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Sample records for silicon controlled rectifier

  1. A series-resonant silicon-controlled-rectifier power processor for ion thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumaker, H. A.; Biess, J. J.; Goldin, D. S.

    1973-01-01

    A program to develop a power processing system for ion thrusters is presented. Basic operation of the silicon controlled rectifier series inverter circuitry is examined. The approach for synthesizing such circuits into a system which limits the electrical stress levels on the power source, semiconductor switching elements, and the ion thruster load is described. Experimental results are presented for a 2.5-kW breadboard system designed to operate a 20-cm ion thruster.

  2. Understanding of self-terminating pulse generation using silicon controlled rectifier and RC load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chris; Alves, Fabio; Karunasiri, Gamani

    2016-01-01

    Recently a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)-based circuit that generates self-terminating voltage pulses was employed for the detection of light and ionizing radiation in pulse mode. The circuit consisted of a SCR connected in series with a RC load and DC bias. In this paper, we report the investigation of the physics underlying the pulsing mechanism of the SCR-based. It was found that during the switching of SCR, the voltage across the capacitor increased beyond that of the DC bias, thus generating a reverse current in the circuit, which helped to turn the SCR off. The pulsing was found to be sustainable only for a specific range of RC values depending on the SCR's intrinsic turn-on/off times. The findings of this work will help to design optimum SCR based circuits for pulse mode detection of light and ionizing radiation without external amplification circuitry.

  3. Road load simulator tests of the Gould Phase I functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents the test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  4. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-01-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  5. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  6. Road load simulator tests of the Gould phase 1 functional model silicon controlled rectifier ac motor controller for electric vehicles. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Gourash, F.

    1984-02-01

    The test results for a functional model ac motor controller for electric vehicles and a three-phase induction motor which were dynamically tested on the Lewis Research Center road load simulator are presented. Results show that the controller has the capability to meet the SAE-J227a D cycle test schedule and to accelerate a 1576-kg (3456-lb) simulated vehicle to a cruise speed of 88.5 km/hr (55 mph). Combined motor controller efficiency is 72 percent and the power inverter efficiency alone is 89 percent for the cruise region of the D cycle. Steady state test results for motoring, regeneration, and thermal data obtained by operating the simulator as a conventional dynamometer are in agreement with the contractor's previously reported data. The regeneration test results indicate that a reduction in energy requirements for urban driving cycles is attainable with regenerative braking. Test results and data in this report serve as a data base for further development of ac motor controllers and propulsion systems for electric vehicles. The controller uses state-of-the-art silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) power semiconductors and microprocessor-based logic and control circuitry. The controller was developed by Gould Laboratories under a Lewis contract for the Department of Energy's Electric and Hybrid Vehicle program.

  7. N-Type Extended Drain Silicon Controlled Rectifier Electrostatic Discharge Protection Device for High-Voltage Operating Input/Output Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Yong-Jin; Kim, Kil-Ho

    2007-04-01

    An electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection device, the so-called N-type extended drain silicon controlled rectifier (NEDSCR) device, was analyzed for high-voltage input/output (I/O) applications. A conventional NEDSCR device shows typical silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)-like characteristics with a high current immunity level. However, its extremely low snapback holding voltage and low on-resistance cause a linearity problem in the current immunity level, which obstructs adopting this device as an ESD protection device. Moreover, it may cause a latch-up problem during a normal operation. Our simulation analysis results that these disadvantageous NEDSCR device characteristics are cured by appropriate junction/channel engineering. Adding a P-type counter pocket source (CPS) implant enclosing source N+ diffusion is proven to increase the snapback holding voltage and on-resistance of the NEDSCR device, realizing an excellent ESD protection performance and a high latch-up immunity. Since the CPS implant technique does not change avalanche breakdown voltage, this methodology does not reduce available operation voltage and is applicable regardless of the operation voltage.

  8. PWM control techniques for rectifier filter minimization

    SciTech Connect

    Ziogas, P.D.; Kang, Y-G; Stefanovic, V.R.

    1985-09-01

    Minimization of input/output filters is an essential step towards manufacturing compact low-cost static power supplies. Three PWM control techniques that yield substantial filter size reduction for three-phase (self-commutated) rectifiers are presented and analyzed. Filters required by typical line-commutated rectifiers are used as the basis for comparison. Moreover, it is shown that in addition to filter minimization two of the proposed three control techniques improve substantially the rectifier total input power factor.

  9. Silicon Carbide High-Temperature Power Rectifiers Fabricated and Characterized

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The High Temperature Integrated Electronics and Sensors (HTIES) team at the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing silicon carbide (SiC) for use in harsh conditions where silicon, the semiconductor used in nearly all of today's electronics, cannot function. Silicon carbide's demonstrated ability to function under extreme high-temperature, high power, and/or high-radiation conditions will enable significant improvements to a far ranging variety of applications and systems. These improvements range from improved high-voltage switching for energy savings in public electric power distribution and electric vehicles, to more powerful microwave electronics for radar and cellular communications, to sensors and controls for cleaner-burning, more fuel-efficient jet aircraft and automobile engines. In the case of jet engines, uncooled operation of 300 to 600 C SiC power actuator electronics mounted in key high-temperature areas would greatly enhance system performance and reliability. Because silicon cannot function at these elevated temperatures, the semiconductor device circuit components must be made of SiC. Lewis' HTIES group recently fabricated and characterized high-temperature SiC rectifier diodes whose record-breaking characteristics represent significant progress toward the realization of advanced high-temperature actuator control circuits. The first figure illustrates the 600 C probe-testing of a Lewis SiC pn-junction rectifier diode sitting on top of a glowing red-hot heating element. The second figure shows the current-versus voltage rectifying characteristics recorded at 600 C. At this high temperature, the diodes were able to "turn-on" to conduct 4 A of current when forward biased, and yet block the flow of current ($quot;turn-off") when reverse biases as high as 150 V were applied. This device represents a new record for semiconductor device operation, in that no previous semiconductor electronic device has ever simultaneously demonstrated 600 C functionality, and 4-A turn-on and 150-V rectification. The high operating current was achieved despite severe device size limitations imposed by present-day SiC wafer defect densities. Further substantial increases in device performance can be expected when SiC wafer defect densities decrease as SiC wafer production technology matures.

  10. Controlled rectifier motor vehicle battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, W.

    1983-07-26

    A conventional on-off voltage regulator, responsive to the output voltage of the rectifier of a vehicular battery charging system, operates three circuits each containing a pulse transformer and its driving transistor and other components for controlling the three SCRs that provide the negative side of the rectifier bridge, so that they will either pass entire halfwaves or block completely. The other three rectifier elements of the bridge are ordinary diodes. With this arrangement the SCRs may have the same rating as the other diodes of the bridge, and the thermal load is evenly distributed, while an alternator having a permanent magnet field can be used.

