicted doses would be commensurate.

  9. [Greater trochanteric pain syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gollwitzer, H; Opitz, G; Gerdesmeyer, L; Hauschild, M

    2014-01-01

    Greater trochanteric pain is one of the common complaints in orthopedics. Frequent diagnoses include myofascial pain, trochanteric bursitis, tendinosis and rupture of the gluteus medius and minimus tendon, and external snapping hip. Furthermore, nerve entrapment like the piriformis syndrome must be considered in the differential diagnosis. This article summarizes essential diagnostic and therapeutic steps in greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Careful clinical evaluation, complemented with specific imaging studies and diagnostic infiltrations allows determination of the underlying pathology in most cases. Thereafter, specific nonsurgical treatment is indicated, with success rates of more than 90?%. Resistant cases and tendon ruptures may require surgical intervention, which can provide significant pain relief and functional improvement in most cases. PMID:24414233

  10. Aging, muscle activity, and balance control: physiologic changes associated with balance impairment

    E-print Network

    Collins, James J.

    Aging, muscle activity, and balance control: physiologic changes associated with balance impairment and electromyographic data from the tibialis anterior, soleus, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris collected the COP measures and muscle activity. Elderly fallers demonstrated significantly greater amounts of sway

  11. Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration

    E-print Network

    Watson, Craig A.

    Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference 'HILQLQJ6XFFHVV Naples Beach a Committee of the South Florida Ecosystem Restoration Task Force and Working Group #12;Greater Everglades Ecosystem Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference Page ii #12;December 11-15, 2000 z Naples, Florida Page

  12. Impairment in Task-Specific Modulation of Muscle Coordination Correlates with the Severity of Hand Impairment following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Wook; Triandafilou, Kristen; Lock, Blair A.; Kamper, Derek G.

    2013-01-01

    Significant functional impairment of the hand is commonly observed in stroke survivors. Our previous studies suggested that the inability to modulate muscle coordination patterns according to task requirements may be substantial after stroke, but these limitations have not been examined directly. In this study, we aimed to characterize post-stroke impairment in the ability to modulate muscle coordination patterns across tasks and its correlation with hand impairment. Fourteen stroke survivors, divided into a group with severe hand impairment (8 subjects) and a group with moderate hand impairment (6 subjects) according to their clinical functionality score, participated in the experiment. Another four neurologically intact subjects participated in the experiment to serve as a point of comparison. Activation patterns of nine hand and wrist muscles were recorded using surface electromyography while the subjects performed six isometric tasks. Patterns of covariation in muscle activations across tasks, i.e., muscle modules, were extracted from the muscle activation data. Our results showed that the degree of reduction in the inter-task separation of the multi-muscle activation patterns was indicative of the clinical functionality score of the subjects (mean value?=?26.2 for severely impaired subjects, 38.1 for moderately impaired subjects). The values for moderately impaired subjects were much closer to those of the impaired subjects (mean value?=?46.1). The number of muscle modules extracted from the muscle activation patterns of a subject across six tasks, which represents the degree of motor complexity, was found to be correlated with the clinical functionality score (R?=?0.68). Greater impairment was also associated with a change in the muscle module patterns themselves, with greater muscle coactivation. A substantial reduction in the degrees-of-freedom of the multi-muscle coordination post-stroke was apparent, and the extent of the reduction, assessed by the stated metrics, was strongly associated with the level of clinical impairment. PMID:23874745

  13. Impaired self-awareness after traumatic brain injury: inter-rater reliability and factor structure of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) in patients, significant others and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Brian E.; Morrison, Todd G.; Barker, Lynne A.; Morton, Nicholas; McBrinn, Judith; Caldwell, Sheena; Wilson, Colin F.; McCann, John; Carton, Simone; Delargy, Mark; Walsh, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study sought to address two questions: (1) what is the inter-rater reliability of the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) when completed by patients, their significant others, and clinicians; and (2) does the factor structure of the DEX vary for these three groups? Methods: We obtained DEX ratings for 113 patients with an acquired brain injury from two brain injury services in the UK and two services in Ireland. We gathered data from two groups of raters—“significant others” (DEX-SO) such as partners and close family members and “clinicians” (DEX-C), who were psychologists or rehabilitation physicians working closely with the patient and who were able to provide an opinion about the patient’s level of everyday executive functioning. Intra-class correlation coefficients and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated between each of the three groups (self, significant other, clinician). Principal axis factor (PAF) analyses were also conducted for each of the three groups. Results: The factor analysis revealed a consistent one-factor model for each of the three groups of raters. However, the inter-rater reliability analyses showed a low level of agreement between the self-ratings and the ratings of the two groups of independent raters. We also found low agreement between the significant others and the clinicians. Conclusion: Although there was a consistent finding of a single factor solution for each of the three groups, the low level of agreement between significant others and clinicians raises a question about the reliability of the DEX. PMID:25346668

  14. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klauser, Andrea S; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto; Bellmann-Weiler, Rosa; Feuchtner, Gudrun M; Wick, Marius; Jaschke, Werner R

    2013-02-01

    Pain around the greater trochanter is still a common clinical problem that may be secondary to a variety of either intra-articular or periarticular pathologies. Gluteal tendon pathologies are one of the primary causes of greater trochanteric pain, with attrition of the fasciae latae against the gluteus medius and minimus tendons, and the trochanteric bursa being possible causes. Key sonographic findings of gluteal tendinopathy, bursitis, and differential diagnosis are described in this overview. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of greater trochanteric pain syndrome is still challenging; therefore ultrasound is helpful to localize the origin of pain, determine underlying pathology, and, based on these findings, to guide local aspiration and/or injection in cases of tendinopathy and/or bursitis. PMID:23487333

  15. Greater trochanteric hip pain.

    PubMed

    Kimpel, Diane M; Garner, Chadwick C; Magone, Kevin M; May, Jedediah H; Lawless, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    In the patient with lateral hip pain, there is a broad differential diagnosis, making appropriate evaluation and management challenging. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome is a term used to denote chronic lateral hip pain and encompasses several painful soft tissue diagnoses including coxa saltans, trochanteric bursitis, and gluteus minimus and medius tendon tears. An overview of these common causes is presented through a series of cases that encompass the anatomic associations, classic presentations, diagnostic tests, and management strategies unique to each disorder. By reviewing this information, we hope to provide clinicians with the tools to evaluate greater trochanteric pain syndrome efficiently and effectively. PMID:24651142

  16. Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    U.S. Geological Survey

    This U.S. Geological Survey website uses remotely sensed data to analyze landscape change in the Greater Yellowstone Area. It features maps and satellite images that show the geographical extent of the area, its management, land cover, and land use.

  17. Greater Yellowstone Geology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mountain Prairie Institute

    This site features a collection of papers and maps about the Yellowstone hotspot by Dr. Ken Pierce of the Northern Rocky Mountain Science Center, an expert in the field. Papers on this site address topics such as Yellowstone glaciation, tracking the hotspot, the Yellowstone plume head, and a seven-day field trip guide to the quaternary geology and ecology of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Each downloadable paper map is listed with a brief description and a full citation.

  18. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Nho, Shane J; Kelly, Bryan T

    2010-06-01

    Originally defined as "tenderness to palpation over the greater trochanter with the patient in the side-lying position," greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) as a clinical entity, has expanded to include a number of disorders of the lateral, peritrochanteric space of the hip, including trochanteric bursitis, tears of the gluteus medius and minimus and external coxa saltans (snapping hip). Typically presenting with pain and reproducible tenderness in the region of the greater trochanter, buttock, or lateral thigh, GTPS is relatively common, reported to affect between 10% and 25% of the general population. Secondary to the relative paucity of information available on the diagnosis and management of components of GTPS, the presence of these pathologic entities may be underrecognized, leading to extensive workups and delays in appropriate treatment. This article aims to review the present understanding of the lesions that comprise GTPS, discussing the relevant anatomy, diagnostic workup and recommended treatment for trochanteric bursitis, gluteus medius and minimus tears, and external coxa saltans. PMID:20473130

  19. Impairment and distress associated with relationship discord in a national sample of married or cohabiting adults.

    PubMed

    Whisman, Mark A; Uebelacker, Lisa A

    2006-09-01

    The clinical importance of relationship discord was examined through evaluating the association between relationship discord and multiple measures of impairment and psychological distress in a population-based sample of married and cohabiting adults (N=2,677). In comparison to people that were not in discordant relationships, individuals in discordant relationships reported greater social role impairment with relatives and friends and greater work role impairment. They also reported higher levels of general distress and poorer perceived health and were more likely to report suicide ideation. With the exception of suicide ideation, the associations between relationship discord and impairment and psychological distress remained significant when controlling for current mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders, suggesting that relationship discord is incrementally related to impairment and psychological distress over and above the effects of psychiatric disorders. PMID:16937993

  20. For the Greater Good

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    PhD Carolyn C Landel (Western Washington University Faculty and Research Associate, Science, Math, and Technology Education)

    2004-01-01

    The "For the Greater Good" series is comprised of five featured articles. Each article portrays one author's personal stories of people and animals whose lives have been improved or saved by medical breakthroughs made possible by animal research. The series was edited by Samuel R. Sperry, then Editorial Page Associate Editor at the Seattle P-I newspaper. The articles are contained in the PDF curriculum guide, which includes a 5-lesson unit outlining the use of models in both science and ethics, and provides resources for exploring the use of animals in research. The curriculum guide also includes an assessment involving a letter to the editor.

  1. Sensory Impairment Among Older US Workers

    PubMed Central

    Davila, Evelyn P.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; LeBlanc, William G.; Lam, Byron L.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; McCollister, Kathryn E.; Zheng, Diane; Christ, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    We used 1997–2004 National Health Interview Survey data to evaluate the prevalence of sensory impairment among US workers 65 years and older. Hearing impairment prevalence was 3 times that of visual impairment (33.4% vs 10.2%), and 38% of older workers reported experiencing either impairment. Farm operators, mechanics, and motor vehicle operators had the highest prevalence of sensory impairment. Workplace screening and accommodations, including sensory protection devices for older workers, are warranted given the greater risk for injuries among the sensory impaired. PMID:19542042

  2. Taste - impaired

    MedlinePLUS

    ... longer. Causes of impaired taste include: Bell's palsy Common cold Flu Nasal infection, nasal polyps , sinusitis Pharyngitis and ... your diet. For taste problems due to the common cold or flu, normal taste should return when the ...

  3. Pronounced impairment of everyday skills and self-care in posterior cortical atrophy.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, Timothy J; Yong, Keir X X; Foxe, David; Hodges, John; Crutch, Sebastian J

    2015-01-01

    Posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by progressive visual dysfunction and parietal, occipital, and occipitotemporal atrophy. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of PCA and typical Alzheimer's disease (tAD) on everyday functional abilities and neuropsychiatric status. The Cambridge Behavioural Inventory-Revised was given to carers of 32 PCA and 71 tAD patients. PCA patients showed significantly greater impairment in everyday skills and self-care while the tAD group showed greater impairment in aspects of memory and orientation, and motivation. We suggest that PCA poses specific challenges for those caring for people affected by the condition. PMID:25096622

  4. Physical Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewin, Shari

    Many health conditions can lead to physical impairments that impact computer and Web access. Musculoskeletal conditions such as arthritis and cumulative trauma disorders can make movement stiff and painful. Movement disorders such as tremor, Parkinsonism and dystonia affect the ability to control movement, or to prevent unwanted movements. Often, the same underlying health condition also has sensory or cognitive effects. People with dexterity impairments may use a standard keyboard and mouse, or any of a wide range of alternative input mechanisms. Examples are given of the diverse ways that specific dexterity impairments and input mechanisms affect the fundamental actions of Web browsing. As the Web becomes increasingly sophisticated, and physically demanding, new access features at the Web browser and page level will be necessary.

  5. Hearing Impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavender, Anna; Ladner, Richard E.

    For many people with hearing impairments, the degree of hearing loss is only a small aspect of their disability and does not necessarily determine the types of accessibility solutions or accommodations that may be required. For some people, the ability to adjust the audio volume may be sufficient. For others, translation to a signed language may be more appropriate. For still others, access to text alternatives may be the best solution. Because of these differences, it is important for researchers in Web accessibility to understand that people with hearing impairments may have very different cultural-linguistic traditions and personal backgrounds.

  6. CATEGORY SPECIFIC SEMANTIC IMPAIRMENTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ELIZABETH K. WARRINGTON; T. SHALLICE

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY We report a quantitative investigation of the visual identification and auditory comprehension deficits of 4 patients who had made a partial recovery from herpes simplex encephalitis. Clinical observations had suggested the selective impairment and selective preservation of certain categories of visual stimuli. In all 4 patients a significant discrepancy between their ability to identify inanimate objects and inability to

  7. Metabolic Syndrome Biomarkers Predict Lung Function Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Naveed, Bushra; Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Gracely, Edward J.; Comfort, Ashley L.; Ferrier, Natalia; Kasturiarachchi, Kusali J.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Aldrich, Thomas K.; Rom, William N.; Kelly, Kerry; Prezant, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Cross-sectional studies demonstrate an association between metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function. Objectives: To define if metabolic syndrome biomarkers are risk factors for loss of lung function after irritant exposure. Methods: A nested case-control study of Fire Department of New York personnel with normal pre–September 11th FEV1 and who presented for subspecialty pulmonary evaluation before March 10, 2008. We correlated metabolic syndrome biomarkers obtained within 6 months of World Trade Center dust exposure with subsequent FEV1. FEV1 at subspecialty pulmonary evaluation within 6.5 years defined disease status; cases had FEV1 less than lower limit of normal, whereas control subjects had FEV1 greater than or equal to lower limit of normal. Measurements and Main Results: Clinical data and serum sampled at the first monitoring examination within 6 months of September 11, 2001, assessed body mass index, heart rate, serum glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), leptin, pancreatic polypeptide, and amylin. Cases and control subjects had significant differences in HDL less than 40 mg/dl with triglycerides greater than or equal to 150 mg/dl, heart rate greater than or equal to 66 bpm, and leptin greater than or equal to 10,300 pg/ml. Each increased the odds of abnormal FEV1 at pulmonary evaluation by more than twofold, whereas amylin greater than or equal to 116 pg/ml decreased the odds by 84%, in a multibiomarker model adjusting for age, race, body mass index, and World Trade Center arrival time. This model had a sensitivity of 41%, a specificity of 86%, and a receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.77. Conclusions: Abnormal triglycerides and HDL and elevated heart rate and leptin are independent risk factors of greater susceptibility to lung function impairment after September 11, 2001, whereas elevated amylin is protective. Metabolic biomarkers are predictors of lung disease, and may be useful for assessing risk of impaired lung function in response to particulate inhalation. PMID:22095549

  8. All Vision Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs All Vision Impairment Listen Vision Impairment Defined Vision impairment ... being blind by the U.S. definition.) The category “All Vision Impairment” includes both low vision and blindness. ...

  9. Greater omentectomy improves insulin sensitivity in non-obese dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lottati, Maya; Kolka, Cathryn M.; Stefanovski, Darko; Kirkman, Erlinda L.; Bergman, Richard N.

    2010-01-01

    Visceral adiposity is strongly associated with insulin resistance; however little evidence directly demonstrates that visceral fat per se impairs insulin action. Here we examine the effects of the surgical removal of the greater omentum and its occupying visceral fat, an omentectomy, on insulin sensitivity (SI) and ?-cell function in non-obese dogs. Thirteen male mongrel dogs were used in the present research study; animals were randomly assigned to surgical treatment with either omentectomy (n=7), or sham-operation (n=6). Omentectomy failed to generate measurable changes in body weight (+2%; P=0.1), or subcutaneous adiposity (+3%; P=0.83) as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. The removal of the greater omentum did not significantly reduce total visceral adipose volume (-7.3 ± 6.4%; P=0.29); while primary analysis showed a trend for omentectomy to increase SI when compared to sham operated animals(P=0.078), further statistical analysis revealed that this minor reduction in visceral fat alleviated insulin resistance by augmenting SI of the periphery (+67.7 ± 35.2%; P=0.03), as determined by the euglycemic- hyperinsulinemic clamp. Insulin secretory response during the hyperglycemic step clamp was not directly influenced by omental fat removal (pre-surgery 6.82 ± 1.4 vs. post-surgery: 6.7 ± 1.2 pM · mg-1 · dl-1, P=0.9). These findings provide new evidence for the deleterious role of visceral fat in insulin resistance, and suggest that a greater omentectomy procedure may effectively improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:19214178

  10. The blood supply to the greater trochanter.

    PubMed

    Naito, M; Ogata, K; Emoto, G

    1996-02-01

    The blood supply to the greater trochanter was investigated in adult rabbits using a hydrogen washout technique. The control blood flow rate of the greater trochanter averaged 13.8 ml/minute per 100 g of tissue. Stripping of the origin of the vastus lateralis muscle did not cause significant decrease of blood flow rate. Blood flow rate was significantly decreased to 10.4 ml/minute per 100 g of tissue after an anterior trochanteric slide osteotomy. Surgical dissection of the proximal soft tissues including the gluteus medius and minimus tendons from the greater trochanter caused significant decrease of blood flow rate to 4.72 ml/minute per 100 g of tissue. The addition of surgical dissection of the proximal soft tissues to anterior trochanteric slide caused a complete arrest of blood flow in the greater trochanter. These results indicate that the greater trochanter receives >2/3 of its blood supply for the extraosseous vascular system in a rabbit model. PMID:8625595

  11. Familial Aggregation in Specific Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tallal, Paula; Hirsch, Linda S.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Miller, Steve; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher; Flax, Judy F.

    2001-01-01

    A case-control family study design examined the current language-related abilities of all biological, primary relatives of probands (N=22) with specific language impairment (SLI) and of matched controls. Impairment rates for family members of SLI probands was significantly higher than for controls. Also, impairment rates estimated from a family…

  12. Visual impairment and socioeconomic factors

    PubMed Central

    Livingston, P; McCarty, C; Taylor, H

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Information about socio economic factors associated with visual impairment can assist in the design of intervention programmes. Such information was collected by the Melbourne Visual Impairment Project (Melbourne VIP).?METHODS—The Melbourne VIP was a population based study of non-institutionalised permanent residents in nine suburbs of the Melbourne metropolitan area aged 40 years of age and older. A standardised eye examination was provided to eligible residents which included a structured interview. Variables of interest for this analysis were age, sex, country of birth, language spoken at home, education level, use of private health insurance, employment status, and living arrangements. Visual impairment was defined as a best corrected visual acuity <6/18 and/or visual field constriction to within 20° of fixation?RESULTS—A total of 3271 (83%) residents participated. Participants ranged in age from 40 to 98 years; 54% were female. Forty four (1.34%) were classified as visually impaired due to visual acuity and/or visual field loss. To evaluate the independent association of the significant sociodemographic variables with visual impairment, a regression model was constructed that included age, retirement status, use of private health insurance, and household arrangement. The results showed that age was the significant predictor of visual impairment (OR: 3.19; CI: 2.29-4.43), with the mean age of people with visual impairment significantly older (75.0 years) compared with people without visual impairment (58.2 years) (t test=9.71; p=0.0001). Of the 44 visually impaired people, 39 (87%) were aged 60 years of age and older.?CONCLUSION—The results indicate that age is the most significant factor associated with visual impairment. Of some importance was the finding that people with visual impairment were less likely to have private health insurance. With the aging of the population, the number of people affected by visual impairment will increase significantly. Intervention programmes need to be established before the onset of middle age to offset the escalation of visual impairment in the older population.?? PMID:9290372

  13. Sensory contributions to impaired emotion processing in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Butler, Pamela D; Abeles, Ilana Y; Weiskopf, Nicole G; Tambini, Arielle; Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Legatt, Michael E; Zemon, Vance; Loughead, James; Gur, Ruben C; Javitt, Daniel C

    2009-11-01

    Both emotion and visual processing deficits are documented in schizophrenia, and preferential magnocellular visual pathway dysfunction has been reported in several studies. This study examined the contribution to emotion-processing deficits of magnocellular and parvocellular visual pathway function, based on stimulus properties and shape of contrast response functions. Experiment 1 examined the relationship between contrast sensitivity to magnocellular- and parvocellular-biased stimuli and emotion recognition using the Penn Emotion Recognition (ER-40) and Emotion Differentiation (EMODIFF) tests. Experiment 2 altered the contrast levels of the faces themselves to determine whether emotion detection curves would show a pattern characteristic of magnocellular neurons and whether patients would show a deficit in performance related to early sensory processing stages. Results for experiment 1 showed that patients had impaired emotion processing and a preferential magnocellular deficit on the contrast sensitivity task. Greater deficits in ER-40 and EMODIFF performance correlated with impaired contrast sensitivity to the magnocellular-biased condition, which remained significant for the EMODIFF task even when nonspecific correlations due to group were considered in a step-wise regression. Experiment 2 showed contrast response functions indicative of magnocellular processing for both groups, with patients showing impaired performance. Impaired emotion identification on this task was also correlated with magnocellular-biased visual sensory processing dysfunction. These results provide evidence for a contribution of impaired early-stage visual processing in emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and suggest that a bottom-up approach to remediation may be effective. PMID:19793797

  14. Facial emotion recognition impairments are associated with brain volume abnormalities in individuals with HIV.

    PubMed

    Clark, Uraina S; Walker, Keenan A; Cohen, Ronald A; Devlin, Kathryn N; Folkers, Anna M; Pina, Matthew J; Tashima, Karen T

    2015-04-01

    Impaired facial emotion recognition abilities in HIV+ patients are well documented, but little is known about the neural etiology of these difficulties. We examined the relation of facial emotion recognition abilities to regional brain volumes in 44 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 44 HIV-negative control (HC) adults. Volumes of structures implicated in HIV-associated neuropathology and emotion recognition were measured on MRI using an automated segmentation tool. Relative to HC, HIV+ patients demonstrated emotion recognition impairments for fearful expressions, reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volumes, and increased amygdala volumes. In the HIV+ group, fear recognition impairments correlated significantly with ACC, but not amygdala volumes. ACC reductions were also associated with lower nadir CD4 levels (i.e., greater HIV-disease severity). These findings extend our understanding of the neurobiological substrates underlying an essential social function, facial emotion recognition, in HIV+ individuals and implicate HIV-related ACC atrophy in the impairment of these abilities. PMID:25744868

  15. Tracking motor impairments in the progression of Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Long, Jeffery D; Paulsen, Jane S; Marder, Karen; Zhang, Ying; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A

    2014-03-01

    The Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale is used to characterize motor impairments and establish motor diagnosis. Little is known about the timing of diagnostic confidence level categories and the trajectory of motor impairments during the prodromal phase. Goals of this study were to estimate the timing of categories, model the prodromal trajectory of motor impairments, estimate the rate of motor impairment change by category, and provide required sample size estimates for a test of efficacy in clinical trials. In total, 1010 gene-expanded participants from the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington's Disease (PREDICT-HD) trial were analyzed. Accelerated failure time models were used to predict the timing of categories. Linear mixed effects regression was used to model the longitudinal motor trajectories. Age and length of gene expansion were incorporated into all models. The timing of categories varied significantly by gene expansion, with faster progression associated with greater expansion. For the median expansion, the third diagnostic confidence level category was estimated to have a first occurrence 1.5 years before diagnosis, and the second and first categories were estimated to occur 6.75 years and 19.75 years before diagnosis, respectively. Motor impairments displayed a nonlinear prodromal course. The motor impairment rate of change increased as the diagnostic confidence level increased, with added acceleration for higher progression scores. Motor items can detect changes in motor impairments before diagnosis. Given a sufficiently high progression score, there is evidence that the diagnostic confidence level can be used for prodromal staging. Implications for Huntington's disease research and the planning of clinical trials of efficacy are discussed. PMID:24150908

  16. Delay Eyeblink Classical Conditioning is Impaired in Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tobia, Michael J.; Woodruff-Pak, Diana S.

    2009-01-01

    We examined 400 ms delay eyeblink classical conditioning in 20 participants with Fragile X syndrome ages 17-77 years, and 20 age-matched, healthy control participants. The Fragile X group demonstrated impaired learning and abnormal conditioned response timing. Adults with Fragile X (n=16) were also tested at two successive 12-month follow-up sessions to examine reacquisition and long-term retention. Participants in groups older and younger than 45 years demonstrated significant learning during each reacquisition session. Younger participants demonstrated greater retention of the CS/US association at each follow-up session than older participants. Fragile X impairs the acquisition and timing of conditioned eyeblink responses, but with repeated training adults with Fragile X syndrome show significant plasticity. PMID:19485573

  17. Influence of renal impairment, chemical form, and serum protein binding on intravenous and oral aluminum kinetics in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Yokel, R A; McNamara, P J

    1988-08-01

    The influence of renal impairment on the intravenous kinetics of aluminum (Al) lactate and the oral absorption of eight representative Al forms was determined. The serum protein binding of Al was assessed. Creatinine clearance in renally impaired rabbits was 23% of controls. Systemic clearance of Al was less in renally impaired rabbits (39 vs. 53 ml/hr/kg), as were the steady-state volume of distribution (516 vs. 1175 ml/kg), the half-life of elimination (14 vs. 27 hr), and the mean residence time of Al (14 vs. 25 hr). The shorter Al half-life and mean residence time in renally impaired rabbits were due to a diminished volume of Al distribution. Oral bioavailability of Al in renally intact rabbits ranged from 0.3 to 2.2% (Al borate less than glycinate less than hydroxide less than chloride less than sucralfate less than lactate less than nitrate less than citrate). Renal impairment had little influence on oral bioavailability of most Al forms, although it increased Al citrate absorption to 4.6%. In vitro and in vivo determination of Al ultrafilterability (less than 30,000 D) as an estimate of serum protein binding suggested a greater percentage of ultrafilterable Al species in renally impaired rabbit serum than in control rabbit serum. The increase in ultrafilterable Al species produced the less than expected reduction in Al clearance in renally impaired rabbits. The ultrafilterability of various Al concentrations was greater for citrate greater than lactate greater than nitrate greater than chloride, perhaps partially explaining the similar rank order of oral absorption of these Al forms. The physicochemistry of the eight Al forms was further characterized by determination of their octanol/water partitioning coefficients and their water solubility. There was a significant correlation between the percentage absorbed and the log of the octanol/water partition coefficient. Knowledge of the physicochemistry of Al aids in the understanding of Al pharmacokinetics. PMID:3413794

  18. The association between disability and cognitive impairment in an elderly Tanzanian population.

    PubMed

    Dotchin, Catherine L; Paddick, Stella-Maria; Gray, William K; Kisoli, Aloyce; Orega, Golda; Longdon, Anna R; Chaote, Paul; Dewhurst, Felicity; Dewhurst, Matthew; Walker, Richard W

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive impairment is thought to be a major cause of disability worldwide, though data from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are sparse. This study aimed to investigate the association between cognitive impairment and disability in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults living in Tanzania. The study cohort of 296 people aged 70years and over was recruited as part of a dementia prevalence study. Subjects were diagnosed as having dementia or mild cognitive impairment according to the DSM-IV criteria. Disability level was assessed according to the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule, version 2.0 (WHODAS). A higher WHODAS score indicates greater disability. The median WHODAS in the background population was 25.0; in those with dementia and in those with mild cognitive impairment, 72 of 78 (92.3%) and 41 of 46 (89.1%), respectively, had a WHODAS score above this level. The presence of dementia, mild cognitive impairment, hearing impairment, being unable to walk without an aid and not having attended school were independent predictors of having a WHODAS score above 25.0, though age and gender were not. In summary, cognitive impairment is a significant predictor of disability in elderly Tanzanians. Screening for early signs of cognitive decline would allow management strategies to be put in place that may reduce the associated disability burden. PMID:25700924

  19. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  20. Hemangiopericytoma of the Greater Omentum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Shiba; Takeyuki Misawa; Susumu Kobayashi; Tokuyasu Yokota; Kyonsu Son; Katsuhiko Yanaga

    2007-01-01

    A 41-year-old Chinese woman was admitted to our hospital with epigastric pain. Computed tomography detected a heterogeneous\\u000a enhancement tumor fed by the left gastroepiploic artery in the left lower quadrant and cholelithiasis. Excision of the tumor\\u000a in the greater omentum and cholecystectomy were performed laparoscopically. Histological findings confirmed a diagnosis of\\u000a hemangiopericytoma with low-grade malignancy. To our knowledge, hemangiopericytoma of

  1. Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Park Service

    The Greater Yellowstone Science Learning Center is a portal to information about the natural and cultural resources of Yellowstone and Grand Teton (including John D. Rockefeller, Jr. Memorial Parkway) national parks and Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. By reporting on what has been learned from research and monitoring in these parks, we hope to increase public awareness of new findings and encourage studies that will help guide park management decisions. The National Park Service has set up Research Learning Centers as public-private partnerships that promote the sharing of scientific knowledge about the parks.

  2. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  3. Planning for greater confinement disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    A report that provides guidance for planning for greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste is being prepared. The report addresses procedures for selecting a GCD technology and provides information for implementing these procedures. The focus is on GCD; planning aspects common to GCD and shallow-land burial are covered by reference. Planning procedure topics covered include regulatory requirements, waste characterization, benefit-cost-risk assessment and pathway analysis methodologies, determination of need, waste-acceptance criteria, performance objectives, and comparative assessment of attributes that support these objectives. The major technologies covered include augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, hydrofracture, improved waste forms, and high-integrity containers. Descriptive information is provided, and attributes that are relevant for risk assessment and operational requirements are given. 10 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Association between alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and alcohol-impaired driving.

    PubMed

    Sanem, Julia R; Erickson, Darin J; Rutledge, Patricia C; Lenk, Kathleen M; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L

    2015-05-01

    All states in the U.S. prohibit alcohol-impaired driving but active law enforcement is necessary for effectively reducing this behavior. Sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, open container laws, and media campaigns related to enforcement efforts are all enforcement-related strategies for reducing alcohol-impaired driving. We conducted surveys of all state patrol agencies and a representative sample of local law enforcement agencies to assess their use of alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies and to determine the relationship between these enforcement-related strategies and self-reported alcohol-impaired driving behavior obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We found that sobriety checkpoints, saturation patrols, and enforcement of open container laws were associated with a lower prevalence of alcohol-impaired driving but, more importantly, a combination of enforcement-related strategies was associated with a greater decrease in alcohol-impaired driving than any individual enforcement-related activity. In addition, alcohol-impaired driving enforcement-related strategies were associated with decreased alcohol-impaired driving above and beyond their association with decreased binge drinking. Results suggest law enforcement agencies should give greater priority to using a combination of strategies rather than relying on any one individual enforcement activity. PMID:25756846

  5. Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    Emotion Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion Kristin N. Javaras). Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion. Emotion. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1037/a0028105 #12;Conscientiousness Predicts Greater Recovery From Negative Emotion Kristin N. Javaras

  6. Respiratory Impairment and Systemic Inflammation in Cedar Asthmatics Removed from Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, Chris; Dybuncio, Anne; Pui, Mandy M.; Chan-Yeung, Moira

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research has shown that removing occupational asthmatics from exposure does not routinely lead to significant improvements in respiratory impairment. These studies were of limited duration and factors determining recovery remain obscure. Our objective was to evaluate residual respiratory impairment and associated sputum and blood biomarkers in subjects with Western red cedar asthma after exposure cessation. Methods Subjects previously diagnosed with cedar asthma, and removed from exposure to cedar dust for at least one year, were recruited. Subjects completed a questionnaire and spirometry. PC20 (methacholine concentration that produces 20% fall in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume at 1 second)) sputum cellularity and select Th1/Th2 (T helper cells 1 and 2) cytokine concentrations in peripheral blood were determined. The asthma impairment class was determined and multivariate analyses were performed to determine its relationship with sputum cell counts and serum cytokines. Results 40 non-smoking males (mean age 62) were examined at a mean interval of 25 years from cedar asthma diagnosis and 17 years from last cedar exposure. 40% were in impairment class 2/3. On average, the PC20 had increased by 2.0 mg/ml; the FEV1 decreased by 1.5 L, with greater decrease in those with greater impairment. Higher impairment was associated with serum interferon-gamma (mean?=?1.3 pg/ml in class 2/3 versus 0.62 pg/ml in class 0/1, p?=?0.04), mainly due to the FEV1 component (correlation with interferon-gamma?=??0.46, p?=?0.005). Conclusion Years after exposure cessation, patients with Western red cedar asthma have persistent airflow obstruction and respiratory impairment, associated with systemic inflammation. PMID:23468925

  7. Memory Impairment in Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Dworzynski, Katharina; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess whether any memory impairment co-occurring with language impairment is global, affecting both verbal and visual domains, or domain specific. Method: Visual and verbal memory, learning, and processing speed were assessed in children aged 6 years to 16 years 11 months (mean 9y 9m, SD 2y 6mo) with current,…

  8. [The prognostic significance of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) for phobic anxiety disorders, vegetative and cognitive impairments during conservative treatment including adaptol of some functional and organic diseases of nervous system].

    PubMed

    Zhivolupov, S A; Samartsev, I N; Marchenko, A A; Puliatkina, O V

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the efficacy of adaptol in the treatment of 45 patients with somatoform dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system and 30 patients with closed head injury. The condition of patients during the treatment was evaluated with clinical and neuropsychological scales. The serum level of BDNF before and after the treatment has been studied as well. Adaptol has been shown to enhance the production of BDNF, reduce significantly the intensity of anxiety, autonomic disorders and improve intellectual processes. The dose-dependent effect of the drug has been demonstrated. In conclusion, adaptol can be recommended for treatment of diseases that demand stimulation of neuroplasticity in the CNS. PMID:22810739

  9. Experimental muscle pain impairs descending inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Sluka, Kathleen A.; Nie, Hong Ling

    2009-01-01

    In chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions, the balance between supraspinal facilitation and inhibition of pain shifts towards an overall decrease in inhibition. Application of a tonic painful stimulus results in activation of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). The aims of the present experimental human study were (1) to compare DNIC, evoked separately, by hypertonic saline (6%)-induced muscle pain (tibialis anterior) or cold pressor pain; (2) to investigate DNIC evoked by concomitant experimental muscle pain and cold pressor pain, and (3) to analyze for gender differences. Ten males and 10 age matched females participated in two sessions. In the first session unilateral muscle pain or unilateral cold pressor pain were induced separately; in the second session unilateral muscle pain and unilateral cold pressor pain were induced concomitantly. Pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were measured around the knee joint before, during, and after DNIC induction. Cold pressor pain increased PPT in both males and females with greater increases in males. Hypertonic saline-evoked muscle pain significantly increased PPT in males but not in females. When cold pressor and muscle pain were applied concomitantly the PPT increases were smaller when compared to the individual sessions. This study showed for the first time that two concurrent conditioning tonic pain stimuli (muscle pain and cold pressor pain) cause less DNIC compared with either of the conditioning stimuli given alone; and males showed greater DNIC than females. This may explain why patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain have impaired DNIC. PMID:18977598

  10. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    About Alzheimer's Disease: Mild Cognitive Impairment Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition in which people have memory or other ... as severe as those seen in people with Alzheimer’s disease. More older people with MCI, compared with those ...

  11. The Relationship of Audibility and the Development of Canonical Babbling in Young Children With Hearing Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bass-Ringdahl, Sandie M.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigated the relationship between age at onset of canonical babbling and audibility of amplified speech in children with hearing impairment. Thirteen children with severe–profound hearing impairment and two children with normal hearing participated in a longitudinal investigation of vocalization development. A nonconcurrent multiple baseline design was used to analyze vocalization recordings obtained during two phases (hearing aid [HA] and cochlear implant [CI]). Audibility during HA and CI use was calculated using the Speech Intelligibility Index (SII). Earlier ages of canonical babble onset were related to greater audibility of the speech signal during HA use. Children who developed canonical babble had an SII of .35 or greater. SII was a statistically significant predictor of age of onset of canonical babble. Results support the concept of an “essential” level of audibility for onset of canonical babble. Findings are discussed relative to their methodological and clinical implications regarding treatment decision making. PMID:20457674

  12. Clinical significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin M Ogles; Kirk M Lunnen; Kyle Bonesteel

    2001-01-01

    The meaningfulness of psychotherapy outcome as measured in therapy research is a persistent and important issue. Following a period of emphasis on statistically significant findings for treated versus control groups, many researchers are renewing efforts to investigate the meaningfulness of individual change. Several statistical methods are available to evaluate the meaningfulness of clients' changes occurring as a result of treatment.

  13. Alleviating memory impairment through distraction.

    PubMed

    Cashdollar, Nathan; Lavie, Nilli; Düzel, Emrah

    2013-11-27

    Distraction typically has a negative impact on memory for recent events and patients with existing memory impairment are particularly vulnerable to distractor interference. In contrast, here we establish a beneficial effect for distractor presentation in humans for both patients with memory impairment due to bilateral hippocampal lesions and healthy adults with low memory performance. Recognition memory for images of place scenes, which had to be memorized for short delay periods was significantly improved with the presentation of a distractor face during the delay. Magnetoencephalography recordings of neural oscillations in the theta frequency range obtained in healthy adults suggest that this memory improvement results from the interruption of rehearsal by the distractor. Our results highlight circumstances where active memory rehearsal may paradoxically increase memory impairments and distraction alleviates these memory deficits in patients with hippocampal injury and healthy adults. PMID:24285905

  14. Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Oscar L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review: The term mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is used to describe older subjects with demonstrable cognitive impairment who have not crossed the threshold for dementia. Because patients with MCI have an increased risk of developing dementia, especially Alzheimer disease (AD), there is significant interest in the clinical characterization of these subjects and in understanding the pathophysiology of the transition from MCI to AD. Recent Findings: The MCI syndrome, as an expression of an incipient disorder that may lead to dementia, is extremely heterogeneous and may coexist with systemic, neurologic, or psychiatric disorders that can cause cognitive deficits. Recent clinical criteria were designed to take into account the different forms of clinical presentation of the syndrome, and introduced the possible contribution of biomarkers to the clinical diagnosis. Bedside diagnosis of MCI can be difficult, since patients who report having cognitive problems may have normal scores in global cognitive scales or in brief neuropsychological instruments. Summary: This article presents the evolution of the clinical concept of MCI, the operationalization of its current definitions, the development of biomarkers that can help to identify an underlying neurodegenerative process as the etiology of the syndrome, and its proposed treatments. PMID:23558486

  15. In-Hospital Acute Stress Symptoms Are Associated with Impairment in Cognition 1 Year after Intensive Care Unit Admission

    PubMed Central

    Zatzick, Douglas; Hough, Catherine L.; Katon, Wayne J.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Prior studies have found that cognitive dysfunction is common in intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Yet, relatively little is known about potentially modifiable risk factors for longer-term post-ICU cognitive impairment. Objectives: To determine if in-hospital acute stress symptoms were associated with impaired 12-month cognitive functioning among ICU survivors. Methods: We prospectively enrolled 150 nontrauma patients without cognitive impairment or a dementia diagnosis who were admitted to an ICU for more than 24 hours. Patients were interviewed before hospital discharge and again via telephone at 12 months post-ICU. Measurements and Main Results: Demographics and clinical information were obtained through medical record reviews and in-person interviews. In-hospital acute stress symptoms were assessed with the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version. Twelve-month post-ICU cognition was assessed with the modified Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status. Follow-up interviews were completed with 120 (80%) patients. Patients’ mean age at hospitalization was 48.2 years (SD, 13.7). In unadjusted analyses, a greater number of in-hospital acute stress symptoms was associated with significantly greater impairment in 12-month cognitive functioning (?, ?0.1; 95% confidence interval, ?0.2 to ?0.004; P = 0.04). After adjusting for patient and clinical factors, in-hospital acute stress symptoms were independently associated with greater impairment in 12-month cognitive functioning (?, ?0.1; 95% CI, ?0.2 to ?0.01; P = 0.03). Conclusions: In-hospital acute stress symptoms may be a potentially modifiable risk factor for greater impairment in cognitive functioning post-ICU. Early interventions for at-risk ICU survivors may improve longer-term outcomes. PMID:23987665

  16. Greater glucocorticoid receptor activation in hippocampus of aged rats sensitizes microglia.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Ruth M; Thompson, Vanessa M; Kitt, Meagan M; Amat, Jose; Hale, Matthew W; Frank, Matthew G; Crysdale, Nicole Y; Stamper, Christopher E; Hennessey, Patrick A; Watkins, Linda R; Spencer, Robert L; Lowry, Christopher A; Maier, Steven F

    2015-03-01

    Healthy aging individuals are more likely to suffer profound memory impairments following an immune challenge than are younger adults. These challenges produce a brain inflammatory response that is exaggerated with age. Sensitized microglia found in the normal aging brain are responsible for this amplified response, which in turn interferes with processes involved in memory formation. Here, we examine factors that may lead aging to sensitize microglia. Aged rats exhibited higher corticosterone levels in the hippocampus, but not in plasma, throughout the daytime (diurnal inactive phase). These elevated hippocampal corticosterone levels were associated with increased hippocampal 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 protein expression, the enzyme that catalyzes glucocorticoid formation and greater hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) activation. Intracisternal administration of mifepristone, a GR antagonist, effectively reduced immune-activated proinflammatory responses, specifically from hippocampal microglia and prevented Escherichia coli-induced memory impairments in aged rats. Voluntary exercise as a therapeutic intervention significantly reduced total hippocampal GR expression. These data strongly suggest that increased GR activation in the aged hippocampus plays a critical role in sensitizing microglia. PMID:25559333

  17. Title: Greater Toronto Area Contours Data Creator /

    E-print Network

    Title: Greater Toronto Area Contours Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario Ministry of Natural Coverage Date(s): N/A Updates: N/A Abstract: Zipped contour files of the Greater Toronto Area Data Type interval Coordinates: N/A Index Map: N/A Keywords (Place): Greater Toronto Area, Ontario; Toronto, Ontario

  18. Impaired consciousness in epilepsy investigated by a prospective responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Li; Shklyar, Irina; Lee, Hyang Woon; Ezeani, Celestine C.; Anaya, Joseph; Balakirsky, Samantha; Han, Xiao; Enamandram, Sheila; Men, Clara; Cheng, Joyce Y.; Nunn, Abigail; Mayer, Tanya; Francois, Czestochowa; Albrecht, Molly; Hutchison, Alan L.; Yap, Ee-Lynn; Ing, Kevin; Didebulidze, Gvantsa; Xiao, Bo; Hamid, Hamada; Farooque, Pue; Detyniecki, Kamil; Giacino, Joseph T.; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Impaired consciousness in epileptic seizures has a major negative impact on patient quality of life. Prior work on epileptic unconsciousness has mainly used retrospective and nonstandardized methods. Our goal was to validate and to obtain initial data using a standardized prospective testing battery. Methods The responsiveness in epilepsy scale (RES) was used on 52 patients during continuous video/EEG monitoring. RES begins with higher-level questions and commands, and switches adaptively to more basic sensorimotor responses depending on patient performance. RES continues after seizures and includes postictal memory testing. Scoring was conducted based on video review. Key Findings Testing on standardized seizure simulations yielded good intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. We captured 59 seizures from 18 patients (35% of participants) during 1420 hours of RES monitoring. RES impairment was greatest during and after tonic-clonic seizures, less in partial seizures, and minimal in auras and subclinical seizures. In partial seizures, ictal RES impairment was significantly greater if EEG changes were present. Maximum RES impairment (lowest ictal score) was also significantly correlated with long postictal recovery time, and poor postictal memory. Significance We found that prospective testing of responsiveness during seizures is feasible and reliable. RES impairment was related to EEG changes during seizures, as well as to postictal memory deficits and recovery time. With a larger patient sample it is hoped that this approach can identify brain networks underlying specific components of impaired consciousness in seizures. This may allow the development of improved treatments targeted at preventing dysfunction in these networks. PMID:22150524

  19. 32 CFR 651.39 - Significance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...would violate existing pollution standards; cause water, air, noise, soil, or underground pollution; impair visibility for substantial periods; or cause irreparable harm to...Significant beneficial effects also occur and must...

  20. Impaired Learning of Social Compared to Monetary Rewards in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Alice; Rangel, Antonio; Adolphs, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    A leading hypothesis to explain the social dysfunction in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is that they exhibit a deficit in reward processing and motivation specific to social stimuli. However, there have been few direct tests of this hypothesis to date. Here we used an instrumental reward learning task that contrasted learning with social rewards (pictures of positive and negative faces) against learning with monetary reward (winning and losing money). The two tasks were structurally identical except for the type of reward, permitting direct comparisons. We tested 10 high-functioning people with ASD (7M, 3F) and 10 healthy controls who were matched on gender, age, and education. We found no significant differences between the two groups in terms of overall ability behaviorally to discriminate positive from negative slot machines, reaction-times, and valence ratings, However, there was a specific impairment in the ASD group in learning to choose social rewards, compared to monetary rewards: they had a significantly lower cumulative number of choices of the most rewarding social slot machine, and had a significantly slower initial learning rate for the socially rewarding slot machine, compared to the controls. The findings show a deficit in reward learning in ASD that is greater for social rewards than for monetary rewards, and support the hypothesis of a disproportionate impairment in social reward processing in ASD. PMID:23060743

  1. Plant Oils Were Associated with Low Prevalence of Impaired Glucose Metabolism in Japanese Workers

    PubMed Central

    Kurotani, Kayo; Kochi, Takeshi; Nanri, Akiko; Tsuruoka, Hiroko; Kuwahara, Keisuke; Pham, Ngoc Minh; Kabe, Isamu; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acid has been suggested to be involved in development of diabetes. However, its association is unclear among Japanese populations, which consume large amounts of fish rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The present cross-sectional study examined the association of individual dietary fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns with abnormal glucose metabolism among 1065 Japanese employees, aged 18–69 years. Impaired glucose metabolism is defined if a person has a history of diabetes, current use of anti-diabetic drug, fasting plasma glucose of 110 mg/dl (?6.1 mmol/L) or greater, or hemoglobin A1C of 6.0% (?42 mmol/mol) or greater. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Dietary fatty acid patterns were extracted by principal component analysis. Odds ratios of impaired glucose metabolism according to tertile categories of each fatty acids and dietary fatty acid patterns were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounding variables. A higher intake of polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 fatty acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid were significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend?=?0.03, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.04, respectively). Alpha-linolenic acid was marginally significantly associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend?=?0.12). Of three fatty acid patterns identified, a higher plant oil pattern score, which characterized by high intake of alpha-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, and oleic acid, was associated with a decreased prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism (P for trend?=?0.03). No association was observed for other patterns. In conclusion, plant source fatty acids might be protectively associated with development of diabetes in Japanese adults. PMID:23741386

  2. Neuropsychological impairment in incest offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Langevin; G. Wortzman; R. Dickey; P. Wright; L. Handy

    1988-01-01

    Ninety-one incest perpetrators were compared to 36 nonviolent nonsex offenders for the presence of neuropsychological impairment. The WAIS-R, Halstead-Reitan battery, and CT scans of the brain were used. The sex offenders were also examined for the presence of substance abuse, violence, pedophilia, and biological relationship to the victim. Incest offenders had significantly lower IQ scores than controls but generally were

  3. Tracking Motor Impairments in the Progression of Huntington’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Long, Jeffery D.; Paulsen, Jane S.; Marder, Karen; Zhang, Ying; Kim, Ji-In; Mills, James A.

    2014-01-01

    The Unified Huntington’s Disease Rating Scale is used to characterize motor impairments and establish motor diagnosis. Little is known about the timing of diagnostic confidence level categories and the trajectory of motor impairments during the prodromal phase. Goals of this study were to estimate the timing of categories, model the prodromal trajectory of motor impairments, estimate the rate of motor impairment change by category, and provide required sample size estimates for a test of efficacy in clinical trials. In total, 1010 gene-expanded participants from the Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington’s Disease (PREDICT-HD) trial were analyzed. Accelerated failure time models were used to predict the timing of categories. Linear mixed effects regression was used to model the longitudinal motor trajectories. Age and length of gene expansion were incorporated into all models. The timing of categories varied significantly by gene expansion, with faster progression associated with greater expansion. For the median expansion, the third diagnostic confidence level category was estimated to have a first occurrence 1.5 years before diagnosis, and the second and first categories were estimated to occur 6.75 years and 19.75 years before diagnosis, respectively. Motor impairments displayed a nonlinear prodromal course. The motor impairment rate of change increased as the diagnostic confidence level increased, with added acceleration for higher progression scores. Motor items can detect changes in motor impairments before diagnosis. Given a sufficiently high progression score, there is evidence that the diagnostic confidence level can be used for prodromal staging. Implications for Huntington’s disease research and the planning of clinical trials of efficacy are discussed. PMID:24150908

  4. Early diagnosis of diabetic vascular complications: impairment of red blood cell deformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Sehyun; Ku, Yunhee; Park, Cheol-Woo; Suh, Jang-Soo

    2006-02-01

    Reduced deformability of red blood cells (RBCs) may play an important role on the pathogenesis of chronic vascular complications of diabetes mellitus. However, available techniques for measuring RBC deformability often require washing process after each measurement, which is not optimal for day-to-day clinical use at point of care. The objectives of the present study are to develop a device and to delineate the correlation of impaired RBC deformability with diabetic nephropathy. We developed a disposable ektacytometry to measure RBC deformability, which adopted a laser diffraction technique and slit rheometry. The essential features of this design are its simplicity (ease of operation and no moving parts) and a disposable element which is in contact with the blood sample. We studied adult diabetic patients divided into three groups according to diabetic complications. Group I comprised 57 diabetic patients with normal renal function. Group II comprised 26 diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). Group III consisted of 30 diabetic subjects with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis. According to the renal function for the diabetic groups, matched non-diabetic groups were served as control. We found substantially impaired red blood cell deformability in those with normal renal function (group I) compared to non-diabetic control (P = 0.0005). As renal function decreases, an increased impairment in RBC deformability was found. Diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (group II) when compared to non-diabetic controls (CRF) had an apparently greater impairment in RBC deformability (P = 0.07). The non-diabetic cohort (CRF), on the other hand, manifested significant impairment in red blood cell deformability compared to healthy control (P = 0.0001). The newly developed slit ektacytometer can measure the RBC deformability with ease and accuracy. In addition, progressive impairment in cell deformability is associated with renal function loss in all patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. In diabetic patients, early impairment in RBC deformability appears in patients with normal renal function.

