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Sample records for silicic acid esters

  1. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3100 - Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a hy-droxyl-al-kyla-mine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.3100 Oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with a... chemical substance identified generically as oligomeric silicic acid ester compound with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and... with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4) (PMN P-96-1520; CAS No....

  7. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and... with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4) (PMN P-96-1520; CAS No....

  8. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and... with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4) (PMN P-96-1520; CAS No....

  9. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and... with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4) (PMN P-96-1520; CAS No....

  10. 40 CFR 721.3635 - Octadecanoic acid, ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). 721.3635 Section 721.3635 Protection of..., ester with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4). (a) Chemical substance and... with 1,2-propanediol, phosphate, anhydride with silicic acid (H4SiO4) (PMN P-96-1520; CAS No....

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicate Ester Prodrugs and Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) Block Copolymers for Formulation into Prodrug-Loaded Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Adam Richard

    Fine control of the physical and chemical properties of customized materials is a field that is rapidly advancing. This is especially critical in pursuits to develop and optimize novel nanoparticle drug delivery. Specifically, I aim to apply chemistry concepts to test the hypothesis "Silicate ester prodrugs of paclitaxel, customized to have the proper hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability, can be formulated with well-defined, biocompatible, amphiphilic block copolymers into nanoparticles that are effective drugs." Chapter 1 briefly describes the context and motivation of the scientific pursuits described in this thesis. In Chapter 2, a family of model silicate esters is synthesized, the hydrolysis rate of each compound is benchmarked, and trends are established based upon the steric bulk and leaving group ability of the silicate substituents. These trends are then applied to the synthesis of labile silicate ester prodrugs in Chapter 3. The bulk of this chapter focuses on the synthesis, hydrolysis, and cytotoxicity of prodrugs based on paclitaxel, a widely used chemotherapeutic agent. In Chapter 4, a new methodology for the synthesis of narrowly dispersed, "random" poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymers by a constant infusion of the glycolide monomer is detailed. Using poly(ethylene glycol) as a macroinitiator, amphiphilic block copolymers were synthesized. Co-formulating a paclitaxel silicate and an amphiphilic block copolymer via flash nanoprecipitation led to highly prodrug-loaded, kinetically trapped nanoparticles. Studies to determine the structure, morphology, behavior, and efficacy of these nanoparticles are described in Chapter 5. Efforts to develop a general strategy for the selective end-functionalization of the polyether block of these amphiphilic block copolymers are discussed in Chapter 6. Examples of this strategy include functionalization of the polyether with an azide or a maleimide. Finally, Chapter 7 provides an outlook for future development of the strategies described in this thesis and summarizes the results and conclusions of the experimental results that led to the development of the therapeutic, paclitaxel silicate-loaded, polymeric nanoparticles.

  12. Synthesis of pyromellitic acid esters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedorova, V. A.; Donchak, V. A.; Martynyuk-Lototskaya, A. N.

    1985-01-01

    The ester acids necessary for studyng the thermochemical properties of pyromellitic acid (PMK)-based peroxides were investigated. Obtaining a tetramethyl ester of a PMK was described. The mechanism of an esterification reaction is discussed, as is the complete esterification of PMK with primary alcohol.

  13. Adsorption kinetics of silicic acid on akaganeite.

    PubMed

    Naren, Gaowa; Ohashi, Hironori; Okaue, Yoshihiro; Yokoyama, Takushi

    2013-06-01

    As part of a series of studies on the interaction between ferric ions and silicic acid in the hydrosphere, the adsorption of silicic acid on akaganeite was investigated kinetically at various pH values. The adsorption of silicic acid increased with increasing pH over an initial pH range of 4-11.5. In the kinetic experiment, the Cl(-) was released from akaganeite much faster than silicic acid was adsorbed. From this result, we concluded that chloride ions bound on the surface of akaganeite are released and Fe-OH or Fe-O(-) sites are formed, which then acts as an adsorption site for silicic acid. The uptake mechanism of silicic acid by akaganeite is significantly different from that by schwertmannite, despite the presence of the same tunnel structure. PMID:23538050

  14. Fumaric acid esters in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAE) are substances of interest in dermatology. FAE exert various activities on cutaneous cells and cytokine networks. So far only a mixture of dimethylfumarate (DMF) and three salts of monoethylfumarate (MEF) have gained approval for the oral treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque-type psoriasis in Germany. DMF seems to be the major active component. There is evidence that FAE are not only effective and safe in psoriasis but granulomatous non-infectious diseases like granuloma annulare, necrobiosis lipoidica and sarcoidosis. In vitro and animal studies suggest some activity in malignant melanoma as well. PMID:23130241

  15. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  16. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  17. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.859 Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified...) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-, and tri-esters of sucrose with fatty acids and are...

  18. Carboxylic Acid Esters as Substrates of Cholinesterases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brestkin, A. P.; Rozengart, E. V.; Abduvakhabov, A. A.; Sadykov, A. A.

    1983-10-01

    Data on the kinetics of the hydrolysis of various carboxylic acid esters by two main types of cholinesterases acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes and butyrylcholinesterase from horse blood serum are surveyed. It is shown that the rate of enzyme hydrolysis depends significantly on the structure of the acyl part of the ester molecule, the nature of the ester heteroatom, the structure of the alcohol component, and particularly the structure of the onium group. Esters based on natural products are of special interest as specific substrates of these enzymes. The role of the productive and non-productive sorption of the substrates in enzyme catalysis is demonstrated. The bibliography includes 81 references.

  19. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859... Sucrose fatty acid esters. Sucrose fatty acid esters identified in this section may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Sucrose fatty acid esters are the mono-, di-,...

  20. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty...

  1. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848...

  2. Thermoset polymer-layered silicic acid nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen

    Nanocomposites are formed when phase mixing occurs on a nanometer length scale. Due to the improved phase morphology and interfacial properties, nanocomposites exhibit mechanical properties superior to conventional composites. Toyota researchers first demonstrated that organoclay could be exfoliated in a nylon-6 matrix to greatly improve the thermal and mechanical properties of the polymer, which has resulted in a practical application in the automobile industry. A great deal of research has been conducted on organic-inorganic hybrid composites in which smectite clays are used as reinforcement agents. However, little work has been devoted to derivatives of other layered inorganic solids. In the present work, the first examples of organic polymer-layered silicic acid nanocomposites have been prepared by formation of a cured epoxy polymer network in the presence of organo cation exchange forms of magadiite. The exfoliation of silicate nanolayers in the epoxy matrix was achieved by in-situ intragallery polymerization during the thermosetting process. In general, the tensile properties, solvent resistance, barrier properties and chemical stability of the polymer matrix are greatly improved by the embedded silicate nanolayers when the matrix is flexible (sub-ambient Tg). The improvement of properties are dependent on the silicate loading, the degree of nanolayer separation and interfacial properties. Interestingly, the exfoliation also affects the polymer elasticity in a favorable way. The mechanism leading to nanocomposite formation is proposed. One exfoliated epoxy-magadiite nanocomposite/composition possessed unique transparent optical properties. The exfoliation chemistry was successfully extended to the other members of the layered silicic acid family. A new approach also was developed to prepare thermoset epoxy polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites in which curing agents can be directly intercalated into the intragallery without the need for alkylammonium ions on the exchange sites. This new development has resulted in a greater improvement in the overall properties of thermoset polymer-clay nanocomposites. The exfoliation chemistry was extended further to other thermoset silicone polymer systems. The new polysiloxane-layered silicic acid nanocomposites were prepared with promising mechanical properties. Some fundamental chemistry and physics issues regarding nanocomposite formation were elucidated by this research work, particularly with regard to the relationship of microstructure and interfacial factors to the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites.

  3. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  4. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  5. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... are prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters...

  6. Lipid encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid methyl ester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Encapsulation of structurally sensitive compounds within a solid lipid matrix provides a barrier to prooxidant compounds and effectively limits the extent of oxidative degradation. Encapsulated docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) methyl ester was examined as a model compound for functional foods and feeds. S...

  7. Silicate Esters of Paclitaxel and Docetaxel: Synthesis, Hydrophobicity, Hydrolytic Stability, Cytotoxicity, and Prodrug Potential

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report here the synthesis and selected properties of various silicate ester derivatives (tetraalkoxysilanes) of the taxanes paclitaxel (PTX) and docetaxel (DTX) [i.e., PTX-OSi(OR)3 and DTX-OSi(OR)3]. Both the hydrophobicity and hydrolytic lability of these silicates can be (independently) controlled by choice of the alkyl group (R). The synthesis, structural characterization, hydrolytic reactivity, and in vitro cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line of most of these derivatives are described. We envision that the greater hydrophobicity of these silicates (vis--vis PTX or DTX itself) should be advantageous from the perspective of preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of amphiphilic block-copolymer-based nanoparticle formulations. PMID:24564494

  8. 40 CFR 721.4158 - Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.4158 Hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as hexadecanoic acid, ethenyl ester (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10431 - Phosphoric acid esters (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid esters (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10431 Phosphoric acid esters (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as phosphoric acid esters (PMNs...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1732 - Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. 721... Substances § 721.1732 Nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as nitrobenzoic acid octyl ester (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10664 Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic)....

  15. 40 CFR 721.10664 - Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic). 721.10664 Section 721.10664... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10664 Alkenedioic acid dialkyl ester, reaction products with alkenoic acid alkyl esters and diamine (generic)....

  16. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester and Therapeutic Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Sabiha; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Azhar, Saira; Mumtaz, Amara; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a bioactive compound of propolis extract. The literature search elaborates that CAPE possesses antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic properties. The principal objective of this review article is to sum up and critically assess the existing data about therapeutic effects of CAPE in different disorders. The findings elaborate that CAPE is a versatile therapeutically active polyphenol and an effective adjuvant of chemotherapy for enhancing therapeutic efficacy and diminishing chemotherapy-induced toxicities. PMID:24971312

  17. Affinity labelling enzymes with esters of aromatic sulfonic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Show-Chu; Shaw, Elliott

    1977-01-01

    Novel esters of aromatic sulfonic acids are disclosed. The specific esters are nitrophenyl p- and m-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate. Also disclosed is a method for specific inactivation of the enzyme, thrombin, employing nitrophenyl p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonate.

  18. Synthesis of mixed esters of ascorbic acid using methyl esters of palm and soybean oils.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsin-Ju; Chen, Jech-Wei; Giridhar, R; Wu, Wen-Teng

    2005-01-01

    Mixed esters of ascorbic acid were synthesized using methyl esters of palm and soybean oils as acyl donors, in acetone at 50 degrees C, and catalyzed by Novozym 435. A conversion of 62% was obtained with palm oil methyl ester at an ascorbic acid to acyl donor molar ratio of 1:4; the mixed ester contained 45.89% ascorbyl palmitate, 42.59% ascorbyl oleate and 10.1% ascorbyl linoleate. Acylation with soybean oil methyl ester resulted in 17% conversion, yielding a mixed ester containing 10.08% ascorbyl palmitate, 20.68% ascorbyl oleate, and 64.96% of ascorbyl linoleate. The mixed esters of ascorbic acid can find direct use in food and cosmetics. PMID:15881593

  19. Bioactive caffeic acid esters from Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    PubMed

    Dey, Surajit; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Setty, Manjunath; D'Souza, Prashanth; Agarwal, Amit; Sangli, Gopal Krishna

    2009-01-01

    Thin layer chromatography bioautography (using DPPH spray reagent) guided fractionation of Glycyrrhiza glabra led to the isolation of two caffeic acid derivative esters, viz. eicosanyl caffeate (1) and docosyl caffeate (2). The two compounds exhibited potent elastase inhibitory activity, with IC(50) values of 0.99 microg mL(-1) and 1.4 microg mL(-1) for 1 and 2, respectively. The compounds also showed moderate antioxidant activity in DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The results indicate a possible role of caffeic acid derivatives, in addition to flavonoids in the anti-ulcer properties of G. glabra. PMID:19921583

  20. Plant-mediated stereoselective biotransformation of phenylglyoxylic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Maczka, Wanda Krystyna; Grabarczyk, Ma?gorzata; Wi?ska, Katarzyna; Anio?, Miros?aw

    2014-01-01

    Enantioselective reduction of the carbonyl group of three phenylglyoxylic acid esters (methyl, ethyl, and n-propyl esters, 2-4) was conducted using blended plant materials (roots of carrot, beetroot, celeriac and parsley; apple). All used biocatalysts transformed these esters to the corresponding mandelic acid esters with high yield, preferably into the respective R-enantiomer. Butanedione addition improved the enantioselectivity of the reaction. PMID:25265851

  1. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  3. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721... Substances § 721.2950 Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as carboxylic acid glycidyl...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3110 - Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic... Substances § 721.3110 Polycarboxylic acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polycarboxylic acid...

  5. Deep ocean biogeochemistry of silicic acid and nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmiento, J. L.; Simeon, J.; Gnanadesikan, A.; Gruber, N.; Key, R. M.; Schlitzer, R.

    2007-03-01

    Observations of silicic acid and nitrate along the lower branch of the global conveyor belt circulation show that silicic acid accumulation by diatom opal dissolution occurs at 6.4 times the rate of nitrate addition by organic matter remineralization. The export of opal and organic matter from the surface ocean occurs at a Si:N mole ratio that is much smaller than this almost everywhere (cf. Sarmiento et al., 2004). The preferential increase of silicic acid over nitrate as the deep circulation progresses from the North Atlantic to the North Pacific is generally interpreted as requiring deep dissolution of opal together with shallow remineralization of organic matter (Broecker, 1991). However, Sarmiento et al. (2004) showed that the primary reason for the low silicic acid concentration of the upper ocean is that the waters feeding the main thermocline from the surface Southern Ocean are depleted in silicic acid relative to nitrate. By implication, the same Southern Ocean processes that deplete the silicic acid in the surface Southern Ocean must also be responsible for the enhanced silicic acid concentration of the deep ocean. We use observations and results from an updated version of the adjoint model of Schlitzer (2000) to confirm that this indeed the case.

  6. Preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, M.R.; Spivey, J.J.; Zoeller, J.R.

    1998-09-15

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  7. Preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakar (Durham, NC); Spivey, James Jerry (Cary, NC); Zoeller, Joseph Robert (Kingsport, TN)

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for the preparation of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters thereof which comprises contacting formaldehyde or a source of formaldehyde with a carboxylic acid, ester or anhydride in the presence of a catalyst comprising an oxide of niobium.

  8. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl ester.... Requirements as specified in 721.63 (a)(1), (a)(2)(i), and (a)(3). (ii) Industrial, commercial, and consumer... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8660 - Propionic acid methyl ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a propionic acid methyl ester.... Requirements as specified in 721.63 (a)(1), (a)(2)(i), and (a)(3). (ii) Industrial, commercial, and consumer... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Propionic acid methyl ester...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10323 - Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10323 Glycerol fatty acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as glycerol...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10125 - Alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkenedioic acid, dialkyl ester, reaction..., reaction products with polyaminocarbomonocycle and alkenoic acid alkyl ester (generic). 721.10125 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  18. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ....860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854...

  19. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (hydrogenated and nonhydrogenated) meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall... used at a level not in excess of the amount required to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid... with the oleic acid permitted by this paragraph. (d) Polyglycerol esters of butter oil fatty acids...

  20. ESTIMATION OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid esters from molecular structure. The energy differences between the initial state and the transition state for a molecule of interest are factored into internal and external...

  1. Long-acting contraceptive agents: testosterone esters of unsaturated acids.

    PubMed

    Francisco, C G; Freire, R; Gawronski, J; Hernndez, R; Kielczewski, M; Salazar, J A; Savabi, F; Shafiee, A; Strekowski, L; Surez, E

    1990-01-01

    The synthesis of 13 new esters of testosterone is described, with the esterifying acids bearing acetylenic, olefinic, or polyunsaturated functions in the chain, for evaluation as long-acting androgens. PMID:2309256

  2. [Test and analysis of acrylic acid ester in industry pipelines].

    PubMed

    Wu, Bin; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Lu, Lin-Guang

    2011-12-01

    A new quality and quantity analyzing method for waste gas from chemical industry, especially for acrylic acid ester using air-sampling combined with GC/MS and honeywell air purifier system was firstly advanced in this paper. According to the experiments, the maximum disposal capability of the honeywell air purifier system for acrylic acid ester gas was calculated as about 1 kg x h(-1) and the feasibility and validity of the method was also proved by parallel tests. PMID:22468533

  3. Potential for Biodegradation of Phthalic Acid Esters in Marine Regions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Barrie F.; Curry, Richard W.; Corcoran, Eugene F.

    1981-01-01

    Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate was the major phthalic acid ester in the Mississippi River estuary, with mean levels of 0.1 μg/g (dry weight) in surface sediments, 1.0 μg/liter in river water, and 0.7 μg/liter in delta water. Bacteria that grew aerobically on dibutyl phthalate and o-phthalic acid were readily detected in the sediments and water. Pure cultures of bacteria were isolated on seven different phthalic acid esters from freshwater and marine sources. The marine isolates were taxonomically diverse and grew on a variety of phthalic acid esters. Dibutyl phthalate and o-phthalic acid supported growth in full-strength synthetic sea-water medium, but Na+ -dependent catabolism was demonstrable only for o-phthalic acid. PMID:16345856

  4. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid... conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid, and fatty acids conforming with § 172.860... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids....

  5. Fragrance material review on carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for carbonic acid, methyl phenylmethyl ester were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414647

  6. Different mechanisms of silicic acid leakage and their biogeochemical consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Katsumi; Chase, Zanna; Kohfeld, Karen

    2014-03-01

    In the modern ocean, silicic acid is effectively trapped in the Southern Ocean. According to the silicic acid leakage hypothesis, a loosening of this trapping may have contributed to low atmospheric CO2 during glacial times. Using a model with dynamical feedbacks in ocean physics and biology, we explore three distinct mechanisms to loosen the trapping and trigger silicic acid leakage from the Southern Ocean: sea ice expansion, weaker winds, and iron addition. The basic idea of the iron addition mechanism was previously explored using a simple box model. Here we confirm the main results of the earlier work and demonstrate further that sea ice expansion and weaker southern westerlies can also trigger silicic acid leakage. The three mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and their biogeochemical consequences are dissimilar in terms of the spatial patterns of Si:N uptake and the relative changes in opal and particulate organic carbon fluxes both in and outside the Southern Ocean. While it is not entirely clear how sea ice, winds, and iron deposition were different during the last glacial period compared to today, we examine the synergistic effects of these three triggers in one simulation. In this simulation, the combination of sea ice and iron reproduces the north-south dipole of productivity recorded in export production proxies, but effects of the iron perturbation seem to dominate the overall biogeochemical response.

  7. Effects of high-melting methyl esters on crystallization properties of fatty acid methyl ester mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is a renewable alternative diesel fuel made from vegetable oils and animal fats. The most common form of biodiesel in the United States are fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) from soybean, canola, and used cooking oils, waste greases, and tallow. Cold flow properties of biodiesel depend on th...

  8. Cyclopropanecarboxylic acid esters as potential prodrugs with enhanced hydrolytic stability.

    PubMed

    Bender, David M; Peterson, Jeffrey A; McCarthy, James R; Gunaydin, Hakan; Takano, Yu; Houk, K N

    2008-02-01

    Esters of cyclopropanecarboxylic acid demonstrate a substantial increase in stability under both acid- and base-catalyzed hydrolytic conditions. Comparison of the stability of valacyclovir 13 with the cyclopropane analogue 14 shows that at 40 degrees C and pH 6 the half-life of 14 is >300 h while the value for 13 is 69.7 h. CBS-QB3 calculations on isodesmic reactions for transfer of groups from an alkane to an ester show that a cyclopropyl group provides hyperconjugative stabilization. PMID:18181639

  9. Phosphate ester inhibitors solve naphthenic acid corrosion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Babaian-Kibala, E. )

    1994-02-28

    Crude oils containing naphthenic acids can cause a variety of corrosion problems in any of several process areas. But because of the complexity of naphthenic acid corrosion, no routine technique is available for predicting corrosion from this source. Certain high-temperature corrosion inhibitors with a general phosphate ester structure have shown good mitigation of naphthenic acid corrosion in commercial applications. A description of two such cases will help refiners know what to look for to prevent similar occurrences in their plants.

  10. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  11. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  12. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  13. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  14. 40 CFR 417.140 - Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic acids subcategory. 417.140 Section 417.140 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Neutralization of Sulfuric Acid Esters and Sulfonic Acids Subcategory § 417.140 Applicability; description of the neutralization of sulfuric acid esters and sulfonic...

  15. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids....

  16. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids....

  17. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids....

  18. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) They are manufactured from glycerin, lactic acid... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids....

  19. Biological and therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and some ortho-silicic acid-releasing compounds: New perspectives for therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is the most abundant element present in the Earth's crust besides oxygen. However, the exact biological roles of silicon remain unknown. Moreover, the ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4), as a major form of bioavailable silicon for both humans and animals, has not been given adequate attention so far. Silicon has already been associated with bone mineralization, collagen synthesis, skin, hair and nails health atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease, immune system enhancement, and with some other disorders or pharmacological effects. Beside the ortho-silicic acid and its stabilized formulations such as choline chloride-stabilized ortho-silicic acid and sodium or potassium silicates (e.g. M2SiO3; M= Na,K), the most important sources that release ortho-silicic acid as a bioavailable form of silicon are: colloidal silicic acid (hydrated silica gel), silica gel (amorphous silicon dioxide), and zeolites. Although all these compounds are characterized by substantial water insolubility, they release small, but significant, equilibrium concentration of ortho-silicic acid (H4SiO4) in contact with water and physiological fluids. Even though certain pharmacological effects of these compounds might be attributed to specific structural characteristics that result in profound adsorption and absorption properties, they all exhibit similar pharmacological profiles readily comparable to ortho-silicic acid effects. The most unusual ortho-silicic acid-releasing agents are certain types of zeolites, a class of aluminosilicates with well described ion(cation)-exchange properties. Numerous biological activities of some types of zeolites documented so far might probably be attributable to the ortho-silicic acid-releasing property. In this review, we therefore discuss biological and potential therapeutic effects of ortho-silicic acid and ortho-silicic acid -releasing silicon compounds as its major natural sources. PMID:23298332

  20. Fungicidal Activities of Dihydroferulic Acid Alkyl Ester Analogues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural product dihydroferulic acid (DFA, 1) and the synthesized DFA methyl (4a), ethyl (4b), propyl (4c), hexyl (4d), octyl (4e), and decyl (4f) esters were examined for antifungal activity. Test fungi included Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild type, and deletion mutants slt2delta and bck1delta), ...

  1. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721.4215 Section 721.4215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721.5310 Section 721.5310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721.4215 Section 721.4215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic...

  4. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. 721.4215 Section 721.4215 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. 721.5310 Section 721.5310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5310 - Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with the most current version of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F739... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5310 Neononanoic acid, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4215 - Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... in accordance with the most current version of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4215 Hexanedioic acid, diethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  8. Fungicidal Activities of Dihydroferulic Acid Alkyl Ester Analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural product dihydroferulic acid (DFA, 1) and the synthesized DFA methyl (4a), ethyl (4b), propyl (4c), hexyl (4d), octyl (4e), and decyl (4f) esters were examined for antifungal activity. Test fungi included Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild type, and deletion mutants slt2' and bck1'), Aspergil...

  9. Diffusion of hexanoic acid methyl ester (1); air (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Brnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) hexanoic acid methyl ester; (2) air

  10. 40 CFR 721.2950 - Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carboxylic acid glycidyl esters. 721.2950 Section 721.2950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.2950 Carboxylic...

  11. Encapsulating fatty acid esters of bioactive compounds in starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay Ma, Ursula Vanesa

    Interest in the use of many bioactive compounds in foods is growing in large part because of the apparent health benefits of these molecules. However, many of these compounds can be easily degraded during processing, storage, or their passage through the gastrointestinal tract before reaching the target site. In addition, they can be bitter, acrid, or astringent, which may negatively affect the sensory properties of the product. Encapsulation of these molecules may increase their stability during processing, storage, and in the gastrointestinal tract, while providing controlled release properties. The ability of amylose to form inclusion complexes and spherulites while entrapping certain compounds has been suggested as a potential method for encapsulation of certain molecules. However, complex formation and spherulitic crystallization are greatly affected by the type of inclusion molecules, type of starch, and processing conditions. The objectives of the present investigation were to: (a) study the effect of amylose, amylopectin, and intermediate material on spherulite formation and its microstructure; (b) investigate the formation of amylose and high amylose starch inclusion complexes with ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; (c) evaluate the ability of spherulites to form in the presence of fatty acid esters and to entrap ascorbyl palmitate, retinyl palmitate, and phytosterol esters; and (d) evaluate the effect of processing conditions on spherulite formation and fatty acid ester entrapment. Higher ratios of linear to branched molecules resulted in the formation of more and rounder spherulites with higher heat stability. In addition to the presence of branches, it appears that spherulitic crystallization is also affected by other factors, such as degree of branching, chain length, and chain length distribution. Amylose and Hylon VII starch formed inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters of ascorbic acid, retinol, or phytosterols. However, only retinyl palmitate formed a complex with amylopectin. In general, ascorbyl palmitate resulted in the highest complexation, followed by retinyl palmitate and phytosterol ester. The presence of native lipids in Hylon VII starch did not inhibit complex formation. On the contrary, native lipids appear to increase the complexation yield and thermal stability of the starch-fatty acid ester inclusion complexes, possibly due to the formation of ternary complexes. From the three fatty acid esters studied, only ascorbyl palmitate was entrapped in starch spherulites. Various structures including round spherulites, various sizes of torus-shape spherulites, non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles, "balloon" morphologies, and gel-like material were formed depending on processing conditions. However, only the torus-shape spherulites, and some non-spherulitic birefringent and non-birefringent particles showed ascorbyl palmitate entrapment. The % yield of the precipitate increased with higher % of added Hylon VII, and decreased with higher heating temperature and faster cooling rates. The amount of entrapped ascorbyl palmitate in the starch precipitate seems to be governed by the amount of this compound added during processing. This study showed that starch can form inclusion complexes with fatty acid esters which may be used for the delivery of certain bioactive molecules. In addition, encapsulation of fatty acid esters in starch spherulites may be a good potential delivery system for water soluble bioactive molecules. However, further research is necessary to gain a better understanding of the type of molecules that can be entrapped in starch spherulites, and the factors affecting spherulitic crystallization and bioactive compound entrapment.

  12. Methods of refining and producing dibasic esters and acids from natural oil feedstocks

    DOEpatents

    Snead, Thomas E; Cohen, Steven A; Gildon, Demond L

    2015-04-07

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing dibasic esters and/or dibasic acids. The methods comprise reacting a terminal olefin with an internal olefin in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a dibasic ester and/or dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin esters are formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having olefin esters.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10064 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-[2-(ethenyloxy)ethoxy]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. 721... Substances 721.10064 2-Propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 2-propenoic acid, 2- ethyl ester (PMN...

  18. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section... prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, partial phosphoric acid esters of...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1101 Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, also know as DATEM, are composed of mixed...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1101 Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1101 Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1101 Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. (a) Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3800 - Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3800 Section 721.3800... Formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. (a... generically as formaldehyde, condensated polyoxyethylene fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol,...

  8. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section... prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, partial phosphoric acid esters of...

  9. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section... prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, partial phosphoric acid esters of...

  10. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section... prescribed conditions: (a) For the purpose of this section, partial phosphoric acid esters of...

  11. 21 CFR 175.260 - Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins... Components of Coatings 175.260 Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins. Partial phosphoric acid esters of polyester resins identified in this section and applied on aluminum may be safely used as...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  15. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6110 - Alkyldi(alkyloxyhydroxypropyl) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. 721.6110 Section 721.6110 Protection of Environment...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...) derivative, phosphoric acid esters, potassium salts (PMN P-91-818) is subject to reporting under this...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10412 - Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10412 Phosphonic acid ester (generic) (P-07-706). (a) Chemical substance... phosphonic acid ester (PMN P-07-706) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. Regioselective synthesis of kojic acid esters by Bacillus subtilis protease.

    PubMed

    Raku, Takao; Tokiwa, Yutaka

    2003-06-01

    The lipophilicity of kojic acid [5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4H-pyran-4-one] was improved by esterifying kojic acid with either divinyl adipate, vinyl hexanoate, vinyl octanoate or vinyl decanoate using protease from Bacillus subtilis for 7 d. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR showed that the primary hydroxyl group at the C-7 position of kojic acid was regioselectively esterified to afford 7-O-vinyl adipoyl kojic acid, 7-O-hexanoyl kojic acid, 7-O-octanoyl kojic acid and 7-O-decanoyl kojic acid (13-27% yield). The kojic acid esters had radical scavenging activities, inhibited tyrosinase activity and was biodegradable. PMID:12889833

  19. Microbial Transformation of Esters of Chlorinated Carboxylic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Paris, D. F.; Wolfe, N. L.; Steen, W. C.

    1984-01-01

    Two groups of compounds were selected for microbial transformation studies. In the first group were carboxylic acid esters having a fixed aromatic moiety and an increasing length of the alkyl component. Ethyl esters of chlorine-substituted carboxylic acids were in the second group. Microorganisms from environmental waters and a pure culture of Pseudomonas putida U were used. The bacterial populations were monitored by plate counts, and disappearance of the parent compound was followed by gas-liquid chromatography as a function of time. The products of microbial hydrolysis were the respective carboxylic acids. Octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for the compounds were measured. These values spanned three orders of magnitude, whereas microbial transformation rate constants (kb) varied only 50-fold. The microbial rate constants of the carboxylic acid esters with a fixed aromatic moiety increased with an increasing length of alkyl substituents. The regression coefficient for the linear relationships between log kb and log Kow was high for group 1 compounds, indicating that these parameters correlated well. The regression coefficient for the linear relationships for group 2 compounds, however, was low, indicating that these parameters correlated poorly. PMID:16346459

  20. Comparison Of Asymmetric Hydrogenations Of Unsaturated- Carboxylic Acids And -Esters

    PubMed Central

    Khumsubdee, Sakunchai; Burgess, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    As methodology development matures it can be difficult to discern the most effective ways of performing certain transformations from the rest. This review summarizes the most important contributions leading to asymmetric hydrogenations of simple unsaturated-acid and ester substrates, with the objective of highlighting at least the best types of catalysts for each. Achievements in the area are described and these reveal situations where further efforts should be worthwhile, and ones where more research is only likely to give diminishing returns. In general, our conclusions are that the most useful types of catalysts for unsaturated-acids and -esters tend to be somewhat different, simple substrates have been studied extensively, and the field is poised to address more complex reactions. These could be ones involving alternative, particularly cyclic, structures, chemoselectivity issues, and more complex substrate stereochemistries. PMID:24729943

  1. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acid polyamine condensate... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid... substances identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts (PMNs P-90-1984 and...

  6. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles of bat wing surface lipids.

    PubMed

    Pannkuk, Evan L; Fuller, Nathan W; Moore, Patrick R; Gilmore, David F; Savary, Brett J; Risch, Thomas S

    2014-11-01

    Sebocytes are specialized epithelial cells that rupture to secrete sebaceous lipids (sebum) across the mammalian integument. Sebum protects the integument from UV radiation, and maintains host microbial communities among other functions. Native glandular sebum is composed primarily of triacylglycerides (TAG) and wax esters (WE). Upon secretion (mature sebum), these lipids combine with minor cellular membrane components comprising total surface lipids. TAG and WE are further cleaved to smaller molecules through oxidation or host enzymatic digestion, resulting in a complex mixture of glycerolipids (e.g., TAG), sterols, unesterified fatty acids (FFA), WE, cholesteryl esters, and squalene comprising surface lipid. We are interested if fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiling of bat surface lipid could predict species specificity to the cutaneous fungal disease, white nose syndrome (WNS). We collected sebaceous secretions from 13 bat spp. using Sebutape() and converted them to FAME with an acid catalyzed transesterification. We found that Sebutape() adhesive patches removed~6 more total lipid than Sebutape() indicator strips. Juvenile eastern red bats (Lasiurus borealis) had significantly higher 18:1 than adults, but 14:0, 16:1, and 20:0 were higher in adults. FAME profiles among several bat species were similar. We concluded that bat surface lipid FAME profiling does not provide a robust model predicting species susceptibility to WNS. However, these results provide baseline data that can be used for lipid roles in future ecological studies, such as life history, diet, or migration. PMID:25227993

  7. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  8. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  9. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  11. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7290 - Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...)-, ethyl ester. 721.7290 Section 721.7290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.7290 Propanoic acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 2-(trimethoxysilyl)-, ethyl ester (PMN P-01-22; CAS No. 137787-41-8) is subject to...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10365 - Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, ethyl ester. 721.10365 Section 721.10365 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10365 Butanoic acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical... acid, 3-mercapto-2-methyl-, ethyl ester (PMN P-10-56; CAS No. 888021-82-7) is subject to...