  11. An Inductorless Self-Controlled Rectifier for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shaohua; Boussaid, Farid

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a high-efficiency inductorless self-controlled rectifier for piezoelectric energy harvesting. High efficiency is achieved by discharging the piezoelectric device (PD) capacitance each time the current produced by the PD changes polarity. This is achieved automatically without the use of delay lines, thereby making the proposed circuit compatible with any type of PD. In addition, the proposed rectifier alleviates the need for an inductor, making it suitable for on-chip integration. Reported experimental results show that the proposed rectifier can harvest up to 3.9 times more energy than a full wave bridge rectifier. PMID:26610492

  12. An Inductorless Self-Controlled Rectifier for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaohua; Boussaid, Farid

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a high-efficiency inductorless self-controlled rectifier for piezoelectric energy harvesting. High efficiency is achieved by discharging the piezoelectric device (PD) capacitance each time the current produced by the PD changes polarity. This is achieved automatically without the use of delay lines, thereby making the proposed circuit compatible with any type of PD. In addition, the proposed rectifier alleviates the need for an inductor, making it suitable for on-chip integration. Reported experimental results show that the proposed rectifier can harvest up to 3.9 times more energy than a full wave bridge rectifier. PMID:26610492

  13. Modelling a single phase voltage controlled rectifier using Laplace transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

    1992-01-01

    The development of a 20 kHz, AC power system by NASA for large space projects has spurred a need to develop models for the equipment which will be used on these single phase systems. To date, models for the AC source (i.e., inverters) have been developed. It is the intent of this paper to develop a method to model the single phase voltage controlled rectifiers which will be attached to the AC power grid as an interface for connected loads. A modified version of EPRI's HARMFLO program is used as the shell for these models. The results obtained from the model developed in this paper are quite adequate for the analysis of problems such as voltage resonance. The unique technique presented in this paper uses the Laplace transforms to determine the harmonic content of the load current of the rectifier rather than a curve fitting technique. Laplace transforms yield the coefficient of the differential equations which model the line current to the rectifier directly.

  14. A New Control Strategy of Three Phase Voltage Source PWM Rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiuhe; Yin, Hongren; Xu, Shengsheng

    In order to improve the properties of three phase voltage source PWM rectifiers, this paper proposes a new control strategy based on port-controlled Hamiltonian with dissipation (PCHD) model and Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity Based Control (IDA-PBC). Compared with other strategies, the rectifier has more dynamic and static performances by using the new strategy. Because of utilizing IDA-PBC to design passivity based controller, the stable state performance and robustness against the load's disturbance of PWM rectifiers are both improved. The results of simulation show feasibility of this new strategy.

  15. Advanced Control Strategy for Single-Phase Voltage-Source Active Rectifier with Low Harmonic Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blahnk, Vojt?ch; Peroutka, Zden?k; Talla, Jakub

    2014-03-01

    This paper introduces the advanced control of single-phase voltage-source active rectifier. This control provide direct control of trolley-wire current and active damping of low-frequency disturbances at the converter ac side. Our proposed control strategy combines PR controller with feed-forward model and low-frequency harmonic compensator based on resonant controllers. Achieved experimental results show excellent converter behavior, where converter is fed by strongly distorted supply voltage.

  16. WASTE MINIMIZATION ASSESSMENT FOR A MANUFACTURER OF SILICON-CONTROLLED RECTIFIERS AND SCHOTTKY RECTIFIERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has funded a pilot project to assist small- and medium-size manufacturers who want to minimize their generation of waste but who lack the expertise to do so. In an effort to assist these manufacturers Waste Minimization Assessment Ce...

  17. Nanoscale spin rectifiers controlled by the Stark effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossella, Francesco; Bertoni, Andrea; Ercolani, Daniele; Rontani, Massimo; Sorba, Lucia; Beltram, Fabio; Roddaro, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    The control of orbitals and spin states of single electrons is a key ingredient for quantum information processing and novel detection schemes and is, more generally, of great relevance for spintronics. Coulomb and spin blockade in double quantum dots enable advanced single-spin operations that would be available even for room-temperature applications with sufficiently small devices. To date, however, spin operations in double quantum dots have typically been observed at sub-kelvin temperatures, a key reason being that it is very challenging to scale a double quantum dot system while retaining independent field-effect control of individual dots. Here, we show that the quantum-confined Stark effect allows two dots only 5?nm apart to be independently addressed without the requirement for aligned nanometre-sized local gating. We thus demonstrate a scalable method to fully control a double quantum dot device, regardless of its physical size. In the present implementation we present InAs/InP nanowire double quantum dots that display an experimentally detectable spin blockade up to 10?K. We also report and discuss an unexpected re-entrant spin blockade lifting as a function of the magnetic field intensity.

  18. Nanoscale spin rectifiers controlled by the Stark effect.

    PubMed

    Rossella, Francesco; Bertoni, Andrea; Ercolani, Daniele; Rontani, Massimo; Sorba, Lucia; Beltram, Fabio; Roddaro, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    The control of orbitals and spin states of single electrons is a key ingredient for quantum information processing and novel detection schemes and is, more generally, of great relevance for spintronics. Coulomb and spin blockade in double quantum dots enable advanced single-spin operations that would be available even for room-temperature applications with sufficiently small devices. To date, however, spin operations in double quantum dots have typically been observed at sub-kelvin temperatures, a key reason being that it is very challenging to scale a double quantum dot system while retaining independent field-effect control of individual dots. Here, we show that the quantum-confined Stark effect allows two dots only 5?nm apart to be independently addressed without the requirement for aligned nanometre-sized local gating. We thus demonstrate a scalable method to fully control a double quantum dot device, regardless of its physical size. In the present implementation we present InAs/InP nanowire double quantum dots that display an experimentally detectable spin blockade up to 10?K. We also report and discuss an unexpected re-entrant spin blockade lifting as a function of the magnetic field intensity. PMID:25383514

  19. High-performance digital triggering system for phase-controlled rectifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The larger power supplies used to power accelerator magnets are most commonly polyphase rectifiers using phase control. While this method is capable of handling impressive amounts of power, it suffers from one serious disadvantage, namely that of subharmonic ripple. Since the stability of the stored beam depends to a considerable extent on the regulation of the current in the bending magnets, subharmonic ripple, especially that of low frequency, can have a detrimental effect. At the NSLS, we have constructed a 12-pulse, phase control system using digital signal processing techniques that essentially eliminates subharmonic ripple.