  5. Profile of memory impairment as a prognostic marker in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Manyong; Lim, Tae Sung; Lee, Hyun Young; Moon, So Young

    2014-12-15

    We aimed to evaluate whether recognition memory can be used to identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) at greater risk for converting to dementia. We recruited 2172 aMCI patients. They were divided into two groups: aMCI with impaired recall but normal recognition (aMCI-IRNR) vs aMCI with impaired recall and impaired recognition (aMCI-IRIR). We compared demographic findings and neuropsychological performance and illustrated the difference in converting to dementia between the two groups. Study subjects consisted of 1022 (47.0%) patients with aMCI-IRNR and 1150 (53.0%) patients with aMCI-IRIR. In most neuropsychological tests except for digit span forward, patients with aMCI-IRIR were more impaired than patients with aMCI-IRNR even after adjustment of their age and sex. Cox analysis adjusting age and gender revealed that the risk of dementia conversion was higher in patients with aMCI-IRIR than in patients with aMCI-IRNR [hazard ratio (HR)=1.400, 95% CI 1.009-1.943; P=0.044]. This study showed that recognition memory can be used to identify patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) at greater risk for converting to dementia. PMID:25394906

  6. Is number sense impaired in chronic pain patients?

    PubMed Central

    Wolrich, J.; Poots, A. J.; Kuehler, B. M.; Rice, A. S. C.; Rahman, A.; Bantel, C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent advances in imaging have improved our understanding of the role of the brain in painful conditions. Discoveries of morphological changes have been made in patients with chronic pain, with little known about the functional consequences when they occur in areas associated with ‘number-sense’; thus, it can be hypothesized that chronic pain impairs this sense. Methods First, an audit of the use of numbers in gold-standard pain assessment tools in patients with acute and chronic pain was undertaken. Secondly, experiments were conducted with patients with acute and chronic pain and healthy controls. Participants marked positions of numbers on lines (number marking), before naming numbers on pre-marked lines (number naming). Finally, subjects bisected lines flanked with ‘2’ and ‘9’. Deviations from expected responses were determined for each experiment. Results Four hundred and ninety-four patients were audited; numeric scores in the ‘moderate’ and ‘severe’ pain categories were significantly higher in chronic compared with acute pain patients. In experiments (n=150), more than one-third of chronic pain patients compared with 1/10th of controls showed greater deviations from the expected in number marking and naming indicating impaired number sense. Line bisection experiments suggest prefrontal and parietal cortical dysfunction as cause of this impairment. Conclusions Audit data suggest patients with chronic pain interpret numbers differently from acute pain sufferers. Support is gained by experiments indicating impaired number sense in one-third of chronic pain patients. These results cast doubts on the appropriateness of the use of visual analogue and numeric rating scales in chronic pain in clinics and research. PMID:25082664

  7. Impairment and Distress Associated With Relationship Discord in a National Sample of Married or Cohabiting Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Whisman; Lisa A. Uebelacker

    2006-01-01

    The clinical importance of relationship discord was examined through evaluating the association between relationship discord and multiple measures of impairment and psychological distress in a population-based sample of married and cohabiting adults (N = 2,677). In comparison to people that were not in discordant relationships, individuals in discordant relationships reported greater social role impairment with relatives and friends and greater

  8. Oral diadochokinesis in hearing-impaired adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robb, M P; Hughes, M C; Frese, D J

    1985-04-01

    Oscillographic tracings for time-by-count measures of diadochokinetic syllable rate (Fletcher, 1972) were collected from a group of 30 hearing-impaired and five normal-hearing high-school students. Results indicated that hearing-impaired subjects performed significantly slower on all speech-timing tasks than their normal-hearing peers. Within-group differences were identified for the hearing-impaired subjects with respect to speech intelligibility, degree of hearing loss, and gender. The differences, in general, indicate that for varying degrees of hearing loss severity there are speech-timing coordination deficits commensurate to that level. PMID:3988979

  9. Impairment in Non-Word Repetition: A Marker for Language Impairment or Reading Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Gillian; Slonims, Vicky; Simonoff, Emily; Dworzynski, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A deficit in non-word repetition (NWR), a measure of short-term phonological memory proposed as a marker for language impairment, is found not only in language impairment but also in reading impairment. We evaluated the strength of association between language impairment and reading impairment in children with current, past, and no language…

  10. Ontogeny of Larval Greater Redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi)

    E-print Network

    Cooke, Steven J.

    and Mohr, 1978a; Fuiman, 1979), shorthead redhorse (Moxostoma macrolepidotum, Buynak and Mohr, 1979Ontogeny of Larval Greater Redhorse (Moxostoma valenciennesi) CHRISTOPHER M. BUNT1 AND STEVEN J.--Adult greater redhorse Moxostoma valenciennesi, were seined from the Grand River, Ontario, and artificially

  11. Chiropractic management of greater occipital neuralgia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Comley

    2003-01-01

    Greater occipital neuralgia (GON) is the term used to describe signs and symptoms of irritation to the greater occipital nerve. Neuralgic pain is characteristically sharp and shooting in nature and distributed over the area of the nerve affected. In the case of GON, pain is typically located in the sub-occipital region and radiates superiorly to the posterior aspect of the

  12. Hearing or speech impairment - resources

    MedlinePLUS

    Resources - hearing or speech impairment ... The following organizations are good resources for information on hearing impairment or speech impairment: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association - www.asha.org National Dissemination Center for Children ...

  13. Impaired Decisional Impulsivity in Pathological Videogamers

    PubMed Central

    Irvine, Michael A.; Worbe, Yulia; Bolton, Sorcha; Harrison, Neil A.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Voon, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathological gaming is an emerging and poorly understood problem. Impulsivity is commonly impaired in disorders of behavioural and substance addiction, hence we sought to systematically investigate the different subtypes of decisional and motor impulsivity in a well-defined pathological gaming cohort. Methods Fifty-two pathological gaming subjects and age-, gender- and IQ-matched healthy volunteers were tested on decisional impulsivity (Information Sampling Task testing reflection impulsivity and delay discounting questionnaire testing impulsive choice), and motor impulsivity (Stop Signal Task testing motor response inhibition, and the premature responding task). We used stringent diagnostic criteria highlighting functional impairment. Results In the Information Sampling Task, pathological gaming participants sampled less evidence prior to making a decision and scored fewer points compared with healthy volunteers. Gaming severity was also negatively correlated with evidence gathered and positively correlated with sampling error and points acquired. In the delay discounting task, pathological gamers made more impulsive choices, preferring smaller immediate over larger delayed rewards. Pathological gamers made more premature responses related to comorbid nicotine use. Greater number of hours played also correlated with a Motivational Index. Greater frequency of role playing games was associated with impaired motor response inhibition and strategy games with faster Go reaction time. Conclusions We show that pathological gaming is associated with impaired decisional impulsivity with negative consequences in task performance. Decisional impulsivity may be a potential target in therapeutic management. PMID:24146789

  14. Heritable risk factors associated with language impairments.

    PubMed

    Barry, J G; Yasin, I; Bishop, D V M

    2007-02-01

    There is a strong genetic contribution to children's language and literacy impairments. The aim of this study was to determine which aspects of the phenotype are familial by comparing 34 parents of probands with language/literacy impairments and 33 parents of typically developing probands. The parents responded to questionnaires regarding previous history for language/reading impairment and participated in psychometric testing. The psychometric test battery consisted of tests assessing non-verbal IQ, short-term memory, articulation, receptive grammar, reading abilities and spelling. Self-report measures demonstrated a higher prevalence of language and literacy impairments in parents of affected probands (32%) compared with parents of unaffected probands (6%). The two groups of parents differed significantly in their performance on the non-word repetition, oromotor and digit span tasks. Non-word repetition gave the best discrimination between the parent groups even when the data from the parents who actually were impaired as ascertained by direct testing or self-report were removed from the analyses. This suggests that non-word repetition serves as a marker of a family risk for language impairment. The paper concludes with a discussion of issues associated with ascertainment of specific language impairment (SLI). PMID:17233642

  15. Aided and Unaided Speech Perception by Older Hearing Impaired Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Arbogast, Tanya; Doss, Zoe; Younus, Masood; Herron, Timothy J.; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    The most common complaint of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners is difficulty understanding speech in the presence of noise. However, tests of consonant-identification and sentence reception threshold (SeRT) provide different perspectives on the magnitude of impairment. Here we quantified speech perception difficulties in 24 OHI listeners in unaided and aided conditions by analyzing (1) consonant-identification thresholds and consonant confusions for 20 onset and 20 coda consonants in consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables presented at consonant-specific signal-to-noise (SNR) levels, and (2) SeRTs obtained with the Quick Speech in Noise Test (QSIN) and the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). Compared to older normal hearing (ONH) listeners, nearly all unaided OHI listeners showed abnormal consonant-identification thresholds, abnormal consonant confusions, and reduced psychometric function slopes. Average elevations in consonant-identification thresholds exceeded 35 dB, correlated strongly with impairments in mid-frequency hearing, and were greater for hard-to-identify consonants. Advanced digital hearing aids (HAs) improved average consonant-identification thresholds by more than 17 dB, with significant HA benefit seen in 83% of OHI listeners. HAs partially normalized consonant-identification thresholds, reduced abnormal consonant confusions, and increased the slope of psychometric functions. Unaided OHI listeners showed much smaller elevations in SeRTs (mean 6.9 dB) than in consonant-identification thresholds and SeRTs in unaided listening conditions correlated strongly (r = 0.91) with identification thresholds of easily identified consonants. HAs produced minimal SeRT benefit (2.0 dB), with only 38% of OHI listeners showing significant improvement. HA benefit on SeRTs was accurately predicted (r = 0.86) by HA benefit on easily identified consonants. Consonant-identification tests can accurately predict sentence processing deficits and HA benefit in OHI listeners. PMID:25730423

  16. Mild Cognitive Impairment Research

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Media Text Size Videos and Media Virtual Library Brain Tour Facts & Figures Spotlight on Researchers Web Links ... early diagnosis Mild Cognitive Impairment Research Inside the brain Genetics in Alzheimer's Advances in brain imaging Diet ...

  17. Specific Language Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... learning disabilities, such as dyslexia, some cases of autism, and speech sound disorders (conditions in which speech ... which are also characteristic of most children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Impairments in understanding and the ...

  18. Advanced age brings a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during walking.

    PubMed

    Franz, Jason R; Francis, Carrie A; Allen, Matthew S; O'Connor, Shawn M; Thelen, Darryl G

    2015-04-01

    We implemented a virtual reality system to quantify differences in the use of visual feedback to maintain balance during walking between healthy young (n=12, mean age: 24years) and healthy old (n=11, 71years) adults. Subjects walked on a treadmill while watching a speed-matched, virtual hallway with and without mediolateral visual perturbations. A motion capture system tracked center of mass (CoM) motion and foot kinematics. Spectral analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and local divergence exponents quantified old and young adults' dynamic response to visual perturbations. Old and young adults walked normally with comparable CoM spectral characteristics, lateral step placement temporal persistence, and local divergence exponents. Perturbed visual flow induced significantly larger changes in mediolateral CoM motion in old vs. young adults. Moreover, visual perturbations disrupted the control of lateral step placement and compromised local dynamic stability more significantly in old than young adults. Advanced age induces a greater reliance on visual feedback to maintain balance during waking, an effect that may compensate for degradations in somatosensation. Our findings are relevant to the early diagnosis of sensory-induced balance impairments and also point to the potential use of virtual reality to evaluate sensory rehabilitation and balance training programs for old adults. PMID:25687664

  19. Greater Toronto Area 1998 Cordon Count Program

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Greater Toronto Area 1998 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table --------------------------------------------------------------4 Peel Steeles Avenue Screenline ---------------------------------------------------5 Peel-Toronto

  20. Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2004 Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 8 Peel-Toronto Screenline

  1. Greater Toronto Area 2001 Cordon Count Program

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Greater Toronto Area 2001 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table ...................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline

  2. Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Summary Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 2001 Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table ...................................................................... 8 Peel-Toronto Screenline

  3. Greater Toronto Area 2006 Cordon Count Program

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Greater Toronto Area 2006 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-3916 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline

  4. Greater Toronto Area 2004 Cordon Count Program

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Greater Toronto Area 2004 Cordon Count Program Analysis of Peak Periods Prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table.......................................................................................... 5 Peel-Toronto Screenline

  5. Literacy and visual impairment.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Karen A; Hatton, Deborah

    2007-02-01

    Research supporting specific instructional approaches for young children with visual impairments and blindness is limited. There is, however, a growing body of evidence to support the belief that the critical components of emergent and early conventional literacy for children with visual impairments do not differ markedly from those of their sighted peers. Specifically, infants and toddlers with visual impairments and blindness require interactions that support their oral language development, awareness of print or braille, and opportunities to explore writing. Although these very young children are often delayed in developing emergent literacy understandings, the path of their development is consistent with emergent literacy development of sighted children. The research regarding older children with visual impairments and blindness suggests that they too benefit from instruction that emphasizes the critical elements of early literacy instruction for all children. Research also suggests that specific strategies, such as repeated readings, direct instruction in phonics, and big word decoding that emphasizes morphemes, can benefit school-aged children with visual impairments and blindness. Further research is needed if we are to understand fully the most effective approaches to emergent and early literacy instruction for children with visual impairments and blindness, but there is a solid base from which we can begin. PMID:17340383

  6. Impaired Decision Making is Associated with Poor Inhibition Control in Nonpathological Lottery Gamblers.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiaolong; Zheng, Lili; Li, Xianchun

    2014-10-28

    Previous studies by questionnaires have demonstrated that lottery gamblers who have not meet the criteria of pathological gambler show greater gambling acceptability. However, few empirical evidence of whether such nonpathological lottery gamblers (NPLGs) display the same impairments of decision making with pathological gamblers has been found so far. In present study, NPLGs and matched controls (MCs) were asked to perform the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and inter-temporal choice task (ICT). We found that compared to MCs, NPLGs displayed much lower IGT scores, net gains and proportions of advantageous decks in the IGT task and much higher percentages of trials during which smaller-but-sooner rewards were chosen in the ICT. These findings indicate that NPLGs display much more risky and impulsive decision makings, just like pathological gamblers in the previous studies. Next, the Go/NoGo task was employed to explore the role of response inhibition in the impairment of decision making in NPLGs. We found that NPLGs did show much higher commission errors compared to MCs. Moreover, IGT scores, net gain and proportions of advantageous decks were significantly negatively correlated with commission errors, which indicates that poor response inhibition might be involved in the impairments of decision making in NPLGs. To our knowledge, we provided the first empirical evidence of impairment of decision making and its cognitive mechanisms in NPLGs. PMID:25348253

  7. Visual impairment and spectacle coverage rate in Baoshan district, China: population-based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence and risk factors of visual impairment associated with refractive error and the unmet need for spectacles in a special suburban senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai, one of several rural areas undergoing a transition from rural to urban area, where data of visual impairment are limited. Methods The study was a population based survey of 4545 Chinese aged (age: >60 years or older ) at Baoshan, Shanghai, in 2009. One copy of questionnaire was completed for each subject. Examinations included a standardized refraction and measurement of presenting and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) as well as tonometry, slit lamp biomicroscopy, and fundus photography. Results The prevalence of mild (6/12 to 6/18), moderate (6/18 to 6/60) and severe visual impairment was 12.59%, 8.38% and 0.44%, respectively, and 5.26%, 3.06% and 0.09% with refractive correction. Visual impairment was associated with age, gender, education and career, but not insurance . The prevalence of correctable visual impairment was 5.81% (using 6/18 cutoff) and 13.18% (using 6/12 cutoff). Senior people and women were significantly at a higher risk of correctable visual impairment, while the well-educated on the contrary. The prevalence of undercorrected refractive error (improves by 2 or more lines with refraction) was 24.84%, and the proportion with undercorrected refractive error for mild, moderate , severe and no visual impairment was 61.54%, 67.98%, 60.00% and 14.10%, respectively. The spectacle coverage rate was 44.12%. Greater unmet need for spectacles was observed among elderly people, females, non-peasant, and subjects with less education and astigmatism only. Conclusions High prevalence of visual impairment, visual impairment alleviated by refractive correction, and low spectacle coverage existed among the senior population in Baoshan District of Shanghai. Education for the public of the importance of regular examination and appropriate and accessible refraction service might be helpful to solve the problem. PMID:23566106

  8. Trainable Mentally Impaired/Severely Multiply Impaired/Autistic Impaired/Severely Mentally Impaired. Product Evaluation Report 1989-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claus, Richard N.; And Others

    The evaluation report describes special education services provided to trainable mentally impaired (TMI), autistic impaired (AI), severely multiply impaired (SXI), and severely mentally impaired (SMI) students at and through the Melvin G. Millet Learning Center (Bridgeport, Michigan). The eight program components are described individually and…

  9. Binaural speech discrimination under noise in hearing-impaired listeners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. V.; Rao, A. B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of speech discrimination by hearing-impaired listeners (sensori-neural, conductive, and mixed groups) under binaural free-field listening in the presence of background noise. Subjects with pure-tone thresholds greater than 20 dB in 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 kHz were presented with a version of the W-22 list of phonetically balanced words under three conditions: (1) 'quiet', with the chamber noise below 28 dB and speech at 60 dB; (2) at a constant S/N ratio of +10 dB, and with a background white noise at 70 dB; and (3) same as condition (2), but with the background noise at 80 dB. The mean speech discrimination scores decreased significantly with noise in all groups. However, the decrease in binaural speech discrimination scores with an increase in hearing impairment was less for material presented under the noise conditions than for the material presented in quiet.

  10. Vestibular disorders and dual task performance: Impairment when walking a straight path

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jess C.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh

    2013-01-01

    Locomotion is impaired in some people with vestibular disorders. Performance on cognitive tasks is also impaired in many people with vestibular disorders. The goal of this study was to determine if patients with vestibular disorders have decreased ability to complete a dual task performance involving a cognitive task, an additional motor task or both tasks, combined along a linear path. Subjects were normal, had benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, or had various vestibular disorders that caused unilateral weakness. They were asked to walk 7.62 m in a straight line with eyes open or closed, without extra tasks, and while nodding the head, naming things, and both nodding and naming. The patients walked significantly slower than controls, especially when performing the cognitive task. Patients had greater ataxia and began veering sooner than normals. The subjects’ veering increased significantly with the addition of cognitive tasks. The patient groups did not differ significantly from each other. The changes in velocity did not affect the veering. These data suggest that patients with vestibular disorders are impaired in their ability to complete a linear path when cognitive tasks are added. PMID:21558642

  11. Functional Impairment in Youth Three Years after Detention

    PubMed Central

    Abram, Karen M.; Choe, Jeanne Y.; Washburn, Jason J.; Romero, Erin G.; Teplin, Linda A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose This article examines functional impairment across global and specific dimensions among youth 3 years after their detention. Methods Functional impairment was assessed using the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) in a large, stratified, random sample of formerly detained youth (N = 1653). Results More than one-fifth of the sample were scored as having marked impairment that required, at minimum, “multiple sources of care” (CAFAS Total Score of 100 or higher); 7.0% required “intensive intervention” (CAFAS Total Score ?140). Most of the sample had impairment; only 7.5% of the sample had “no noteworthy impairment” (CAFAS Total Score ?10). Significantly more males were impaired than females. Among males living in the community at follow-up, African Americans and Hispanics were more likely to be impaired than non-Hispanic whites. In comparison to males living in the community, males who were incarcerated at follow-up were significantly more likely to have impaired thinking and impaired functioning at their place of residence but less likely to have substance use problems. Conclusions Three years after detention, most youth struggle in one or more life domains; more than one in five have marked impairment in functioning. These findings underscore the ongoing costs, to both youth and society, of our failure to provide effective rehabilitation to youth after detention. PMID:19465316

  12. Hailstones across the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2014-11-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales, Australia, which is a sprawling suburban area, with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropolis. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hailstone frequencies and magnitudes for each of recognized and vastly inhabited Local Government Areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, all severe hails (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) were cautiously selected and then imported into the ArcGIS software for relevant analysis. Appropriate data layers were stored in a unique database to allow logical integration of the data directly into some geoprocessing functions, mainly for querying, analyzing and mapping purposes in a model-builder setting. The database includes 357 hailstones with sizes 2-11 cm and occurred in 169 hail days across the region during the past 25 years. The models have established that hailstones are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occurred predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. EST. They were particularly common in spring and summer, and reached maximum frequency in November and December. There was an average of 14.3 events each year, but a significant decreasing trend in terms of hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial models also established three main distribution patterns over the study area, which include the Sydney Metropolitan, coastal and pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability and future climate change have been briefly discussed.

  13. Acute Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Multiple Myeloma Undergoing Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Desiree; Vichaya, Elisabeth G.; Wang, Xin Shelley; Sailors, Mary H.; Cleeland, Charles S.; Wefel, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the acute effects of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (Au-HSCT) on the neuropsychological functioning of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We examined the prevalence of cognitive deficits after induction chemotherapy (pre-AuHSCT) in patients with MM, determined clinically significant changes in cognitive function 1 and 3 months post-AuHSCT, and identified patients who may be vulnerable to cognitive decline during this period. Methods 53 patients with MM were recruited pre-AuHSCT. Neuropsychological tests measuring multiple cognitive domains (attention, psychomotor speed, learning/memory, language, executive function, motor function) were administered pre-AuHSCT and 1 and 3 months post-AuHSCT. A pretreatment assessment was not available. An Overall Cognitive Function Index (OCFI) was computed to determine cognitive impairment pre-AuHSCT, and a practice-effect-adjusted Reliable Change Index was used to determine cognitive change over time. Results Overall, deficits were more frequent in learning/memory, executive function, motor function, and psychomotor speed. Pre-AuHSCT, 47% of patients (25/53) exhibited cognitive impairment based on the OCFI. One month post-AuHSCT, 49% (20/41) demonstrated clinically significant decline on ?1 measures; 3 months post-AuHSCT, 48% (14/29) showed decline on ?1 measures. Older patients, minorities, those with advanced disease, more induction cycles, and postinduction deficits showed greater vulnerability to decline. Conclusions Nearly half of the patients showed vulnerability to impairment in learning/memory or executive function after receiving induction therapy, and the prevalence of impairment remained high post-AuHSCT. Awareness of cognitive impairment and associated risk factors in actively treated patients is important for considering psychosocial or other support for patients with acute cognitive symptoms. PMID:24105672

  14. Effects of gender, age, diabetes mellitus and renal and hepatic impairment on tadalafil pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Forgue, S Thomas; Phillips, Diane L; Bedding, Alun W; Payne, Christopher D; Jewell, Hayley; Patterson, Beverley E; Wrishko, Rebecca E; Mitchell, Malcolm I

    2007-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the effects of gender, age, diabetes mellitus, renal and hepatic impairment on tadalafil pharmacokinetics and tolerability. Methods Six single-dose (5, 10 or 20 mg orally) clinical pharmacology studies were conducted in the UK, Belgium, Poland and Germany in healthy male and female subjects, elderly subjects and subjects with diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, end-stage renal failure (ESRF) or hepatic impairment. The gender study also incorporated administration of 10 mg tadalafil daily for 10 days. Results Systemic exposure in the elderly was 25% greater than in young subjects (mean AUC ratio 1.25; 90% confidence interval 0.972, 1.61). The AUC was 19% lower in subjects with diabetes mellitus than in healthy age/gender-matched controls. Pharmacokinetics in female subjects were essentially similar to those in males. Exposure in subjects with mild or moderate renal insufficiency was approximately twice that in healthy subjects. The mean AUC for the major metabolite (total methylcatechol glucuronide) in the presence of ESRF was three times the mean for healthy subjects. Haemodialysis contributed negligibly to elimination of tadalafil or the metabolite. Hepatic impairment had negligible effects on exposure. The most common adverse events in these six studies were headache, back pain and myalgia. A 10-mg dose was not well tolerated by subjects with moderate renal dysfunction in this study. Conclusions No clinically significant effect of gender, age, diabetes mellitus or hepatic impairment on tadalafil pharmacokinetics was observed. Renal insufficiency resulted in increased systemic exposure. Tadalafil was not associated with any serious clinically significant adverse events or study discontinuations due to adverse events. PMID:16869816

  15. Aging impairs heat loss, but when does it matter?

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jill M; Poirier, Martin P; Flouris, Andreas D; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Malcolm, Janine; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-02-01

    Aging is associated with an attenuated physiological ability to dissipate heat. However, it remains unclear if age-related impairments in heat dissipation only occur above a certain level of heat stress and whether this response is altered by aerobic fitness. Therefore, we examined changes in whole body evaporative heat loss (HE) as determined using whole body direct calorimetry in young (n = 10; 21 ± 1 yr), untrained middle-aged (n = 10; 48 ± 5 yr), and older (n = 10; 65 ± 3 yr) males matched for body surface area. We also studied a group of trained middle-aged males (n = 10; 49 ± 5 yr) matched for body surface area with all groups and for aerobic fitness with the young group. Participants performed intermittent aerobic exercise (30-min exercise bouts separated by 15-min rest) in the heat (40°C and 15% relative humidity) at progressively greater fixed rates of heat production equal to 300 (Ex1), 400 (Ex2), and 500 (Ex3) W. Results showed that HE was significantly lower in middle-aged untrained (Ex2: 426 ± 34; and Ex3: 497 ± 17 W) and older (Ex2: 424 ± 38; and Ex3: 485 ± 44 W) compared with young (Ex2: 472 ± 42; and Ex3: 558 ± 51 W) and middle-aged trained (474 ± 21; Ex3: 552 ± 23 W) males at the end of Ex2 and Ex3 (P < 0.05). No differences among groups were observed during recovery. We conclude that impairments in HE in older and middle-aged untrained males occur at exercise-induced heat loads of ?400 W when performed in a hot environment. These impairments in untrained middle-aged males can be minimized through regular aerobic exercise training. PMID:25505030

  16. Management and Conservation Disturbance Factors Influencing Greater

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    large declines in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations; thus, understanding-grouse leks. ß 2012 The Wildlife Society. KEY WORDS big sagebrush, Centrocercus urophasianus, cumulative-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are the larg- est grouse species in North America and once occupied 1,200,483 km2

  17. Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Program

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    Greater Toronto Area Cordon Count Program Analysis of Traffic Trends 1985 to 1998 prepared by: Data Management Group Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto Telephone: (416) 978-7282 #12;Table --------------------------------------------------------------6 Peel Steeles Avenue Screenline ---------------------------------------------------8 Peel-Toronto

  18. Greater Sao Paulo Newer Library Automation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Dulce Didio

    1991-01-01

    This followup to a 1981 study presents descriptions of automated projects or activities in academic, public, and special libraries or information centers in the Greater Sao Paulo region that developed from 1981 through 1987. It is noted that an overall increase in the level of automation since 1981 has been observed. (four references) (Author/MAB)

  19. 2010 Annual Report Greater West Texas

    E-print Network

    Rock, Chris

    2010 Annual Report Greater West Texas State Employee Charitable Campaign You will find, as you look- rized workplace campaign for state agency and higher education em- ployees throughout Texas. In 2010,717 and West Central Texas SECC raised $131,797 for a combined total of $957,514! · 4,608 state employees gave

  20. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  1. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beverly Blakeney DeJarnett; Frank H. Lim; Lee F. Krystinik; Mark L. Bacon

    1997-01-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these

  2. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  3. Ecology and Greater Prairie-Chicken

    E-print Network

    Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

    Ecology and Management of the Greater Prairie-Chicken Oklahoma Cooperative Extension Service Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources Oklahoma State University E-969E-969E-969 Ecology, Editor Professor and Extension Specialist Rangeland Ecology and Management Department of Plant and Soil

  4. Helping Learners Achieve Greater Self-Direction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheren, Mark

    1983-01-01

    In helping people become self-directed learners, adult educators must be clear that it is control, particularly in decision making, that they are talking about. They must decide what kinds of control are to be developed and need to acknowledge that progress toward control in any area of learning is progress toward greater self-direction in…

  5. Do greater mouse-eared bats experience a trade-off between energy conservation and learning?

    PubMed

    Ruczy?ski, Ireneusz; Clarin, Theresa M A; Siemers, Bjoern M

    2014-11-15

    Bats, some species of rodents and some birds are able to save energy during the summer period by decreasing their body temperature and falling into torpor. Some studies indicate that torpor prevents sleeping and causes effects similar to sleep deprivation. Impairment of processes stabilizing memory slows down learning accuracy and speed. We conducted two experiments to test whether greater mouse-eared bats, Myotis myotis, which commonly use torpor during the summer period, experience a trade-off between energy savings and learning abilities. We compared learning speed and accuracy in bats that were exposed to low (7°C) and higher ambient temperatures (22°C) between training and experimental sessions. Tests were conducted in experiments with food reward (food search) and without food reward (perch search). Time spent with the skin temperature above 30°C was significantly longer for bats exposed to 22°C than for those exposed to 7°C, and longer in experiments with food reward than without food reward. We observed only a very weak tendency for better accuracy and shorter search times in bats exposed to 22°C than in those exposed to 7°C. Our data indicate that memory consolidation of bats under natural conditions is not affected by daily torpor when bats are in good condition and may therefore defend against a rapid fall into torpor. We suggest that homeostatic processes connected with the circadian rhythm allow protection of the consolidation of memory for relatively simple tasks despite time spent in torpor. PMID:25392460

  6. Aids for visual impairment.

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, N J

    1990-01-01

    This article provides only a flavour of the type and range of aids available to the visually impaired person. Many other aids for leisure, learning, and daily living are illustrated in the RNIB equipment and games catalogue. Images FIG 1 FIG 3 FIG 4 FIG 5 FIG 6 FIG 7 FIG 8 FIG 9 FIG 10 PMID:2252929

  7. Specific Impairments of Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Shallice

    1982-01-01

    An information-processing model is outlined that predicts that performance on non-routine tasks can be impaired independently of performance on routine tasks. The model is related to views on frontal lobe functions, particularly those of Luria. Two methods of obtaining more rigorous tests of the model are discussed. One makes use of ideas from artificial intelligence to derive a task heavily

  8. Mechanism of impaired urinary concentration in chronic primary glomerulonephritis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Conte; Antonio Dal Canton; Giorgio Fuiano; Maurizio Terribile; Massimo Sabbatini; Mario Balletta; Pasquale Stanziale; Vittorio E Andreucci

    1985-01-01

    Mechanism of impaired urinary concentration in chronic primary glomerulonephritis. To define the role of medullary damage and the influence of solute load and blood pressure (BP) in impairing urinary concentration, patients with chronic glomerulonephritis were investigated by histological and functional studies. In 59 biopsy specimens, the degree of medullary fibrosis was correlated inversely with urinary specific gravity and was significantly

  9. Anxiety and depression in mothers of speech impaired children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rudolph; Frank Rosanowski; Ulrich Eysholdt; Peter Kummer

    2003-01-01

    Objective: In the adult population, anxiety and depression are the most frequent emotional disorders. In cases when mothers of speech impaired children are affected by these disorders may significantly influence the development of the child. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depression in mothers of speech impaired children as literature provides only little

  10. Caffeine counteracts impairments in task-oriented psychomotor performance induced by chlorpheniramine: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Wan; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Shin, Hee-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Kim, Jong-Keun; Kang, Gaeun; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of chlorpheniramine on psychomotor performance and the counteracting effects of caffeine on those sedative antihistamine actions. Sixteen healthy young men participated in this study. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, each subject was administered one of the following conditions in a random order with a one-week interval: 'placebo-placebo', '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-placebo', 'placebo-200 mg of caffeine' or '4 mg of chlorpheniramine-200 mg of caffeine'. Before and after the treatments, psychomotor functions were assessed using a battery of tests. Additionally, subjective responses were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Psychomotor performance changed over time in different ways according to the combination of study medications. In the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition, reaction times of the compensatory tracking task were significantly impaired compared with the other three conditions. In addition, the number of omission errors of the continuous performance test were significantly greater compared with the 'placebo-caffeine' condition. However, the response pattern of the 'chlorpheniramine-caffeine' condition was not significantly different from that of the 'placebo-placebo' condition. Changes of VAS for sleepiness were significantly greater in the 'chlorpheniramine-placebo' condition compared with the other three conditions. In conclusion, chlorpheniramine significantly increases subjective sleepiness and objectively impairs psychomotor performance. However, caffeine counteracts these sedative effects and psychomotor impairments. PMID:22719016

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Greater Sandhill Crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armbruster, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. Environmental planning and management in Greater Johannesburg.

    PubMed

    Von Schirnding, Y E

    1996-03-01

    This article describes the actions among urban environmental, management, and development planners in Greater Johannesburg, South Africa. Initiatives, such as the Healthy Cities Project and Model Communities, are being integrated into an environmental management and development approach that attains the goals of Agenda 21. Greater Johannesburg has housing shortages and homelessness. Priority needs include the areas of housing, water, electricity, public transportation, and sanitation. Clean water and air are inequitably distributed. Other key environmental problems include illegal dumping, inadequate waste disposal, poor environmental hygiene in overcrowded inner city areas, lack of open spaces, flooding, and water scarcities. The newly formed metropolitan authority offers opportunities to improve coordination and integration of environmental problems. Stakeholders from government at all levels, politicians, nongovernmental organizations, and the business sector formed an intersectoral, interdepartmental environment management committee in 1995. Stakeholders will integrate Agenda 21 within broader urban development plans and processes. The executive committee and the full council approved a set of guiding principles on environmental policy and an administrative framework for management. Four workshops were held to ensure a participatory consultation process in 1995. The WHO Collaborating Center for Urban Health will be used to facilitate the work of the Greater Johannesburg Metropolitan Council. Changes are being made in the way local governments work. PMID:12178513

  13. Greater solubility usually = greater toxicity Chromium (Cr) Six oxidation states, +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +6

    E-print Network

    Bruns, Tom

    Metals Greater solubility usually = greater toxicity Chromium (Cr) ­ Six oxidation states, +1, +2 inhibitor · Migration into water supply Metals andMetals and radionuclidesradionuclides #12;Radionuclides (depleted uranium) · 4 oxidation states (+4, +6 most common) · U(VI) water-soluble, U(IV) in-soluble Metals

  14. Differences in somatosensory processing due to dominant hemispheric motor impairment in cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although cerebral palsy (CP) is usually defined as a group of permanent motor disorders due to non-progressive disturbances in the developing fetal or infant brain, recent research has shown that CP individuals are also characterized by altered somatosensory perception, increased pain and abnormal activation of cortical somatosensory areas. The present study was aimed to examine hemispheric differences on somatosensory brain processing in individuals with bilateral CP and lateralized motor impairments compared with healthy controls. Nine CP individuals with left-dominant motor impairments (LMI) (age range 5–28 yrs), nine CP individuals with right-dominant motor impairments (RMI) (age range 7–29 yrs), and 12 healthy controls (age range 5–30 yrs) participated in the study. Proprioception, touch and pain thresholds, as well as somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) elicited by tactile stimulation of right and left lips and thumbs were compared. Results Pain sensitivity was higher, and lip stimulation elicited greater beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with CP than in healthy controls. In addition, although there was no significant differences between individuals with RMI and LMI on pain or touch sensitivity, lip and thumb stimulation elicited smaller beta power and more symmetrical SEP amplitudes in individuals with LMI than with RMI. Conclusions Our data revealed that brain processing of somatosensory stimulation was abnormal in CP individuals. Moreover, this processing was different depending if they presented right- or left-dominant motor impairments, suggesting that different mechanisms of sensorimotor reorganization should be involved in CP depending on dominant side of motor impairment. PMID:24410983

  15. Chemistry for the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratliff, Judy L.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses modifications to general education or introductory chemistry courses that allow visually impaired students to participate productively. Describes a strategy for teaching about elements and density, and the construction of a conductivity tester for visually impaired students. (JRH)

  16. Increased left hemisphere impairment in high-functioning autism: a tract based spatial statistics study.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Thomas John; Stokes, Mark Andrew; McGillivray, Jane Anne; Mussap, Alexander Julien; Cox, Ivanna Anne; Maller, Jerome Joseph; Bittar, Richard Garth

    2014-11-30

    There is evidence emerging from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) research that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are associated with greater impairment in the left hemisphere. Although this has been quantified with volumetric region of interest analyses, it has yet to be tested with white matter integrity analysis. In the present study, tract based spatial statistics was used to contrast white matter integrity of 12 participants with high-functioning autism or Aspergers syndrome (HFA/AS) with 12 typically developing individuals. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) was examined, in addition to axial, radial and mean diffusivity (AD, RD and MD). In the left hemisphere, participants with HFA/AS demonstrated significantly reduced FA in predominantly thalamic and fronto-parietal pathways and increased RD. Symmetry analyses confirmed that in the HFA/AS group, WM disturbance was significantly greater in the left compared to right hemisphere. These findings contribute to a growing body of literature suggestive of reduced FA in ASD, and provide preliminary evidence for RD impairments in the left hemisphere. PMID:25159311

  17. Cycling performance decrement is greater in hypobaric versus normobaric hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether cycling time trial (TT) performance differs between hypobaric hypoxia (HH) and normobaric hypoxia (NH) at the same ambient PO2 (93 mmHg, 4,300-m altitude equivalent). Methods Two groups of healthy fit men were matched on physical performance and demographic characteristics and completed a 720-kJ time trial on a cycle ergometer at sea level (SL) and following approximately 2 h of resting exposure to either HH (n?=?6, 20?±?2 years, 75.2?±?11.8 kg, mean?±?SD) or NH (n?=?6, 21?±?3 years, 77.4?±?8.8 kg). Volunteers were free to manually increase or decrease the work rate on the cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected every 5 min during the TT, and the mean was calculated. Results Both groups exhibited similar TT performance (min) at SL (73.9?±?7.6 vs. 73.2?±?8.2), but TT performance was longer (P?greater (P?impaired to a greater degree in HH versus NH at the same ambient PO2 equivalent to 4,300 m despite similar cardiorespiratory responses. PMID:24778792

  18. Sexual Dimorphism in Healthy Aging and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A DTI Study

    PubMed Central

    O’Dwyer, Laurence; Lamberton, Franck; Bokde, Arun L. W.; Ewers, Michael; Faluyi, Yetunde O.; Tanner, Colby; Mazoyer, Bernard; O’Neill, Desmond; Bartley, Máiréad; Collins, Rónán; Coughlan, Tara; Prvulovic, David; Hampel, Harald

    2012-01-01

    Previous PET and MRI studies have indicated that the degree to which pathology translates into clinical symptoms is strongly dependent on sex with women more likely to express pathology as a diagnosis of AD, whereas men are more resistant to clinical symptoms in the face of the same degree of pathology. Here we use DTI to investigate the difference between male and female white matter tracts in healthy older participants (24 women, 16 men) and participants with mild cognitive impairment (21 women, 12 men). Differences between control and MCI participants were found in fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusion (DR), axial diffusion (DA) and mean diffusion (MD). A significant main effect of sex was also reported for FA, MD and DR indices, with male control and male MCI participants having significantly more microstructural damage than their female counterparts. There was no sex by diagnosis interaction. Male MCIs also had significantly less normalised grey matter (GM) volume than female MCIs. However, in terms of absolute brain volume, male controls had significantly more brain volume than female controls. Normalised GM and WM volumes were found to decrease significantly with age with no age by sex interaction. Overall, these data suggest that the same degree of cognitive impairment is associated with greater structural damage in men compared with women. PMID:22768288

  19. Assessment of Hearing Impaired Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The issue of Directions contains 11 articles on assessment of hearing impaired individuals. Entries have the following titles and authors: "Classroom Assessment Techniques for Hearing Impaired Students--A Literature Review" (B. McKee, M. Hausknecht); "Informal Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students In the Classroom" (B. Culhane, R. Hein);…

  20. Correlates of Cognitive Impairment in Older Vietnamese

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Amanda; Zarit, Steven H.; Hoang, Chuong N.; Nguyen, Ha T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined correlates of cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment among older adults living in Da Nang, Vietnam and surrounding rural areas. Methods The analytic sample consisted of 489 adults 55 and older stratified by gender, age, and rural/urban status. The sample was 46% rural, 44% women, with a mean age of 69.04. Interviews were conducted in individuals’ homes by trained interviewers. The dependent variable was a Vietnamese version of the MMSE. A multiple linear regression was run with the MMSE continuous scores reflecting cognitive functioning, while a binary logistic regression was conducted with an education-adjusted cut-off score reflecting possible cognitive impairment. Age, gender, education, material hardship, depressive symptoms (CES-D), war injury, head trauma, diabetes, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease conditions served as correlates, controlling for marital status and rural/urban residence. Results About 33% of the sample scored below the standard cutoff of 23 on the MMSE. However only 12.9% of the sample would be considered impaired using the education-adjusted cutoff score. Cognitive functioning and possible cognitive impairment as indicated by MMSE scores were significantly associated with being older, completing fewer years of education, and material hardship. Gender, depressive symptoms, and cerebrovascular disease were associated with cognitive functioning, but not cognitive impairment. Conclusion These results show that social characteristics, physical illness, and mental health are associated with cognitive functioning. The study also raises questions about the need for standardization of screening measures on Vietnamese populations. PMID:23697847

  1. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  2. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Boer, Hugo J.; Dermody, Brian J.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we first present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy data sets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene, (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL, and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the nonlinear processes involved in peat production and decomposition. The model results suggest that RSL rise could explain the onset of peatland initiation and imply that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr B.P. The two-phased character of peatland initiation maybe explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly nonlinear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleoecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  3. The application of facial expressions to the assessment of orofacial pain in cognitively impaired older adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuo-Tung Hsu; Stephen K. Shuman; Darryl T. Hamamoto; James S. Hodges; Karen S. Feldt

    Background. The anticipated rapid growth in the number of cognitively impaired older adults, declining edentulism and increasing oral health expectations suggest a greater need for comprehensive dental care and effective ways to evaluate orofacial pain in people with compro- mised mental function and impaired communication skills. The authors con- ducted a study to evaluate facial expressions as a means of

  4. MRI in greater trochanter pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Geraldine; Archibald, Colin G

    2003-03-01

    The greater trochanter pain syndrome refers to pain on the lateral aspect of the hip joint. This is frequently attributed to trochanteric bursitis and distension of the subgluteal bursae. Associated tears of the tendons of gluteus medius and minimus have been described and may result from repetitive frictional trauma to these tendons and their associated bursae secondary to impingement beneath the tensor fascia lata. Occasionally tendinous damage may result from acute local direct trauma or a hyperadductive strain injury. We describe MRI in two patients with chronic lateral hip pain. PMID:12581065

  5. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile. PMID:24906427

  6. Substance Use, Eating Behaviors, and Social Impairment of Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, David B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of first-year and second-year medical students found that risk for eating disorders was greater for female students, risk for drug abuse was unrelated to gender, and psychosocial impairment and depression were associated with risk for either eating disorders or substance abuse. (MSE)

  7. Impaired Consciousness in Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Blumenfeld, Hal

    2013-01-01

    Consciousness is essential to normal human life. In epileptic seizures consciousness is often transiently lost making it impossible for the individual to experience or respond. This has huge consequences for safety, productivity, emotional health and quality of life. To prevent impaired consciousness in epilepsy it is necessary to understand the mechanisms leading to brain dysfunction during seizures. Normally the “consciousness system”—a specialized set of cortical-subcortical structures—maintains alertness, attention and awareness. Recent advances in neuroimaging, electrophysiology and prospective behavioral testing have shed new light on how epileptic seizures disrupt the consciousness system. Diverse seizure types including absence, generalized tonic-clonic and complex partial seizures converge on the same set of anatomical structures through different mechanisms to disrupt consciousness. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to improved treatment strategies to prevent impaired consciousness and improve quality of life in people with epilepsy. PMID:22898735

  8. Personality and risk of cognitive impairment 25 years later.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Michael; Andel, Ross; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fratiglioni, Laura; Gatz, Margaret

    2006-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship between personality and cognitive impairment in 4,039 members of the Swedish Twin Registry. Neuroticism and extraversion scores were collected in 1973 at midlife, and cognitive impairment was assessed in the same group 25 years later. Data were analyzed with case-control and co-twin control designs. Greater neuroticism was associated with higher risk of cognitive impairment in the results from case-control, but not from co-twin, analyses. Compared with both extraversion and introversion, moderate extraversion was associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment in both case-control and co-twin designs, as was the combination of high neuroticism and low extraversion. Findings are discussed in the context of theories related to personality, psychological distress, arousal, and cognitive function. PMID:16953718

  9. Vision Impairment and Blindness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... blindness in the United States are age-related eye diseases: macular degeneration, cataract and glaucoma. Other eye disorders, ... and braille books. The sooner vision loss or eye disease is found and treated, the greater your chances ...

  10. Is UV-induced DNA damage greater at higher elevation?

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Wei; Hidema, Jun; Hikosaka, Kouki

    2014-04-18

    • Premise of the study: Although ultraviolet radiation (UV) is known to have negative effects on plant growth, there has been no direct evidence that plants growing at higher elevations are more severely affected by ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, which is known to increase with elevation. We examined damage to DNA, a primary target of UV-B, in the widespread species Polygonum sachalinense (Fallopia sachalinensis) and Plantago asiatica at two elevations.• Methods: We sampled leaves of both species at 300 and 1700 m above sea level every 2 h for 11 d across the growing season and determined the level of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD), a major product of UV damage to DNA.• Key results: The CPD level was significantly influenced by the time of day, date, elevation, and their interactions in both species. The CPD level tended to be higher at noon or on sunny days. DNA damage was more severe at 1700 m than at 300 m: on average, 8.7% greater at high elevation in P. asiatica and 7.8% greater in P. sachalinense. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that the CPD level was explained mainly by UV-B and had no significant relationship with other environmental factors such as temperature and photosynthetically active radiation.• Conclusions: UV-induced DNA damage in plants is greater at higher elevations. PMID:24748608

  11. Evaluation of passive transfer in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).

    PubMed

    Hammond, Elizabeth E; Fiorello, Christine V

    2011-12-01

    Failure of passive transfer (FPT) in captive greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) calves can lead to increased morbidity and mortality. In this retrospective study, serum samples from neonatal kudu calves were tested for immunoglobulin using different tests validated for domestic ruminants, including measurement of gamma globulin (GG) measured by protein electrophoresis, total solids (TS) measured by calibrated refractometry, total protein (TP) and globulins measured by colorimetry, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), and the zinc sulfate turbidity test (ZSTT). In a logistic regression model, TP, TS, globulins, and the natural log transform of GGT were the only significant parameters associated with FPT. Various historic parameters related to the dam, as well as calf weight, sex, glucose, and packed cell volume, were not significant. Based on the results, FPT in greater kudu is defined as GG of < 0.5 g/dl, a value lower than that in domestic cattle. TS measured by refractometry has an 80% sensitivity and a 100% specificity for FPT in greater kudu. With FPT defined as GG < 0.5 g/dl, kudu calves with a TS < 4.8 g/dl and a negative ZSTT have an increased probability of requiring medical intervention and additional diagnostics may be warranted. PMID:22204060

  12. Gray and White Matter Changes in Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease: A Voxel-Based Analysis Study

    PubMed Central

    Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kitamura, Soichiro; Taoka, Toshiaki; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Tanimura, Masami; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Ikawa, Daisuke; Toritsuka, Michihiro; Hashimoto, Kazumichi; Makinodan, Manabu; Kosaka, Jun; Morikawa, Masayuki; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    Subjective cognitive impairment may be a very early at-risk period of the continuum of dementia. However, it is difficult to discriminate at-risk states from normal aging. Thus, detection of the early pathological changes in the subjective cognitive impairment period is needed. To elucidate these changes, we employed diffusion tensor imaging and volumetry analysis, and compared subjective cognitive impairment with normal, mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. The subjects in this study were 39 Alzheimer's disease, 43 mild cognitive impairment, 28 subjective cognitive impairment and 41 normal controls. There were no statistically significant differences between the normal control and subjective cognitive impairment groups in all measures. Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment had the same extent of brain atrophy and diffusion changes. These results are consistent with the hypothetical model of the dynamic biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25093415

  13. Greater sciatic notch as a sex indicator in juveniles.

    PubMed

    Vlak, Dejana; Roksandic, Mirjana; Schillaci, Michael A

    2008-11-01

    Using Schutkowski's method for juvenile sex determination (Schutkowski H. 1993. Am J Phys Anthropol 90:199-205), we evaluated the morphology of the greater sciatic notch of 56 ilia (23 females and 33 males) from a documented skeletal collection housed at the Bocage Museum in Lisbon (Portugal). After applying Schutkowski's original methodology and comparing the results with previous studies, we used age-adjusted metrical variables to describe greater sciatic notch depth, breadth, and angle. Although results of both morphological and metrical analyses did not reveal a statistically significant level of sexual analyses dimorphism, we found a strong correlation between pelvic morphology and age at death. On the basis of the obtained results, we argue that Schutkowski's morphological method does not predict sex accurately in all populations and that recorded correlation of iliac features with age needs to be further explored in the context of the ontogeny of sexual dimorphism. PMID:18613093

  14. 20 CFR 404.1520a - Evaluation of mental impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...limited to, chronic mental disorders, structured settings...medication, and other treatment. (2...technique to evaluate mental impairments...a listed mental disorder. We do this by...the significant history, including...

  15. 20 CFR 416.920a - Evaluation of mental impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...limited to, chronic mental disorders, structured settings...medication, and other treatment. (2...technique to evaluate mental impairments...a listed mental disorder. We do this by...the significant history, including...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1520a - Evaluation of mental impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...limited to, chronic mental disorders, structured settings...medication, and other treatment. (2...technique to evaluate mental impairments...a listed mental disorder. We do this by...the significant history, including...

  17. 20 CFR 416.920a - Evaluation of mental impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...limited to, chronic mental disorders, structured settings...medication, and other treatment. (2...technique to evaluate mental impairments...a listed mental disorder. We do this by...the significant history, including...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1520a - Evaluation of mental impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...limited to, chronic mental disorders, structured settings...medication, and other treatment. (2...technique to evaluate mental impairments...a listed mental disorder. We do this by...the significant history, including...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1520a - Evaluation of mental impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...limited to, chronic mental disorders, structured settings...medication, and other treatment. (2...technique to evaluate mental impairments...a listed mental disorder. We do this by...the significant history, including...

  20. 20 CFR 416.920a - Evaluation of mental impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...limited to, chronic mental disorders, structured settings...medication, and other treatment. (2...technique to evaluate mental impairments...a listed mental disorder. We do this by...the significant history, including...

  1. 20 CFR 416.920a - Evaluation of mental impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...limited to, chronic mental disorders, structured settings...medication, and other treatment. (2...technique to evaluate mental impairments...a listed mental disorder. We do this by...the significant history, including...

  2. 20 CFR 416.920a - Evaluation of mental impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...limited to, chronic mental disorders, structured settings...medication, and other treatment. (2...technique to evaluate mental impairments...a listed mental disorder. We do this by...the significant history, including...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1520a - Evaluation of mental impairments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...limited to, chronic mental disorders, structured settings...medication, and other treatment. (2...technique to evaluate mental impairments...a listed mental disorder. We do this by...the significant history, including...