  15. 4-Dimenthylaminopyridine or Acid-Catalyzed Synthesis of Esters: A Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Berg, Annemieke W. C.; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    A set of highly atom-economic experiments was developed to highlight the differences between acid- and base-catalyzed ester syntheses and to introduce the principles of atom economy. The hydrochloric acid-catalyzed formation of an ester was compared with the 4-dimethylaminopyradine-catalyzed ester synthesis.

  16. Electron-impact ionization of benzoic acid, nicotinic acid and their n-butyl esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opitz, Joachim

    2007-08-01

    Electron-impact ionization mass spectra, the decay of metastable ions, ionization and appearance energies and bond energies, as dissociation energies, are reported for the title compounds. An ionization energy of 9.47 eV was obtained for benzoic acid, 9.43 eV for benzoic acid n-butyl ester, 9.61 eV for nicotinic acid and 9.97 eV for nicotinic acid n-butyl ester. Molecular ions of both butyl esters show two common main fragmentation pathways: the first process is a McLafferty rearrangement, characterized by the transfer of one H-atom from the aliphatic ester chain, which leads to the ions of either the organic acid or 1-butene. From their appearance energies and known thermodynamic data, gas-phase formation enthalpies () of the parent n-butyl esters are calculated. Values of for benzoic acid n-butyl ester and for nicotinic acid n-butyl ester were obtained. The second process is characterized by the transfer of two H-atoms from the ester chain leading to a protonated form of the corresponding organic acids and C4H7 radicals. Good evidence is provided for the formation of methylallyl radicals. Appearance energies are used to calculate a proton affinity (PA) for benzoic acid. The obtained value of PA = (8.73 0.3) eV, corresponding to a protonation of the carbonyl group, is in close corroboration with published data (PA = 8.51 eV). Activation energies for the intermediate H-transfers were found to be insignificant. This methodic gateway is applied to the system of nicotinic acid and its butyl ester. Adopting the formation of a methylallyl radical, the obtained proton affinity of nicotinic acid, PA = 8.58 eV, is very near to the published data of benzoic acid. An alternative fragmentation mechanism leading to a value of PA [approximate] 9.5 eV (typical for a protonation of the pyridine-nitrogen) is very unlikely. It is concluded that this transfer of two H-atoms from the ester chain is controlled by a charge switching between the carboxylic oxygen atoms which leads to a regiospecific protonation site, in this case to the protonated carbonyl group. This is conform with a B3LYP DFT calculation with a corresponding proton affinity of PA = 8.29 eV.

  17. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and their tartaric acid esters by Brettanomyces and Pediococcus in red wines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric, respectively) are found in wines in varying concentrations. While Brettanomyces and Pediococcus can utilize the free acids, it is not known whether they can metabolize the correspon...

  18. Silicic acid competes for dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) immobilization by the iron hydroxide plaque mineral goethite.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Michael; Daus, Birgit

    2015-03-01

    A surface complexation modeling approach was used to extend the knowledge about processes that affect the availability of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in the soil rhizosphere in presence of a strong sorbent, e.g., Fe plaques on rice roots. Published spectroscopic and molecular modeling information suggest for the organoarsenical agent to form bidentate-binuclear inner-sphere surface complexes with Fe hydroxides similar to the inorganic As oxyanions. However, since also the ubiquitous silicic acid oxyanion form the same bidentate binuclear surface complexes, our hypothesis was that it may have an effect on the adsorption of DMA by Fe hydroxides in soil. Our experimental batch equilibrium data show that DMA is strongly adsorbed in the acidic pH range, with a steep adsorption edge in the circumneutral pH region between the DMA acidity constant (pKa=6.3) and the point of zero charge value of the goethite adsorbent (pHpzc=8.6). A 1-pK CD-MUSIC surface complexation model was chosen to fit the experimental adsorption vs. pH data. The same was done for silicic acid batch equilibrium data with our goethite adsorbent. Both model parameters for individual DMA and silicic acid adsorption were then merged into one CD-MUSIC model to predict the binary DMA+Si adsorption behavior. Silicic acid (500 μM) was thus predicted by the model to strongly compete for DMA with up to 60% mobilization of the latter at a pH6. This model result could be verified subsequently by experimental batch equilibrium data with zero adjustable parameters. The thus quantified antagonistic relation between DMA and silicic acid is discussed as one of factors to explain the increase of the DMA proportion in rice grains as observed upon silica fertilization of rice fields. PMID:25478657

  19. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Coatings, Films and Related Substances 172.225 Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced...

  20. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  1. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  2. 21 CFR 172.225 - Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced... Methyl and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils. Methyl esters and ethyl esters of fatty acids produced from edible fats and oils may be safely used in food, subject to...

  3. Application of ethyl esters and d3-methyl esters as internal standards for the gas chromatographic quantification of transesterified fatty acid methyl esters in food.

    PubMed

    Thurnhofer, Saskia; Vetter, Walter

    2006-05-01

    Ethyl esters (FAEE) and trideuterium-labeled methyl esters (d3-FAME) of fatty acids were prepared and investigated regarding their suitability as internal standards (IS) for the determination of fatty acids as methyl esters (FAME). On CP-Sil 88, ethyl esters of odd-numbered fatty acids eluted approximately 0.5 min after the respective FAME, and only coelutions with minor FAME were observed. Depending on the problem, one or even many FAEE can be added as IS for the quantification of FAME by both GC-FID and GC-MS. By contrast, d3-FAME coeluted with FAME on the polar GC column, and the use of the former as IS requires application of GC-MS. In the SIM mode, m/z 77 and 90 are suggested for d3-methyl esters of saturated fatty acids, whereas m/z 88 and 101 are recommended for ethyl esters of saturated fatty acids. These m/z values give either no or very low response for FAME and can thus be used for the analysis of FAME in food by GC-MS in the SIM mode. Fatty acids in sunflower oil and mozzarella cheese were quantified using five saturated FAEE as IS. Gravimetric studies showed that the transesterification procedure could be carried out without of loss of fatty acids. GC-EI/MS full scan analysis was suitable for the quantitative determination of all unsaturated fatty acids in both food samples, whereas GC-EI/MS in the SIM mode was particularly valuable for quantifying minor fatty acids. The novel GC-EI/MS/SIM method using fatty acid ethyl esters as internal standards can be used to quantify individual fatty acids only, that is, without determination of all fatty acids (the common 100% method), although this is present. This was demonstrated by the exclusive quantification of selected fatty acids including methyl-branched fatty acids, erucic acid (18:1n-9trans), and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cod liver oil and goat's milk fat. PMID:16637674

  4. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). 721.10289 Section 721.10289 Protection of... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  9. 21 CFR 178.3770 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined... Polyhydric alcohol esters of oxidatively refined (Gersthofen process) montan wax acids. Polyhydric alcohol... following prescribed conditions: (a) The polyhydric alcohol esters identified in this paragraph may be...

  10. ESTIMATION OF HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS OF CARBOXYLIC ACID ESTER AND PHOSPHATE ESTER COMPOUNDS IN AQUEOUS SYSTEMS FROM MOLECULAR STRUCTURE BY SPARC

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate hydrolysis rate constants for carboxylic acid ester and phosphate ester compounds in aqueous non- aqueous and systems strictly from molecular structure. The energy diffe...

  11. Analysis of intact cholesteryl esters of furan fatty acids in cod liver.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Simon; Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2015-06-01

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are a class of natural antioxidants with a furan moiety in the acyl chain. These minor fatty acids have been reported to occur with high proportions in the cholesteryl ester fraction of fish livers. Here we present a method for the direct analysis of intact cholesteryl esters with F-acids and other fatty acids in cod liver lipids. For this purpose, the cholesteryl ester fraction was isolated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) using a cool-on-column inlet. Pentadecanoic acid esterified with cholesterol was used as an internal standard. GC/MS spectra of F-acid cholesteryl esters featured the molecular ion along with characteristic fragment ions for both the cholesterol and the F-acid moiety. All investigated cod liver samples (n = 8) showed cholesteryl esters of F-acids and, to a lower degree, of conventional fatty acids. By means of GC/MS-SIM up to ten F-acid cholesteryl esters could be determined in the samples. The concentrations of cholesteryl esters with conventional fatty acids amounted to 78-140 mg/100 g lipids (mean 97 mg/100 g lipids), while F-acid cholesteryl esters were present at 47-270 mg/100 g lipids (mean 130 mg/100 g lipids). PMID:25916237

  12. 40 CFR 721.10448 - Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl... Acetic acid, hydroxy- methoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine (generic). (a... generically as acetic acid, hydroxymethoxy-, methyl ester, reaction products with substituted alkylamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.987 - Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid... Specific Chemical Substances 721.987 Dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkylaminophenyl imino pyrazole acid ester (PMN P-98-45) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442)...

  19. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) The additive meets the following specifications: Water insoluble combined lactic acid, 14-18 percent... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene...

  20. Synthesis, Evaluation of Anticancer Activity and QSAR Study of Heterocyclic Esters of Caffeic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Hajmohamad Ebrahim Ketabforoosh, Shima; Amini, Mohsen; Vosooghi, Mohsen; Shafiee, Abbas; Azizi, Ebrahim; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) suppresses the growth of transformed cells such as human breast cancer cells, hepatocarcinoma , myeloid leukemia, colorectal cancer cells, fibrosarcoma, glioma and melanoma. A group of heterocyclic esters of caffeic acid was synthesized using Mitsunobu reaction and the esters were subjected to further structural modification by electrooxidation of the catechol ring of caffeic acid esters in the presence of sodium benzenesulfinate and sodium toluensulfinate as nucleophiles. Both heterocyclic esters of caffeic acid and their arylsulfonyl derivatives were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against HeLa, SK-OV-3, and HT-29 cancer cell lines. HeLa cells showed the highest sensitivity to the compounds and heterocyclic esters with no substituent on catechol ring showed better activity compared to their substituted counterparts. QSAR studies reemphasized the importance of molecular shape of the compounds for their cytotoxic activity. PMID:24523750

  1. Impact of Association Colloids on Lipid Oxidation in Triacylglycerols and Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters.

    PubMed

    Homma, Rika; Suzuki, Karin; Cui, Leqi; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric A

    2015-11-25

    The impact of association colloids on lipid oxidation in triacylglycerols and fatty acid ethyl esters was investigated. Association colloids did not affect lipid oxidation of high oleic safflower and high linoleic safflower triacylglycerols, but were prooxidative in fish triacylglycerols. Association colloids retarded aldehyde formation in stripped ethyl oleate, linoleate, and fish oil ethyl esters. Interfacial tension revealed that lipid hydroperoxides were surface active in the presence of the surfactants found in association colloids. The lipid hydroperoxides from ethyl esters were less surface active than triacylglycerol hydroperoxides. Stripping decreased iron and copper concentrations in all oils, but more so in fatty acid ethyl esters. The combination of lower hydroperoxide surface activity and low metal concentrations could explain why association colloids inhibited lipid oxidation in fatty acid ethyl esters. This research suggests that association colloids could be used as an antioxidant technology in fatty acid ethyl esters. PMID:26506263

  2. Fatty acid analysis of triacylglycerols: Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Kohsaka, Chihiro; Tomari, Naohiro; Kiyono, Tamami; Wada, Jun; Hirooka, Kiyoo; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-02-15

    A method to prepare fatty acid methyl esters was developed for fatty acid analysis of triacylglycerols by gas chromatography (GC). Triacylglycerols were mixed with methanolic CH3ONa in hexane containing a mid-polar solvent for 10s at room temperature. Under these conditions, trioleoylglycerol was converted to methyl oleate with an average yield of 99.3%. This procedure gave reliable and reproducible data on fatty acid compositions determined by GC. PMID:26656926

  3. Intramolecular interactions in ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids and their catechol esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczyk-Wo?niak, Agnieszka; Borys, Krzysztof M.; Czerwi?ska, Karolina; Gierczyk, B?a?ej; Jakubczyk, Micha?; Madura, Izabela D.; Sporzy?ski, Andrzej; Tomecka, Ewelina

    2013-12-01

    Catechol esters of ortho-methoxyalkylphenylboronic acids have been synthesized and characterized by 17O NMR spectroscopy. The results were compared with the data for the parent acids. The influence of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds on the properties of the boronic acids has been discussed. The 17O NMR data for the boronic esters proved that there are no O ? B interactions in the investigated compounds. This fact is connected with weak Lewis acidity of the parent acids and their low sugars' receptors activity. Crystal structure of ortho-methoxyphenylboronic acid catechol ester was determined.

  4. FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTERS: QUANTITATIVE BIOMARKERS FOR MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    Bearer, Cynthia F.; Santiago, Luis Manuel; ORiordan, Mary Ann; Buck, Kevin; Lee, Siemay C.; Singer, Lynn T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a laboratory marker to identify newborns exposed to alcohol. Study design Meconium was collected from 30 infants from Jordan who were unexposed and from 248 Cleveland study infants of varying exposure status. Retrospective maternal alcohol histories were obtained. Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) were quantified with gas chromatography/flame ionization and compared between abstainers and non-abstainers to identify FAEEs of interest. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated by using definitions of drinking obtained from a graphical representation. Results Six of 7 FAEEs were significantly different between the non-abstainers and at least 1 of 2 of the abstaining groups. FAEEs best predicted drinks per drinking day, and ethyl linoleate had the greatest area under the curve (76%), with a sensitivity rate of 88%, a specificity rate of 64%, a positive predictive value of 9%, and a negative predictive value of 99%. No combination of FAEEs was better than a single ester for identifying drinkers. Conclusion Ethyl linoleate in meconium is a useful biological marker for identifying infants not exposed in utero to high levels of alcohol in a high-risk, substance-abusing, clinic-based sample. PMID:15973326

  5. Depigmenting Effect of Kojic Acid Esters in Hyperpigmented B16F1 Melanoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lajis, Ahmad Firdaus B.; Hamid, Muhajir; Ariff, Arbakariya B.

    2012-01-01

    The depigmenting effect of kojic acid esters synthesized by the esterification of kojic acid using Rhizomucor miehei immobilized lipase was investigated in B16F1 melanoma cells. The depigmenting effect of kojic acid and kojic acid esters was evaluated by the inhibitory effect of melanin formation and tyrosinase activity on alpha-stimulating hormone- (?-MSH-) induced melanin synthesis in B16F1 melanoma cells. The cellular tyrosinase inhibitory effect of kojic acid monooleate, kojic acid monolaurate, and kojic acid monopalmitate was found similar to kojic acid at nontoxic doses ranging from 1.95 to 62.5??g/mL. However, kojic acid monopalmitate gave slightly higher inhibition to melanin formation compared to other inhibitors at doses ranging from 15.63 to 62.5??g/mL. Kojic acid and kojic acid esters also show antioxidant activity that will enhance the depigmenting effect. The cytotoxicity of kojic acid esters in B16F1 melanoma cells was significantly lower than kojic acid at high doses, ranging from 125 and 500 ?g/mL. Since kojic acid esters have lower cytotoxic effect than kojic acid, it is suggested that kojic acid esters can be used as alternatives for a safe skin whitening agent and potential depigmenting agents to treat hyperpigmentation. PMID:23091364

  6. Testing the role of silicic acid and bioorganic materials in the formation of rock coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.; Philip, Ajish I.; Perry, Randall S.

    2004-11-01

    Silica, amino acids, and DNA were recently discovered in desert varnish. In this work we experimentally test the proposed role of silicic acid and bio-chemicals in the formation of desert varnish and other rock coatings. We have developed a protocol in which the rocks were treated with a mixture of silicic acid, sugars, amino acids, metals and clays, under the influence of heat and UV light. This protocol reflects the proposed mechanism of the polymerization of silicic acid with the biooganic materials, and the laboratory model for the natural conditions under which the desert varnish is formed. Our experiments produced coatings with a hardness and morphology that resemble the natural ones. These results provide a support for the role of silicic acid in the formation of rock coatings. Since the hard silica-based coatings preserve organic compounds in them, they may serve as a biosignature for life, here or possibly on Mars.

  7. Testing the Role of Silicic Acid and Bioorganic Materials in the Formation of Rock Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, Vera; Philip, Ajish I.; Perry, Randall S.

    2004-12-01

    Silica, amino acids, and DNA were recently discovered in desert varnish. In this work we experimentally test the proposed role of silicic acid and bio-chemicals in the formation of desert varnish and other rock coatings. We have developed a protocol in which hte rocks were treated with a mixture of silicic acid, sugars, amino acids, metals and clays, under the influence of heat and UV light. This protocol reflects the proposed mechanism of hte polymerization of silicic acid with the bioorganic materials, and the laboratory model for the natural conditions under which the desert varnish is formed. Our experiments produced coatings with a hardness and morphology that resemble the nature ones. These results provide a support for the role of silicic acid in the formation of rock coatings. Since the hard silica-based coatings preserve organic compounds in them, they may serve as a biosignature for life, here or possibly Mars.

  8. A Calculation of Spatial Range of Colloidal Silicic Acid Deposited Downstream from the Alkali Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niibori, Yuichi; Iijima, Kazuki; Tamura, Naoyuki; Mimura, Hitoshi

    A high alkali domain spreads out due to the use of cement materials for the construction of the repository of radioactive wastes. Sudden change of pH at this alkali front produces colloidal silicic acid (polymeric silicic acid) in addition to the deposition of supersaturated monomeric silicic acid onto the fracture surface of flow-pathway. The colloidal silicic acid also deposits with relatively small rate-constant in the co-presence of solid phase. Once the flow-path surface is covered with the amorphous silica, the surface seriously degrades the sorption behavior of radionuclides (RNs). Therefore, so far, the authors have examined the deposition rates of supersaturated silicic acid. This study summarized the deposition rate-constants defined by the first-order reaction equation under various conditions of co-presence of amorphous silica powder. Then, using the smallest rate-constant (1.010-12 m/s in the co-presence of calcium ions of 1 mM) and a simulation code, COLFRAC-MRL, the spatial range of colloidal silicic acid deposited downstream from the alkali front was estimated. The results suggested the clogging caused by the deposition of colloidal silicic acid in flow-path. The altered spatial range in the flow-path was limited to around 30 m in fracture and to several centimeters in rock matrix.

  9. Complexes of polyadenylic acid and the methyl esters of amino acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaled, M. A.; Mulins, D. W., Jr.; Swindle, M.; Lacey, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A study of amino acid methyl esters binding to polyadenylic acid supports the theory that the genetic code originated through weak but selective affinities between amino acids and nucleotides. NMR, insoluble complex analysis, and ultraviolet spectroscopy are used to illustrate a correlation between the hydrophybicities of A amino acids and their binding constants, which, beginning with the largest, are in the order of Phe (having nominally a hydrophobic AAA anticodon), Ile, Leu, Val and Gly (having a hydrophilic anticodon with no A). In general, the binding constants are twice the values by Reuben and Polk (1980) for monomeric AMP, which suggests that polymer amino acids are interacting with only one base. No real differences are found betwen poly A binding for free Phe, Phe methyl ester or Phe amide, except that the amide value is slightly lower.

  10. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10289 - Hexanedioic acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanedioic acid polymer with... polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... acid polymer with aliphatic polyol dihydrogen phosphate aromatic ester (PMN P-11-333) is subject...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3700 Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol... chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene...

  17. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject to... (a)(4), (a)(5)(i), (a)(6)(i), (a)(6)(ii), (a)(6)(iv), (b) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.2078 - 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2-[(dichloro-hydroxy-carbomonocycle)hydrazono]-, methyl ester...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.2078 1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester... generically identified as 1-piperidinecarboxylic acid, 2- -, methyl ester (PMN P-96-756) is subject to... (a)(4), (a)(5)(i), (a)(6)(i), (a)(6)(ii), (a)(6)(iv), (b) (concentration set at 0.1 percent), and...

  19. Fumaric acid esters in psoriasis and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Zecca, C; Caporro, M; Adami, M; Mainetti, C; Gobbi, C

    2014-06-01

    Fumaric acid esters (FAEs) are effective in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. Recent studies also report the efficacy of one FAE component, dimethylfumarate, in relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). We describe the case of a patient with MS who developed severe plaque psoriasis during interferon-?-1a treatment for MS. The psoriasis was unresponsive to usual topical treatments and phototherapy. The patient was started on FAE 720mg daily, with complete remission of the psoriatic lesions and neurological stabilization at follow-up at 24months. Our case suggests that FAEs could represent a therapeutic option for patients with MS who develop plaque psoriasis following exposure to immune-modulating agents. PMID:24779791

  20. Green chromatography determination of fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Carlos Molina; Alayn, Andrea Brito; Garca Rodrguez, Mara Teresa; Jimnez Abizanda, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Francisco Jimnez

    2015-01-01

    This work proposes a green, simple and rapid chromatographic methodology for separation and determination of a group of 13 fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) by using a capillary gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The method was successfully applied for the determination of FAMEs in biodiesel samples from commercial and waste cooking oils, synthesized by homogeneous catalysis. Detection and quantification limits were in the ?g L(-1) level. Direct injection of sample solution was compared with solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction procedures, giving similar results. The lower analysis time represent considerable improvement compared with other papers. The described methodology is especially suitable for process control applications. The samples analysed showed total contents of FAMEs higher than 96.5%, which verifies the European regulations. PMID:25666201

  1. Effects of phthalic acid esters on the liver and thyroid

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, R.H.; Mitchell, F.E.; Mann, A.; Chescoe, D.; Price, S.C.; Nunn, A.; Grasso, P.; Bridges, J.W.

    1986-12-01

    The effects, over periods from 3 days to 9 months of administration, of diets containing di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate are very similar to those observed in rats administered diets containing hypolipidemic drugs such as clofibrate. Changes occur in a characteristic order commencing with alterations in the distribution of lipid within the liver, quickly followed by proliferation of hepatic peroxisomes and induction of the specialized P-450 isoenzyme(s) catalyzing omega oxidation of fatty acids. There follows a phase of mild liver damage indicated by changes in incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine into DNA, by induction of glucose-6-phosphatase activity and a loss of glycogen, eventually leading to the formation of enlarged lysosomes through autophagy and the accumulation of lipofuscin. Associated changes are found in the kidney and thyroid. The renal changes are limited to the proximal convoluted tubules and are generally similar to changes found in the liver. The effects on the thyroid are more marked. Although the levels of thyroxine in plasma fall to about half normal values, serum triiodothyronine remains close to normal values while the appearance of the thyroid varies, very marked hyperactivity being noted 7 days after commencement of treatment, this is less marked at 14 days, but even after 9 months treatment there is clear cut evidence for hyperactivity with colloid changes which indicate this has persisted for some time. The short-term in vivo hepatic effects of the three phthalate esters can be reproduced in hepatocytes in tissue culture. All three phthalate esters, as well as clofibrate, have early marked effects on the metabolism of fatty acids in isolated hepatocytes. A hypothesis is presented to explain the progress from these initial metabolic effects to the final formation of liver tumors.

  2. Characteristics of Palm Fatty Acid Ester (PFAE), a New Vegetable Based Insulating Oil for Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Kanoh, Takaaki; Koide, Hidenobu; Hikosaka, Tomoyuki

    We have developed new vegetable based insulating oil for transformers called PFAE (Palm Fatty Acid Ester). PFAE has 0.6 times less viscosity and 1.3 times higher dielectric constant compared to mineral oil. The oxidative stability, biodegradability and acute toxicity to fish of PFAE has also been determined to be superior to mineral oil. In this paper, in order to optimize the characteristics of fatty acid esters originating from palm oil, several kinds of fatty acid alkyl esters were first synthesized in the laboratory by the molecular design technique and the transesterification from fatty acid methyl esters and alkyl alcohols. Next the electro-chemical characteristics of the fatty acid alkyl esters as insulating oil were analyzed.

  3. Energy-rich glyceric acid oxygen esters - Implications for the origin of glycolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.; Hsu, Victor

    1990-01-01

    The apparent Gibbs free energy change (GFEC) of hydrolysis (pH 7) of the 2- and 3-O-glyceroyl esters of 2- and 3-O-L-glyceroyl-L-glyceric acid methyl ester were measured at 25 C. The 2- and 3-glyceroyl esters were found to be 'energy-rich' with GFEC values of -9.1 kcal/mol and -7.8 kcal/mol, respectively. This result indicates that the analogous 2- and 3-glyceroyl esters of polyglyceric acid are also energy-rich and, therefore, could have acted as an energy source for primitive phosphoanhydride synthesis.

  4. Synthesis and properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Henning; Vorwerg, Waltraud; Wetzel, Hendrik

    2013-10-15

    Being completely bio-based, fatty acid starch esters (FASEs) are attractive materials that represent an alternative to crude oil-based plastics. In this study, two synthesis methods were compared in terms of their efficiency, toxicity and, especially, product solubility with starch laurate (C12) as model compound. Laurates (DS>2) were obtained through transesterification of fatty acid vinylesters in DMSO or reaction with fatty acid chlorides in pyridine. The latter lead to higher DS-values in a shorter reaction time. But due to the much better solubility of the products compared to lauroyl chloride esterified ones, vinylester-transesterification was preferred to optimize reaction parameters, where reaction time could be shortened to 2h. FASEs C6-C18 were also successfully prepared via transesterification. To determine the DS of the resulting starch laurates, the efficient ATR-IR method was compared with common methods (elementary analysis, (1)H NMR). Molar masses (Mw) of the highly soluble starch laurates were analyzed using SEC-MALLS (THF). High recovery rates (>80%) attest to the outstanding solubility of products obtained through transesterification, caused by a slight disintegration during synthesis. Particle size distributions (DLS) demonstrated stable dissolutions in CHCl3 of vinyl laurate esterified - contrary to lauroyl chloride esterified starch. For all highly soluble FASEs (C6-C18), formation of concentrated solutions (10 wt%) is feasible. PMID:23987337

  5. Selective synthesis of either isoindole- or isoindoline-1-carboxylic acid esters by Pd(0)-catalyzed enolate arylation.

    PubMed

    Sol, Daniel; Serrano, Olga

    2010-09-17

    Two efficient palladium-catalyzed intramolecular ?-arylation reactions of ?-amino acid esters have been developed that allow either 1-isoindolecarboxylic acid esters or the corresponding isoindolines to be selectively synthesized simply by a slight change of reaction conditions. PMID:20738127

  6. Occurrence of fatty acid esters of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidol in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Whrlin, Friederike; Fry, Hildburg; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Prei-Weigert, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of fatty acid esters of monochloropropanediol (MCPD) and glycidol generated during the refinement process in vegetable fats and oils caused concerns about possible adverse health effects. As these fats are components of infant formula, the current investigation of the MCPD and glycidyl ester contents in infant formula was necessary to update the data for risk assessment purposes. For the analysis of 3-MCPD, 2-MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula, an existing method for fats and oils had to be modified and validated. The fat fraction containing MCPD and glycidyl esters was extracted from infant formula by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). The extracted fat was then analysed according to an established method for fats and oils. Glycidyl esters are converted to monobrompropanediol (3-MBPD) esters, MCPD and 3-MBPD esters hydrolysed subsequently and after derivatisation detected by GC-MS. Seven different products of infant formula, covering two types and five lots each, altogether 70 samples, were bought in retail markets and analysed. In all samples, 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters could be detected. Both 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters' concentration levels were found to be lower in comparison with earlier investigations described in the literature. The occurrence of 2-MCPD esters in infant formula was investigated for the first time and revealed concentrations about half of 3-MCPD ester concentrations. PMID:26179516

  7. Asymmetric Synthesis of Diverse Glycolic Acid Scaffolds via Dynamic Kinetic Resolution of ?-Keto Esters

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Kimberly M.; Corbett, Michael T.; Goodman, C. Guy; Johnson, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic kinetic resolution of ?-keto esters via asymmetric transfer hydrogenation has been developed as a technique for the highly stereoselective construction of structurally diverse ?-substituted-?-hydroxy carboxylic acid derivatives. Through the development of a privileged m-terphenylsulfonamide for (arene)RuCl(monosulfonamide) complexes with a high affinity for selective ?-keto ester reduction, excellent levels of chemo-, diastereo-, and enantiocontrol can be realized in the reduction of ?-aryl- and ?-chloro-?-keto esters. PMID:23186551

  8. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10410 - Polyether ester acid compound with a polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Polyether ester acid compound with a... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10410 Polyether ester acid compound with a.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyether ester acid compound with a...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10410 - Polyether ester acid compound with a polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Polyether ester acid compound with a... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10410 Polyether ester acid compound with a.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyether ester acid compound with a...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10410 - Polyether ester acid compound with a polyamine amide (generic) (P-05-714).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Polyether ester acid compound with a... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10410 Polyether ester acid compound with a.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyether ester acid compound with a...

  16. Orthogonal Fatty Acid Biosynthetic Pathway Improves Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester Production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Dawn T; HamediRad, Mohammad; Yuan, Yongbo; Zhao, Huimin

    2015-07-17

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are a form of biodiesel that can be microbially produced via a transesterification reaction of fatty acids with ethanol. The titer of microbially produced FAEEs can be greatly reduced by unbalanced metabolism and an insufficient supply of fatty acids, resulting in a commercially inviable process. Here, we report on a pathway engineering strategy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhancing the titer of microbially produced FAEEs by providing the cells with an orthogonal route for fatty acid synthesis. The fatty acids generated from this heterologous pathway would supply the FAEE production, safeguarding endogenous fatty acids for cellular metabolism and growth. We investigated the heterologous expression of a Type-I fatty acid synthase (FAS) from Brevibacterium ammoniagenes coupled with WS/DGAT, the wax ester synthase/acyl-coenzyme that catalyzes the transesterification reaction with ethanol. Strains harboring the orthologous fatty acid synthesis yielded a 6.3-fold increase in FAEE titer compared to strains without the heterologous FAS. Variations in fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation can affect the quality of the biodiesel; therefore, we also investigated the diversity of the fatty acid production profile of FAS enzymes from other Actinomyces organisms. PMID:25594225

  17. Fundamental Study on Temperature Dependence of Deposition Rate of Silicic Acid - 13270

    SciTech Connect

    Shinmura, Hayata; Niibori, Yuichi; Mimura, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    The dynamic behavior of the silicic acid is one of the key factors to estimate the condition of the repository system after the backfill. This study experimentally examined the temperature dependence of dynamic behavior of supersaturated silicic acid in the co-presence of solid phase, considering Na ions around the repository, and evaluated the deposition rate constant, k, of silicic acid by using the first-order reaction equation considering the specific surface area. The values of k were in the range of 1.0x10{sup -11} to 1.0x10{sup -9} m/s in the temperature range of 288 K to 323 K. The deposition rate became larger with increments of temperature under the Na ion free condition. Besides, in the case of Na ions 0.6 M, colloidal silicic acid decreased dramatically at a certain time. This means that the diameter of the colloidal silicic acid became larger than the pore size of filter (0.45 ?m) due to bridging of colloidal silicic acid. Furthermore, this study estimated the range of altering area and the aperture of flow-path in various value of k corresponding to temperature by using advection-dispersion model. The concentration in the flow-path became lower with increments of temperature, and when the value of k is larger than 1.0x10{sup -11} m/s, the deposition range of supersaturated silicic acid was estimated to be less than 20 m around the repository. In addition, the deposition of supersaturated silicic acid led the decrement of flow-path aperture, which was remarkable under the condition of relatively high temperature. Such a clogging in flow paths is expected as a retardation effect of radionuclides. (authors)

  18. Pseudo catalytic transformation of volatile fatty acids into fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jong-Min; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-03-01

    Instead of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable wastes for producing methane, this work introduced the transformation of acidogenesis products (VFAs) into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to validate the feasible production of short-chained fatty alcohols via hydrogenation of FAMEs. In particular, among VFAs, this work mainly described the mechanistic explanations for transforming butyric acid into butyric acid methyl ester as a case study. Unlike the conventional esterification process (conversion efficiency of ∼94%), the newly introduced esterification under the presence of porous materials via the thermo-chemical process reached up to ∼99.5%. Furthermore, the newly introduced esterification via the thermo-chemical pathway in this work showed extremely high tolerance of impurities: the conversion efficiency under the presence of impurities reached up to ∼99±0.3%; thus, the inhibition behaviors attributed from the impurities used for the experimental work were negligible. PMID:26720136

  19. Metabolism of hydroxycinnamic acids and esters by Brettanomyces in different red wines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depending on the cultivars and other factors, differing concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids) and their corresponding tartaric acid esters (caftaric, coutaric, and fertaric acid, respectively) are found in red wines. Hydroxycinnamic acids are metabolized by...