  20. An Integrated Power-Efficient Active Rectifier With Offset-Controlled High Speed Comparators for Inductively Powered Applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    We present an active full-wave rectifier with offset-controlled high speed comparators in standard CMOS that provides high power conversion efficiency (PCE) in high frequency (HF) range for inductively powered devices. This rectifier provides much lower dropout voltage and far better PCE compared to the passive on-chip or off-chip rectifiers. The built-in offset-control functions in the comparators compensate for both turn-on and turn-off delays in the main rectifying switches, thus maximizing the forward current delivered to the load and minimizing the back current to improve the PCE. We have fabricated this active rectifier in a 0.5-?m 3M2P standard CMOS process, occupying 0.18 mm(2) of chip area. With 3.8 V peak ac input at 13.56 MHz, the rectifier provides 3.12 V dc output to a 500 ? load, resulting in the PCE of 80.2%, which is the highest measured at this frequency. In addition, overvoltage protection (OVP) as safety measure and built-in back telemetry capabilities have been incorporated in our design using detuning and load shift keying (LSK) techniques, respectively, and tested. PMID:22174666

  1. An Integrated Power-Efficient Active Rectifier With Offset-Controlled High Speed Comparators for Inductively Powered Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    We present an active full-wave rectifier with offset-controlled high speed comparators in standard CMOS that provides high power conversion efficiency (PCE) in high frequency (HF) range for inductively powered devices. This rectifier provides much lower dropout voltage and far better PCE compared to the passive on-chip or off-chip rectifiers. The built-in offset-control functions in the comparators compensate for both turn-on and turn-off delays in the main rectifying switches, thus maximizing the forward current delivered to the load and minimizing the back current to improve the PCE. We have fabricated this active rectifier in a 0.5-μm 3M2P standard CMOS process, occupying 0.18 mm2 of chip area. With 3.8 V peak ac input at 13.56 MHz, the rectifier provides 3.12 V dc output to a 500 Ω load, resulting in the PCE of 80.2%, which is the highest measured at this frequency. In addition, overvoltage protection (OVP) as safety measure and built-in back telemetry capabilities have been incorporated in our design using detuning and load shift keying (LSK) techniques, respectively, and tested. PMID:22174666

  2. Nanoscale Spin Seebeck Rectifier: Controlling Thermal Spin Transport across Insulating Magnetic Junctions with Localized Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie; Fransson, Jonas; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2014-06-01

    The spin Seebeck effect is studied across a charge insulating magnetic junction, in which thermal-spin conjugate transport is assisted by the exchange interactions between the localized spin in the center and electrons in metallic leads. We show that, in contrast with bulk spin Seebeck effect, the figure of merit of such nanoscale thermal-spin conversion can be infinite, leading to the ideal Carnot efficiency in the linear response regime. We also find that in the nonlinear spin Seebeck transport regime the device possesses the asymmetric and negative differential spin Seebeck effects. In the last, the situations with leaking electron tunneling are also discussed. This nanoscale thermal spin rectifier, by tuning the junction parameters, can act as a spin Seebeck diode, spin Seebeck transistor, and spin Seebeck switch, which could have substantial implications for flexible thermal and information control in molecular spin caloritronics.

  3. Combinational logic for generating gate drive signals for phase control rectifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolland, C. R.; Trimble, D. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Control signals for phase-delay rectifiers, which require a variable firing angle that ranges from 0 deg to 180 deg, are derived from line-to-line 3-phase signals and both positive and negative firing angle control signals which are generated by comparing current command and actual current. Line-to-line phases are transformed into line-to-neutral phases and integrated to produce 90 deg phase delayed signals that are inverted to produce three cosine signals, such that for each its maximum occurs at the intersection of positive half cycles of the other two phases which are inputs to other inverters. At the same time, both positive and negative (inverted) phase sync signals are generated for each phase by comparing each with the next and producing a square wave when it is greater. Ramp, sync and firing angle controls signals are than used in combinational logic to generate the gate firing control signals SCR gate drives which fire SCR devices in a bridge circuit.

  4. Controllable step motors and rectifiers of magnetic flux quanta using periodic arrays of asymmetric pinning defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B. Y.; Marchesoni, F.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Nori, Franco

    2003-07-01

    We study the transport of vortices in superconductors with regular arrays of asymmetric pinning wells when applying an alternating electrical current. The asymmetric traps are modelled by the superposition of two interpenetrating square lattices of weak and strong pinning centers with separation smaller than the lattice constant. We show that this system can induce a net rectifying or diode effect for the vortex motion, including collective step-motor-type dynamics, where many vortices move forward a controlled and exact number of pin-lattice spacings at each cycle of the ac driving force. This system exhibits a remarkable net dc response with striking sawtooth-type oscillations. The net dc voltage response Vdc of the ac-driven vortices versus both the half period P and the amplitude FL of the square wave ac drive has been detailed in the present work. The influence of the equilibrium thermal noise, the shift between the two pinning sublattices, the degree of translational and orientational disorder, and the size of the simulation system on the Vdc response of the vortex motion at ac drive has also been addressed. Devil staircase and Arnolds tongue structures are revealed. We also analytically derive all the key features of our numerical results. This system provides a very controllable stepmotor for the control of collective motion. Our results apply mutatis mutandis to arrays of Josephson junctions, colloidal systems with optical traps, Wigner crystals, and any system with repelling movable objects that can be pinned by a lattice of traps.

  5. Protein assemblies of sodium and inward rectifier potassium channels control cardiac excitability and arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Willis, B Cicero; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; Jalife, Jos

    2015-06-15

    The understanding of how cardiac ion channels function in the normal and the diseased heart has greatly increased over the last four decades thanks to the advent of patch-clamp technology and, more recently, the emergence of genetics, as well as cellular and molecular cardiology. However, our knowledge of how these membrane-embedded proteins physically interact with each other within macromolecular complexes remains incomplete. This review focuses on how the main cardiac inward sodium channel (NaV1.5) and the strong inward rectifier potassium channel (Kir2.1) function within macromolecular complexes to control cardiac excitability. It has become increasingly clear that these two important ion channel proteins physically interact with multiple other protein partners and with each other from early stages of protein trafficking and targeting through membrane anchoring, recycling, and degradation. Recent findings include compartmentalized regulation of NaV1.5 channel expression and function through a PDZ (postsynaptic density protein, Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor, and zonula occludens-1 protein) domain-binding motif, and interaction of caveolin-3 with Kir2.1 and ankyrin-G as a molecular platform for NaV1.5 signaling. At the cardiomyocyte membrane, NaV1.5 and Kir2.1 interact through at least two distinct PDZ domain-scaffolding proteins (synapse-associated protein-97 and ?1-syntrophin), thus modulating reciprocally their cell-surface expression at two different microdomains. Emerging evidence also shows that inheritable mutations in plakophilin-2, ankyrin-G, dystrophin, syntrophin, synapse-associated protein-97, and caveolin-3, among others, modify functional expression and/or localization in the cardiac cell of NaV1.5, Kir2.1 or both to give rise to arrhythmogenic diseases. Unveiling the mechanistic underpinnings of macromolecular interactions should increase our understanding of inherited and acquired arrhythmogenic cardiac diseases and may lead to advances in therapy. PMID:25862830