  4. Proximal movements compensate for distal forelimb movement impairments in a reach-to-eat task in Huntington's disease: new insights into motor impairments in a real-world skill.

    PubMed

    Klein, Alexander; Sacrey, Lori-Ann R; Dunnett, Stephen B; Whishaw, Ian Q; Nikkhah, Guido

    2011-02-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) causes severe motor impairments that are characterized by chorea, dystonia, and impaired fine motor control. The motor deficits include deficits in the control of the forelimb, but as yet there has been no comprehensive assessment of the impairments in arm, hand and digit movements as they are used in every-day tasks. The present study investigated the reaching of twelve HD subjects and twelve age-matched control subjects on a reach-to-eat task. The subjects were asked to reach for a small food item, with the left or the right hand, and then bring it to the mouth for eating. The task assesses the major features of skilled forelimb use, including orienting to a target, transport of the hand to a target, use of a precision grasp of the target, limb withdrawal to the mouth, and release of the food item into the mouth, and the integration of the movements into a smooth act. The movements were analyzed frame-by-frame by scoring the video record using an established movement element rating scale and by biometric analysis to describe limb trajectory. All HD subjects displayed greater reliance on more proximal movements in reaching. They also displayed overall jerkiness, a significant impairment in end point error correction (i.e. no smooth trajectories), deficits in timing and terminating motion (overshooting the target), impairments in rotation of the hand, abnormalities in grasping, and impairments in releasing the food item to the mouth. Although impairment in the control of the distal segments of the limb was common to all subjects, the intrusion of choreatic movements produced a pattern of highly variable performance between subjects. The quantification of reaching performance as measured by this analysis provides new insights into the impairments of HD subjects, allows an easily administered and inexpensive way to document the many skilled limb movement abnormalities, and relates the impairments to a real-world context. The protocol can serve as a useful clinical tool to evaluate innovative therapeutic interventions in HD such as physiotherapy, drug therapy, or functional neurosurgical procedures. PMID:21059390

  5. Auditory emotion recognition impairments in Schizophrenia: Relationship to acoustic features and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Rinat; Butler, Pamela; Revheim, Nadine; Leitman, David; Hansen, John A.; Gur, Ruben; Kantrowitz, Joshua T.; Laukka, Petri; Juslin, Patrik N.; Silipo, Gail S.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in ability to perceive emotion based upon tone of voice. The basis for this deficit, however, remains unclear and assessment batteries remain limited. We evaluated performance in schizophrenia on a novel voice emotion recognition battery with well characterized physical features, relative to impairments in more general emotional and cognitive function. Methods We studied in a primary sample of 92 patients relative to 73 controls. Stimuli were characterized according to both intended emotion and physical features (e.g., pitch, intensity) that contributed to the emotional percept. Parallel measures of visual emotion recognition, pitch perception, general cognition, and overall outcome were obtained. More limited measures were obtained in an independent replication sample of 36 patients, 31 age-matched controls, and 188 general comparison subjects. Results Patients showed significant, large effect size deficits in voice emotion recognition (F=25.4, p<.00001, d=1.1), and were preferentially impaired in recognition of emotion based upon pitch-, but not intensity-features (group X feature interaction: F=7.79, p=.006). Emotion recognition deficits were significantly correlated with pitch perception impairments both across (r=56, p<.0001) and within (r=.47, p<.0001) group. Path analysis showed both sensory-specific and general cognitive contributions to auditory emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia. Similar patterns of results were observed in the replication sample. Conclusions The present study demonstrates impairments in auditory emotion recognition in schizophrenia relative to acoustic features of underlying stimuli. Furthermore, it provides tools and highlights the need for greater attention to physical features of stimuli used for study of social cognition in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:22362394

  6. Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As Boston was once known as the "Athens of America", it will probably not be a surprise to learn that the metropolitan area has more arts and cultural organizations per capita than any other place in the United States. One organization that is dedicated to strengthen this vibrant arts community is the Arts & Business Council of Greater Boston. They provide pro bono legal services for artists, training workshops to serve artists and art administrators, and they also train business professionals to serve on nonprofit boards of directors. The Council is also a chapter of the American for the Arts organization, and their homepage provides an event calendar, announcements, and talks. Along the right-hand side of the page visitors will find easy-to-use links such as "I need legal help" and "I want to be a more successful artist." Also, the site contains links to sign up for their Twitter feed and to join their Facebook network.

  7. In Your Eyes: Does Theory of Mind Predict Impaired Life Functioning in Bipolar Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Amanda L.; Phillips, Mary; Gruber, June

    2013-01-01

    Background Deficits in emotion perception and social functioning are strongly implicated in bipolar disorder (BD). Examining theory of mind (ToM) may provide one potential mechanism to explain observed socio-emotional impairments in this disorder. The present study prospectively investigated the relationship between theory of mind performance and life functioning in individuals diagnosed with BD compared to unipolar depression and healthy control groups. Methods Theory of mind (ToM) performance was examined in 26 individuals with remitted bipolar I disorder (BD), 29 individuals with remitted unipolar depression (UD), and 28 healthy controls (CTL) using a well-validated advanced theory of mind task. Accuracy and response latency scores were calculated from the task. Life functioning was measured during a 12 month follow-up session. Results No group differences for ToM accuracy emerged. However, the BD group exhibited significantly shorter response times than the UD and CTL groups. Importantly, quicker response times in the BD group predicted greater life functioning impairment at a 12-month follow-up, even after controlling for baseline symptoms. Limitations The stimuli were static representations of emotional states and do not allow for evaluating the appropriateness of context during emotional communication; due to sample size, neither specific comorbidities nor medication effects were analyzed for the BD and UD groups; preliminary status of theory of mind as a construct. Conclusions Results suggest that quickened socio-emotional decision making may represent a risk factor for future functional impairment in BD. PMID:23896318

  8. Attenuation of microglial and IL-1 signaling protects mice from acute alcohol-induced sedation and/or motor impairment.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue; Lousberg, Erin L; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Hayball, John D; Robertson, Sarah A; Coller, Janet K; Watkins, Linda R; Somogyi, Andrew A; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2011-06-01

    Alcohol-induced proinflammatory central immune signaling has been implicated in the chronic neurotoxic actions of alcohol, although little work has examined if these non-neuronal actions contribute to the acute behavioral responses elicited by alcohol administration. The present study examined if acute alcohol-induced sedation (loss of righting reflex, sleep time test) and motor impairment (rotarod test) were influenced by acute alcohol-induced microglial-dependent central immune signaling. Inhibition of acute alcohol-induced central immune signaling, through the reduction of proinflammatory microglial activation with minocycline, or by blocking interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor signaling using IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), reduced acute alcohol-induced sedation in mice. Mice treated with IL-1ra recovered faster from acute alcohol-induced motor impairment than control animals. However, minocycline led to greater motor impairment induced by alcohol, implicating different mechanisms in alcohol-induced sedation and motor impairment. At a cellular level, I?B? protein levels in mixed hippocampal cells responded rapidly to alcohol in a time-dependent manner, and both minocycline and IL-1ra attenuated the elevated levels of I?B? protein by alcohol. Collectively these data suggest that alcohol is capable of rapid modification of proinflammatory immune signaling in the brain and this contributes significantly to the pharmacology of alcohol. PMID:21276848

  9. [Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in childhood/adolescence and impairments associated with daily life: French data from the European Lifetime Impairment Survey].

    PubMed

    Caci, H; Paillé, S

    2014-12-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a 3-5 % prevalence in Europe and North America. It is associated with functional impairment and can have a negative impact on social and family relationships and daily living. The experiences of children/adolescents with ADHD in Europe, as reported by parents/caregivers who completed the online Lifetime Impairment Survey (LIS), were evaluated. The LIS was conducted in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands, and the UK to assess the extent to which the daily lives of children/adolescents (aged<20 years) with ADHD are affected by their disorder as reported by parents/caregivers. Participants to the survey were recruited by email from the GfK Global Online Panel, which consisted of a database of 487,533 members (including 85,512 members in France). The control group comprised parents/caregivers of children/adolescents without ADHD. Treatment for ADHD, as perceived by parents/caregivers of children/adolescents with ADHD, was also reviewed. Data from France are described here. In France, 157 (79 with ADHD, 78 without ADHD) parents/caregivers completed the LIS. Median age at diagnosis was 6.0 years (mean [SD], 6.4 [3.18] years) as reported by parents/caregivers; pharmacological treatment was prescribed for 46.8 % (37/79) of children/adolescents with ADHD. Compared with the control group, ADHD was associated with significantly greater impairment across all domains studied (P<0.001), except problems in home life. General impairment scale data demonstrated that more parents/caregivers of children/adolescents in the ADHD group than the control group thought that experiences during childhood/adolescence and unhappy memories would have a negative impact on their child in adult life (29-32 % vs 9-12 %, respectively). Issues that affected school/education were associated with perceived greater impairment in the ADHD group than the control group. Several limitations should be taken into account when reviewing these data, including the lack of questionnaire validation (although developed by expert consensus). In addition, the survey was conducted online and, as such, was more likely to recruit individuals who were well-educated, computer-literate, and willing to participate in the survey. Survey participants may also have had greater awareness of ADHD and the associated symptoms and impairment, and greater motivation to seek diagnosis or treatment, than the general population. Furthermore, diagnosis of ADHD and history of diagnosis were parent-/caregiver-reported and the results may have been influenced by recall bias or subjective reporting given that the survey did not directly assess the opinions of the children/adolescents with the disorder. These data provide insights into the negative impact that ADHD imposes on all aspects of life for children/adolescents in France with the disorder. Moreover, ADHD is believed to have a negative impact later in the patient's life. Further progress is needed in France and across Europe to provide a more effective and consistent approach to the treatment of patients with ADHD and to meet the expectations regarding management and treatment for the families concerned. PMID:25300717

  10. Cognitive impairment in methadone maintenance patients.

    PubMed

    Mintzer, Miriam Z; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2002-06-01

    Few well-controlled studies have examined psychomotor and cognitive performance in methadone maintenance patients (MMP). In the present study, performance of 18 opioid-dependent MMP was evaluated relative to that of 21 control participants without substance abuse histories. The MMP and control groups were balanced with respect to gender, race, age, years of education, current employment status, current reading level, and estimated IQ score. Recent drug abstinence was verified by urine testing. Participants with a urine screen positive for benzodiazepines or a breathalyzer test positive for alcohol prior to performance testing were excluded. To avoid testing under conditions of acute heroin or cocaine intoxication, but without testing under conditions of acute withdrawal, participants with current use of heroin or cocaine were only required to abstain for 24 h prior to performance testing. MMP exhibited impairment relative to controls in psychomotor speed (digit symbol substitution and trail-making tests), working memory (two-back task), decision making (gambling task), and metamemory (confidence ratings on a recognition memory test); results also suggested possible impairment in inhibitory mechanisms (Stroop color-word paradigm). MMP did not exhibit impairment in time estimation, conceptual flexibility or long-term memory. The wide range of impaired functions is striking, and may have important implications for daily functioning in MMP. Further research is necessary to determine the clinical significance of the impairments in laboratory-based tests for daily performance in the natural environment, as well as to differentiate impairments due to acute methadone dosing, chronic methadone maintenance, chronic poly-drug abuse, and other factors. PMID:12062778

  11. Shrug exercises combined with shoulder abduction improve scapular upward rotator activity and scapular alignment in subjects with scapular downward rotation impairment.

    PubMed

    Choi, Woo-Jeong; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Lee, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Yoon, Tae-Lim

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate which shoulder abduction angle (30°, 90°, 150°) during shrug exercise is superior for (1) activating the scapular upward rotators and (2) improving scapular and clavicular position in subjects with scapular downward rotation impairment. Twenty subjects performed shrug exercises at three different shoulder abduction angles (30°, 90°, 150°) which were obtained and maintained actively. Surface EMG data were collected from the levator scapulae (LS), upper trapezius (UT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) during shrug exercises. Scapular downward rotation index (SDRI) and clavicular tilt angle (CTA) were measured immediately after each shrug exercise. Oneway repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to determine the significance. UT muscle activity was greater at 90° and 150° than at 30° of shoulder abduction. UT/LS muscle activity ratio was greater at 90° than at 30°. LT and LT/LS increased as shoulder abduction angle increased. SA was greater at 150° than at 30° or 90°. SA/LS was greater at 150° than at 30°. SDRI was lower at 90° and 150° than at 30°. CTA was greater at 90° and 150° than at 30°. In conclusion, shrug exercises at 90° or 150° of shoulder abduction angle may be advocated to activate scapular upward rotators, decrease SDRI, and increase CTA in patients with scapular downward rotation impairment. PMID:25553964

  12. How impaired are children and adolescents by mental health problems? Results of the BELLA study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nora Wille; Susanne Bettge; Hans-Ulrich Wittchen; Ulrike Ravens-Sieberer

    2008-01-01

    Background  The consideration of impairment plays a crucial role in detecting significant mental health problems in children whose symptoms\\u000a do not meet diagnostic criteria. The assessment of impairment may be particularly relevant when only short screening instruments\\u000a are applied in epidemiological surveys. Furthermore, differences between childrens’ and parents’ perceptions of present impairment\\u000a and impairing symptoms are of interest with respect to

  13. Multisensor Arrays for Greater Reliability and Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Eckhoff, Anthony; Lane, John; Perotti, Jose; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman; Ree, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Arrays of multiple, nominally identical sensors with sensor-output-processing electronic hardware and software are being developed in order to obtain accuracy, reliability, and lifetime greater than those of single sensors. The conceptual basis of this development lies in the statistical behavior of multiple sensors and a multisensor-array (MSA) algorithm that exploits that behavior. In addition, advances in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and integrated circuits are exploited. A typical sensor unit according to this concept includes multiple MEMS sensors and sensor-readout circuitry fabricated together on a single chip and packaged compactly with a microprocessor that performs several functions, including execution of the MSA algorithm. In the MSA algorithm, the readings from all the sensors in an array at a given instant of time are compared and the reliability of each sensor is quantified. This comparison of readings and quantification of reliabilities involves the calculation of the ratio between every sensor reading and every other sensor reading, plus calculation of the sum of all such ratios. Then one output reading for the given instant of time is computed as a weighted average of the readings of all the sensors. In this computation, the weight for each sensor is the aforementioned value used to quantify its reliability. In an optional variant of the MSA algorithm that can be implemented easily, a running sum of the reliability value for each sensor at previous time steps as well as at the present time step is used as the weight of the sensor in calculating the weighted average at the present time step. In this variant, the weight of a sensor that continually fails gradually decreases, so that eventually, its influence over the output reading becomes minimal: In effect, the sensor system "learns" which sensors to trust and which not to trust. The MSA algorithm incorporates a criterion for deciding whether there remain enough sensor readings that approximate each other sufficiently closely to constitute a majority for the purpose of quantifying reliability. This criterion is, simply, that if there do not exist at least three sensors having weights greater than a prescribed minimum acceptable value, then the array as a whole is deemed to have failed.

  14. Deficient cytokine expression and neutrophil oxidative burst contribute to impaired cutaneous wound healing in diabetic, biofilm-containing chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khang T; Seth, Akhil K; Hong, Seok J; Geringer, Matthew R; Xie, Ping; Leung, Kai P; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic patients exhibit dysregulated inflammatory and immune responses that predispose them to chronic wound infections and the threat of limb loss. The molecular underpinnings responsible for this have not been well elucidated, particularly in the setting of wound biofilms. This study evaluates host responses in biofilm-impaired wounds using the TallyHo mouse, a clinically relevant polygenic model of type 2 diabetes. No differences in cytokine or Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression were noted in unwounded skin or noninoculated wounds of diabetic and wild-type mice. However, diabetic biofilm-containing wounds had significantly less TLR 2, TLR 4, interleukin-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? expression than wild-type wounds with biofilm (all p < 0.001). Both groups had similar bacterial burden and neutrophil infiltration after development of biofilms at 3 days postwounding, but diabetic wounds had significantly less neutrophil oxidative burst activity. This translated into a log-fold greater bacterial burden and significant delay of wound epithelization for biofilm-impaired diabetic wounds at 10 days postwounding. These results suggest that impaired recognition of bacterial infection via the TLR pathway leading to inadequate cytokine stimulation of antimicrobial host responses may represent a potential mechanism underlying diabetic susceptibility to wound infection and ulceration. PMID:24118295

  15. Clinical significance of translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Van Leeuwen, P A; Boermeester, M A; Houdijk, A P; Ferwerda, C C; Cuesta, M A; Meyer, S; Wesdorp, R I

    1994-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract, besides being the organ responsible for nutrient absorption, is also a metabolic and immunological system, functioning as an effective barrier against endotoxin and bacteria in the intestinal lumen. The passage of viable bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract through the epithelial mucosa is called bacterial translocation. Equally important may be the passage of bacterial endotoxin through the mucosal barrier. This article reviews the evidence that translocation of both endotoxin and bacteria is of clinical significance. It summarises recent published works indicating that translocation of endotoxin in minute amounts is a physiological important phenomenon to boost the reticuloendothelial system (RES), especially the Kupffer cells, in the liver. Breakdown of both the mucosal barrier and the RES capacity results in systemic endotoxaemia. Systemic endotoxaemia results in organ dysfunction, impairs the mucosal barrier, the clotting system, the immune system, and depresses Kupffer cell function. If natural defence mechanisms such as lipopolysaccharide binding protein, high density lipoprotein, in combination with the RES, do not respond properly, dysfunction of the gut barrier results in bacterial translocation. Extensive work on bacterial translocation has been performed in animal models and occurs notably in haemorrhagic shock, thermal injury, protein malnutrition, endotoxaemia, trauma, and intestinal obstruction. It is difficult to extrapolate these results to humans and its clinical significance is not clear. The available data show that the resultant infection remains important in the development of sepsis, especially in the critically ill patient. Uncontrolled infection is, however, neither necessary nor sufficient to account for the development of multiple organ failure. A more plausible sequelae is that bacterial translocation is a later phenomenon of multiple organ failure, and not its initiator. It is hypothesized that multiple organ failure is more probably triggered by the combination of tissue damage and systemic endotoxaemia. Endotoxaemia, as seen in trauma patients especially during the first 24 hours, in combination with tissue elicits a systemic inflammation, called Schwartzmann reaction. Interferon gamma, a T cell produced cytokine, is thought to play a pivotal part in the pathogenesis of this reaction. This reaction might occur only if the endotoxin induced cytokines like tumour necrosis factor and interleukin 1, act on target cells prepared by interferon gamma. After exposure to interferon gamma target cells become more sensitive to stimuli like endotoxin, thus boosting the inflammatory cycle. Clearly, following this line of reasoning, minor tissue damage or retroperitoneal haematoma combined with systemic endotoxaemia could elicit this reaction. The clinically observed failure of multiple organ systems might thus be explained by the interaction of tissue necrosis and high concentrations of endotoxin because of translocation. Future therapeutic strategies could therefore focus more on binding endotoxin in the gut before the triggering event, for example before major surgery. Such a strategy could be combined with the start of early enteral feeding, which has been shown in animal studies to have a beneficial effect on intestinal mucosal barrier function and in traumatized patients to reduce the incidence of septic complications. PMID:8125386

  16. Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Greater Philadelphia GeoHistory Network (GPGN) is a project by the Philadelphia Area Consortium of Special Collections Libraries designed "to develop a web-based repository of geographically organized historical information about Philadelphia, its geography, its buildings, and its people." It's quite an impressive endeavor, and anyone with a love for the City of Brotherly Love will want to spend at least a few hours on the site. First-time visitors can get started by clicking on the Resource Browser on the homepage. Here they will have access to thousands of digitized materials, including early images of the city, planning documents, historic views, land use maps, and so on. The items here date from 1683 to the late 1960s, and visitors can use the resource type toggle feature to look for specific groups of documents. Moving on, visitors can also use the Interactive Maps Viewer to look over map layers that include a 1934 land value appraisal map and a 1942 land use map created by the Works Progress Administration. Finally, visitors shouldn't miss the Educational Resources area. Here they will find guides for teachers seeking to use this wealth of information in their own classrooms.

  17. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  18. Depressive symptoms in Chinese Americans with Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Steven Z.; Matthews, Brandy R.; Yokoyama, Jennifer S.; Betty Lai, Ngan; Ong, Hilary; Tse, Marian; Yuan, Runfen Frances; Lin, Amy; Kramer, Joel; Yaffe, Kristine; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of geriatric depression in Chinese American patients with cognitive impairment and to compare the prevalence to that of cognitively normal elderly Chinese Americans and Caucasians. Design We compared rates of depressive symptomatology in elderly Chinese Americans to a matched group of Caucasians, with and without dementia, and assessed rates of treatment for depression across all groups. Setting Academic subspecialty referral clinic. Participants Participants included a total of 137 elderly, cognitively impaired and cognitively normal Chinese Americans and 140 Caucasians with and without cognitive impairment. Measurements Demographic (e.g. age, education, race, language ability), cognitive (MMSE score), medical (e.g. cardiovascular morbidity) and functional (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale) risk factors were assessed for association with depressive symptomatology as measured by the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Results Depression (GDS score ? 6 out of 15) was significantly more common in cognitively impaired Chinese Americans (35%) versus cognitively impaired Caucasians (15%, ?2 = 33.8, p<0.05), and Chinese Americans were less likely to be on treatment for depression (12%) than Caucasians (37%, ?2 = 41, p<0.05). Cognitive and functional impairment, age and education were all independent predictors of GDS score. Rates of depression were not significantly different in cognitively normal Chinese American (6%) and Caucasian (0%) groups. Conclusions These findings indicate that elderly Chinese Americans with cognitive impairment are at significantly increased risk for unrecognized depression and that education, and/or other cultural factors associated with education may contribute to this risk. PMID:24021225

  19. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  20. Phylogeography and conservation of impala and greater kudu.

    PubMed

    Nersting, L G; Arctander, P

    2001-03-01

    The phylogeography of the bush habituated African bovid species impala (Aepyceros melampus) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) is investigated using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers. Combined analysis of individual lineages, relationships and population genetics suggest a colonization process from Southern Africa toward Eastern regions in the greater kudu. Results are less clear for the impala, although remaining consistent with a similar pattern of historical dispersion. The study reveals a similar pattern, that is a marked divergence of lineages from South-western Africa relative to other regions. This pattern is opposed to previously published findings in other African bovid species. In the impala, the genetically isolated region is consistent with morphology because it is recognized as the subspecies A. m. petersi, the black-faced impala. In contrast, the similar split of South-western mitochondrial lineages was not expected in the greater kudu on the basis of morphology. Both species show a significant population genetic differentiation. Beyond their phylogeographical value, our results should raise conservation concerns about South-western populations of both species. The black-faced impala is categorized as vulnerable and our data show indications of hybridization with common impala A. m. melampus. The previously unrecognized genetic status of the South-western kudus could also imply conservation regulations. PMID:11298982

  1. Neurocognitive impairment and HIV risk factors: a reciprocal relationship.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pria; Springer, Sandra A; Copenhaver, Michael M; Altice, Frederick L

    2010-12-01

    Cognitive impairment among populations at risk for HIV poses a significant barrier to managing risk behaviors. The impact of HIV and several cofactors, including substance abuse and mental illness, on cognitive function is discussed in the context of HIV risk behaviors, medication adherence, and risk-reduction interventions. Literature suggests that cognitive impairment is intertwined in a close, reciprocal relationship with both risk behaviors and medication adherence. Not only do increased risk behaviors and suboptimal adherence exacerbate cognitive impairment, but cognitive impairment also reduces the effectiveness of interventions aimed at optimizing medication adherence and reducing risk. In order to be effective, risk-reduction interventions must therefore take into account the impact of cognitive impairment on learning and behavior. PMID:20232242

  2. Passengers of Impaired Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Kelley-Baker, Tara; Lacey, John

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study are (a) to estimate the prevalence of passengers riding with alcohol-impaired drivers; (b) to investigate the role of demographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational status) and relevant driving conditions (time of the day, trip origin, vehicle ownership) on shaping the likelihood of alcohol-impaired driving; (c) to identify and estimate the prevalence of passengers as alternative drivers (PADs); and (d) to examine the role that vehicle ownership plays in shaping the occurrence of PADs. Method Data came from a unique convenience sample of passengers obtained from the 2007 National Roadside Survey, a random sample of drivers from the 48 contiguous states. Results The prevalence of PADs in the targeted population (mostly weekend night vehicles) was higher with drivers at .00

  3. Grape powder prevents cognitive, behavioral, and biochemical impairments in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Naimesh; Alkadhi, Isam; Atrooz, Fatin; Patki, Gaurav; Salim, Samina

    2015-01-01

    Previously, using the single-prolonged stress (SPS) rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder, we reported that moderate treadmill exercise, via modulation of oxidative stress-related mechanisms, rescued anxiety- and depression-like behaviors and reversed SPS-induced memory impairment. In this study using the SPS model (2-hour restrain, 20-minute forced swimming, 15-minute rest, and 1-2-minute diethyl ether exposure), we hypothesized that antioxidant rich grape powder (GP) prevents SPS-induced behavioral and memory impairment in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly assigned into control (CON) (provided tap water), SPS (provided tap water), GP-SPS (provided 15 g/L GP in tap water for 3 weeks followed by SPS), or GP-CON (3 weeks of GP followed by CON exposure). Anxiety- and depression-like behaviors were significantly greater in SPS rats, when compared with CON- or GP-treated rats, and GP reversed these behavioral deficits. Single-prolonged stress rats made significantly more errors in both short- and long-term memory tests compared with CON- or GP-treated rats, which were prevented in GP-SPS rats. Grape powder prevented SPS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone level. Furthermore, brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels were significantly decreased in amygdala of SPS rats but not in GP-SPS rats compared with CON or (GP-CON) rats. In addition, GP significantly increased acetylated histone 3 and histone deacetylase 5 in hippocampus and amygdala of SPS rats as compared with CON or GP-CON rats. In conclusion, we suggest protective role of GP in SPS-induced behavioral, cognitive, and biochemical impairments in rats. Perhaps, epigenetic regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor enables GP-mediated prevention of SPS-induced deficits in rats. PMID:25533441

  4. An Examination of Psychopathology and Daily Impairment in Adolescents with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mesa, Franklin; Beidel, Deborah C.; Bunnell, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    Although social anxiety disorder (SAD) is most often diagnosed during adolescence, few investigations have examined the clinical presentation and daily functional impairment of this disorder exclusively in adolescents. Prior studies have demonstrated that some clinical features of SAD in adolescents are unique relative to younger children with the condition. Furthermore, quality of sleep, a robust predictor of anxiety problems and daily stress, has not been examined in socially anxious adolescents. In this investigation, social behavior and sleep were closely examined in adolescents with SAD (n?=?16) and normal control adolescents (NC; n?=?14). Participants completed a self-report measure and an actigraphy assessment of sleep. Social functioning was assessed via a brief speech and a social interaction task, during which heart rate and skin conductance were measured. Additionally, participants completed a daily social activity journal for 1 week. No differences were observed in objective or subjective quality of sleep. Adolescents with SAD reported greater distress during the analogue social tasks relative to NC adolescents. During the speech task, adolescents with SAD exhibited a trend toward greater speech latency and spoke significantly less than NC adolescents. Additionally, SAD participants manifested greater skin conductance during the speech task. During the social interaction, adolescents with SAD required significantly more confederate prompts to stimulate interaction. Finally, adolescents with SAD reported more frequent anxiety-provoking situations in their daily lives, including answering questions in class, assertive communication, and interacting with a group. The findings suggest that, although adolescents with SAD may not exhibit daily impaired sleep, the group does experience specific behavioral and physiological difficulties in social contexts regularly. Social skills training may be a critical component in therapeutic approaches for this group. PMID:24691406

  5. Toward greater integration of the health system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hal Swerissen

    2002-01-01

    As demand for hospital and emergency services grows there will be pressure to improve the integration of primary, acute and continuing care services. Research on ambulatory sensitive care conditions suggests that a significant proportion of hospital use is potentially preventable by primary health and community care services. The desire for better health outcomes and reduced use of acute care suggests

  6. Improving Photosynthetic Efficiency for Greater Yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising global supply of grain over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Yield potential is the product of the solar radiation available at a giv...

  7. Subjective cognitive complaints contribute to misdiagnosis of mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Emily C; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Galasko, Douglas R; Salmon, David P; Bondi, Mark W

    2014-09-01

    Subjective cognitive complaints are a criterion for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), despite their uncertain relationship to objective memory performance in MCI. We aimed to examine self-reported cognitive complaints in subgroups of the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) MCI cohort to determine whether they are a valuable inclusion in the diagnosis of MCI or, alternatively, if they contribute to misdiagnosis. Subgroups of MCI were derived using cluster analysis of baseline neuropsychological test data from 448 ADNI MCI participants. Cognitive complaints were assessed via the Everyday Cognition (ECog) questionnaire, and discrepancy scores were calculated between self- and informant-report. Cluster analysis revealed Amnestic and Mixed cognitive phenotypes as well as a third Cluster-Derived Normal subgroup (41.3%), whose neuropsychological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarker profiles did not differ from a "robust" normal control group. This cognitively intact phenotype of MCI participants overestimated their cognitive problems relative to their informant, whereas Amnestic MCI participants with objective memory impairment underestimated their cognitive problems. Underestimation of cognitive problems was associated with positive CSF AD biomarkers and progression to dementia. Overall, there was no relationship between self-reported cognitive complaints and objective cognitive functioning, but significant correlations were observed with depressive symptoms. The inclusion of self-reported complaints in MCI diagnostic criteria may cloud rather than clarify diagnosis and result in high rates of misclassification of MCI. Discrepancies between self- and informant-report demonstrate that overestimation of cognitive problems is characteristic of normal aging while underestimation may reflect greater risk for cognitive decline. PMID:25156329

  8. Recognition of Facial Emotional Expression in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Varjassyová, Alexandra; Ho?ínek, Daniel; Andel, Ross; Amlerova, Jana; Laczó, Jan; Sheardová, Kate?ina; Magerová, Hana; Holmerová, Iva; Vyhnálek, Martin; Bradá?, Ond?ej; Geda, Yonas E.; Hort, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether recognition of facial emotional expression would be affected in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A total of 50 elderly persons met the initial inclusion criteria, 10 were subsequently excluded (Geriatric Depression Score >5). 22 subjects were classified with aMCI based on published criteria (single domain aMCI [SD-aMCI], n = 10; multiple domain aMCI [MD-aMCI], n = 12); 18 subjects were cognitively normal. All underwent standard neurological and neuropsychological evaluations as well as tests of facial emotion recognition (FER) and famous faces identification (FFI). Among normal controls, FFI was negatively correlated with MMSE and positively correlated with executive function. Among patients with aMCI, FER was correlated with attention/speed of processing. No other correlations were significant. In a multinomial logistic regression model adjusted for age, sex, and education, a poorer score on FER, but not on FFI, was associated with greater odds of being classified as MD-aMCI (odds ratio [OR], 3.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05–13.91; p = 0.042). This association was not explained by memory or global cognitive score. There was no association between FER or FFI and SD-aMCI (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.36–3.57; p = 0.836). Therefore, FER, but not FFI, may be impaired in MD-aMCI. This implies that in MD-aMCI, the tasks of FER and FFI may involve segregated neurocognitive networks. PMID:22954669

  9. Depressive Symptoms and Impaired Physical Function after Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Dinglas, Victor D.; Shanholtz, Carl; Husain, Nadia; Dennison, Cheryl R.; Herridge, Margaret S.; Pronovost, Peter J.; Needham, Dale M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: Survivors of acute lung injury (ALI) frequently have substantial depressive symptoms and physical impairment, but the longitudinal epidemiology of these conditions remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the 2-year incidence and duration of depressive symptoms and physical impairment after ALI, as well as risk factors for these conditions. Methods: This prospective, longitudinal cohort study recruited patients from 13 intensive care units (ICUs) in four hospitals, with follow-up 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after ALI. The outcomes were Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression score greater than or equal to 8 (“depressive symptoms”) in patients without a history of depression before ALI, and two or more dependencies in instrumental activities of daily living (“impaired physical function”) in patients without baseline impairment. Measurements and Main Results: During 2-year follow-up of 186 ALI survivors, the cumulative incidences of depressive symptoms and impaired physical function were 40 and 66%, respectively, with greatest incidence by 3-month follow-up; modal durations were greater than 21 months for each outcome. Risk factors for incident depressive symptoms were education 12 years or less, baseline disability or unemployment, higher baseline medical comorbidity, and lower blood glucose in the ICU. Risk factors for incident impaired physical function were longer ICU stay and prior depressive symptoms. Conclusions: Incident depressive symptoms and impaired physical function are common and long-lasting during the first 2 years after ALI. Interventions targeting potentially modifiable risk factors (e.g., substantial depressive symptoms in early recovery) should be evaluated to improve ALI survivors’ long-term outcomes. PMID:22161158

  10. Impaired insight in patients with newly diagnosed nonaffective psychotic disorders with and without deficit features.

    PubMed

    Trotman, Hanan D; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Compton, Michael T

    2011-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia who have primary, enduring negative symptoms, or the deficit syndrome, have poorer psychosocial functioning but lesser clinical distress compared with nondeficit patients. Poor awareness of impairment in patients with deficit schizophrenia may contribute to this seeming contradiction. We hypothesized that poor insight would be present early in the course of illness in deficit patients, and that those with deficit features would have greater impairment in insight than those without deficit features. One-hundred one first-episode patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders were categorized into deficit (n=31) and nondeficit (n=70) groups. The deficit patients had significantly poorer insight than nondeficit patients when rated using a self-report questionnaire, and nearly significantly poorer insight rated by clinical researchers. Further, this effect remained for self-rated insight and reached statistical significance for researcher-rated insight after controlling for positive, negative, and general psychopathology symptoms. These results suggest that the treatment of deficit patients may be particularly complicated by poor insight. PMID:20817414

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Recovery of Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Features

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    of prescribed fire to enhance habitat features for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming tripartita, Bromus tectorum, Centrocercus urophasianus, Cheatgrass, fire ecology, forbs, Greater Sage

  12. Cognitive impairments at high altitudes and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaodan

    2014-06-01

    High altitude hypoxia has been shown to have significant impact on cognitive performance. This article reviews the aspects in which, and the conditions under which, decreased cognitive performance has been observed at high altitudes. Neural changes related to high altitude hypoxia are also reviewed with respect to their possible contributions to cognitive impairments. In addition, potential adaptation mechanisms are reviewed among indigenous high altitude residents and long-term immigrant residents, with discussions about methodological concerns related to these studies. PMID:24949527

  13. Plan Recognition to Aid the Visually Impaired

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus J. Huber; Richard Simpson

    2003-01-01

    Less than half of the individuals of working age with visual impairments are employed and a significant barrier to employment\\u000a is effective computer access. Screen reader applications offer some help but have limited context sensitivity and are of limited\\u000a use in applications with dynamic “interfaces” like web pages. Sophisticated screen readers provide aid through application-specific\\u000a scripts but their full potential

  14. Continuing with letrozole offers greater benefits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fritz Jänicke

    2007-01-01

    Objective  Tamoxifen has been at the foundation of adjuvant treatment to prevent disease recurrence in postmenopausal women with hormone-responsive\\u000a early breast cancer. After 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen therapy, however, options for further treatment are limited. Additional\\u000a tamoxifen is not indicated, as no further benefit in disease-free survival (DFS) has been observed. The aromatase inhibitor\\u000a letrozole significantly improves DFS over placebo in

  15. Machine-Based, Self-guided Home Therapy for Individuals With Severe Arm Impairment After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zondervan, Daniel K; Augsburger, Renee; Bodenhoefer, Barbara; Friedman, Nizan; Reinkensmeyer, David J; Cramer, Steven C

    2014-10-01

    Background. Few therapeutic options exist for the millions of persons living with severe arm impairment after stroke to increase their dose of arm rehabilitation. This study compared self-guided, high-repetition home therapy with a mechanical device (the resonating arm exerciser [RAE]) to conventional therapy in patients with chronic stroke and explored RAE use for patients with subacute stroke. Methods. A total of 16 participants with severe upper-extremity impairment (mean Fugl-Meyer [FM] score = 21.4 ± 8.8 out of 66) >6 months poststroke were randomized to 3 weeks of exercise with the RAE or conventional exercises. The primary outcome measure was FM score 1 month posttherapy. Secondary outcome measures included Motor Activity Log, Visual Analog Pain Scale, and Ashworth Spasticity Scale. After a 1-month break, individuals in the conventional group also received a 3-week course of RAE therapy. Results. The change in FM score was significant in both the RAE and conventional groups after training (2.6 ± 1.4 and 3.4 ± 2.4, P = .008 and .016, respectively). These improvements were not significant at 1 month. Exercise with the RAE led to significantly greater improvements in distal FM score than conventional therapy at the 1-month follow-up (P = .02). In a separate cohort of patients with subacute stroke, the RAE was found feasible for exercise. Discussion. In those with severe arm impairment after chronic stroke, home-based training with the RAE was feasible and significantly reduced impairment without increasing pain or spasticity. Gains with the RAE were comparable to those found with conventional training and also included distal arm improvement. PMID:25273359

  16. Are Children with ‘Pure’ Generalized Anxiety Disorder Impaired? A Comparison with Comorbid and Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Candice A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Despite the approach of DSM-5, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) of childhood continues to face question as to whether it should be considered a distinct clinical disorder. A potentially critical question embedded in this debate involves the role of functional impairment which has yet to be demonstrated in children with ‘pure’ GAD. Methods Participants included 41 children between the ages of 6 and 11 years who met diagnostic criteria for primary GAD. Children with pure GAD (n=17) were compared to children with comorbid GAD (n=24) as well as a healthy control group (n=20) in terms of clinician-rated severity and impairment and child-reported adaptive functioning across four domains. Results On average, children with pure GAD were more likely to be male and younger than children with comorbid GAD. Based on traditional significance testing, global impairment was greater in the comorbid compared to pure GAD group, although functioning in both groups was in the ‘variable’ range. Both clinical groups reported less adaptive family relationships than controls, while only the comorbid group reported lower levels of home-based functioning. Equivalence testing nonetheless indicated a lack of comparability (i.e., non-equivalence) across the three groups for each of the functional domains examined. Conclusions Findings indicate children with pure GAD to be functionally impaired compared to their healthy peers, though not to the same extent as children with secondary psychiatric diagnoses. Child functioning within the family specifically may be among the most vulnerable. Results support consideration of childhood GAD as a distinct clinical disorder. PMID:22963176

  17. Interhemispheric temporal lobe connectivity predicts language impairment in adolescents born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liégeois, Frédérique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways connecting frontal and temporal language regions. To investigate this, we performed a comprehensive assessment of language and academic abilities in a group of adolescents born prematurely, some of whom had evidence of brain injury at birth (n = 50, mean age: 16 years, mean gestational age: 27 weeks) and compared them to a term-born control group (n = 30). Detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-tractography analyses of intrahemispheric and interhemispheric white matter bundles were performed. Analysis of intrahemispheric pathways included the arcuate fasciculus (dorsal language pathway) and uncinate fasciculus/extreme capsule (ventral language pathway). Analysis of interhemispheric pathways (in particular, connections between the temporal lobes) included the two major commissural bundles: the corpus callosum and anterior commissure. We found language impairment in 38% of adolescents born preterm. Language impairment was not related to abnormalities of the arcuate fasciculus (or its subsegments), but was associated with bilateral volume reductions in the ventral language pathway. However, the most significant volume reduction was detected in the posterior corpus callosum (splenium), which contains interhemispheric connections between the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. Diffusion tractography showed that of the three groups of interhemispheric fibres within the splenium, only those connecting the temporal lobes were reduced. Crucially, we found that language impairment was only detectable if the anterior commissure (a second temporal lobe commissural pathway) was also small. Regression analyses showed that a combination of anatomical measures of temporal interhemispheric connectivity (through the splenium of the corpus callosum and anterior commissure) explained 57% of the variance in language abilities. This supports recent theories emphasizing the importance of interhemispheric connections for language, particularly in the developing brain. PMID:23144265

  18. Cognitive impairment after stroke.

    PubMed

    Haring, Hans-Peter

    2002-02-01

    The concept of vascular dementia is undergoing revision. The multi-infarct model and the Alzheimer's model of dementia, usually referred to as 'multi-infarct dementia', are gradually being replaced by a much broader concept of vascular cognitive impairment. This conceptual evolution reflects a more profound understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms that underlie this complex syndrome. As a consequence of this revision new diagnostic criteria have been established during the past 25 years, resulting in new problems with regard to precise disease definition and limited inter-rater reliability. The particular criteria chosen by a clinician or investigator to diagnose vascular dementia have a major impact on epidemiology, disease management and health economic estimates. PMID:11796954

  19. Verbal declarative memory impairments in specific language impairment are related to working memory deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lum, Jarrad A.G.; Ullman, Michael T.; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined verbal declarative memory functioning in SLI and its relationship to working memory. Encoding, recall, and recognition of verbal information was examined in children with SLI who had below average working memory (SLILow WM), children with SLI who had average working memory (SLIAvg. WM) and, a group of non-language impaired children with average working memory (TDAvg. WM). The SLILow WM group was significantly worse than both the SLIAvg. WM and TDAvg. WM groups at encoding verbal information and at retrieving verbal information following a delay. In contrast, the SLIAvg. WM group showed no verbal declarative memory deficits. The study demonstrates that verbal declarative memory deficits in SLI only occur when verbal working memory is impaired. Thus SLI declarative memory is largely intact and deficits are likely to be related to working memory impairments. PMID:25660053

  20. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF GREATER SAGE-GROUSE TO EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH WEST NILE VIRUS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Clark; Jeffrey Hall; Robert McLean; Michael Dunbar; Kaci Klenk; Richard Bowen

    2006-01-01

    Populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined 45- 80% in North America since 1950. Although much of this decline has been attributed to habitat loss, recent field studies have indicated that West Nile virus (WNV) has had a significant negative impact on local populations of grouse. We confirm the susceptibility of greater sage-grouse to WNV infection in laboratory experimental

  1. Children with unexplained chronic pain: substantial impairment in everyday life

    PubMed Central

    Konijnenberg, A; Uiterwaal, C; Kimpen, J; van der Hoeven, J; Buitelaar, J; de Graeff-Meeder, E R

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To describe and quantify impairment in an outpatient population of children with chronic pain of unknown origin (UCP). Methods: A total of 149 children who presented with pain of at least three months' duration and without a satisfactory explanation at presentation were studied. Number of somatic complaints (Children's Somatisation Inventory, CSI), pain intensity (VAS, 0–10 cm), functional disability (Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-CF) and clinical history), and general health perceptions (CHQ) were determined. Results: Mean age of the children was 11.8 years; 73% were girls. Overall, 72% suffered impairment in sports activities, 51% reported absence from school, 40% experienced limitations in social functioning, and 34% had problems with sleeping. Mean number of somatic symptoms differed significantly between boys (8.4) and girls (10.7). The CHQ-CF scores for physical functioning, role/social functioning, and general health perceptions were 76.4, 70.7, and 57.5, respectively, indicating substantial impairment on all domains. The mean pain intensity was 4.7 for current and 7.1 for worst pain. Children solely evaluated by a general practitioner prior to referral reported less, though still substantial, impairment. Low general health perceptions, impaired role/social functioning, high pain intensity, and having headache or musculoskeletal pain were independent predictors of having significant impairment. Conclusions: Referred children with UCP show substantial impairment on multiple domains in daily life. PMID:15899922

  2. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  3. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

  4. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  5. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

  6. Effects of hearing and vision impairments on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Kate; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Chasteen, Alison L; Marchuk, Veronica; Singh, Gurjit; Smith, Sherri L

    2015-07-01

    Many standardized measures of cognition include items that must be seen or heard. Nevertheless, it is not uncommon to overlook the possible effects of sensory impairment(s) on test scores. In the current study, we investigated whether sensory impairments could affect performance on a widely used screening tool, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Three hundred and one older adults (mean age = 71 years) completed the MoCA and also hearing and vision tests. Half of the participants had normal hearing and vision, 38% impaired hearing, 5% impaired vision, and 7% had dual-sensory impairment. More participants with normal sensory acuity passed the MoCA compared to those with sensory loss, even after modifying scores to adjust for sensory factors. The results suggest that cognitive abilities may be underestimated if sensory problems are not considered and that people with sensory loss are at greater risk of cognitive decline. PMID:25325767

  7. Gait impairment and optimizing mobility in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Victoria; Goodman, Kelli; Rough, Katherine; Kraft, George H

    2013-11-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease that causes demyelination and degeneration within the brain and spinal cord. This may result in many impairments, including impaired ambulation, muscle weakness, abnormal tone, visual disturbances, decreased sensation, and fatigue. Rehabilitation helps patients with MS maximize independence by helping to manage and minimize impairments. Deficits seen in ambulation should be addressed to improve energy efficiency and reduce falls. Compensation through appropriate prescription of assistive devices, bracing, and wheelchairs will help improve safety. Rehabilitation can make a significant impact on achieving and maintaining quality of life and independence. PMID:24314677

  8. Diabetes Cognitive Impairments and the Effect of Traditional Chinese Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Leilei; Tian, Guoqing

    2013-01-01

    The problem of cognitive impairment resulting from diabetes is gaining more acceptance and attention. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been proved to be associated with reduced performance on numerous domains of cognitive function. Although the exact mechanisms of cognitive impairments in diabetes have not been completely understood, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance seem to play significant roles. And other possible risk factors such as hypoglycemia, insulin deficiency, vascular risk factors, hyperactive HPA axis, depression, and altered neurotransmitters will also be examined. In the meanwhile, this review analyzed the role of the active ingredient of Chinese herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes cognitive impairments. PMID:24386004

  9. Animal Models of Memory Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michela Gallagher

    1997-01-01

    Memory impairment in the elderly resembles a mild temporal lobe dysfunction. Alterations in the hippocampal formation are also a probable basis for cognitive deficits in some animal models of ageing. For example, aged rats are impaired in hippocampal-dependent tests of spatial memory. Recent studies have revealed considerable structural integrity in the aged hippocampus, even in aged rats with the most

  10. The effects of hearing impairment on health services utilization.

    PubMed

    Kurz, R S; Haddock, C; Van Winkle, D L; Wang, G

    1991-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of hearing impairment on the utilization of physician and hospital services in the U.S. adult population. Andersen's behavioral model of health services utilization served as the conceptual framework for the study, and data used for the analyses were taken from two years (1971, 1977) of the Health Interview Survey. Hearing impaired persons used significantly more physician services than hearing persons. Hearing impairment had no effect on the number of hospitals days used but had a significant, positive effect on hospital contact and hospital episodes. In addition, neither the type nor the severity of the impairment had a consistent effect on utilization. These findings were consistent for both years of study data. The study's findings, implications, and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:1921537

  11. Obstructive Pulmonary Function Impairment among Korean Male Workers Exposed to Organic Solvents, Iron Oxide Dust, and Welding Fumes

    PubMed Central

    RYU, Ji Young; LEE, Sang-Yoon; KIM, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated spirometric obstructive pulmonary function impairment among workers who were occupationally exposed to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Data were collected from records of periodic health examinations of workers. In total, 448 Korean male workers were enrolled and classified into three exposure groups: exposure to organic solvents, iron oxide dust, or welding fumes. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between occupational exposure and pulmonary function. Compared to exposure to organic solvents, exposure to iron oxide dust was significantly associated with obstructive pulmonary function impairment (odds ratio [OR], 9.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.20–41.97). The group exposed to welding fumes did not show a significantly higher OR compare to those exposed to organic solvents (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 0.74–10.8). These results suggest that exposure to iron oxide dust has a greater association with obstructive pulmonary function impairment than exposure to organic solvents or welding fumes. PMID:24131874

  12. GP consortia: navigating ambiguity to produce greater public value?

    PubMed

    Holbeche, Linda

    2011-05-01

    The UK's NHS is about to be significantly remodelled according to a white paper published in July 2010 that outlines the devolution of commissioning responsibilities away from strategic health authorities and primary care trusts to consortia of GPs, which are to be established at local level. Details of how the new GP consortia will operate are as yet unclear, but in essence they will be strategic alliances and it is likely that they will develop more or less formal arrangements between consortia partners, such as those of a commercial joint venture. This article draws on primary research into strategic alliances between organizations in all sectors. It suggests that there can be significant challenges for those working within strategic alliances, given that these tend to be beset by ambiguity and political tensions. In a context of ever greater transparency and accountability, it will be crucial to attend to the human aspects of strategic alliances since these represent significant risk if neglected. Conversely, alliances also offer the opportunity to develop the synergy of people, organizations and communities to deliver greater public value. Successful collaborations need to get three things right: governance, operations and behaviours. Relationships between consortia partners have a significant bearing on their ability to deliver desired outcomes. They must be able to build and maintain trust. Consortia partners will need sophisticated negotiating and stakeholder management skills and must be able to engage the public in setting the strategic goals for which they will be accountable. They also need strategic and operational management skills and must be able to cope with ambiguity and manage complexity. This paper argues that specific forms of leadership are needed in collaborative arrangements to mobilize people for positive action. People must work together by willingly and effectively pooling their initiative and expertise, and create a product or energy that is greater than the sum of their parts. The nature of leadership required to produce such high performance outcomes is likely to supersede leadership that is the result of structural relationships or of individual action. In particular, distributed leadership is likely to be relevant. PMID:21692401

  13. Oak Ridge greater confinement disposal demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Clapp, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Demonstrations are being conducted in association with the disposal of a high activity low-level waste (LLW) stream. The waste stream in question will result from the cement solidification of decanted liquids from the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The solid waste will be produced beginning in mid summer 1988. It is anticipated to have significant concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90, with smaller amounts of other radionuclides and <100 nCi/gm of TRU. The solid waste forms are expected to have surface dose rates in the 1 to 2 r/hr range. The solid waste will also contain several chemical species at concentrations which are below those of concern, but which may present enhanced corrosion potential for the disposal units. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  14. The Relationship Between Diabetic Retinopathy and Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Crosby-Nwaobi, Roxanne R.; Sivaprasad, Sobha; Amiel, Stephanie; Forbes, Angus