  20. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester extends survival of a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fontanilla, C V; Wei, X; Zhao, L; Johnstone, B; Pascuzzi, R M; Farlow, M R; Du, Y

    2012-03-15

    There is currently very limited effective pharmacological treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Recent evidence suggests that caffeic acid phenethyl ester has strong anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-neuronal death properties; thus, the present study tested the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester in mice expressing a mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD1(G93A)) linked to human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Administration of caffeic acid phenethyl ester after symptom onset significantly increased the post-onset survival and lifespan of SOD1(G93A) mice. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis detected less activation of microglia and astrocytes and higher motor neuron counts at an early symptomatic stage (7 days following onset) in the spinal cords of SOD1(G93A) mice given caffeic acid phenethyl ester treatment. Additionally, lower levels of phosphorylated p38, a mitogen-activated protein kinase that is involved in both inflammation and neuronal death, were observed in the spinal cords of SOD1(G93A) mice treated with caffeic acid phenethyl ester for 7 days. These results indicate that caffeic acid phenethyl ester may represent a novel and effective therapeutic for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and these significant neuroprotective effects observed in a commonly used amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mouse model validate the therapeutic potential of caffeic acid phenethyl ester for slowing disease progression by attenuating the neuroinflammation and motor neuron cell death associated with clinical amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathology. PMID:22206942

  1. Applications of Propargyl Esters of Amino Acids in Solution-Phase Peptide Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ramapanicker, Ramesh; Gupta, Rohit; Megha, Rajendran; Chandrasekaran, Srinivasan

    2011-01-01

    Propargyl esters are employed as effective protecting groups for the carboxyl group during solution-phase peptide synthesis. The propargyl ester groups can be introduced onto free amino acids by treating them with propargyl alcohol saturated with HCl. The reaction between propargyl groups and tetrathiomolybdate is exploited to deblock the propargyl esters. The removal of the propargyl group with the neutral reagent tetrathiomolybdate ensures that most of the other protecting groups used in peptide synthesis are untouched. Both acid labile and base labile protecting groups can be removed in the presence of a propargyl ester. Amino acids protected as propargyl esters are employed to synthesize di- to tetrapeptides in solution-phase demonstrating the possible synthetic utilities of the methodology. The methodology described here could be a valuable addition to currently available strategies for peptide synthesis. PMID:21760822

  2. Effects of phthalic acid esters on the liver and thyroid.

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, R H; Mitchell, F E; Mann, A; Chescoe, D; Price, S C; Nunn, A; Grasso, P; Bridges, J W

    1986-01-01

    The effects, over periods from 3 days to 9 months of administration, of diets containing di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate are very similar to those observed in rats administered diets containing hypolipidemic drugs such as clofibrate. Changes occur in a characteristic order commencing with alterations in the distribution of lipid within the liver, quickly followed by proliferation of hepatic peroxisomes and induction of the specialized P-450 isoenzyme(s) catalyzing omega oxidation of fatty acids. There follows a phase of mild liver damage indicated by induction of glucose-6-phosphatase activity and a loss of glycogen, eventually leading to the formation of enlarged lysosomes through autophagy and the accumulation of lipofuscin. Associated changes are found in the kidney and thyroid. The renal changes are limited to the proximal convoluted tubules and are generally similar to changes found in the liver. The effects on the thyroid are more marked. Although the levels of thyroxine in plasma fail to about half normal values, serum triiodothyronine remains close to normal values while the appearance of the thyroid varies, very marked hyperactivity being noted 7 days after commencement of treatment, this is less marked at 14 days, but even after 9 months treatment there is clear cut evidence for hyperactivity with colloid changes which indicate this has persisted for some time. Straight chain analogs of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate and di-n-oxtyl phthalate differ entirely in their short-term effects on the liver and kidney but have similar effects on the thyroid. The short-term in vivo hepatic effects of the three phthalate esters can be reproduced in hepatocytes in tissue culture. All three phthalate esters, as well as clofibrate, have early marked effects on the metabolism of fatty acids in isolated hepatocytes. The nature of these changes is such as to increase storage of lipid in the liver. A hypothesis is presented to explain the progress from these initial metabolic effects to the final formation of liver tumors. Images FIGURE 2. a FIGURE 2. b FIGURE 3a. FIGURE 3b. FIGURE 3c. PMID:3830106

  3. Pure short-chain glycerol fatty acid esters and glycerylic cyclocarbonic fatty acid esters as surface active and antimicrobial coagels protecting surfaces by promoting superhydrophilicity.

    PubMed

    Valentin, Romain; Alignan, Marion; Giacinti, Graldine; Renaud, Franois N R; Raymond, Bernard; Mouloungui, Zphirin

    2012-01-01

    Pure glycerol fatty acid esters and glycerylic cyclocarbonic fatty acid esters have an amphiphilic structure, giving these biomolecules a broad range of physico-chemical and biological properties. Physico-chemical properties depend on chain lengths, odd or even carbon numbers on the chain, and glyceryl or cyclocarbonic polar heads. The spectrum of melting-point values for these molecules is large. Surface-activity is very important and through determination of the critical aggregation concentration (CAC), some fatty-acid esters are considered as solvo-surfactant biomolecules. Coupling these self-aggregation and crystallization properties, superhydrophilic surfaces were obtained. An efficient durable water repellent coating of various metallic and polymeric surfaces was allowed. Moreover, these fatty acid esters promoting superhydrophilicity showed biological activity against Gram positive, Gram negative, and yeast-like micro-organisms. Such surfaces coated by self-assembled fatty acid esters in a stable coagel state present a novel solution to surface-contamination risks from pathogen proliferation. PMID:21968402

  4. A convenient enantioselective decarboxylative aldol reaction to access chiral ?-hydroxy esters using ?-keto acids

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Zhiqiang; Han, Jianlin; Qian, Ping; Zhang, Zirui; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Summary We show a convenient decarboxylative aldol process using a scandium catalyst and a PYBOX ligand to generate a series of highly functionalized chiral ?-hydroxy esters. The protocol tolerates a broad range of ?-keto acids with inactivated aromatic and aliphatic ?-keto esters. The possible mechanism is rationalized. PMID:24991246

  5. ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF A GALACTOPYRANOSE SOPHOROLIPID FATTY ACID-ESTER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A C18:1 sophorolipid lactone produced by the yeast Candida bombicola was deacetylated and ring opened with sodium methoxide to the methyl ester form. After re-acetylation with vinyl acetate using an immobilized lipase, the methyl ester was transesterified with 1,2-3,4-di-O-isopropylidene-D-galactop...

  6. Enantiopure synthesis of all four stereoisomers of carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Avenoza, Alberto; Barriobero, Jos I; Busto, Jess H; Peregrina, Jess M

    2003-04-01

    The retro-Dieckmann reaction has been used as a stereodivergent synthetic tool on N-Boc-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one-1-carboxylic acid methyl ester to obtain enantiopure trans- and cis-5-(carboxymethyl)pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid methyl esters. These disubstituted pyrrolidines have been used as starting materials to develop concise and straightforward syntheses of all four stereoisomers of carbapenam-3-carboxylic acid methyl esters. In this way, we have confirmed unequivocally the stereochemistry of two carbapenams isolated from strains of Serratia and Erwinia species. PMID:12662066

  7. Inhibition of Clostridium botulinum by p-Hydroxybenzoic Acid n-Alkyl Esters

    PubMed Central

    Dymicky, M.; Huhtanen, C. N.

    1979-01-01

    Twelve straight-chain esters, C5 to C14, C16, and C18, of p-hydroxybenzoic acid were prepared, and their melting points, solubilities in water at 25C, infrared spectra, dissociation constants (pKa), and activities against Clostridium botulinum were determined. These studies also included four commercial straight-chain esters, C1 to C4. The most potent activity was exhibited by undecyl and dodecyl esters, which are about 300 times as active as sodium nitrite. Quadratic and cubic equations were developed correlating the activity with pKa values and chain length of the esters, respectively. PMID:383010

  8. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review.

    PubMed

    Milchert, Eugeniusz; Malarczyk, Kornelia; Kłos, Marlena

    2015-01-01

    The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained. PMID:26633342

  9. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LC-TOFMS.

    PubMed

    Haines, Troy D; Adlaf, Kevin J; Pierceall, Robert M; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LC-TOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LC-TOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

  10. Direct Determination of MCPD Fatty Acid Esters and Glycidyl Fatty Acid Esters in Vegetable Oils by LCTOFMS

    PubMed Central

    Haines, Troy D.; Adlaf, Kevin J.; Pierceall, Robert M.; Lee, Inmok; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils using the indirect method proposed by the DGF gave inconsistent results when salting out conditions were varied. Subsequent investigation showed that the method was destroying and reforming MCPD during the analysis. An LC time of flight MS method was developed for direct analysis of both MCPD esters and glycidyl esters in vegetable oils. The results of the LCTOFMS method were compared with the DGF method. The DGF method consistently gave results that were greater than the LCTOFMS method. The levels of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters found in a variety of vegetable oils are reported. MCPD monoesters were not found in any oil samples. MCPD diesters were found only in samples containing palm oil, and were not present in all palm oil samples. Glycidyl esters were found in a wide variety of oils. Some processing conditions that influence the concentration of MCPD esters and glycidyl esters are discussed. PMID:21350591

  11. Polyphenol fatty acid esters as serine protease inhibitors: a quantum-chemical QSAR analysis.

    PubMed

    Viskupicova, Jana; Danihelova, Martina; Majekova, Magdalena; Liptaj, Tibor; Sturdik, Ernest

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the ability of polyphenol fatty acid esters to inhibit the activity of serine proteases trypsin, thrombin, elastase and urokinase. Potent protease inhibition in micromolar range was displayed by rutin and rutin derivatives esterified with medium and long chain, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids (1e-m), followed by phloridzin and esculin esters with medium and long fatty acid chain length (2a-d, 3a-d), while unmodified compounds showed only little or no effect. QSAR study of the compounds tested provided the most significant parameters for individual inhibition activities, i.e. number of hydrogen bond donors for urokinase, molecular volume for thrombin, and solvation energy for elastase. According to the statistical analysis, the action of elastase inhibitors is opposed to those of urokinase and thrombin. Cluster analysis showed two groups of compounds: original polyphenols together with rutin esters with short fatty acid chain length and rutin esters with long fatty acid chain length. PMID:21981000

  12. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoba, D.; Periandy, S.; Govindarajan, M.; Gayathri, P.

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (?) and first hyper polarizability (?) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method.

  13. Fatty acid alkyl esters: perspectives for production of alternative biofuels.

    PubMed

    Rttig, Annika; Wenning, Leonie; Brker, Daniel; Steinbchel, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    The global economy heads for a severe energy crisis: whereas the energy demand is going to rise, easily accessible sources of crude oil are expected to be depleted in only 10-20 years. Since a serious decline of oil supply and an associated collapse of the economy might be reality very soon, alternative energies and also biofuels that replace fossil fuels must be established. In addition, these alternatives should not further impair the environment and climate. About 90% of the biofuel market is currently captured by bioethanol and biodiesel. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) and can be synthesized by chemical, enzymatic, or in vivo catalysis mainly from renewable resources. Biodiesel is already established as it is compatible with the existing fuel infrastructure, non-toxic, and has superior combustion characteristics than fossil diesel; and in 2008, the global production was 12.2 million tons. The biotechnological production of FAAE from low cost and abundant feedstocks like biomass will enable an appreciable substitution of petroleum diesel. To overcome high costs for immobilized enzymes, the in vivo synthesis of FAAE using bacteria represents a promising approach. This article points to the potential of different FAAE as alternative biofuels, e.g., by comparing their fuel properties. In addition to conventional production processes, this review presents natural and genetically engineered biological systems capable of in vivo FAAE synthesis. PMID:20033403

  14. Treatment of disseminated granuloma annulare with fumaric acid esters

    PubMed Central

    Kreuter, Alexander; Gambichler, Thilo; Altmeyer, Peter; Brockmeyer, Norbert H

    2002-01-01

    Background Granuloma annulare is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Various therapies have been tried in disseminated granuloma annulare (DGA), including corticosteroids, several variants of psoralen plus ultraviolet-A radiation, ultraviolet- A1 radiation, systemic retinoids, and dapsone, with variable success. We report a patient with recalcitrant DGA who was treated with fumaric acid esters (FAE). Case presentation A 40-year old Caucasian woman presented with a 25-year history of recalcitrant DGA. On both legs and the abdomen there were erythematous annular plaques. She was treated with FAE in tablet form using two formulations differing in strength (low strength tablets: 30 mg dimethylfumarate, 67 mg monoethylfumarate Ca salt, 5 mg monoethylfumarate Mg salt, 3 mg monoethylfumarate Zn salt; high strength tablets: 120 mg dimethylfumarate, 87 mg monoethylfumarate Ca salt, 5 mg monoethylfumarate Mg salt, 3 mg monoethylfumarate Zn salt). After three-month therapy, an almost complete clearance of skin lesions was achieved. With the exception of temporary lymphopenia, no adverse effects were observed. The patient remained in remission during a six-month follow up period. Conclusions Our observation has demonstrated that FAE is a potentially beneficial therapeutic option for patients with recalcitrant DGA. However controlled trials are necessary to fully explore the efficacy, optimal dosage, and safety of FAE in the management of DGA. PMID:11914154

  15. 21 CFR 573.637 - Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12-octadecadienoic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... produce fatty acid methyl esters, which then undergo conjugation to yield methyl esters of octadecadienoic... contain not less than 35 percent of other fatty acid esters composed of oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl esters of conjugated linoleic acid...

  16. Synthesis of Branched Methyl Hydroxy Stearates Including an Ester from Bio-Based Levulinic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report the synthesis of 5 useful branched methyl alpha-hydroxy oleate esters from commercially available methyl oleate and common organic acids. Of special interest is the synthesis utilizing the natural byproduct, levulinic acid. The other common organic acids used herein were propionic acid, ...

  17. Diurnal heterogeneity in silicic acid fluxes in shallow coastal sites: Causes and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ní Longphuirt, Sorcha; Ragueneau, Olivier; Chauvaud, Laurent; Martin, Sophie; Jean, Frédéric; Thouzeau, Gérard; Leynaert, Aude

    2009-04-01

    In shallow coastal areas the amplitude and range of benthic silicic acid fluxes can have a significant influence on benthic-pelagic coupling and the functioning of the pelagic system. To explore the oscillation in fluxes over the diurnal cycle and in particular the influence of microphytobenthos (MPB), an experiment was carried out in a shallow subtidal site in the Bay of Brest (France). Benthic chambers were employed over a 48 h period to measure the variability in silicic acid and oxygen fluxes; MPB migration was investigated using a diving Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometer and uptake rhythms of silicic acid by natural MPB populations were measured using the 32Si isotope. It was discovered that silicic acid fluxes fluctuated greatly throughout the diurnal period resulting in an oscillation in the availability of this nutrient for phytoplankton communities. The uptake of silicic acid by the MPB was quantified for the first time and highlighted a 2-fold increase in the demand from night to afternoon periods. The combined silicic acid uptake and the concentration of cells at the sediment-water interface, forming a dense biofilm of MPB, were postulated to be the main processes reducing effluxes at midday. Our work highlighted the many processes which influence silicic acid effluxes in shallow coastal areas and the possible interaction between uptake and dissolution processes. The variations in benthic fluxes over the diurnal period were comparable to observations reported at the seasonal scale. Therefore, up-scaling hourly flux observations to daily and annual estimates should be undertaken with caution. Further we suggest that the main processes influencing flux oscillations over the diurnal period should be considered when planning sampling strategies and extrapolating to larger time scales.

  18. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1950 - 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester .

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . 721.1950 Section 721.1950 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.1950 2-Butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester . (a... 2-butenedioic acid (Z), mono(2-((1-oxopropenyloxy)ethyl) ester (PMN P-85-543) is subject...

  3. Simultaneous analysis of free phytosterols/phytostanols and intact phytosteryl/phytostanyl fatty acid and phenolic acid esters in cereals.

    PubMed

    Esche, Rebecca; Barnsteiner, Andreas; Scholz, Birgit; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2012-05-30

    An approach based on solid-phase extraction for the effective separation of free phytosterols/phytostanols and phytosteryl/phytostanyl fatty acid and phenolic acid esters from cereal lipids was developed. The ester conjugates were analyzed in their intact form by means of capillary gas chromatography. Besides free sterols and stanols, up to 33 different fatty acid and phenolic acid esters were identified in four different cereal grains via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The majority (52-57%) of the sterols and stanols were present as fatty acid esters. The highest levels of all three sterol and stanol classes based on dry matter of ground kernels were determined in corn, whereas the oil extract of rye was 1.7 and 1.6 times richer in fatty acid esters and free sterols/stanols than the corn oil. The results showed that there are considerable differences in the sterols/stanols and their ester profiles and contents obtained from corn compared to rye, wheat, and spelt. The proposed method is useful for the quantification of a wide range of free phytosterols/phytostanols and intact phytosteryl/phytostanyl esters to characterize different types of grain. PMID:22524687

  4. Comparative Oxidative Stability of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters by Accelerated Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several fatty acid alkyl esters were subjected to accelerated methods of oxidation, including EN 14112 (Rancimat method) and pressurized differential scanning calorimetry (PDSC). Structural trends elucidated from both methods that improved oxidative stability included decreasing the number of doubl...

  5. Premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters: A motored engine study

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yu.; Yang, Yi; Boehman, Andre L.

    2009-06-15

    An experimental study on the premixed ignition behavior of C{sub 9} fatty acid esters has been conducted in a motored CFR engine. For each test fuel, the engine compression ratio was gradually increased from the lowest point (4.43) to the point where significant high temperature heat release (HTHR) was observed. The engine exhaust was sampled and analyzed through GC-FID/TCD and GC-MS. Combustion analysis showed that the four C{sub 9} fatty acid esters tested in this study exhibited evidently different ignition behavior. The magnitude of low temperature heat release (LTHR) follows the order, ethyl nonanoate > methyl nonanoate >> methyl 2-nonenoate > methyl 3-nonenoate. The lower oxidation reactivity for the unsaturated fatty acid esters in the low temperature regime can be explained by the reduced amount of six- or seven-membered transition state rings formed during the oxidation of the unsaturated esters due to the presence of a double bond in the aliphatic chain of the esters. The inhibition effect of the double bond on the low temperature oxidation reactivity of fatty acid esters becomes more pronounced as the double bond moves toward the central position of the aliphatic chain. GC-MS analysis of exhaust condensate collected under the engine conditions where only LTHR occurred showed that the alkyl chain of the saturated fatty acid esters participated in typical paraffin-like low temperature oxidation sequences. In contrast, for unsaturated fatty acid esters, the autoignition can undergo olefin ignition pathways. For all test compounds, the ester functional group remains largely intact during the early stage of oxidation. (author)

  6. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  7. Ammonolysis of esters of hydroxybenzoic acids on a boron phosphate catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Suvorov, B.V.; Bukeikhanov, N.R.; Li, L.V.; Zulkasheva, A.Z.

    1987-09-10

    In this investigation boron phosphate catalyst was used for ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids. It was shown that ammonolysis of methyl and ethyl esters of salicylic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids in presence of boron phosphate catalyst at a ratio of 3-7 moles of ammonia per mole of ester in a contact time of 1-5 sec at 380-400/sub 0/ can be used for obtaining o- and p- hydroxybenzonitriles in yields of over 90% of the theoretical.

  8. Alleviating aluminium toxicity on an acid sulphate soils in Peninsular Malaysia with application of calcium silicate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to alleviate Al toxicity of an acid sulphate soils collected from paddy cultivation area in Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. For this purpose, the collected acid sulphate soils were treated with calcium silicate. The treated soils were incubated for 120 days in submerged condition in a glasshouse. Subsamples were collected every 30 days throughout the incubation period. Soil pH and exchangeable Al showed positive effect; soil pH increased from 2.9 to 3.5, meanwhile exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 to 0.82 cmolc kg-1, which was well below the critical Al toxicity level for rice growth of 2 cmolc kg-1. It was noted that the dissolution of calcium silicate (CaSiO3) supplied substantial amount of Ca2+ and H4SiO42- ions into the soil, noted with increment in Si (silicate) content from 21.21 to 40 mg kg-1 at day 30 and reduction of exchangeable Al at day 90 from 4.26 to below 2 cmolc kg-1. During the first 60 days of incubation, Si content was positively correlated with soil pH, while the exchangeable Al was negatively correlated with Si content. It is believed that the silicate anions released by calcium silicate were active in neutralizing H+ ions that governs the high acidity (pH 2.90) of the acid sulphate soils. This scenario shows positive effect of calcium silicate to reduce soil acidity, therefore creates a favourable soil condition for good rice growth during its vegetative phase (30 days). Thus, application of calcium silicate to alleviate Al toxicity of acid sulphate soils for rice cultivation is a good soil amendment.

  9. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, L.

    1999-05-25

    A process is disclosed for preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising. The process involves dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing the alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  10. Synthesis of an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1999-01-01

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid comprising: dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and an alkali metal diformylamide in an organic solvent selected from the group consisting of acetonitrile, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and methylformate or mixtures thereof to form a suspension of an alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate ester; and hydrolyzing said alkyl 5-(N,N-diformylamino) levulinate with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-amino levulinic acid.

  11. Spectroscopic and quantum chemical analysis of Isonicotinic acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Shoba, D; Periandy, S; Govindarajan, M; Gayathri, P

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, an organic compound Isonicotinic acid methyl ester (INAME) was structurally characterized by FTIR, FT-Raman, and NMR and UV spectroscopy. The optimized geometrical parameters and energies of all different and possible conformers of INAME are obtained from Density Functional Theory (DFT) by B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. There are three conformers (SI, SII-1, and SII-2) for this molecule (ground state). The most stable conformer of INAME is SI conformer. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies of INAME in the ground state have been calculated by using HF and density functional method (B3LYP) 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. Detailed vibrational spectral analysis has been carried out and assignments of the observed fundamental bands have been proposed on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The computed vibrational frequencies were compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. A study on the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed by time independent DFT approach. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. The electric dipole moment (?) and first hyper polarizability (?) values of the investigated molecule were computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculated results show that the INAME molecule may have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non zero values. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. PMID:25459608

  12. Evaluation of the budget for silicic acid in Cascadia Basin deep water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esther, Tabitha A.; Hammond, Douglas E.; Hautala, Susan L.; Paul Johnson, H.; Schwartz, Richard J.; Paukert, Amelia N.

    2010-05-01

    Between 2 and 3 km depth, North Pacific deep waters contain a plume of water with high silicic acid concentrations. The plume extends outward from Cascadia Basin (the Washington Margin), where waters can contain in excess of 200 ?M off the coast of Oregon and Washington. To identify the source of the high Si concentrations in Cascadia Basin, we measured silicic acid and germanium concentrations in deep waters, and their fluxes from sediments using incubated cores. The mean flux of silicic acid into bottom waters is 0.810.05 mmol/m 2-day, and the Ge/Si ratio of this flux is 0.70.1 ?mol/mol. A box model, incorporating these results with hydrographic data, indicates that (1) no more than 5% of the silicic acid added to Basin deep waters can have a hydrothermal source (either hot or warm seeps), and (2) the total input of silicic acid to Basin deep waters is 0.060.02 Tmol/y. This input is nearly all from remineralized biogenic debris and should contribute about 0.5% of the 14 Tmol/y that are estimated to be necessary to maintain the North Pacific plume.

  13. Choline Chloride Catalyzed Amidation of Fatty Acid Ester to Monoethanolamide: A Green Approach.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pramod; Pratap, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Choline chloride catalyzed efficient method for amidation of fatty acid methyl ester to monoethanolamide respectively. This is a solvent free, ecofriendly, 100% chemo selective and economically viable path for alkanolamide synthesis. The Kinetics of amidation of methyl ester were studied and found to be first order with respect to the concentration of ethanolamine. The activation energy (Ea) for the amidation of lauric acid methyl ester catalyzed by choline chloride was found to be 50.20 KJ mol(-1). The 98% conversion of lauric acid monoethanolamide was obtained at 110C in 1 h with 6% weight of catalyst and 1:1.5 molar ratio of methyl ester to ethanolamine under nitrogen atmosphere. PMID:26666271

  14. An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Duan, F.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed an enhanced analytical procedure to measure organic acids and methyl esters in fine aerosol with much greater specificity and sensitivity than previously available. This capability is important because of these species and their low concentrations, even in highly polluted atmospheres like Beijing, China. The procedure first separates the acids and esters from the other organic compounds with anion-exchange solid- phase extraction (SPE), then, quantifies them by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids. Then the acids are separated from the esters on an aminopropyl SPE cartridge, whose weak retention isolates and enriches the acids from esters prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) suggest that FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. In all, 17 aromatic acids were identified and quantified using this procedure coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, including the five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH-acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids indicated that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were mainly secondary, the last two mainly primary.

  15. In vitro pharmacokinetics of anti-psoriatic fumaric acid esters

    PubMed Central

    Litjens, Nicolle HR; van Strijen, Elisabeth; van Gulpen, Co; Mattie, Herman; van Dissel, Jaap T; Thio, H Bing; Nibbering, Peter H

    2004-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that can be successfully treated with a mixture of fumaric acid esters (FAE) formulated as enteric-coated tablets for oral use. These tablets consist of dimethylfumarate (DMF) and salts of monoethylfumarate (MEF) and its main bioactive metabolite is monomethylfumarate (MMF). Little is known about the pharmacokinetics of these FAE. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hydrolysis of DMF to MMF and the stability of MMF, DMF and MEF at in vitro conditions representing different body compartments. Results DMF is hydrolyzed to MMF in an alkaline environment (pH 8), but not in an acidic environment (pH 1). In these conditions MMF and MEF remained intact during the period of analysis (6 h). Interestingly, DMF was hardly hydrolyzed to MMF in a buffer of pH 7.4, but was rapidly hydrolyzed in human serum having the same pH. Moreover, in whole blood the half-life of DMF was dramatically reduced as compared to serum. The concentrations of MMF and MEF in serum and whole blood decreased with increasing time. These data indicate that the majority of the FAE in the circulation are metabolized by one or more types of blood cells. Additional experiments with purified blood cell fractions resuspended in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) revealed that at concentrations present in whole blood monocytes/lymphocytes, but not granulocytes and erythrocytes, effectively hydrolyzed DMF to MMF. Furthermore, in agreement with the data obtained with the pure components of the tablet, the enteric-coated tablet remained intact at pH 1, but rapidly dissolved at pH 8. Conclusion Together, these in vitro data indicate that hydrolysis of DMF to MMF rapidly occurs at pH 8, resembling that within the small intestines, but not at pH 1 resembling the pH in the stomach. At both pHs MMF and MEF remained intact. These data explain the observation that after oral FAE intake MMF and MEF, but not DMF, can be readily detected in the circulation of human healthy volunteers and psoriasis patients. PMID:15479475

  16. Determination of the carbon deficiency in the flame ionization detector response of long-chain fatty acid methyl esters and dicarboxylic acid dimethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Schreiner, Matthias; Hulan, Howard W

    2004-08-01

    Carbon deficiencies (CDs) of long-chain fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and dicarboxylic acid dimethyl esters (DDMEs), which lead to decreased response in a flame ionization detection (FID) system, were determined by using full responding hydrocarbons (heptadecane, eicosane and alpha-cholestane) as references. For saturated FAMEs ranging from C12 to C22 and for DDMEs ranging from C4 to C10, CDs between 1.3+/-0.12 and 1.7+/-0.36 per ester group were recorded. All values were significantly (P < 0.05) greater than 1. Generally, response factors for gas-chromatographic analysis using FID have been calculated on the theory that the CD of FAMEs is 1 per ester group. However, this theory could not be confirmed experimentally for short-chain FAMEs of less than 8 carbons as CDs of around 1.5 were reported for C4 and C6 FAMEs. The study presented here contributes an approach to this problem by confirming the validity of response factors calculated from a CD of 1.5 per ester group as well as for long-chain FAMEs and DDMEs. PMID:15378895

  17. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzoic acid,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Benzoic acid,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1728 Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino... substance identified as benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester (PMN P-85-1211) is subject... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Benzoic acid,...

  20. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil and evaluation as biodiesel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared in high yield by transesterification of Osage orange (Maclura pomifera) oil. Extracted using supercritical CO2, the crude oil was initially treated with mineral acid and methanol to lower its content of free fatty acids, thus rendering it amenable to homogeneou...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  3. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  5. 40 CFR 721.1875 - Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (generic name).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid, alkyl and substituted... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.1875 Boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl... chemical substance boric acid, alkyl and substituted alkyl esters (PMN P-86-1252) is subject to...

  6. Thermophysical properties of starch and whey protein composite prepared in presence of organic acid and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we prepared starch and protein composite by reactive mixing in presence of various organic acids and found that use of these acid esters resulted in composites with good mechanical properties. In this study, concentration (% w/w) of acid citrates in the starch-protein composites were var...

  7. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... combined lactic acid, 14-18 percent; and acid number, 12 maximum. (c) It is used in amounts not in excess... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty...

  8. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... combined lactic acid, 14-18 percent; and acid number, 12 maximum. (c) It is used in amounts not in excess... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty...

  9. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... combined lactic acid, 14-18 percent; and acid number, 12 maximum. (c) It is used in amounts not in excess... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty...

  10. 21 CFR 172.850 - Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... combined lactic acid, 14-18 percent; and acid number, 12 maximum. (c) It is used in amounts not in excess... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and... DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.850 Lactylated fatty...

  11. Kinematic viscosity of fatty acid methyl esters: Prediction, calculated viscosity contribution of esters with unavailable data, and carbon-oxygen equivalents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many properties of biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing feedstocks, are largely determined by its major components, the fatty acid alkyl esters. Therefore, information on the properties of individual components and their interaction is ...