  6. Transformer-rectifier flux pump using inductive current transfer and thermally controlled Nb(3)Sn cryotrons.

    PubMed

    Atherton, D L; Davies, R

    1979-10-01

    Transformer-rectifier flux pumps using thermally switched Nb(3)Sn cryotrons are being investigated as a loss make-up device for the proposed isochorically operated (sealed) superconducting magnets for the Canadian Maglev vehicle. High currents (1000 A) were obtained in an experimental flux pump using inductive current transfer and operating at 2 Hz. PMID:18699368

  7. Co-Design Method and Wafer-Level Packaging Technique of Thin-Film Flexible Antenna and Silicon CMOS Rectifier Chips for Wireless-Powered Neural Interface Systems.

    PubMed

    Okabe, Kenji; Jeewan, Horagodage Prabhath; Yamagiwa, Shota; Kawano, Takeshi; Ishida, Makoto; Akita, Ippei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a co-design method and a wafer-level packaging technique of a flexible antenna and a CMOS rectifier chip for use in a small-sized implantable system on the brain surface are proposed. The proposed co-design method optimizes the system architecture, and can help avoid the use of external matching components, resulting in the realization of a small-size system. In addition, the technique employed to assemble a silicon large-scale integration (LSI) chip on the very thin parylene film (5 μm) enables the integration of the rectifier circuits and the flexible antenna (rectenna). In the demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT), the fabricated flexible rectenna achieved a maximum efficiency of 0.497% with a distance of 3 cm between antennas. In addition, WPT with radio waves allows a misalignment of 185% against antenna size, implying that the misalignment has a less effect on the WPT characteristics compared with electromagnetic induction. PMID:26694407

  8. Co-Design Method and Wafer-Level Packaging Technique of Thin-Film Flexible Antenna and Silicon CMOS Rectifier Chips for Wireless-Powered Neural Interface Systems

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Kenji; Jeewan, Horagodage Prabhath; Yamagiwa, Shota; Kawano, Takeshi; Ishida, Makoto; Akita, Ippei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a co-design method and a wafer-level packaging technique of a flexible antenna and a CMOS rectifier chip for use in a small-sized implantable system on the brain surface are proposed. The proposed co-design method optimizes the system architecture, and can help avoid the use of external matching components, resulting in the realization of a small-size system. In addition, the technique employed to assemble a silicon large-scale integration (LSI) chip on the very thin parylene film (5 μm) enables the integration of the rectifier circuits and the flexible antenna (rectenna). In the demonstration of wireless power transmission (WPT), the fabricated flexible rectenna achieved a maximum efficiency of 0.497% with a distance of 3 cm between antennas. In addition, WPT with radio waves allows a misalignment of 185% against antenna size, implying that the misalignment has a less effect on the WPT characteristics compared with electromagnetic induction. PMID:26694407

  9. Rectifier cabinet static breaker

    DOEpatents

    Costantino, Jr, Roger A.; Gliebe, Ronald J.

    1992-09-01

    A rectifier cabinet static breaker replaces a blocking diode pair with an SCR and the installation of a power transistor in parallel with the latch contactor to commutate the SCR to the off state. The SCR serves as a static breaker with fast turnoff capability providing an alternative way of achieving reactor scram in addition to performing the function of the replaced blocking diodes. The control circuitry for the rectifier cabinet static breaker includes on-line test capability and an LED indicator light to denote successful test completion. Current limit circuitry provides high-speed protection in the event of overload.

  10. Improved power regenerative controls by using thyristor rectifier bridge of voltage source inverter and a switching transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Matsui, K. ); Mizuno, U.; Murai, Y. )

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, a few improved techniques of regenerative control for the voltage source inverter are described. In the proposed equipment, the thyristor rectifier bridge can be also utilized for regeneration through a dc reactor or capacitor. For the firs t converter mentioned, a novel PWM strategy is proposed in which the polarity of the sawtooth carrier waveforms is reversed alternately at every 60[degrees] interval of the fundamental frequency to reduce the harmonics in quantity. For the next proposed type, a modified Cuk converter method is described for regeneration, whose output current becomes a perfectly zero ripple. The third purpose is to propose a novel frequency analysis method using the switching function. The validity of its theory is confirmed experimentally.

  11. Rectifying behavior in Coulomb blockades: charging rectifiers.

    PubMed

    Stopa, M

    2002-04-01

    We introduce examples of tunneling and diffusive, Coulomb-regulated rectifiers based on the Coulomb blockade formalism in discrete and continuum systems, respectively. Nonlinearity of the interacting dynamics profoundly enhances the inherent asymmetry of the devices by reducing the Hilbert space of accessible states. The discrete charging rectifier is structurally similar to hybrid molecular electronic rectifiers, while the continuum-charging rectifier is based on a model of ionic flow through a pore (ion channel) with an artificial branch. The devices are formally related to ratchet systems with spatial periodicity replaced by a winding number: the current. PMID:11955166

  12. A Novel Controllable Hybrid-Anode AlGaN/GaN Field-Effect Rectifier with Low Operation Voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Chen, Wan-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Li, Zhao-Ji

    2012-10-01

    A novel controllable hybrid-anode AlGaN/GaN field-effect rectifier (HA-FER) with low operation voltage (LOV) is proposed. Its mechanism can be explained by the field-controlled energy band model. This model reveals that the electric field in the AlGaN layer alters the energy band to result in a variation of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at AlGaN/GaN interface; the field can be changed by the thickness d of the AlGaN layer and the applied bias. As the d reduces below the critical thickness, the 2DEG vanishes and then the channel is pinched of. Therefore, the threshold voltage of HA-FER can be designed as low as 0 V leading to LOV (< 1 V). The analytical characteristic of the HA-FER is calculated and validated by the simulated results. These results also demonstrate that the forward properties of HA-FER are superior to the conventional SBD due to the high Schottky barrier.