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Recent studies have shown an increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in patients with diabetes. An association between diabetic retinopathy (DR) and retinal microvasculature disease and cognitive impairment has been reported as potential evidence for a microvascular component to the cognitive impairment. It was hypothesized that severity of DR would be associated with cognitive impairment in individuals with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Three hundred eighty patients with type 2 diabetes were recruited from a population-based eye screening program and grouped by severity of DR as follows: no/mild DR (n = 252) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) (n = 128). Each participant underwent psychosocial assessment; depression screening; ophthalmic and physical examination, including blood assays; and cognitive assessment with the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Mini-Cog. General linear modeling was used to examine severity of DR and cognitive impairment, adjusting for confounders. RESULTS Severity of DR demonstrated an inverse relationship with cognitive impairment (fully adjusted R2 = 0.415, P < 0.001). Ethnicity contributed most to the variance observed (16%) followed by education (7.3%) and retinopathy status (6.8%). The no/mild DR group had lower cognitive impairment scores on ACE-R (adjusted mean ± SE 77.0 ± 1.9) compared with the PDR group (82.5 ± 2.2, P < 0.001). The MMSE cutoff scores showed that 12% of the no/mild DR group (n = 31) had positive screening results for dementia or significant cognitive impairment compared with 5% in the PDR group (n = 6). CONCLUSIONS Patients with minimal DR demonstrated more cognitive impairment than those with advanced DR. Therefore, the increased prevalence of cognitive impairment in diabetes may be associated with factors other than evident retinal microvascular disease. PMID:23633523

  15. Hearing aid fitting in older persons with hearing impairment: the influence of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss on hearing aid benefit

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Hartmut; Rählmann, Sebastian; Walger, Martin; Margolf-Hackl, Sabine; Kießling, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of cognitive function, age, and hearing loss with clinically assessed hearing aid benefit in older hearing-impaired persons. Methods Hearing aid benefit was assessed using objective measures regarding speech recognition in quiet and noisy environments as well as a subjective measure reflecting everyday situations captured using a standardized questionnaire. A broad range of general cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and intelligence were determined using different neuropsychological tests. Linear regression analyses were conducted with the outcome of the neuropsychological tests as well as age and hearing loss as independent variables and the benefit measures as dependent variables. Thirty experienced older hearing aid users with typical age-related hearing impairment participated. Results Most of the benefit measures revealed that the participants obtained significant improvement with their hearing aids. Regression models showed a significant relationship between a fluid intelligence measure and objective hearing aid benefit. When individual hearing thresholds were considered as an additional independent variable, hearing loss was the only significant contributor to the benefit models. Lower cognitive capacity – as determined by the fluid intelligence measure – was significantly associated with greater hearing loss. Subjective benefit could not be predicted by any of the variables considered. Conclusion The present study does not give evidence that hearing aid benefit is critically associated with cognitive function in experienced hearing aid users. However, it was found that lower fluid intelligence scores were related to higher hearing thresholds. Since greater hearing loss was associated with a greater objective benefit, these results strongly support the advice of using hearing aids regardless of age and cognitive function to counter hearing loss and the adverse effects of age-related hearing impairment. Still, individual cognitive capacity might be relevant for hearing aid benefit during an initial phase of hearing aid provision if acclimatization has not yet taken place. PMID:25709417

  16. Effect of Memo®, a natural formula combination, on Mini-Mental State Examination scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Yakoot, Mostafa; Salem, Amel; Helmy, Sherine

    2013-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive impairment encompasses the clinical continuum between physiologic age-related cognitive changes and dementia. A variety of medications, including herbal preparations (in particular Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng), have been advocated as treatments for cognitive impairment in the elderly. In this study, we investigated the effect of an already marketed dietary supplement (Memo®) combining 750 mg of lyophilized royal jelly with standardized extracts of G. biloba 120 mg and P. ginseng 150 mg on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Methods Sixty-six subjects presenting with forgetfulness and satisfying the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) clinical criteria for mild cognitive impairment were randomly divided into an experimental group treated with one Memo capsule before breakfast daily for 4 weeks and a control group who took placebo. The mean change in MMSE score from baseline and reported adverse effects were compared between the two groups. Results The mean change in MMSE score in the group treated with Memo for 4 weeks was significantly greater than in the control group (+2.07 versus +0.13, respectively) by the Student’s t-test (t = 6.485, P < 0.0001). This was also true after adjusting for age as a covariate and educational level as a factor nested within the treatment groups in a general linear model (analysis of covariance, F = 9.675 [corrected model], P < 0.0001). Conclusion This combined triple formula may be beneficial in treating the cognitive decline that occurs during the aging process as well as in the early phases of pathologic cognitive impairment typical of insidious-onset vascular dementia and in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Larger-sized studies with longer treatment durations are needed to confirm this. PMID:23950642

  17. A Human Alcohol Self-Administration Paradigm to Model Individual Differences in Impaired Control over Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Nogueira, Christine; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an alcohol self-administration paradigm to model individual differences in impaired control. The paradigm includes moderate drinking guidelines meant to model limits on alcohol consumption, which are typically exceeded by people with impaired control. Possible payment reductions provided a disincentive for excessive drinking. Alcohol use above the guideline, despite possible pay reductions, was considered to be indicative of impaired control. Heavy-drinking 21–25 year-olds (N = 39) were randomized to an experimental condition including the elements of the impaired control paradigm or to a free-drinking condition without these elements. Alcohol self-administration was compared between these two conditions to establish the internal validity of the experimental paradigm. In both conditions, participants self-administered beer and non-alcoholic beverages for 3 hours in a bar setting with 1–3 other participants. Experimental condition participants self-administered significantly fewer beers and drank to lower blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) on average than those in the free-drinking condition. Experimental condition participants were more likely than free-drinking condition participants to intersperse non-alcoholic beverages with beer and to drink at a slower pace. Although experimental condition participants drank more moderately than those in the free-drinking condition overall, their range of drinking was considerable (BAC range = .024–.097) with several participants drinking excessively. A lower initial subjective response to alcohol and earlier age of alcohol use onset were associated with greater alcohol self-administration in the experimental condition. Given the variability in response, the impaired control laboratory paradigm may have utility for preliminary tests of novel interventions in future studies and for identifying individual differences in problem-drinking risk. PMID:23937598

  18. Perfluorochemical (PFC) Exposure in Children: Associations with Impaired Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gump, Brooks B.; Wu, Qian; Dumas, Amy K.; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-01-01

    Background Perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) have been used widely in consumer products since the 1950s and are currently found at detectable levels in the blood of humans and animals across the globe. In stark contrast to this widespread exposure to PFCs, there is relatively little research on potential adverse health effects of exposure to these chemicals. Objectives We performed this cross-sectional study to determine if specific blood PFC levels are associated with impaired response inhibition in children. Methods Blood levels of 11 PFCs were measured in children (N = 83) and 6 PFCs: perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfate (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorooctanesulfonamide (PFOSA), and perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDA) – were found at detectable levels in most children (87.5% or greater had detectable levels). These levels were analyzed in relation to the differential reinforcement of low rates of responding (DRL) task. This task rewards delays between responses (i.e., longer inter-response times; IRTs) and therefore constitutes a measure of response inhibition. Results Higher levels of blood PFOS, PFNA, PFDA, PFHxS, and PFOSA were associated with significantly shorter IRTs during the DRL task. The magnitude of these associations was such that IRTs during the task decreased by 29–34% for every 1 SD increase in the corresponding blood PFC. Conclusions This study suggests an association between PFC exposure and children’s impulsivity. Although intriguing, there is a need for further investigation and replication with a larger sample of children. PMID:21682250

  19. Vigilance impairment after a single dose of benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Kozená, L; Frantik, E; Horváth, M

    1995-05-01

    While outpatients or other users of therapeutic drugs have to be informed about the risk of impaired functioning during driving or work, the prescribing physician needs to be familiar with the side effects of alternative drugs in order to select the most suitable treatment. With this aim, several types of benzodiazepine anxiolytics in low anxiolytic doses (diazepam 5 mg or 10 mg, nitrazepam 5 mg, oxazepam 10 mg, medazepam 10 mg, and alprazolam 0.2 or 0.5 mg-per 2m2 body surface) were tested under laboratory conditions for their effects on vigilance performance. In a double-blind design, 145 healthy volunteers performed a 60 min vigilance test (composed of discriminatory reactions to acoustic stimuli and a secondary visual tracking task) and four short psychomotor tests (lasting 1-7 min each) before and after a single dose of drug or placebo. Subjects described their perception of the drug effect with the help of a mood check list, and fatigue, sleepiness, and effort scales. Only diazepam 5 mg and 10 mg, alprazolam 0.5 mg, and nitrazepam 5 mg caused significant deterioration in vigilance performance along with perceived sleepiness and the need for a greater effort to overcome it. The onset of diazepam effect was quicker, whereas alprazolam effect lasted longer. No effect was noted in the short psychomotor tests except for the Bourdon Cancellation Test, where the first phase of diazepam effect was registered. PMID:7675948

  20. Photoreceptor Impairment and Restoration on Optical Coherence Tomographic Image

    PubMed Central

    Mitamura-Aizawa, Sayaka; Katome, Takashi; Naito, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Akira; Kumagai, Ken; Yamamoto, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    With recent development of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), the pathological changes of retina can be observed in much greater detail. SD-OCT clearly delineates three highly reflective lines in the outer retina, which are external limiting membrane (ELM), photoreceptor inner and outer segment (IS/OS) junction, and cone outer segment tips (COST) in order from inside. These lines can serve as hallmarks for the evaluation of photoreceptor condition. In retinitis pigmentosa (RP) leading to photoreceptor degeneration, the ELM, IS/OS, and COST lines are shortened with the progression of the disease. In addition, shortening of the ELM, IS/OS and COST lines is significantly associated with each other. The line length is longest in the ELM, followed by the IS/OS, and COST, suggesting that retinal layer becomes disorganized first at the COST, followed by the IS/OS and finally the ELM. This finding is consistent with the previous report that the earliest histopathological change in RP is a shortening of the photoreceptor outer segments. On the other hand, retinal layer becomes restored first at the ELM, followed by the IS/OS and finally the COST after macular hole surgery. There may be a directionality of photoreceptor impairment or restoration on optical coherence tomographic image. PMID:23691278

  1. The Neuropsychology of Cocaine Addiction: Recent Cocaine Use Masks Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Woicik, Patricia A; Moeller, Scott J; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Maloney, Thomas; Lukasik, Tanya M; Yeliosof, Olga; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) form a heterogeneous group, making sensitive neuropsychological (NP) comparisons with healthy individuals difficult. The current study examined the effects on NP functioning of four factors that commonly vary among CUD: urine status for cocaine (positive vs negative on study day), cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and dysphoria. Sixty-four cocaine abusers were matched to healthy comparison subjects on gender and race; the groups also did not differ in measures of general intellectual functioning. All subjects were administered an extensive NP battery measuring attention, executive function, memory, facial and emotion recognition, and motor function. Compared with healthy control subjects, CUD exhibited performance deficits on tasks of attention, executive function, and verbal memory (within one standard deviation of controls). Although CUD with positive urine status, who had higher frequency and more recent cocaine use, reported greater symptoms of dysphoria, these cognitive deficits were most pronounced in the CUD with negative urine status. Cigarette smoking, frequency of alcohol consumption, and dysphoria did not alter these results. The current findings replicate a previously reported statistically significant, but relatively mild NP impairment in CUD as compared with matched healthy control individuals and further suggest that frequent/recent cocaine may mask underlying cognitive (but not mood) disturbances. These results call for development of pharmacological agents targeted to enhance cognition, without negatively impacting mood in individuals addicted to cocaine. PMID:18496524

  2. Hippocampal endosomal, lysosomal, and autophagic dysregulation in mild cognitive impairment: correlation with a? and tau pathology.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sylvia E; He, Bin; Nadeem, Muhammad; Wuu, Joanne; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Mufson, Elliott J

    2015-04-01

    Endosomal-lysosomal and autophagic dysregulation occurs in the hippocampus in prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD), but its relationship with ?-amyloid (A?) and tau pathology remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we performed immunoblot analysis of hippocampal homogenates from cases with an antemortem clinical diagnosis of no cognitive impairment, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD. Western blot analysis revealed significant increases in the acid hydrolase cathepsin D and early endosome marker rabaptin5 in the MCI group compared with AD, whereas levels of phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin proteins (pmTOR), total mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p62, traf6, and LilrB2 were comparable across clinical groups. Hippocampal A?1-40 and A?1-42 concentrations and AT8-immunopositive neurofibrillary tangle density were not significantly different across the clinical groups. Greater cathepsin D expression was associated with global cognitive score and episodic memory score but not with mini mental state examination or advanced neuropathology criteria. These results indicate that alterations in hippocampal endosomal-lysosomal proteins in MCI are independent of tau or A? pathology. PMID:25756588

  3. Impaired Inhibitory Control in Recreational Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Colzato, Lorenza S.; van den Wildenberg, Wery P. M.; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Chronic use of cocaine is associated with impairment in response inhibition but it is an open question whether and to which degree findings from chronic users generalize to the upcoming type of recreational users. This study compared the ability to inhibit and execute behavioral responses in adult recreational users and in a cocaine-free-matched sample controlled for age, race, gender distribution, level of intelligence, and alcohol consumption. Response inhibition and response execution were measured by a stop-signal paradigm. Results show that users and non users are comparable in terms of response execution but users need significantly more time to inhibit responses to stop-signals than non users. Interestingly, the magnitude of the inhibitory deficit was positively correlated with the individuals lifetime cocaine exposure suggesting that the magnitude of the impairment is proportional to the degree of cocaine consumed. PMID:17989775

  4. Preventing Impaired Driving Opportunities and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Fell, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Impaired driving remains a significant public health problem in the United States. Although impressive reductions in alcohol-related fatalities occurred between 1982 and 1997, during which all 50 States enacted the basic impaired-driving laws, progress has stagnated over the last decade. Substantial changes in the laws and policies or funding for the enforcement of the criminal offense of driving while intoxicated (DWI) are needed for further substantial progress in reducing alcohol-related crash injuries. However, research indicates that evidence-based laws in the 50 States and current best practices in DWI enforcement are not being fully adopted or used. It seems, however, that effective operations, such as the low-staff check points that are routinely applied in many communities, could be extended to many more police departments. In addition, several enforcement methods have been proposed but never fully tested. PMID:22330222

  5. Specific Language Impairment in Families: Evidence for Co-Occurrence with Reading Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flax, Judy F.; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Hirsch, Linda S.; Brzustowicz, Linda M.; Bartlett, Christopher W.; Tallal, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Two family aggregation studies involving 25 children (ages 5-10) with specific language impairment (SLI) report the occurrence and co-occurrence of oral language impairments and reading impairments. Results indicate that when language impairments occur within families of SLI probands, these impairments generally co-occur with reading impairments.…

  6. Liver metal concentrations in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus).

    PubMed

    Dailey, Rebecca N; Raisbeck, Merl F; Siemion, Roger S; Cornish, Todd E

    2008-04-01

    Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are a species of concern due to shrinking populations associated with habitat fragmentation and loss. Baseline health parameters for this species are limited or lacking, especially with regard to tissue metal concentrations. To obtain a range of tissue metal concentrations, livers were collected from 71 Greater Sage-grouse from Wyoming and Montana. Mean +/- SE metal concentrations (mg/kg wet weight) in liver were determined for vanadium (V) (0.12 +/- 0.01), chromium (Cr) (0.50 +/- 0.02), manganese (Mn) (2.68 +/- 0.11), iron (Fe) (1,019 +/- 103), nickel (Ni) (0.40 +/- 0.04), cobalt (Co) (0.08 +/- 0.02), copper (Cu) (6.43 +/- 0.40), mercury (Hg) (0.30 +/- 0.09), selenium (Se) (1.45 +/- 0.64), zinc (Zn) (59.2 +/- 4.70), molybdenum (Mo) (0.93 +/- 0.07), cadmium (Cd) (1.44 +/- 0.14), barium (Ba) (0.20 +/- 0.03), and lead (Pb) (0.17 +/- 0.03). In addition to providing baseline data, metal concentrations were compared between sex, age (juvenile/adult), and West Nile virus (WNv) groups (positive/negative). Adult birds had higher concentrations of Ni and Cd compared to juveniles. In addition, Zn and Cu concentrations were significantly elevated in WNv-positive birds. PMID:18436686

  7. Greater sciatic notch morphology: sex, age, and population differences.

    PubMed

    Walker, Phillip L

    2005-08-01

    The accuracy of a method for visually scoring sex differences in the greater sciatic notch was tested on 296 skeletons of known age and sex. The proportion of correct sex assignments is 80% when all specimens are classified, and 89% when os coxae assigned the score in which the sexes show the greatest overlap are excluded. Although many os coxae (35%) have this sexually intermediate morphology, excluding them has the advantage of substantially reducing sex biases in sexing errors. For both sexes, there is a strong relationship between age at death and sciatic notch score. People who die at a younger age tend to have wider, more feminine-appearing sciatic notches than people of greater longevity. There are also significant population differences. The 18th-19th century English sample from St. Bride's Church has a more feminine morphology than Americans of European or African ancestry. Environmental influences on skeletal development (vitamin D deficiency) appear to provide the most likely explanation for these population differences. PMID:15693026

  8. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  9. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human population growth and peripherality of populations. However, future range loss may relate less to historical mechanisms and more to recent changes in land use and habitat condition, including energy developments and invasions by non-native species such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and West Nile virus. In conjunction with local measures of population performance, landscape-scale predictions of future range loss may be useful for prioritizing management and protection. Our results suggest that initial conservation efforts should focus on maintaining large expanses of sagebrush habitat, enhancing quality of existing habitats, and increasing habitat connectivity.

  10. Greater disruption to control of voluntary saccades in autistic disorder than Asperger's disorder: evidence for greater cerebellar involvement in autism?

    PubMed

    Stanley-Cary, Chloe; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce; White, Owen; Fielding, Joanne

    2011-03-01

    It remains unclear whether autism and Asperger's disorder (AD) exist on a symptom continuum or are separate disorders with discrete neurobiological underpinnings. In addition to impairments in communication and social cognition, motor deficits constitute a significant clinical feature in both disorders. It has been suggested that motor deficits and in particular the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may differentiate these disorders. We used a simple volitional saccade task to comprehensively profile the integrity of voluntary ocular motor behaviour in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA) or AD, and included measures sensitive to cerebellar dysfunction. We tested three groups of age-matched young males with normal intelligence (full scale, verbal, and performance IQ estimates >70) aged between 11 and 19 years; nine with AD, eight with HFA, and ten normally developing males as the comparison group. Overall, the metrics and dynamics of the voluntary saccades produced in this task were preserved in the AD group. In contrast, the HFA group demonstrated relatively preserved mean measures of ocular motricity with cerebellar-like deficits demonstrated in increased variability on measures of response time, final eye position, and movement dynamics. These deficits were considered to be consistent with reduced cerebellar online adaptation of movement. The results support the notion that the integrity of cerebellar modulation of movement may be different in AD and HFA, suggesting potentially differential neurobiological substrates may underpin these complex disorders. PMID:21072692

  11. Depressed adolescents demonstrate greater subgenual anterior cingulate activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tony T.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C.; Tapert, Susan F.; Frank, Guido K.; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Lansing, Amy E.; Wu, Jing; Brown, Gregory G.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies implicate the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as a critical brain region in adult depression. However, unlike adult depression, little is known about the underlying neural substrates of adolescent depression, and there are no published data examining differences in sgACC activation between depressed and healthy adolescents. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine sgACC activity in twenty-six depressed and normal 13- to 17-year olds during the performance of a stop-signal task. Significantly greater sgACC activation was found in the depressed adolescents relative to controls. These results establish for the first time abnormal functioning of the sgACC in depressed adolescents and have important implications for understanding the underlying neural correlates and potential treatments of adolescent depression. PMID:19218875

  12. Enhanced large conductance K+ channel activity contributes to the impaired myogenic response in the cerebral vasculature of Fawn Hooded Hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pabbidi, Mallikarjuna R; Mazur, Olga; Fan, Fan; Farley, Jerry M; Gebremedhin, Debebe; Harder, David R; Roman, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the myogenic response (MR) in cerebral arteries is impaired in Fawn Hooded Hypertensive (FHH) rats and that transfer of a 2.4 megabase pair region of chromosome 1 (RNO1) containing 15 genes from the Brown Norway rat into the FHH genetic background restores MR in a FHH.1(BN) congenic strain. However, the mechanisms involved remain to be determined. The present study examined the role of the large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channel in impairing the MR in FHH rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp studies of cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) revealed that iberiotoxin (IBTX; BK inhibitor)-sensitive outward potassium (K+) channel current densities are four- to fivefold greater in FHH than in FHH.1(BN) congenic strain. Inside-out patches indicated that the BK channel open probability (NPo) is 10-fold higher and IBTX reduced NPo to a greater extent in VSMCs isolated from FHH than in FHH.1(BN) rats. Voltage sensitivity of the BK channel is enhanced in FHH as compared with FHH.1(BN) rats. The frequency and amplitude of spontaneous transient outward currents are significantly greater in VSMCs isolated from FHH than in FHH.1(BN) rats. However, the expression of the BK-? and -?-subunit proteins in cerebral vessels as determined by Western blot is similar between the two groups. Middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) isolated from FHH rats exhibited an impaired MR, and administration of IBTX restored this response. These results indicate that there is a gene on RNO1 that impairs MR in the MCAs of FHH rats by enhancing BK channel activity. PMID:24464756

  13. Psychiatric Issues in Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Aarsland, Dag; Taylor, John-Paul; Weintraub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as depression, hallucinations and apathy commonly occur in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and have major clinical consequences including a negative impact on quality of life. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic procedures and treatment issues of NPS in PD and related disorders in the perspective of cognitive impairment, focusing on depression, anxiety, visual hallucinations, apathy, sleep disturbances, impulse control disorder and non-motor fluctuations. The majority of NPS are more common in PD patients with dementia, possibly related to shared underlying pathologies. Recent studies also suggest that NPS are associated with mild cognitive impairment in PD, in particular with the amnestic type. Accurate diagnosis of NPS is important but can be difficult, due to overlapping symptoms and similar appearance of symptoms of motor symptoms of parkinsonism, cognitive impairment, mood disorders and apathy. There are few systematic studies focusing on the management of NPS in PD with cognitive impairment. PMID:24757113

  14. Language Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis 

    E-print Network

    Stahl, Hillary

    2011-11-23

    There is little research on language involvement in MS, though the studies that do exist indicate a wide variety of language impairments. No comprehensive study has yet been done investigating MS abilities in all the major ...

  15. Conditions Similar to Alcohol Impairment

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    impairment · Dementia / Delirium · Stroke · Drug Use · Electrolyte Imbalances · Behavioral / Psychological protruding through the skin · Unresponsiveness or coma · Drug overdose · Heat stroke · Drowning Calling 911

  16. The Impact of Impairment Criteria on Rates of ADHD Diagnoses in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healey, Dione M.; Miller, Carlin J.; Castelli, Katia L.; Marks, David J.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    Behaviors characteristic of ADHD are common among preschool children, and as such, their clinical significance is oftentimes difficult to ascertain. Thus a focus on impairment is essential in determining the clinical significance of these behaviors. In order to explore the impact of impairment criteria on rates of diagnoses in…

  17. On the design of an educational infrastructure for the blind and visually impaired in computer science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas M. Stefik; Christopher Hundhausen; Derrick Smith

    2011-01-01

    The blind and visually impaired community is significantly underrepresented in computer science. Students who wish to enter the discipline must overcome significant technological and educational barriers to succeed. In an attempt to help this population, we are engaged in a three-year research project to build an educational infrastructure for blind and visually impaired middle and high school students. Our primary

  18. The Word Length Effect in Children with Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balthazar, Catherine H.

    2003-01-01

    Two types of serial word recall tasks (full verbal recall and probed recall) were administered to 11 children with language impairment and 22 controls matched for productive language or age. The only significant group differences were in the full list recall condition, in which subjects' performance was significantly worse than controls. (Contains…

  19. Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. The Pakistan national blindness and visual impairment survey

    PubMed Central

    Dineen, B; Bourne, R R A; Jadoon, Z; Shah, S P; Khan, M A; Foster, A; Gilbert, C E; Khan, M D

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the causes of blindness and visual impairment in adults (?30 years old) in Pakistan, and to explore socio?demographic variations in cause. Methods A multi?stage, stratified, cluster random sampling survey was used to select a nationally representative sample of adults. Each subject was interviewed, had their visual acuity measured and underwent autorefraction and fundus/optic disc examination. Those with a visual acuity of <6/12 in either eye underwent a more detailed ophthalmic examination. Causes of visual impairment were classified according to the accepted World Health Organization (WHO) methodology. An exploration of demographic variables was conducted using regression modeling. Results A sample of 16?507 adults (95.5% of those enumerated) was examined. Cataract was the most common cause of blindness (51.5%; defined as <3/60 in the better eye on presentation) followed by corneal opacity (11.8%), uncorrected aphakia (8.6%) and glaucoma (7.1%). Posterior capsular opacification accounted for 3.6% of blindness. Among the moderately visually impaired (<6/18 to ?6/60), refractive error was the most common cause (43%), followed by cataract (42%). Refractive error as a cause of severe visual impairment/blindness was significantly higher in rural dwellers than in urban dwellers (odds ratio (OR) 3.5, 95% CI 1.1 to 11.7). Significant provincial differences were also identified. Overall we estimate that 85.5% of causes were avoidable and that 904?000 adults in Pakistan have cataract (<6/60) requiring surgical intervention. Conclusions This comprehensive survey provides reliable estimates of the causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. Despite expanded surgical services, cataract still accounts for over half of the cases of blindness in Pakistan. One in eight blind adults has visual loss from sequelae of cataract surgery. Services for refractive errors need to be further expanded and integrated into eye care services, particularly those serving rural populations. PMID:17229806

  20. Peer Reviewed Movements and Survival of Juvenile Greater

    E-print Network

    Beck, Jeffrey L.

    contributing to declines in greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations. We evaluated movements(4):1070­ 1078; 2006) Key words Centrocercus urophasianus, greater sage-grouse, Idaho, juvenile survival, power-line collisions, predation, seasonal movements. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) historically

  1. Greater Prairie Chicken Nesting Habitat, Sheyenne National Grassland, North Dakota

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clinton McCarthy; Tim Pella; Greg Link; Mark A. Rumble

    Greater prairie chicken (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) populations and habitats have declined dramatically in the Great Plains. The Sheyenne National Grassland (SNG) has the largest population of greater prairie chickens in North Dakota, but this population has declined over the past 15 years. Lack of nesting habitat has been identified as a signifi- cant factor contributing to the decline in greater

  2. Motor impairment and its relationship to fitness in children

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Martyn; Dawes, Helen; Howells, Ken; Janssen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this work was to explore the physiological and perceptual limits to exercise in children with varying degrees of motor impairment, and the relationships to measures of health. Design and methods In a group comparison design, 35 boys aged 12–15?years completed the Movement ABC test for the assessment of motor impairment, followed by an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion for the assessment of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten participants classified as having either high or no motor impairment also performed a maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the assessment of lower limb extensor strength. Results 18 boys were classified as having high motor impairment. There was a significant difference in peak (34.9 vs 48.5?mL?kg/min), workload (12.5 vs 10.0?mL?W), maximal HR (176 vs 188?bpm), maximal oxygen pulse (12.1 vs 15.9?mL?beat) and MVIC (5.7 vs 9.1?Nm?kg) between the high and non-motor impaired participants, respectively, (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in the RER or RPE between groups. Conclusions When performing cycling ergometry, perceived exertion was not a limiting factor in children with high motor impairment. The lower maximal HR, coupled with reduced movement efficiency and muscle strength reported in this group, suggests that exercise is limited by impairment at the muscular level. This finding was supported by high RER values despite low maximal HR values attained at exercise cessation and reduced maximal strength. Perception of effort is not heightened in children with high motor impairment and future-exercise interventions should be focused on improving muscular condition in these participants to enable them to be better prepared to engage in physical activity for health. PMID:23847266

  3. Minimizing Significant Figure Fuzziness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lawrence D.; Hawkes, Stephen J.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the principles and problems associated with the use of significant figures. Explains uncertainty, the meaning of significant figures, the Simple Rule, the Three Rule, and the 1-5 Rule. Also provides examples of the Rules. (ML)

  4. Ecologically Significant Wetlands

    E-print Network

    Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys FINAL REPORT Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork of the Flathead River Valley Appendix 29b #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, and Swan River Valleys JUNE 1, 1999 DEQ

  5. Tests of Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Lacey, Michelle

    This site gives an explanation, a definition of and an example for tests of significance. Topics include null and alternative hypotheses for population mean, one-sided and two-sided z and t tests, levels of significance, and matched pairs analysis. Overall, this is a nice presentation of significance tests for any mathematics classroom.

  6. Spontaneous Language Production in Bilingual Parkinson's Disease Patients: Evidence of Greater Phonological, Morphological and Syntactic Impairments in Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanini, Sergio; Tavano, Alessandro; Fabbro, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Nine early non-demented bilingual (L1--Friulian, L2--Italian) patients with Parkinson's disease and nine normal controls matched for age, sex and years of education were studied on a spontaneous language production task. All subjects had acquired L1 from birth in a home environment and L2 at the age of six at school formally. Patients with PD…

  7. Dystypia: isolated typing impairment without aphasia, apraxia or visuospatial impairment.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Mika; Soma, Yoshiaki; Arihiro, Shoji; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Naritomi, Hiroaki

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term 'dystypia' for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient's typing impairment was not attributable to a disturbance of the linguistic process, since he had no aphasia or agraphia. The impairment was not attributable to the impairment of the motor execution process either, since he had no apraxia. Thus, his typing impairment was deduced to be based on a disturbance of the intermediate process where the linguistic phonological information is converted into the corresponding performance. We hypothesized that there is a specific process for typing which branches from the motor programming process presented in neurolinguistic models. The foot of the left second frontal convolution and the operculum may play an important role in the manifestation of 'dystypia'. PMID:11914550

  8. Linking Sleep to Hypertension: Greater Risk for Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, A.; Williams, N.; Donat, M.; Ceide, M.; Brimah, P.; Ogedegbe, G.; McFarlane, S. I.; Jean-Louis, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hour) sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18–85 years). Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hours) sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR?=?1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P < 0.01). Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension. PMID:23710339

  9. Greater diaphragm fatigability in individuals with recurrent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Janssens, Lotte; Brumagne, Simon; McConnell, Alison K; Hermans, Greet; Troosters, Thierry; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine

    2013-08-15

    The diaphragm plays an important role in spinal control. Increased respiratory demand compromises spinal control, especially in individuals with low back pain (LBP). The objective was to determine whether individuals with LBP exhibit greater diaphragm fatigability compared to healthy controls. Transdiaphragmatic twitch pressures (TwPdi) were recorded in 10 LBP patients and 10 controls, before and 20 and 45 min after inspiratory muscle loading (IML). Individuals with LBP showed a significantly decreased potentiated TwPdi, 20 min (-20%) (p=0.002) and 45 min (-17%) (p=0.006) after IML. No significant decline was observed in healthy individuals, 20 min (-9%) (p=0.662) and 45 min (-5%) (p=0.972) after IML. Diaphragm fatigue (TwPdi fall ? 10%) was present in 80% (20 min after IML) and 70% (45 min after IML) of the LBP patients compared to 40% (p=0.010) and 30% (p=0.005) of the controls, respectively. Individuals with LBP exhibit propensity for diaphragm fatigue, which was not observed in controls. An association with reduced spinal control warrants further study. PMID:23727158

  10. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270) was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37) in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA), and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA). Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22) and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons). PMID:18590546

  11. Impairment rating ambiguity in the United States: the Utah Impairment Guides for calculating workers' compensation impairments.

    PubMed

    Colledge, Alan; Hunter, Bradley; Bunkall, Larry D; Holmes, Edward B

    2009-05-01

    Since the implementation of workers' compensation, accurately and consistently rating impairment has been a concern for the employee and employer, as well as rating physicians. In an attempt to standardize and classify impairments, the American Medical Association (AMA) publishes the AMA Guides ("Guides"), and recently published its 6th edition of the AMA Guides. Common critiques of the AMA Guides 6th edition are that they are too complex, lacking in evidence-based methods, and rarely yield consistent ratings. Many states mandate use of some edition of the AMA Guides, but few states are adopting the current edition due to the increasing difficulty and frustration with their implementation. A clearer, simpler approach is needed. Some states have begun to develop their own supplemental guides to combat problems in complexity and validity. Likewise studies in Korea show that past methods for rating impairment are outdated and inconsistent, and call for measures to adapt current methods to Korea's specific needs. The Utah Supplemental Guides to the AMA Guides have been effective in increasing consistency in rating impairment. It is estimated that litigation of permanent impairment has fallen below 1% and Utah is now one of the least costly states for obtaining workers' compensation insurance, while maintaining a medical fee schedule above the national average. Utah's guides serve as a model for national or international impairment guides. PMID:19503678

  12. Enzootic reticuloendotheliosis in the endangered Attwater's and greater prairie chickens.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Guillermo; Cheng, Sunny; Barbosa, Taylor; Haefele, Holly

    2006-12-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis (RE) in captive greater prairie chickens (GPC, Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's prairie chickens (APC, Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) was first reported in 1998. RE is caused by avian reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an oncogenic and immunosuppressive retrovirus infecting multiple species of wild and domestic birds. During August 2004 through May 2006 a captive population of prairie chickens was affected simultaneously with a neoplastic condition and also avian pox, the latter being detected in 7.4% (2 of 27) of all birds submitted for histopathology. A survey for REV was conducted in order to examine its possible role in mortality observed primarily in juvenile and adult specimens of prairie chickens. The investigative procedures included postmortem examinations, histopathology, molecular detection, and virus isolation. In total, 57 Attwater's prairie chickens and two greater prairie chickens were included in the study. REV infection was diagnosed using virus isolation or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or both in 59.5% (28 of 47) of blood samples and/or tumors from suspect birds. Lymphosarcomas were detected in the tissues of 37% (10 of 27) of the birds submitted for histopathology. Such lymphosarcomas suggestive of RE represented the most frequent morphologic diagnosis on histopathology among 27 separate submissions of naturally dead prairie chickens. Overall, REV was detected or RE diagnosed in 34 of 59 prairie chickens (57.62%). The average death age of all birds diagnosed with lymphosarcomas on histopathology was 2.2 yr, ranging from <1 to 4 yr. Although deaths associated with neoplasia occurred in males and females in equal proportions based on submissions, overall more males were diagnosed as REV infected or RE affected (16 males vs. 7 females, and 11 birds of undetermined gender). Reticuloendotheliosis virus was confirmed as a significant cause of mortality in captive prairie chickens. PMID:17274288

  13. Geohelminths: public health significance.

    PubMed

    Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Jaide, Chayannan; Jinawath, Natini; Rotjanapan, Porpon; Baral, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of geohelminths and their unique place in evolutionary biology have attracted research focus. These major soil-transmitted intestinal nematodes that cause human diseases are the nematode roundworm (Ascaris lumbricoides), the whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) and the two hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), often collectively referred as geohelminths. Studies of geohelminthiasis in poorly nourished children in developing regions report that geohelminths contribute to stunted growth and cognitive impairment. Insights into immunology have shed light on the modulatory role of the parasite on the host immune system and have defined the role of T cells in controlling geohelminthic infection. Recent molecular biological techniques have created an opportunity to analyse the interaction between parasites and their hosts at the molecular level. This paper is a review of the recent literature that examined the prevalence of geohelminthiasis in developing countries, the association between geohelminths in relation to public health, parasitological/diagnostic features, and therapeutic and preventive aspects of these major soil-transmitted helminth (STH) pathogens in humans. PMID:24423707

  14. Road Test and Naturalistic Driving Performance in Healthy and Cognitively Impaired Older Adults: Does Environment Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jennifer D.; Papandonatos, George D.; Miller, Lindsay A.; Hewitt, Scott D.; Festa, Elena K.; Heindel, William C.; Ott, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The road test is regarded as the gold standard for determining driving competence in older adults, but it is unclear how well the road test relates to naturalistic driving. The study objective was to relate the standardized road test to video recordings of naturalistic driving in older adults with a range of cognitive impairment. Design Cross-sectional observational study. Setting Academic medical center memory disorders clinic. Participants 103 older drivers (44 healthy and 59 with cognitive impairment) who passed a road test. Measurements Error rate and global ratings of safety (pass with and without recommendations, marginal with restrictions or training, or fail) made by a professional driving instructor. Results There was fair agreement between global ratings on the road test and naturalistic driving. More errors were detected in the naturalistic environment, but this did not impact global ratings. Error scores between settings were significantly correlated, and the types of errors made were similar. History of crashes corrected for miles driven per week was related to road test error scores, but not naturalistic driving error scores. Global cognition (MMSE) was correlated with both road test and naturalistic driving errors. In the healthy older adults, younger age was correlated with fewer errors on the road test and greater errors in naturalistic driving. Conclusion Road test performance is a reasonable proxy for estimating fitness to drive in older individuals’ typical driving environments. The differences between performance assessed by these two methods, however, remain poorly understood and deserve further study. PMID:23110378

  15. College and University Campuses in Greater Minnesota asTraffic Generators

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Drasek, John S. Adams CTS 09-17 This report evaluates the significance of selected Minnesota college vehicle traffic each day, and analyzes the absolute and relative significance of campuses in Greater. The Economic Impact of Upgrading Roads Michael Iacono, David M. Levinson Mn/DOT 2009-16 Improvements

  16. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  17. Impaired pressor sensitivity to noradrenaline in septic shock patients with and without impaired adrenal function reserve

    PubMed Central

    Annane, D; Bellissant, E; Sebille, V; Lesieur, O; Mathieu, B; Raphael, JC; Gajdos, P

    1998-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between adrenal gland function and pressor response to noradrenaline in septic shock. Methods Basal cortisol level, noradrenaline—mean arterial pressure dose-response curve and cortisol response to intravenous corticotrophin bolus were obtained in nine patients fulfilling usual criteria for septic shock and in six normal volunteers. In patients with septic shock, dose-response curve to noradrenaline was determined a second time 60 min after a 50 mg intravenous hydrocortisone bolus. Results As compared with controls, patients with septic shock had increased basal cortisol levels (mean±s.d.: 1564±818 vs 378±104 nmol l?1, P = 0.002, 95% confidence interval for difference in means: [452, 1920]) and a blunted cortisol response to corticotrophin (403±461 vs 1132±195 nmol l?1, P = 0.008, [?1163, ?295]). Five patients had impaired adrenal function reserve. As compared with controls, septic patients displayed a moderate and non significant decrease in pressor sensitivity to noradrenaline (P = 0.112). As compared with patients with adequate adrenal response, patients with impaired adrenal function reserve showed a significant decrease in pressor sensitivity to noradrenaline (P = 0.038). In septic patients, hydrocortisone improved pressor response to noradrenaline (P = 0.032). This effect was more marked in patients with impaired adrenal function reserve so that, as compared with patients with adequate response, the difference was no longer significant (P = 0.123). Conclusions In septic shock, impaired adrenal function reserve may partly be accounted for by the depressed pressor sensitivity to noradrenaline. The latter may be substantially improved by physiological doses of hydrocortisone. PMID:9862249

  18. Spatial navigational impairments in hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alastair D; Buckley, Matthew G

    2012-08-01

    Whilst much is known about the neuropathological consequences of hydrocephalus, there have been comparatively few studies of the cognitive impairments associated with it. Studies using standardised tests of cognitive function have identified a general pattern of impairments, with patients exhibiting particular difficulty on tests of spatial memory and executive function. A strong prediction is that these deficits are likely to affect daily wayfinding behaviour, and we report a study of spatial and navigational abilities in a group of patients with hydrocephalus but without spina bifida. Participants completed a range of experimental tasks assessing spatial cueing behaviour, landmark memory and route-learning, and idiothetic path integration. This patient group was compared to a control sample matched on verbal, spatial, and intelligence measures, and hydrocephalus was found to be associated with relative impairments in each of the tasks. Patients exhibited reduced sensitivity to spatial cueing, less accurate route-learning, poorer memory for landmark objects, and less accurate spatial updating (with particular impairments in the calculation of heading). Overall, these data represent the first empirical demonstration of navigational impairments in hydrocephalus, and we suggest some of the cognitive, neural, and individual differences factors that may contribute to the pattern of performance reported. PMID:22806680

  19. Peripheral insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling contribute to abnormal glucose metabolism in preterm baboons.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Cynthia L; McGill-Vargas, Lisa L; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Seidner, Steven R; McCurnin, Donald C; Leland, Michelle M; Anzueto, Diana G; Johnson, Marney C; Liang, Hanyu; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Musi, Nicolas

    2015-03-01

    Premature infants develop hyperglycemia shortly after birth, increasing their morbidity and death. Surviving infants have increased incidence of diabetes as young adults. Our understanding of the biological basis for the insulin resistance of prematurity and developmental regulation of glucose production remains fragmentary. The objective of this study was to examine maturational differences in insulin sensitivity and the insulin-signaling pathway in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of 30 neonatal baboons using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp. Preterm baboons (67% gestation) had reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity shortly after birth (M value 12.5 ± 1.5 vs 21.8 ± 4.4 mg/kg · min in term baboons) and at 2 weeks of age (M value 12.8 ± 2.6 vs 16.3 ± 4.2, respectively). Insulin increased Akt phosphorylation, but these responses were significantly lower in preterm baboons during the first week of life (3.2-fold vs 9.8-fold). Preterm baboons had lower glucose transporter-1 protein content throughout the first 2 weeks of life (8%-12% of term). In preterm baboons, serum free fatty acids (FFAs) did not decrease in response to insulin, whereas FFAs decreased by greater than 80% in term baboons; the impaired suppression of FFAs in the preterm animals was paired with a decreased glucose transporter-4 protein content in adipose tissue. In conclusion, peripheral insulin resistance and impaired non-insulin-dependent glucose uptake play an important role in hyperglycemia of prematurity. Impaired insulin signaling (reduced Akt) contributes to the defect in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Counterregulatory hormones are not major contributors. PMID:25560831

  20. Teaching Significant Figures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy H. Logan

    1964-01-01

    It is suggested that students would not be so careless about significant figures if they could actually see a demonstration of figures which are not significant. Such a demonstration is described, as is a simple teaching machine designed to give students facility in identifying insignificant figures in their calculations.

  1. Brain Volumes, Cognitive Impairment, and Conjugated Equine Estrogens

    PubMed Central

    Tindle, Hilary A.; Bushnell, Cheryl A.; Jaramillo, Sarah A.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Margolis, Karen L.; Mysiw, W. Jerry; Maldjian, Joseph A.; Melhem, Elias R.; Resnick, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Postmenopausal conjugated equine estrogens (CEE) therapies increase the risk of cognitive impairment in women aged 65 years or older and are associated with smaller regional brain volumes; however, the link between these two phenomena has not been established. Methods Standardized magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 1,403 women, 1–4 years after they had participated in randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials of CEE-based therapies. Women included in this report were aged 65–80 years and free of dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) when originally enrolled in the trials, which lasted an average of 4–6 years and were conducted at 14 academic U.S. medical centers. The associations that regional brain volumes and ischemic lesion volumes had with the development of cognitive impairment (i.e., dementia or MCI) were contrasted between treatment groups using analyses of covariance. Results Fifty-three women developed MCI or probable dementia during follow-up. Among women who had been prescribed CEE-based therapies, cognitive impairment was associated with relatively smaller hippocampal (p = .0002) and total brain volumes (p = .03). Qualitatively, these associations appeared to be independent of their level of pretreatment cognitive function. Among women who had been prescribed placebo, these relationships were not evident; instead, cognitive impairment was associated with greater ischemic lesion volume in the frontal lobe (p = .007) and overall (p = .02). Conclusion A mechanism by which CEE-based postmenopausal hormone therapy induces cognitive impairment appears to be through increased brain atrophy. PMID:19729392

  2. Relationship between cognitive impairment and apparent diffusion coefficient values from magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging in elderly hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanwei; Wu, Gang; Shi, Haiming; Xia, Zhijie; Sun, Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine a new method for the early diagnosis and assessment of mild cognitive impairment in elderly individuals with hypertension. Elderly hypertensive patients with cognitive impairment were assessed by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Clinical Dementia Rating Assessment (CDR). Cognitive results were compared to apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging. Methods A total of 191 patients were categorized into four groups: a control group (normal cognition and no hypertension; n=20); a normal group (hypertension and normal cognition; n=33); an mild cognitive impairment group (n=80); and a vascular dementia group (n=58). The MoCA and CDR tests were used to determine cognition. ADC values in eight brain regions were calculated with magnetic resonance-diffusion weighted imaging. Other characteristics were evaluated, eg, blood pressure, MoCA, and CDR scores, and the comparisons of the four groups were made. Results The MoCA and CDR scores differed among the four groups (P<0.001). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values increased as cognitive function declined (P<0.001). Cognitive function declined as ADC values increased, and they differed between elderly people with and without hypertension (P<0.001). Among elderly hypertensive participants, ADC values were significantly increased in the cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion The MoCA and CDR tests were sufficiently sensitive to evaluate cognition. Blood pressure was closely related to cognition, as well as to functional and structural changes in the brain. These alterations were evidenced through changes in the ADC values and were most obvious in the cortex and hippocampus. Greater cognitive decline was observed in elderly participants with hypertension compared to those without. As hypertensive stage increased, greater ADC values were observed. PMID:25114516

  3. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kate Fraser

    2008-03-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States, students have the unique opportunity to learn from a practicing research scientist who shares their particular disability. This article describes their collaborative project called OceanInsight, which provides visually impaired students with an interactive way to study oceanography, including field trips to Woods Hole and school visits by Bower and other WHOI scientists.

  4. Hearing Impairment and Dual Sensory Impairment Are Associated with Increased Mortality in Older Men

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Impairment are Associated with Increased Mortality in Older Men Listen News Brief 09/10/13 Researchers from ... impairment (vision and hearing impairment combined) in older men are associated with increased mortality from cardiovascular disease ( ...

  5. Sex-Related Differences in Self-Reported Neurocognitive Impairment among High-Risk Cocaine Users in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Roman; Huedo-Medina, Tania B; Copenhaver, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Previous research has suggested possible sex-related differences in executive functioning among cocaine users; however, no studies specifically explain sex-related differences in neurocognitive impairment (NCI) among cocaine users receiving clinical care. Knowledge about this association can aid in the development of targeted prevention strategies to reduce adverse health outcomes. This study was designed to examine the sex-related differences in NCI among high-risk cocaine users receiving substance-abuse treatment. METHODS The Neuropsychological Impairment Scale (NIS) was administered to 199 cocaine users (98 men; 101 women), receiving methadone maintainance treatment, to assess self-reported NCI by identifying the patients’ awareness of neuropsychological symptoms. We used T-test comparison to find differences in NCI between men and women and multiple regression analysis to explore the relative contribution of sex to NCI. RESULTS Consistent with prior work, high NCI was evident within this sample, as indicated by high scores on most of the NIS subscales. Women reported greater impairment than men, as evidenced by significantly higher scores on several NIS subscales, after controlling for demographic and other confounding variables. Interestingly, cocaine craving significantly predicted NCI among men but not among women, as suggested by the significant association between cocaine craving and all except one of the NIS subscales. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that cocaine users enter into treatment with a range of NCI – with women having significantly more neurocognitive deficits than men – that may contribute to differential treatment outcomes. This highlights the need to include additional services such as neuropsychological screening and sex-specific treatment programs to optimally reduce adverse health outcomes in these high-risk, cognitively impaired patients.

  6. Plasma oxytocin concentrations and OXTR polymorphisms predict social impairments in children with and without autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Parker, Karen J; Garner, Joseph P; Libove, Robin A; Hyde, Shellie A; Hornbeak, Kirsten B; Carson, Dean S; Liao, Chun-Ping; Phillips, Jennifer M; Hallmayer, Joachim F; Hardan, Antonio Y

    2014-08-19

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) regulate social functioning in animals and humans. Initial clinical research suggests that dysregulated plasma OXT concentrations and/or OXTR SNPs may be biomarkers of social impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We do not know, however, whether OXT dysregulation is unique to ASD or whether OXT biology influences social functioning more generally, thus contributing to, but not causing, ASD phenotypes. To distinguish between these possibilities, we tested in a child ASD cohort, which included unaffected siblings and unrelated neurotypical controls (ages 3-12 y; n = 193), whether plasma OXT concentrations and OXTR SNPs (i) interact to produce ASD phenotypes, (ii) exert differential phenotypic effects in ASD vs. non-ASD children, or (iii) have similar phenotypic effects independent of disease status. In the largest cohort tested to date, we found no evidence to support the OXT deficit hypothesis of ASD. Rather, OXT concentrations strongly and positively predicted theory of mind and social communication performance in all groups. Furthermore, OXT concentrations showed significant heritability between ASD-discordant siblings (h(2) = 85.5%); a heritability estimate on par with that of height in humans. Finally, carriers of the "G" allele of rs53576 showed impaired affect recognition performance and carriers of the "A" allele of rs2254298 exhibited greater global social impairments in all groups. These findings indicate that OXT biology is not uniquely associated with ASD, but instead exerts independent, additive, and highly heritable influences on individual differences in human social functioning, including the severe social impairments which characterize ASD. PMID:25092315

  7. Plasma oxytocin concentrations and OXTR polymorphisms predict social impairments in children with and without autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Garner, Joseph P.; Libove, Robin A.; Hyde, Shellie A.; Hornbeak, Kirsten B.; Carson, Dean S.; Liao, Chun-Ping; Phillips, Jennifer M.; Hallmayer, Joachim F.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) and its receptor (OXTR) regulate social functioning in animals and humans. Initial clinical research suggests that dysregulated plasma OXT concentrations and/or OXTR SNPs may be biomarkers of social impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We do not know, however, whether OXT dysregulation is unique to ASD or whether OXT biology influences social functioning more generally, thus contributing to, but not causing, ASD phenotypes. To distinguish between these possibilities, we tested in a child ASD cohort, which included unaffected siblings and unrelated neurotypical controls (ages 3–12 y; n = 193), whether plasma OXT concentrations and OXTR SNPs (i) interact to produce ASD phenotypes, (ii) exert differential phenotypic effects in ASD vs. non-ASD children, or (iii) have similar phenotypic effects independent of disease status. In the largest cohort tested to date, we found no evidence to support the OXT deficit hypothesis of ASD. Rather, OXT concentrations strongly and positively predicted theory of mind and social communication performance in all groups. Furthermore, OXT concentrations showed significant heritability between ASD-discordant siblings (h2 = 85.5%); a heritability estimate on par with that of height in humans. Finally, carriers of the “G” allele of rs53576 showed impaired affect recognition performance and carriers of the “A” allele of rs2254298 exhibited greater global social impairments in all groups. These findings indicate that OXT biology is not uniquely associated with ASD, but instead exerts independent, additive, and highly heritable influences on individual differences in human social functioning, including the severe social impairments which characterize ASD. PMID:25092315

  8. A Meta-Analysis of Cognitive Impairment and Decline Associated with Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Miyuki; Ogilvie, James M.; Wilson, Jennifer S.; Green, Heather J.; Chambers, Suzanne K.; Ownsworth, Tamara; Shum, David H. K.