  12. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester inhibits liver fibrosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei; Wang, Xiu-Fang; Shi, Juan-Juan; Li, Ya-Ping; Yang, Ning; Zhai, Song; Dang, Shuang-Suo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the hepatoprotective effects and antioxidant activity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in rats with liver fibrosis. METHODS: A total of 75 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to seven experimental groups: a normal group (n = 10), a vehicle group (n = 10), a model group (n = 15), a vitamin E group (n = 10), and three CAPE groups (CAPE 3, 6 and 12 mg/kg, n = 10, respectively). Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by injecting CCl4 subcutaneously, feeding with high fat forage, and administering 30% alcohol orally for 10 wk. Concurrently, CAPE (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered daily for 10 wk. After that, serum total bilirubin (TBil), aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels were measured to assess hepatotoxicity. To investigate antioxidant activity of CAPE, malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) levels, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in liver tissue were determined. Moreover, the effect of CAPE on α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a characteristic hallmark of activated hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription factor for antioxidant systems, was investigated by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Compared to the model group, intraperitoneal administration of CAPE decreased TBil, ALT, and AST levels in liver fibrosis rats (P < 0.05), while serum TBil was decreased by CAPE in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the liver hydroxyproline contents in both the 6 and 12 mg/kg CAPE groups were markedly lower than that in the model group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively). CAPE markedly decreased MDA levels and, in turn, increased GSH levels, as well as CAT and SOD activities in liver fibrosis rats compared to the model group (P < 0.05). Moreover, CAPE effectively inhibited α-SMA expression while increasing Nrf2 expression compared to the model group (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The protective effects of CAPE against liver fibrosis may be due to its ability to suppress the activation of HSCs by inhibiting oxidative stress. PMID:25852274

  13. Synthesis of esters of androgens with unsaturated fatty acids for androgen requiring therapy.

    PubMed

    Aiello, F; Garofalo, A; Aloisi, A M; Lamponi, S; Magnani, A; Petroni, A

    2013-06-01

    Androgens' metabolism and activity are gaining a more and more important role in human physiology particularly referring to aging and to neurodegenerative diseases. Androgen treatment is often required for long-lasting disorders. In order to improve their duration and effects, androgens can be administered as esters of carboxylic acids. The novelty of our research is the use of esters of androgens with specific unsaturated fatty acids, in order to reduce possible side effects particularly related to chronic pathologies with altered lipid homeostasis such as X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy and cardiovascular disorders. Thus the esters of the main androgenic substances testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and their metabolite 5α-androstan-3α,17β-diol were chemically obtained by coupling with different unsaturated fatty acids. To this aim, fatty acids with various degree of unsaturation and belonging to different series were selected. Specifically, oleic acid (18:1, n-9), linoleic acid (18:2, n-6), and the n-3 fatty acids, α-linolenic acid (18:3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) were used obtaining corresponding esters with acceptable yields and good degree of purity. All the synthesized compounds were tested for their cytotoxic activities in mouse NIH3T3 and human astrocyte cell lines. The esters demonstrated good tolerability and no in vitro cytotoxic effect in both cell cultures. After these promising preliminary results, the esters will be suitable for in vivo studies in order to ascertain their pharmacokinetic characteristics and their biological effects. PMID:23095310

  14. Direct Determination of Glycidyl Esters of Fatty Acids in Vegetable Oils by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Blumhorst, Michael R; Venkitasubramanian, Padmesh; Collison, Mark W

    2011-09-01

    An LC-MS method using a single quadrupole mass spectrometer was developed for direct analysis of glycidyl esters of fatty acids in vegetable oils. Without any sample clean-up, this method provided acceptable recovery of seven glycidyl esters, comparable results to a previously-published method utilizing two solid-phase extraction steps, and consistent detection parameters after greater than 200 injections without any cleaning operations performed. This method could readily be implemented as a screening assay for glycidyl esters in most oil laboratories. PMID:21909156

  15. Use of mesoporous silicate nanoparticles as drug carrier for mefenamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustafa, F. M.; Hodali, H. A.

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the use of mesoporous silicate nanoparticles for the loading and release of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, mefenamic acid. Nanoparticles of the mesoporous silicate materials, MCM-41 and SBA-16 were synthesized and characterized by XRD, SEM, FT-IR, TGA and BET surface area techniques. Both silicate systems were loaded with mefenamic acid with loading capacities of 18.6% and 11.6%, respectively. The in vitro release of mefenamic acid into simulated body fluid (pH = 7.4) at 37C was investigated. The percent release was nonlinearly regressed against time (t) according to the first order kinetic release model; Higuchi's first burst model and Kopcha's empirical model. The overall %release was obtained for both silicate systems and was found to be about 60%. Analysis of results show the rate of drug release is more rapid from SBA-16 (the more interconnected porous network) than from MCM-41. It also show that drug release from either mesoporous silicate is a diffusion controlled process.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10138 - 3-Isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10138 Section 721.10138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-diphenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 3-isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10138 - 3-Isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10138 Section 721.10138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-diphenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 3-isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10138 - 3-Isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10138 Section 721.10138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-diphenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 3-isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10138 - 3-Isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10138 Section 721.10138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-diphenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 3-isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10138 - 3-Isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10138 Section 721.10138 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-diphenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 3-isoxazolecarboxylic acid, 4,5-dihydro-5,5-diphenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  1. Gamma-aminobutyric acid esters. 1. Synthesis, brain uptake, and pharmacological studies of aliphatic and steroid esters of gamma-aminobutyric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Shashoua, V.E.; Jacob, J.N.; Ridge, R.; Campbell, A.; Baldessarini, R.J.

    1984-05-01

    Labeled and unlabeled aliphatic and steroid esters of gamma-amino(U-/sup 14/C)butyric acid (GABA) were synthesized and tested for their capacity to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and for evidence of central neuropharmacological activity in rodents. The uptake of the labeled 9,12,15-octadecatrienyl (linolenyl), 3-cholesteryl, 1-butyl, and the 9-fluoro-11 beta,17-dihydroxy-16 alpha-methyl-3,20-dioxopregna -1,4-dien-21-yl (dexamethasone) esters of GABA into mouse brain increased 2-, 25-, 74-, and 81-fold over GABA, respectively. The cholesteryl ester of GABA depressed the general motor activity of mice and rats in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the 1-butyl, linolenyl, and dexamethasone esters were inactive by this test. Studies of the rates of hydrolysis, GABA receptor binding capacity, and octanol/water partition coefficients indicated that pharmacological activity of the esters after entry into the central nervous system (CNS) was dependent on their capacity to release GABA by enzymatic hydrolysis and their lipid solubility.

  2. A conformational study of nucleic acid phosphate ester bonds using phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Haasnoot, C A; Altona, C

    1979-01-01

    A systematic phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study of some nucleic acid constituents (6-N-(dimethyl)adenylyl-(3',5')-uridine and some nucleotide methyl esters) is presented. The temperature dependent phosphorus-31 chemical shifts were analyzed by standard thermodynamic procedures. It is shown that gt conformations about the P-O ester bonds have a lower free energy content relative to gg conformers. PMID:440971

  3. Myo-inositol esters of indole-3-acetic acid are endogenous components of Zea mays L. shoot tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chisnell, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters have been demonstrated to be endogenous components of etiolated Zea mays shoots tissue. This was accomplished by comparison of the putative compounds with authentic, synthetic esters. The properties compared were liquid and gas-liquid chromatographic retention times and the 70-ev mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the pentaacetyl derivative. The amount of indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters in the shoots was determined to be 74 nanomoles per kilogram fresh weight as measured by isotope dilution, accounting for 19% of the ester indole-3-acetic acid of the shoot. This work is the first characterization of an ester conjugate of indole-3-acetate acid from vegetative shoot tissue using multiple chromatographic properties and mass spectral identification. The kernel and the seedling shoot both contain indole-3-acetyl-myo-inositol esters, and these esters comprise approximately the same percentage of the total ester content of the kernel and of the shoot.

  4. Effect of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on myringosclerosis development in the tympanic membrane of rat.

    PubMed

    Kinis, Vefa; Ozbay, Musa; Alabalik, Ulas; Gul, Aylin; Yilmaz, Beyhan; Ozkurt, Fazi Emre; Sengul, Engin; Topcu, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Myringosclerosis is hyalinization and calcification of certain areas of the tympanic membrane, especially the fibrous lamina propria layer and appears as white sclerotic lesions. Ventilation tube insertion is one of the most performed operations in the pediatric otorhinolaryngology practice to treat chronic otitis media with effusion. Myringosclerosis is a very common sequela of ventilation tube insertion. In this experimental study, our aim was to show the histopathological effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on myringosclerosis development in rat tympanic membrane after myringotomy. The rats were randomly categorized into four experimental groups including the comparison group (n = 4), non-treated group (n = 7), the saline (control) group (n = 7), the caffeic acid phenethyl ester group (n = 7). Non-treated group did not receive any treatment for 15 days. Saline (2.5 mL/kg, intraperitoneal) was administered to the third group once a day for 15 days. Fourth group received caffeic acid phenethyl ester intraperitoneally once a day at a dose of 10 ?mol/kg for 15 days. Myringotomy was performed on the right tympanic membrane of all rats except comparison group using a sterile pick with the help of an operating microscope. Histopathological examination of myringosclerosis formation was done by a pathologist under light microscope. In histopathological analysis of groups, the severity of inflammation was milder in caffeic acid phenethyl ester group compared to non-treated and saline groups (p < 0.05). There was less myringosclerotic plaques in caffeic acid phenethyl ester group than in non-treated and saline groups (p < 0.05). TM thickness measurements were very close to each other in non-treated and saline groups. The tympanic membrane thickness of caffeic acid phenethyl ester group was much thinner than the other two groups (p < 0.05). Caffeic acid phenethyl ester decreases inflammation severity and the formation of myringosclerotic plaques. These two effects resulted in thinner tympanic membranes of rats which were treated with caffeic acid phenethyl ester. As a result, caffeic acid phenethyl ester has potential preventive effects on myringosclerosis development after myringotomy and ventilation tube insertion. PMID:24281567

  5. Alleviating aluminum toxicity in an acid sulfate soil from Peninsular Malaysia by calcium silicate application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elisa, A. A.; Ninomiya, S.; Shamshuddin, J.; Roslan, I.

    2016-03-01

    In response to human population increase, the utilization of acid sulfate soils for rice cultivation is one option for increasing production. The main problems associated with such soils are their low pH values and their associated high content of exchangeable Al, which could be detrimental to crop growth. The application of soil amendments is one approach for mitigating this problem, and calcium silicate is an alternative soil amendment that could be used. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to ameliorate soil acidity in rice-cropped soil. The secondary objective was to study the effects of calcium silicate amendment on soil acidity, exchangeable Al, exchangeable Ca, and Si content. The soil was treated with 0, 1, 2, and 3 Mg ha-1 of calcium silicate under submerged conditions and the soil treatments were sampled every 30 days throughout an incubation period of 120 days. Application of calcium silicate induced a positive effect on soil pH and exchangeable Al; soil pH increased from 2.9 (initial) to 3.5, while exchangeable Al was reduced from 4.26 (initial) to 0.82 cmolc kg-1. Furthermore, the exchangeable Ca and Si contents increased from 1.68 (initial) to 4.94 cmolc kg-1 and from 21.21 (initial) to 81.71 mg kg-1, respectively. Therefore, it was noted that calcium silicate was effective at alleviating Al toxicity in acid sulfate, rice-cropped soil, yielding values below the critical level of 2 cmolc kg-1. In addition, application of calcium silicate showed an ameliorative effect as it increased soil pH and supplied substantial amounts of Ca and Si.

  6. Lithium hydroxide/aqueous methanol: mild reagent for the hydrolysis of bile acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Dayal, B; Salen, G; Toome, B; Tint, G S; Shefer, S; Padia, J

    1990-05-01

    An efficient and convenient procedure for the hydrolysis of bile acid methyl esters is described. This is achieved by the addition of aqueous lithium hydroxide in methanol/dioxane (or tetrahydrofuran) at room temperature. Under these conditions, the formates as well as the acetate derivatives were also hydrolyzed, and the desired bile acids were isolated in 86 to 94% yield. PMID:2163126

  7. Coriander Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel: Unique Fatty Acid Composition and Excellent Oxidative Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid (FA) hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt %) acid. Most of the remaining FA...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10133 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10133 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, homopolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...

  10. Fuel and lubricant additives from acid treated mixtures of vegetable oil derived amides and esters

    SciTech Connect

    Bonazza, B.R.; Devault, A.N.

    1981-05-26

    Vegetable oils such as corn oil, peanut oil, and soy oil are reacted with polyamines to form a mixture containing amides, imides, half esters, and glycerol with subsequent treatment with a strong acid such as sulfonic acid to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels and lubricants.

  11. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene)...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene)...

  13. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene)...

  14. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene)...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7770 - Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7770 Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid...) The chemical substance identified as alkyl phenoxypoly(oxyethylene) sulfuric acid ester, substituted... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkylphenoxypoly(oxyethylene)...

  16. A comprehensive evaluation of the density of neat fatty acids and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of a chemical compound, affecting numerous applications. An application in the case of fatty acid esters (biodiesel) is that density is specified in some biodiesel standards. In the present work, the density of fatty acid methyl, ethyl, propyl...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  18. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl... Specific Chemical Substances 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl... Specific Chemical Substances 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl... Specific Chemical Substances 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9965 - Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl... Specific Chemical Substances 721.9965 Fatty acids, C10-13 - branched, vinyl esters. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  2. Access to aryl mellitic acid esters through a surprising oxidative esterification reaction.

    PubMed

    Geraskina, Margarita R; Juetten, Mark J; Winter, Arthur H

    2014-06-01

    A serendipitously discovered oxidative esterification reaction of cyclohexane hexacarboxylic acid with phosphorus pentachloride and phenols provides one-pot access to previously unknown aryl mellitic acid esters. The reaction features a solvent-free digestion and chromatography-free purifications and demonstrates the possibility of cyclohexane-to-benzene conversions under relatively mild, metal-free conditions. PMID:24815576

  3. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10243 - Phosphonic acid, P-[2-[bis(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10243 Phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester. (a... phosphonic acid, P- ethyl]-, bis(2-chloroethyl) ester (PMN P-09-193; CAS No. 55088-28-3) is subject...

  5. Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters Are Less Toxic Than Their Parent Fatty Acids Generated during Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Krutika; Durgampudi, Chandra; Noel, Pawan; Trivedi, Ram N; de Oliveira, Cristiane; Singh, Vijay P

    2016-04-01

    Although ethanol causes acute pancreatitis (AP) and lipolytic fatty acid (FA) generation worsens AP, the contribution of ethanol metabolites of FAs, ie, FA ethyl esters (FAEEs), to AP outcomes is unclear. Previously, pancreata of dying alcoholics and pancreatic necrosis in severe AP, respectively, showed high FAEEs and FAs, with oleic acid (OA) and its ethyl esters being the most abundant. We thus compared the toxicities of FAEEs and their parent FAs in severe AP. Pancreatic acini and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were exposed to FAs or FAEEs in vitro. The triglyceride of OA (i.e., glyceryl tri-oleate) or OAEE was injected into the pancreatic ducts of rats, and local and systemic severities were studied. Unsaturated FAs at equimolar concentrations to FAEEs induced a larger increase in cytosolic calcium, mitochondrial depolarization, and necro-apoptotic cell death. Glyceryl tri-oleate but not OAEE resulted in 70% mortality with increased serum OA, a severe inflammatory response, worse pancreatic necrosis, and multisystem organ failure. Our data show that FAs are more likely to worsen AP than FAEEs. Our observations correlate well with the high pancreatic FAEE concentrations in alcoholics without pancreatitis and high FA concentrations in pancreatic necrosis. Thus, conversion of FAs to FAEE may ameliorate AP in alcoholics. PMID:26878214

  6. Deglacial diatom production in the tropical North Atlantic driven by enhanced silicic acid supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Katharine R.; Gong, Xun; Knorr, Gregor; Pike, Jennifer; Hall, Ian R.

    2016-03-01

    Major shifts in ocean circulation are thought to be responsible for abrupt changes in temperature and atmospheric CO2 during the last deglaciation, linked to variability in meridional heat transport and deep ocean carbon storage. There is also widespread evidence for shifts in biological production during these times of deglacial CO2 rise, including enhanced diatom production in regions such as the tropical Atlantic. However, it remains unclear as to whether this diatom production was driven by enhanced wind-driven upwelling or density-driven vertical mixing, or by elevated thermocline concentrations of silicic acid supplied to the surface at a constant rate. Here, we demonstrate that silicic acid supply at depth in the NE Atlantic was enhanced during the abrupt climate events of the deglaciation. We use marine sediment archives to show that an increase in diatom production during abrupt climate shifts could only occur in regions of the NE Atlantic where the deep supply of silicic acid could reach the surface. The associated changes are indicative of enhanced regional wind-driven upwelling and/or weakened stratification due to circulation changes during phases of weakened Atlantic meridional overturning. Globally near-synchronous pulses of diatom production and enhanced thermocline concentrations of silicic acid suggest that widespread deglacial surface-driven breakdown of stratification, linked to changes in atmospheric circulation, had major consequences for biological productivity and carbon cycling.

  7. Rapid screening of fatty acid alkyl esters in olive oils by time domain reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, Annachiara; Ragni, Luigi; Bendini, Alessandra; Valli, Enrico; Conte, Lanfranco; Guarnieri, Adriano; Toschi, Tullia Gallina

    2013-11-20

    The main aim of the present research is to assess the possibility of quickly screening fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAE) in olive oils using time domain reflectometry (TDR) and partial least-squares (PLS) multivariate statistical analysis. Eighteen virgin olive oil samples with fatty acid alkyl ester contents and fatty acid ethyl ester/methyl ester ratios (FAEE/FAME) ranging from 3 to 100 mg kg(-1) and from 0.3 to 2.6, respectively, were submitted to tests with time domain resolution of 1 ps. The results obtained in test set validation demonstrated that this new and fast analytical approach is able to predict FAME, FAEE, and FAME + FAEE contents with R(2) values of 0.905, 0.923, and 0.927, respectively. Further measurements on mixtures between olive oil and FAAE standards confirmed that the prediction is based on a direct influence of fatty acid alkyl esters on the TDR signal. The suggested technique appeared potentially suitable for monitoring one of the most important quality attribute of the olive oil in the extraction process. PMID:24168174

  8. A LC-MS-based workflow for measurement of branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tejia; Chen, Shili; Syed, Ismail; Ståhlman, Marcus; Kolar, Matthew J; Homan, Edwin A; Chu, Qian; Smith, Ulf; Borén, Jan; Kahn, Barbara B; Saghatelian, Alan

    2016-04-01

    Branched fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs) are a recently discovered class of endogenous mammalian lipids with antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory effects. We previously identified 16 different FAHFA families, such as branched palmitic acid esters of hydroxy stearic acids (PAHSAs); each family consists of multiple isomers in which the branched ester is at different positions (e.g., 5- and 9-PAHSA). We anticipate increased need for PAHSA measurements as markers of metabolic and inflammatory health. In this protocol, we provide a detailed description of the extraction of FAHFAs from human or mouse tissues, their enrichment by solid-phase extraction and subsequent analysis by LC-MS. For a sample size of 6-12, the time frame is 2-3 d. PMID:26985573

  9. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862 may be used as a substitute for or together with the oleic acid permitted by this...

  10. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862 may be used as a substitute for or together with the oleic acid permitted by this...

  11. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....860(b) and/or oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.862. (b... to perform its cloud-inhibiting effect. Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids conforming with § 172.862 may be used as a substitute for or together with the oleic acid permitted by this...

  12. Diatom silicon isotopes as a proxy for silicic acid utilisation: A Southern Ocean core top calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Katherine E.; Rickaby, Rosalind E. M.; Leng, Melanie J.; Hendry, Katharine R.; Hermoso, Michal; Sloane, Hilary J.; Bostock, Helen; Halliday, Alex N.

    2012-11-01

    Despite a growing body of work that uses diatom ?30Si to reconstruct past changes in silicic acid utilisation, few studies have focused on calibrating core top data with modern oceanographic conditions. In this study, a microfiltration technique is used to divide Southern Ocean core top silica into narrow size ranges, separating components such as radiolaria, sponge spicules and clay minerals from diatoms. Silicon isotope analysis of these components demonstrates that inclusion of small amounts of non-diatom material can significantly offset the measured from the true diatom ?30Si. Once the correct size fraction is selected (generally 2-20 ?m), diatom ?30Si shows a strong negative correlation with surface water silicic acid concentration (R2 = 0.92), highly supportive of the qualitative use of diatom ?30Si as a proxy for silicic acid utilisation. The core top diatom ?30Si matches well with mixed layer filtered diatom ?30Si from published in situ studies, suggesting little to no effect of either dissolution on export through the water column, or early diagenesis, on diatom ?30Si in sediments from the Southern Ocean. However, the core top diatom ?30Si shows a poor fit to simple Rayleigh or steady state models of the Southern Ocean when a single source term is used. The data can instead be described by these models only when variations in the initial conditions of upwelled silicic acid concentration and ?30Si are taken into account, a caveat which may introduce some error into quantitative reconstructions of past silicic acid utilisation from diatom ?30Si.

  13. Fatty acids, alcohol and fatty acid ethyl esters: toxic Ca2+ signal generation and pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Petersen, O H; Tepikin, A V; Gerasimenko, Julia V; Gerasimenko, O V; Sutton, R; Criddle, D N

    2009-06-01

    Pancreatitis, a potentially fatal disease in which the pancreas digests itself as well as its surroundings, is a well recognized complication of hyperlipidemia. Fatty acids have toxic effects on pancreatic acinar cells and these are mediated by large sustained elevations of the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. An important component of the effect of fatty acids is due to inhibition of mitochondrial function and subsequent ATP depletion, which reduces the operation of Ca(2+)-activated ATPases in both the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. One of the main causes of pancreatitis is alcohol abuse. Whereas the effects of even high alcohol concentrations on isolated pancreatic acinar cells are variable and often small, fatty acid ethyl esters--synthesized by combination of alcohol and fatty acids--consistently evoke major Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, subsequently opening Ca(2+) entry channels in the plasma membrane. The crucial trigger for pancreatic autodigestion is intracellular trypsin activation. Although there is still uncertainty about the exact molecular mechanism by which this Ca(2+)-dependent process occurs, progress has been made in identifying a subcellular compartment--namely acid post-exocytotic endocytic vacuoles--in which this activation takes place. PMID:19327825

  14. Effect of physical ageing on properties of PLA plasticized with oligomeric esters of lactic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castaldo, R.; Ambrogi, V.; Avella, M.; Avolio, R.; Carfagna, C.; Cocca, M.; Errico, M. E.; Gentile, G.

    2014-05-01

    Two oligomeric esters of lactic acid with carboxyl or hydroxyl terminal groups were employed to plasticize polylactic acid. The miscibility of the blends as well as the mechanical, thermal and gas/vapour transport properties were tested as a function of plasticizer content and of physical ageing. A ductile PLA behavior was obtained with the addition of at least 20 wt% of both esters supplying an increase of elongation at break values higher than 400%. These blends retain their ductile feature also after ageing. Finally migration tests proved the compliance of these materials with the EU regulation for food contact plastics.

  15. On the neutralization of acid rock drainage by carbonate and silicate minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherlock, E. J.; Lawrence, R. W.; Poulin, R.

    1995-02-01

    The net result of acid-generating and-neutralizing reactions within mining wastes is termed acid rock drainage (ARD). The oxidation of sulfide minerals is the major contributor to acid generation. Dissolution and alteration of various minerals can contribute to the neutralization of acid. Definitions of alkalinity, acidity, and buffer capacity are reviewed, and a detailed discussion of the dissolution and neutralizing capacity of carbonate and silicate minerals related to equilibium conditions, dissolution mechanism, and kinetics is provided. Factors that determine neutralization rate by carbonate and silicate minerals include: pH, PCO 2, equilibrium conditions, temperature, mineral composition and structure, redox conditions, and the presence of foreign ions. Similar factors affect sulfide oxidation. Comparison of rates shows sulfides react fastest, followed by carbonates and silicates. The differences in the reaction mechanisms and kinetics of neutralization have important implications in the prediction, control, and regulation of ARD. Current static and kinetic prediction methods upon which mine permitting, ARD control, and mine closure plans are based do not consider sample mineralogy or the kinetics of the acid-generating and-neutralizing reactions. Erroneous test interpretations and predictions can result. The importance of considering mineralogy for site-specific interpretation is highlighted. Uncertainty in prediction leads to difficulties for the mine operator in developing satisfactory and cost-effective control and remediation measures. Thus, the application of regulations and guidelines for waste management planning need to beflexible.

  16. Stability studies on methyl and ethyl fatty acid esters of sunflower seed oil

    SciTech Connect

    Du Plessis, L.M.; De Villiers, J.B.M.; Van der Walt, W.H.

    1985-04-01

    Fatty acid esters, high in linoleic acid, were prepared and stored for long-term engine tests. Storage tests were undertaken to obtain data on optimal storage requirements and general stability characteristics. Samples were kept at three temperature levels (20 C, 30C and fluctuating around 50 C) for a 90-day period and were removed at regular intervals for chemical and physical analysis. The influence of air, temperature, light, TBHQ and contact with mild steel was evaluated by comparing the free fatty acid, peroxide, anisidine, ultraviolet absorption, viscosity and inducation periods. A statistical model was used to evaluate the data and to reduce the data points to comparable curves. Storage of esters in contact with air, especially at a temperature above 30 C, resulted in significant increases in peroxide, ultraviolet absorption, free fatty acid, viscosity and anisidine values. Exclusion of air retarded oxidation at all temperature levels. A direct relationship between viscosity increases and oxidation parameters was evident. Exposure to light caused a small increase in the oxidation parameters of esters stored at the highest temperature level. Addition of TBHQ prevented oxidation of samples stored under moderate conditions. Under unfavorable storage conditions the anti-oxidant was no longer effective. Mild steel had very little effect on the oxidation parameters. The anisidine values of samples stored at the highest temperature level were slightly increased. Methyl esters performed slightly better than ethyl esters during the storage test. The recommended guidelines for storage of fatty acid ester fuels are: (1) airtight containers should be used, (2) the storage temperature should be less than 30 C, (3) mild steel (rust free) containers may be used, and (4) TBHQ has a beneficial effect on oxidation stability. 13 references.

  17. Study on Synthesis, Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Novel Diisopropylphenyl Esters of Selected Fatty Acids.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Yasa Sathyam; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bala Bhaskara; Jain, Nishant; Vijayalakshmi, Penumarthy

    2016-01-01

    The present study describes the synthesis, characterization and evaluation of antiproliferative activity of novel diisopropylphenyl esters of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), valproic acid (VA), butyric acid (BA) and 2-ethylhexanoic acid (2-EHA). These esters were chemically synthesized by the esterification of fatty acids with 2,6-diisopropylphenol and 2,4-diisopropylphenol (propofol). The structure of new conjugates viz. propofol-(alpha-linolenic acid) (2,6P-ALA and 2,4P-ALA), propofol-valproic acid (2,6P-VA and 2,4P-VA), propofol-butyric acid (2,6P-BA and 2,4P-BA) and propofol-(2-ethylhexanoic acid) (2,6P2-EHA and 2,4P-2-EHA) were characterized by FT-IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) and mass spectral data. The synthesized conjugates having more lipophilic character were tested for antiproliferative in vitro studies on A549, MDA-MB-231, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. All the conjugates showed specific growth inhibition on studied cancer cell lines. Among the synthesized esters, the conjugates synthesized from BA, VA and 2-EHA exhibited prominent growth inhibition against A549, HeLa, Mia-Pa-Ca and HePG2 cancer cell lines. The preliminary results suggest that the entire novel conjugates possess antiproliferative properties that reduce the proliferation of cancer cells in vitro. PMID:26666272

  18. Different kinetic behaviors for unimolecular and bimolecular ester hydrolysis reactions in strongly acidic microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Fernández, E; García-Río, L; Méndez-Pérez, M; Rodríguez-Dafonte, P

    2009-07-01

    Replacing the counterion in sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate with H(+) allows strongly acidic microemulsions to be obtained. These systems are the only known colloidal medium in which it is possible to reach local concentrations of acid, expressed as Hammett acidity function (H(0)), lower than H(0) = -0.2, which corresponds to a concentration of acid above 1 M in aqueous solution. In the present work, there has been analyzed the influence of this type of microemulsion on the acid hydrolysis of two esters derived from picolinic acid: 4-nitrophenylpicolinate (NPP) and 2,4-dinitrophenylpicolinate (DNPP). The reaction rate for NPP and DNPP increases up to 16 times on increasing the size of the aqueous nanocore of the microemulsion, which supposes an experimental behavior opposed to the one observed for the hydrolysis of nitrophenylacetate (NPA). The key to this differentiated behavior of NPP and DNPP resides in the fact that the rate-determining step for the acid hydrolysis mechanism is the water addition to the protonated ester. The reaction rate increases on increasing the nucleophilicity of water; that is, on increasing W (W = [H(2)O]/[surfactant]). Therefore, the acid hydrolysis of esters in strongly acidic microemulsions presents an A2 mechanism when reactivity increases with W, and an A1 mechanism if it decreases with W. PMID:19518107

  19. Change in the acid hydrolysis mechanism of esters enforced by strongly acid microemulsions.

    PubMed

    Fernández, E; García-Río, L; Rodríguez-Dafonte, P

    2007-10-01

    A kinetic study was carried out on the acid hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenylacetate and 4-nitrophenyllaurate in water/HOT/isooctane microemulsions. The substitution of Na+ in the sodium salt of bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate by H+ has permitted us to obtain a functionalized surfactant (HOT) and, consequently, strongly acid microemulsions. The use of HOT-based microemulsions allows us to reach concentrations of H+ in the aqueous core corresponding to a Hammett acidity function of H0 = -2. The rate constant at the interface and the distribution constants of the carboxylic esters throughout the different microenvironments of the microemulsion have been quantified by application of the pseudophase formalism. The results obtained show that the hydrolysis rate constant at the interface increases as the water content of the system decreases. The correlation of the rate constants at the interface of the microemulsion with the Hammett acidity function, H0 (on the basis of the Bunnett-Olsen criterion), has allowed us to confirm that the hydrolysis process takes place via an A2 mechanism for high water contents and through an A1 mechanism for values of W

  20. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Culex quinquefasciatus to certain fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, Thangaraj; Guha, Lopamudra; Iqbal, S Thanvir

    2013-12-01

    Oviposition response of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus females to a series of synthetic fatty acid esters was evaluated at 10ppm under laboratory conditions. Octyl tridecanoate and propyl octadecanoate elicited 85% and 73% increased ovipositional responses respectively, compared to control, among the 16 esters tested. Other 14 esters showed highly significant repellency (67-96%) to gravid females. Standard 3-methyl indole received 69% increased egg deposition compared to control. In the Y-tube olfactometer, gravid C. quinquefasciatus females exhibited 78, 64% and 58% orientation respectively to octyl tridecanoate, propyl octadecanoate and 3-methyl indole. Gravid females exhibited 19-41% reduced orientation toward treatment odors of other esters significantly different from respective control. Electroantennogram studies revealed 4-18-fold increased antennal response, in which 3-methyl indole, octyl tridecanoate and propyl octadecanoate elicited 8-, 18- and 15-fold EAG response respectively, compared to control. Relative EAG response of octyl tridecanoate compared to standard 3-methyl indole was significantly different. Reduced EAG responses were elicited by FAE-06, -08, -13, -14 and -15, while the relative EAG responses of other esters were at par with the standard stimulus. These, esters could be utilized potentially as oviposition attractants and repellents against C. quinquefasciatus females to reduce the breeding in polluted water along with existing integrated vector control methods. PMID:24055543

  1. Glycoside esters of 5-aminolevulinic acid for photodynamic therapy of cancer.

    PubMed

    Vallinayagam, Ramakrishnan; Schmitt, Frdric; Barge, Jrome; Wagnieres, Georges; Wenger, Virginie; Neier, Reinhard; Juillerat-Jeanneret, Lucienne

    2008-04-01

    Aliphatic and ethylene glycol esters of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) are very efficient precursors of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) for photodynamic therapy; however, they diffuse passively across the cell membrane and thus lack cell selectivity. We evaluated whether alpha-glucose, alpha-mannose, or beta-galactose esters of ALA would present improved properties as precursors of PpIX. Esterification was performed either at the position O-1 or O-6 of the sugars with or without an ethylene glycol linker, and these glycoside esters of ALA were evaluated in human cells. The results demonstrated that glycoside esters of ALA are efficient precursors of PpIX in human cancer and angiogenic endothelial cells, comparable to free ALA, but not in normal human fibroblasts. PpIX production was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and photodynamic treatment of cells. The O-1 or O-6 positions of functionalization and the nature of the sugar moiety did not influence PpIX production. The presence of the ethylene glycol linker generally resulted in decreased PpIX production. The uptake of these glycoside esters of ALA by cells was not decreased in the presence of high concentrations of the related sugars. Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidases or alpha-mannosidases did not decrease PpIX production. These results suggest the involvement of active non-glycoside-specific membrane transporter(s) for uptake and of esterases rather than glycosidases in the release of ALA from the glycoside esters of ALA. PMID:18341270

  2. Characterization of modified calcium-silicate cements exposed to acidic environment

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, Josette

    2011-01-15

    Portland cement which is used as a binder in concrete in the construction industry has been developed into a biomaterial. It is marketed as mineral trioxide aggregate and is used in dentistry. This material has been reported to be very biocompatible and thus its use has diversified. The extended use of this material has led to developments of newer versions with improved physical properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acidic environments found in the oral cavity on fast setting calcium silicate cements with improved physical properties using a combination of techniques. Two fast setting calcium silicate cements (CSA and CFA) and two cement composites (CSAG and CFAG) were assessed by subjecting the materials to lactic acid/sodium lactate buffer gel for a period of 28 days. At weekly intervals the materials were viewed under the tandem scanning confocal microscope (TSM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The two prototype cements exhibited changes in their internal chemistry with no changes in surface characteristics. Since the changes observed were mostly sub-surface evaluation of surface characteristics of cement may not be sufficient in the determination of chemical changes occurring. - Research Highlights: {yields} An acidic environment affects modified fast setting calcium silicate-based cements. {yields} No surface changes are observed in acidic environment. {yields} An acidic environment causes sub-surface changes in the material chemistry which are only visible in fractured specimens. {yields} A combination of techniques is necessary in order to evaluate the chemical changes occurring.