  13. A transparent cell-culture microchamber with a variably controlled concentration gradient generator and flow field rectifier

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ji-Yen; Yen, Meng-Hua; Kuo, Ching-Te; Young, Tai-Horng

    2008-01-01

    Real-time observation of cell growth provides essential information for studies such as cell migration and chemotaxis. A conventional cell incubation device is usually too clumsy for these applications. Here we report a transparent microfluidic device that has an integrated heater and a concentration gradient generator. A piece of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass was ablated by our newly developed visible laser-induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) so that transparent heater strips were prepared on the glass substrate. A polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic chamber with flow field rectifiers and a reagent effusion hole was fabricated by a CO2 laser and then assembled with the ITO heater so that the chamber temperature can be controlled for cell culturing. A variable chemical gradient was generated inside the chamber by combining the lateral medium flow and the flow from the effusion hole. Successful culturing was performed inside the device. Continuous long-term (>10 days) observation on cell growth was achieved. In this work the flow field, medium replacement, and chemical gradient in the microchamber are elaborated. PMID:19693408

  14. Silicon controlled rectifier polyphase bridge inverter commutated with gate-turn-off thyristor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dean B. (Inventor); Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A polyphase SCR inverter (10) having N switching poles, each comprised of two SCR switches (1A, 1B; 2A, 2B . . . NA, NB) and two diodes (D1B; D1B; D2A, D2B . . . DNA, DNB) in series opposition with saturable reactors (L1A, L1B; L2A, L2B . . . LNA, LNB) connecting the junctions between the SCR switches and diodes to an output terminal (1, 2 . . . 3) is commutated with only one GTO thyristor (16) connected between the common negative terminal of a dc source and a tap of a series inductor (14) connected to the positive terminal of the dc source. A clamp winding (22) and diode (24) are provided, as is a snubber (18) which may have its capacitance (c) sized for maximum load current divided into a plurality of capacitors (C.sub.1, C.sub.2 . . . C.sub.N), each in series with an SCR switch S.sub.1, S.sub.2 . . . S.sub.N). The total capacitance may be selected by activating selected switches as a function of load current. A resistor 28 and SCR switch 26 shunt reverse current when the load acts as a generator, such as a motor while braking.

  15. Silicon-controlled-rectifier square-wave inverter with protection against commutation failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.

    1971-01-01

    The square-wave SCR inverter that was designed, built, and tested includes a circuit to turn off the inverter in case of commutation failure. The basic power stage is a complementary impulse-commutated parallel inverter consisting of only six components. The 400-watt breadboard was tested while operating at + or - 28 volts, and it had a peak efficiency of 95.5 percent at 60 hertz and 91.7 percent at 400 hertz. The voltage regulation for a fixed input was 3 percent at 60 hertz. An analysis of the operation and design information is included.

  16. The inwardly rectifying K+ channel KIR7.1 controls uterine excitability throughout pregnancy.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Conor; Rada, Cara; Bailey, Elizabeth; McCavera, Samantha; van den Berg, Hugo A; Atia, Jolene; Rand, David A; Shmygol, Anatoly; Chan, Yi-Wah; Quenby, Siobhan; Brosens, Jan J; Vatish, Manu; Zhang, Jie; Denton, Jerod S; Taggart, Michael J; Kettleborough, Catherine; Tickle, David; Jerman, Jeff; Wright, Paul; Dale, Timothy; Kanumilli, Srinivasan; Trezise, Derek J; Thornton, Steve; Brown, Pamela; Catalano, Roberto; Lin, Nan; England, Sarah K; Blanks, Andrew M

    2014-09-01

    Abnormal uterine activity in pregnancy causes a range of important clinical disorders, including preterm birth, dysfunctional labour and post-partum haemorrhage. Uterine contractile patterns are controlled by the generation of complex electrical signals at the myometrial smooth muscle plasma membrane. To identify novel targets to treat conditions associated with uterine dysfunction, we undertook a genome-wide screen of potassium channels that are enriched in myometrial smooth muscle. Computational modelling identified Kir7.1 as potentially important in regulating uterine excitability during pregnancy. We demonstrate Kir7.1 current hyper-polarizes uterine myocytes and promotes quiescence during gestation. Labour is associated with a decline, but not loss, of Kir7.1 expression. Knockdown of Kir7.1 by lentiviral expression of miRNA was sufficient to increase uterine contractile force and duration significantly. Conversely, overexpression of Kir7.1 inhibited uterine contractility. Finally, we demonstrate that the Kir7.1 inhibitor VU590 as well as novel derivative compounds induces profound, long-lasting contractions in mouse and human myometrium; the activity of these inhibitors exceeds that of other uterotonic drugs. We conclude Kir7.1 regulates the transition from quiescence to contractions in the pregnant uterus and may be a target for therapies to control uterine contractility. PMID:25056913

  17. Substituting transistor for diode improves rectifying means

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muller, R. M.

    1966-01-01

    Unusual transistor connection that substitutes for a silicon diode and allows significantly higher repetition rates without increasing power loss rectifies an alternating current. Operation speed is improved by a factor of 10 or more when a given diode is replaced by this transistor circuit.

  18. Noise Properties of Rectifying Nanopores

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, M R; Sa, N; Davenport, M; Healy, K; Vlassiouk, I; Letant, S E; Baker, L A; Siwy, Z S

    2011-02-18

    Ion currents through three types of rectifying nanoporous structures are studied and compared for the first time: conically shaped polymer nanopores, glass nanopipettes, and silicon nitride nanopores. Time signals of ion currents are analyzed by power spectrum. We focus on the low-frequency range where the power spectrum magnitude scales with frequency, f, as 1/f. Glass nanopipettes and polymer nanopores exhibit non-equilibrium 1/f noise, thus the normalized power spectrum depends on the voltage polarity and magnitude. In contrast, 1/f noise in rectifying silicon nitride nanopores is of equilibrium character. Various mechanisms underlying the voltage-dependent 1/f noise are explored and discussed, including intrinsic pore wall dynamics, and formation of vortices and non-linear flow patterns in the pore. Experimental data are supported by modeling of ion currents based on the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier Stokes equations. We conclude that the voltage-dependent 1/f noise observed in polymer and glass asymmetric nanopores might result from high and asymmetric electric fields inducing secondary effects in the pore such as enhanced water dissociation.