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to quantify the magnitude and nature of the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and performance on a range of cognitive domains among breast cancer patients. A total of 27 studies (14 cross-sectional, 8 both cross-sectional and prospective, and 5 prospective) were included in the analyses, involving 1562 breast cancer patients who had undergone adjuvant chemotherapy and 2799 controls that included breast cancer patients who did not receive adjuvant chemotherapy. A total of 737 effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies separately and classified into eight cognitive domains. The mean effect sizes varied across cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from ?1.12 to 0.62 and ?0.29 to 1.12, respectively). Each cognitive domain produced small effect sizes for cross-sectional and prospective longitudinal studies (ranging from ?0.25 to 0.41). Results from cross-sectional studies indicated a significant association between adjuvant chemotherapy and cognitive impairment that held across studies with varied methodological approaches. For prospective studies, results generally indicated that cognitive functioning improved over time after receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Greater cognitive impairment was reported in cross-sectional studies comparing chemotherapy groups with healthy control groups. Results suggested that cognitive impairment is present among breast cancer patients irrespective of a history of chemotherapy. Prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of cognitive impairment present both before and after chemotherapy, with comparisons made to participants’ cognitive function prior to diagnosis. Accurate understanding of the effects of chemotherapy is essential to enable informed decisions regarding treatment and to improve quality of life among breast cancer patients. PMID:25806355

  9. Acremonium kiliense: Reappraisal of Its Clinical Significance?

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ziauddin; Al-Obaid, Khaled; Ahmad, Suhail; Ghani, Amal Abdel; Joseph, Leena; Chandy, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    A case of Acremonium kiliense peritonitis is described. Diagnosis was established by repeated isolation of the fungus from peritoneal dialysate and by its identification on the basis of morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This report and available literature suggest that A. kiliense may have a greater clinical significance than hitherto recognized. PMID:21450966

  10. The effects of acute alcohol on motor impairments in adolescent, adult, and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Ornelas, Laura C; Novier, Adelle; Van Skike, Candice E; Diaz-Granados, Jaime L; Matthews, Douglas B

    2015-03-01

    Acute alcohol exposure has been shown to produce differential motor impairments between aged and adult rats and between adolescent and adult rats. However, the effects of acute alcohol exposure among adolescent, adult, and aged rats have yet to be systematically investigated within the same project using a dose-dependent analysis. We sought to determine the age- and dose-dependent effects of acute alcohol exposure on gross and coordinated motor performance across the rodent lifespan. Adolescent (PD 30), adult (PD 70), and aged (approximately 18 months) male Sprague-Dawley rats were tested on 3 separate motor tasks: aerial righting reflex (ARR), accelerating rotarod (RR), and loss of righting reflex (LORR). In a separate group of animals, blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) were determined at multiple time points following a 3.0 g/kg ethanol injection. Behavioral tests were conducted with a Latin square repeated-measures design in which all animals received the following doses: 1.0 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg alcohol or saline over 3 separate sessions via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. During testing, motor impairments were assessed on the RR 10 min post-injection and on ARR 20 min post-injection. Aged animals spent significantly less time on the RR when administered 1.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adult rats. In addition, motor performance impairments significantly increased with age after 2.0 g/kg alcohol administration. On the ARR test, aged rats were more sensitive to the effects of 1.0 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg alcohol compared to adolescents and adults. Seven days after the last testing session, animals were given 3.0 g/kg alcohol and LORR was examined. During LORR, aged animals slept longer compared to adult and adolescent rats. This effect cannot be explained solely by BEC levels in aged rats. The present study suggests that acute alcohol exposure produces greater motor impairments in older rats when compared to adolescent and adult rats and begins to establish a procedure to determine motor effects by alcohol across the lifespan. PMID:25613215

  11. Title: Greater Toronto Area Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Data Creator /

    E-print Network

    Title: Greater Toronto Area Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Data Creator / Copyright Owner: Ontario: 10 cm resolution Coordinates: N/A Index Map: N/A Keywords (Place): Greater Toronto Area, Ontario; Toronto, Ontario Keywords (Subject): Digital Terrain Models; Elevations Restrictions: Data is licensed

  12. Experience-dependent natal philopatry of breeding greater flamingos.

    PubMed

    Balkiz, Ozge; Béchet, Arnaud; Rouan, Lauriane; Choquet, Rémi; Germain, Christophe; Amat, Juan A; Rendón-Martos, Manuel; Baccetti, Nicola; Nissardi, Sergio; Ozesmi, Uygar; Pradel, Roger

    2010-09-01

    1. Contrary to the generally high level of natal philopatry (i.e. likelihood that individuals breed at their natal colony) found in first-breeding colonial birds, little is known of natal philopatry later in life. Most hypotheses advanced to explain natal philopatry are valid at all ages. However, for young and inexperienced birds, the benefits of natal philopatry may be counterbalanced by the costs of intraspecific competition at the natal colony making dispersal temporarily advantageous. In turn, experience may increase competitive ability and make natal philopatry advantageous again. 2. We evaluated this hypothesis on the large-scale dispersal of greater flamingos Phoenicopterus roseus breeding among three colonies comprising >85% of the Western Mediterranean metapopulation. The Camargue (France) and Fuente de Piedra (Spain) are large and saturated colonies while Molentargius (Sardinia) is a recent and growing colony. 3. We used a 20-year capture-mark-resighting dataset of 4900 flamingos ringed as chicks in Camargue and Fuente de Piedra and breeding at the three colonies. We assessed the effects of natal colony and breeding experience (first-time observed breeders versus confirmed experienced breeders) on dispersal using multistate capture-recapture models. Dispersal to an unobservable state accounted for temporary emigration. 4. Fidelity was higher at the natal colony (>84%) than elsewhere. Fidelity increased with experience in the two large colonies (Camargue and Fuente de Piedra) suggesting a large-scale experience-related despotic distribution. Breeding dispersal was significant (up to 61% and 52% for first-time breeders and experienced breeders, respectively) so that colony dynamics is affected by exchanges with other colonies. Except for Fuente-born breeders leaving Molentargius, dispersal to the natal colony was higher than to any other colonies. 5. Survival was not higher at the natal colony. Inexperienced birds likely had lower breeding success at the Camargue and skipped reproduction after having emigrated to the other large colony but not to Molentargius. Breeding at Molentargius could allow avoiding queuing (and non-breeding) at the large colonies while gaining experience and competitive ability for future attempts. 6 Natal philopatry appears as an important driver of large-scale breeding dispersal in the Greater flamingo. The fitness advantage of natal philopatry is likely experience-dependent and mediated by the variations of intraspecific competition. PMID:20626499

  13. PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT?

    E-print Network

    PHONOLOGICAL DYSLEXIA WITHOUT PHONOLOGICAL IMPAIRMENT? Elise Caccappolo-van Vliet, Michele Miozzo dyslexia. In languages like English or French, in which orthog- raphy allows only an imperfect realisation of phonology, patients with surface dyslexia fail more frequently with words that have an irregular orthography

  14. Banknote recognition for visually impaired

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zora Solymar; Attila Stubendek; Mihaly Radvanyi; Kristof Karacs

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of banknotes is a prevalent problem for blind and visually impaired people. The bionic eyeglass is a mobile platform that integrates several common visual detection and recognition functions. Relevant shapes are extracted from the image flow of the banknote shown to the mobile camera using adaptive thresholding and morphological shape filters. In a two- level classification scheme different classifiers

  15. Oceanography for the Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kate

    2008-01-01

    Amy Bower is a physical oceanographer and senior scientist at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) in Woods Hole, Massachusetts--she has also been legally blind for 14 years. Through her partnership with the Perkins School for the Blind in Watertown, Massachusetts, the oldest K-12 school for the visually impaired in the United States,…

  16. Cooled Radiofrequency Ablation for Bilateral Greater Occipital Neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Chhatre, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the suboccipital region and radiated into her vertex. She was diagnosed with bilateral greater occipital neuralgia. She underwent cooled radiofrequency ablation of bilateral greater occipital nerves with minimal side effects and 75% pain reduction. Cooled radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerve in challenging cases is an alternative to pulsed and continuous RFA to alleviate pain with less side effects and potential for long-term efficacy. PMID:24716017

  17. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  18. POSTOPERATIVE COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT AND POSTOPERATIVE DELIRIUM: RISK FACTORS, PATHOPHYSIOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantinidis A. Panagiotis; Georgiadou Theodora

    2007-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive impairment and postoperative delirium: risk factors, pathophysiology and management Soilemezi E, Konstantinidis P, Georgiadou Th. A significant number of patients exhibit impairment in cognitive function immediately following surgery or later; the impact of this postoperative cognitive dysfunction on the recovery and quality of life of the patient but also on the necessity for supportive and rehabilitation care is

  19. Psychopathology and functional impairment among patients attending an adolescent health clinic: Implications for healthcare model reform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sushila Russell; Balakrishnan Subramanian; Paul Swamidhas Sudhakar Russell

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In developing countries, primary health care facilities, such as adolescent health clinics, are frequently the first contact for an adolescent with a health professional for a myriad of health problems including mental health issues. Psychopathology is prevalent among adolescents, and causes significant educational, occupational and social impairment. The presence of psychopathology with impairment requires the development of treatment models

  20. Adolescent Outcomes of Childhood Disorders: The Consequences of Severity and Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. JANE COSTELLO; ADRIAN ANGOLD; GORDON P. KEELER

    1999-01-01

    ObjectiveTo examine the adolescent consequences of clinical and threshold-level psychiatric disorders, with and without significant functional impairment; to predict serious emotional disturbance (SED: clinical-level diagnosis with impairment); and to examine sex differences in the consequences of emotional and behavioral disorders.

  1. Impaired host defence mechanisms in intensive care unit patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Zimmerli

    1985-01-01

    ICU patients have defects in various host defence mechanisms. The significance of these defects remains unclear, as conflicting results are reported in the literature. The good correlation between impaired cellular-immunity or chemotaxis and septic complications is not necessarily a causal one, but rather an epiphenomenon. Determination of host defence mechanisms in ICU patients is therefore mainly of scientific value, since

  2. Clinical Assessment of Functional Movement in Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Christopher T.; Horvat, Michael; Williams, Michael; Blasch, Bruce B.

    2007-01-01

    Adults with visual impairments have significantly more health risks than do sighted adults because of a number of factors, including the lower mineral density of their femoral neck bones, which is indicative of reduced weight-bearing exercise; their lesser maximal strength; and their higher rates of stroke, osteoporosis, depression, hypertension,…

  3. Linguistic Humor Comprehension of Normal and Language-Impaired Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Cecile C.

    1990-01-01

    Compared to 12 normally achieving students, 12 language-impaired high school students had significantly poorer comprehension of humor elements of riddles, jokes, and puns classified according to their phonological, morphological, or syntactic elements. Especially poor were subjects' ability to grasp the nature of multimeaning words and to segment…

  4. Sustained Attention in Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finneran, Denise A.; Francis, Alexander L.; Leonard, Laurence B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Information-processing limitations have been associated with language problems in children with specific language impairment (SLI). These processing limitations may be associated with limitations in attentional capacity, even in the absence of clinically significant attention deficits. In this study, the authors examined the performance…

  5. Is Processing Speed Related to Severity of Language Impairment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Margaret; Edwards, Jan; Munson, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Data from a study on lexical processing involving 66 children (mean age 6 years 9 months) with specific language impairments and 66 typically developing children. No significant correlations were found between response times on a series of tasks and language test scores. Results suggest that there is no linear relation between speed of processing…

  6. Listening to Children with Communication Impairment Talking through Their Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Erin L.; Harrison, Linda J.; McLeod, Sharynne

    2009-01-01

    Including children as research participants is an important new direction in early childhood research. However, it is rare for such studies to include the voices of children with significant communication impairment. This article suggests that drawing may be an appropriate non-verbal method for "listening" to these children's ideas and recording…

  7. Help Hints for the Management of Other Health Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Mary Lee; And Others

    The manual is designed to provide information to teachers, parents, and school administrators about health impaired children with medically diagnosed physical conditions. Definitions, common symptoms, incidence, age of onset, prognosis, most typical treatment, educational significance, educational adaptations, and symptoms to look out for are…

  8. Functional Impairment in Adult Sleepwalkers: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Regis; Jaussent, Isabelle; Scholz, Sabine; Bayard, Sophie; Montplaisir, Jacques; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the restorative quality of sleep and daytime functioning in sleepwalking adult patients in comparison with controls. Design: Prospective case-control study. Setting: Data were collected at the Sleep Disorders Center, Hôpital-Gui-de Chauliac, Montpellier, France between June 2007 and January 2011. Participants: There were 140 adult sleepwalkers (100 (median age 30 y, 55% male) in whom primary SW was diagnosed) who underwent 1 night of video polysomnography. All patients participated in a standardized clinical interview and completed a battery of questionnaires to assess clinical characteristics of parasomnia, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and health-related quality of life. Results were compared with those of 100 sex- and age-matched normal controls. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Of the sleepwalkers, 22.3% presented with daily episodes and 43.5% presented with weekly episodes. Median age at sleepwalking onset was 9 y. Familial history of sleepwalking was reported in 56.6% of sleepwalkers and violent sleep related behaviors in 57.9%, including injuries requiring medical care for at least one episode in 17%. Significant associations were found between sleepwalking and daytime sleepiness, fatigue, insomnia, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and altered quality of life. Early-onset sleepwalkers had higher frequency of violent behaviors and injuries. Sleepwalkers with violent behaviors had higher frequency of sleep terrors and triggering factors, with greater alteration in health-related quality of life. Conclusion: Adult sleepwalking is a potentially serious condition that may induce violent behaviors, self-injury or injury to bed partners, sleep disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and psychological distress, all of which affect health-related quality of life. Citation: Lopez R; Jaussent I; Scholz S; Bayard S; Montplaisir J; Dauvilliers Y. Functional impairment in adult sleepwalkers: a case-control study. SLEEP 2013;36(3):345-351. PMID:23450499

  9. Intracranial stenosis, cerebrovascular diseases, and cognitive impairment in chinese.

    PubMed

    Hilal, Saima; Saini, Monica; Tan, Chuen Seng; Catindig, Joseree A; Dong, Yan Hong; Holandez, Rachelle L; Niessen, Wiro J; Vrooman, Henri A; Ting, Eric; Wong, Tien Yin; Chen, Christopher; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Ikram, Mohammad K

    2015-01-01

    Extracranial carotid artery disease has been shown to be related to cognitive deficits. However, limited data are available on intracranial stenosis (ICS) and cognitive impairment. We investigate the association between ICS and cognitive impairment in Chinese. Subjects (n=278), recruited from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore Study, underwent comprehensive clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including 3-dimensional-time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Cognitive function was expressed as composite and domain-specific Z-scores. Cognitive impairment no dementia and dementia were diagnosed according to internationally accepted diagnostic criteria. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, education, vascular risk factors, and other MRI markers. A total of 29 (10.4%) persons had ICS on MRA, which was significantly associated with both composite cognitive Z-scores [mean difference in Z-score, presence vs. absence of ICS: -0.37 (95% confidence interval: -0.63, -0.12)] and specific domains including executive function, language, visuomotor speed, verbal memory, and visual memory. ICS was also related to significant cognitive impairment (odds ratio: 5.10 [1.24 to 21.02]). With respect to other MRI markers, adjusted for the presence of lacunar infarcts, the associations of ICS with both composite and domain-specific Z-scores, and significant cognitive impairment became nonsignificant; however, adjustment for other MRI markers did not alter these associations. In this Chinese population, presence of ICS was associated with cognitive impairment independent of vascular risk factors. These associations may be mediated through the presence of infarcts. PMID:24731981

  10. Selective neurocognitive impairments in adolescents with major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Han, Georges; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Jepsen, Susie; Ballard, Kristin; Nelson, Megan; Houri, Alaa; Kumra, Sanjiv; Cullen, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether major depression in adolescence is characterized by neurocognitive deficits in attention, affective decision making, and cognitive control of emotion processing. Neuropsychological tests including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the Continuous Performance Test–Identical Pairs, the Attention Network Test, the Iowa Gambling Task, the Emotional Go-NoGo Task, and the Face Go-NoGo Task were administered to adolescents with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (n = 31) and psychiatric diagnosis free controls (n = 30). Findings indicated that compared with controls, depressed adolescents exhibited impaired sustained attention; a gender by group interaction on affective decision making such that depressed males tended to make less advantageous choices on the IGT; and an inverse pattern of correlations between depressive symptom counts and reaction time to affective stimuli, characterizing greater affective reactivity in depressed adolescents. Findings demonstrate that adolescents with MDD display selective neurocognitive impairments on tasks capturing ‘cool’ and ‘hot’ executive functioning. PMID:21782233

  11. Impairment of auditory spatial localization in congenitally blind human subjects

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Monica; Sandini, Giulio; Martinoli, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated enhanced auditory processing in the blind, suggesting that they compensate their visual impairment in part with greater sensitivity of the other senses. However, several physiological studies show that early visual deprivation can impact negatively on auditory spatial localization. Here we report for the first time severely impaired auditory localization in the congenitally blind: thresholds for spatially bisecting three consecutive, spatially-distributed sound sources were seriously compromised, on average 4.2-fold typical thresholds, and half performing at random. In agreement with previous studies, these subjects showed no deficits on simpler auditory spatial tasks or with auditory temporal bisection, suggesting that the encoding of Euclidean auditory relationships is specifically compromised in the congenitally blind. It points to the importance of visual experience in the construction and calibration of auditory spatial maps, with implications for rehabilitation strategies for the congenitally blind. PMID:24271326

  12. Propagation of Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Lowell M.

    1985-01-01

    Shows that the rules of thumb for propagating significant figures through arithmetic calculations frequently yield misleading results. Also describes two procedures for performing this propagation more reliably than the rules of thumb. However, both require considerably more calculational effort than do the rules. (JN)

  13. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  14. A study of migration to Greater Santiago (Chile).

    PubMed

    Elizaga, J C

    1966-06-01

    The most significant results of a survey in Greater Santiago in 1962 by the Latin American Demographic Center are presented in this paper. The population studied had slightly more than 2 million inhabitants at the time the survey was taken. A probability sample was drawn and interviews were taken without regard to the migration status of the household. The interview schedules were designed to obtain data on the demographic and social aspects of the migrant as contrasted with the non-migrant population. Migration history, the objective and subjective factors that appear to have "motivated" movement to Santiago, and other aspects oj the migratory move itself were also topics of inquiry.Tabulations of this survey portray Santiago as a city of great in-migration. The flow is estimated to be between 1.5 and 1.7 percent per year. Among the population 15 years of age or over, about 50 percent were found to be migrants from outside the metropolitan area. A high level of flow has been sustained for several decades, for only 60 percent of the total in-migrants have arrived during the last twenty years.Migration to Santiago was found to be selective by sex. For each two male in-migrants there were three female migrants. Migration was also selective by age. During the decade preceding the survey, two-thirds had arrived before attaining their twenty-fifth birthday. Forty-four percent of the men and 51 percent of the women had been between 15 and 29 years of age at time of arrival. The migrants had moved very little before their journey to Santiago. Among those who were 15 years of age or older at the time of migration, more than half had moved directly from their place of birth to Santiago. Prior mobility was slightly higher among persons coming from rural or semiurban origins than among those coming from urban origins.Two-thirds of the in-migrants arrived from urban places (places of 5,000 or more inhabitants in 1952). Despite the fact that in 1952 almost 50 percent of Chile's population outside Santiago was genuinely rural, only 13 percent of the in-migrants came from such origins. The balance came from areas classed as semiurban.The principal motive given for making the move to Santiago was work in 60 percent of the cases. Education was the second most commonly cited principal motive, given by 10 percent. Among those coming from rural and semiurban origins, an even greater proportion claimed work to be the principal motive, while those coming from urban settings were more inclined to report education.The spatial distribution of migrants within the territory of Greater Santiago was studied in four sectors, each with different socioeconomic characteristics. The present distribution, as well as the distribution of first places of residence, indicates that the distribution was more or less proportionate among the sectors and follows the expansion of the metropolitan area. However, a high concentration of migrant women was found in the middle- and upper-class residential sectors. This is probably due to the existence of housemaids in those sectors.Migrants were found to be living in poorer housing than non-migrants-especially for families whose heads were recent migrants(from 1952 to 1962). Among the migrants who had arrived within the last ten years, 30 percent lived in dwellings that lacked the basic services, such as running water, electricity, or sewer. Migrants who had arrived more than ten years before the survey tended to live in houses lacking these facilities only with about the same frequency as the non-migrants-23 percent.The educational attainment of migrants was lower than that of natives. This differential was especially great among women.The recent migrants have a greater rate of labor-force participation than the other groups. Among males, the rate for migrants was 84 percent and for natives 78 percent. The differential is even greater in the group 15-29 years of age, where the rates were 73 percent for migrants and 61 percent for natives. A similar differential was found for women.An income differential unfav

  15. The impairment of true glomerular filtration rate in long-term cyclosporine-treated pediatric allograft recipients

    SciTech Connect

    McDiarmid, S.V.; Ettenger, R.B.; Hawkins, R.A.; Senguttvan, P.; Busuttil, R.W.; Vargas, J.; Berquist, W.E.; Ament, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    We performed indium-111-DTPA plasma clearance studies in 61 pediatric kidney and liver recipients treated with cyclosporine to compare true glomerular filtration rate with calculated GFR (cGFR). The mean true GFR of 61.9 +/- 36.6 ml/min/1.73 m2 indicated renal impairment. The mean cGFR of 85.2 +/- 22.4 ml/min/1.73 m2 was significantly higher (P less than 0.001), and overestimated GFR by 38%. cGFR alone did not accurately reflect the degree of renal dysfunction. A group of 48 pediatric orthotopic liver transplant recipients was studied in more detail: 73% of these patients had a true GFR less than 70 ml/min/1.73 m2, while 85% had a true GFR below 90 ml/min/1.73 m2, the lower limit for normal GFR in children. The mean true GFR for patients treated more than 24 months with CsA was lower (P = 0.02) than patients treated with CsA for 12 to 24 months. OLT patients with normal true GFR (greater than 90 ml/min/1.73 m2) had significantly lower plasma CsA levels, and 50% of patients with a true GFR less than or equal to 50 ml/min/1.73 m2 had hypertension. There was no effect on true GFR of age, liver function, azathioprine use, or peritransplant treatment with other nephrotoxic drugs. We conclude that true GFR is significantly impaired in long-term CsA-treated allograft pediatric recipients. Calculations of GFR underestimate the degree of renal dysfunction. As patients treated greater than 24 months had the lowest true GFRs, the fall in GFR may be progressive.

  16. Pulmonary function impairment in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema with and without airflow obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kitaguchi, Yoshiaki; Fujimoto, Keisaku; Hanaoka, Masayuki; Honda, Takayuki; Hotta, Junichi; Hirayama, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Background The syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a recently described entity associating upper-lobe emphysema and lower-lobe fibrosis. We sought to evaluate differences in pulmonary function between CPFE patients with and without airflow obstruction. Subjects and methods Thirty-one CPFE patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of irreversible airflow obstruction based on spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity <70% following inhalation of a ?2-agonist) as follows: CPFE patients with airflow obstruction (CPFE OB+ group, n=11), and CPFE patients without airflow obstruction (CPFE OB? group, n=20). Pulmonary function, including respiratory impedance evaluated using impulse oscillometry and dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation, was retrospectively analyzed in comparison with that observed in 49 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients (n=49). Results In imaging findings, low-attenuation-area scores on chest high-resolution computed tomography, representing the degree of emphysema, were significantly lower in the CPFE OB? group than in the CPFE OB+ and COPD groups. In contrast, the severity of pulmonary fibrosis was greater in the CPFE OB? group than in the CPFE OB+ group. In pulmonary function, lung hyperinflation was not apparent in the CPFE OB? group. Impairment of diffusion capacity was severe in both the CPFE OB? and CPFE OB+ groups. Impulse oscillometry showed that respiratory resistance was not apparent in the CPFE OB? group compared with the COPD group, and that easy collapsibility of small airways during expiration of tidal breath was not apparent in the CPFE OB+ group compared with the COPD group. Dynamic hyperinflation following metronome-paced incremental hyperventilation was significantly greater in the COPD group than in the CPFE OB? group, and also tended to be greater in the CPFE OB+ group than in the CPFE OB? group. Conclusion The mechanisms underlying impairment of physiological function may differ among CPFE OB+ patients, CPFE OB? patients, and COPD patients. CPFE is a heterogeneous disease, and may have distinct phenotypes physiologically and radiologically. PMID:25114520

  17. Rumination and perceived impairment associated with depressive symptoms in a verbal adolescent-adult ASD sample.

    PubMed

    Gotham, Katherine; Bishop, Somer L; Brunwasser, Steven; Lord, Catherine

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and several psychosocial constructs (insight into autism symptoms, rumination, desire for social interaction, and satisfaction with social support) that may play a role in the development or maintenance of depression in verbally fluent adolescents and adults with ASD. Participants included 50 individuals with ASD and verbal IQ???70, aged 16-35 (sample size varied by measure). Elevated depressive symptoms on the Beck Depression Inventory, 2nd edition (BDI-II), were associated with greater self-perceived, autism-related impairments (n?=?48), greater rumination (n?=?21), and lower perceived social support (n?=?37). Rumination tended to moderate the association between self-perceived autism symptoms and BDI-II scores (n?=?21), and was significantly associated with ASD-related insistence on sameness behaviors (n?=?18). An unexpected relationship between depressive features and social participation and motivation will need to be clarified by longitudinal research. These and similar findings contribute to our understanding of the phenomenology of depression in ASD, which is critical to the development of practical prevention and treatment. PMID:24802136

  18. Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department Internship The Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department internships will focus on content development

    E-print Network

    Cinabro, David

    Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department Internship The Greater Media, Inc. Interactive Department internships will focus on content development and presentation for like-formatted groups of radio or trade school · Student understands that the internship must be a minimum of three months in duration

  19. Dystypia: Isolated Typing Impairment without Aphasia, Apraxia or Visuospatial Impairment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mika Otsuki; Yoshiaki Soma; Shoji Arihiro; Yoshimasa Watanabe; Hiroshi Moriwaki; Hiroaki Naritomi

    2002-01-01

    We report a 60-year-old right-handed Japanese man who showed an isolated persistent typing impairment without aphasia, agraphia, apraxia or any other neuropsychological deficit. We coined the term ‘dystypia’ for this peculiar neuropsychological manifestation. The symptom was caused by an infarction in the left frontal lobe involving the foot of the second frontal convolution and the frontal operculum. The patient’s typing

  20. Measures of Clinical Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HELENA CHMURA KRAEMER; GEORGE A. MORGAN; NANCY L. LEECH; JEFFREY A. GLINER; JERRY J. VASKE; ROBERT J. HARMON

    2003-01-01

    Behavioral scientists are interested in answering three basic questions when examining the relationships between vari- ables (Kirk, 2001). First, is an observed result real or should it be attributed to chance (i.e., statistical significance)? Sec- ond, if the result is real, how large is it (i.e., effect size)? Third, is the result large enough to be meaningful and useful (i.e.,

  1. Statistical Applets: Statistical Significance

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duckworth, William

    Created by authors Duckworth, McCabe, Moore and Sclove for W.H. Freeman of Co., this applet is designed to help students visualize the rejection region of a statistical test by allowing them to set null and alternate hypotheses, population parameters, sample statistics, and significance level. It accompanies "Â?Â?Practice of Business Statistics," but can be used without this text. Even though brief, this is a nice interactive resource for an introductory statistics course.

  2. Semantic memory activation in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, J. L.; Seidenberg, M.; Nielson, K. A.; Antuono, P.; Guidotti, L.; Durgerian, S.; Zhang, Q.; Lancaster, M.; Hantke, N.; Butts, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitively intact older individuals at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease frequently show increased functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain activation presumably associated with compensatory recruitment, whereas mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients tend not to show increased activation presumably due to reduced neural reserve. Previous studies, however, have typically used episodic memory activation tasks, placing MCI participants at a performance disadvantage relative to healthy elders. In this event-related fMRI study, we employed a low effort, high accuracy semantic memory task to determine if increased activation of memory circuits is preserved in amnestic MCI when task performance is controlled. Fifty-seven participants, aged 65–85 years, comprised three groups (n = 19 each): amnestic MCI patients; cognitively intact older participants at risk for developing Alzheimer's disease based on having at least one ApoE ?4 allele and a positive family history of Alzheimer's disease (At Risk); and cognitively intact participants without Alzheimer's disease risk factors (Control). fMRI was conducted on a 3T MR scanner while participants performed a famous name discrimination task. Participants also underwent neuropsychological testing outside the scanner; whole brain and hippocampal atrophy were assessed from anatomical MRI scans. The three groups did not differ on demographic variables or on fame discrimination performance (>87% correct for all groups). As expected, the amnestic MCI participants demonstrated reduced episodic memory performance. Spatial extent of activation (Fame—Unfamiliar subtraction) differentiated the three groups (Control = 0 ml, At Risk = 9.7 ml, MCI = 34.7 ml). The MCI and At Risk groups showed significantly greater per cent signal change than Control participants in 8 of 14 functionally defined regions, including the medial temporal lobe, temporoparietal junction, and posterior cingulate/precuneus. MCI participants also showed greater activation than Controls in two frontal regions. At Risk, but not MCI, participants showed increased activity in the left hippocampal complex; MCI participants, however, evidenced increased activity in this region when hippocampal atrophy was controlled. When performance is equated, MCI patients demonstrate functional compensation in brain regions subserving semantic memory systems that generally equals or exceeds that observed in cognitively intact individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease. This hyperactivation profile in MCI is even observed in the left hippocampal complex, but only when the extent of hippocampal atrophy is taken into consideration. PMID:19515831

  3. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  4. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  5. Lancet Dynamics in Greater Horseshoe Bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

    PubMed Central

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C.; Gupta, Anupam K.; Simmons, James A.; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages (‘noseleaves’) that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that—in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna—horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information. PMID:25853738

  6. Impaired musical ability in people with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hatada, Sanae; Sawada, Ken; Akamatsu, Masanori; Doi, Erina; Minese, Masayoshi; Yamashita, Motoshi; Thornton, Allen E.; Honer, William G.; Inoue, Shimpei

    2014-01-01

    Background Assessment of the musical ability of people with schizophrenia has attracted little interest despite the diverse and substantive findings of impairments in sound perception and processing and the therapeutic effect of music in people with the illness. The present study investigated the musical ability of people with schizophrenia and the association with psychiatric symptoms and cognition. Methods We recruited patients with chronic schizophrenia and healthy controls for participation in our study. To measure musical ability and cognitive function, we used the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). We carried out a mediation analysis to investigate a possible pathway to a deficit in musical ability. Results We enrolled 50 patients and 58 controls in the study. The MBEA global score in patients with schizophrenia was significantly lower than that in controls (p < 0.001), and was strongly associated with both the composite cognitive function score (r = 0.645, p < 0.001) and the negative symptom score (r = ?0.504, p < 0.001). Further analyses revealed direct and indirect effects of negative symptoms on musical ability. The indirect effects were mediated through cognitive impairment. Limitations The relatively small sample size did not permit full evaluation of the possible effects of age, sex, education, medication and cultural influences on the results. Conclusion Examining the associations between musical deficits, negative symptoms and cognitive imapirment in patients with schizophrenia may identify shared biological mechanisms. PMID:24119791

  7. Multimedia technology for hearing impaired people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Czyzewski; H. Skarzynaski; B. Kostek; A. Geremek

    1998-01-01

    The development of advanced hearing prosthetic aids and cochlear implants allows many hearing impaired people to receive audio signals. A multimedia catalogue of hearing impairments was developed which includes the results of audiology tests, medical description of the subjects with different types of hearing impairments and sound examples illustrating consequences of a hearing loss. Moreover, within the framework of research

  8. The Physical Environment and the Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braf, Per-Gunnar

    Reported are results of a project carried out at the Swedish Institute for the Handicapped to determine needs of the visually impaired in the planning and adaptation of buildings and other forms of physical environment. Chapter 1 considers implications of impaired vision and includes definitions, statistics, and problems of the visually impaired

  9. Mobile Device Impairment ... Similar Problems, Similar Solutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz; Chen, Tianyi

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have defined a new type of impairment in which an able-bodied user's behaviour is impaired by both the characteristics of a device and the environment in which it is used. This behavioural change is defined as a situationally-induced impairment and is often associated with small devices used in a mobile setting or constrained…

  10. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    Debris flows are recorded everywhere within the Greater Caucasus northern slope. In last decades studies of debris flows appeared to be very important due to an intensive anthropogenic activity in the mountainous areas. Debris flow spatial distribution, as well as their genesis and means of protection are critical, too. The studied terri- tory has significant absolute altitudes, especially in the central and eastern parts. Also large amount of atmospheric precipitation with maximum in a warm period is typical for the region. Modern glaciation with soil-covered moraine deposits of modern and Holocene age is developed in the region. Geological and geomorphological conditions lead to debris flows formation within the entire territory. However, the amount of atmospheric precipitation drastically decreases from west to east and in the eastern part (Dagestan) debris flow is less active than in the central even under the presence of enormous amounts of loose detrital material of different genesis. In the western part debris flows are less developed due to insignificant altitudes and considerable forest coverage and soil-cover. Powerful modern glaciation with vast development of purely moraine and fluvial-glacial deposits results in intensive debris flow activity in the central part of the northern slope (the Terek river basin). In the upper reaches of all the Terek tributaries moraine deposits reach up to several dozen meters. They are widespread at altitudes higher than 2000 m (above the forest boundary) and almost everywhere uncovered by soils. They are a key source of sediments under debris flow formation. Within the Greater Caucasus northern slope there are 1700 debris flow basins with the total area about 7000 km2. Their average area is 4.0 km2 with minimum 0.20 km2 and maximum 173.8 km2. Moreover, there are many riverbeds in the area where form mountain mud floods more than 3000 km long. Debris flows occur between January and October with clear altitudinal zoning: at the lower levels (up to 1500 m) they are recorded for a longer period and higher than 2000 m only 2-3 months. In terms of genesis the following types of debris flows are registered: rain, glacial and mixed. Rain mudflows are formed due to intensive rains (the daily amount is about 25 U 100 mm). A critical norm of precipitation forming debris 1 flows varies from west to east. In the western part it is 75-100 mm, central U 50-75 mm and eastern U 25-50 mm. Also the norm varies from north to south, in particular on advanced ridges it is higher but on the Glavny and Bokovoy ridges it is less. The difference is about 2 times. Glacial mudflows are observed only in the areas of modern glaciation. They form under high air temperature (20 U 25°C) leading to an intensive melting of snow and ice on glaciers. High air temperature should be recorded not less than 5-10 days. Mixed mudflows form under high air temperature in the glaciers area and significant rainstorms in the glacial zone. Rainstorms cause debris flow formation in focal points. Frontal precipitation with a significant amount of rain cause debris flows at vast territories often covering several kilometers. In total rain mudflows prevail on the Greater Caucasus northern slope and equal 60 - 80% of all the mudflows. Glacial mudflows constitute 30-40% and mixed mudflows U 10-20%. In the western and eastern parts rain mudflows are the principal and their share is 80-90% of all the mudflows. In the central part glacial mudflows prevail (60- 0%). Technogenic mudflows are recorded in the areas with developed mining industry, highways, forestry, and pastures. In the given region debris flows distribute from north to south depending on genesis and volume. On advanced ridges (Lesisty, Pastbishny, Skalisty) only rain mudflows are registered with the volume up to 100,000 m3. Eluvial-deluvial, alluvial-proluvial and eolian-proluvial deposits compose their solid constituents. This is a zone of weak mudflow hazard. The most often are mudflows with volume up to 5000-10,000 m3. More powerful mudflows are less frequent (once

  11. Are empathic abilities impaired in posttraumatic stress disorder?

    PubMed

    Nietlisbach, Gabriela; Maercker, Andreas; Rössler, Wulf; Haker, Helene

    2010-06-01

    Trauma survivors with PTSD show social interaction and relationship impairments. It is hypothesized that traumatic experiences lead to known PTSD symptoms, empathic ability impairment, and difficulties in sharing affective, emotional, or cognitive states. A PTSD group (N=16) and a nontraumatized Control group (N=16) were compared on empathic abilities, namely the Empathic Resonance Test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, and Faux Pas Test. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index as a self-report measure of empathy and measures of non-social cognitive functions, namely the Verbal Fluency Test, the Five-Point Test, and the Stroop Test, were also administered. The PTSD group showed lower empathic resonance. No clear indications of other impairments in social cognitive functions were found. The PTSD group had significantly higher personal distress. Empathic resonance impairments did not correlate with subjective severity of PTSD symptomatology. This article discusses whether impaired empathic resonance in PTSD trauma survivors is a consequence of trauma itself or a protective coping strategy. PMID:20712172

  12. Cognitive impairment in fatigue and sleepiness associated conditions.

    PubMed

    Neu, Daniel; Kajosch, Hendrik; Peigneux, Philippe; Verbanck, Paul; Linkowski, Paul; Le Bon, Olivier

    2011-08-30

    Although relating to very different concepts, sleepiness and fatigue are often confounded. However, both fatigue-associated conditions such as the chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and sleepiness-associated conditions such as the sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) are associated with cognitive impairment with impaired attention, concentration and memory performances. Fifteen pure CFS patients, without primary sleep disorders or clinically relevant sleepiness, were compared to 15 untreated SAHS patients, without clinically relevant fatigue, and to 16 healthy controls of similar age. The auditory verbal learning test (AVLT), digit span, digit symbol and finger tapping test (FTT) were used as cognitive and behavioural measures. In addition we assessed daytime EEG spectral power and P300 evoked potentials. With exception for the digit span, all tests showed lower performances in patient groups. Recall on the AVLT did not differ between the two patient groups, but the digit and symbol spans showed more severe impairment in SAHS patients. Psychomotor performance on the FTT presented with slower hit rates in SAHS than in CFS. EEG theta power was highest in CFS patients. P300 latencies and amplitudes did not differ between groups. Fatigue- and sleepiness-associated conditions can both present with significant and objective impairment of cognitive functioning and behavioural motor performance. In our sample cognitive impairment and psychomotor performance were worse when associated to sleepiness in SAHS than with fatigue in CFS. PMID:21196050

  13. Tienilic acid in patients with impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Eisalo, A; Tötterman, K J; Haapanen, E

    1982-01-01

    Diuretic therapy is usually accompanied by biochemical changes, such as hypokalemia, impaired glucose tolerance and hyperuricaemia. Tienilic acid is a new long-acting diuretic with antihypertensive effect, combined with uricosuric property. For the purpose of evaluating the effect of tienilic acid in patients with impaired renal function, eleven patients with hypertension and slight to moderate renal impairment were randomized to either hydrochlorothiazide or tienilic acid therapy. During eight weeks of treatment no changes occurred in serum-creatinine, creatinine-clearance, serum-sodium, or urea. Despite renal impairment, serum uric acid decreased during tienilic acid treatment. Compared with placebo, a significant decrease in uric acid was seen as early as after one week of treatment (p less than 0.01) and after 8 weeks the difference was still of the same order (p less than 0.01). During hydrochlorothiazide therapy, serum uric acid increased progressively. The difference was p less than 0.002 at 4 weeks and p less than 0.0005 at 8 weeks of treatment, compared with placebo. The results of this study show that the uricosuric effect of tienilic acid is maintained in patients with mild to moderate renal impairment. PMID:6762807

  14. Taste impairment and related factors in type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Le Floch, J P; Le Lievre, G; Sadoun, J; Perlemuter, L; Peynegre, R; Hazard, J

    1989-03-01

    To study taste in type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, 57 consecutive diabetic outpatients (mean +/- SE duration of diabetes 11.4 +/- 0.4 yr) and 38 control subjects were screened for taste disorders with electrogustometry and chemical gustometry. Both groups were comparable for all subject characteristics except body mass index, which was higher in the diabetic group (P less than .05). A taste impairment was found in the diabetic group relative to the control group with electrogustometry (mean threshold 184.3 +/- 15.8 vs. 58.7 +/- 9.2 microA; P less than .001) and chemical gustometry (mean score 13.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 17.1 +/- 0.8; P less than .001). Hypogeusia was found among 73% of the diabetic patients versus 16% of the control subjects (P less than .001). The four primary tastes were involved in taste impairment. With multivariate analysis, taste disorders were related to diabetic status and tobacco and alcohol consumption. In the diabetic group, taste impairment was significantly associated with complications and duration of disease. With multivariate analysis, peripheral neuropathy had the strongest association with taste disorders. These results suggest that taste is impaired during the course of type I diabetes mellitus and that taste impairment could be a complication of the disease. A mechanism of the neuropathic type could be involved. PMID:2702907

  15. Cortical thinning associated with mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Segura, Bàrbara; Baggio, Hugo César; Marti, Maria Josep; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Garcia-Diaz, Anna Isabel; Vendrell, Pere; Bargallo, Núria; Tolosa, Eduardo; Junque, Carme

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate patterns of cortical atrophy associated with mild cognitive impairment in a large sample of nondemented Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and its relation with specific neuropsychological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological assessment were performed in a sample of 90 nondemented PD patients and 32 healthy controls. All underwent a neuropsychological battery including tests that assess different cognitive domains: attention and working memory, executive functions, memory, language, and visuoperceptual-visuospatial functions. Patients were classified according to their cognitive status as PD patients without mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n?=?43) and PD patients with MCI (n?=?47). Freesurfer software was used to obtain maps of cortical thickness for group comparisons and correlation with neuropsychological performance. Patients with MCI showed regional cortical thinning in parietotemporal regions, increased global atrophy (global cortical thinning, total gray matter volume reduction, and ventricular enlargement), as well as significant cognitive impairment in memory, executive, and visuospatial and visuoperceptual domains. Correlation analyses showed that all neuropsychological tests were associated with cortical thinning in parietotemporal regions and to a lesser extent in frontal regions. These results provide neuroanatomic support to the concept of MCI classified according to Movement Disorders Society criteria. The posterior pattern of atrophy in temporoparietal regions could be a structural neuroimaging marker of cognitive impairment in nondemented PD patients. All of the neuropsychological tests reflected regional brain atrophy, but no specific patterns were seen corresponding to impairment in distinct cognitive domains. PMID:25100674

  16. Assessing Mild Cognitive Impairment among Older African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Allaire, Jason C.; Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the frequency of MCI in African American older adults. The study also plans to explore the specific cognitive domains of impairment as well as whether there are differences in demographics, health, and cognitive performance between MCI and normal participants. DESIGN Cross-sectional. SETTING Independent-living sample of urban dwelling elders in Baltimore, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS The sample consisted of 554 subjects ranging in age from 50 to 95 (mean = 68.79 ± 9.60). MEASUREMENTS Socio-demographics and health were assessed. Several cognitive measures were administered to assess inductive reasoning, declarative memory, perceptual speed, working memory, executive functioning, language, global cognitive functioning. RESULTS Approximately 22% of participants were considered MCI (i.e. 18% non-amnestic vs. 4% amnestic). A majority of the non-amnestic MCI participants had impairment in one cognitive domain, particularly language and executive function. Individuals classified as non-amnestic MCI were significantly older and had more years of education than normal individuals. The MCI groups were not significantly different than cognitively normal individuals on health factors. Individuals classified as MCI performed significantly worse on global cognitive measures as well as across specific cognitive domains than cognitively normal individuals. CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that impairment in a non-memory domain may be an early indicator of cognitive impairment, particularly among African Americans. PMID:20069588

  17. Angelica keiskei ameliorates scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sa Rang; Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Dong Hyun; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Ahn, Eun-Mi; Jung, Ji Wook

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is the most common symptom in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Angelica keiskei (AK) has traditionally been used as a diuretic, laxative, analeptic and galactagogue. However, the anti-amnesic effects of AK and its molecular mechanisms have yet to be clearly elucidated. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effects of AK on scopolamine-induced memory impairments in mice. The regulatory effect of AK on memory impairment was investigated using passive avoidance, Y-maze and the Morris water maze tasks. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity assay was performed to investigate the cholinergic antagonistic effect of AK in the hippocampus. The effect of AK on phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were evaluated by Western blot assays and immunohistochemistry. The findings showed that AK significantly attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Increase of AChE activity caused by scopolamine was significantly attenuated by AK. Additionally, AK significantly recovered the phosphorylation of CREB and expression of BDNF reduced by scopolamine in the hippocampus. Taken together, these results provide experimental evidence that AK might be a useful agent in preventing deficit of learning and memory caused by AD and aging. PMID:23132631

  18. Testosterone ameliorates streptozotocin-induced memory impairment in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Nayebi, Alireza Mohajjel; Pourrabi, Seyedreza; Hossini, Seyedebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of testosterone on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory impairment in male rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were intracerebroventricularly (icv) infused with STZ (750 ?g) on d 1 and d 3, and a passive avoidance task was assessed 2 weeks after the first injection of STZ. Castration surgery was performed in another group of rats, and the passive avoidance task was assessed 4 weeks after the operation. Testosterone (1 mg·kg?1·d?1, sc), the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide (10 mg·kg?1·d?1, ip), the estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen (1 mg·kg?1·d?1, ip) or the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (4 mg·kg?1·d?1, ip) were administered for 6 d after the first injection of STZ. Results: STZ administration and castration markedly decreased both STL1 (the short memory) and STL2 (the long memory) in passive avoidance tests. Testosterone replacement almost restored the STL1 and STL2 in castrated rats, and significantly prolonged the STL1 and STL2 in STZ-treated rats. Administration of flutamide, letrozole or tamoxifen significantly impaired the memory in intact rats, and significantly attenuated the testosterone replacement in improving STZ- and castration-induced memory impairment. Conclusion: Testosterone administration ameliorates STZ- and castration-induced memory impairment in male Wistar rats. PMID:24902786

  19. Early life versus lifelong oral manganese exposure differently impairs skilled forelimb performance in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Beaudin, Stephane A.; Nisam, Sean; Smith, Donald R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of children suggest that exposure to elevated manganese (Mn) levels disrupt aspects of motor, cognitive and behavioral functions that are dependent on dopamine brain systems. Although basal ganglia motor functions are well-known targets of adult occupational Mn exposure, the extent of motor function deficits in adults as a result of early life Mn exposure is unknown. Here we used a rodent model early life versus lifelong oral Mn exposure and the Montoya staircase test to determine whether developmental Mn exposure produces long-lasting deficits in sensorimotor performance in adulthood. Long-Evans male neonate rats (n=11/treatment) were exposed daily to oral Mn at levels of 0, 25, or 50 mg Mn/kg/d from postnatal day (PND) 1-21 (early life only), or from PND 1 - throughout life. Staircase testing began at age PND 120 and lasted 1 month to objectively quantify measures of skilled forelimb use in reaching and pellet grasping/retrieval performance. Behavioral reactivity also was rated on each trial. Results revealed that (1) behavioral reactivity scores were significantly greater in the Mn-exposed groups, compared to controls, during the staircase acclimation/training stage, but not the latter testing stages, (2) early life Mn exposure alone caused long-lasting impairments in fine motor control of reaching skills at the higher, but not lower Mn dose, (3) lifelong Mn exposure from drinking water led to widespread impairment in reaching and grasping/retrieval performance in adult rats, with the lower Mn dose group showing the greatest impairment, and (4) lifelong Mn exposure produced similar (higher Mn group) or more severe (lower Mn group) impairments compared to their early life-only Mn exposed counterparts. Collectively, these results substantiate the emerging clinical evidence in children showing associations between environmental Mn exposure and deficits in fine sensorimotor function. They also show that the objective quantification of skilled motor performance using the staircase test can serve as a sensitive measure of early life insults from environmental agents. Supported by NIEHS R01ES018990. PMID:23623961

  20. Impaired Cerebrovascular Reactivity in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Olga; Lu, Hanzhang; Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Xu, Feng; Liu, Peiying; Herbert, Joseph; Grossman, Robert I.; Ge, Yulin

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an inherent indicator of the dilatory capacity of cerebral arterioles for a vasomotor stimulus for maintaining a spontaneous and instant increase of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in response to neural activation. The integrity of this mechanism is essential to preserving healthy neurovascular coupling; however, to our knowledge, no studies have investigated whether there are CVR abnormalities in multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE To use hypercapnic perfusion magnetic resonance imaging to assess CVR impairment in patients with MS. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A total of 19 healthy volunteers and 19 patients with MS underwent perfusion magnetic resonance imaging based on pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling to measure CBF at normocapnia (ie, breathing room air) and hypercapnia. The hypercapnia condition is achieved by breathing 5% carbon dioxide gas mixture, which is a potent vasodilator causing an increase of CBF. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Cerebrovascular reactivity was calculated as the percent increase of normocapnic to hypercapnic CBF normalized by the change in end-tidal carbon dioxide, which was recorded during both conditions. Group analysis was performed for regional and global CVR comparison between patients and controls. Regression analysis was also performed between CVR values, lesion load, and brain atrophy measures in patients with MS. RESULTS A significant decrease of mean (SD) global gray matter CVR was found in patients with MS (3.56 [0.81]) compared with healthy controls (5.08 [1.56]; P = .001). Voxel-by-voxel analysis showed diffuse reduction of CVR in multiple regions of patients with MS. There was a significant negative correlation between gray matter CVR and lesion volume (R = 0.6, P = .004) and a significant positive correlation between global gray matter CVR and gray matter atrophy index (R = 0.5, P = .03). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Our quantitative imaging findings suggest impairment in functional cerebrovascular pathophysiology, by measuring a diffuse decrease in CVR, which may be the underlying cause of neurodegeneration in MS. PMID:25133874

  1. Do neurooncological patients and their significant others agree on quality of life ratings?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johannes M Giesinger; Miriam Golser; Astrid Erharter; Georg Kemmler; Gabriele Schauer-Maurer; Guenter Stockhammer; Armin Muigg; Markus Hutterer; Gerhard Rumpold; Bernhard Holzner

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients suffering from brain tumours often experience a wide range of cognitive impairments that impair their ability to report on their quality of life and symptom burden. The use of proxy ratings by significant others may be a promising alternative to gain information for medical decision making or research purposes, if self-ratings are not obtainable. Our study investigated the

  2. Young, Rural Americans At Greater Risk of Suicide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript. Young, Rural Americans at Greater Risk of Suicide: Study Isolation, dearth of mental health services and ... Related MedlinePlus Pages Gun Safety Rural Health Concerns Suicide MONDAY, March 9, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Young people ...