  3. Substituent effects and pH profiles for stability constants of arylboronic acid diol esters.

    PubMed

    Martnez-Aguirre, Mayte A; Villamil-Ramos, Raul; Guerrero-Alvarez, Jorge A; Yatsimirsky, Anatoly K

    2013-05-17

    Stability constants of boronic acid diol esters in aqueous solution have been determined potentiometrically for a series of meta-, para-substituted phenylboronic acids and diols of variable acidity. The constants ?(11-1) for reactions between neutral forms of reactants producing the anionic ester plus proton follow the Hammett equation with ? depending on pKa of diol and varying from 2.0 for glucose to 1.29 for 4-nitrocatechol. Observed stability constants (K(obs)) measured by UV-vis and fluorometric titrations at variable pH for esters of 4,5-dihydroxy-1,3-benzenedisulfonate (Tiron) generally agree with those expected on the basis of ?(11-1) values, but the direct fitting of K(obs) vs pH profiles gives shifted pKa values both for boronic acids and diol as a result of significant interdependence of fitting parameters. The subsituent effects on absorption and fluorescence spectra of Tiron arylboronate esters are characterized. The K(obs) for Tiron determined by (11)B NMR titrations are approximately 1 order of magnitude smaller than those determined by UV-vis titrations under identical conditions. A general equation, which makes possible an estimate of ?(11-1) for any pair of boronic acid and diol from their pKa values, is proposed on the basis of established Brnsted-type correlation of Hammett parameters for ?(11-1) with acidity of diols. The equation allows one to calculate stability constants expected only on basis of acid-base properties of the components, thus permitting more strict evaluation of contributions of additional factors such as steric or charge effects to the ester stability. PMID:23631757

  4. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  5. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  7. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  8. 40 CFR 721.3130 - Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters... Specific Chemical Substances 721.3130 Sulfuric acid, mono-C9-11-alkyl esters, sodium salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  9. 75 FR 20785 - Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the Requirement of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... . II. What Does this Correction Do? In the Federal Register of July 8, 2009, (74 FR 32456), EPA's... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyglyceryl Phthalate Ester of Coconut Oil Fatty Acids; Exemption from the..., concerning polyglyceryl phthalate ester of coconut oil fatty acids; exemption from the requirement of...

  10. High dose eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester: effects on lipids and neutrophil leukotriene production in normal volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, A B; Filipowicz, B L; Edwards, T J; Hawkey, C J

    1990-01-01

    1. A 93% pure ethyl ester of eicosapentaenoic acid was investigated for tolerability and biochemical effects on neutrophil leukotriene synthesis and plasma lipoproteins when given in high dose. Six healthy volunteers received 6 g eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester daily for 6 weeks, followed by a 4 week wash-out and then 18 g daily for 6 weeks. 2. There was inhibition of neutrophil leukotriene B4 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid synthesis, with no significant differences between low and high dose. 3. There was a dose dependent increase in leukotriene B5 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid acid synthesis. 4. Plasma triglycerides were reduced maximally on 6 g daily, with no greater suppression at 18 g daily. 5. Plasma cholesterol was only suppressed significantly at 18 g daily. 6. The 6 g daily dose was well tolerated but the 18 g daily dose produced diarrhoea and steatorrhoea. PMID:2169832

  11. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  12. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  14. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (a) Product. Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils,...

  15. Enzymes for the resolution of alpha-tertiary-substituted carboxylic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Kallwass, H K; Yee, C; Blythe, T A; McNabb, T J; Rogers, E E; Shames, S L

    1994-07-01

    Aromatic alpha-amino-alpha-methyl acids and alpha-hydrazino-alpha-methyl acids are known aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitors. Specific derivatives such as 2-amino-2-methyl-3-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)propanoate, Aldomet, and 2-hydrazino-2-methyl-3-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)propanoate, Lodosyn, have been developed as therapeutic agents to treat hypertension and Parkinson's disease, respectively. We recently reported a method for the kinetic resolution of the racemic esters of such compounds using a crude preparation of a novel enzyme catalyst from the yeast Candida lipolytica (Yee, C.; Blythe, T.A., McNabb, T.J.; Walts, A.E. J. Org. Chem. 1992, 57, 3525-3527). Here we report the purification and initial characterization of the active enzyme component, an enzyme given the name Candida lipolytica ester hydrolase (CLEH). CLEH was purified to > 95% homogeneity by chromatography on Matrex Blue B resin. The enzyme was found to be a glycoprotein with M(r) = 80,000-300,000. In addition to esterolytic activity, the enzyme was found to catalyze the hydrolysis of amides, anilides and peptides. Sequence analysis of internal peptides of CLEH revealed striking homology to a number of enzymes belonging to the group of serine carboxypeptidases (E.C. 3.4.16.1). One peptide aligned with the canonical serine carboxypeptidase active site sequence, GESYAG. Based on the structural relationship of CLEH to serine carboxypeptidases, three representative serine carboxypeptidases were evaluated for their utility in resolving racemic alpha-tertiary ester substrates and compared with the activity of CLEH. All enzymes revealed similarly high activity and enantioselectivity towards the alpha-hydrazino-alpha-methyl ester precursor of the Parkinson-drug Carbidopa. However, differences in enantioselectivity were observed with other alpha-tertiary-substituted ester substrates. Serine carboxypeptidase-catalyzed ester resolutions thus offer a new route to many sterically hindered homochiral alpha-amino, alpha-hydrazino and alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acids. PMID:7858960

  16. Process for the generation of .alpha., .beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acids and esters using niobium catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gogate, Makarand Ratnakav; Spivey, James Jerome; Zoeller, Joseph Robert

    1999-01-01

    A process using a niobium catalyst includes the step of reacting an ester or carboxylic acid with oxygen and an alcohol in the presence a niobium catalyst to respectively produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated ester or carboxylic acid. Methanol may be used as the alcohol, and the ester or carboxylic acid may be passed over the niobium catalyst in a vapor stream containing oxygen and methanol. Alternatively, the process using a niobium catalyst may involve the step of reacting an ester and oxygen in the presence the niobium catalyst to produce an .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carboxylic acid. In this case the ester may be a methyl ester. In either case, niobium oxide may be used as the niobium catalyst with the niobium oxide being present on a support. The support may be an oxide selected from the group consisting of silicon oxide, aluminum oxide, titanium oxide and mixtures thereof. The catalyst may be formed by reacting niobium fluoride with the oxide serving as the support. The niobium catalyst may contain elemental niobium within the range of 1 wt % to 70 wt %, and more preferably within the range of 10 wt % to 30 wt %. The process may be operated at a temperature from 150 to 450.degree. C. and preferably from 250 to 350.degree. C. The process may be operated at a pressure from 0.1 to 15 atm. absolute and preferably from 0.5-5 atm. absolute. The flow rate of reactants may be from 10 to 10,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h, and preferably from 100 to 1,000 L/kg.sub.(cat) /h.

  17. Encapsulation of ployunsaturated fatty acid esters with solid lipid particles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as a-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are known to improve cardiovascular and nervous system health. These compounds are increasingly used in food and animal feed formulations. However, the high degree of unsaturation in these structures can...

  18. The Southern Ocean silicon trap: Data-constrained estimates of regenerated silicic acid, trapping efficiencies, and global transport paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Mark; Primeau, Franois W.; DeVries, Timothy; Matear, Richard

    2014-01-01

    We analyze an optimized model of the global silicon cycle embedded in a data-assimilated steady ocean circulation. Biological uptake is modeled by conditionally restoring silicic acid in the euphotic zone to observed concentrations where the modeled concentrations exceed the observational climatology. An equivalent linear model is formulated to which Green-function-based transport diagnostics are applied. We find that the models' opal export through 133 m depth is 166 24 Tmol Si/yr, with the Southern Ocean (SO) providing 70% of this export, 50% of which dissolves above 2000 m depth. The global-scale gradients of the opal dissolution rate are primarily meridional, while the global-scale gradients of phosphate remineralization are primarily vertical. The mean depth of the temperature-dependent silicic-acid regeneration reaches 2300 m in the SO, compared to 600 m for phosphate remineralization. Silicic acid is stripped out of the euphotic zone far more efficiently than phosphate, with only (34 5)% of the global silicic-acid inventory being preformed, compared to (61 7)% for phosphate. Subantarctic and tropical waters contribute most of the ocean's regenerated silicic acid, while Antarctic waters provide most of the preformed silicic acid. About half of the global silicic-acid inventory is trapped in transport paths connecting successive SO utilizations, with silicic acid last utilized in the SO having only a (5 2)% chance of being next utilized outside the SO. This trapping depletes subantarctic mode waters of silicic acid relative to phosphate, which has a (44 2)% probability of escaping successive SO utilization.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of odour-active methionyl esters of fatty acids via esterification and transesterification of butter oil.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Sun, Jingcan; Fu, Caili; Yu, Bin; Liu, Shao Quan; Li, Tianhu; Huang, Dejian

    2014-02-15

    Methionol-derived fatty acid esters were synthesised by both chemical and lipase catalysed esterification between fatty acids and methionol. Beneficial effects of both methods were compared qualitatively and quantitatively by GC-MS/GC-FID results. And the high acid and heat stability of our designed methionyl esters meet the requirement of the food industry. Most importantly, the sensory test showed that fatty acid carbon-chain length had an important effect on the flavour attributes of methionyl esters. Moreover, through Lipozyme TL IM-mediated transesterification, valuable methionol-derived esters were synthesised from the readily available natural material butter oil as the fatty acid source. The conversion of methionol and yield of each methionyl ester were also elucidated by GC-MS-FID. PMID:24128547

  20. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester. 721.1728 Section 721.1728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1728 - Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzoic acid, 2-(3-phenylbutylidene)amino-, methyl ester. 721.1728 Section 721.1728 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances...

  2. Total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester via Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marek; Bałczewski, Piotr; Owsianik, Krzysztof; Różycka-Sokołowska, Ewa; Marciniak, Bernard

    2016-01-27

    In this paper, we have described the first total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester from non-natural sources, in four steps (20% overall yield). The key step involves the Diels-Alder reaction of isobenzofuran with methyl 3-(dimethoxyphosphoryl)acrylate which is controlled by "ortho" regio- and endo stereoselectivities due to the COOMe group. PMID:26750755

  3. Beyond fatty acid methyl esters: Expanding the renewable carbon profile with alkenones from Isochrysis sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to characteristic fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), biodiesel produced from Isochrysis sp. contains a significant amount (14% dry weight) of predominantly C37 and C38 longchain alkenones. These compounds are members of a class of lipids known collectively as polyunsaturated long-chain al...

  4. ESTIMATION OF PHOSPHATE ESTER HYDROLYSIS RATE CONSTANTS. II. ACID AND GENERAL BASE CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    SPARC (SPARC Performs Automated Reasoning in Chemistry) chemical reactivity models were extended to calculate acid and neutral hydrolysis rate constants of phosphate esters in water. The rate is calculated from the energy difference between the initial and transition states of a ...

  5. 40 CFR 721.8160 - Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester. 721.8160 Section 721.8160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  6. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. 721.4250 Section 721.4250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic...

  7. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. 721.4250 Section 721.4250 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic...

  8. 40 CFR 721.8160 - Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester. 721.8160 Section 721.8160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  9. 40 CFR 721.8160 - Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester. 721.8160 Section 721.8160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances §...

  10. Esterification and Transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphenylamine salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diphenylamine sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylamine hydrochloride (DPACl) salts were found to be highly active catalysts for esterification and transesterification of inexpensive greases to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). In the presence of catalytic amounts of DPAS or DPACl and excess methanol, the fr...

  11. Prediction of preweaning ADG in beef calves from milk fatty acid methyl esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has shown milk yield (MWT) has an important influence on calf preweaning ADG (PRWADG), but MWT accounts for only a moderate amount of variation in PRWADG. The objective of this study was to determine if milk fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), alone and in combination with MWT, could improve a...

  12. Esterification and transesterification of greases to fatty acid methyl esters with highly active diphanylammonium salts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have conducted an investigation designed to identify alternate catalysts for the production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) to be used as biodiesel. Diphenylammonium sulfate (DPAS) and diphenylammonium chloride (DPA-HCl) salts were found to be highly active homogeneous catalysts for the simu...

  13. Chemically modified fatty acid methyl esters: their potential for use as lubrication fluids and surfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of recent developments in the synthesis and characterization of lubrication fluids and surfactants from methyl oleate. The synthesis of materials made using an epoxidation route is the focus. This versatile method of chemical modification of fatty acid methyl esters improves their oxidati...

  14. SEPARATION OF T-MAZ ETHOXYLATED SORBITAN FATTY ACID ESTERS BY REVERSE PHASE CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method for determination of T-MAZ ethoxylated sorbitan fatty acid esters is described. This work demonstrates that with a less retentive C8 alkyl bonded phase packing, reverse phase chromatography can be used to analyze nonionic polymer mixtures with a molecular weight range ...

  15. SEPARATION OF T-MAZ ETHOXYLATED SORBITAN FATTY ACID ESTERS BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to the analysis of T-MAZ ethoxylated sorbitan fatty acid esters is described. FC separation methods utilize a density programming technique and a 50 um I.D. capillary column. his work demonstrates that capillary column S...

  16. 40 CFR 721.4250 - Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... accordance with the most current version of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F739... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4250 Hexanoic acid, 2-ethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.8160 - Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../min · cm2 after 8 hours of testing in accordance with the most current version of the American Society...) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8160 Propanoic acid, 2,2-dimethyl-, ethenyl ester. (a)...

  18. Cold flow properties of fatty acid methyl esters: Additives versus diluents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biodiesel is typically composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) converted from agricultural lipids. Common feedstocks include soybean oil, canola oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and palm oil. Recent debate on the conversion of edible oils into non-food products has created opportunities to deve...

  19. Chemically Modified Fatty Acid Methyl Esters: Potential as Lubricant and Surfactant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Renewable raw materials are going to play a noteworthy role in the development of sustainable green chemistry because of their eco-friendly and non-toxic nature. A novel process was developed for the production of biodegradable lubricant base stocks from epoxidized fatty acid methyl esters and comm...

  20. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721.6475 Section 721.6475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides. 184.1101 Section 184.1101 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721.6475 Section 721.6475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  3. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721.6475 Section 721.6475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721.6475 Section 721.6475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols. 721.6475 Section 721.6475 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ethoxylated fatty alcohols. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  6. Grey anti-inflammation analysis of phenolic acid phenethyl esters in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ting; Chiu, Chian-Song

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents grey structure activity relationship analysis for anti-inflammation of phenolic acid phenethyl esters in human neutrophils. To study the anti-inflammation effect, 14 compounds of phenolic acid phenethyl esters are synthesised, while the inhibition on superoxide anion generation (which is linked to an inflammation effect) induced by PMA and fMLP stimulants is detected. Next, the relationship weighting of each functional group of phenolic acid phenethyl esters is found by applying the grey system theory on the measured data. Moreover, evident structure activity relationships are established to regulate the anti-inflammation effect of such compounds, e.g. the most important functional group affecting the anti-inflammation in human neutrophils is revealed. In addition, some extending results are obtained based on the grey analysis. It is interesting that the analysed result is consistent with the actual circumstance. In comparison with traditional methods, this paper applying the grey theory indicates more characteristic information about the structure activity relationships of phenolic acid phenethyl esters while fewer data samples are required. PMID:26255385

  7. 21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. 573.640 Section 573.640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER...

  8. 21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. 573.640 Section 573.640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER...

  9. 21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. 573.640 Section 573.640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER...

  10. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS...

  11. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS...

  13. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: ADJUVANTS, PRODUCTION AIDS, AND SANITIZERS...

  14. 21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. 573.640 Section 573.640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER...

  15. 21 CFR 178.3780 - Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Polyhydric alcohol esters of long chain monobasic acids. 178.3780 Section 178.3780 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES:...

  16. 21 CFR 573.640 - Methyl esters of higher fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Methyl esters of higher fatty acids. 573.640 Section 573.640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing §...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of fatty acid methyl esters of some members of Chenopodiaceae.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Manivachagam; Kannathasan, Krishnan; Venkatesalu, Venugopalan

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) extracts of four halophytic plants, viz. Arthrocnemum indicum, Salicornia brachiata, Suaeda maritima and Suaeda monoica belonging to the family Chenopodiaceae, were prepared and their composition was analyzed by GC-MS. The FAME extracts were also screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acids. Among the fatty acids analyzed, the relative percentage of lauric acid was high in S. brachiata (61.85%). The FAME extract of S. brachiata showed the highest antibacterial and antifungal activities among the extracts tested. The other three extracts showed potent antibacterial and moderate anticandidal activities. PMID:18669016

  18. Assessment of the hydrolysis process for the determination of okadaic acid-group toxin ester: presence of okadaic acid 7-O-acyl-ester derivates in Spanish shellfish.

    PubMed

    Villar-Gonzlez, A; Rodrguez-Velasco, M L; Ben-Gigirey, B; Yasumoto, T; Botana, L M

    2008-04-01

    The contamination of different types of shellfish by okadaic acid (OA)-group toxin esters is an important problem that presents serious risk for human health. During previous investigations carried out in our laboratory by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), the occurrence of a high percentage of esters in relation to the total OA equivalents has been observed in several shellfish species. The determination of these kinds of toxins using LC/MS or other chemical methods requires a hydrolysis step in order to convert the sterified compounds into the parent toxins, OA, dinophysistoxins-1 (DTX-1) and dinophysistoxins-2 (DTX-2). Most of the hydrolysis procedures are based on an alkaline hydrolysis reaction. However, despite hydrolysis being a critical step within the analysis, it has not been studied in depth up to now. The present paper reports the results obtained after evaluating the hydrolysis process of an esterified form of OA by using a standard of 7-O-acyl ester with palmitoyl as the fatty acid (palOA). Investigations were focused on checking the effectiveness of the hydrolysis for palOA using methanol as solvent standard and matrices matched standards. From the results obtained, no matrix influence on the hydrolysis process was observed and the quantity of palOA converted into OA was always above 80%. The analyses of different Spanish shellfish samples showed percentages of palOA in relation to the total OA esters ranging from 27% to 90%, depending on the shellfish specie. PMID:18243269

  19. Anti-Selective Aldol Reactions of Pentafluorosulfanylacetic Acid Esters with Aldehydes Mediated by Dicyclohexylchloroborane.

    PubMed

    Friese, Florian W; Dreier, Anna-Lena; Matsnev, Andrej V; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Thrasher, Joseph S; Haufe, Günter

    2016-03-01

    Aldol reactions of pentafluorosulfanyl (SF5)-substituted acetic acid esters with both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes proceeded with excellent anti-diastereoselectivity and good to high yields using dicyclohexylchloroborane/triethylamine. This methodology enabled the synthesis of hitherto unknown α-SF5-β-hydroxy esters. Using a norephedrine-based auxiliary, high asymmetric induction was observed. The stereochemistry of products was assigned by NMR spectroscopy and proved by X-ray diffraction analysis. The intermediate enolate was identified as a highly unstable species. PMID:26909525

  20. Determination of solid-state acidity of chitin-metal silicates and their effect on the degradation of cephalosporin antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Gana, Fatima Zohra; Rashid, Iyad; Badwan, Adnan; Alkhamis, Khouloud A

    2012-07-01

    It was of interest to determine the solid-state acidity of chitin-metal silicate coprocessed excipients and to correlate this acidity to the chemical stability of cefotaxime sodium in the presence of the aforementioned excipients. The solid-state acidities of chitin aluminum silicate, chitin magnesium silicate, and chitin calcium silicate were determined by reflectance spectroscopy using structurally different dye molecules. The chemical stability of cefotaxime sodium was assessed at 50 °C in a 4% (w/v) slurry system in the pH range 6.6-10.5 and in the solid-state in the Hammett acidity range 6.1-7.8. The solid-state acidity was found to be reproducible because one or more structurally different dye molecules gave reliable solid-state acidity values. A significant discrepancy in pH stability profile of cefotaxime sodium between the solid-state and the slurry system was observed. Furthermore, chitin aluminum silicate showed minimum drug stability in the solid-state, close to where the maximum drug stability in the slurry was observed. This unexpected effect might be ascribed to the catalytic properties of chitin aluminum silicate. The slurry method was not able to predict efficiently the solid-state surface acidity and stability of cefotaxime sodium. Moreover, the solid-state chemical stability might be influenced by factors other than the solid-state acidity. PMID:22499263

  1. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  2. Fatty acid esters produced by Lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings.

    PubMed

    Uranga, Carla C; Beld, Joris; Mrse, Anthony; Córdova-Guerrero, Iván; Burkart, Michael D; Hernández-Martínez, Rufina

    2016-04-01

    The Botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. This work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (Z, Z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by L. theobromae. A variety of naturally produced esters of fatty acids were identified in Botryosphaeriaceae. In comparison, the production of fatty acid esters in the soil-borne tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, and the non-phytopathogenic fungus Trichoderma asperellum was found to be limited. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl hexadecanoate (trivial name ethyl palmitate), and ethyl octadecanoate, (trivial name ethyl stearate), significantly inhibited tobacco seed germination and altered seedling leaf growth patterns and morphology at the highest concentration (0.2 mg/mL) tested, while ethyl linoleate and ethyl stearate significantly enhanced growth at low concentrations, with both still inducing growth at 98 ng/mL. This work provides new insights into the role of naturally esterified fatty acids from L. theobromae as plant growth regulators with similar activity to the well-known plant growth regulator gibberellic acid. PMID:26926564

  3. A study of the alumina-silica gel adsorbent for the removal of silicic acid from geothermal water: increase in adsorption capacity of the adsorbent due to formation of amorphous aluminosilicate by adsorption of silicic acid.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Takushi; Ueda, Akira; Kato, Koichi; Mogi, Katsumi; Matsuo, Shorin

    2002-08-01

    Two kinds of adsorbents (Si adsorbent and Al adsorbent) for the removal of silicic acid from geothermal water to retard the formation of silica scales were prepared using silicic acid contained in geothermal water. The Si adsorbent was prepared by evaporating geothermal water, and the Al adsorbent was prepared by evaporating geothermal water after the addition of aluminum chloride. The specific surface area of the Si adsorbent was small and it's adsorption capacity of silicic acid was low. Although the specific surface area of the Al adsorbent was also small, it was significantly increased by the adsorption of silicic acid and it's adsorption capacity was high. Based on the change in the local structure of aluminum ion by the adsorption of silicic acid, the Al adsorbent was considered to be silica particles covered with crystalline aluminum hydroxide. Moreover, it was concluded that the increase in the specific surface area of the Al adsorbent and the decrease in the zeta potential were due to the formation of an amorphous aluminosilicate with a large surface area and a negative charge (one 4-coordinated Al) by the reaction between aluminum ions and silicic acids. PMID:16290755

  4. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2140 - Carbo-poly-cycli-col azo-alkyl-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. 721.2140 Section 721.2140 Protection of Environment...-aminoalkyl-carbo-mono-cyclic ester, halogen acid salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-mino-al-kyl-car-bo-mon-o-cyc-lic ester, halogen acid salt (PMN P-88-1682) is subject to reporting...

  9. Hydroxycinnamic acid ethyl esters as precursors to ethylphenols in wine.

    PubMed

    Hixson, Josh L; Sleep, Nicola R; Capone, Dimitra L; Elsey, Gordon M; Curtin, Christopher D; Sefton, Mark A; Taylor, Dennis K

    2012-03-01

    A method for determining ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate in wine using GC-MS with deuterium-labeled analogues has been developed and used to measure the evolution of these two esters during the production of two commercial monovarietal red wines, cv. Grenache and Shiraz. During fermentation, the concentration of ethyl coumarate rose from low levels to 0.4 mg/L in Grenache and 1.6 mg/L in Shiraz wines. These concentrations then increased further during barrel aging to 1.4 and 3.6 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of ethyl ferulate was much lower, reaching a maximum of only 0.09 mg/L. Conversion of ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate to their corresponding ethylphenols was observed during fermentations of a synthetic medium with two strains of Dekkera bruxellensis (AWRI 1499 and AWRI 1608), while a third (strain AWRI 1613) produced no ethylphenols at all from these precursors. Strains AWRI 1499 and 1608 produced 4-ethylphenol from ethyl coumarate in 68% and 57% yields, respectively. The corresponding yields of 4-ethylguaiacol from ethyl ferulate were much lower, 7% and 3%. Monitoring of ethyl coumarate and ethyl ferulate concentration during the Dekkera fermentations showed that the selectivity for ethylphenol production according to yeast strain and the precursor was principally a result of variation in esterase activity. Consequently, ethyl coumarate can be considered to be a significant precursor to 4-ethylphenol in wines affected by these two strains of Brettanomyces/Dekkera yeast, while ethyl ferulate is not an important precursor to 4-ethylguaiacol. PMID:22324721

  10. Water chemical ionization mass spectrometry of aldehydes, ketones esters, and carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.

    1986-11-01

    Chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CI) of aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds using water as the reagent gas provides intense pseudomolecular ions and class-specific fragmentation patterns that can be used to identify aliphatic aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters. The length of ester acyl and alkyl groups can easily be determined on the basis of loss of alcohols from the protonated parent. Water CI provides for an approximately 200:1 selectivity of carbonyl species over alkanes. No reagent ions are detected above 55 amu, allowing species as small as acetone, propanal, acetic acid, and methyl formate to be identified. When deuterate water was used as the reagent, only the carboxylic acids and ..beta..-diketones showed significant H/D exchange. The use of water CI to identify carbonyl compounds in a wastewater from the supercritical water extraction of lignite coal, in lemon oil, and in whiskey volatiles is discussed.

  11. Gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy for analysis of fatty acid methyl esters.

    PubMed

    Fan, Hui; Smuts, Jonathan; Bai, Ling; Walsh, Phillip; Armstrong, Daniel W; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    A new vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) detector for gas chromatography was recently developed and applied to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. VUV detection features full spectral acquisition in a wavelength range of 115-240nm, where virtually all chemical species absorb. VUV absorption spectra of 37 FAMEs, including saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated types were recorded. Unsaturated FAMEs show significantly different gas phase absorption profiles than saturated ones, and these classes can be easily distinguished with the VUV detector. Another advantage includes differentiating cis/trans-isomeric FAMEs (e.g. oleic acid methyl ester and linoleic acid methyl ester isomers) and the ability to use VUV data analysis software for deconvolution of co-eluting signals. As a universal detector, VUV also provides high specificity, sensitivity, and a fast data acquisition rate, making it a powerful tool for fatty acid screening when combined with gas chromatography. The fatty acid profile of several food oil samples (olive, canola, vegetable, corn, sunflower and peanut oils) were analyzed in this study to demonstrate applicability to real world samples. PMID:26471553

  12. Physiological and transcriptional characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered for production of fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has previously been engineered to become a cell factory for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), molecules suitable for crude diesel replacement. To find new metabolic engineering targets for the improvement of FAEE cell factories, three different FAEE-producing strains of S. cerevisiae, constructed previously, were compared and characterized by quantification of key fluxes and genome-wide transcription analysis. From both the physiological and the transcriptional data, it was indicated that strain CB2I20, with high expression of a heterologous wax ester synthase gene (ws2) and strain BdJ15, containing disruptions of genes DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, ARE2 and POX1, which prevent the conversion of acyl-CoA to sterol esters, triacylglycerides and the degradation to acetyl-CoA, triggered oxidative stress that consequently influenced cellular growth. In the latter strain, stress was possibly triggered by disabling the buffering capacity of lipid droplets in encapsulating toxic fatty acids such as oleic acid. Additionally, it was indicated that there was an increased demand for NADPH required for the reduction steps in fatty acid biosynthesis. In conclusion, our analysis clearly shows that engineering of fatty acid biosynthesis results in transcriptional reprogramming and has a significant effect on overall cellular metabolism. PMID:26590613

  13. An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Duan, F. K.; He, K. B.; Ma, Y. L.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-11-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment procedure allowing organic acids to be separated from methyl esters in fine aerosol has been developed. The procedure first separates the organic acids from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and other nonacid organic compounds by aminopropyl-based SPE cartridge and then quantifies them by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The procedure prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated, and so allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids (MCAs). Results for the extraction of DCAs, MCAs, and AMAs in eluate and FAMEs in effluate by SAX and NH2 SPE cartridges exhibited that the NH2 SPE cartridge gave higher extraction efficiency than the SAX cartridge. The recoveries of analytes ranged from 67.5 to 111.3 %, and the RSD ranged from 0.7 to 10.9 %. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and FAMEs suggest that the FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. Through extraction and cleanup using this procedure, 17 aromatic acids in eluate were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, including five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH): acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4´-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids suggested that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were secondary atmospheric photochemistry products and the last two mainly primary.

  14. Molecular and enzymatic analyses of lysosomal acid lipase in cholesteryl ester storage disease.

    PubMed

    Du, H; Sheriff, S; Bezerra, J; Leonova, T; Grabowski, G A

    1998-06-01

    Human lysosomal acid lipase (hLAL) is essential for the hydrolysis of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides in the lysosome. Defective hLAL activity leads to two autosomal recessive traits, Wolman disease (WD) or cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD). Phenotypically, WD has accumulation of both triglycerides and cholesteryl esters, while CESD has mainly elevated cholesteryl esters. We characterized mutations in the hLAL gene from two CESD siblings. By reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and cDNA cloning and sequencing, we identified homozygous deletion mutations of nucleotides 863 to 934, in the hLAL transcript. Normal levels of LAL mRNA were detected. The deletion in mRNA is due to a G to A transition in the last nucleotide of exon 8 of the hLAL gene, a splice junction mutation (E8SJM) that resulted in exon skipping, and a predicted in-frame deletion of the 24 amino acids. [35S]Met metabolic labeling studies in fibroblasts showed a low level of E8SJM LAL ( approximately 38%) that was highly unstable. Heterologous expression of E8SJM LAL in insect cells gave an LAL with low catalytic activity toward cholesteryl oleate and triolein. The effects of this mutation are complex with the production of decreased amounts of an unstable LAL that is catalytically defective. The results suggest that E8SJM leads to essentially a null allele and that the differences in WD and CESD phenotype involve other factors. PMID:9705237

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of trimethylgallic acid esters against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Mamta; Chadha, Renu; Kumar, Anil; Karan, Maninder; Singh, Tejvir; Dhingra, Sameer

    2015-12-01

    Gallic acid and its derivatives are potential therapeutic agents for treating various oxidative stress mediated disorders. In the present study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of newly synthesized conjugated trimethylgallic acid (TMGA) esters against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Animals were pre-treated with TMGA esters at their respective doses for 7 days against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. The histopathological changes were evaluated to find out degenerative fatty changes including vacuole formation, inflammation and tissue necrosis. Various biomarkers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels, and endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities), liver enzymes (AST and ALT), triacylglycerol and cholesterol were evaluated. Pre-treatment with TMGA esters (MRG, MGG, MSG, and MUG at the dose of 28.71, 30.03, 31.35, 33.62 mg/kg/day), respectively reversed the CCl4-induced liver injury scores (reduced vacuole formation, inflammation and necrosis), biochemical parameters of plasma (increased AST, ALT, TG, and cholesterol), antioxidant enzymes (increased lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels; decreased glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities) in liver tissues and inflammatory surge (serum TNF-α) significantly. The study revealed that TMGA esters exerted hepatoprotective effects in CCl4-induced rats, specifically by modulating oxidative-nitrosative stress and inflammation. PMID:26742325

  16. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10074 - Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10074 Acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester. (a... acetic acid, 2-chloro-, 1-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexyl)ethyl ester (PMN P-05-568; CAS No. 477218-59-0)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)......