  19. Noise Properties of Rectifying Nanopore

    SciTech Connect

    Vlassiouk, Ivan V

    2011-01-01

    Ion currents through three types of rectifying nanoporous structures are studied and compared: conically shaped polymer nanopores, glass nanopipettes, and silicon nitride nanopores. Time signals of ion currents are analyzed by the power spectrum. We focus on the low-frequency range where the power spectrum magnitude scales with frequency, f, as 1/f. Glass nanopipettes and polymer nanopores exhibit nonequilibrium 1/f noise; thus, the normalized power spectrum depends on the voltage polarity and magnitude. In contrast, 1/f noise in rectifying silicon nitride nanopores is of equilibrium character. Various mechanisms underlying the voltage-dependent 1/f noise are explored and discussed, including intrinsic pore wall dynamics and formation of vortices and nonlinear flow patterns in the pore. Experimental data are supported by modeling of ion currents based on the coupled Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations. We conclude that the voltage-dependent 1/f noise observed in polymer and glass asymmetric nanopores might result from high and asymmetric electric fields, inducing secondary effects in the pore, such as enhanced water dissociation.

  20. Silicon Sheet Quality is Improved By Meniscus Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, D. A.; Hatch, A. E.; Goldsmith, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Better quality silicon crystals for solar cells are possible with instrument that monitors position of meniscus as sheet of solid silicon is drawn from melt. Using information on meniscus height, instrument generates feedback signal to control melt temperature. Automatic control ensures more uniform silicon sheets.

  1. Control of silicon nanoparticle size embedded in silicon oxynitride dielectric matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrhardt, F.; Ferblantier, G.; Muller, D.; Slaoui, A.; Ulhaq-Bouillet, C.; Rinnert, H.

    2013-07-21

    In this study, silicon rich silicon oxynitride layers containing more than 15% nitrogen were deposited by electron cyclotron resonance assisted plasma enhanced vapor deposition in order to form silicon nanoparticles after a high temperature thermal annealing. The effect of the flows of the precursor gases on the composition and the structural properties of the layers was assessed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, and infrared spectroscopic measurements. The morphological and crystallinity properties were investigated by energy filtered transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. We show that the excess of silicon in the silicon oxynitride layer controls the silicon nanoparticles size. On the other hand, the crystalline fraction of particles is found to be strongly correlated to the nanoparticle size. Finally, the photoluminescence measurements show that it is also possible to tune the photoluminescence peak position between 400 and 800 nm and its intensity by changing the silicon excess in the silicon rich silicon oxynitride matrix.

  2. Curvature Control of Silicon Microlens for THz Dielectric Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Cooper, Ken; Mehdi, Imran

    2012-01-01

    We have controlled the curvature of silicon microlens by changing the amount of photoresist in order to microfabricate hemispherical silicon microlens which can improve the directivity and reduce substrate mode losses.

  3. Optically controlled quadrature coupler on silicon substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhadauria, Avanish; Sharma, Sonia; Sonania, Shikha; Akhtar, Jamil

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we have proposed and studied an optically controlled quadrature coupler fabricated on silicon substrate. The optically controlled quadrature coupler can be realized by terminating its coupled or through ports by optically induced load. Simulation and experimental results show that by varying optical intensity, we can control the phase and amplitude of output RF signal and can realize optically controlled reflection type attenuator, reflection type phase-shifter and ultrafast switches. The new kind of proposed device can be useful for ultra-fast signal processing and modulation schemes in high speed communication especially in QPSK modulation. The optical control has several advantages over conventional techniques such as MEMS and other semiconductor switching, which have several inherent disadvantages and limitations like low response time, low power handling capacity, device parasitic and non-linearity.

  4. Solid state circuit controls direction, speed, and braking of dc motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanna, M. F.

    1966-01-01

    Full-wave bridge rectifier circuit controls the direction, speed, and braking of a dc motor. Gating in the circuit of Silicon Controlled Rectifiers /SCRS/ controls output polarity and braking is provided by an SCR that is gated to short circuit the reverse voltage generated by reversal of motor rotation.

  5. Artificial neural networks for control of a grid-connected rectifier/inverter under disturbance, dynamic and power converter switching conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuhui; Fairbank, Michael; Johnson, Cameron; Wunsch, Donald C; Alonso, Eduardo; Proaño, Julio L

    2014-04-01

    Three-phase grid-connected converters are widely used in renewable and electric power system applications. Traditionally, grid-connected converters are controlled with standard decoupled d-q vector control mechanisms. However, recent studies indicate that such mechanisms show limitations in their applicability to dynamic systems. This paper investigates how to mitigate such restrictions using a neural network to control a grid-connected rectifier/inverter. The neural network implements a dynamic programming algorithm and is trained by using back-propagation through time. To enhance performance and stability under disturbance, additional strategies are adopted, including the use of integrals of error signals to the network inputs and the introduction of grid disturbance voltage to the outputs of a well-trained network. The performance of the neural-network controller is studied under typical vector control conditions and compared against conventional vector control methods, which demonstrates that the neural vector control strategy proposed in this paper is effective. Even in dynamic and power converter switching environments, the neural vector controller shows strong ability to trace rapidly changing reference commands, tolerate system disturbances, and satisfy control requirements for a faulted power system. PMID:24807951

  6. Current Control Method to Achieve Wide-Range Power Driving for Linear Synchronous Motor with Half-Wave-Rectified Self-Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi

    In a previous paper, we proposed a novel linear synchronous motor with half-wave-rectified self-excitation. The long-stator-type linear synchronous motor was built, and its performance was verified by performing experiments. This paper presents a new current control method for the linear synchronous motor for achieving a wide range of speeds and high-power operations. First, we propose the current control method for high-thrust operation in the constant-thrust region. This operation is realized by using a reluctance thrust resulting from the saliency of the linear synchronous motor. Furthermore, we propose a control method that maximizes the ratio of the thrust to the voltage; this method can be used to expand the operating range. Wide-range-speed operation can be achieved by applying this new control method along with field-weakening control. The thrust and operation characteristics of the proposed control methods are estimated by performing experiments and an electric and magnetic coupled analysis.

  7. What controls silicon isotope fractionation during dissolution of diatom opal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetzel, F.; de Souza, G. F.; Reynolds, B. C.

    2014-04-01

    The silicon isotope composition of opal frustules from photosynthesising diatoms is a promising tool for studying past changes in the marine silicon cycle, and indirectly that of carbon. Dissolution of this opal may be accompanied by silicon isotope fractionation that could disturb the pristine silicon isotope composition of diatom opal acquired in the surface ocean. It has previously been shown that dissolution of fresh and sediment trap diatom opal in seawater does fractionate silicon isotopes. However, as the mechanism of silicon isotope fractionation remained elusive, it is uncertain whether opal dissolution in general is associated with silicon isotope fractionation considering that opal chemistry and surface properties are spatially and temporally (i.e. opal of different age) diverse. In this study we dissolved sediment core diatom opal in 5 mM NaOH and found that this process is not associated with significant silicon isotope fractionation. Since no variability of the isotope effect was observed over a wide range of dissolution rates, we can rule out the suggestion that back-reactions had a significant influence on the net isotope effect. Similarly, we did not observe an impact of temperature, specific surface area, or degree of undersaturation on silicon isotope partitioning during dissolution, such that these can most likely also be ruled out as controlling factors. We discuss the potential impacts of the chemical composition of the dissolution medium and age of diatom opal on silicon isotope fractionation during dissolution. It appears most likely that the controlling mechanism of silicon isotope fractionation during dissolution is related to the reactivity, or potentially, aluminium content of the opal. Such a dependency would imply that silicon isotope fractionation during dissolution of diatom opal is spatially and temporally variable. However, since the isotope effects during dissolution are small, the silicon isotope composition of diatom opal appears to be robust against dissolution in the deep sea sedimentary environment.