  3. Diabetes Groups Call for Greater Scrutiny of Insulin Pumps

    MedlinePLUS

    ... National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health Home About MedlinePlus Site ... Groups Call for Greater Scrutiny of Insulin Pumps American and European associations want more standardization ...

  4. Significant Earthquake Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Significant Earthquake Database is a global digital database containing information on more than 5,000 destructive earthquakes from 2150 B.C. to the present. Users can access these data in two different ways: via a two-volume CD collection, or on-line. Users searching on-line can query the database via the following parameters: the year of the event, geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude), country, state or province, magnitude, intensity, focal depth, number of deaths, and damage amount. A list of applicable earthquakes is then displayed.

  5. Interhemispheric Temporal Lobe Connectivity Predicts Language Impairment in Adolescents Born Preterm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northam, Gemma B.; Liegeois, Frederique; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Croft, Louise J.; Johns, Paul N.; Chong, Wui K.; Wyatt, John S.; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    Although language difficulties are common in children born prematurely, robust neuroanatomical correlates of these impairments remain to be established. This study investigated whether the greater prevalence of language problems in preterm (versus term-born) children might reflect injury to major intra- or interhemispheric white matter pathways…

  6. Fisher syndrome with taste impairment.

    PubMed

    Ohe, Yasuko; Shintani, Daisuke; Kato, Yuji; Tanahashi, Norio

    2012-01-01

    A 60-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a two day history of truncal ataxia and diplopia. Three days after admission, complete paresis of eye movements, left ptosis, taste impairment and absence of deep tendon reflexes appeared. The patient displayed normal facial movements; however, she reported decreased sensations of sweet and salty tastes. Anti-GQ1b antibodies were detected in the serum, and Fisher syndrome was therefore diagnosed. Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered starting five days after admission, with limitations of eye movements, areflexia and taste impairment showing improvements by 12 days after onset. Taste disturbance is rare in patients with Fisher syndrome. In this case, we hypothesize that autoantibodies may have targeted antigens in the chorda tympani, glossopharyngeal nerve or taste buds. PMID:23064580

  7. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cameron L. Aldridge; Scott E. Nielsen; Hawthorne L. Beyer; Mark S. Boyce; John W. Connelly; Steven T. Knick; Michael A. Schroeder

    2008-01-01

    Aim Greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape

  8. A Greater Society: The Transformation of the Federal Role in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Bob; Rothman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The federal role in education will soon be transformed in ways that could produce an even greater society than President Lyndon B. Johnson envisioned. The authors identify underlying principles of this new role and describe how it represents a significant departure from the past. Historically, for example, the federal government has been…

  9. Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Hawkey; M. G. Hart; H. J. Samour

    1985-01-01

    Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia

  10. Displacement as a predictor of functional impairment in tsunami-exposed children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher; Du, Ye Beverly; Christina, Desy; Palfrey, Judith; O'Rourke, Edward; Belfer, Myron

    2015-01-01

    Thirty months after the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, thousands of families in Aceh Province, Indonesia, remained in temporary barracks while sanitation conditions and non-governmental organisation support deteriorated. This study sought to determine the factors associated with functional impairment in a sample of 138 displaced and non-displaced Acehnese children. Using multivariate linear regression models, it was found that displacement distance was a consistent predictor of impairment using the Brief Impairment Scale. Exposure to tsunami-related trauma markers was not significantly linked with impairment in the model. Paternal employment was a consistent protective factor for child functioning. These findings suggest that post-disaster displacement and the subsequent familial economic disruption are significant predictors of impaired functioning in children's daily activities. Post-disaster interventions should consider the disruption of familiar environments for families and children when relocating vulnerable populations to avoid deleterious impacts on children's functioning. PMID:25231556

  11. An Overview of Dual Sensory Impairment in Older Adults: Perspectives for Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Gabrielle H.; Echt, Katharina V.

    2007-01-01

    Dual sensory impairment (DSI) refers to the presence of both hearing loss and vision loss. The occurrence of DSI is particularly prevalent among the aging population, with studies showing between 9% and 21% of adults older than 70 years having some degree of DSI. Despite this, there is little direction regarding recommended clinical practice and rehabilitation of individuals with DSI. It is assumed that the problems encountered by individuals with DSI are considerably greater than the effects of vision impairment or hearing impairment alone, because when these two sensory impairments are combined, the individual is seriously deprived of compensatory strategies that make use of the nonimpaired sense. In this article, the literature available regarding DSI is summarized, and research needs regarding rehabilitation strategies are outlined and discussed. Simple suggestions for addressing DSI are provided that use available tools and technology. PMID:18003868

  12. Difference of motor overflow depending on the impaired or unimpaired hand in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yushin; Kim, Woo-Sub; Shim, Jae Kun; Suh, Dong Won; Kim, TaeYeong; Yoon, BumChul

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the patterns of contralateral motor overflow (i.e. mirror movement) between the homologous body parts on the right and left side, in stroke patients during single-finger and multi-finger maximum force production tasks. Forty subjects, including stroke (n=20) and normal subjects (n=20), participated in this study. The stroke subjects maximally pressed force sensors with their fingers in a flexed position using a single (index, middle, ring, or little) or all fingers (all 4 fingers) using the impaired (IH) or unimpaired (UIH) hand, while the non-patient subjects used their right hands for the same tasks. The maximal voluntary forces in the ipsilateral and unintended pressing forces of each contralateral finger were recorded during the tasks. The magnitude of motor overflow to the contralateral side was calculated using the index of contralateral independence (CI). During the single finger tasks, the finger CI was significantly decreased in the UIH (91%) compared with that in the IH (99%) or normal hands (99%). Likewise, the multiple finger tasks showed that the CI was significantly lower in the UIH (84%) compared with that in the IH (96%) or normal hands (99%). However, the maximal forces were significantly lower in the IH relative to those in the UIH and normal hands. These data demonstrate that stroke patients have greater motor overflow from the UIH to the IH. PMID:25482454

  13. HIV-infected patients show impaired cellular immune response to influenza vaccination compared to healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Fabbiani, Massimiliano; Sidella, Letizia; Corbi, Maddalena; Martucci, Rosa; Sali, Michela; Colafigli, Manuela; Cauda, Roberto; Delogu, Giovanni; Sgambato, Alessandro; Di Giambenedetto, Simona

    2013-06-19

    Detailed data on cellular immune response to influenza vaccination in HIV-infected patients are lacking. We analyzed cellular (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IFN-?, TNF-?, GM-CSF) and humoral (IgG and IgM) immune response in 81 HIV-infected and 30 HIV-negative subjects, before (T0) and 4 weeks (T1) after receiving a single dose of trivalent MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine. No difference in humoral response (IgG or IgM) was demonstrated between the two groups. While an increase in most cytokines from T0 to T1 was observed in HIV-uninfected subjects, cytokines production did not significantly increased in HIV-infected patients. Exploring Th1 response, higher CD8 cells count was significantly associated with lower post-vaccination IFN? levels, while a higher CD4 cells count was associated with a greater response. Exploring Th2 response, higher HIV viral load was significantly associated with reduced post-vaccination IL-10 levels. In conclusion, in HIV-infected patients influenza vaccination could have good efficacy in sustaining humoral response but cellular response appeared impaired. PMID:23623859

  14. Brivaracetam disposition in renal impairment.

    PubMed

    Sargentini-Maier, Maria Laura; Sokalski, Antoni; Boulanger, Pierre; Jacobs, Tom; Stockis, Armel

    2012-12-01

    Brivaracetam is a novel high-affinity SV2A ligand currently in clinical development for epilepsy. The objective was to characterize its disposition in patients with renal impairment. A single oral dose of 200 mg brivaracetam was administered to 9 patients with severe renal impairment not requiring dialysis (creatinine clearance <15 mL/min, n = 6; 15-29 mL/min, n = 3) and 9 matched healthy controls. Plasma and urinary concentrations of brivaracetam and 3 pharmacologically inactive metabolites (acid, hydroxy, and hydroxyacid) were determined up to 72 hours postdose, and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were derived. The C(max) of brivaracetam was unchanged relative to healthy controls, whereas AUC was slightly increased (mean ratio, 1.21; 90% confidence interval, 1.01-1.45). Nonrenal and renal clearances of brivaracetam decreased from 47 and 4.5 to 41 and 1.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Exposure to the acid, hydroxy, and hydroxyacid metabolites was markedly increased: C(max) by 2.4-, 2.0-, and 11.7-fold and AUC by 3.2-, 4.1-, and 21.5-fold. Renal clearance of these rapidly cleared metabolites was decreased 10-fold in patients with severe renal impairment. Nonclinical toxicology studies concluded to the absence of safety issues related to the increased levels of metabolites. These observations suggest that dose adjustment of brivaracetam should not be required at any stage of renal dysfunction. PMID:22235139

  15. [Taste impairment in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Broggio, E; Pluchon, C; Ingrand, P; Gil, R

    2001-04-01

    We conducted a study of Alzheimer's disease focusing on taste impairment to determine at which step of gustatory information processing (discriminative or perceptive, gnosic or associative, gustatory-verbal) possible perturbations might be located. We used various foods found in a normal diet. Twenty patients and a matched control group participated in this study. The patients were divided into two subgroups according to disease severity (mild, moderate or severe). The study showed that patients with Alzheimer's disease exhibited an impairment at all three levels of gustatory information processing. Impairment of discriminative and gustatory-verbal stages was more obvious in the group of patients with severe Alzheimer's disease. Our study also showed that the gustatory deficiency can be described as an associative agnosia in the mild stage of Alzheimer's disease. This concept is in line with the notion of a dissociation between preservation of olfactory and gustatory thresholds and an alteration in odor identification in patients with mild stage Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that the alteration is central rather than peripheral. Our findings suggest that an alteration of the associative level of gustatory information processing can be found in Alzheimer's disease early stage. PMID:11398013

  16. Mandatory notification of impaired doctors.

    PubMed

    Beran, R G

    2014-12-01

    Mandatory reporting of impaired doctors is compulsory in Australasia. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency guidelines for notification claim high benchmark though the Royal Australasian College of Surgeons and the Royal Australasian College of Physicians suggest they still obstruct doctors seeking help. Western Australia excludes mandatory reporting of practitioner-patients. This study examines reporting, consequences and international experiences with notification. Depressed doctors avoid diagnosis and treatment, fearing consequences, yet are more prone to marital problems, substance dependence and needing psychotherapy. South African research confirms isolation of impaired doctors and delayed seeking help with definable characteristics of those at risk. New Zealand data acknowledge: errors occur; questionable contribution from mandatory reporting; issues concerning competence assessment; favouring reporting to senior colleagues or self-intervention to compliance with mandatory reporting. UK found an anaesthetist guilty of professional misconduct for not reporting and sanctioned doctors regarding Harold Shipman. Australians are reluctant to report, fearing legalistic intrusion into care. Australian research confirmed definable characteristics for doctors with psychiatric illness or alcohol abuse. Exposure to legal medicine evokes personal disenchantment for doctors involved. Medicine poses barriers for impaired doctors. Spanish and UK doctors do not use general practitioners and may have suboptimal care. US and European doctors self-medicate using samples. US drug-dependent doctors also prescribe for spouses. Junior doctors are losing empathy with the profession. UK doctors favour private care, avoiding public scrutiny. NZ and Brazil created specific services for doctors, which appear effective. Mandatory reporting may be counterproductive requiring reappraisal. PMID:25442756

  17. Impairments in Background and Event-Related Alpha-Band Oscillatory Activity in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Ilana Y.; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Studies show that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impaired responses to sensory stimuli, especially at the early stages of neural processing. In particular, patients’ alpha-band (8–14 Hz) event-related desynchronization (ERD) and visual P1 event-related potential (ERP) component tend to be significantly reduced, with P1 ERP deficits greater for visual stimuli biased towards the magnocellular system. In healthy controls, studies show that pre-stimulus alpha (background alpha) plays a pivotal role in sensory processing and behavior, largely by shaping the neural responses to incoming stimuli. Here, we address whether patients’ ERD and P1 deficits stem from impairments in pre-stimulus alpha mechanisms. To address this question we recorded electrophysiological activity in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls while they engaged in a visual discrimination task with low, medium, and high contrast stimuli. The results revealed a significant decrease in patients’ ERDs, which was largely driven by reductions in pre-stimulus alpha. These reductions were most prominent in right-hemispheric areas. We also observed a systematic relationship between pre-stimulus alpha and the P1 component across different contrast levels. However, this relationship was only observed in healthy controls. Taken together, these findings highlight a substantial anomaly in patients’ amplitude-based alpha background activity over visual areas. The results provide further support that pre-stimulus alpha activity plays an active role in perception by modulating the neural responses to incoming sensory inputs, a mechanism that seems to be compromised in schizophrenia. PMID:24646909

  18. Disposition of cefpodoxime proxetil in healthy volunteers and patients with impaired renal function.

    PubMed Central

    St Peter, J V; Borin, M T; Hughes, G S; Kelloway, J S; Shapiro, B E; Halstenson, C E

    1992-01-01

    The disposition of cefpodoxime in 24 subjects with various degrees of renal function after administration of a single oral dose of 200 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil (equivalent to 200 mg of cefpodoxime activity) was studied. Subjects were assigned to one of four groups (six per group): group I, normal renal function (creatinine clearance [CLCR], greater than ml/min); group II, mild renal impairment (CLCR, 50 to 80 ml/min); group III, moderate renal impairment (CLCR, 30 to 49 ml/min); or group IV, severe renal impairment (CLCR, 5 to 29 ml/min). Although cefpodoxime terminal elimination half-life in group I (2.55 +/- 0.25 h [mean +/- standard deviation]) was not significantly different from that in group II (3.53 +/- 0.74 h), the half-life values for group III (5.90 +/- 1.67 h) and group IV (9.80 +/- 1.21 h) were significantly prolonged compared with those of group I. The mean absorption rate constant was similar among groups and ranged from 0.68 to 0.85 h-1. All groups exhibited absorption lag-times which were comparable (0.30 to 0.41 h), and the apparent volume of distribution was similar among groups. Cefpodoxime apparent total body clearance (CLP/F) values in groups II, III, and IV (132 +/- 29, 112 +/- 41, and 55.7 +/- 9.9 ml/min, respectively) were significantly lower than that in group I (238 +/- 44 ml/min). Cefpodoxime CLP/F was positively correlated with CLCR (r2 = 0.79; P less than 0.05): CLP/F = (1.9 CLCR) + 18.4. Renal clearance also declined with decreasing renal function. Adjustments in cefpodoxime organism and on the site and severity of infection. Simulated plasma concentration-time data from this study suggest that 200 mg of cefpodoxime proxetil administered every 12 to 24 h to subjects with CLcr between 30 and 49 ml/min and 200-mg dose taken every 24 h by subjects with CLcr between 5 and 29 ml/min will maintain cefpodoxime concentration in plasma similar to those in subjects with normal renal function who receive a standard dosage mg every 12 h. PMID:1590677

  19. Incidence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome in active duty US military servicemembers.

    PubMed

    Blank, Elizabeth; Owens, Brett D; Burks, Robert; Belmont, Philip J

    2012-07-01

    Although greater trochanteric pain syndrome is thought to be a common musculoskeletal disorder, little has been reported on the incidence rates of the disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and demographic risk factors of greater trochanteric pain syndrome in a United States military population. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the rate of greater trochanteric pain syndrome per 1000 person-years, controlling for sex, race, age, rank, and branch of service. The overall unadjusted incidence rate of greater trochanteric pain syndrome was 2.03 per 1000 person-years. Women had a significantly increased adjusted incidence rate ratio for greater trochanteric pain syndrome of 5.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.91-5.16). The adjusted incidence rate ratio for White servicemembers compared with Black servicemembers was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.32-1.40). The adjusted incidence rate ratio for the 40+ age group compared with the 25 to 29 age group was 2.81 (95% CI, 2.68-2.95). Compared with junior officers, junior and senior enlisted ranks had an increased adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.94 (95% CI, 1.84-2.04) and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.12-1.23), respectively. Compared with the Navy, each branch of service had an increased adjusted incidence rate ratio, with the Army at 2.90 (95% CI, 2.80-3.01), the Marines at 1.96 (95% CI, 1.87-2.07), and the Air Force at 1.33 (95% CI, 1.27-1.38). Female servicemembers had a five-fold greater incidence of greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Increasing age, enlisted rank groups, and service in the Army, Marines, or Air Force were also significant risk factors. PMID:22784894

  20. Historical Significant Events Imagery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Historical Significant Events Imagery database (HSEI) is maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). It contains hundreds of selected satellite images capturing some of the more important weather and environmental events over the last 30 years. One can search for images of a specific type of event or for a specific date range, go to a " What's New" section for images added in the past 7 days, or visit a "Most Popular" section for frequently-requested images. The images can be viewed on-line or downloaded for free, or one can order hardcopy matte or glossy finish prints for a small fee. Image dates range from 1960 (the first image from space) to present, and cover phenomena such as dust storms, fire, floods, hurricanes, snow cover, oil spills, severe weather and volcanoes.

  1. The Impact of Individual Depressive Symptoms on Impairment of Psychosocial Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Fried, Eiko I.; Nesse, Randolph M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships). We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia) to 20.9% (sad mood). Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms. PMID:24587318

  2. The impact of individual depressive symptoms on impairment of psychosocial functioning.

    PubMed

    Fried, Eiko I; Nesse, Randolph M

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have established that scores on Major Depressive Disorder scales are correlated with measures of impairment of psychosocial functioning. It remains unclear, however, whether individual depressive symptoms vary in their effect on impairment, and if so, what the magnitude of these differences might be. We analyzed data from 3,703 depressed outpatients in the first treatment stage of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Participants reported on the severity of 14 depressive symptoms, and stated to what degree their depression impaired psychosocial functioning (in general, and in the five domains work, home management, social activities, private activities, and close relationships). We tested whether symptoms differed in their associations with impairment, estimated unique shared variances of each symptom with impairment to assess the degree of difference, and examined whether symptoms had variable impacts across impairment domains. Our results show that symptoms varied substantially in their associations with impairment, and contributed to the total explained variance in a range from 0.7% (hypersomnia) to 20.9% (sad mood). Furthermore, symptoms had significantly different impacts on the five impairment domains. Overall, sad mood and concentration problems had the highest unique associations with impairment and were among the most debilitating symptoms in all five domains. Our findings are in line with a growing chorus of voices suggesting that symptom sum-scores obfuscate relevant differences between depressed patients and that substantial rewards will come from close attention to individual depression symptoms. PMID:24587318

  3. Similar verbal memory impairments in schizophrenia and healthy aging. Implications for understanding of neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Silver, Henry; Bilker, Warren B

    2015-03-30

    Memory is impaired in schizophrenia patients but it is not clear whether this is specific to the illness and whether different types of memory (verbal and nonverbal) or memories in different cognitive domains (executive, object recognition) are similarly affected. To study relationships between memory impairments and schizophrenia we compared memory functions in 77 schizophrenia patients, 58 elderly healthy individuals and 41 young healthy individuals. Tests included verbal associative and logical memory and memory in executive and object recognition domains. We compared relationships of memory functions to each other and to other cognitive functions including psychomotor speed and verbal and spatial working memory. Compared to the young healthy group, schizophrenia patients and elderly healthy individuals showed similar severe impairment in logical memory and in the ability to learn new associations (NAL), and similar but less severe impairment in spatial working memory and executive and object memory. Verbal working memory was significantly more impaired in schizophrenia patients than in the healthy elderly. Verbal episodic memory impairment in schizophrenia may share common mechanisms with similar impairment in healthy aging. Impairment in verbal working memory in contrast may reflect mechanisms specific to schizophrenia. Study of verbal explicit memory impairment tapped by the NAL index may advance understanding of abnormal hippocampus dependent mechanisms common to schizophrenia and aging. PMID:25639372

  4. Tactile and Proprioceptive Temporal Discrimination Are Impaired in Functional Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Peretti, Alessia; Bove, Francesco; Conte, Antonella; Dall'Occhio, Carlo; Arbasino, Carla; Defazio, Giovanni; Fiorio, Mirta; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Background and Methods In order to obtain further information on the pathophysiology of functional tremor, we assessed tactile discrimination threshold and proprioceptive temporal discrimination motor threshold values in 11 patients with functional tremor, 11 age- and sex-matched patients with essential tremor and 13 healthy controls. Results Tactile discrimination threshold in both the right and left side was significantly higher in patients with functional tremor than in the other groups. Proprioceptive temporal discrimination threshold for both right and left side was significantly higher in patients with functional and essential tremor than in healthy controls. No significant correlation between discrimination thresholds and duration or severity of tremor was found. Conclusions Temporal processing of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli is impaired in patients with functional tremor. The mechanisms underlying this impaired somatosensory processing and possible ways to apply these findings clinically merit further research. PMID:25051180

  5. A search for quasar protoclusters at z greater than 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. D.; Thompson, D.; Djorgovski, S.

    1993-01-01

    In the CDM and many other hierarchical scenarios for the origins of large scale structure, the existence of luminous quasars at very high redshifts (z greater than 3 or 4) is difficult to understand, unless such objects form at the very highest peaks of the density field. One then might expect a strong clustering of quasars at large redshifts. This is a generic prediction for practically any reasonable primordial density fluctuation spectrum. For CDM, Efstathiou & Rees (1988) predicted that quasars at z greater than 4 should be clustered as strongly as the bright galaxies at z approx. than 0. Cole & Kaiser (1989) suggest that z greater than 4 quasars might represent greater than or approximately = 4(sigma) peaks of the density field and thus, should be clustered more strongly than galaxies at z approximately = 0. We are performing the following experiment: a search for quasars, AGN, or other discrete objects, e.g., starforming galaxies, near known, z greater than 4 quasars. In other words, use the early quasars as markers of possible protoclusters. This is a fairly basic test of our understanding of the formation of galaxies, large-scale structure, and the origin of the first quasars themselves.

  6. Cognitive Impairment and 1-Year Outcome in Elderly Patients with Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yongzhi; Sun, Tiansheng; Wang, Xiaowei; Li, Shaoguang; Liu, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Background Hip fracture is common in elderly patients. However, few effective studies had linked cognitive impairment to patient clinical outcome. Material/Methods A total of 244 elderly hip fracture patients were prospectively followed up for 12 months. At 30 days, 6 months, and 1 year after hip repair surgery, patients and/or primary caregivers were interviewed by phone by trained, blinded interviewers. Functional evaluation, from pre-injury through 1 year after the operation, was assessed using the Barthel Index. Results Among 244 patients, 43 were diagnosed as having cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score <24). Compared to those without cognitive impairment, the 30-day, 6-month, and 1-year mortalities in the impaired patients were significantly higher than that of the cognitively intact patients. Six months after hip repair surgery, the cognitively intact patients presented significantly higher activities of daily living (ADL) scores than the cognitively impaired patients, and only 38.5% of impaired patients returned to their pre-operation baseline levels afterwards. The ADL scores in the impaired patients were similar to the intact ones at 1 year after the operation. Conclusions Although they had a higher risk of mortality in hip fracture, functional gain in the cognitively impaired patients was similar to that in the cognitively intact patients at 1-year follow-up. PMID:25323014

  7. Lithium therapy for HIV-1 Associated Neurocognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhong, Jianhui; Gill, David; Peterson, Derick R.; Gaugh, Michelle D.; Zhu, Tong; Tivarus, Madalina; Cruttenden, Kim; Maggirwar, Sanjay B.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Dewhurst, Stephen; Gelbard, Harris A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess lithium safety and tolerability and to explore its impact on cognition, function and neuroimaging biomarkers in HIV infected subjects with cognitive impairment. Methods Fifteen cognitively impaired HIV infected subjects were enrolled in this 10-week open-label study of lithium 300 mg twice daily. Neuroimaging was performed at baseline, and following 10 weeks of treatment and included magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and functional MRI (fMRI). Results Thirteen of the 14 subjects (93%) that complied with the study visits were able to complete the study on lithium and 11 out of 13 (79%) completed the study at the originally assigned dose of 300 mg twice daily. There were no significant changes in CD4+ lymphocyte cell count and plasma HIV RNA. Cognitive performance and depressive mood did not improve significantly after the 10-week lithium treatment; however, neuroimaging revealed a decrease in the glutamate+glutamine (Glx) peak in the frontal gray matter, increased fractional anisotropy and decreased mean diffusivity in several brain areas, and changes in brain activation patterns, suggestive of improvement. Interpretation Our results suggest that lithium can be used safely in HIV infected individuals with cognitive impairment. Furthermore, the neuroimaging results suggest that lithium may improve HIV-associated CNS injury; thus, further investigations of lithium as an adjunctive treatment for HIV-associated cognitive impairment are warranted. PMID:19306230

  8. Narcissistic Personality Disorder: Relations with distress and functional impairment

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joshua D.; Campbell, W. Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of Narcissistic Personality Disorder (NPD) by examining the relations between NPD and measures of psychological distress and functional impairment both concurrently and prospectively across two samples. In particular, the goal was to address whether NPD typically “meets” Criterion C of the DSM-IV definition of Personality Disorder, which requires that the symptoms lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning. Sample 1 (N =152) was composed of individuals receiving psychiatric treatment, while Sample 2 (N=151) was composed of both psychiatric patients (46%) and individuals from the community. NPD was linked to ratings of depression, anxiety, and several measures of impairment both concurrently and at 6-month follow-up. However, the relations between NPD and psychological distress were (a) small, especially in concurrent measurements, and (b) largely mediated by impaired functioning. NPD was most strongly related to causing pain and suffering to others, and this relationship was significant even when other Cluster B personality disorders were controlled. These findings suggest that NPD is a maladaptive personality style which primarily causes dysfunction and distress in interpersonal domains. The behavior of narcissistic individuals ultimately leads to problems and distress for the narcissistic individuals and for those with whom they interact. PMID:17292708

  9. Narcissistic personality disorder: relations with distress and functional impairment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua D; Campbell, W Keith; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) by examining the relations between NPD and measures of psychologic distress and functional impairment both concurrently and prospectively across 2 samples. In particular, the goal was to address whether NPD typically "meets" criterion C of the DSM-IV definition of Personality Disorder, which requires that the symptoms lead to clinically significant distress or impairment in functioning. Sample 1 (n = 152) was composed of individuals receiving psychiatric treatment, whereas sample 2 (n = 151) was composed of both psychiatric patients (46%) and individuals from the community. Narcissistic personality disorder was linked to ratings of depression, anxiety, and several measures of impairment both concurrently and at 6-month follow-up. However, the relations between NPD and psychologic distress were (a) small, especially in concurrent measurements, and (b) largely mediated by impaired functioning. Narcissistic personality disorder was most strongly related to causing pain and suffering to others, and this relationship was significant even when other Cluster B personality disorders were controlled. These findings suggest that NPD is a maladaptive personality style which primarily causes dysfunction and distress in interpersonal domains. The behavior of narcissistic individuals ultimately leads to problems and distress for the narcissistic individuals and for those with whom they interact. PMID:17292708

  10. Episodic autobiographical memory in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Berna, Fabrice; Schönknecht, Peter; Seidl, Ulrich; Toro, Pablo; Schröder, Johannes

    2012-12-30

    While episodic memory impairment has been extensively studied in normal and pathological aging, studies investigating age-related episodic autobiographical memory among representative samples are scarce. We therefore investigated episodic autobiographical memory in a sample of 395 participants of a population-based prospective study of aging. Three groups were compared, consisting of 194 middle-aged participants, 138 healthy old-aged participants and 63 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Results showed a significant impairment of episodic autobiographical memory performance associated with MCI, but not with normal aging. These deficits were significantly correlated with verbal memory performances, but not with measures of executive functions. PMID:22520853

  11. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning attenuates postoperative cognitive impairment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Xie, Keliang; Zhang, Changsheng; Song, Rui; Zhang, Hong

    2014-06-18

    Cognitive decline after surgery in the elderly population is a major clinical problem with high morbidity. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning can induce significant neuroprotection against acute neurological injury. We hypothesized that HBO preconditioning would prevent the development of postoperative cognitive impairment. Elderly male rats (20 months old) underwent stabilized tibial fracture operation under general anesthesia after HBO preconditioning (once a day for 5 days). Separate cohorts of animals were tested for cognitive function with fear conditioning and Y-maze tests, or euthanized at different times to assess the blood-brain barrier integrity, systemic and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines, and caspase-3 activity. Animals exhibited significant cognitive impairment evidenced by a decreased percentage of freezing time and an increased number of learning trials on days 1, 3, and 7 after surgery, which were significantly prevented by HBO preconditioning. Furthermore, HBO preconditioning significantly ameliorated the increase in serum and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1 ? (IL-1?), IL-6, and high-mobility group protein 1 in surgery-challenged animals. Moreover, HBO preconditioning markedly improved blood-brain barrier integrity and caspase-3 activity in the hippocampus of surgery-challenged animals. These findings suggest that HBO preconditioning could significantly mitigate surgery-induced cognitive impairment, which is strongly associated with the reduction of systemic and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines and caspase-3 activity. PMID:24870985

  12. Microstructural analysis of Greater Himalayan rocks in northern Bhutan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penfold, Melissa L.

    Across the Himalayan fold-thrust belt, high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Greater Himalayan (GH) zone are juxtaposed between low-grade metasedimentary rocks structurally above and below. In Bhutan, the higher-grade GH rocks lie structurally over lower-grade Lesser Himalayan rocks and are separated by the Main Central Thrust. However, many aspects of the deformation path, deformation conditions, and the emplacement mechanism that led to the exhumation of GH rocks are poorly understood. In this study geologic mapping and quantitative microstructural analysis are utilized to gain insight into the deformation history of GH rocks in Bhutan, and to test the applicability of end-member emplacement models. Microstructural datasets include characterization of kinematic indicators, determination of deformation temperatures through analysis of quartz deformation microstructures and quartz crystal-preferred orientation (CPO) data, and classification of strain and shear type using CPO and kinematic vorticity data. Semi-quantitative deformation-temperature estimates obtained from cataloguing quartz-recrystallization mechanisms, combined with quantitative temperature estimates from CPO plot opening angles, suggest that GH rocks were deformed at temperatures of ca. 500 to 750°C at both structurally-lower and higher levels, and were later overprinted by a lower-temperature recrystallization event around that occurred at conditions of ca. 400--500°C. The higher-temperature recrystallization event is interpreted to be associated with earlier slip (˜22--15 Ma) along the Main Central Thrust, at or near peak metamorphic temperature conditions. The lower-temperature overprint is interpreted to have occurred at a higher point along the pressure-temperature-deformation path as GH rocks were passively translated and structurally elevated southward, concurrent with duplexing of Lesser Himalayan rocks (˜18--10 Ma). Internal deformation within structurally-lower and higher GH rocks consisted of components of both coaxial (pure shear) and non-coaxial (simple shear) strain, as indicated by localities with opposite shear-sense kinematics, type-I cross-girdle CPO patterns and kinematic vorticity, which suggests that exhumation of GH rocks was accompanied by significant flattening in north-central and northeast Bhutan.

  13. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  14. Family Treatment for Bipolar Disorder: Family Impairment by Treatment Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ivan W.; Keitner, Gabor I.; Ryan, Christine E.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Solomon, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective There is a clear need for psychosocial treatments to supplement pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder. In this study, the efficacy of 2 forms of adjunctive family intervention were compared to pharmacotherapy alone. In addition to evaluating overall differences between treatments, a chief goal was to examine whether family impairment levels moderated the effects of family intervention on outcome. Method Ninety-two patients diagnosed with bipolar I disorder (according to DSM-III-R) were randomly assigned to receive (1) pharmacotherapy alone, (2) family therapy + pharmacotherapy, or (3) multi-family psychoeducational group + pharmacotherapy. Treatments and assessments continued for up to 28 months. Primary outcome measures were number of episodes per year and percentage of time symptomatic throughout the entire follow-up period. The study was conducted from September 1992 through March 1999. Results No significant main effects were found for treatment condition. Thus, for the total sample, the addition of a family intervention did not improve outcome. However, there were significant treatment condition by family impairment interactions (p < .05). In patients from families with high levels of impairment, the addition of a family intervention (family therapy or psychoeducational group) resulted in a significantly improved course of illness, particularly the number of depressive episodes (p <.01) and proportion of time spent in a depressive episode (p <.01). These effects were relatively large (Cohen d = 0.7–1.0), with patients receiving either family intervention having roughly half the number of depressive episodes and amount of time spent depressed as those receiving pharmacotherapy alone. In contrast, for patients from low-impairment families, the addition of a family intervention did not improve course of illness. Conclusions Our findings build on previous literature suggesting the importance of treatment matching within the mood disorders and suggest that the utility of adding family interventions for bipolar patients and their families may depend upon the family’s level of impairment. PMID:18363424

  15. Electroencephalography reveals lower regional blood perfusion and atrophy of the temporoparietal network associated with memory deficits and hippocampal volume reduction in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Davide Vito

    2015-01-01

    Background An increased electroencephalographic (EEG) upper/lower alpha power ratio has been associated with less regional blood perfusion, atrophy of the temporoparietal region of the brain, and reduction of hippocampal volume in subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease as compared with subjects who do not develop the disease. Moreover, EEG theta frequency activity is quite different in these groups. This study investigated the correlation between biomarkers and memory performance. Methods EEG ?3/?2 power ratio and cortical thickness were computed in 74 adult subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. Twenty of these subjects also underwent assessment of blood perfusion by single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Pearson’s r was used to assess the correlation between cortical thinning, brain perfusion, and memory impairment. Results In the higher ?3/?2 frequency power ratio group, greater cortical atrophy and lower regional perfusion in the temporoparietal cortex was correlated with an increase in EEG theta frequency. Memory impairment was more pronounced in the magnetic resonance imaging group and SPECT groups. Conclusion A high EEG upper/low alpha power ratio was associated with cortical thinning and less perfusion in the temporoparietal area. Moreover, atrophy and less regional perfusion were significantly correlated with memory impairment in subjects with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease. The EEG upper/lower alpha frequency power ratio could be useful for identifying individuals at risk for progression to Alzheimer’s dementia and may be of value in the clinical context.

  16. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy infectivity in greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Andrew A; Kirkwood, James K; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I; Green, Robert B; Wells, Gerald A H

    2004-06-01

    Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species. PMID:15207051

  17. Reticuloendotheliosis in captive greater and Attwater's prairie chickens.

    PubMed

    Drew, M L; Wigle, W L; Graham, D L; Griffin, C P; Silvy, N J; Fadly, A M; Witter, R L

    1998-10-01

    Reticuloendotheliosis in captive greater (Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus) and Attwater's (T. cupido attwateri) prairie chickens is reported for the first time. Between September 1993 and August 1994, two adult female wild-caught greater prairie chickens housed at Texas A&M University (College Station, Texas, USA) were observed with multiple subcutaneous nodules. Both birds were euthanatized. Complete necropsy examinations revealed lesions limited to the skin of each bird. Histopathologic examination of lesions revealed pleomorphic lymphoreticular cells suggestive of reticuloendotheliosis and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) was demonstrated in tumor tissue by polymerase chain reaction and virus isolation. Between September 1994 and June 1995, five additional greater prairie chickens and two Attwater's prairie chickens were euthanatized or found dead with evidence of lymphoreticular neoplasia in multiple organ systems. Initial testing of the captive flock in December 1994 for evidence of viremia and antibody to reticuloendotheliosis virus revealed over 50% of the tested birds were viremic, but none developed antibodies. Subsequent testing between January 1995 and January 1996 indicated that once infected with reticuloendotheliosis virus, Attwater's prairie chickens tended to remain outwardly healthy despite persistent viremia compared to infected greater prairie chickens which had higher morbidity and mortality rates within 60 to 90 days after initial detection of viremia and did not usually develop persistent viremia. Antibodies to REV were detected in only three captive greater prairie chickens and only in 1995. Six of the nine birds that were euthanatized or found dead due to reticuloendotheliosis developed viremia prior to death; three birds were not tested prior to death. Testing of free-ranging greater and Attwater's prairie chickens for reticuloendotheliosis is recommended prior to translocation or release. PMID:9813849

  18. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among North American populations of Greater White-fronted Geese to resolve classification and to allow formulation of subpopulation/subspecies management strategies.

  19. Auditory processing efficiency deficits in children with developmental language impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, Douglas E. H.; Moore, David R.

    2002-12-01

    The ``temporal processing hypothesis'' suggests that individuals with specific language impairments (SLIs) and dyslexia have severe deficits in processing rapidly presented or brief sensory information, both within the auditory and visual domains. This hypothesis has been supported through evidence that language-impaired individuals have excess auditory backward masking. This paper presents an analysis of masking results from several studies in terms of a model of temporal resolution. Results from this modeling suggest that the masking results can be better explained by an ``auditory efficiency'' hypothesis. If impaired or immature listeners have a normal temporal window, but require a higher signal-to-noise level (poor processing efficiency), this hypothesis predicts the observed small deficits in the simultaneous masking task, and the much larger deficits in backward and forward masking tasks amongst those listeners. The difference in performance on these masking tasks is predictable from the compressive nonlinearity of the basilar membrane. The model also correctly predicts that backward masking (i) is more prone to training effects, (ii) has greater inter- and intrasubject variability, and (iii) increases less with masker level than do other masking tasks. These findings provide a new perspective on the mechanisms underlying communication disorders and auditory masking.

  20. Maternal inheritance of severe hypertriglyceridemia impairs glucose metabolism in offspring

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ya-Hong; Yu, Caiguo; Kayoumu, Abudurexiti; Guo, Xin; Ji, Zhili; Liu, George

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Maternally inherited familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) impairs glucose metabolism and increases cardiovascular risks in the offspring to a greater degree than paternal inherited FH. However, it remains unknown whether hypertriglyceridemia affects glucose metabolism via inheritance. In this study, we sought to compare the impact of maternally and paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia on glucose and lipid metabolism in mice. ApoCIII transgenic mice with severe hypertriglyceridemia were mated with non-transgenic control mice to obtain 4 types of offspring: maternal non-transgenic control and maternal transgenic offspring, and paternal control and paternal transgenic offspring. Plasma triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FINS) were measured. ApoCIII overexpression caused severe hypertriglyceridemia, but the transgenic female mice had unaltered fertility with normal pregnancy and birth of pups. The 4 groups of offspring had similar birth weight and growth rate. The plasma TG of maternal and paternal transgenic offspring were nearly 40-fold higher than maternal and paternal control mice, but there was no difference in plasma TG between maternal and paternal transgenic offspring. Although the FPG of the 4 groups of animals had no difference, the maternal transgenic mice showed impaired glucose tolerance, increased FINS levels and higher homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) than the other 3 groups. In conclusion, maternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia in ApoCIII transgenic mice displayed impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia and increased HOMA-R, while paternally inherited hypertriglyceridemia did not have such impacts. PMID:25859267

  1. Recurrent Tuberculosis of Greater Trochanter and Its Bursa

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Keshav S.; Jeevannavar, Santosh S.; Baindoor, Prasanna; Mannual, Sunil; Shetty, Savith V.

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old female had a history of tuberculosis of the left greater trochanter 30 years ago. She underwent 6 months of chemotherapy after which the disease healed completely. Currently she presented to us with pain and swelling on the lateral aspect of left hip of 2-month duration. Clinical and radiological findings were suggestive of a recurrence. Biopsy was conclusive for tuberculosis. She was successfully treated with debridement and curettage with chemotherapy for 1 year. Recurrent tuberculosis of the greater trochanter is rare and should be aggressively treated. PMID:23997971

  2. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  3. H-Index Is Important for Postural Control for People with Impaired Foot Sole Sensation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuqi; Manor, Brad; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Introduction People with Peripheral Neuropathy (PN), especially those with impaired sensory inputs through the small-afferent fiber (type II afferent fibers) reflex loop (SAF), might depend more on the large-afferent fiber (type I afferent fibers) reflex loop (LAF) for postural control. Purpose To examine whether the function of the LAF reflex loop, reflected by the H-reflex and ankle joint proprioception, influences postural control when the SAF reflex loop is impaired, as indicated by reduced foot sole cutaneous sensation. Methods Thirteen participants (8 women, 5 men) diagnosed with PN and 12 age-matched controls (7 women, 5 men) completed the testing protocol. Measures of interest included the H-index, active (AAP) and passive (PAP) ankle proprioception, plantar pressure sensitivity (PPS), average sway velocity (VAVG) and area (A95) during 30 seconds eyes-closed standing, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and timed up-and-go duration (TUG). Results Statistically significant group-dependent regression was observed between VAVG and H-index. Compared to the control group, the PN group demonstrated reduced PPS (2.0 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 1.2, P < .05) and H-index (63.6 ± 10.9 vs. 76.4 ± 16.0, P < .05), greater VAVG (3.5 ± 2.1 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6cm/s, P < .05) and A95 (10.0 ± 10.1 vs. 2.5 ± 1.5cm2, P < .05), shorter 6MWD (442.2 ± 93.0 vs. 525.3 ± 68.2m, P < .05), and longer TUG (9.4 ± 1.6 vs. 6.5 ± 1.3s, P < .05). Within the PN group, but not the control group, the H-index was correlated with VAVG (r = -.56, P < .05). Moreover, within the PN group only, PAP scores were correlated with 6MWD (r = -.68, P < .05) and TUG (r = -.59, P < .05) performance. No other statistically significant group difference, correlation or group-dependent regression was observed. Conclusion VAVG, 6MWD, and TUG correlated with LAF reflex loop function observed among those with impaired functioning of the SAF reflex loop. This observation suggests that the LAF reflex loop may be critical to the control of balance in those individuals suffering from small-fiber PN. PMID:25807534

  4. Impaired respiration discloses the physiological significance of state transitions in Chlamydomonas

    E-print Network

    Physico-Chimique, Unite´ Mixte de Recherche 7141, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique metabolism State transitions (ST) are a short-term photosynthetic accli- mation process that controls the reversible association of the photosystem II (PSII) antenna protein complex (LHCII) with either PSII (in

  5. Pathophysiological Mechanisms and Prognostic Significance of Renal Functional Impairment in Cardiac Patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Volpe; Marco Testa

    \\u000a Heart and kidney dysfunction are often associated, the primary disorder of one of these two organs being the cause of secondary\\u000a involvement of the other. These interactions represent the pathophysiological basis of cardiorenal syndrome. Renal dysfunction\\u000a is very common in heart failure patients, with a highly variable prevalence according to the subgroup of patients considered.\\u000a The complex pathophysiologic interactions between

  6. Subducted, detached, and torn slabs during early orogeny: evidence from deep earthquakes under the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumladze, T.; Forte, A. M.; Cowgill, E.; Trexler, C.; Niemi, N. A.; Kellogg, L. H.; Yikilmaz, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Arabia-Eurasian collision is the second-largest active collisional orogen on Earth and provides a rare opportunity to investigate the role that pre-suturing tectonism plays in defining the deformational response of the upper plate to continental collision and suturing. The Greater Caucasus Mountains, which define the northern margin of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone between the Black and Caspian seas, result from late Cenozoic closure of the Greater Caucasus basin, a Mesozoic back-arc basin that opened during northward subduction of Neotethys beneath the Lesser Caucasus island arc. However, both the extent to which the basin closed by subduction and its original width remain controversial. Many previous estimates suggest that the basin was very narrow and that no subduction occurred during the formation of the Greater Caucasus. However, newly compiled earthquake locations show that the central and eastern Greater Caucasus are underlain by a northeast-dipping subducted slab. We assembled the new catalog of earthquake locations by combining earthquake records from local networks in Georgia, Russia, and Azerbaijan with previously published data. Our dataset includes records from 3820 events with magnitudes M>2. Visualization of the final catalogue in an immersive visualization environment at the UC Davis Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences (KeckCAVES) provides a clear image of a northeast-dipping zone of seismicity beneath the Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as the remnant of a subducted slab. Beneath the central Greater Caucasus (45°E), the zone of seismicity extends to a depth of at least 158 km and dips to the northeast at ~40°. In contrast, beneath the western GC (i.e., west of 45°E) there is a pronounced lack of events below 25 km, which we infer to reflect slab breakoff. We also observe a gap in intermediate-depth seismicity (30 to 60 km) at the western end of the subducted slab beneath the central Greater Caucasus, which we interpret as an eastward-propagating tear. This tear coincides with a region of minimum horizontal GPS convergence rates between the Lesser and Greater Caucasus, as expected in a region of active slab breakoff. Evidence of subduction beneath the Greater Caucasus suggests that the relict back-arc basin was significantly wider than previously estimated. This further suggests that closure of this basin may have been an important mechanism for accommodating plate convergence in this nascent orogen and that the Greater Caucasus may represent a form of cryptic suture. Such relict-basin closure may also be an important, but overlooked process in the early stages of other orogens where it has proven difficult to reconcile total crustal shortening with estimates of total plate convergence.

  7. Impaired development of intrinsic connectivity networks in children with medically intractable localization-related epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, George M; Morgan, Benjamin R; Lee, Wayne; Smith, Mary Lou; Donner, Elizabeth J; Wang, Frank; Beers, Craig A; Federico, Paolo; Taylor, Margot J; Doesburg, Sam M; Rutka, James T; Snead, O Carter

    2014-11-01

    Typical childhood development is characterized by the emergence of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) by way of internetwork segregation and intranetwork integration. The impact of childhood epilepsy on the maturation of ICNs is, however, poorly understood. The developmental trajectory of ICNs in 26 children (8-17 years) with localization-related epilepsy and 28 propensity-score matched controls was evaluated using graph theoretical analysis of whole brain connectomes from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Children with epilepsy demonstrated impaired development of regional hubs in nodes of the salience and default mode networks (DMN). Seed-based connectivity and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed significantly decreased intranetwork connections, and greater internetwork connectivity in children with epilepsy compared to controls. Significant interactions were identified between epilepsy duration and the expected developmental trajectory of ICNs, indicating that prolonged epilepsy may cause progressive alternations in large-scale networks throughout childhood. DMN integration was also associated with better working memory, whereas internetwork segregation was associated with higher full-scale intelligence quotient scores. Furthermore, subgroup analyses revealed the thalamus, hippocampus, and caudate were weaker hubs in children with secondarily generalized seizures, relative to other patient subgroups. Our findings underscore that epilepsy interferes with the developmental trajectory of brain networks underlying cognition, providing evidence supporting the early treatment of affected children. PMID:24976288

  8. WEST NILE VIRUS: PENDING CRISIS FOR GREATER SAGE-GROUSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a ...

  9. West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse

    E-print Network

    Naugle, Dave

    -grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species that has declined 45­80% and is endangered in Canada and under current scrambling to address surface water and vector control issues in western North America. Keywords Centrocercus urophasianus, emerging infectious disease, endangered species, greater sage- grouse, mosquito, population

  10. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  11. THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM VERSION 2.0 VOLUME I: MODEL OVERVIEW Eric J. Miller Bahen-Tanenbaum Professor Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto January, 2001 #12;2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding for the development and testing

  12. THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM

    E-print Network

    Toronto, University of

    THE GREATER TORONTO AREA TRAVEL DEMAND MODELLING SYSTEM VERSION 2.0 VOLUME III: USER'S MANUAL Eric J. Miller Bahen-Tanenbaum Professor Department of Civil Engineering University of Toronto Joint Program in Transportation University of Toronto January, 2001 #12;2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Funding

  13. Job Title NAMI Walk Intern Employer/ Agency NAMI Greater Houston

    E-print Network

    Azevedo, Ricardo

    for people with mental illness and work to eliminate the stigma associated with these brain disorders Houston (National Alliance on Mental Illness) will be holding its 9th annual NAMIWalks on April 12, 2014 in the Greater Houston area to people living with mental illnesses and to their family members. We also advocate

  14. Greater sciatic notch morphology: Sex, age, and population differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phillip L. Walker

    2005-01-01

    The accuracy of a method for visually scoring sex differences in the greater sciatic notch was tested on 296 skeletons of known age and sex. The pro- portion of correct sex assignments is 80% when all speci- mens are classified, and 89% when os coxae assigned the score in which the sexes show the greatest overlap are excluded. Although many

  15. Biofuels production for smallholder producers in the Greater Mekong Subregion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Urooj S. Malik; Mahfuz Ahmed; Mercedita A. Sombilla; Sarah L. Cueno

    2009-01-01

    Looming concerns on rising food prices and food security has slowed down the impetus in biofuel production. The development of the sub-sector, however, remains an important agenda among developing countries like those of the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) that have abundant labour and natural resources but have limited supply of fossil fuels which continues to serve as a constraint to

  16. Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional, national,…

  17. Marine Fisheries Industry Outlook for Greater Utilization of Hake Products

    E-print Network

    Marine Fisheries ~@WD@W Articles Industry Outlook for Greater Utilization of Hake Products Names of the Hakes World Utilization of Hake South American Hakes: The Resource and Its Utilization The Silver Hake Stocks and Fishery off the Northeastern United States On the cover: A catch of hake. Vol. 42, No.1

  18. CAN INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRING GREATER FOOD SECURITY IN ETHIOPIA?

    E-print Network

    Walter, M.Todd

    CAN INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT BRING GREATER FOOD SECURITY IN ETHIOPIA? Oloro V. McHugh, Amy S are discussed for implementation of these findings at a watershed scale in order to increase food security with a rapidly growing population, chronic poverty, and capricious rainfall, have caused severe food security

  19. Unpacking Unpacking: Greater Detail Can Reduce Perceived Likelihood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, Joseph P.; Frederick, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Past research suggests that a categorical event is perceived to be more likely if its subcases are explicitly delineated or "unpacked." In 6 studies, we find that unpacking can often make an event seem less likely, especially when the details being unpacked are already highly accessible. Process evidence shows that the provision of greater detail…

  20. CHAPTER TWO Hierarchical Modeling of Lek Habitats of Greater

    E-print Network

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    prairie, Tympanuchus cupido. Gregory, A. J., L. B. McNew, T. J. Prebyl, B. K. Sandercock, and S. M. Wisely-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido, hereafter "prairie-chickens") are a prairie grouse that are native to the grasslands, Lance B. McNew, Thomas J. Prebyl, Brett K. Sandercock, and Samantha M. Wisely Abstract. GreaterPrairie-Chickens(Tympanuchus

  1. The Muslim community in Greater Cape Town: contemporary assimilation processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yusuf da Costa

    1992-01-01

    The present Muslim population of Greater Cape Town consists mainly of the descendants of two waves of migration to the Cape. The first wave (1652–1807) was made up primarily of involuntary immigrants (slaves, political prisoners and criminals) from different parts of Africa and Asia. The descendants of these people have been classified as ‘Coloured’ by the 1950 Population Registration Act.