  2. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)......

  3. 40 CFR 721.10345 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis... Specific Chemical Substances 721.10345 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester. (a... 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, 1,2-bis(methylcyclohexyl) ester (PMN P-05-110; CAS No. 27987-25-3)......

  4. 40 CFR 721.10313 - Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....

  5. 40 CFR 721.10313 - Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....

  6. 40 CFR 721.10313 - Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances 721.10313 Fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters... identified as fatty acids, C16-18 and C18-unsatd., Me esters, epoxidized (PMN P-02-249; CAS No....

  7. Study of UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatography to measure free fatty acids with out fatty acid ester preparation.

    PubMed

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Isaac, G; Rainville, P; Fountain, K; Taylor, L T

    2015-08-01

    Most lipids are best characterized by their fatty acids which may differ in (a) chain length, (b) degree of unsaturation, (c) configuration and position of the double bonds, and (d) the presence of other functionalities. Thus, a fast, simple, and quantitative analytical technique to determine naturally occurring free fatty acids (FFA) in different samples is very important. Just as for saponified acylglycerols, the determination of FFA's has generally been carried out by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC). The use of an open tubular capillary column coupled with a flame ionization or mass spectrometric detector provides for both high resolution and quantification of FFA's but only after conversion of all free fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) or pentafluorobenzyl esters. Unfortunately, volatilization of labile ester derivatives of mono- and poly-unsaturated FFA's can cause both thermal degradation and isomerization of the fatty acid during HRGC. The employment of a second generation instrument (here referred to as UltraHigh Performance Supercritical Fluid Chromatograph, UHPSFC) with high precision for modified flow and repeated back pressure adjustment in conjunction with sub-2?m various bonded silica particles (coupled with evaporative light scattering, ELSD, and mass spectrometric, MS, detection) for separation and detection of the following mixtures is described: (a) 31 free fatty acids, (b) isomeric FFA's, and (c) lipophilic materials in two real world fish oil samples. Limits of detection for FFA's via UHPSFC/MS and UHPSFC/ELSD versus detection of FAME's via HRGC/MS are quantitatively compared. PMID:26093119

  8. Synthesis and physical properties of isostearic acids and their esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saturated branched-chain fatty acids (sbc-FAs) are found as minor constituents in several natural fats and oils. Sbc-FAs are of interest since they have lower melting points than their linear counterparts and exhibit good oxidative stability; properties that make them ideally suited in a number of ...

  9. Nitrogen Derivatives of Soybean Oil and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil based products are eco-friendly and non-toxic in nature, which is increasing their utilization in lot of applications. The presence of double bonds in some of the fatty acids, are attractive sites for functionalization. In this study we have used these sites for functionalization usi...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... Substances 721.10326 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... Substances 721.10326 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc..., ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10363 - Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4â² -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (generic). 721.10363 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10363 Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10363 - Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4â² -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (generic). 721.10363 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10363 Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10136 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10363 - Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4′ -methylenebis...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with 4,4â² -methylenebis (cyclohexanamine) (generic). 721.10363 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10363 Alkenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-oxiranylmethyl ester, reaction products with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10136 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10136 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1578 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis[[4-[(ethenyloxy)methyl] cyclohexyl] methyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...] methyl] ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis cyclohexyl] methyl] ester (PMN P-98-1164; CAS No... specified in 721.90 (a)(1), (b)(1), and (c)(1). (ii) (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1578 - 1,4-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis[[4-[(ethenyloxy)methyl] cyclohexyl] methyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...] methyl] ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis cyclohexyl] methyl] ester (PMN P-98-1164; CAS No... specified in 721.90 (a)(1), (b)(1), and (c)(1). (ii) (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.1576 - 1,3-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis[[4-[(ethenyloxy)methyl] cyclohexyl] methyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...] methyl] ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis cyclohexyl] methyl] ester (PMN P-98-1162; CAS No... specified in 721.90 (a)(1), (b)(1), and (c)(1). (ii) (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of...

  2. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., methyl ester. 721.4097 Section 721.4097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  3. 40 CFR 721.4097 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., methyl ester. 721.4097 Section 721.4097 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances 721.4097 7-Oxabicyclo heptane-3-carboxylic acid, methyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as...

  4. 40 CFR 721.1576 - 1,3-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis[[4-[(ethenyloxy)methyl] cyclohexyl] methyl] ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...] methyl] ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis cyclohexyl] methyl] ester (PMN P-98-1162; CAS No... specified in 721.90 (a)(1), (b)(1), and (c)(1). (ii) (b) Specific requirements. The provisions of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10136 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10136 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with hexakis(alkoxyalkyl)melamine (generic). 721.10136 Section 721.10136... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10136 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-hydroxyethyl ester, reaction products with...

  7. Identification of β-hydroxy fatty acid esters and primary, secondary-alkanediol esters in cuticular waxes of the moss Funaria hygrometrica.

    PubMed

    Busta, Lucas; Budke, Jessica M; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    The plant cuticle, a multi-layered membrane that covers plant aerial surfaces to prevent desiccation, consists of the structural polymer cutin and surface-sealing waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of ubiquitous, typically monofunctional fatty acid derivatives and taxon-specific, frequently bifunctional specialty compounds. To further our understanding of the chemical diversity of specialty compounds, the waxes on the aerial structures of the leafy gametophyte, sporophyte capsule, and calyptra of the moss Funaria hygrometrica were surveyed. Respective moss surfaces were extracted, and resulting lipid mixtures were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The extracts contained ubiquitous wax compound classes along with two prominent, unidentified classes of compounds that exhibited some characteristics of bifunctional structures. Microscale transformations led to derivatives with characteristic MS fragmentation patterns suggesting possible structures for these compounds. To confirm the tentative structure assignments, one compound in each of the suspected homologous series was synthesized. Based on GC-MS comparison with the authentic standards, the first series of compounds was identified as containing esters formed by β-hydroxy fatty acids and wax alcohols, with ester chain lengths varying from C42 to C50 and the most prominent homolog being C46. The second series consisted of fatty acid esters of 1,7-alkanediols, linked via the primary hydroxyl group, with ester chain lengths C40-C52 also dominated by the C46 homolog. The β-hydroxy acid esters were restricted to the sporophyte capsule, and the diol esters to the leafy gametophyte and calyptra. Based on their homolog and isomer distributions, and the presence of free 1,7-triacontanediol, possible biosynthetic reactions leading to these compounds are discussed. PMID:26553812

  8. Thermochemistry of C-O, (CO)-O, and (CO)-C bond breaking in fatty acid methyl esters

    SciTech Connect

    Osmont, Antoine; Yahyaoui, Mohammed; Catoire, Laurent; Goekalp, Iskender; Swihart, Mark T.

    2008-10-15

    Density functional theory quantum chemical calculations corrected with empirical atomic increments have been used to examine C-O, (CO)-O, and (CO)-C bond scission enthalpies in gas-phase fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) present in biodiesel derived from rapeseed oil methyl ester and soybean oil methyl ester. Mechanistic information, currently not available elsewhere for these large species, is obtained based on thermochemical considerations and compared to thermochemical considerations reported for methyl butanoate, a small methyl ester sometimes used as a model for FAMEs. These results are compared to previously reported C-C and C-H bond scissions in these FAMEs, derived using this same protocol. (author)

  9. Metabolic pathway engineering for fatty acid ethyl ester production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using stable chromosomal integration.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Bouke Wim; Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodrguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-03-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters are fatty acid derived molecules similar to first generation biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters; FAMEs) which can be produced in a microbial cell factory. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a suitable candidate for microbial large scale and long term cultivations, which is the typical industrial production setting for biofuels. It is crucial to conserve the metabolic design of the cell factory during industrial cultivation conditions that require extensive propagation. Genetic modifications therefore have to be introduced in a stable manner. Here, several metabolic engineering strategies for improved production of fatty acid ethyl esters in S. cerevisiae were combined and the genes were stably expressed from the organisms' chromosomes. A wax ester synthase (ws2) was expressed in different yeast strains with an engineered acetyl-CoA and fatty acid metabolism. Thus, we compared expression of ws2 with and without overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALD6) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (acs SE (L641P) ) and further evaluated additional overexpression of a mutant version of acetyl-CoA decarboxylase (ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) ) and the acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1). The combined engineering efforts of the implementation of ws2, ADH2, ALD6 and acs SE (L641P) , ACC1 (S1157A,S659A) and ACB1 in a S. cerevisiae strain lacking storage lipid formation (are1?, are2?, dga1? and lro1?) and ?-oxidation (pox1?) resulted in a 4.1-fold improvement compared with sole expression of ws2 in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25422103

  10. Occurrence of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters in fruits of Celastraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

    2013-06-01

    Small amounts of a mixture of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters (FASCAEs) were obtained from the fruits of twelve plant species of Celastraceae family, and in five of them the FASCAEs were present not only in the arils but also in the seeds. These mixtures contained 32 individual FASCAE species, which formed four separate fractions, viz. FA methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and butyl esters (FAMEs, FAEEs, FAIPEs, and FABEs, resp.). The FASCAE acyl components included the residues of 16 individual C??-C?? saturated, mono-, di-, and trienoic FAs. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids, and, in some cases, also ?-linolenic acid predominated in FAMEs and FAEEs, while myristic acid was predominant in FAIPEs. It can be suggested that, in the fruit arils of some plant species, FAMEs and FAEEs were formed at the expense of a same FA pool characteristic of a given species and were strongly different from FAIPEs and FABEs esters regarding the mechanism of their biosynthesis. However, as a whole, the qualitative and quantitative composition of various FASCAE fractions, as well as their FA composition, varied considerably depending on various factors. Therefore, separate FASCAE fractions seem to be synthesized from different FA pools other than those used for triacylglycerol formation. PMID:23776017

  11. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters by selective methanolysis of polar glycerolipids.

    PubMed

    Ichihara, Ken'ichi; Yamaguchi, Chiaki; Araya, Yumiko; Sakamoto, Asami; Yoneda, Kumiko

    2010-04-01

    KOH in aqueous methanol catalyzes selective methanolysis of polar glycerolipids with O-ester-linked acyl residues, while triacylglycerols and sterol esters are inert in the solution. Based on these findings, a convenient and reliable method was developed for the preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) from polar glycerolipids in lipid mixtures without prior isolation. Methanolysis of polar glycerolipids was completed within 2.5 min by vortexing or 20 min by shaking with 0.7 M KOH/70% (v/v) methanol in the presence of hexane at 30 degrees C. The yields of FAMEs obtained by the present method were greater than 95%. The method was applied successfully to gas chromatographic analysis of the fatty acid compositions of polar glycerolipids in seed oil and blood. No obvious differences were found between the fatty acid compositions determined by the present method and those determined by conventional methods, including lipid extraction with chloroform/methanol followed by isolation of polar lipids by chromatography. The fatty acid composition of polar glycerolipids, including phospholipids, can be determined readily in many crude samples. PMID:20306308

  12. Gas chromatographic separation of fatty acid esters of cholesterol and phytosterols on an ionic liquid capillary column.

    PubMed

    Hammann, Simon; Vetter, Walter

    2015-12-15

    Steryl esters are high molecular weight compounds (600-700g/mol) regularly present as a minor lipid class in animal and plant lipids. Different sterol backbones (e.g., cholesterol, β-sitosterol and brassicasterol) which can be esterified with various fatty acids can result in highly complex steryl ester patterns in food samples. The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of intact steryl esters is challenging, since high elution temperatures are required for their elution. On nonpolar GC phases, steryl esters with fatty acids with differing degree of unsaturation (e.g., oleate and linoleate) cannot be separated and there are only few polar columns available with sufficient temperature stability. In this study, we used gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and analyzed intact steryl esters on a commercial room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) column which was shortened to a length of 12m. The column separated the steryl esters both by total carbon number and by degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. For instance, cholesteryl esters with stearic acid (18:0), oleic acid (18:1n-9), linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and α-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) could be resolved (R≥1.3) from each other. By analysis of synthesized standard substances, the elution orders for different steryl backbones and different fatty acids on a given sterol backbone could be determined. Analysis of spreads and plant oils allowed to determine retention times for 37 steryl esters, although a few co-elutions were observed. The ionic liquid column proved to be well-suited for the analysis of intact steryl esters. PMID:26590877

  13. Facile determination of double bond position in unsaturated fatty acids and esters by low temperature plasma ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J Isabella; Tao, W Andy; Cooks, R Graham

    2011-06-15

    Unsaturated fatty acids and esters can be oxidized in situ during ionization using a low temperature plasma (LTP) probe. The discharge generates ozone from air that reacts with and cleaves olefins. The molecular ions of the resulting acid/ester oxidation products are present in the full scan mass spectra and are confirmed by exact mass measurements. The fragmentation information can be used to assign double bond positions. We have successfully applied this strategy to a range of mono-/polyunsaturated fatty acids and fatty acid methyl/ethyl esters to assign their double bond locations. The procedure allows rapid and direct identification of double bond positions in situ at atmospheric pressure without sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Microbial fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) mixtures from complex bacterial samples were directly analyzed by this method. Structural confirmation of their diagnostic ions by using exact mass measurements and tandem mass spectrometry confirms double bond positions in unsaturated bacterial FAEEs. PMID:21539336

  14. Fatty Acid Esters of Phloridzin Induce Apoptosis of Human Liver Cancer Cells through Altered Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Sandhya V. G.; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H. P. Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Phloridzin (phlorizin or phloretin 2?-O-glucoside) is known for blocking intestinal glucose absorption. We have investigated the anticarcinogenic effect of phloridzin and its novel derivatives using human cancer cell lines. We have synthesised novel acylated derivatives of phloridzin with six different long chain fatty acids by regioselective enzymatic acylation using Candida Antarctica lipase B. The antiproliferative effects of the new compounds were investigated in comparison with the parent compounds, phloridzin, aglycone phloretin, the six free fatty acids and chemotherapeutic drugs (sorafenib, doxorubicin and daunorubicin) using human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells and acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells along with normal human and rat hepatocytes. The fatty acid esters of phloridzin inhibited significantly the growth of the two carcinoma and leukemia cells while similar treatment doses were not toxic to normal human or rat hepatocytes. The antiproliferative potency of fatty esters of phloridzin was comparable to the potency of the chemotherapeutic drugs. The fatty acid esters of phloridzin inhibited DNA topoisomerases II? activity that might induce G0/G1 phase arrest, induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-3, and decreased ATP level and mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Based on the high selectivity on cancer cells, decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ester of phloridzin was selected for gene expression analysis using RT2PCR human cancer drug target array. Antiproliferative effect of DHA ester of phloridzin could be related to the down regulation of anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2), growth factor receptors (EBFR family, IGF1R/IGF2, PDGFR) and its downstream signalling partners (PI3k/AKT/mTOR, Ras/Raf/MAPK), cell cycle machinery (CDKs, TERT, TOP2A, TOP2B) as well as epigenetics regulators (HDACs). These results suggest that fatty esters of phloridzin have potential chemotherapeutic effects mediated through the attenuated expression of several key proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA topoisomerases II? activity and epigenetic mechanisms followed by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. PMID:25229655

  15. The CGC enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters by using ?-cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xueyan; Liu, Feipeng; Mao, Jianyou

    2016-03-17

    Chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters are important intermediates in preparation of enantioenriched 2-arylpropionic acids type Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Enantiomer separation of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters is crucial for evaluation of the asymmetric synthesis efficiency and the enantiomer excess of chiral 2-arylcarboxylic acid derivatives. The capillary gas chromatography (CGC) enantiomer separation of 17 pairs of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters enantiomers was conducted by using seven different ?-cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) as chiral stationary phases. It was found that for the 7 pairs of 2-phenylpropionates enantiomers, CDs with both alkyl and acyl substituents especially 2,6-di-O-pentyl-3-O-butyryl-?-cyclodextrin exhibited better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs examined. For the 7 pairs of 2-(4-substituted phenyl)propionates enantiomers, 2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-?-cyclodextrin possessed better enantiomer separation abilities than the other CDs. Among the 3 pairs of 2-phenylbutyrates enantiomers examined, only methyl 2-phenylbutyrate enantiomers could be separated by three CDs among the 7 CDs tested, while enantiomers of ethyl 2-phenylbutyrate and isopropyl 2-phenylbutyrate couldn't be separated by any of the 7 CDs tested. Besides the structures of CDs, the structures of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters including different ester moieties, substituents of phenyl, and different carboxylic acids moieties in 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters also affected the enantiomer separation results greatly. The CGC enantiomer separation results of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters on different CDs are useful for solving the enantiomer separation problem of 2-arylcarboxylic acid esters. PMID:26920785

  16. Condensation of anhydrides or dicarboxylic acids with compounds containing active methylene groups. Part 1: Condensation of phthalic anhydride with acetoacetic and malonic ester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oshkaya, V. P.; Vanag, G. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Phthalic anhydride was condensed with acetoacetic ester in acetic anhydride and triethylamine solution, and when phthalyl chloride was reacted with sodium acetoacetic ester compounds were formed of the phthalide and indandione series: phthalylacetoacetic ester and a derivative of indan-1,3-dione which after boiling with hydrochloric acid yielded indan-1,3-dione. Phthalylmalonic ester was obtained from phthalic anhydride and malonic ester in the presence of triethylamine.

  17. Calculations of phase equilibria for mixtures of triglycerides, fatty acids, and their esters in lower alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, D. A.; Ermakova, A.; Anikeev, V. I.

    2011-01-01

    The objects of study were mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and also the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters. The Redlich-Kwong-Soave equation of state was used as a thermodynamic model for the phase state of the selected mixtures over wide temperature, pressure, and composition ranges. Group methods were applied to determine the critical parameters of pure substances and their acentric factors. The parameters obtained were used to calculate the phase diagrams and critical parameters of mixtures containing triglycerides and lower alcohols and the products of the transesterification of triglycerides, glycerol and fatty acid esters, at various alcohol/oil ratios. The conditions of triglyceride transesterification in various lower alcohols providing the supercritical state of reaction mixtures were selected.

  18. Preparation of polyimides from mixtures of monomeric diamines and esters of polycarboxylic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, T. T.; Delvigs, P.; Lightsey, G. R. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    Polyimides having high thermal and oxidative stability are prepared by the reaction of a mixture of monomers comprising (1) a dialkyl or tetraalkyl ester of an aromatic tetracarboxylic acid; (2) an aromatic diamine; and (3) a monoalkyl or dialkyl ester of a dicarboxylic acid where in the ratio of a:b:c is n:(n+1):2, wherein n has a value from 1 to 20. The mixture of monomers is prepared in a 30 to 70 percent by weight solution of an organic solvent, a substrate impregnated with the solution and heated at 50 to 205 C to remove said solvent and form a low molecular weight prepolymer, and thereafter heated at 275 to 350 C to cure to a high molecular weight polyimide.

  19. Sterol fatty acid esters from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum and their PPAR transactivational effects.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Song, Seok Bean; Shim, Sang Hee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-12-26

    Six new (erinarols A-F, 1-6) and five known (7-11) ergostane-type sterol fatty acid esters were isolated from the methanol extract of the dried fruiting bodies of Hericium erinaceum. Their chemical structures were elucidated using chemical and physical methods as well as through comparison of NMR and mass spectral data with those reported previously. This is the first comprehensive investigation on ergostane-type sterol fatty acid esters from H. erinaceum. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their PPAR transactivational effects using a luciferase reporter system. Compounds 1 and 2 significantly activated the transcriptional activity of PPARs in a dose-dependent manner, with EC50 values of 8.2 and 6.4 μM, respectively. Moreover, compounds 1 and 2 also activated PPARα and PPARγ transcriptional activity, with stimulation from 1.3- to 3.9-fold at 20 μM concentrations. PMID:25437304

  20. Kinetics and mechanism of thermal decomposition of tert-Butylperoxyethyl esters of carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Turovskii, A.A.; Aleinikova, T.P.; Kushch, O.V.; Navrotskii, V.A.; Turovskii, N.A.

    1985-07-01

    tert-Butylperoxyethyl esters of carboxylic acids are widely used as vulcanization initiators of saturated elastomers and also as comonomers and inititators in polymerization processes. The kinetics of thermal decomposition of these esters of carboxylic acids were studied in the temperature range of 383-413/sup 0/K. The thermal stability of the peroxides is only slightly influenced by change in the substituent in the acyl part. The differences in the energies of activation are compensated by a change in the value of the preexponential factor. A mechanism of the process has been suggested and discussed. The homolytic cleavage of the -00- bond leads to the formation of inactive acyloxyethoxyl radicals, which undergo further decomposition.

  1. [Conservative motif CMLD in silicic acid transport proteins of diatom algae].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, T A; Masiukova, Iu A; Safonova, T A; Petrova, D P; Vereshchagin, A L; Minaeva, T V; Adel'shin, R V; Tribo?, T I; Stonik, I V; A?zda?cher, N A; Kozlov, M V; Likhoshva?, E V; Grachev, M A

    2005-01-01

    Sequencing of fragments of genes coding for silicic acid transport (SIT) proteins of diatoms of evolutionary distant classes (centric Chaetoceros muelleri Lemmermann, pennate araphid Synedra acus Ktzing, pennate raphid Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, and pennate with keeled raphe system Cylindrotheca fusiformis Reimann et Lewin), revealed the presence in these proteins of a conservative amino acid motif CMLD. Hydropathy profiles suggest that CMLD occupies a position between two transmembrane strands which do not contain lysine and arginine residues. The two strands are good candidates for the role of the channel along which transport of silicic acid occurs. CMLD is a rare motif. Diatoms are known to need Zn2+ for the incorporation of silica. Presumably, CMLD is the site of Zn2+ binding of SITs. We found that the growth of diatoms is inhibited by a negatively charged alkylating reagent 5-(2-iodoacetamidoethyl)aminonaphtalene-1-sulfonic acid which cannot penetrate through the cell membrane. Cysteine of CMLD can be a target of this reagent. Synthetic peptide NCMLDY forms a complex with Zn2+, as revealed by the fact that the ion considerably reduces the rate of alkylation of the peptide. PMID:15856954

  2. [Transcutaneous penetration of a mucopolysaccharide polysulfuric acid ester in the human. A histochemical study].

    PubMed

    Elling, H

    1987-02-01

    Using a histochemical test method it was investigated whether a mucopolysaccharide polysulfuric acid ester (MPS, Hirudoid) is able to penetrate the human skin. The penetration of MPS into the corium and the subcutis was demonstrated by metachromatic staining of cells which store MPS, whereby cellular elements acquire a colour which is distinct from the staining solution, as soon as they have incorporated MPS. PMID:2437935

  3. Studies on cephalopod rhodopsin. Fatty acid esters of sucrose as effective detergents.

    PubMed

    Nashima, K; Mitsudo, M; Kito, Y

    1978-09-26

    Squid rhodopsin was extracted with solutions of fatty acid esters of sucrose (monolaurate and monostearate) and purified by DEAE-cellulose and concanavalin A-Sepharose affinity chromatography. The purified rhodopsin (A280/A480 = 2.5) contained 2.3 mol of glucosamine and 1.2 mol of phospholipid per mol of rhodopsin. The photoproduct metarhodopsin was also stable in these detergent solutions as in digitonin solution. Concanavalin A had no affinity for retinochrome. PMID:708776

  4. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: wolman disease and cholesteryl ester storage disease.

    PubMed

    Tylki-Szyma?ska, A; Jurecka, A

    2014-01-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD, OMIM #278000) and Wolman disease (OMIM #278000) are autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorders caused by a deficient activity of lysosomal acid lipase (cholesteryl ester hydrolase, LAL). Human lysosomal acid lipase is essential for the metabolism of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides. In Wolman disease, LAL activity is usually absent, whereas CESD usually presents some residual LAL activity. In infants, poor weight gain, massive hepatosplenomegaly, calcified adrenal glands (present about 2/3 of the time), vomiting, diarrhea and failure to thrive are indicative of Wolman disease. The clinical picture is more variable in CESD. Hepatomegaly and/or elevation of liver transaminases are almost always present. Hepatic steatosis often leads to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Other signs often include splenomegaly, high total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and low HDL-cholesterol. The diagnosis of LAL deficiency requires clinical experience and specialized laboratory tests. The diagnosis is based on finding deficient activity of acid lipase and/or molecular tests. Pilot screening projects using dried blood spot testing in 1) children with atypical fatty liver disease in the absence of overweight, 2) patients with dyslipidaemia and presence of hepatomegaly and/or elevated transaminases, 3) newborns/neonates with hepatomegaly and abdominal distension/failure to thrive/elevated transaminases are currently underway. Early diagnosis is particularly important for the enzyme replacement therapy. Human trials with recombinant LAL are currently ongoing, raising the prospect for specific correction of LAL deficiency in this progressive and often debilitating disorder. Key words: lysosomal acid lipase deficiency, Wolman disease, cholesteryl ester storage disorder. PMID:24798600

  5. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Synthesis of ?-Trifluoromethyl Esters and Lactones by Electrophilic Trifluoromethylation.

    PubMed

    Katayev, Dmitry; Matouek, Vclav; Koller, Raffael; Togni, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    An electrophilic trifluoromethylation of ketene silyl acetals (KSAs) by hypervalent iodine reagents 1 and 2 has been developed. The reaction proceeds under very mild conditions in the presence of a catalytic amount of trimethylsilyl bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (up to 2.5 mol %) as a Lewis acid providing a direct access to a variety of secondary, tertiary, and quaternary ?-trifluoromethyl esters and lactones in high yield (up to 98%). PMID:26588788

  6. Evaluation of eye irritation by S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester secreted by Beauveria bassiana CS1029

    PubMed Central

    SON, HYEONG-U; LEE, SANG-HAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester produced by cell subtype Beauveria bassiana CS1029 causes acute toxicity when used for cosmetic purposes by performing an eye irritation test. New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were treated with a 100 mg/dose of S-(-)-10,11-dihydroxyfarnesic acid methyl ester according to standard procedure guidelines. No significant changes in terms of ocular lesions of the cornea, turbidity of the cornea, swelling of the eyelid or ocular discharge were observed in the methyl ester-treated groups, while sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate, a positive control, caused severe toxicity. The anatomical and pathological observations indicate that the methyl ester produced by Beauveria bassiana CS1029 did not induce eye irritation in the lenses of the rabbits. The data suggest that the methyl ester evaluated in this study has promising potential as a cosmetic ingredient that does not irritate the eye. PMID:24137288

  7. New fatty acid, aromatic ester and monoterpenic benzyl glucoside from the fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal.

    PubMed

    Ali, Abuzer; Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal (family: Solanaceae) are sweet, sedative, emetic, alterative and diuretic; used to treat asthma, biliousness, strangury, wounds, dyspepsia, flatulent colic, liver complaints and intestinal infections in the indigenous system of medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of W. coagulans fruits led to the isolation of a new fatty acid, an aromatic ester and a monoterpenic benzyl glucoside characterised as n-octatriacont-17-enoic acid (3), geranilan-10-olyl dihydrocinnamoate (4) and geranilan-8-oic acid-10-olyl salicyloxy-2-O-?-D-glucofuranosyl-(6??1?)-O-?-D-glucofuranosyl-6?-n-octadec-9?',11?'-dienoate (5) along with two known fatty acids, n-dotriacont-21-enoic acid (1) and n-tetratriacontanoic acid (2). The structures of isolated phytoconstituents were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, FT-IR, UV, and MS data and chemical means. PMID:25674818

  8. Energetics of the lighter chalcogen analogues of carboxylic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Deakyne, Carol A; Ludden, Alicia K; Roux, Maria Victoria; Notario, Rafael; Demchenko, Alexei V; Chickos, James S; Liebman, Joel F

    2010-12-16

    In the current paper we present the results of our quantum chemical (G2, G2(MP2), and G3) study of the structure and energetics of carboxylic acids and their chalcogen analogues. In the particular, calculations and accompanying natural bond orbital (NBO) and atoms in molecules (AIM) analyses were performed on all species with the generic formula RC(?X)YR' (X, Y = O, S, Se and R = R' = CH(3)). Energies, enthalpies, and free energies of formation, resonance energies, interchalcogen methyl transfer energies and their energies of activation, and heavy atom bond lengths and angles are all discussed. A comparison of the calculated results with the sparse experimentally available data shows good agreement. Trends are also presented. PMID:21028778

  9. Reactions of stabilized aliphatic carbanions with esters of formic acid in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Wile?ska, Beata; ?wider, Pawe?; Danikiewicz, Witold

    2015-01-01

    The reactions of nitromethane, acetonitrile, and ethyl acetate carbanions with formic acid esters were investigated in the gas phase by mass spectrometry and quantum chemical calculations. It was found that the carbanion of nitromethane practically does not react with formic acid esters and only traces of the Claisen- type addition-elimination reaction product were observed. In the case of the deprotonated acetonitrile, the Claisen-type condensation that yielded the carbanion of cyanoacetaldehyde proceeded almost quantitatively for all the studied formates. Other products, like the Riveros reaction product, were observed in minor amounts. The ethyl acetate carbanion reacts with formates in a much more complex way because it decomposes in a collision cell, yielding the deprotonated ketene anion, which also can react with formic acid esters. Consequently, the Claisen condensation reaction products of both anions were observed as well as the products of other reactions. All the proposed reaction pathways were confirmed by quantum chemical calculations, including the transition-state energies. PMID:26307733

  10. GC-based analysis of plant stanyl fatty acid esters in enriched foods.

    PubMed

    Barnsteiner, Andreas; Lubinus, Tim; di Gianvito, Angelica; Schmid, Wolfgang; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-05-25

    Approaches for the capillary gas chromatographic (GC) based analysis of intact plant stanyl esters in enriched foods were developed. Reference compounds were synthesized by enzyme-catalyzed transesterifications. Their identities were confirmed by means of mass spectrometry. Using a medium polar trifluoropropylmethyl polysiloxane stationary phase, long-chain plant stanyl esters could be separated according to their stanol moieties and their fatty acid chains. Thermal degradation during GC analysis was compensated by determining response factors; calibrations were performed for ten individual plant stanyl esters. For the analysis of low-fat products (skimmed milk drinking yogurts), the GC separation was combined with a "fast extraction" under acidic conditions. For fat-based foods (margarines), online coupled LC-GC offered an elegant and efficient way to avoid time-consuming sample preparation steps. The robust and rapid methods allow conclusions on both, the stanol profiles and the fatty acid moieties, and thus provide a basis for the authentication of this type of functional food ingredients. PMID:21486072

  11. 40 CFR 721.1730 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-butyl-?-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1730 Section 721.1730 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-butyl-?-hydroxy, ester with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.1730 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-butyl-?-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1730 Section 721.1730 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-butyl-?-hydroxy, ester with...