  8. Features of Controlled Laser Thermal Cleavage of Crystalline Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Serdyukov, A. N. Shalupaev, S. V.; Nikityuk, Yu. V.

    2010-11-15

    Controlled laser thermal cleavage of crystalline silicon has been numerically simulated. A 3D analysis of the thermoelastic fields formed in a single-crystal silicon wafer as a result of successive laser heating and exposure to a coolant was performed for three different versions of anisotropy. The simulation was performed for laser irradiation with different wavelengths: 1.06 and 0.808 {mu}m. The calculation results have been experimentally verified using a YAG laser. The results can be used in the electronics industry to optimize the precise separation of silicon wafers into crystals.

  9. Synchronous Half-Wave Rectifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1989-01-01

    Synchronous rectifying circuit behaves like diode having unusually low voltage drop during forward-voltage half cycles. Circuit particularly useful in power supplies with potentials of 5 Vdc or less, where normal forward-voltage drops in ordinary diodes unacceptably large. Fabricated as monolithic assembly or as hybrid. Synchronous half-wave rectifier includes active circuits to attain low forward voltage drop and high rectification efficiency.

  10. A simple method to control nanotribology behaviors of monocrystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. D.; Guo, J.; Chen, C.; Chen, L.; Qian, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    A simple method was proposed to control the nanotribology behaviors of monocrystalline silicon against SiO2 microsphere by adjusting relative humidity (RH). Experimental results indicated that adhesion work, friction coefficient, and nanowear of silicon against SiO2 microsphere significantly varied between 60% and 90% RH. Under 60% RH, adhesion work was 119 mN/m, and friction coefficient was about 0.53. However, adhesion work and friction coefficient decreased to ˜70 mN/m and ˜0.3 under 90% RH, respectively. An apparent wear track ˜13 nm deep formed on the silicon surface under 60% RH, whereas no obvious wear scar was observed on the silicon surface under 90% RH. Analysis indicated that such tribological behaviors were due to different water condensations on the silicon surface under 60% and 90% RH. Under 60% RH, the water that condensed on the surfaces of the silicon sample and SiO2 tip mainly consisted of ice-like water. As a result, adhesion work was enlarged by the breaking force of the ice-like water bridge in the contact area. Given that a ≡Si-O-Si≡ bonding bridge easily formed between the silicon surface and the SiO2 tip with the help of water condensation under 60% RH instead of 90% RH, the friction coefficient was large and the nanowear of the silicon sample was severe under 60% RH. These results may help elucidate the nanotribology behaviors of silicon and facilitate the tribological design of dynamic microelectromechanical systems working under humid conditions.

  11. Elastomeric microfluidic diode and rectifier work with Newtonian fluids

    PubMed Central

    Liu, John; Chen, Yan; Taylor, Clive R.; Scherer, Axel; Kartalov, Emil P.

    2009-01-01

    We report on two microfluidic elastomeric autoregulatory devicesa diode and a rectifier. They exhibit physically interesting and complex nonlinear behaviors (saturation, bias-dependent resistance, and rectification) with a Newtonian fluid. Due to their autoregulatory properties, they operate without active external control. As a result, they enable increased microfluidic device density and overall system miniaturization. The demonstrated diode and rectifier would also be useful components in future microfluidic logic circuitry. PMID:20057932

  12. Controlled Deposition of Nanocrystal Quantum Dots on Silicon Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, Oliver; Nguyen, Hue M.; Aureau, Damien; Sra, Amandeep; Malko, Anton V.; Chabal, Yves J.

    2011-03-01

    Studying Forster resonant energy transfer (FRET) has constantly been a challenge because of the poor control in transferring nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs) onto various substrates. This lack of control often resulted in formation of aggregates (3D growth), inhomogeneity, and poor adhesion. In this study, using self assembled monolayers (SAMs), dense monolayer of NQDs have been attached onto silicon substrate, with and without the presence of oxide interlayer, allowing investigating FRET effects via photoluminescence measurements. Such SAMs, directly attached to the silicon, via Si-C bonds, display an interface quality with low interface states. Moreover, the ability to be prepared with tunable thicknesses renders them ideal for FRET investigation. Such hybrid colloidal NQD/Silicon optoelectronic structures could potentially be attractive for both photovoltaic as well as light emitting applications.

  13. Automated system to control the polarization voltage of silicon detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altieri, S.; Fossati, F.; Lanza, A.; Pinelli, T.

    1995-04-01

    A remote controlled system to maintain polarization voltage across a silicon detector within a user defined window is described. The system regulates silicon bias voltage, caused by increased leakage current due to radiation damage, by switching external resistors to maintain a constant voltage drop across the bias load resistor, independent of leakage current. This Z80 microprocessor based system links with the host computer by a RS-232 serial port. The voltage resolution of the system is less than 0.2 V in the worst case.

  14. Treatment to Control Adhesion of Silicone-Based Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Seals are used to facilitate the joining of two items, usually temporarily. At some point in the future, it is expected that the items will need to be separated. This innovation enables control of the adhesive properties of silicone-based elastomers. The innovation may also be effective on elastomers other than the silicone-based ones. A technique has been discovered that decreases the level of adhesion of silicone- based elastomers to negligible levels. The new technique causes less damage to the material compared to alternative adhesion mitigation techniques. Silicone-based elastomers are the only class of rubber-like materials that currently meet NASA s needs for various seal applications. However, silicone-based elastomers have natural inherent adhesive properties. This stickiness can be helpful, but it can frequently cause problems as well, such as when trying to get items apart. In the past, seal adhesion was not always adequately addressed, and has caused in-flight failures where seals were actually pulled from their grooves, preventing subsequent spacecraft docking until the seal was physically removed from the flange via an extravehicular activity (EVA). The primary method used in the past to lower elastomer seal adhesion has been the application of some type of lubricant or grease to the surface of the seal. A newer method uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation a mixture of UV wavelengths in the range of near ultraviolet (NUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths.