  2. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  3. PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District

    E-print Network

    PLANNING FOR WATER CONSERVATION Greater Vancouver Regional District by Andrew K. Doi B. A (BMPs) for water conservation are used as evaluative criteria. These BMPs were drawn from California's urban water conservation system. This researched examines 4 case study municipalities from the GVRD

  4. Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

  5. An ovarian adenocarcinoma in a greater flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber roseus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. Wadsworth; D. M. Jones

    1981-01-01

    An ovarian adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in a greater flamingo (Phoeni?copterus ruber roseus) which had been maintained in captivity for over 32 years. Neoplastic epithelial cells showed both solid and tubular patterns of growth. Metastases were found in the lung, liver and on the peritoneal surface of the pancreas.

  6. Job satisfaction: what is its true meaning in Greater China?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Han; Nada K. Kakabadse

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – Previously, researchers have performed studies on job satisfaction and organizational behavior outcomes in Western contexts. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether economic prosperity or cultural perspective may explain why job satisfaction may not be an effective predictor of organizational outcomes in Greater China. Researchers need more empirical evidence to understand the nature of the relationship

  7. Energetics of reproduction in female and male greater snow geese

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Line Choinière; Gilles Gauthier

    1995-01-01

    Arctic-nesting geese are classified as “capital” breeders (i.e., birds that rely largely on endogenous reserves to meet the high nutrient requirement of clutch formation) as opposed to “income” breeders (those that rely directly on ingested food). However, some evidence has suggested that energy reserves of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) are not sufficient to meet these costs. We tested

  8. Multiple Task Interference is Greater in Children With ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joshua B. Ewen; Jeffrey S. Moher; Balaji M. Lakshmanan; Matthew Ryan; Priya Xavier; Nathan E. Crone; Martha B. Denckla; Howard Egeth; E. Mark Mahone

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable lay discussion that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have increased difficulty with multitasking, but there are few experimental data. In the current study, we examine the simultaneous processing of two stimulus–response tasks using the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) effect. We hypothesized that children with ADHD would show a greater PRP effect, suggesting a prolonged “bottleneck”

  9. Physiological responses of mild pulmonary impaired subjects while using a demand respirator during rest and work

    SciTech Connect

    Raven, P.B.; Jackson, A.W.; Page, K.; Moss, R.F.; Bradley, O.; Skaggs, B.

    1981-04-01

    This investigation determined the cardiorespiratory responses of subjects with normal lung function and exercise tolerance and compared them with subjects with moderate and severe impairment of lung function and exercise tolerance. Comparisons were made during work while wearing an industrial respirator. Physiologically and subjectively the response of the normal and moderately impaired subjects to respirator wear during rest, 35%, 50% and 63% of their maximal workloads were not different. However, when the moderately impaired worked at 63% of their maximum the workload was equivalent to 50% of maximum of the normal subject. Significant differences in the peak flow/pressure ratio of the severely impaired compred to the normals and moderately impaired were found. By relating work performance to the dyspnea index it was suggested that the relationship between maximal lung function and maximal work performance needs to be identified both with and without respirators. This relationship may prove suitable in predicting performance during respirator wear.

  10. Empathy in schizophrenia: impaired resonance.

    PubMed

    Haker, Helene; Rössler, Wulf

    2009-09-01

    Resonance is the phenomenon of one person unconsciously mirroring the motor actions as basis of emotional expressions of another person. This shared representation serves as a basis for sharing physiological and emotional states of others and is an important component of empathy. Contagious laughing and contagious yawning are examples of resonance. In the interpersonal contact with individuals with schizophrenia we can often experience impaired empathic resonance. The aim of this study is to determine differences in empathic resonance-in terms of contagion by yawning and laughing-in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls in the context of psychopathology and social functioning. We presented video sequences of yawning, laughing or neutral faces to 43 schizophrenia outpatients and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants were video-taped during the stimulation and rated regarding contagion by yawning and laughing. In addition, we assessed self-rated empathic abilities (Interpersonal Reactivity Index), psychopathology (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale in the schizophrenia group resp. Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire in the control group), social dysfunction (Social Dysfunction Index) and executive functions (Stroop, Fluency). Individuals with schizophrenia showed lower contagion rates for yawning and laughing. Self-rated empathic concern showed no group difference and did not correlate with contagion. Low rate of contagion by laughing correlated with the schizophrenia negative syndrome and with social dysfunction. We conclude that impaired resonance is a handicap for individuals with schizophrenia in social life. Blunted observable resonance does not necessarily reflect reduced subjective empathic concern. PMID:19377866

  11. Disruptive camouflage impairs object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Richard J.; Hassall, Christopher; Herdman, Chris M.; Godin, Jean-Guy J.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2013-01-01

    Whether hiding from predators, or avoiding battlefield casualties, camouflage is widely employed to prevent detection. Disruptive coloration is a seemingly well-known camouflage mechanism proposed to function by breaking up an object's salient features (for example their characteristic outline), rendering objects more difficult to recognize. However, while a wide range of animals are thought to evade detection using disruptive patterns, there is no direct experimental evidence that disruptive coloration impairs recognition. Using humans searching for computer-generated moth targets, we demonstrate that the number of edge-intersecting patches on a target reduces the likelihood of it being detected, even at the expense of reduced background matching. Crucially, eye-tracking data show that targets with more edge-intersecting patches were looked at for longer periods prior to attack, and passed-over more frequently during search tasks. We therefore show directly that edge patches enhance survivorship by impairing recognition, confirming that disruptive coloration is a distinct camouflage strategy, not simply an artefact of background matching. PMID:24152693

  12. Disruptive camouflage impairs object recognition.

    PubMed

    Webster, Richard J; Hassall, Christopher; Herdman, Chris M; Godin, Jean-Guy J; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2013-01-01

    Whether hiding from predators, or avoiding battlefield casualties, camouflage is widely employed to prevent detection. Disruptive coloration is a seemingly well-known camouflage mechanism proposed to function by breaking up an object's salient features (for example their characteristic outline), rendering objects more difficult to recognize. However, while a wide range of animals are thought to evade detection using disruptive patterns, there is no direct experimental evidence that disruptive coloration impairs recognition. Using humans searching for computer-generated moth targets, we demonstrate that the number of edge-intersecting patches on a target reduces the likelihood of it being detected, even at the expense of reduced background matching. Crucially, eye-tracking data show that targets with more edge-intersecting patches were looked at for longer periods prior to attack, and passed-over more frequently during search tasks. We therefore show directly that edge patches enhance survivorship by impairing recognition, confirming that disruptive coloration is a distinct camouflage strategy, not simply an artefact of background matching. PMID:24152693

  13. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  14. Client Satisfaction, Clinical Significance, and Meaningful Change in Psychotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Y. Ankuta; Norman Abeles

    1993-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of Jacobson, Follette, and Revenstorf's (1984) criteria for clinical significance in psychotherapy data analysis. The hypothesis that a group of psychotherapy clients showing clinically significant symptom changes would report greater satisfaction and benefit from psychotherapy than would a group of clients who changed moderately or not at all was supported. Statistical and clinical significance are

  15. Upper extremity impairments in women with or without lymphedema following breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Josephine; Cooper, Bruce; Wanek, Linda; Topp, Kimberly; Byl, Nancy; Dodd, Marylin

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Breast-cancer-related lymphedema affects ?25% of breast cancer (BC) survivors and may impact use of the upper limb during activity. The purpose of this study is to compare upper extremity (UE) impairment and activity between women with and without lymphedema after BC treatment. Methods 144 women post BC treatment completed demographic, symptom, and Disability of Arm-Shoulder-Hand (DASH) questionnaires. Objective measures included Purdue pegboard, finger-tapper, Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, vibration perception threshold, strength, range of motion (ROM), and volume. Results Women with lymphedema had more lymph nodes removed (p?greater limitation) (p?greater in women with lymphedema, particularly in shoulder abduction ROM (p?impairments are found in women following treatment for BC. Women with lymphedema have greater UE impairment and limitation in activities than women without. Many of these impairments are amenable to prevention measures or treatment, so early detection by health care providers is essential. PMID:20373044

  16. Impairment of Bone Health in Pediatric Patients with Hemolytic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Schündeln, Michael M.; Goretzki, Sarah C.; Hauffa, Pia K.; Wieland, Regina; Bauer, Jens; Baeder, Lena; Eggert, Angelika; Hauffa, Berthold P.; Grasemann, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia result in impaired bone health in both adults and youths. Children with other types of chronic hemolytic anemia may also display impaired bone health. Study Design To assess bone health in pediatric patients with chronic hemolytic anemia, a cross-sectional study was conducted involving 45 patients with different forms of hemolytic anemia (i.e., 17 homozygous sickle cell disease and 14 hereditary spherocytosis patients). Biochemical, radiographic and anamnestic parameters of bone health were assessed. Results Vitamin D deficiency with 25 OH-vitamin D serum levels below 20 ng/ml was a common finding (80.5%) in this cohort. Bone pain was present in 31% of patients. Analysis of RANKL, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and osteocalcin levels indicated an alteration in bone modeling with significantly elevated RANKL/OPG ratios (control: 0.08+0.07; patients: 0.26+0.2, P?=?0.0007). Osteocalcin levels were found to be lower in patients compared with healthy controls (68.5+39.0 ng/ml vs. 118.0+36.6 ng/ml, P?=?0.0001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed a significant (P<0.025) influence of LDH (partial r2?=?0.29), diagnosis of hemolytic anemia (partial r2?=?0.05) and age (partial r2?=?0.03) on osteocalcin levels. Patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia were more frequently and more severely affected by impaired bone health than patients with hereditary spherocytosis. Conclusion Bone health is impaired in pediatric patients with hemolytic anemia. In addition to endocrine alterations, an imbalance in the RANKL/OPG system and low levels of osteocalcin may contribute to this impairment. PMID:25299063

  17. Unconjugated Bilirubin Exposure Impairs Hippocampal Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Fang-Yu; Lee, Cheng-Che; Huang, Chiung-Chun; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2009-01-01

    Background Jaundice is one of the most common problems encountered in newborn infants, due to immaturity of hepatic conjugation and transport processes for bilirubin. Although the majority of neonatal jaundice is benign, some neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia develop bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. Accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) in selected brain regions may result in temporary or permanent impairments of auditory, motor, or cognitive function; however, the molecular mechanisms by which UCB elicits such neurotoxicity are still poorly understood. The present study is undertaken to investigate whether prolonged exposure of rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to UCB alters the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings Using electrophysiological recording techniques, we find that exposure of hippocampal slice cultures to clinically relevant concentrations of UCB for 24 or 48 h results in an impairment of CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) induction in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Hippocampal slice cultures stimulated with UCB show no changes in the secretion profiles of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-?, or the propidium ioide uptake. UCB treatment produced a significant decrease in the levels of NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors through a calpain-mediated proteolytic cleavage mechanism. Pretreatment of the hippocampal slice cultures with NMDA receptor antagonist or calpain inhibitors effectively prevented the UCB-induced impairment of LTP and LTD. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that the proteolytic cleavage of NMDA receptor subunits by calpain may play a critical role in mediating the UCB-induced impairment of long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. These observations provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying UCB-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity which, in turn, might provide opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic strategies that targets these pathways for treatment. PMID:19517010

  18. Cognitive Impairment Assessment through Visuospatial Memory Can Be Performed with a Modified Walking Corsi Test Using the ‘Magic Carpet’

    PubMed Central

    Perrochon, Anaïck; Kemoun, Gilles; Dugué, Benoit; Berthoz, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Background Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have disturbances in their spatial navigation abilities and exhibit early deficits in visuospatial short-term memory. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a quantitative (span score) and qualitative (evaluating navigation strategies used) analysis of the Corsi test (usual condition and complex navigation task) would be useful to reveal cognitive decline. Methods We evaluated the performance of 15 young adults, 21 healthy elderly subjects and 15 subjects with MCI using the electronic version of the Corsi test (the Modified Corsi Block-Tapping Test, MCBT) and the complex navigation task (the Modified Walking Corsi Test, MWCT). The MWCT, which is an adaptation of the Corsi test, assesses spatial memory when the subject walks in a complex environment. We used Richard et al.'s model [Cogn Sci 1993;17:497-529] to investigate problem-solving strategies during the Corsi tests. Results The span scores obtained on the MCBT and the MWCT were significantly lower in the healthy elderly subjects (MCBT = 5.0 ± 0.7; MWCT = 4.0 ± 0.7) and the subjects with MCI (MCBT = 4.7 ± 0.8; MWCT = 4.1 ± 0.9) than in the younger adults (MCBT = 6.2 ± 0.6; MWCT = 5.3 ± 1.0). The visuospatial working memory was more impaired in the complex navigation task (MWCT = 4.3 ± 0.9) than in the modified Corsi test (MCBT = 5.3 ± 0.8). Finally, the subjects with greater cognitive impairment were more likely to have inadequate or absence of problem-solving strategies. Conclusions Investigating the problem-solving strategies used during the MWCT appears to be a promising way to differentiate between the subjects with MCI and the healthy elderly subjects. PMID:24575112

  19. A key role for an impaired detoxification mechanism in the etiology and severity of autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is a syndrome with a number of etiologies and different mechanisms that lead to abnormal development. The identification of autism biomarkers in patients with different degrees of clinical presentation (i.e., mild, moderate and severe) will give greater insight into the pathogenesis of this disease and will enable effective early diagnostic strategies and treatments for this disorder. Methods In this study, the concentration of two toxic heavy metals, lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), were measured in red blood cells, while glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and vitamin E, as enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, respectively, were measured in the plasma of subgroups of autistic patients with different Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) scores. The results were compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Results The obtained data showed that the patients with autism spectrum disorder had significantly higher Pb and Hg levels and lower GST activity and vitamin E concentrations compared with the controls. The levels of heavy metals (Hg and Pb), GST and vitamin E were correlated with the severity of the social and cognitive impairment measures (SRS and CARS). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis and predictiveness curves indicated that the four parameters show satisfactory sensitivity, very high specificity and excellent predictiveness. Multiple regression analyses confirmed that higher levels of Hg and Pb, together with lower levels of GST and vitamin E, can be used to predict social and cognitive impairment in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Conclusion This study confirms earlier studies that implicate toxic metal accumulation as a consequence of impaired detoxification in autism and provides insight into the etiological mechanism of autism. PMID:24776096

  20. Speech Perception in Older Hearing Impaired Listeners: Benefits of Perceptual Training

    PubMed Central

    Woods, David L.; Doss, Zoe; Herron, Timothy J.; Arbogast, Tanya; Younus, Masood; Ettlinger, Marc; Yund, E. William

    2015-01-01

    Hearing aids (HAs) only partially restore the ability of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners to understand speech in noise, due in large part to persistent deficits in consonant identification. Here, we investigated whether adaptive perceptual training would improve consonant-identification in noise in sixteen aided OHI listeners who underwent 40 hours of computer-based training in their homes. Listeners identified 20 onset and 20 coda consonants in 9,600 consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables containing different vowels (/?/, /i/, or /u/) and spoken by four different talkers. Consonants were presented at three consonant-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) spanning a 12 dB range. Noise levels were adjusted over training sessions based on d’ measures. Listeners were tested before and after training to measure (1) changes in consonant-identification thresholds using syllables spoken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers, and (2) sentence reception thresholds (SeRTs) using two different sentence tests. Consonant-identification thresholds improved gradually during training. Laboratory tests of d’ thresholds showed an average improvement of 9.1 dB, with 94% of listeners showing statistically significant training benefit. Training normalized consonant confusions and improved the thresholds of some consonants into the normal range. Benefits were equivalent for onset and coda consonants, syllables containing different vowels, and syllables presented at different SNRs. Greater training benefits were found for hard-to-identify consonants and for consonants spoken by familiar than unfamiliar talkers. SeRTs, tested with simple sentences, showed less elevation than consonant-identification thresholds prior to training and failed to show significant training benefit, although SeRT improvements did correlate with improvements in consonant thresholds. We argue that the lack of SeRT improvement reflects the dominant role of top-down semantic processing in processing simple sentences and that greater transfer of benefit would be evident in the comprehension of more unpredictable speech material. PMID:25730330

  1. Impaired ability to modulate glomerular filtration rate in aged female sheep following fetal uninephrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lankadeva, Yugeesh R.; Singh, Reetu R.; Hilliard, Lucinda M.; Moritz, Karen M.; Denton, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fetal uninephrectomy (uni?x) results in hypertension at a later age in female than male sheep. We hypothesized that dysregulation of tubular sodium handling contributes to the reduced ability to regulate extracellular fluid (ECF) homeostasis in older females born with a congenital nephron deficit. Following renal excretory balance studies, the response to inhibition of the Na+K+2Cl? cotransporter with furosemide (0.5 mg/kg bolus + 1 mg/kg per hour, i.v) or vehicle treatment was examined in conscious 5?year?old female uni?x (n = 7) and sham (n = 7) sheep. Balance studies in meal?fed sheep demonstrated that while average 24 h sodium excretion over 6 days was not different between the groups, the daily variation in sodium excretion was significantly greater in uni?x compared to sham sheep (31 ± 4% vs. 12 ± 2%; P < 0.001). Basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and renal cortical cyclooxygenase?2 (COX?2) gene expression were lower in uni?x sheep (both, P < 0.01). The increases in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow observed in sham sheep in response to furosemide were significantly attenuated in uni?x sheep (both PGROUP×TREAT < 0.05). However, fractional sodium excretion increased by a greater extent in the uni?x (4.4 ± 1.0%) as compared to the sham sheep (2.0 ± 0.4%; PGROUP×TIME < 0.05) in response to furosemide. In conclusion, fetal uni?x was associated with altered renal sodium handling and hypertension in aged females. The impaired ability to modulate PRA and GFR in the adults with a congenital nephron deficit may reduce the capacity of the kidney to respond to gains or losses in ECF to maintain a stable internal environment. PMID:24744887

  2. Speech perception in older hearing impaired listeners: benefits of perceptual training.

    PubMed

    Woods, David L; Doss, Zoe; Herron, Timothy J; Arbogast, Tanya; Younus, Masood; Ettlinger, Marc; Yund, E William

    2015-01-01

    Hearing aids (HAs) only partially restore the ability of older hearing impaired (OHI) listeners to understand speech in noise, due in large part to persistent deficits in consonant identification. Here, we investigated whether adaptive perceptual training would improve consonant-identification in noise in sixteen aided OHI listeners who underwent 40 hours of computer-based training in their homes. Listeners identified 20 onset and 20 coda consonants in 9,600 consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables containing different vowels (/?/, /i/, or /u/) and spoken by four different talkers. Consonants were presented at three consonant-specific signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) spanning a 12 dB range. Noise levels were adjusted over training sessions based on d' measures. Listeners were tested before and after training to measure (1) changes in consonant-identification thresholds using syllables spoken by familiar and unfamiliar talkers, and (2) sentence reception thresholds (SeRTs) using two different sentence tests. Consonant-identification thresholds improved gradually during training. Laboratory tests of d' thresholds showed an average improvement of 9.1 dB, with 94% of listeners showing statistically significant training benefit. Training normalized consonant confusions and improved the thresholds of some consonants into the normal range. Benefits were equivalent for onset and coda consonants, syllables containing different vowels, and syllables presented at different SNRs. Greater training benefits were found for hard-to-identify consonants and for consonants spoken by familiar than unfamiliar talkers. SeRTs, tested with simple sentences, showed less elevation than consonant-identification thresholds prior to training and failed to show significant training benefit, although SeRT improvements did correlate with improvements in consonant thresholds. We argue that the lack of SeRT improvement reflects the dominant role of top-down semantic processing in processing simple sentences and that greater transfer of benefit would be evident in the comprehension of more unpredictable speech material. PMID:25730330

  3. Seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations is greater in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Serum KL-6 is a useful biomarker for the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). However, KL-6 has not been used to discriminate different types of ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations can vary depending on antigen exposure levels in patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP); however, seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations in ILD have not been determined. We hypothesized that seasonal variation of serum KL-6 is greater in HP than for the other ILD. The aim of this study was to determine seasonal variation of serum KL-6 concentrations in various ILD. Methods Serum KL-6 concentrations in the summer season from June 1 to September 30 and the winter season from November 1 to February 28 were retrospectively analyzed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, n?=?16), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, n?=?16), collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia (CVD-IP, n?=?33), house-related HP (House-HP, n?=?9), bird-related HP (Bird-HP, n?=?9), and combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE, n?=?13). Results Bird-HP and House-HP showed greater seasonal serum KL-6 variation than the other ILD. Serum KL-6 concentrations in Bird-HP were significantly increased in the winter and KL-6 concentrations in House-HP were significantly increased in the summer. Serum KL-6 variation was significantly greater in acute HP than chronic HP. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that greater seasonal variation in serum KL-6 concentrations is diagnostic for Bird-HP. Conclusion HP should be considered in ILD with greater seasonal changes in serum KL-6 concentrations. PMID:25098177

  4. Disruption of retinoblastoma protein expression in the intestinal epithelium impairs lipid absorption.

    PubMed

    Choi, Pamela M; Guo, Jun; Erwin, Christopher R; Wandu, Wambui S; Leinicke, Jennifer A; Xie, Yan; Davidson, Nicholas O; Warner, Brad W

    2014-05-15

    We previously demonstrated increased villus height following genetic deletion, or knockout, of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) in the intestinal epithelium (Rb-IKO). Here we determined the functional consequences of augmented mucosal growth on intestinal fat absorption and following a 50% small bowel resection (SBR). Mice with constitutively disrupted Rb expression in the intestinal epithelium (Rb-IKO) along with their floxed (wild-type, WT) littermates were placed on a high-fat diet (HFD, 42% kcal fat) for 54 wk. Mice were weighed weekly, and fat absorption, indirect calorimetry, and MRI body composition were measured. Rb-IKO mice were also subjected to a 50% SBR, followed by HFD feeding for 33 wk. In separate experiments, we examined intestinal fat absorption in mice with conditional (tamoxifen-inducible) intestinal Rb (inducible Rb-IKO) deletion. Microarray revealed that the transcriptional expression of lipid absorption/transport genes was significantly reduced in constitutive Rb-IKO mice. These mice demonstrated greater mucosal surface area yet manifested paradoxically impaired intestinal long-chain triglyceride absorption and decreased cholesterol absorption. Despite attenuated lipid absorption, there were no differences in metabolic rate, body composition, and weight gain in Rb-IKO and WT mice at baseline and following SBR. We also confirmed fat malabsorption in inducible Rb-IKO mice. We concluded that, despite an expanded mucosal surface area, Rb-IKO mice demonstrate impaired lipid absorption without compensatory alterations in energy homeostasis or body composition. These findings underscore the importance of delineating structural/functional relationships in the gut and suggest a previously unknown role for Rb in the regulation of intestinal lipid absorption. PMID:24742992

  5. The nitric oxide redox sibling nitroxyl partially circumvents impairment of platelet nitric oxide responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Dautov, R F; Ngo, D T M; Licari, G; Liu, S; Sverdlov, A L; Ritchie, R H; Kemp-Harper, B K; Horowitz, J D; Chirkov, Y Y

    2013-11-30

    Impaired platelet responsiveness to nitric oxide (NO resistance) is a common characteristic of many cardiovascular disease states and represents an independent risk factor for cardiac events and mortality. NO resistance reflects both scavenging of NO by superoxide (O2(-)), and impairment of the NO receptor, soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). There is thus an urgent need for circumvention of NO resistance in order to improve clinical outcomes. Nitroxyl (HNO), like NO, produces vasodilator and anti-aggregatory effects, largely via sGC activation, but is not inactivated by O2(-). We tested the hypothesis that HNO circumvents NO resistance in human platelets. In 57 subjects with or without ischemic heart disease, platelet responses to the HNO donor isopropylamine NONOate (IPA/NO) and the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were compared. While SNP (10?M) induced 29±3% (p<0.001) inhibition of platelet aggregation, IPA/NO (10?M) caused 75±4% inhibition (p<0.001). In NO-resistant subjects (n=28), the IPA/NO:SNP response ratio was markedly increased (p<0.01), consistent with partial circumvention of NO resistance. Similarly, cGMP accumulation in platelets was greater (p<0.001) with IPA/NO than with SNP stimulation. The NO scavenger carboxy-PTIO (CPTIO, 200?M) inhibited SNP and IPA/NO responses by 92±7% and 17±4% respectively (p<0.001 for differential inhibition), suggesting that effects of IPA/NO are only partially NO-mediated. ODQ (10?M) inhibited IPA/NO responses by 36±8% (p<0.001), consistent with a contribution of sGC/haem to IPA/NO inhibition of aggregation. There was no significant relationship between whole blood ROS content and IPA/NO responses. Thus the HNO donor IPA/NO substantially circumvents platelet NO resistance while acting, at least partially, as a haem-mediated sGC activator. PMID:24012721

  6. The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the properties of the Greater Indian lithosphere and in the mechanism of its descent beneath different parts of the plateau. In the west, cratonic Indian lithosphere underthrusts the Tibetan crust and collides with the Tarim Craton to the north of it. In the central part of the plateau, Indian lithosphere underthrusts Tibet form the Himalayas up to the Bangong-Nujiang Suture and then, further north, subducts at a relatively steep angle. Indian lithosphere now under the east-central Himalayas is not cratonic (not as thick and cold as in the west). Beneath eastern Tibet, the Indian lithosphere has subducted, at a shallow angle, hundreds of kilometers northwards to under the Qiangtang and Songpan-Ganzi Terranes. The detailed new seismic images provide new constraints on the size of the Greater India continent and on lateral variations in the properties of its lithosphere. The size and shape of the Greater India as evidenced by the seismic data are consistent with the recent plate-tectonic models in which the India-Asia hard continental collision commences more recently than previously thought. References Agius, M. R., S. Lebedev. Tibetan and Indian lithospheres in the upper mantle beneath Tibet: Evidence from broadband surface-wave dispersion. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 14, doi:10.1002/ggge.20274, 2013. Schaeffer, A. J., S. Lebedev. Global shear-speed structure of the upper mantle and transition zone. Geophys. J. Int. 194, 417-449, 2013. Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J., et al., Greater India Basin hypothesis and a two-stage Cenozoic collision between India and Asia., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 109, 7659-64, 2012. Zahirovic, S., et al., Insights on the kinematics of the India-Eurasia collision from global geodynamic models, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 13, doi:10.1029/2011GC003883, 2012.

  7. Human Impairment from Living near Confined Animal (Hog) Feeding Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, Kaye H.

    2012-01-01

    Problem. To determine whether neighbors around manure lagoons and massive hog confinement buildings who complained of offensive odors and symptoms had impaired brain and lung functions. Method. We compared near hog manure neighbors of lagoons to people living beyond 3 kilometers in Ohio and to unexposed people controls in a nearby state for neurophysiological, cognitive, recall and memory functions, and pulmonary performance. Results. The 25 exposed subjects averaged 4.3 neurobehavioral abnormalities, significantly different from 2.5 for local controls and 2.3 for Tennessee controls. Exposed subjects mean forced vital capacity and expiratory volume in 1?sec were reduced significantly compared to local and regional controls. Conclusions. Near neighbors of hog enclosures and manure lagoon gases had impaired neurobehavioral functions and pulmonary functions and these effects extended to nearby people thought to be controls. Hydrogen sulfide must be abated because people living near lagoons cannot avoid rotten egg gas. PMID:22496706

  8. Life Science for Visually Impaired Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Larry; De Lucchi, Linda

    1979-01-01

    Describes life science activities for blind or visually impaired students including aquarium studies, plant germination, classroom animals, and outdoor activities designed with a multisensory approach. (MA)

  9. Cognitive Impairment in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cri?an, Alexandru F.; Oancea, Cristian; Timar, Bogdan; Fira-Mladinescu, Ovidiu; Cri?an, Alexandru; Tudorache, Voicu

    2014-01-01

    Background/Purpose Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially in severe forms, is commonly associated with multiple cognitive problems. Montreal Cognitive Assessment test (MoCA) is used to detect cognitive impairment evaluating several areas: visuospatial, memory, attention and fluency. Our study aim was to evaluate the impact of stable COPD and exacerbation (AECOPD) phases on cognitive status using MoCA questionnaire. Methods We enrolled 39 patients (pts), smokers with COPD group D (30 stable and 9 in AECOPD) and 13 healthy subjects (control group), having similar level of education and no significant differences regarding the anthropometric measurements. We analyzed the differences in MoCA score between these three groups and also the correlation between this score and inflammatory markers. Results Patients with AECOPD had a significant (p<0.001) decreased MoCA score (14.6±3.4) compared to stable COPD (20.2±2.4) and controls (24.2±5.8). The differences between groups were more accentuated for the language abstraction and attention (p<0.001) and delayed recall and orientation (p<0.001) sub-topics. No significant variance of score was observed between groups regarding visuospatial and naming score (p?=?0.095). The MoCA score was significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume (r?=?0.28) and reverse correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r?=??0.57), fibrinogen (r?=??0.58), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (r?=??0.55) and with the partial pressure of CO2 (r?=??0.47). Conclusions According to this study, COPD significantly decreases the cognitive status in advanced and acute stages of the disease. PMID:25033379

  10. Bridging neurocognitive aging and disease modification: targeting functional mechanisms of memory impairment.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, M; Bakker, A; Yassa, M A; Stark, C E L

    2010-05-01

    Risk for Alzheimer's disease escalates dramatically with increasing age in the later decades of life. It is widely recognized that a preclinical condition in which memory loss is greater than would be expected for a person's age, referred to as amnestic mild cognitive impairment, may offer the best opportunity for intervention to treat symptoms and modify disease progression. Here we discuss a basis for age-related memory impairment, first discovered in animal models and recently isolated in the medial temporal lobe system of man, that offers a novel entry point for restoring memory function with the possible benefit in slowing progression to Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20088811

  11. Working memory contributions to reinforcement learning impairments in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anne G E; Brown, Jaime K; Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Frank, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Previous research has shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in reinforcement learning tasks. However, behavioral learning curves in such tasks originate from the interaction of multiple neural processes, including the basal ganglia- and dopamine-dependent reinforcement learning (RL) system, but also prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive strategies involving working memory (WM). Thus, it is unclear which specific system induces impairments in schizophrenia. We recently developed a task and computational model allowing us to separately assess the roles of RL (slow, cumulative learning) mechanisms versus WM (fast but capacity-limited) mechanisms in healthy adult human subjects. Here, we used this task to assess patients' specific sources of impairments in learning. In 15 separate blocks, subjects learned to pick one of three actions for stimuli. The number of stimuli to learn in each block varied from two to six, allowing us to separate influences of capacity-limited WM from the incremental RL system. As expected, both patients (n = 49) and healthy controls (n = 36) showed effects of set size and delay between stimulus repetitions, confirming the presence of working memory effects. Patients performed significantly worse than controls overall, but computational model fits and behavioral analyses indicate that these deficits could be entirely accounted for by changes in WM parameters (capacity and reliability), whereas RL processes were spared. These results suggest that the working memory system contributes strongly to learning impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25297101

  12. Working Memory Contributions to Reinforcement Learning Impairments in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jaime K.; Gold, James M.; Waltz, James A.; Frank, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that patients with schizophrenia are impaired in reinforcement learning tasks. However, behavioral learning curves in such tasks originate from the interaction of multiple neural processes, including the basal ganglia- and dopamine-dependent reinforcement learning (RL) system, but also prefrontal cortex-dependent cognitive strategies involving working memory (WM). Thus, it is unclear which specific system induces impairments in schizophrenia. We recently developed a task and computational model allowing us to separately assess the roles of RL (slow, cumulative learning) mechanisms versus WM (fast but capacity-limited) mechanisms in healthy adult human subjects. Here, we used this task to assess patients' specific sources of impairments in learning. In 15 separate blocks, subjects learned to pick one of three actions for stimuli. The number of stimuli to learn in each block varied from two to six, allowing us to separate influences of capacity-limited WM from the incremental RL system. As expected, both patients (n = 49) and healthy controls (n = 36) showed effects of set size and delay between stimulus repetitions, confirming the presence of working memory effects. Patients performed significantly worse than controls overall, but computational model fits and behavioral analyses indicate that these deficits could be entirely accounted for by changes in WM parameters (capacity and reliability), whereas RL processes were spared. These results suggest that the working memory system contributes strongly to learning impairments in schizophrenia. PMID:25297101

  13. Computerized measurement of cognitive impairment and associated neuropsychiatric dimensions.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, L A; Bechtel, R J; Maguire, G A; Harrington, D E; Levinson, D M; Franklin, D L; Carcamo, D

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to cross-validate the capacity of a computer software program to detect and measure, using a measurement method applied to the content and form analysis of 5-minute speech samples, cognitive impairment and associated comorbid neuropsychiatric psychobiological dimensions in drug-abusing patients. At the University of California-Irvine (UCI) Neuropsychiatric Center, 28 drug-abusing inpatients using illegal drugs were clinically evaluated. Their scores for cognitive impairment derived by the computerized content analysis method were compared with scores derived from selected tests from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test Battery, the computerized Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metric Battery (ANAM), the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Portion, the Stroop Color and Word Test, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and the Controlled Oral Word Association Test. The statistical significance (P value) of the correlations of scores from these different measures with scores obtained from the computerized content analysis measures was less than .05 to .001. The comparative "hit rate," detecting cognitive impairment above the norms for each measure administered to these drug-abusing patients, for the computerized content analysis measures and some of the ANAM neuropsychological measures was 75% to 89%, and for the other neuropsychological measures, 25% to 64%. In conclusion, the computerized content analysis methodology applied to 5-minute verbal samples is a valid, rapid, easily administered measurement instrument for assessing the magnitude of cognitive impairment and comorbid neuropsychiatric dimensions. PMID:11011827

  14. The Spiritual Profile of Greater Anchorage -November 2008 page 1 of 18 The Spiritual Profile of Greater Anchorage

    E-print Network

    Scheel, David

    the coastline avoiding the vast interior. The United States purchased Alaska from Russia in 1867. Located. Changes in the United States' immigration laws in 1965 had no impact on Alaska. At that point in time of Greater Anchorage by Regina A. Boisclair, Ph.D. Cardinal Newman Chair of Catholic Theology Professor

  15. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new...

  16. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new...

  17. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new...

  18. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new...

  19. 20 CFR 416.998 - If you become disabled by another impairment(s).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.998 If you become disabled by another impairment(s). If a new...

  20. Effects of sulfur dioxide or ammonium sulfate exposure, alone or combined, for 4 or 8 months on normal and elastase-impaired rats

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.G.; Busch, R.H.; Buschbom, R.L.; Cannon, W.C.; Loscutoff, S.M.; Morris, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    Normal and lung-impaired rats were compared after exposure to SO2 and/or (NH4)2SO4 for 4 or 8 months, or for 8 months plus 3 months recovery. Young adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated intratracheally with either physiologic saline (normal lungs) or porcine pancreatic elastase (impaired lungs). Rats from each pretreatment group were exposed to filtered air (control), to SO2 (1 ppm) or (NH4)2SO4 (0.5 mg/m3), or to combined SO2 + (NH4)2SO4 for 5 hr/day, 5 days/week. Morphologic, physiologic, and immunologic criteria were evaluated. At 4 months cellular immunologic responsiveness was not impaired, but physiologic changes were detected. Morphologic changes were apparent in all time periods. Elastase-induced changes included greater lung volumes, emphysema, and alveolar interstitial fibrosis. Pollutant effects included bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and changes in alveolar mean chord length (MCL). Relative to controls, bronchiolar epithelial hyperplasia and MCL increased in saline/pollutant groups, but decreased in elastase/pollutant rats at 4 months. The pretreatment/pollutant interaction was not observed at 8 months. Elastase effects persisted throughout the recovery period. Pollutant effects were more transitory, although alveolar septal fibrosis was greater in saline/(NH4)2SO4 rats at 8 months. Pulmonary function changes associated with elastase included increases in residual volume, functional residual capacity, and the residual volume/total lung capacity ratios. The alveolar plateau of single-breath washout (N2 slope) was significantly steeper in elastase-treated rats but less steep in animals exposed to SO2 or to (NH4)2SO4 than in those exposed to air only.

  1. Harlequin ichthyosis in two greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).

    PubMed

    Chittick, E J; Olivry, T; Dalldorf, F; Wright, J; Dale, B A; Wolfe, B A

    2002-11-01

    Two greater kudu calves (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) born 7 years apart were found with fissures and thickened, scaly, cutaneous plates covering over 80% of their bodies. One was dead at presentation, and the other was euthanized shortly after birth. Both animals shared a common sire. On necropsy, chemosis, ectropion, eclabium, and bilateral valgus deformities of the tarsal joints were observed in one calf, presumed to be secondary to the plates restricting normal fetal development. The principal microscopic lesion was severe lamellar orthokeratosis, with focal mild parakeratosis. Ultrastructural epidermal lesions included the absence of normal lamellar granules, large dilated endoplasmic reticulum, and abnormal retention of organelles and vesicles. Gross, histopathologic, and electron microscopic findings in both kudu calves were consistent with those of harlequin ichthyosis, a rare dermatosis of humans believed to have an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. The underlying genetic and molecular abnormality and heritability of this condition in this greater kudu herd were not determined. PMID:12450210

  2. An observation of Clostridium perfringens in Greater Sage-Grouse.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Christian A; Bildfell, Robert J

    2007-07-01

    Mortality due to infectious diseases is seldom reported in the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). A case of necrotic enteritis associated with Clostridium perfringens type A is described in a free-ranging adult male sage-grouse in eastern Oregon. Clostridial enteritis is known to cause outbreaks of mortality in various domestic and wild birds, and should be considered as a potential cause of mortality in sage-grouse populations. PMID:17699098

  3. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin E. Doherty; David E. Naugle; Brett L. Walker; Jon M. Graham

    2008-01-01

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the

  4. West Nile virus: pending crisis for greater sage-grouse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Naugle; Cameron L. Aldridge; Brett L. Walker; Todd E. Cornish; Brendan J. Moynahan; Matt J. Holloran; Kimberly Brown; Gregory D. Johnson; Edward T. Schmidtmann; Richard T. Mayer; Cecilia Y. Kato; Marc R. Matchett; Thomas J. Christiansen; Walter E. Cook; Terry Creekmore; Roxanne D. Falise; E. Thomas Rinkes; Mark S. Boyce

    2004-01-01

    Scientists have feared that emerging infectious diseases could complicate efforts to conserve rare and endangered species, but quantifying impacts has proven difficult until now. We report unexpected impacts of West Nile virus (WNv) on radio-marked greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a species that has declined 45-80% and is endangered in Canada and under current consideration for federal listing in the US.

  5. Atmospheric Formaldehyde Monitoring in the Greater Houston Area in 2002

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinhai Chen; Stephen So; Hoason Lee; Matthew P. Fraser; Robert F. Curl; Thomas Harman; Frank K. Tittel

    2004-01-01

    A laser spectrometer based on difference frequency generation (DFG) was deployed for real-time long-term monitoring of HCHO concen- trations at an environmental monitoring site located at Deer Park, Texas, in the Greater Houston area. Three HCHO concentration measurements were made during the periods of July 20-31 (period I), August 2-14 (period II), and August 24-September 25 (period III), 2002. In

  6. O felix culpa, redemption, and the Greater-Good Defense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melville Stewart

    1986-01-01

    Common to Alvin Platinga's Free-Will Defense, John Hick's Soul-Growth Theodicy, and Keith Yandell's Growth-to-Moral_Maturity Specification of his Greater-Good Defense, is a concept that almost gets lost in labyrinthine discussions of possible-worlds ontology, epistemic distance, and justification patterns. The concept is redemption, and in the following I argue the concept in question should be given a more central role in the

  7. Greater forearm venous compliance in resistance-trained men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroshi Kawano; Michiya Tanimoto; Kenta Yamamoto; Yuko Gando; Kiyoshi Sanada; Izumi Tabata; Mitsuru Higuchi; Motohiko Miyachi

    2010-01-01

    Greater venous compliance is associated with attenuation of the tolerance response to orthostatic stress and reduced incidence\\u000a of venous diseases. Resistance training induces tolerance to orthostatic challenge and the growth of capillaries, which may\\u000a lead to negative and positive effects on venous compliance, respectively. It has not been confirmed, however, whether habitual\\u000a resistance training positively or negatively affects venous compliance.

  8. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  9. Reproductive and dietary parameters in wild greater galago populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Masters; W. H. R. Lumsden; D. A. Young

    1988-01-01

    Information concerning habitat, body size, reproductive status, and diet was recorded from 348 greater galagos, captured at\\u000a six different localities in Tanzania and southern Africa between 1953 and 1955. The localities extended from Pemba Island\\u000a in the north to Chikwawa, Malawi, in the south and varied broadly in the same order in degree of climatic aridity— from well-watered\\u000a clove and

  10. Mother-infant bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum: the primacy of psychopathology in women with childhood abuse and neglect histories.

    PubMed

    Muzik, Maria; Bocknek, Erika London; Broderick, Amanda; Richardson, Patricia; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Thelen, Kelsie; Seng, Julia S

    2013-02-01

    Our goal was to examine the trajectory of bonding impairment across the first 6 months postpartum in the context of maternal risk, including maternal history of childhood abuse and neglect and postpartum psychopathology, and to test the association between self-reported bonding impairment and observed positive parenting behaviors. In a sample of women with childhood abuse and neglect histories (CA+, n?=?97) and a healthy control comparison group (CA-, n?=?53), participants completed questionnaires related to bonding with their infants at 6 weeks, 4 months, and 6 months postpartum and psychopathology at 6 months postpartum. In addition, during a 6-month postpartum home visit, mothers and infants participated in a dyadic play interaction subsequently coded for positive parenting behaviors by blinded coders. We found that all women, independent of risk status, increased in bonding with their infant over the first 6 months postpartum; however, women with postpartum psychopathology (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) showed consistently greater bonding impairment scores at all timepoints. Moreover, we found that, at the 6-month assessment, bonding impairment and observed parenting behaviors were significantly associated. These results highlight the adverse effects of maternal postpartum depression and PTSD on mother-infant bonding in early postpartum in women with child abuse and neglect histories. These findings also shed light on the critical need for early detection and effective treatment of postpartum mental illness in order to prevent problematic parenting and the development of disturbed mother-infant relationships. Results support the use of the Postpartum Bonding Questionnaire as a tool to assess parenting quality by its demonstrated association with observed parenting behaviors. PMID:23064898

  11. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E.; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal “executive” dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  12. Quantifying Repetitive Speech in Autism Spectrum Disorders and Language Impairment

    PubMed Central

    van Santen, Jan P. H.; Sproat, Richard W.; Hill, Alison Presmanes

    2013-01-01

    We report on an automatic technique for quantifying two types of repetitive speech: repetitions of what the child says him/herself (self-repeats) and of what is uttered by an interlocutor (echolalia). We apply this technique to a sample of 111 children between the ages of four and eight: 42 typically developing children (TD), 19 children with specific language impairment (SLI), 25 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) plus language impairment (ALI), and 25 children with ASD with normal, non-impaired language (ALN). The results indicate robust differences in echolalia between the TD and ASD groups as a whole (ALN + ALI), and between TD and ALN children. There were no significant differences between ALI and SLI children for echolalia or self-repetitions. The results confirm previous findings that children with ASD repeat the language of others more than other populations of children. On the other hand, self-repetition does not appear to be significantly more frequent in ASD, nor does it matter whether the child’s echolalia occurred within one (immediate) or two turns (near-immediate) of the adult’s original utterance. Furthermore, non-significant differences between ALN and SLI, between TD and SLI, and between ALI and TD are suggestive that echolalia may not be specific to ALN or to ASD in general. One important innovation of this work is an objective fully automatic technique for assessing the amount of repetition in a transcript of a child’s utterances. PMID:23661504

  13. Quadricuspid aortic valve and single coronary artery in a greater white-toothed shrew, Crocidura russula.

    PubMed

    Durán, A C

    1996-10-01

    An adult greater white-toothed shrew (Crocidura russula) had both a quadricuspid aortic valve and a single coronary artery arising from the aorta. The shrew was caught on 10 May 1994 in the environs of Málaga, southern Spain. Both congenital anomalies may be potential causes of cardiac dysfunction, but apparently produced no significant cardiac complication in the shrew. This is the first report of a quadricuspid aortic valve in a wild-living mammal. PMID:9359065

  14. Normal and clinical haematology of greater and lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus and Phoeniconaias minor).

    PubMed

    Hawkey, C M; Hart, M G; Samour, H J

    1985-10-01

    Normal haematological reference values were obtained for Greater and Lesser flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus, Phoeniconaias minor). Statistically significant differences in the total white cell count and the absolute heterophil count were found in the two species. The reference values were used to identify abnormalities in the blood of five sick birds. Three of these were anaemic, all showed red cell hypochromia and four had heterophilia. The findings suggested that haematological testing is of potential diagnostic value in the species. PMID:18766947

  15. Pain assessment in cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Passmore, Peter; Cunningham, Emma

    2014-09-01

    Pain may adversely affect cognition through its effects on mood and sleep, and chronic pain has been associated with brain atrophy. Studies suggest that chronic pain is undertreated in cognitively impaired people. Pain assessment should involve direct enquiry with the patient; where this is not possible, a proxy history from a caregiver or nurse should be obtained, and observational scales may also be useful. This report is adapted from paineurope 2014; Issue 1, Haymarket Medical Publications Ltd., and is presented with permission. paineurope is provided as a service to pain management by Mundipharma International, Ltd., and is distributed free of charge to health care professionals in Europe. Archival issues can be accessed via the Web site: http://www.paineurope.com, at which European health professionals can register online to receive copies of the quarterly publication. PMID:25166774

  16. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint. PMID:20221997

  17. Impaired generation of new subcategories and switching in a semantic verbal fluency test in older adults with mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bertola, Laiss; Cunha Lima, Maria Luiza; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; de Moraes, Edgar N.; Diniz, Breno Satler; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    The semantic verbal fluency task is broadly used in the neuropsychological assessment of elderly subjects. Even some studies have identified differences in verbal fluency clustering and switching measures between subjects with normal aging and a clinical condition such as mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease, the results are not always consistent. This study aimed to compare clustering and switching measures of an animal's semantic verbal fluency task among normal controls (NC, n = 25), amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI; n = 25), amnestic multiple domain Mild Cognitive Impairment (a+mdMCI; n = 25) and Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 25) Brazilian subjects. The analyses were executed considering three (unifying the MCI subtypes) and four groups. As the data were not normally distributed, we carried out non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests) to evaluate the differences in performance in the measures of the verbal fluency test among the groups. The comparison demonstrated that the groups differed in the total of correct words produced, number of clusters and switching but the measure of new subcategories was the only with significant difference among the NC and all the clinical groups. The measure of new subcategories is the number of original subcategories inside the higher category of animals that the subject produced, such as farm, domestic, African animals. Our results indicate that semantic memory impairment is a visible and recent deficit that occurs even in non-demented subjects with very MCI and the implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25071550

  18. Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson Patients

    E-print Network

    Gluck, Mark

    Depression Impairs Learning Whereas Anticholinergics Impair Transfer Generalization in Parkinson. Gluck, PhDw Abstract: In a study of acquired equivalence in Parkinson disease (PD), in which patients that anticholinergic drugs may particularly impair cognitive abilities that depend on the MT lobe. Key Words: Parkinson

  19. Ego Depletion Impairs Implicit Learning

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kelsey R.; Sanchez, Daniel J.; Wesley, Abigail H.; Reber, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Implicit skill learning occurs incidentally and without conscious awareness of what is learned. However, the rate and effectiveness of learning may still be affected by decreased availability of central processing resources. Dual-task experiments have generally found impairments in implicit learning, however, these studies have also shown that certain characteristics of the secondary task (e.g., timing) can complicate the interpretation of these results. To avoid this problem, the current experiments used a novel method to impose resource constraints prior to engaging in skill learning. Ego depletion theory states that humans possess a limited store of cognitive resources that, when depleted, results in deficits in self-regulation and cognitive control. In a first experiment, we used a standard ego depletion manipulation prior to performance of the Serial Interception Sequence Learning (SISL) task. Depleted participants exhibited poorer test performance than did non-depleted controls, indicating that reducing available executive resources may adversely affect implicit sequence learning, expression of sequence knowledge, or both. In a second experiment, depletion was administered either prior to or after training. Participants who reported higher levels of depletion before or after training again showed less sequence-specific knowledge on the post-training assessment. However, the results did not allow for clear separation of ego depletion effects on learning versus subsequent sequence-specific performance. These results indicate that performance on an implicitly learned sequence can be impaired by a reduction in executive resources, in spite of learning taking place outside of awareness and without conscious intent. PMID:25275517

  20. Greater collagen-induced platelet aggregation following cyclooxygenase 1 inhibition predicts incident acute coronary syndromes.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Rehan; Becker, Diane M; Yanek, Lisa R; Faraday, Nauder; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Mathias, Rasika; Kral, Brian G; Becker, Lewis C

    2015-02-01

    Greater ex vivo platelet aggregation to agonists may identify individuals at risk of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, increased aggregation to a specific agonist may be masked by inherent variability in other activation pathways. In this study, we inhibited the cyclooxygenase-1 (COX1) pathway with 2-week aspirin therapy and measured residual aggregation to collagen and ADP to determine whether increased aggregation in a non-COX1 pathway is associated with incident ACS. We assessed ex vivo whole blood platelet aggregation in 1,699 healthy individuals with a family history of early-onset coronary artery disease followed for 6±1.2 years. Incident ACS events were observed in 22 subjects. Baseline aggregation was not associated with ACS. After COX1 pathway inhibition, collagen-induced aggregation was significantly greater in participants with ACS compared with those without (29.0 vs. 23.6 ohms, p < 0.001). In Cox proportional hazards models, this association remained significant after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors (HR = 1.10, 95%CI = 1.06-1.15; p < 0.001). In contrast, ADP-induced aggregation after COX1 inhibition was not associated with ACS. After COX1 pathway inhibition, subjects with greater collagen-induced platelet aggregation demonstrated a significant excess risk of incident ACS. These data suggest that platelet activation related to collagen may play an important role in the risk of ACS. PMID:25066685

  1. Damage to left frontal regulatory circuits produces greater positive emotional reactivity in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Virginia E; Yokoyama, Jennifer S; Eckart, Janet A; Zakrzewski, Jessica; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Levenson, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Positive emotions foster social relationships and motivate thought and action. Dysregulation of positive emotion may give rise to debilitating clinical symptomatology such as mania, risk-taking, and disinhibition. Neuroanatomically, there is extensive evidence that the left hemisphere of the brain, and the left frontal lobe in particular, plays an important role in positive emotion generation. Although prior studies have found that left frontal injury decreases positive emotion, it is not clear whether selective damage to left frontal emotion regulatory systems can actually increase positive emotion. We measured happiness reactivity in 96 patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), a neurodegenerative disease that targets emotion-relevant neural systems and causes alterations in positive emotion (i.e., euphoria and jocularity), and in 34 healthy controls. Participants watched a film clip designed to elicit happiness and a comparison film clip designed to elicit sadness while their facial behavior, physiological reactivity, and self-reported emotional experience were monitored. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed that atrophy in predominantly left hemisphere fronto-striatal emotion regulation systems including left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior insula, and striatum was associated with greater happiness facial behavior during the film (pFWE < .05). Atrophy in left anterior insula and bilateral frontopolar cortex was also associated with higher cardiovascular reactivity (i.e., heart rate and blood pressure) but not self-reported positive emotional experience during the happy film (p < .005, uncorrected). No regions emerged as being associated with greater sadness reactivity, which suggests that left-lateralized fronto-striatal atrophy is selectively associated with happiness dysregulation. Whereas previous models have proposed that left frontal injury decreases positive emotional responding, we argue that selective disruption of left hemisphere emotion regulating systems can impair the ability to suppress positive emotions such as happiness. PMID:25461707

  2. Science for Students with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricker, Kenneth S.

    This paper examines various aspects of teaching science to visually impaired students. It is based on the premise that students with visual impairments should acquire scientific literacy and should be encouraged to pursue science-related careers. It is not designed to make science teachers specialists but to increase their awareness to the unique…

  3. Neuropsychological impairment of face recognition units

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward H. F. De Haan; Andrew W. Young; Freda Newcombe

    1992-01-01

    Despite the absence of “conscious”, overt identification, some patients with face recognition impairments continue covertly to process information regarding face familiarity. The fact that by no means all patients show these covert effects has led to the suggestion that indirect recogntion tasks may help in identifying different types of face recognition impairment. The present report describes a number of experiments

  4. Library Automation Design for Visually Impaired People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtay, Nilufer; Bicil, Yucel; Celebi, Sait; Cit, Guluzar; Dural, Deniz

    2011-01-01

    Speech synthesis is a technology used in many different areas in computer science. This technology can bring a solution to reading activity of visually impaired people due to its text to speech conversion. Based on this problem, in this study, a system is designed needed for a visually impaired person to make use of all the library facilities in…

  5. Spatial Coding of Individuals with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Konstantinos; Koustriava, Eleni; Kartasidou, Lefkothea

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the ability of children and adolescents with visual impairments to code and represent near space. Moreover, it examines the impact of the strategies they use and individual differences in their performance. A total of 30 individuals with visual impairments up to the age of 18 were given eight different object…

  6. Counseling the Chronically Health Impaired Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brian, Comp.; And Others

    The role of counselors in working with chronically health impaired students is examined, and illustrations of the Chronic Health Impaired/Sickle Cell Anemia Program in Baltimore (MD) are presented. The importance of setting goals with the student is underlined, as is the necessity for counselors to have proper flexibility and time to devote to…

  7. Signs and Symptoms of the Impaired Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Shirley; Markos, Patricia A.

    1996-01-01

    Although the problem of impaired professionals has been with us for as long as professionals have been so designated, this article considers potential harm to clients and the profession's obligation to monitor its members and provide appropriate rehabilitation. Definitions of distress and professional impairment are discussed, as are the…

  8. Pain in cognitively impaired nursing home patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce A. Ferrell; Betty R. Ferrell; Lynne Rivera

    1995-01-01

    Pain is an understudied problem in frail elderly patients, especially those with cognitive impairment, delirium, or dementia. The focus of this study was to describe the pain experienced by patients in skilled nursing homes, which have a high prevalence of cognitive impairment. A random sample of 325 subjects was selected from ten community skilled nursing homes. Subjects underwent a cross-sectional

  9. Pegasus Project for the Hearing-Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Jane M.

    The Pegasus Project offered nine gifted hearing impaired students (11-15 years old) a summer enrichment experience with hearing peers. Courses included computer programming, literature, fine arts, physical and biological sciences, math enrichment, and sign language. All hearing impaired students also attended a special class on issues for the…

  10. Alarm System for Credit Losses Impairment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Alarm System for Credit Losses Impairment Yahia SALHI Pierre-E. THÉROND January 13, 2014 credit losses related to loans commitments and nancial guarantee contracts. In an exposure draft with a new impairment losses mechanism: Expected Credit Losses. In this paper, after a brief description

  11. PERCENT OF IMPAIRED WATERS - 1998 IWI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Importance of Clean Water Act Section 303(d) Listing Information Section 303(d) waters show water quality standards impairments or threats to the attainment of beneficial uses or anti-degradation provisions. This map is a representation of threatened and impaired streams, rivers,...