  13. 40 CFR 721.1730 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-butyl-?-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1730 Section 721.1730 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-butyl-?-hydroxy, ester with...

  14. 40 CFR 721.1731 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-methyl-?-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1731 Section 721.1731 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-methyl-?-hydroxy, ester with...

  15. 40 CFR 721.1731 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-methyl-?-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1731 Section 721.1731 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-methyl-?-hydroxy, ester with...

  16. 40 CFR 721.1730 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-butyl-?-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1730 Section 721.1730 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-butyl-?-hydroxy, ester with...

  17. 40 CFR 721.1731 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-methyl-?-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1731 Section 721.1731 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-methyl-?-hydroxy, ester with...

  18. 40 CFR 721.1731 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-methyl-?-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1731 Section 721.1731 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-methyl-?-hydroxy, ester with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.1730 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-butyl-?-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1730 Section 721.1730 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-butyl-?-hydroxy, ester with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.1731 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-methyl-?-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-hydroxy, ester with boric acid (H3BO3). 721.1731 Section 721.1731 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ester with boric acid (H3BO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), ?-methyl-?-hydroxy, ester with...

  1. Syntheses of Benzo[b]furan-6-carbonitrile and 6-Cyanobenzo[b]furan-2-boronic Acid Pinacol Ester

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John D.; Ding, Xiaoyuan; Nguyen, Son; Vines, Kimberly K.; Peet, Norton P.

    2013-01-01

    6-Cyanobenzo[b]furan-2-boronic acid pinacol ester (10) is a potentially useful 2-point scaffold for the construction of specific compounds or compound libraries with benzofuran cores. Using a per-iodination/de-iodination strategy coupled with a Sonogashira alkynylation and Cu-catalyzed heteroannulation, we have developed a procedure that allows the preparation of benzo[b]furan-6-carbonitrile (9) and 6-cyanobenzo[b]furan-2-boronic acid pinacol ester (10) in gram quantities. PMID:24249920

  2. The mechanism of low levels of nitrogen dioxide reaction with unsaturated fatty acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Gallon, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide is a toxic air pollutant that exists at less than 0.5 ppm in the atmosphere. This toxic compound is known to initiate autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids both in vivo and in vitro. When autoxidation occurs in vivo, membrane damage that can lead to cell death can occur. Low concentrations of nitrogen dioxide were shown to react with the polyunsaturated fatty acid esters, methyl linoleate and methyl linoleate, by a H-abstraction mechanism. However, methyl oleate, an unsaturated fatty acid ester, was demonstrated to react with a low concentration of nitrogen dioxide by only an addition mechanism. Although methyl oleate reacts by an addition mechanism, a 50:50 molar solution of methyl oleate and methyl linoleate reacted with a low level of nitrogen dioxide exclusively by a H-abstraction mechanism. Therefore, low levels of nitrogen dioxide will probably react with polyunsaturated fatty acid components of pulmonary lipids by a H-abstraction mechanism forming nitrous acid directly in the cell membrane. Vitamin E was demonstrated to be able to act as a preventative antioxidant in the nitrogen dioxide and methyl linoleate reactions; but vitamin C could not prevent nitrogen dioxide from reacting with methyl linoleate by a H-abstraction mechanism. These results suggest that low levels of nitrogen dioxide will react with polyunsaturated fatty acids by a H-abstraction mechanism and that vitamin E can be used to prevent the reaction from occurring.

  3. Developing intestine is injured during absorption of oleic acid but not its ethyl ester.

    PubMed Central

    Velasquez, O R; Place, A R; Tso, P; Crissinger, K D

    1994-01-01

    Although lipids are essential nutrients in the mammalian diet, we have shown that fatty acids are injurious to epithelial cells of developing piglet intestine during luminal perfusion. Furthermore, the intestine of young animals sustains greater injury than that of older piglets. In an effort to understand the mechanism for this developmental injury, we investigated whether changes in the chemical configuration of oleic acid would alter this damage. Mucosal permeability, as quantitated by the plasma-to-lumen clearance of 51chromium EDTA, was evaluated during luminal perfusion with oleic acid as compared with its ethyl (ethyl oleate) and glyceryl (glycerol-1-mono-oleate) esters, solubilized with taurocholic acid, in jejunum of 1-d-, 3-d-, 2-wk-, and 1-mo-old piglets. 51Chromium EDTA clearance increased significantly during oleic acid and glycerol-1-mono-oleate perfusion, but did not increase during perfusion with ethyl oleate or saline. This result was not secondary to failure of absorption of ethyl oleate, as [14C]oleic acid and ethyl [1-14C]oleate were absorbed to a similar extent. Furthermore, developing intestine was able to remove the ethyl group and then re-esterify the fatty acid to form triacyglycerol. These studies indicate that oleic acid-induced mucosal injury can be abolished when the carboxylic group of the fatty acid is esterified with an ethyl, but not a glycerol, group. Since the ethyl ester is also absorbed and metabolized similarly to the free fatty acid, this may provide a means of supplying long-chain fatty acids to developing intestine without causing mucosal damage. Images PMID:8113387

  4. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  5. Engineering of chromosomal wax ester synthase integrated Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants for improved biosynthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shuobo; Valle-Rodrguez, Juan Octavio; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, significant advances have been made to engineer robust microbes for overproducing biochemical products from renewable resources. These accomplishments have to a large extend been based on plasmid based methods. However, plasmid maintenance may cause a metabolic burden on the host cell and plasmid-based overexpression of genes can result in genetically unstable strains, which contributes to loss in productivity. Here, a chromosome engineering method based on delta integration was applied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the production of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), which can be directly used as biodiesel and would be a possible substitute for conventional petroleum-based diesel. An integration construct was designed and integrated into chromosomal delta sequences by repetitive transformation, which resulted in 1-6 copies of the integration construct per genome. The corresponding FAEE production increased up to 34 mg/L, which is an about sixfold increase compared to the equivalent plasmid-based producer. The integrated cassette in the yeast genome was stably maintained in nonselective medium after deletion of RAD52 which is essential for efficient homologous recombination. To obtain a further increase of FAEE production, genes encoding endogenous acyl-CoA binding protein (ACB1) and a bacterial NADP(+)-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapN) were overexpressed in the final integration strain, which resulted in another 40% percent increase in FAEE production. Our integration strategy enables easy engineering of strains with adjustable gene copy numbers integrated into the genome and this allows for an easy evaluation of the effect of the gene copy number on pathway flux. It therefore represents a valuable tool for introducing and expressing a heterologous pathway in yeast. PMID:24752598

  6. Caffeic acid esters activate TREK-1 potassium channels and inhibit depolarization-dependent secretion.

    PubMed

    Danthi, Sanjay; Enyeart, Judith A; Enyeart, John J

    2004-03-01

    In whole-cell and single-channel patch-clamp recordings from bovine adrenal fasciculata cells, it was discovered that selected caffeic acid derivatives dramatically enhanced the activity of background TREK-1 K+ channels. Cinnamyl 1-3,4-dihydroxy-alpha-cyanocinnamate (CDC), activated TREK-1 when this agent was applied externally to cells or outside-out patches at concentrations of 5 to 10 microM. Structure/activity studies showed that native bTREK-1 channels were also activated by other caffeic acid esters, including caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), which contain a benzene or furan ring in the ester side chain. The activation of bTREK-1 by caffeic acid derivatives did not occur through inhibition of lipoxygenases because other potent lipoxygenase inhibitors failed to activate bTREK-1. In bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells, bTREK-1 K+ channels set the resting membrane potential. Inhibition of these channels by corticotropin leads to depolarization-dependent Ca2+ entry and cortisol secretion. CDC, which activates up to thousands of dormant bTREK-1 channels in AZF cells, was found to overwhelm the inhibition of bTREK-1 by corticotropin, reverse the membrane depolarization, and inhibit corticotropin-stimulated cortisol secretion. These results identify selected caffeic acid derivatives as novel K+ channel openers that activate TREK-1 background K+ channels. Because of their ability to stabilize the resting membrane potential and oppose electrical activity and depolarization-dependent Ca2+ entry, these compounds may have therapeutic potential as neuroprotective or cardioprotective agents. PMID:14978238

  7. Final safety assessment of thiodipropionic acid and its dialkyl esters as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Diamante, Catherine; Fiume, Monice Zondlo; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-07-01

    Dilauryl thiodipropionate (DLTDP), dicetyl thiodipropionate, dimyristyl thiodipropionate, distearyl thiodipropionate, and ditridecyl thiodipropionate are dialkyl esters of their respective alcohols and thiodipropionic acid (TDPA) used in cosmetics. Ingested DLTDP was excreted in the urine as TDPA. Single-dose acute oral and parenteral studies and subchronic and chronic repeated dose oral studies did not suggest significant toxicity. Neither DLTDP nor TDPA was irritating to animal skin or eyes and they were not sensitizers. TDPA was neither a teratogen nor a reproductive toxicant. Genotoxicity studies were negative for TDPA and DLTDP. Clinical testing demonstrated some evidence of irritation but no sensitization or photosensitization. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel considered that the data from DLTDP reasonably may be extrapolated to the other dialkyl esters and concluded that these ingredients were safe for use in cosmetic products that are formulated to be nonirritating. PMID:20634504

  8. Biodegradable Coumaric Acid-based Poly(anhydride-ester) Synthesis and Subsequent Controlled Release

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Michelle A.; Stebbins, Nicholas D.; Uhrich, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    p-Coumaric acid (pCA), a naturally occurring bioactive, has been chemically incorporated into a poly(anhydride-ester) backbone through solution polymerization following a Knoevenagel synthetic approach to overcome drug delivery issues associated with its short half-life in vivo. Nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies indicated that pCA was successfully incorporated without noticeable alterations in structural integrity. The weight-average molecular weight and thermal properties were determined for the polymer, which exhibited a molecular weight of over 26,000 Da and a glass transition temperature of 57 C. In addition, in vitro pCA release via hydrolytic anhydride and ester bond cleavage demonstrated pCA release over 30 days and maintained its antioxidant activity, demonstrating its potential as a controlled release system. PMID:23836606

  9. Effective and selective bisphenol A synthesis on a layered silicate with spatially arranged sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Ide, Yusuke; Kagawa, Noriko; Itakura, Masaya; Imae, Ichiro; Sadakane, Masahiro; Sano, Tsuneji

    2012-04-01

    The silylated derivatives of a layered alkali silicate, magadiite, modified with propylsulfonic or arylsulfonic acid were synthesized and used as catalysts for an acid-catalyzed condensation of phenol with acetone. The propylsulfonated magadiites with a different amount of the attached silyl group were synthesized by the silylation of the dodecylammonium-exchanged magadiite with the tuned amount of 3-(mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane and the subsequent oxidation of the attached thiol to sulfonic acid. The arylsulfonated magadiite was synthesized by the silylation of the dodecylammonium-exchanged magadiite with 2-(4-chlorosulfonylphenyl)ethyltrimethoxysilane and the subsequent hydrolysis of the attached sulfonyl chloride to sulfonic acid. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and elemental mappings of the products, and the photoluminescent spectra of the Eu(3+)-exchanged products suggested that propylsulfonic or arylsulfonic acid was homogeneously distributed in the interlayer space. When all the sulfonated materials were used as an acid catalyst for condensation between phenol and acetone, p,p' bisphenol A selectively formed over the o,p' isomer, and higher yield and selectivity were attained on the catalysts with larger amount of the attached sulfonic acid. When the interlayer space of the propylsulfonated magadiite was expanded by the co-attachment of octadecylsilyl group, lower selectivity was obtained. The arylsulfonated magadiite showed considerably higher p,p' bisphenol A yield than the propylsulfonated magadiites. PMID:22428757

  10. Effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester on chick liver.

    PubMed

    Evangelista de Duffard, A M; Fabra de Peretti, A; Castro de Cantarini, S; Duffard, R

    1993-08-01

    Fertilized hen eggs were externally treated with 3.1 mg 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid butyl ester (2,4-D ester) before starting incubation. Liver lipid composition, (14C)2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (14C-2,4-D) subcellular distribution and covalent binding to proteins and lipids of chicks hatched from these eggs were studied. Furthermore, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and glucose 6-phosphatase activities as well as reduced glutathione content were determined. The herbicide produced a significant decrease on the total lipids, specially on phospholipids, both in total liver and microsomes. (14C-2,4-D) subcellular distribution in liver demonstrated that the herbicide passed through the plasmatic membrane and it was present in all the studied fractions. Herbicide bound covalently to hepatic proteins and lipids, being the binding to proteins tenfold higher than to lipids. Because these results might be of potential relevance to the understanding of the 2,4-D toxicity, further studies on the mechanisms of these reactions are necessary. On the other hand, the microsomal and cytosolic glutathione S-transferases activities remained unchanged, even though in vitro studies 2,4-D ester caused a decrease of the enzyme activities with an I50 value of 0.2 mM. No significant change in reduced glutathione content between control and treated livers was observed. The catalase activity increased two-fold whereas glucose 6-phosphatase activity decreased 46% with respect to the corresponding control values. These results indicate that 2,4-D ester may have effects on the metabolism of xenobiotics. PMID:8368864

  11. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  12. 40 CFR 721.10457 - 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mixed esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... esters with benzyl alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. 721.10457...-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... alc., cyclohexanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, fumaric acid and propylene glycol (PMN P-03-154; CAS No....

  13. Estimates of late Quaternary mode and intermediate water silicic acid concentration in the Pacific Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Jonathon; Ellwood, Michael J.; Bostock, Helen; Neil, Helen

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the exchange of carbon between the ocean and atmosphere over glacial-interglacial timescales. Hypotheses used to explain late Quaternary variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) implicate changes in the nutrient dynamics and circulation of the Southern Ocean. Here we present silicon isotope (δ30Si) records of late Quaternary sponges and diatoms from the NZ-sector of the Southern Ocean. Analysis of our sponge δ30Si records strongly suggests that the silicic acid concentration at mode and intermediate depths was higher during the LGM and the deglacial period compared to the present day. Our diatom δ30Si record suggests biological productivity near of the Polar Front was greater during the deglacial period, but not significantly different during the LGM compared to the present day. Taking our dataset in context with other regional paleoceanographic records, we interpret the predicted elevation in LGM and deglacial silicic acid concentration to reflect a shoaling of water masses during the LGM and 'leakage' of excess Southern Ocean dissolved silicon during the deglacial period.

  14. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Mono Acid Esters Derived from the Constituents of Urtica pilulifera

    PubMed Central

    I. Husein, Ahmad; J. Jondi, Waheed; A. Zatar, Nidal; S. Ali-Shtayeh, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    New mono acid esters have been synthesized from the reaction of benzoic acid and mono-hydroxybenzoic acids with 2-phenoxyethanol separated from Urtica pilulifera, characterized, and screened for possible antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anticancer activities. These phenolic acid esters gave various degrees of free radical scavenging, but the values were lower than that of α-tocopherol. The concentrations of the tested compounds needed to reduce DPPH absorption by 50% at 517 nm were nearly in the range of 900-1100 µg/mL. While for α-tocopherol was 40 µg /mL. The compounds were tested in-vitro against six bacterial species which are known to cause dermic and mucosal infections in human. 2-phenoxyethyl benzoate showed significant activity in the range of 30% against P. aeruginosa to 70% against E. coli compared with the activity of Streptomycin. On the other hand 2-phenoxyethyl 2-hydroxybenzoate reveals 70% of gentamicin against K. pneumoniae. The tested compounds also showed complete inhibition at a concentration less than 37.5 µg/mL against M. canis and less than 50 µg/mL against T. rubrum. 2-phenoxyethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate showed considerable activity against MCF-7 with IC50 is less than 62.5 µg/mL. PMID:25587305

  15. Studies of the acidic components of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale-Mass spectrometric identification of the methyl esters of extractable acids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, P.; Schnoes, H. K.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Study of solvent extractable acidic constituents of oil shale from the Colorado Green River Formation. Identification of individual components is based on gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data obtained for their respective methyl esters. Normal acids, isoprenoidal acids, alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids, mono-alpha-methyl dicarboxylic acids and methyl ketoacids were identified. In addition, the presence of monocyclic, benzoic, phenylalkanoic and naphthyl-carboxylic acids, as well as cycloaromatic acids, is demonstrated by partial identification.

  16. Long-term fatty acid stability in human serum cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fractions.

    PubMed

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Ip, Blanche; Resteghini, Nancy; Ausman, Lynne M; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2010-09-01

    Fatty acid profiles of biological specimens from epidemiological/clinical studies can serve as biomarkers to assess potential relationships between diet and chronic disease risk. However, data are limited regarding fatty acid stability in archived specimens following long-term storage, a variable that could affect result validity. Our objective was to determine the effect of prolonged storage at -80 degrees C on the fatty acid profiles of serum cholesteryl ester (CE), triglyceride (TG), and phospholipid (PL) fractions. This was accomplished by determining the fatty acid profile of frozen, archived, previously unthawed serum samples from 22 subjects who participated in a controlled feeding trial. Initial analysis was performed after trial completion and the repeat analysis after 8-10 years of storage using GC. No significant differences were observed among the majority of fatty acids regardless of lipid fraction. Reliability coefficients were high for the fatty acid classes (saturated fatty acid : 0.70, MUFA : 0.90, PUFA : 0.80). When differences were identified, they were limited to low abundance fatty acids (acid profiles. PMID:20448292

  17. Enantioselective Hydrolysis of Amino Acid Esters Promoted by Bis(?-cyclodextrin) Copper Complexes.

    PubMed

    Xue, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Meng; Ke, Zhuo-Feng; Cheng, Bei-Chen; Su, Hua; Cao, Qian; Cao, Zhen-Kun; Wang, Jun; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    It is challenging to create artificial catalysts that approach enzymes with regard to catalytic efficiency and selectivity. The enantioselective catalysis ranks the privileged characteristic of enzymatic transformations. Here, we report two pyridine-linked bis(?-cyclodextrin) (bisCD) copper(II) complexes that enantioselectively hydrolyse chiral esters. Hydrolytic kinetic resolution of three pairs of amino acid ester enantiomers (S1-S3) at neutral pH indicated that the "back-to-back" bisCD complex CuL(1) favoured higher catalytic efficiency and more pronounced enantioselectivity than the "face-to-face" complex CuL(2). The best enantioselectivity was observed for N-Boc-phenylalanine 4-nitrophenyl ester (S2) enantiomers promoted by CuL(1), which exhibited an enantiomer selectivity of 15.7. We observed preferential hydrolysis of L-S2 by CuL(1), even in racemic S2, through chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We demonstrated that the enantioselective hydrolysis was related to the cooperative roles of the intramolecular flanking chiral CD cavities with the coordinated copper ion, according to the results of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), inhibition experiments, rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), and theoretical calculations. Although the catalytic parameters lag behind the level of enzymatic transformation, this study confirms the cooperative effect of the first and second coordination spheres of artificial catalysts in enantioselectivity and provides hints that may guide future explorations of enzyme mimics. PMID:26916830

  18. Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency: diagnosis and treatment of Wolman and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Diseases.

    PubMed

    Porto, Anthony F

    2014-09-01

    Lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) is responsible for the hydrolysis of cholesterol esters and triglycerides. LAL is coded by the LIPA gene on chromosome 10q23.31. Its deficiency leads to two autosomal recessive disorders, Wolman disease (WD) and Cholesteryl Ester Storage Disease (CESD). WD has an estimated incidence of 1 in 500,000 live births and is the result of a complete loss of LAL and presents in infancy with vomiting, diarrhea, poor weight gain and hepatomegaly subsequently leading to death. CESD is the result of partial loss of LAL and its presentation is more variable. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms, hepatomegaly, elevated transaminases and dystipidemia which may be confused with the diagnosis of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. CESD is currently underdiagnosed and has an estimated prevalence as high as I in 40,000 individuals. Radiologic findings in WD is calcification of the adrenal glands. Hepatomegaly is noted on CT scan in both WD and CESD. MRI may demonstrate accumulation of cholesterol esters and may be useful to study effects of potential medical therapies. The diagnosis of WD and CESD is based on LIPA gene sequencing and the measurement of LAL levels in peripheral blood leukocytes. Treatment of LAL deficiency is currently limited to control of cholesterol levels and to prevent premature atherosclerosis. Use of enzyme replacement therapy with recombinant human LAL in short-term studies has shown to be safe and effective. PMID:25345094

  19. Enantioselective Hydrolysis of Amino Acid Esters Promoted by Bis(β-cyclodextrin) Copper Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Meng; Ke, Zhuo-Feng; Cheng, Bei-Chen; Su, Hua; Cao, Qian; Cao, Zhen-Kun; Wang, Jun; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2016-02-01

    It is challenging to create artificial catalysts that approach enzymes with regard to catalytic efficiency and selectivity. The enantioselective catalysis ranks the privileged characteristic of enzymatic transformations. Here, we report two pyridine-linked bis(β-cyclodextrin) (bisCD) copper(II) complexes that enantioselectively hydrolyse chiral esters. Hydrolytic kinetic resolution of three pairs of amino acid ester enantiomers (S1–S3) at neutral pH indicated that the “back-to-back” bisCD complex CuL1 favoured higher catalytic efficiency and more pronounced enantioselectivity than the “face-to-face” complex CuL2. The best enantioselectivity was observed for N-Boc-phenylalanine 4-nitrophenyl ester (S2) enantiomers promoted by CuL1, which exhibited an enantiomer selectivity of 15.7. We observed preferential hydrolysis of L-S2 by CuL1, even in racemic S2, through chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We demonstrated that the enantioselective hydrolysis was related to the cooperative roles of the intramolecular flanking chiral CD cavities with the coordinated copper ion, according to the results of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), inhibition experiments, rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), and theoretical calculations. Although the catalytic parameters lag behind the level of enzymatic transformation, this study confirms the cooperative effect of the first and second coordination spheres of artificial catalysts in enantioselectivity and provides hints that may guide future explorations of enzyme mimics.

  20. Electronically Rich N-Substituted Tetrahydroisoquinoline 3-Carboxylic Acid Esters: Concise Synthesis and Conformational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Horani, Rami A.; Desai, Umesh R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work in our laboratory has shown that the highly substituted, electronically rich 1,2,3,4tetrahydroisoquinoline3carboxylic acid (THIQ3CA) scaffold is a key building block for a novel class of promising anticoagulants (Al-Horani et al. J. Med. Chem. 2011, 54, 61256138). The synthesis of THIQ3CA analogs, especially containing specific, electronically rich substituents, has been a challenge and essentially no efficient methods have been reported in the literature. We describe three complementary, glycine donor-based strategies for high yielding synthesis of highly substituted, electronically rich THIQ3CA esters. Three glycine donors studied herein include hydantoin 1, ()-Boc-?-phosphonoglycine trimethyl ester 2 and ()-Z-?-phosphonoglycine trimethyl ester 3. Although the synthesis of THIQ3CA analogs could be achieved using either of the three, an optimal, high yielding approach for the desired THIQ3CA esters was best achieved using 3 in three mild, efficient steps. Using this approach, a focused library of advanced N-arylacyl, N-arylalkyl, and bis-THIQ3CA analogs was synthesized. Variable temperature and solvent-dependent NMR chemical shift studies indicated the presence of two major conformational rotamers in 3:1 proportion for NarylacylTHIQ3CA analogs, which were separated by a high kinetic barrier of ~17 kcal/mol. In contrast, Narylalkyl and bisTHIQ3CA variants displayed no rotamerism, which implicates restricted rotation around the amide bond as the origin for high-barrier conformational interconversion. This phenomenon is of major significance because structure-based drug design typically utilizes only one conformation. Overall, the work presents fundamental studies on the synthesis and conformational properties of highly substituted, electronically rich THIQ3CA analogs. PMID:22665943

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid ester of phloridzin inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in THP-1 differentiated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sekhon-Loodu, Satvir; Ziaullah; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2015-03-01

    Phloridzin or phlorizin (PZ) is a predominant phenolic compound found in apple and also used in various natural health products. Phloridzin shows poor absorption and cellular uptake due to its hydrophilic nature. The aim was to investigate and compare the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ester of PZ (PZ-DHA) and its parent compounds (phloridzin and DHA), phloretin (the aglycone of PZ) and cyclooxygenase inhibitory drugs (diclofenac and nimesulide) on production of pro-inflammatory biomarkers in inflammation-induced macrophages by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulation. Human THP-1 monocytes were seeded in 24-well plates (510(5)/well) and treated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 0.1?g/mL) for 48h to induce macrophage differentiation. After 48h, the differentiated macrophages were washed with Hank's buffer and treated with various concentrations of test compounds for 4h, followed by the LPS-stimulation (18h). Pre-exposure of PZ-DHA ester was more effective in reducing tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein levels compared to DHA and nimesulide. However, diclofenac was the most effective in reducing prostaglandin (PGE2) level by depicting a dose-dependent response. However, PZ-DHA ester and DHA were the most effective in inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) among other test compounds. Our results suggest that PZ-DHA ester might possess potential therapeutic activity to treat inflammation related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, asthma, atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25637769

  2. Synthesis and characterization of phosphonate ester and phosphonic acid containing polymers and blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamber, Harinder Singh

    1997-12-01

    Vinylbenzylphosphonate ester (VBP) was homopolymerized and copolymerized with methyl methacrylate and the reactivity ratio of this pair of monomers was calculated from Finneman-Ross and Kelen-Tudos methods. These methods provided identical values, which are rsb1 (VBP) = 1.23 and rsb2(MMA) = 0.43. The phosphonate ester group, -P = O(OEt)sb2; in VBP and poly(VBP-MMA) copolymers was hydrolysed to phosphonic acid, -P = O(OH)sb2; at room temperature to obtain vinylbenzylphosphonic acid (VBPa) and poly(VBPa-MMA) copolymers. sp1H, sp{13}C & sp{31}P NMR spectroscopy, DSC and FTIR were used to monitor the hydrolysis of these phosphorylated monomers and polymers. The glass transition temperature of PVBP was 13spC as compared to 198spC of PVBPa. The phosphoryl group in the parent polymers acts as a self plasticizing agent resulting in lower glass transition temperature, on the other hand inter and intra hydrogen bonding results in broad and high Tsbg in these hydrolysed polymers. VBP was also polymerized with BisGMA or TEGDM to low conversions. These oligomers were tested in vitro as potential adhesive materials for dental/enamel and composite resins. The phosphonate esters containing polymers show substantial capacity to dissolve the heavy metal salts, e.g., UOsb2(NO)sb3.6Hsb2O and thus provides radiopaque polymers. Excessive sorption of water lead to phase separation and, hence, loss of radiopacity. Thus, an alternate method of synthesis of radiopaque polymers is also described in which radiopacifying agent is covalently linked to polymer backbone. Styryldiphenylbismuth was prepared by the reaction of diphenylbismuthchloride and Grignard of p-bromostyrene, but some other by-products such as triphenylbismuth, distyrylphenyl bismoth were also obtained as revealed by reverse phase HPLC and the yield of the reaction was low. Iodinated monomers VBTIsb3 and IEMIsb3 were prepared by reacting VBC or IEM to triiodophenol in high yields. Decomposition kinetic analysis was done by TGA to estimate the thermal stability of iodinated polymers. Incorporation of 13 wt% of either monomer in MMA or VBP results in radiopacity equivalent to 2 mm of aluminum a standard used in dentistry. Finally the dimethyl vinylphosphonate ester was homopolymerized and copolymerized with VBP. The aliphatic phosphonate ester was blended with cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate. The crystallinity of CA was completely impeded when 5 wt% of PDMVP was added, and the Flory interaction parameter chi obtained for PDMVP/CA was large and negative indicating a strong interaction between this pair of polymers.

  3. Low dose fumaric acid esters are effective in a mouse model of spontaneous chronic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Demir, Seray; Heckers, Sandra; Pedreiturria, Xiomara; Hess, Daniela; Trampe, Anne-Kathrin; Chan, Andrew; Gold, Ralf

    2015-08-15

    In this study we examined the role of fumaric acid esters (FAE) in a spontaneous and chronic animal model, the opticospinal EAE (OSE). Preventive treatment of dimethylfumarate (DMF) promotes onset of disease in animals treated with high dose DMF. This group also exhibited a significantly exacerbated disease course in a therapeutic treatment as compared to the low dose DMF approach, where less demyelination, macrophage infiltration, and increased Nrf2 expression in the spinal cord were observed. We conclude that low dose DMF treatment is effective in the therapy of the spontaneous opticospinal EAE model and mediates neuroprotective effects via the oxidative stress response pathway. PMID:26198914

  4. Synthesis and biological activity of arylspiroborate salts derived from caffeic Acid phenethyl ester.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Martin J G; Flewelling, Andrew J; Clark, Trevor N; Levesque, Natalie A; Jean-François, Jacques; Surette, Marc E; Gray, Christopher A; Vogels, Christopher M; Touaibia, Mohamed; Westcott, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE. PMID:25834744

  5. Synthesis and evaluation of water-soluble etoposide esters of malic acid as prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Du, Wenting

    2013-08-01

    Thirty etopside esters of malic acid were synthesized and have been shown to exhibit improved aqueous solubility and stability in neutral solution except for compounds 7Ia-c and 9Ia-c. Compounds 6Ia-c, 6IIb-c, 8Ia-b and 10Ib have been shown to function as prodrugs, whereas the other synthesized derivatives were too stable to reveal parent drugs in vivo. Among synthesized compounds, 8Ib, 4'-O-demethyl 4'-L-malyl epipodophyllotoxins showed the most potent anticancer activity and favorable stability in vitro. PMID:23061567

  6. Microwave-assisted pyrolysis of methyl ricinoleate for continuous production of undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME).