  12. The Concepts of Impairment, Disability and Handicap

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Orgogozo

    1994-01-01

    The International Classification of Disease (ICD-10) produced by the World Health Organization in 1993 distinguishes between etiology, pathology and manifestations of disease but is based principally on etiology. The International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps (ICIDH, 1980) is partly based on the ICD but differs from it in several respects. It recognizes impairment as an exteriorized loss of structure,

  13. Statistics on Children with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viisola, Michelle

    This report summarizes statistical data relating to children with visual impairments, including incidence, causes, and education. Data include: (1) prevalence estimates that indicate 1 percent of persons under the age of 18 in the United States have a visual impairment that cannot be corrected with glasses; (2) the leading cause of childhood…

  14. SPECIAL ARTICLE Cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders

    E-print Network

    -affective and affective psychosis domains. We end with an overview of the assessment of cognition in the DSM-5. COGNITIVESPECIAL ARTICLE Cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders: common mechanisms and measurement evidence of cognitive impairments in psychotic disorders. Individuals with schizophrenia appear

  15. Resources for Visually Impaired or Blind Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…

  16. A Randomized Clinical Trial of MK-0777 for the Treatment of Cognitive Impairments in People with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Robert W.; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Barch, Deanna M.; Csernansky, John G.; Goff, Donald C.; Gold, James M.; Green, Michael F.; Jarskog, L. Fredrik; Javitt, Daniel C.; Kimhy, David; Kraus, Michael S.; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Mesholam-Gately, Raquelle I.; Seidman, Larry J.; Ball, M. Patricia; McMahon, Robert P.; Kern, Robert S.; Robinson, James; Marder, Stephen R.

    2010-01-01

    Background In a previous pilot study, MK-0777, a GABAA ?2/?3 partial agonist, was reported to improve delayed memory and cognitive measures of prefrontal cortical function in people with schizophrenia. The current study was designed to further examine the efficacy and safety of MK-0777 for the treatment of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. Methods Sixty people with DSM-IV schizophrenia entered a 4-week, multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized to either: MK-0777 3mg BID (n=18); MK-0777 8mg BID (n=21); or placebo (n=21). Participants were clinically stable. The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), AX-CPT and N-Back were used to assess cognition. The UCSD Performance Based Skills Assessment-2 (UPSA-2) and the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) assessed functional capacity and served as functional outcome co-primary measures. Results There were no significant group differences on the primary outcome measure, the MCCB composite score. Secondary analyses suggested that participants randomized to placebo performed significantly better on visual memory and reasoning/problem-solving tests than participants assigned to either MK-0777 dose. There were no significant group differences on the AX-CPT or N-Back d prime scores or UPSA-2 and SCoRS total scores. In general, MK-0777 was well tolerated with minimal side effects. Conclusions The study results suggest that MK-0777 has little benefit for cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia. The GABAA receptor remains a promising target, but a more potent partial agonist with greater intrinsic activity at the GABAA ?2 site may be needed for cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia. PMID:21145041

  17. [Therapeutic correction of mild cognitive impairment in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia].

    PubMed

    Odinak, M M; Kashin, A V; Ememlin, A Iu; Lupanov, I A

    2013-01-01

    Neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases are the most significant among the main reasons leading to the cognitive impairment of the elderly. Vascular cognitive impairment is not limited to only dementia, representing a heterogeneous group both in pathogenic and clinical terms. The article dwells upon new principles of vascular cognitive impairment's classification and the review of their possible therapeutic correction that was conducted. The article includes the results of the 12-week open therapeutic (randomized with the control group) study of efficiency and safety of vitrum memory for patients with mild vascular cognitive impairment. It is shown that the therapy significantly improved the state of neurodynamic and regulatory functions of the patients with I--II stage dyscirculatory encephalopathy. PMID:23739499

  18. An Alternative Option to Dedicated Braille Notetakers for People with Visual Impairments: Universal Technology for Better Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Sunggye

    2012-01-01

    Technology provides equal access to information and helps people with visual impairments to complete tasks more independently. Among various assistive technology options for people with visual impairments, braille notetakers have been considered the most significant because of their technological innovation. Braille notetakers allow users who are…

  19. Providing Hearing-Impaired Students with Learning Care after Classes through Smart Phones and the GPRS Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Hong, Yi-Ching

    2007-01-01

    Although computers and network technology have been widely utilised to assist students learn, few technical supports have been developed to help hearing-impaired students learn in Taiwan. A significant challenge for teachers is to provide after-class learning care and assistance to hearing-impaired students that sustain their motivation to…

  20. Providing hearing-impaired students with learning care after classes through smart phones and the GPRS network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Chung Liu; Yi-Ching Hong

    2007-01-01

    Although computers and network technology have been widely utilised to assist students learn, few technical supports have been developed to help hearing-impaired students learn in Taiwan. A significant challenge for teachers is to provide after-class learning care and assistance to hearing- impaired students that sustain their motivation to participate in continuous learning activities. However, lacking an effective communication channel, teachers

  1. Different Origin of Auditory and Phonological Processing Problems in Children with Language Impairment: Evidence from a Twin Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, D. V. M.; Bishop, Sonia J.; Bright, Peter; James, Cheryl; Delaney, Tom; Tallal, Paula

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 55 children with a language impairment and 76 with normal language investigated the heritability of auditory processing impairment in same-sex twins (ages 7 to 13, selected from a sample of 37 pairs). Although correlations between co-twins were high, lack of significant difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins suggested…

  2. Does Aggressive Phototherapy Increase Mortality while Decreasing Profound Impairment among the Smallest and Sickest Newborns?

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Jon E; Pedroza, Claudia; Langer, John; Green, Charles; Morris, Brenda; Stevenson, David; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Oh, William; Phelps, Dale; O’Shea, Michael; McDavid, Georgia E.; Grisby, Cathy; Higgins, Rose

    2013-01-01

    Objective Aggressive phototherapy (AgPT) is widely used and assumed to be safe and effective for even the most immature infants. We assessed whether the benefits and hazards for the smallest and sickest infants differed from those for other extremely low birth weight (ELBW; (?1000 g) infants in our Neonatal Research Network trial, the only large trial of AgPT. Study Design ELBW infants (n=1974) were randomized to AgPT or conservative phototherapy at age 12–36 hours. The effect of AgPT on outcomes (death; impairment; profound impairment; death or impairment [primary outcome], and death or profound impairment) at 18–22 months corrected age was related to BW stratum (501–750 g; 751–1000 g) and baseline severity of illness using multilevel regression equations. The probability of benefit and of harm was directly assessed with Bayesian analyses. Results Baseline illness severity was well characterized using mechanical ventilation and FiO2 at 24 hours age. Among mechanically ventilated infants ?750 g BW (n =684), a reduction in impairment and in profound impairment was offset by higher mortality (p for interaction <0.05) with no significant effect on composite outcomes. Conservative Bayesian analyses of this subgroup identified a 99% (posterior) probability that AgPT increased mortality, a 97% probability that AgPT reduced impairment, and a 99% probability that AgPT reduced profound impairment. Conclusions Findings from the only large trial of AgPT suggest that AgPT may increase mortality while reducing impairment and profound impairment among the smallest and sickest infants. New approaches to reduce their serum bilirubin need development and rigorous testing. PMID:22652561

  3. Visual impairment, visual functioning, and quality of life assessments in patients with glaucoma.

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, R K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: To determine the relation between visual impairment, visual functioning, and the global quality of life in patients with glaucoma. METHODS: Visual impairment, defined with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment; visual functioning, measured with the VF-14 and the Field Test Version of the National Eye Institute-Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ); and the global quality of life, assessed with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), were determined in 147 consecutive patients with glaucoma. RESULTS: None of the SF-36 domains demonstrated more than a weak correlation with visual impairment. The VF-14 scores were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual impairment. Of the twelve NEI-VFQ scales, distance activities and vision specific dependency were moderately correlated with visual field impairment; vision specific social functioning, near activities, vision specific role difficulties, general vision, vision specific mental health, color vision, and driving were modestly correlated; visual pain was weakly correlated; and two were not significantly correlated. Correcting for visual actuity weakened the strength of the correlation coefficients. CONCLUSIONS: The SF-36 is unlikely to be useful in determining visual impairment in patients with glaucoma. Based on the moderate correlation between visual field impairment and the VF-14 score, this questionnaire may be generalizable to patients with glaucoma. Several of the NEI-VFQ scales correlate with visual field impairment scores in patients with a wide range of glaucomatous damage. PMID:8981717

  4. Analyses of sexual dimorphism of reconstructed pelvic computed tomography images of contemporary Japanese using curvature of the greater sciatic notch, pubic arch and greater pelvis.

    PubMed

    Biwasaka, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Sato, Kei; Tanijiri, Toyohisa; Fujita, Sachiko; Dewa, Koji; Yoshioka, Kunihiro; Tomabechi, Makiko

    2012-06-10

    Three-dimensional pelvic images were reconstructed from multi-slice CT data of contemporary Japanese (males: 124; females: 104, 25-92 years old), and curvature analysis to examine sexual dimorphism was carried out in the great sciatic notch (GSN), the pubic arch and the greater pelvis in the images. Reconstructed pelvic CT images were visualized fairly well and anatomical landmarks were easily recognizable. When calculating the radii (curvature radii) of the best-fit circles for the spline curve lines set along the edges of the GSNs and of the pubic arches, sexes from these regions were correctly identified in 89.1% (males: 93.8%; females: 83.7%) and 94.7% (males: 97.3%; females: 91.8%) of cases, respectively, by setting an appropriate cut-off value. Furthermore, sexing was possible even in deeper regions of the GSN which are relatively resistant to postmortem damage. Curvature radii of the best-fit spheres of greater pelves showed no significant difference between sexes. However, curvature of the best-fit sphere for the left iliac fossa was significantly larger than that of the right one (p<10(-24)) in males, and the ratios were >1.0 in 88% of all male specimens analyzed. Meanwhile, no significant difference was observed among female samples. Although some left-sided dominancy has been reported in 2-dimensional measurements of the human pelvis, this 3-dimensional laterality in males was much more significant, and is a potential index of sex difference. PMID:22196912

  5. Progression to dementia in a population with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: clinical variables associated with conversion

    PubMed Central

    Mauri, Marco; Sinforiani, Elena; Zucchella, Chiara; Cuzzoni, Maria Giovanna; Bono, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to investigate clinical predictors of, and rates of conversion to, dementia syndrome in a case series of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Two hundred and eight aMCI subjects were followed over a six-year period. A lower Mini Mental State Examination score was a significant predictor of dementia, and mild cognitive impairment patients with behavioral and psychiatric symptoms showed a faster conversion rate. PMID:22687167

  6. Impaired color discrimination among viscose rayon workers exposed to carbon disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Raitta, C.; Teir, H.; Tolonen, M.; Nurminen, M.; Helpioe, E.M.; Malmstroem, S.

    1981-03-01

    A possible effect of chronic carbon disulfide exposure on the optic nerve was studied by giving the Farnsworth Munsell 100-Hue Test for color discrimination to 62 exposed and 40 nonexposed men. Carbon disulfide exposure did not relate to specific pattern defects in color discrimination, but impaired color discrimination occurred significantly more often in the exposed group than among the referents. The abnormal findings suggest an impairment in the receptiveness of the ganglion cells or demyelination of the optic nerve fibers.

  7. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

  8. Does development affect the error-related negativity of impaired and skilled readers? An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi

    2011-01-01

    Previous findings of reduced error-related and correct-related negativities (ERN/CRN) and semantic N400 responses associated with reading errors among impaired adult readers led to the current study on age effects on these components. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 43 adolescents and 46 adults, including skilled readers and persons with a history of reading disability, on a lexical decision task. Adolescents exhibited smaller ERN amplitudes and larger N400 amplitudes during reading errors, presumably due to the late maturation of the prefrontal cortex. The ERN amplitude difference between impaired and skilled readers was smaller in adolescents than adults, and adolescents exhibited a smaller N400 difference between correct and erroneous responses than adults. ERN amplitude increased with age in impaired readers. It is postulated that the still developing mental lexicon among adolescents results in greater semantic effort and reduced ERN differences. PMID:21978012

  9. Physical activity, obesity, and cognitive impairment among women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Patricia; Julian, Laura; Tonner, Mary C.; Yazdany, Jinoos; Trupin, Laura; Yelin, Edward; Criswell, Lindsey A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Examine relationships of obesity and physical inactivity to cognitive impairment in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Body composition was measured with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for 138 women with SLE. Obesity was defined by total % body fat. Physical activity was ascertained with the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ); inactivity was defined as expenditure of ?600 metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes/week. Cognitive function was assessed with a 12-index neuropsychological battery. Impairment was defined as age-adjusted z-scores ?1.5 SDs below mean on 1/3 of tests completed. Scores were obtained for the total battery and for memory and executive function components. Multivariate analyses examined the relationship of obesity and physical activity, individually and combined, with cognitive impairment, controlling for education, race/ethnicity, disease activity, glucocorticoid use, and depression. Results 20% of subjects were cognitively impaired, 28% physically inactive, and 50% obese. 5% of active women were impaired on the executive function battery, compared to 23% of those who were inactive (p=0.003). Obese women were more likely to be impaired on the total battery (6% vs. 23%, p=0.007) and on the executive function portion (2% vs. 19%) than non-obese women. In multivariate analysis, both inactivity and DXA-defined obesity were significantly associated with impairment in executive function (Inactivity: OR=9.4 [1.7, 52.8]; Obesity: OR=14.8 [1.4, 151.0]). Conclusion Both obesity and inactivity were significantly and independently associated with impairment in cognitive function. If longitudinal studies show that physical inactivity and obesity are precursors to cognitive impairment, these may become important targets for intervention. PMID:22337564

  10. Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the

    E-print Network

    Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared See Also: Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the Flathead, Stillwater, & Swan River Valleys Appendix 29 #12;Ecologically Significant Wetlands in the North Fork Flathead River Watershed Prepared

  11. A window of vulnerability: impaired fear extinction in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Baker, Kathryn D; Den, Miriam L; Graham, Bronwyn M; Richardson, Rick

    2014-09-01

    There have been significant advances made towards understanding the processes mediating extinction of learned fear. However, despite being of clear theoretical and clinical significance, very few studies have examined fear extinction in adolescence, which is often described as a developmental window of vulnerability to psychological disorders. This paper reviews the relatively small body of research examining fear extinction in adolescence. A prominent finding of this work is that adolescents, both humans and rodents, exhibit a marked impairment in extinction relative to both younger (e.g., juvenile) and older (e.g., adult) groups. We then review some potential mechanisms that could produce the striking extinction deficit observed in adolescence. For example, one neurobiological candidate mechanism for impaired extinction in adolescence involves changes in the functional connectivity within the fear extinction circuit, particularly between prefrontal cortical regions and the amygdala. In addition, we review research on emotion regulation and attention processes that suggests that developmental changes in attention bias to threatening cues may be a cognitive mechanism that mediates age-related differences in extinction learning. We also examine how a differential reaction to chronic stress in adolescence impacts upon extinction retention during adolescence as well as in later life. Finally, we consider the findings of several studies illustrating promising approaches that overcome the typically-observed extinction impairments in adolescent rodents and that could be translated to human adolescents. PMID:24513634

  12. Impaired metacognitive capacities in individuals with problem gambling.

    PubMed

    Brevers, Damien; Cleeremans, Axel; Bechara, Antoine; Greisen, Max; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Impaired insight into behavior may be one of the clinical characteristics of pathological gambling. In the present study, we tested whether the capacity to evaluate accurately the quality of one's own decisions during a non-gambling task was impaired in problem gamblers. Twenty-five problem gamblers and 25 matched healthy participants performed an artificial grammar-learning paradigm, in which the quality of choice remains uncertain throughout the task. After each trial of this task, participants had to indicate how confident they were in the grammaticality judgements using a scale ranging from 1 (low confidence) to 7 (high confidence). Results showed that (i), problem gamblers' performance on the grammaticality test was lower than controls'; (ii) there was a significant correlation between grammaticality judgments and confidence for control participants, which indicates metacognitive insight and the presence of conscious knowledge; (iii) this correlation was not significant in problem gamblers, which suggests a disconnection between performance and confidence in this group. These findings suggest that problem gamblers are impaired in their metacognitive abilities on a non-gambling task, which suggests that compulsive gambling is associated with poor insight as a general factor. Clinical interventions tailored to improve metacognition in gambling could be a fruitful avenue of research in order to prevent pathological gambling. PMID:23149513

  13. The significance of development economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Nawab Haider Naqvi

    1996-01-01

    Development economics focuses on the elemental forces that raise per capita income. A key factor in this process is the growth-generating reallocation of labor and capital among sectors, an aspect missed completely by all versions of the neoclassical growth theory. The relevance of our discipline to development policy remains undiminished by a greater recognition of market forces and freer international

  14. Disrupted flow sensing impairs hydrodynamic performance and increases the metabolic cost of swimming in the yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi.

    PubMed

    Yanase, Kazutaka; Herbert, Neill A; Montgomery, John C

    2012-11-15

    The yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi, shows a distribution of anaerobic and aerobic (red and pink) muscle fibres along the trunk that is characteristic of active pelagic fishes. The athletic capacity of S. lalandi is also shown by its relative high standard metabolic rate and optimal (i.e. least cost) swimming speed. To test the hypothesis that lateral line afferent information contributes to efficient locomotion in an active pelagic species, the swimming performance of S. lalandi was evaluated after unilateral disruption of trunk superficial neuromasts (SNs). Unilaterally disrupting the SNs of the lateral line impaired both swimming performance and energetic efficiency. The critical swimming speed (U(crit); mean ± s.d., N=12) for unilaterally SN-disrupted fish was 2.11±0.96 fork lengths (FL) s(-1), which was significantly slower than the 3.66±0.19 FL s(-1) U(crit) of sham SN-disrupted fish. The oxygen consumption rate (mg O(2) kg(-1) min(-1)) of the unilaterally SN-disrupted fish in a speed range of 1.0-2.2 FL s(-1) was significantly greater than that of the sham SN-disrupted fish. The least gross cost of transport (GCOT; N=6) for SN-disrupted fish was 0.18±0.06 J N(-1) m(-1), which was significantly greater than the 0.11±0.03 J N(-1) m(-1) GCOT for sham SN-disrupted fish. The factorial metabolic scope (N=6) of the unilaterally SN-disrupted fish (2.87±0.78) was significantly less than that of sham controls (4.14±0.37). These data show that an intact lateral line is important to the swimming performance and efficiency of carangiform swimmers, but the functional mechanism of this effect remains to be determined. PMID:22899528

  15. An fMRI study of neural pathways following acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuanyuan; Bai, Lijun; Wang, Hu; Zhong, Chongguang; You, Youbo; Zhang, Wensheng; Tian, Jie

    2012-03-01

    While the use of acupuncture as a complementary therapeutic method for treating MCI is popular in certain parts of the world, the underlying mechanism is still elusive. In the current study, we adopted multivariate Granger causality analysis (mGCA) to explore the causal interactions of brain networks involving acupuncture in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). The fMRI experiment was performed with two different paradigms: namely, deep acupuncture (DA) and superficial acupuncture (SA) at acupoint KI3. Results demonstrated that deep acupuncture could modulate the abnormal regions in MCI group. These regions are implicated in memory encoding and retrieving. This may relate to the purported therapeutically beneficial effects of acupuncture for the treatment of MCI. However, the most significant causal interactions were found in the sensorimotor regions in HC group. This may because acupuncture has a greater modulatory effect on patients with a pathological imbalance. This paper provides the preliminary neurophysiological evidence for the potential efficacy effect of acupuncture on MCI.

  16. Perceived emotional intelligence is impaired and associated with poor community functioning in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Tabak, Naomi T; Green, Michael F; Wynn, Jonathan K; Proudfit, Greg H; Altshuler, Lori; Horan, William P

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have been associated with shared and distinct emotion processing abnormalities. Initial findings indicate that these disorders differ with respect to the domain of emotional intelligence (EI). Individuals with schizophrenia display deficits on performance measures of EI, whereas those with bipolar disorder do not. However, no research has examined patients' subjective beliefs about their own EI (referred to as "perceived EI"). This study examined perceived EI, assessed with the Trait Meta-Mood Scale (TMMS), and its clinical and functional correlates in outpatients with schizophrenia (n=35) or bipolar disorder I (n=38) and matched healthy controls (n=35). The TMMS includes three subscales that assess beliefs about one's ability to attend to (Attention to Feelings), understand (Clarity of Feelings), and repair emotions (Mood Repair). Participants in the clinical groups also completed community functioning and symptom assessments. Both clinical groups reported significantly lower perceived EI than controls, but did not differ from each other. Higher total TMMS correlated with higher levels of independent living in the schizophrenia group (r=.36) and better social functioning in the bipolar group (r=.61). In addition, although higher Attention to Feelings scores correlated with greater psychiatric symptoms in the schizophrenia group, higher scores across all subscales correlated with less manic symptoms in the bipolar group. The findings suggest that perceived EI is impaired and related to community functioning in both disorders. PMID:25579055

  17. Utility of AD8 for Cognitive Impairment in a Chinese Physical Examination Population: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yue; Gao, Ya; Jia, Jianjun; Wang, Xiaohong; Wang, Zhenfu; Xie, Hengge

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the utility of AD8 for cognitive impairment in a Chinese physical examination population. Methods. Military cadres who took routine physical examination in Chinese PLA General Hospital from Jan 1, 2013, to Dec 31, 2013, were subjected to AD8 scale. Individual information such as age, gender, and education was also collected. All data were analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Results. 1544 subjects were enrolled in this study with mean age 75.4 ± 10.6 years. The subjects who scored 0 to 8 of AD8 scale were 1015, 269, 120, 60, 30, 14, 19, 8, and 9, respectively. Corresponding proportions were 65.7%, 17.4%, 7.8%, 3.9%, 2.0%, 0.9%, 1.2%, 0.5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of 8 questions was 5.6%, 9.2%, 6.6%, 9.2%, 4.8%, 4.5%, 8.9%, and 24.1%, respectively. The endorsement prevalence of question 8 was significantly higher than others (P < 0.05). 260 subjects were scored equal to or greater than 2. The abnormal rate was 16.9%. All the participants were stratified into 9 groups by age; the prevalence of dementia was highly correlated with age (P < 0.01). Conclusion. AD8 scale is a convenient and effective tool for cognitive screening in routine physical examination population. PMID:25436227

  18. Auditory training of speech recognition with interrupted and continuous noise maskers by children with hearing impairment

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Jessica R.; Thibodeau, Linda M.; Assmann, Peter F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that individuals with normal hearing (NH) experience a perceptual advantage for speech recognition in interrupted noise compared to continuous noise. In contrast, adults with hearing impairment (HI) and younger children with NH receive a minimal benefit. The objective of this investigation was to assess whether auditory training in interrupted noise would improve speech recognition in noise for children with HI and perhaps enhance their utilization of glimpsing skills. A partially-repeated measures design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of seven 1-h sessions of auditory training in interrupted and continuous noise. Speech recognition scores in interrupted and continuous noise were obtained from pre-, post-, and 3 months post-training from 24 children with moderate-to-severe hearing loss. Children who participated in auditory training in interrupted noise demonstrated a significantly greater improvement in speech recognition compared to those who trained in continuous noise. Those who trained in interrupted noise demonstrated similar improvements in both noise conditions while those who trained in continuous noise only showed modest improvements in the interrupted noise condition. This study presents direct evidence that auditory training in interrupted noise can be beneficial in improving speech recognition in noise for children with HI. PMID:23297921

  19. Obesity is associated with impaired immune response to influenza vaccination in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, P A; Paich, H A; Handy, J; Karlsson, E A; Hudgens, M G; Sammon, A B; Holland, L A; Weir, S; Noah, T L; Beck, M A

    2012-01-01

    Background: Obesity is an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality from pandemic influenza H1N1. Influenza is a significant public health threat, killing an estimated 250?000–500?000 people worldwide each year. More than one in ten of the world's adult population is obese and more than two-thirds of the US adult population is overweight or obese. No studies have compared humoral or cellular immune responses to influenza vaccination in healthy weight, overweight and obese populations despite clear public health importance. Objective: The study employed a convenience sample to determine the antibody response to the 2009–2010 inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in healthy weight, overweight and obese participants at 1 and 12 months post vaccination. In addition, activation of CD8+ T cells and expression of interferon-? and granzyme B were measured in influenza-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. Results: Body mass index (BMI) correlated positively with higher initial fold increase in IgG antibodies detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to TIV, confirmed by HAI antibody in a subset study. However, 12 months post vaccination, higher BMI was associated with a greater decline in influenza antibody titers. PBMCs challenged ex vivo with vaccine strain virus, demonstrated that obese individuals had decreased CD8+ T-cell activation and decreased expression of functional proteins compared with healthy weight individuals. Conclusion: These results suggest obesity may impair the ability to mount a protective immune response to influenza virus. PMID:22024641

  20. Impact of Depression, Fatigue, and Global Measure of Cortical Volume on Cognitive Impairment in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    De Cola, Maria Cristina; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Sessa, Edoardo; Marino, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the influence of demographic and clinical variables, such as depression, fatigue, and quantitative MRI marker on cognitive performances in a sample of patients affected by multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods. 60 MS patients (52 relapsing remitting and 8 primary progressive) underwent neuropsychological assessments using Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests (BRB-N), the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II), and the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). We performed magnetic resonance imaging to all subjects using a 3?T scanner and obtained tissue-specific volumes (normalized brain volume and cortical brain volume). We used Student's t-test to compare depressed and nondepressed MS patients. Finally, we performed a multivariate regression analysis in order to assess possible predictors of patients' cognitive outcome among demographic and clinical variables. Results. 27.12% of the sample (16/59) was cognitively impaired, especially in tasks requiring attention and information processing speed. From between group comparison, we find that depressed patients had worse performances on BRB-N score, greater disability and disease duration, and brain volume decrease. According to multiple regression analysis, the BDI-II score was a significant predictor for most of the neuropsychological tests. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that the presence of depressive symptoms is an important determinant of cognitive performance in MS patients.

  1. Computer related self-efficacy and anxiety in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Katherine V.; Mattek, Nora; Maxwell, Shoshana A.; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Jimison, Holly B.; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines differences in computer related self-efficacy and anxiety in subgroups of older adults, and changes in those measures following exposure to a systematic training program and subsequent computer use. Methods Participants were volunteers in the Intelligent Systems for Assessment of Aging Changes Study (ISAAC) carried out by the Oregon Center for Aging and Technology. Participants were administered two questionnaires prior to training and again one year later, related to computer self-efficacy and anxiety. Continuous recording of computer use was also assessed for a subset of participants. Results Baseline comparisons by gender, age, education, living arrangement, and computer proficiency, but not cognitive status, yielded significant differences in confidence and anxiety related to specific aspects of computer use. At one-year follow-up, participants reported less anxiety and greater confidence. However, the benefits of training and exposure varied by group and task. Comparisons based on cognitive status showed that the cognitively intact participants benefited more from training and/or experience with computers than did participants with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), who after one year continued to report less confidence and more anxiety regarding certain aspects of computer use. Conclusion After one year of consistent computer use, cognitively intact participants in this study reported reduced levels of anxiety and increased self-confidence in their ability to perform specific computer tasks. Participants with MCI at baseline were less likely to demonstrate increased efficacy or confidence than their cognitively intact counterparts. PMID:23102124

  2. Modified osteotomy for symptomatic malunion of the humeral greater tuberosity.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Kiyohisa; Matsumura, Noboru; Yoshida, Atsushi

    2014-12-01

    Here, we describe a modified osteotomy for malunion of the greater tuberosity that facilitates bone union and prevents symptom recurrence. The 3 most important features of this technique are: (1) osteotomizing the displaced fragment that includes the bed of the fracture, (2) placing figure-of-eight sutures by passing suture threads from inside the medullary cavity through osseous holes made in the metaphysis, and (3) pushing the distal end of the osteotomized fragment into the medullary cavity and fixing it in place. This procedure was performed on 10 patients who complained of clinical symptoms derived primarily from greater tuberosity malunion after fractures of various morphologies. Eight of these patients were available for follow-up examinations over 2 postoperative years. Constant score ratios comparing the repaired side to the uninjured side ranged from 82% to 100%. These results support the use of this modified osteotomy in achieving favorable bone union and in creating sufficient subacromial space to resolve most symptoms caused by these malunited proximal humeral fractures. PMID:24662991

  3. Greater Platte River Basins - Science to Sustain Ecosystems and Communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thormodsgard, June M.

    2009-01-01

    The Greater Platte River Basins (GPRB), located in the heartland of the United States, provides a collaborative opportunity for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners to understand the sustainability of natural and managed ecosystems under changing climate and resource requirements.The Greater Platte River Basins, an area of about 140,000 square miles, sustains thousands of acres of lakes and wetlands, which provide a staging and resting area for the North American Central Flyway. Part of the GPRB is within the U.S. Corn Belt, one of the most productive agricultural ecosystems on Earth. Changes in water and land use, changing patterns of snowmelt in the Rocky Mountains, drought, and increasing demands for irrigation have reduced flows in the Platte River. These changes raise questions about the sustainability of the region for both wildlife and agriculture.The USGS and partners are developing a science strategy that will help natural-resource managers address and balance the needs of this region.

  4. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  5. Cognitive impairment and electroencephalographic alterations before and after liver transplantation: what is reversible?

    PubMed

    Campagna, Francesca; Montagnese, Sara; Schiff, Sami; Biancardi, Anna; Mapelli, Daniela; Angeli, Paolo; Poci, Carlo; Cillo, Umberto; Merkel, Carlo; Gatta, Angelo; Amodio, Piero

    2014-08-01

    The influence of liver transplantation (LT) on mental performance is debated, as is the role of pretransplant overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE). The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of the neuropsychological and electroencephalogram (EEG) features of patients with cirrhosis before and after LT with respect to prior OHE. The study population included 65 patients with cirrhosis on the transplant waiting list; 23 had a history of OHE. Each patient underwent an extensive psychometric assessment (10 tests, including paper and pencil tests and a computerized test) and an EEG before and 9 to 12 months after LT. For a subgroup of 11 patients, the assessment was also performed 3 and 6 months after LT. EEGs were analyzed spectrally, and the mean dominant frequencies were obtained. Both psychometric tests and EEGs improved 9 to 12 months after LT. Patients with a history of OHE before LT had worse cognitive performances (P < 0.001) and EEG performances in comparison with their counterparts with a negative history. They also showed greater cognitive improvement after LT (P < 0.01); however, their global cognitive performance remained slightly impaired (P < 0.01). After LT, EEGs normalized for 98% of the patients (P < 0.01), regardless of any history of OHE. In the subgroup of patients evaluated every 3 months, psychometric and EEG findings showed deterioration at 3 months and subsequently steady improvements from 6 months onward. In conclusion, both neuropsychological and EEG performances had significantly improved 1 year after LT. Patients with a history of OHE showed greater improvements after LT than patients with a negative history, but their global cognitive function remained slightly worse; in contrast, EEGs normalized in both groups. PMID:24809329

  6. Endocrine disruption and reproduction impairment in zebrafish after long-term exposure to DE-71.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liqin; Liu, Chunsheng; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on fish reproduction over 2 generations. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos (F0) were exposed to low concentrations (3?µg/L, 10?µg/L, and 30?µg/L) of the PBDE mixture DE-71 until they were sexually mature, and steroid hormone production, expression of genes involved in steroidogenesis, gonadal development, and gamete characteristics were examined. Exposure of female zebrafish to DE-71 resulted in lower estradiol production and downregulation of cytochrome P450 aromatase mRNA. In males, exposure to DE-71 resulted in greater testosterone production and greater cytochrome P450 c17 ?-hydroxylase,17,20-lase mRNA expression. Moreover, hepatic vitellogenin mRNA and estrogenic receptor ? gene transcription were downregulated in females and males. Expression of the follicle-stimulating hormone ? gene in the pituitary was upregulated, and the expression of luteinizing hormone ? was downregulated in both sexes. Histological examination showed inhibition of oocyte maturation in females and retarded spermiation in males. The average number of eggs (F1) produced was also reduced. Additionally, exposure of F0 embryos to DE-71 did not result in developmental toxicity, whereas delayed hatching, reduced survival, and decreased growth were observed in the F1 embryos derived from parent fish exposed to DE-71. Therefore, long-term exposure to low concentrations of PBDEs in zebrafish could cause reproductive impairment, suggesting that PBDEs might have significant adverse effects on fish population in the highly PBDEs-contaminated aquatic environment. PMID:24596126

  7. Colour vision impairment in workers exposed to low concentrations of toluene.

    PubMed

    Zavali?, M; Turk, R; Bogadi-Sare, A; Skender, L

    1996-06-01

    Colour vision was examined by the Lanthony-D-15 desaturated test in 41 women exposed to toluene and in 29 non-exposed referents. Toluene exposure was evaluated by methods of environmental and biological monitoring. In the exposed group the median value of toluene in air was 35 ppm (range 11.2-49.9 ppm). Quantitative colour vision impairment was expressed as colour confusion index and colour confusion index corrected for alcohol intake. Qualitative impairment was expressed as normal, yellow-blue, red-green range or complex impairment. Statistical analysis showed the index values to be significantly correlated with age in both groups. In the exposed group they were significantly higher than in the non-exposed group. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of impairment in the blue-yellow range between the examined groups, although the prevalence of impairment in the exposed group was higher than in the non-exposed one. Results suggest that exposure to low toluene concentrations may induce colour vision impairment in women. PMID:8905935

  8. Impaired cognitive performance in patients with chronic burnout syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Agneta; Rhodin, Ingalill Nyström; Lundberg, Mattias; Olsson, Tommy; Nyberg, Lars

    2005-07-01

    Chronic burnout refers to a syndrome caused by chronic stress. Clinical observations indicate that chronic burnout is associated with impaired cognitive functioning. However, there have been no systematic studies of the cognitive performance in chronic burnout patients. We have evaluated general cognitive ability, memory, and attention in 67 female patients treated for chronic burnout. The patients and 15 healthy control subjects were tested with standardized tests of verbal and nonverbal cognitive ability (WAIS), verbal (Claeson-Dahl) and nonverbal (Rey complex figures) memory, and visual and auditory attention (IVA). Significant reductions in nonverbal memory and auditory and visual attention were found for the patient group. These results indicate that patients with chronic burnout have specific cognitive impairments, which should be emphasized in the evaluation of symptoms and treatment regimes in this disorder. PMID:15925030

  9. Multiple pathways to functional impairment in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Markarian, Yeraz; Larson, Michael J; Aldea, Mirela A; Baldwin, Scott A; Good, Daniel; Berkeljon, Arjan; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A; McKay, Dean

    2010-02-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic and debilitating condition that is relatively common in both children and adults, and it is associated with a wide range of functional impairments. Mental health researchers and practitioners have placed considerable attention on OCD over the past two decades, with the goal of advancing treatment and understanding its etiology. Until recently, it was unknown to what extent this disorder was associated with functional impairment. However, recent research shows that the condition has significant social and occupational liabilities. This article discusses etiology, common symptom presentations (including comorbid and ancillary symptoms), basic OCD subtypes, neuropsychological functioning, and the relation these have with functional disability in OCD. Recommendations for future research are also considered. PMID:19853982

  10. Mechanisms of verbal memory impairment in four neurodevelopmental disorders

    E-print Network

    Bellugi, Ursula

    ; Developmental disorders; Brain lesions; Specific language impairment; Williams Syndrome; Down Syndrome 1 disorders: specific language impairment (SLI), Williams Syndrome (WMS), and Down Syndrome (DS). Because by different patterns of language functioning: specific language impairment, early focal brain damage, Williams

  11. Reifying Relevance in MCI Reifying Relevance in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    people with well defined dementia symptoms and multiple cognitive and functional impairments who's disease, construction, dementia, market forces, mild cognitive impairment We thank the reviewers degeneration and the physical and cognitive impairments that manifest in people affected by dementia disorders

  12. JAMA Patient Page: Older Drivers and Cognitive Impairment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Older Drivers and Cognitive Impairment C ognitive impairment is defined as decline ... drivers over 75 years old have dementia (multiple cognitive deficits including memory impairment). The April 28, 2010, ...

  13. Mild cognitive impairment: The dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Charles; Subramanyam, Alka A.

    2009-01-01

    Memory complaints are ubiquitous in our aging population. Many older adults fear that today’s forgetfulness will usher in tomorrow’s dementia. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered by many as an intermediary stage for dementia. Though the nomenclature has been varied and extensive, the criteria by the American Academy of Neurology and the EADC have been helpful. Prevalence rates varying from 3% to as high as 59% with a conversion rate to dementia varying from 8 to 15% only increases the need for diagnostic tests and markers which are in the form of neuropsychological tests, neuroimaging and other biological markers. Medications indicated for treatment of mild to severe Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are offered to persons with MCI with a varying type of response which does not hold in the long run to newer strategies of exploring disease modifying drugs which hold a better promise. This benefit with management of risk factors like hypertension and diabetes coupled with non-pharmacological approaches like exercise and social networking has thrust upon us the necessity for coordinating our efforts to improve detection and management of MCI. PMID:21416016

  14. Microcontaminants and reproductive impairment of the Forster's tern on Green Bay, Lake Michigan--1983.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, T J; Harris, H J; Smith, L M; Schwartz, T R; Stalling, D L; Trick, J A; Sileo, L; Docherty, D E; Erdman, T C

    1989-09-01

    For the 1983 nesting season, Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) reproductive success was significantly impaired on organochlorine contaminated Green Bay, Lake Michigan compared to a relatively uncontaminated inland location at Lake Poygan, Wisconsin. Compared with tern eggs from Lake Poygan, eggs from Green Bay had significantly higher median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total (three congeners) non-ortho, ortho' PCBs, five individual PCB congeners known to induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and several other organochlorine contaminants. Conversions of analytical concentrations of TCDD and PCB congeners based on relative AHH induction potencies allowed for estimation of total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Two PCB congeners, 2,3,3',4,4'- and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PeCB) accounted for more than 90% of the median estimated TCDD equivalents at both Green Bay and Lake Poygan. The median estimated TCDD equivalents were almost 11-fold higher in tern eggs from Green Bay than in eggs from Lake Poygan (2175 and 201 pg/g). The hatching success of Green Bay sibling eggs from nests where eggs were collected for contaminant analyses was 75% lower at Green Bay than at Lake Poygan. Hatchability of eggs taken from other nests and artificially incubated was about 50% lower for Green Bay than for Lake Poygan. Among hatchlings from laboratory incubation, those from Green Bay weighed approximately 20% less and had a mean liver weight to body weight ratio 26% greater than those from Lake Poygan. In both field and laboratory, mean minimum incubation periods were significantly longer for eggs from Green Bay compared to Lake Poygan (8.25 and 4.58 days, respectively). Mean minimum incubation time for Green Bay eggs in the field was 4.37 days longer than in the laboratory. Hatchability was greatly improved when Green Bay eggs were incubated by Lake Poygan adults in an egg-exchange experiment, but was sharply decreased in Lake Poygan eggs incubated in Green Bay nests. Nest abandonment and egg disappearance were substantial at Green Bay but nil at Lake Poygan. Thus, not only factors intrinsic to the egg, but also extrinsic factors (parental attentiveness), impaired reproductive outcome at Green Bay. The epidemiological evidence from this study strongly suggested that contaminants were a causal factor. AHH-active PCB congeners (intrinsic effects) and PCBs in general (extrinsic effects) appeared to be the only contaminants at the concentrations measured in eggs, capable of producing the effects that were observed at Green Bay. PMID:2802675

  15. Microcontaminants and reproductive impairment of the Forster's tern on Green Bay, Lake Michigan,1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kubiak, T.J.; Harris, H.J.; Smith, L.M.; Schwartz, T.R.; Stalling, D.L.; Trick, J.A.; Sileo, L.; Docherty, D.E.; Erdman, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    For the 1983 nesting season, Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) reproductive success was significantly impaired on organochlorine contaminated Green Bay, Lake Michigan compared to a relatively uncontaminated inland location at Lake Poygan, Wisconsin. Compared with tern eggs from Lake Poygan, eggs from Green Bay had significantly higher median concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total (three congeners) non-ortho, ortho' PCBs, five individual PCB congeners known to induce aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and several other organochlorine contaminants. Conversions of analytical concentrations of TCDD and PCB congeners based on relative AHH induction potencies allowed for estimation of total 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalents. Two PCB congeners, 2,3,3',4,4'- and 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PeCB) accounted for more than 90% of the median estimated TCDD equivalents at both Green Bay and Lake Poygan. The median estimated TCDD equivalents were almost 11-fold higher in tern eggs from Green Bay than in eggs from Lake Poygan (2175 and 201 pg/g). The hatching success of Green Bay sibling eggs from nests where eggs were collected for contaminant analyses was 75% lower at Green Bay than at Lake Poygan. Hatchability of eggs taken from other nests and artificially incubated was about 50% lower for Green Bay than for Lake Poygan. Among hatchlings from laboratory incubation, those from Green Bay weighed approximately 20% less and had a mean liver weight to body weight ratio 26% greater than those from Lake Poygan. In both field and laboratory, mean minimum incubation periods were significantly longer for eggs from Green Bay compared to Lake Poygan (8.25 and 4.58 days, respectively). Mean minimum incubation time for Green Bay eggs in the field was 4.37 days longer than in the laboratory. Hatchability was greatly improved when Green Bay eggs were incubated by Lake Poygan adults in an egg-exchange experiment, but was sharply decreased in Lake Poygan eggs incubated in Green Bay nests. Nest abandonment and egg disappearance were substantial at Green Bay but nil at Lake Poygan. Thus, not only factors intrinsic to the egg, but also extrinsic factors (parental attentiveness), impaired reproductive outcome at Green Bay. The epidemiological evidence from this study strongly suggested that contaminants were a causal factor. AHH-active PCB congeners (intrinsic effects) and PCBs in general (extrinsic effects) appeared to be the only contaminants at the concentrations measured in eggs, capable of producing the effects that were observed at Green Bay.

  16. "Clinical" Significance: "Clinical" Significance and "Practical" Significance are NOT the Same Things

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical significance is an important concept in research, particularly in education and the social sciences. The present article first compares clinical significance to other measures of "significance" in statistics. The major methods used to determine clinical significance are explained and the strengths and weaknesses of clinical significance

  17. Mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Yarnall, Alison Jane; Rochester, Lynn; Burn, David John

    2013-09-01

    The concept of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in the general population has received increased attention over recent years, and is associated with risk of progression to Alzheimer's disease. Within Parkinson's disease (PD), MCI (PD-MCI) is also now recognised to be relatively common, with certain subtypes predicting progression to Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD). Recently, criteria to better characterise PD-MCI and its subtypes have been produced by the Movement Disorder Society. In contrast to the population as a whole, where amnestic MCI is the most common subtype, non-amnestic PD-MCI dominates, with prominent executive and attention dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of PD-MCI is poorly understood and encompasses both PD and non-PD pathology, it is most likely the result of a complex interaction between neurotransmitter dysfunction, synaptic pathology, protein aggregation and neuronal damage. Determining the factors that influence the progression of these pathologies in PD and the individuals at risk of ultimately developing PDD is critical for targeted intervention and drug discovery studies. Further work is required, however, to determine the significance of PD-MCI and also to validate the diagnostic criteria. This would be best delivered in the form of longitudinal studies in homogenous cohorts of PD participants, to allow prognostication and generalisation among the PD population. At the present time, no drug therapies are available for PD-MCI. Management includes screening for the disorder, excluding treatable causes of cognitive decline and cautious use of dopamine agonists and medications such as anticholinergics. PMID:23868092

  18. Interventions Addressing Social Impairment in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    Children with an autism spectrum disorder have significant impairment in social skills. This area of development has also been the focus of many intervention studies. In this article we review intervention studies published over the past two years. Three topical areas were addressed in current interventions: social skills knowledge, peer relationships, and joint attention/joint engagement. Younger children most often received interventions on joint attention/joint engagement and older, higher functioning children received interventions on social knowledge and peer relationship development. Both single subject research designs and group designs were reviewed. One advancement was that more randomized controlled trials were reported, as well as effectiveness trials in the community. Study quality was also rated. More group than single subject designs were rated as adequate or strong in quality. Overall, moderate to large effects were found for interventions targeting joint attention/joint engagement and peer relationships with mixed effects on interventions targeting social skills knowledge. Future studies should focus on isolating the active ingredients of interventions and include broader participant representation. PMID:23055002

  19. Impact of Breathing 100% Oxygen on Radiation-Induced Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Payne, Valerie; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Walb, Matthew C.; Munley, Michael T.; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J.; Robbins, Mike E.

    2015-01-01

    Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O2 for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O2) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O2 received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O2 was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O2 during an EVA. PMID:25338095

  20. Impact of breathing 100% oxygen on radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Kenneth T; Payne, Valerie; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Walb, Matthew C; Munley, Michael T; Metheny-Barlow, Linda J; Robbins, Mike E

    2014-11-01

    Future space missions are expected to include increased extravehicular activities (EVAs) during which astronauts are exposed to high-energy space radiation while breathing 100% oxygen. Given that brain irradiation can lead to cognitive impairment, and that oxygen is a potent radiosensitizer, there is a concern that astronauts may be at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O(2) during an EVA. To address this concern, unanesthetized, unrestrained, young adult male Fischer 344 × Brown Norway rats were allowed to breathe 100% O(2) for 30 min prior to, during and 2 h after whole-body irradiation with 0, 1, 3, 5 or 7 Gy doses of 18 MV X rays delivered from a medical linear accelerator at a dose rate of ~425 mGy/min. Irradiated and unirradiated rats breathing air (~21% O(2)) served as controls. Cognitive function was assessed 9 months postirradiation using the perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition task. Cognitive function was not impaired until the rats breathing either air or 100% O(2) received a whole-body dose of 7 Gy. However, at all doses, cognitive function of the irradiated rats breathing 100% O(2) was improved over that of the irradiated rats breathing air. These data suggest that astronauts are not at greater risk of developing cognitive impairment when exposed to space radiation while breathing 100% O(2) during an EVA. PMID:25338095