    PubMed

    Nie, Yong; Duan, Ying; Gong, Ruchao; Yu, Shangzhi; Lu, Meizhen; Yu, Fengwen; Ji, Jianbing

    2015-06-01

    Undecylenic acid methyl ester (UAME) was continuously produced from methyl ricinoleate using a microwave-assisted pyrolysis system with atomization feeding. The UAME yield of 77 wt.% was obtained at 500C using SiC as the microwave absorbent and heating medium. The methyl ricinoleate conversion and UAME yield from microwave-assisted pyrolysis process were higher than those from conventional pyrolysis. The effect of temperature on the pyrolysis process was also investigated. The methyl ricinoleate conversion increased but the cracking liquid yield decreased when the temperature increased from 460C to 560C. The maximum UAME yield was obtained at the temperature of 500C. PMID:25818921

  7. Synthesis and Biological Activity of Arylspiroborate Salts Derived from Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    Hbert, Martin J. G.; Flewelling, Andrew J.; Clark, Trevor N.; Jean-Franois, Jacques; Surette, Marc E.; Gray, Christopher A.; Vogels, Christopher M.; Touaibia, Mohamed; Westcott, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Two novel boron compounds containing caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) derivatives have been prepared and characterized fully. These new compounds and CAPE have been investigated for potential antioxidant and antimicrobial properties and their ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and whether chelation to boron improves their biological activity. Sodium salt 4 was generally more active than ammonium salt 5 in the biological assays and surpassed the radical scavenging ability of CAPE. Compounds 4 and 5 were more active than CAPE and Zileuton in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. These results clearly show the effectiveness of the synthesized salts as transporter of CAPE. PMID:25834744

  8. Influence of fatty acid methyl esters from hydroxylated vegetable oils on diesel fuel lubricity.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, John W; Geller, Daniel P

    2005-05-01

    Current and future regulations on the sulfur content of diesel fuel have led to a decrease in lubricity of these fuels. This decreased lubricity poses a significant problem as it may lead to wear and damage of diesel engines, primarily fuel injection systems. Vegetable oil based diesel fuel substitutes (biodiesel) have been shown to be clean and effective and may increase overall lubricity when added to diesel fuel at nominally low levels. Previous studies on castor oil suggest that its uniquely high level of the hydroxy fatty acid ricinoleic acid may impart increased lubricity to the oil and its derivatives as compared to other vegetable oils. Likewise, the developing oilseed Lesquerella may also increase diesel lubricity through its unique hydroxy fatty acid composition. This study examines the effect of castor and Lesquerella oil esters on the lubricity of diesel fuel using the High-Frequency Reciprocating Rig (HFRR) test and compares these results to those for the commercial vegetable oil derivatives soybean and rapeseed methyl esters. PMID:15607199

  9. Generation of anticalins with specificity for a nonsymmetric phthalic acid ester.

    PubMed

    Mercader, Josep V; Skerra, Arne

    2002-09-15

    A set of engineered lipocalins, so-called anticalins, that bind benzyl butyl phthalate, a potential pollutant of environmental and food samples or medical plastic ware, has been generated. To this end, the synthesis of a derivative of the target analyte carrying an activatable carboxylate group at the end of an aliphatic spacer arm was established. This compound was covalently coupled to amino-functionalized paramagnetic beads. Using phage display technology three variants were selected from a random library of the bilin-binding protein (BBP), a prototypic lipocalin, which exhibit binding activity toward the nonsymmetric phthalic acid ester. These anticalins (denominated PhtA, PhtB, and PhtC) possess dissociation constants of 9.1, 6.2, and 11.6 microM, respectively. Specificity for the binding of other phthalic acid esters was studied. No cross-reactivity was found for diethyl phthalate, while binding to dibutyl phthalate was observed with higher dissociation constants. Interestingly, two differing types of binding behavior were observed among the three selected anticalins. Sequence comparison of these engineered lipocalins with the wild-type BBP revealed that all of the 16 randomized positions carried an amino acid exchange and that a certain sequence pattern had been selected, thus pointing toward a peculiar mode of structural interaction. Our data suggest that the generation of anticalins may provide an alternative to antibodies for the creation of stable receptor proteins against haptens with bioanalytical relevance. PMID:12419339

  10. One-Pot Synthesis of Highly Substituted Nicotinic Acid Derivatives Based on a Formylation Strategy of Enamino Keto Esters.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sukeerthi; Sawant, Aarti A; Chikhale, Rajendra P; Karanjai, Keya; Thomas, Abraham

    2016-02-19

    A facile one-pot synthesis of 4-chloro or 4-bromonicotinic acid esters with optional 2- and 2,5-disubstitution on the pyridine ring has been developed from easily accessible enamino keto esters by a formylation followed by in situ intramolecular cyclization strategy under optimized Vilsmeier reaction conditions. The effect of the substituents on the ?-carbon and the nature of the keto functionality were explored in detail to understand the mechanism of pyridine ring formation under the described conditions. PMID:26835801

  11. Phosphoric acid esters cannot replace polyvinylphosphonic acid as phosphoprotein analogs in biomimetic remineralization of resin-bonded dentin.

    PubMed

    Mai, Sui; Kim, Young Kyung; Toledano, Manuel; Breschi, Lorenzo; Ling, Jun Qi; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R

    2009-10-01

    Polyvinylphosphonic acid (PVPA), a biomimetic analog of phosphoproteins, is crucial for recruiting polyacrylic acid (PAA)-stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors during biomimetic remineralization of dentin collagen matrices. This study tested the null hypothesis that phosphoric acid esters of methacrylates in dentin adhesives cannot replace PVPA during bimimetic remineralization of resin-dentin interfaces. Human dentin specimens were bonded with: (I) XP Bond, an etch-and-rinse adhesive using moist bonding; (II) XP Bond using dry bonding; (III) Adper Prompt L-Pop, a self-etching adhesive. The control medium contained only set Portland cement and a simulated body fluid (SBF) without any biomimetic analog. Two experimental Portland cement/SBF remineralization media were evaluated: the first contained PAA as the sole biomimetic analog, the second contained PAA and PVPA as dual biomimetic analogs. No remineralization of the resin-dentin interfaces could be identified from specimens immersed in the control medium. After 2-4 months in the first experimental medium, specimens exhibited either no remineralization or large crystal formation within hybrid layers. Only specimens immersed in the second remineralization medium produced nanocrystals that accounted for intrafibrillar remineralization within hybrid layers. The null hypothesis could not be rejected; phosphoric acid esters in dentin adhesives cannot replace PVPA during biomimetic remineralization of adhesive-bonded dentin. PMID:19481792

  12. Terpolymers of ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/unsaturated acid ester of alcohols and acids as anti-settling agents in coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.; Grinstein, R.H.; Nachfolger, S.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a pumpable stabilized coal water slurry, having a coal content of at least about 50% by weight wherein at least 80% of the coal particles are about 200 mesh or finer, containing from about 0.01% to about 1% by weight of the slurry of a water soluble terpolymer of ethylacrylate (A), metacrylic acid (B) and a third monomer (C) selected from the group consisting of an unsaturated carboxylic acid ester of an alcohol and an ethoxylated carboxylic acid. The unsaturated carboxylic acid is a mono- or di- basic unsaturated carboxylic acid of 3 to 10 carbon atoms selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

  13. Acid-cleavable ketal containing poly(?-amino ester) for enhanced siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Guk, Kyeonghye; Lim, Hyungsuk; Kim, Byungkuk; Hong, Minsung; Khang, Gilson; Lee, Dongwon

    2013-09-10

    The safe and effective intracellular delivery of nucleic acids remains the most challenging obstacle to the broad application of gene therapy in clinic. Endosomal escape of nucleic acids is also a major barrier for efficient gene delivery. Ketal linkage is known to readily cleave at the acidic pH of endosomal compartments. Here, we report ketal containing poly(?-amino ester) (KPAE) as an acid-cleavable non-viral siRNA delivery system. KPAE efficiently condensed siRNA into nanocomplexes with a diameter of ? 150 nm, which are stable under neutral conditions but rapidly dissociate to release siRNA at acidic pH. KPAE had a buffering capacity due to the presence of secondary amines in its backbone, confirmed by acid-base titration. Moreover, the studies of confocal fluorescence imaging using calcein and LysoTracker Red revealed that KPAE disrupted endosomes by colloid osmotic mechanism and "proton sponge" effects. Cell culture studies demonstrated that KPAE can deliver tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) siRNA to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and significantly inhibit the expression of TNF-?. The results demonstrate that acid-cleavable KPAE has great potential as gene delivery systems based on its excellent biocompatibility, pH sensitivity and high gene delivery efficiency. PMID:23796834

  14. Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters via the In Situ Transesterification of Soybean Oil in Carbon Dioxide-Expanded Methanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by direct alkali- and acid-catalyzed in situ transesterification of soybean flakes in CO2-expanded methanol was examined at various temperatures and pressures. Attempts to synthesize FAME from soy flakes via alkaline catalysis, using sodium methoxid...

  15. Manganese-catalyzed synthesis of cis-?-amino acid esters through organometallic C-H activation of ketimines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiping; Zell, Daniel; John, Michael; Ackermann, Lutz

    2015-03-23

    Manganese-catalyzed C?H functionalization reactions of ketimines set the stage for the expedient synthesis of cis-?-amino acid esters through site- and regioselective alkene annulations. The organometallic C?H activation occurred efficiently with high functional group tolerance, delivering densely functionalized ?-amino acid derivatives with ample scope. PMID:25663350

  16. 75 FR 70254 - Typographical Error in Summary Notice of Filing in Docket for Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY Typographical Error in Summary Notice of Filing in Docket for Polymerized Fatty Acid Esters With.... SUMMARY: EPA issued a notice in the Federal Register of June 8, 2010 (75 FR 32463) (FRL-8827-5), concerning the Notice of Filing (NOF) for Pesticide Petition (PP) 0E7699 for polymerized fatty acid...

  17. Mass Spectrometric Confirmation of ?-Linolenic Acid Ester-Linked Ceramide 1 in the Epidermis of Borage Oil Fed Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyong-Oh; Kim, Kunpyo; Jeon, Sanghun; Seo, Cho-Hee; Lee, Yong-Moon; Cho, Yunhi

    2015-10-01

    Ceramide 1 (Cer1), a Cer species with eicosasphingenine (d20:1) amide-linked to two different ?-hydroxy fatty acids (C30wh:0:C32wh:1), which are, in turn, ester-linked to linoleic acid (LNA; 18:2n-6), plays a critical role in maintaining the structural integrity of the epidermal barrier. Prompted by the recovery of a disrupted epidermal barrier with dietary borage oil [BO: 36.5% LNA and 23.5% ?-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3n-6)], in essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient guinea pigs, we further investigated the effects of BO on the substitution of ester-linked GLA for LNA in these two epidermal Cer1 species by LC-MS in positive and negative modes. Dietary supplementation of BO for 2 weeks in EFA-deficient guinea pigs increased LNA ester-linked to C32wh:1/d20:1 and C30wh:0/d20:1 of Cer1. Moreover, GLA ester-linked to C32wh:1/d20:1, but not to C30wh:0/d20:1, of Cer1 was detected, which was further confirmed by the product ions of m/z 277.2 for ester-linked GLA and m/z 802.3 for the deprotonated C32wh:1/d20:1. C20-Metabolized fatty acids of LNA or GLA were not ester-linked to these Cer1 species. Dietary BO induced GLA ester-linked to C32wh:1/d20:1 of epidermal Cer1. PMID:26233818

  18. 40 CFR 721.8450 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-[3-(2H-benzotriazol-2-yl)-4-hydroxyphenyl]ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8450 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance... acid, 2-methyl-, 2- ethyl ester, (PMN P-90-333) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 21 CFR 582.4101 - Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4101 Section 582.4101 Food...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9511 - Silicic acid (H6SiO2O7), magnesium, strontium salt(1:1:2), dysprosium and europium-doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silicic acid (H6SiO2O7), magnesium...), magnesium, strontium salt(1:1:2), dysprosium and europium-doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as silicic acid (H6SiO2O7)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9511 - Silicic acid (H6SiO2O7), magnesium, strontium salt(1:1:2), dysprosium and europium-doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silicic acid (H6SiO2O7), magnesium...), magnesium, strontium salt(1:1:2), dysprosium and europium-doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as silicic acid (H6SiO2O7)...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9511 - Silicic acid (H6SiO2O7), magnesium, strontium salt(1:1:2), dysprosium and europium-doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Silicic acid (H6SiO2O7), magnesium...), magnesium, strontium salt(1:1:2), dysprosium and europium-doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as silicic acid (H6SiO2O7)...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9511 - Silicic acid (H6SiO2O7), magnesium, strontium salt(1:1:2), dysprosium and europium-doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Silicic acid (H6SiO2O7), magnesium...), magnesium, strontium salt(1:1:2), dysprosium and europium-doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as silicic acid (H6SiO2O7)...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9511 - Silicic acid (H6SiO2O7), magnesium, strontium salt(1:1:2), dysprosium and europium-doped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Silicic acid (H6SiO2O7), magnesium...), magnesium, strontium salt(1:1:2), dysprosium and europium-doped. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as silicic acid (H6SiO2O7)...

  5. Leaching of a silicate and carbonate copper ore with heterotrophic fungi and bacteria, producing organic acids.

    PubMed

    Kiel, H; Schwartz, W

    1980-01-01

    Leaching of metals with carbon-heterotrophic microorganisms and organic acids as active agents has been performed with Timna copper ore containing 1.1% copper as carbonates and silicate and with some other metal oxides. Aspergillus niger surface cultures on a 14% sucrose fermentation medium yeilded 87.3% of total copper from 10% suspension within 2 weeks of leaching. On sulfite liquor as an industrial waste product A. niger solubilized 73.8% Cu within 4 weeks. In percolators with 14% sucrose medium up to 1780 ppm copper were found in solution. In leaching experiments with a sea water medium containing 7% sucrose only 684 ppm Cu were soluble. Leaching with lactobacilli containing whey yielded 83.4% of the total copper in 4 weeks. PMID:7222743

  6. A monolithic lipase reactor for biodiesel production by transesterification of triacylglycerides into fatty acid methyl esters

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Jiri; Svec, Frantisek; Frchet, Jean M.J.

    2011-01-01

    An enzymatic reactor with lipase immobilized on a monolithic polymer support has been prepared and used to catalyze the transesterification of triacylglycerides into the fatty acid methyl esters commonly used for biodiesel. A design of experiments procedure was used to optimize the monolithic reactor with variables including control of the surface polarity of the monolith via variations in the length of the hydrocarbon chain in alkyl methacrylate monomer, time of grafting of 1-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone used to activate the monolith, and time used for the immobilization of porcine lipase. Optimal conditions involved the use of a poly(stearyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolith, grafted first with vinylazlactone, then treated with lipase for 2 h to carry out the immobilization of the enzyme. Best conditions for the transesterification of glyceryl tributyrate included a temperature of 37C and a 10 min residence time of the substrate in the bioreactor. The reactor did not lose its activity even after pumping through it a solution of substrate equaling 1,000 reactor volumes. This enzymatic reactor was also used for the transesterification of triacylglycerides from soybean oil to fatty acid methyl esters thus demonstrating the ability of the reactor to produce biodiesel. PMID:21915852

  7. Effects of the addition of dimer acid alkyl esters on the properties of ethyl cellulose.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangjun; Ko, Kwang-Hwan; Shin, Jihoon; Kim, Nam-Kyun; Kim, Young-Wun; Kim, Joon-Seop

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we synthesized dimer acid (DA) esters, having short to long alkyl chains, (DA-Cn) by the Diels-Alder reaction and subsequent esterification reaction of fatty acids that were prepared by the hydrolysis of waste vegetable oil. It was found that the DA-Cn were thermally more stable than common petroleum-based plasticizer DOP. When the DOP, DA, or DA-Cn with short alkyl chains were added to ethyl cellulose (EC), the optical clarity and SEM images of the samples showed their good miscibility with those additives in a micro-scale. It was also found that the rubbery modulus of the EC decreased with increasing amount of additives; the type of the additives did not affect the rates of the decrease in the rubbery modulus. The main transition temperatures of the EC containing either DA or DA-C1 or DA-C4 decreased with increasing amounts of those additives and were comparable to that of the DOP-containing EC. The above findings suggested that the DA and its esters with short alkyl chains could act as effective plasticizer and, thus, could be used instead of the DOP. In addition, the results obtained from tensile testing and leaching experiments implied that the DA might be better plasticizer than the DA-C1 and DA-C4, at least in some cases, because of hydrogen-bonding with the EC. PMID:25659700

  8. Dimer esters in ?-pinene secondary organic aerosol: effect of hydroxyl radical, ozone, relative humidity and aerosol acidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, K.; Cui, T.; Zhang, H.; Gold, A.; Glasius, M.; Surratt, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from both ozonolysis and hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of ?-pinene under conditions of high nitric oxide (NO) concentrations with varying relative humidity (RH) and aerosol acidity was investigated in the University of North Carolina dual outdoor smog chamber facility. SOA formation from ozonolysis of ?-pinene was enhanced relative to that from OH-initiated oxidation in the presence of initially high NO conditions. However, no effect of RH on SOA mass was evident. Ozone (O3)-initiated oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of ammonium sulfate (AS) seed coated with organic aerosol from OH-initiated oxidation of ?-pinene showed reduced nucleation compared to ozonolysis in the presence of pure AS seed aerosol. The chemical composition of ?-pinene SOA was investigated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-HR-Q-TOFMS), with a focus on the formation of carboxylic acids and high-molecular weight dimer esters. A total of eight carboxylic acids and four dimer esters were identified, constituting between 8 and 12% of the total ?-pinene SOA mass. OH-initiated oxidation of ?-pinene in the presence of nitrogen oxides (NOx) resulted in the formation of highly oxidized carboxylic acids, such as 3-methyl-1,2,3-butanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA) and diaterpenylic acid acetate (DTAA). The formation of dimer esters was observed only in SOA produced from the ozonolysis of ?-pinene in the absence of NOx, with increased concentrations by a~factor of two at higher RH (50-90%) relative to lower RH (30-50%). The increased formation of dimer esters correlates with an observed increase in new particle formation at higher RH due to nucleation. Increased aerosol acidity was found to have a negligible effect on the formation of the dimer esters. SOA mass yield did not influence the chemical composition of SOA formed from ?-pinene ozonolysis with respect to carboxylic acids and dimer esters. The results support the formation of the high-molecular weight dimer esters through gas-phase reactions of the stabilized Criegee Intermediate (sCI) formed from the ozonolysis of ?-pinene. The high molecular weight and polar nature of dimer esters formed in the gas-phase may explain increased particle number concentration as a~result of homogenous nucleation. Since three of these dimer esters (i.e., pinyl-diaterpenyl ester (MW 358), pinyl-diaterebyl ester (MW 344) and pinonyl-pinyl ester (MW 368)) have been observed in both laboratory-generated and ambient fine organic aerosol samples, we conclude that the dimer esters observed in this study can be used as tracers for the O3-initiated oxidation of ?-pinene, and are therefore indicative of enhanced anthropogenic activities, and that the high molecular weight and low volatility esters result in homogenous nucleation under laboratory conditions, increasing the particle number concentration.

  9. Evidence of silicic acid leakage to the tropical Atlantic via Antarctic Intermediate Water during Marine Isotope Stage 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, James D.; Barker, Stephen; Hendry, Katharine R.; Thornalley, David J. R.; Flierdt, Tina; Hall, Ian R.; Anderson, Robert F.

    2013-06-01

    Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) are the main conduits for the supply of dissolved silicon (silicic acid) from the deep Southern Ocean (SO) to the low-latitude surface ocean and therefore have an important control on low-latitude diatom productivity. Enhanced supply of silicic acid by AAIW (and SAMW) during glacial periods may have enabled tropical diatoms to outcompete carbonate-producing phytoplankton, decreasing the relative export of inorganic to organic carbon to the deep ocean and lowering atmospheric pCO2. This mechanism is known as the "silicic acid leakage hypothesis" (SALH). Here we present records of neodymium and silicon isotopes from the western tropical Atlantic that provide the first direct evidence of increased silicic acid leakage from the Southern Ocean to the tropical Atlantic within AAIW during glacial Marine Isotope Stage 4 (~60-70 ka). This leakage was approximately coeval with enhanced diatom export in the NW Atlantic and across the eastern equatorial Atlantic and provides support for the SALH as a contributor to CO2 drawdown during full glacial development.

  10. Sucrose fatty acid esters suppress pancreatic secretion accompanied by peptide YY release in pancreatico-biliary diverted rats.

    PubMed

    Hira, Tohru; Takahashi, Katsuhiko; Hara, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that intestinal administration of triglycerides suppressed protein-induced increases in pancreatic exocrine secretion in pancreatico-biliary diverted (PBD) rats, though the mechanism has not been clarified. The present study was conducted to determine whether esterified fatty acids or free fatty acids are responsible for this suppression, and whether an esterified fatty acid stimulates secretion of a pancreatic inhibitory hormone, peptide YY (PYY). We examined the effects of cocoa butter or non-digestible sucrose fatty acid esters on protein-induced pancreatic secretion in conscious PBD rats whose bile-pancreatic juice was diverted from the proximal small intestine through a catheter. Intraduodenal administration of the protein guanidinated casein hydrolysate (HGC, 150 mg in 1 ml water) enhanced pancreatic protein and trypsin secretion. However, administration of HGC with cocoa butter (100 mg ml(-1)) partly suppressed the increase in pancreatic secretion, and HGC with a highly esterified sucrose fatty acid ester, F-10 (100 mg ml(-1)), completely suppressed it. The low-esterified, water-soluble sucrose fatty acid ester F-160 also completely inhibited protein-induced pancreatic secretion in the presence or absence of the lipase inhibitor orlistat. In anaesthetized PBD rats, intraduodenal administration of HGC with sucrose ester F-160 suppressed HGC-induced pancreatic secretion, and induced PYY secretion more strongly than HGC with sucrose. These results suggest that the esterified fatty acid itself stimulates PYY release in the distal intestine, thereby inhibiting protein-induced pancreatic secretion. PMID:17384118

  11. N-( p-Ethynylbenzoyl) derivatives of amino acid and dipeptide methyl esters - Synthesis and structural study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eimann, Frank; Weber, Edwin

    2011-11-01

    A series of N-( p-ethynylbenzoyl) derivatives ( 1-4) of the amino acids glycine and L-alanine as well as the dipeptides glycylglycine and L-alanylglycine has been synthesized via a two-step reaction sequence including the reaction of an appropriate N-( p-bromobenzoyl) precursor with trimethylsilylacetylene followed by deprotection of the trimethylsilyl protecting group, respectively. X-ray crystal structures of the amino acid and dipeptide methyl esters 1-4 are reported. The amide and peptide bonds within each molecular structure are planar and adopt the trans-configuration. The packing structures are governed by N sbnd H⋯O interactions leading to the formation of characteristic strand motifs. Further stabilization results from weaker C sbnd H⋯O and C sbnd H⋯? contacts.

  12. Fatty acid ethyl ester synthesis in the preparation of scotch whiskey.

    PubMed

    Goss, K A; Alharethi, R; Laposata, M

    1999-04-01

    Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE), nonoxidative ethanol metabolites present in human organs commonly damaged by ethanol abuse, have been implicated as mediators of organ damage. FAEE are additives in various foods and beverages to provide flavor or fragrance, and therefore are common dietary lipid constituents. We hypothesized that FAEE could be generated during alcoholic beverage production because fatty acids are present within microorganisms and ethanol is generated during the fermentation process. In this report, we demonstrate that FAEE are present in commercially available scotch beverages, and that in the preparation of scotch, FAEE can be produced during the fermentation reaction as a result of FAEE synthase activity in the yeast. Following ingestion of scotch, preformed FAEE are delivered to GI tract. The consequences of ingestion of FAEE in scotch, if any, remain to be determined. PMID:10231172

  13. A novel lysosomal acid lipase gene mutation in a patient with cholesteryl ester storage disease.

    PubMed

    Redonnet-Vernhet, I; Chatelut, M; Salvayre, R; Levade, T

    1998-01-01

    The molecular defects in the gene encoding the lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) were investigated in an adult male patient affected with cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD), an autosomal recessive disorder associated with LAL deficient activity. Nucleotide sequencing of amplified LAL genomic DNA or reverse-transcribed mRNA demonstrated that this patient was a compound heterozygote for a previously reported mutation, a G-->A transition at position -1 of the exon 8 splice donor site, resulting in skipping of the complete exon 8, and for a C-->T substitution at position 233 (exon 3), which introduces a premature in-frame termination codon. This yet undescribed mutation, which results in the loss of 89% of LAL amino acids, is very likely to abolish the LAL catalytic activity. PMID:9554751

  14. An Advanced TALSPEAK Concept Using 2-Ethylhexylphosphonic Acid Mono-2-Ethylhexyl Ester as the Extractant

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Casella, Amanda J.; Rapko, Brian M.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Pence, Natasha K.; Carter, Jennifer C.; Niver, Cynthia M.; Smoot, Margaret R.

    2014-12-21

    A method for separating the trivalent actinides and lanthanides is being developed using 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) as the extractant. The method is based on the preferential binding of the actinides in the aqueous phase by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid (HEDTA), which serves to keep the actinides in the aqueous phase while the lanthanides are extracted into an organic phase containing HEH[EHP]. The process is very robust, showing little dependence upon the pH or the HEH[EHP], HEDTA, and citrate concentrations over the ranges that might be expected in a nuclear fuel recycling plant. Single-stage runs with a 2-cm centrifugal contactor indicate that modifications to the process chemistry may be needed to increase the extraction rate for Sm, Eu, and Gd. The hydraulic properties of the system are favorable to application in centrifugal contactors.

  15. Enzymatic Acylation of Anthocyanin Isolated from Black Rice with Methyl Aromatic Acid Ester as Donor: Stability of the Acylated Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zheng; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Lixia; Liu, Qin; Ou, Shiyi; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2016-02-10

    The enzymatic acylation of anthocyanin from black rice with aromatic acid methyl esters as acyl donors and Candida antarctica lipase B was carried out under reduced pressure. The highest conversion of 91% was obtained with benzoic acid methyl ester as acyl donor; cyanidin 3-(6?-benzoyl)-glucoside, cyanidin 3-(6?-salicyloyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6?-cinnamoyl)-glucoside were successfully synthesized. This is the first report on the enzymatic acylation of anthocyanin from black rice with methyl aromatic esters as acyl donors and lipase as biocatalyst. Furthermore, the acylation with aromatic carboxylic acids enhanced both the thermostability and light resistivity of anthocyanin. In particular, cyanidin 3-(6?-cinnamoyl)-glucoside was the most stable among the three acylated anthocyanins synthesized. PMID:26766135

  16. Accuracy, reproducibility, and interpretation of fatty acid methyl ester profiles of model bacterial communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kidd, Haack S.; Garchow, H.; Odelson, D.A.; Forney, L.J.; Klug, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    We determined the accuracy and reproducibility of whole-community fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis with two model bacterial communities differing in composition by using the Microbial ID, Inc. (MIDI), system. The biomass, taxonomic structure, and expected MIDI-FAME profiles under a variety of environmental conditions were known for these model communities a priori. Not all members of each community could be detected in the composite profile because of lack of fatty acid 'signatures' in some isolates or because of variations (approximately fivefold) in fatty acid yield across taxa. MIDI- FAME profiles of replicate subsamples of a given community were similar in terms of fatty acid yield per unit of community dry weight and relative proportions of specific fatty acids. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of MIDI-FAME profiles resulted in a clear separation of the two different communities and a clustering of replicates of each community from two separate experiments on the first PCA axis. The first PCA axis accounted for 57.1% of the variance in the data and was correlated with fatty acids that varied significantly between communities and reflected the underlying community taxonomic structure. On the basis of our data, community fatty acid profiles can be used to assess the relative similarities and differences of microbial communities that differ in taxonomic composition. However, detailed interpretation of community fatty acid profiles in terms of biomass or community taxonomic composition must be viewed with caution until our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of fatty acids over a wide variety of taxa and the effects of growth conditions on fatty acid profiles is more extensive.

  17. Accuracy, Reproducibility, and Interpretation of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Profiles of Model Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Haack, Sheridan Kidd; Garchow, Helen; Odelson, David A.; Forney, Larry J.; Klug, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    We determined the accuracy and reproducibility of whole-community fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis with two model bacterial communities differing in composition by using the Microbial ID, Inc. (MIDI), system. The biomass, taxonomic structure, and expected MIDI-FAME profiles under a variety of environmental conditions were known for these model communities a priori. Not all members of each community could be detected in the composite profile because of lack of fatty acid signatures in some isolates or because of variations (approximately fivefold) in fatty acid yield across taxa. MIDI-FAME profiles of replicate subsamples of a given community were similar in terms of fatty acid yield per unit of community dry weight and relative proportions of specific fatty acids. Principal-components analysis (PCA) of MIDI-FAME profiles resulted in a clear separation of the two different communities and a clustering of replicates of each community from two separate experiments on the first PCA axis. The first PCA axis accounted for 57.1% of the variance in the data and was correlated with fatty acids that varied significantly between communities and reflected the underlying community taxonomic structure. On the basis of our data, community fatty acid profiles can be used to assess the relative similarities and differences of microbial communities that differ in taxonomic composition. However, detailed interpretation of community fatty acid profiles in terms of biomass or community taxonomic composition must be viewed with caution until our knowledge of the quantitative and qualitative distribution of fatty acids over a wide variety of taxa and the effects of growth conditions on fatty acid profiles is more extensive. PMID:16349327

  18. Vitamin A contained in the lipid droplets of rat liver stellate cells is substrate for acid retinyl ester hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Azas-Braesco, V; Dodeman, I; Delpal, S; Alexandre-Gouabau, M C; Partier, A; Borel, P; Grolier, P

    1995-12-01

    Vitamin A is stored in the lipid droplets of liver stellate cells (LSCs), as retinyl esters whose hydrolysis is necessary for the secretion of retinol into the blood. Here, we isolated these retinyl esters under their physiological form, i.e., in LSC lipid droplets, which had retained their morphological and biochemical characteristics. These retinyl esters are substrate for an hydrolytic enzyme, whose optimum pH is 4.1, and which is kinetically similar to the acidic retinyl ester hydrolase (aREH) we had previously described (Mercier et al., Biochim. Biophys. Acta (1994) 1212, 176-182). The cellular and subcellular localizations of aREH activity in rat liver suggest that this enzyme could be involved in the hydrolysis of the esterified vitamin A stores. PMID:8541334

  19. Effect of silicic acid on arsenate and arsenite retention mechanisms on 6-L ferrihydrite: A spectroscopic and batch adsorption approach.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaodong; Root, Robert A; Farrell, James; Ela, Wendell; Chorover, Jon

    2013-11-01

    The competitive adsorption of arsenate and arsenite with silicic acid at the ferrihydrite-water interface was investigated over a wide pH range using batch sorption experiments, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) modeling. Batch sorption results indicate that the adsorption of arsenate and arsenite on the 6-L ferrihydrite surface exhibits a strong pH-dependence, and the effect of pH on arsenic sorption differs between arsenate and arsenite. Arsenate adsorption decreases consistently with increasing pH; whereas arsenite adsorption initially increases with pH to a sorption maximum at pH 7-9, where after sorption decreases with further increases in pH. Results indicate that competitive adsorption between silicic acid and arsenate is negligible under the experimental conditions; whereas strong competitive adsorption was observed between silicic acid and arsenite, particularly at low and high pH. In-situ, flow-through ATR-FTIR data reveal that in the absence of silicic acid, arsenate forms inner-sphere, binuclear bidentate, complexes at the ferrihydrite surface across the entire pH range. Silicic acid also forms inner-sphere complexes at ferrihydrite surfaces throughout the entire pH range probed by this study (pH 2.8 - 9.0). The ATR-FTIR data also reveal that silicic acid undergoes polymerization at the ferrihydrite surface under the environmentally-relevant concentrations studied (e.g., 1.0 mM). According to ATR-FTIR data, arsenate complexation mode was not affected by the presence of silicic acid. EXAFS analyses and DFT modeling confirmed that arsenate tetrahedra were bonded to Fe metal centers via binuclear bidentate complexation with average As(V)-Fe bond distance of 3.27 . The EXAFS data indicate that arsenite forms both mononuclear bidentate and binuclear bidentate complexes with 6-L ferrihydrite as indicated by two As(III)-Fe bond distances of ~2.92-2.94 and 3.41-3.44 , respectively. The As-Fe bond distances in both arsenate and arsenite EXAFS spectra remained unchanged in the presence of Si, suggesting that whereas Si diminishes arsenite adsorption preferentially, it has a negligible effect on As-Fe bonding mechanisms. PMID:25382933

  20. Supported phosphate and carbonate salts for heterogeneous catalysis of triglycerides to fatty acid methyl esters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britton, Stephanie Lynne

    Fatty acid methyl esters made from vegetable oil, or biodiesel, have been identified as a substitute for diesel derived from crude oil. Biodiesel is currently made using a homogeneous base catalyst to perform the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol to generate fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). The use of a homogeneous catalyst necessitates additional purification of the product and byproducts before sale, and the catalyst is consumed and discarded. The development of a heterogeneous basic catalyst for the production of FAME is desirable. Tribasic phosphate salts and dibasic carbonate salts are active for the production of FAME but generally operate as homogeneous catalysts. Supporting these phosphate and carbonate salts on mesoporous MCM-41, microporous silica gel, and nonporous a-alumina proved successful to greater or lesser degrees depending on the identity of the support and pretreatment of the support. Although these salts were supported and were active for the production of FAME from canola oil, they proved to be operating as homogeneous catalysts due to leaching of the active species off the surface of the support. Further investigation of the active species present in the tribasic phosphate catalysts identified the active support as orthophosphate, and NMR studies revealed the phosphorus to be present as orthophosphate and diphosphate in varying proportions in each catalyst. Evaluation of the acid-washing support pretreatment process revealed that the exposure of the support to acid plays a large role in the development of activity on the surface of the catalyst, but manipulation of these parameters did not prevent leaching of the active site off the surface of the catalyst. Alternate methods of support pretreatment were no more effective in preventing leaching. Tribasic phosphate supported on silica gel is not effective as a heterogeneous catalyst for FAME production from triglycerides because of the lack of stability of the phosphate on the support. The support is not stable under the reaction conditions, and alternatives should be explored to develop a heterogeneous base catalyst for the production of FAME.