  15. Controllable molecular modulation of conductivity in silicon-based devices.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Corley, David A; Lu, Meng; Di Spigna, Neil Halen; He, Jianli; Nackashi, David P; Franzon, Paul D; Tour, James M

    2009-07-29

    The electronic properties of silicon, such as the conductivity, are largely dependent on the density of the mobile charge carriers, which can be tuned by gating and impurity doping. When the device size scales down to the nanoscale, routine doping becomes problematic due to inhomogeneities. Here we report that a molecular monolayer, covalently grafted atop a silicon channel, can play a role similar to gating and impurity doping. Charge transfer occurs between the silicon and the molecules upon grafting, which can influence the surface band bending, and makes the molecules act as donors or acceptors. The partly charged end-groups of the grafted molecular layer may act as a top gate. The doping- and gating-like effects together lead to the observed controllable modulation of conductivity in pseudometal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (pseudo-MOSFETs). The molecular effects can even penetrate through a 4.92-mum thick silicon layer. Our results offer a paradigm for controlling electronic characteristics in nanodevices at the future diminutive technology nodes. PMID:19569647

  16. Series regulated rectifier circuit for a battery charging system

    SciTech Connect

    Kurz, W.; Munz, U.

    1983-05-03

    A conventional on-off voltage regulator operates a set of power mosfet switches interposed between the grounded terminal of the battery and each of the diodes of a bridge rectifier leading to that terminal. Each such switch is controlled through an individual circuit responsive to the regulator output and including an opto-electronic device controlling a thryistor which, in addition to being connected to control the mosfet switch, also has a connection through a resistor and a diode to the other side of the rectifier diode switched by the mosfet. The circuit greatly simplifies voltage regulation of a battery charging system using an alternator with a permanent magnet rotor.

  17. Polarization-Independent Silicon Metadevices for Efficient Optical Wavefront Control.

    PubMed

    Chong, Katie E; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony; Dominguez, Jason; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi S; Luk, Ting S; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2015-08-12

    We experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0-2? phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the lattice spacing as a single geometric control parameter. PMID:26192100

  18. Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chong, Katie E.; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony Randolph; Dominguez, Jason James; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian; Luk, Ting S.; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; et al

    2015-07-20

    In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0–2π phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the latticemore » spacing as a single geometric control parameter.« less

  19. Polarization-independent silicon metadevices for efficient optical wavefront control

    SciTech Connect

    Chong, Katie E.; Staude, Isabelle; James, Anthony Randolph; Dominguez, Jason James; Liu, Sheng; Campione, Salvatore; Subramania, Ganapathi Subramanian; Luk, Ting S.; Decker, Manuel; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Brener, Igal; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2015-07-20

    In this study, we experimentally demonstrate a functional silicon metadevice at telecom wavelengths that can efficiently control the wavefront of optical beams by imprinting a spatially varying transmittance phase independent of the polarization of the incident beam. Near-unity transmittance efficiency and close to 0–2π phase coverage are enabled by utilizing the localized electric and magnetic Mie-type resonances of low-loss silicon nanoparticles tailored to behave as electromagnetically dual-symmetric scatterers. We apply this concept to realize a metadevice that converts a Gaussian beam into a vortex beam. The required spatial distribution of transmittance phases is achieved by a variation of the lattice spacing as a single geometric control parameter.

  20. Controllable nonlinear refraction characteristics in hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, D. Q.; Ye, Q. H.; Shen, W. Z.; Su, W. A.

    2014-02-07

    Nonlinear refraction (NLR) of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) has been investigated through the close aperture Z-scan method. We demonstrate a significant NLR and a unique feature of controllable NLR characteristics between saturable and Kerr NLR with the incident photon energy. We numerically evaluate the proportion of these two mechanisms in different wavelengths by a modified NLR equation. The band tail of nc-Si:H appears to play a crucial role in such NLR responses.

  1. Controlling diffusion of lithium in silicon nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Chan, Tzu-Liang

    2010-03-01

    The ability to control the diffusion of dopants or impurities is a controlling factor in the functionalization of materials used in nano-devices. Here we examine Li in Si nanostructures as atoms with low atomic mass such as Li can be used as a carrier for energy storage with high specific energy capacity. Using real space pseudopotential calculations, we determine how the factors of size and dimensionality can be used to achieve an optimal diffusion of Li atoms in Si nanostructures. We find that Li has a strong tendency to stay inside the core of Si nanostructures because it is energetically more stable inside, and the energy barrier to diffuse towards the core is in general lower than diffusing towards the surface. This situation will lead to a faster charging of Li atoms into Si nanostructures compared to the discharging process. In addition, we find that the diffusion barrier is significantly reduced with decreasing nanocrystal size, which implies the kinetics of impurities inside nanostructures can be accelerated by manipulating the nanostructure's size.

  2. A two-phase full-wave superconducting rectifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ariga, T.; Ishiyama, A.

    1989-03-01

    A two-phase full-wave superconducting rectifier has been developed as a small cryogenic power supply of superconducting magnets for magnetically levitation trains. Those magnets are operated in the persistent current mode. However, small ohmic loss caused at resistive joints and ac loss induced by the vibration of the train cannot be avoided. Therefore, the low-power cryogenic power supply is required to compensate for the reduction in magnet current. The presented superconducting rectifier consists of two identical full-wave rectifiers connected in series. Main components of each rectifier are a troidal shape superconducting set-up transformer and two thermally controlled switches. The test results using a 47.5 mH load magnet at 0.2 Hz and 0.5 Hz operations are described. To estimate the characteristics of the superconducting rectifier, the authors have developed a simulation code. From the experiments and the simulations, the transfer efficiency is examined. Furthermore, the optimal design of thermally controlled switches based on the finite element analysis is also discussed.

  3. Realistic-contact-induced enhancement of rectifying in carbon-nanotube/graphene-nanoribbon junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Ling-Ling Xu, Liang; Luo, Kai-Wu

    2014-03-10

    Carbon-nanotube/graphene-nanoribbon junctions were recently fabricated by the controllable etching of single-walled carbon-nanotubes [Wei et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1374 (2013)] and their electronic transport properties were studied here. First principles results reveal that the transmission function of the junctions show a heavy dependence on the shape of contacts, but rectifying is an inherent property which is insensitive to the details of contacts. Interestingly, the rectifying ratio is largely enhanced in the junction with a realistic contact and the enhancement is insensitive to the details of contact structures. The stability of rectifying suggests a significant feasibility to manufacture realistic all-carbon rectifiers in nanoelectronics.

  4. Experimental investigation of radiative thermal rectifier using vanadium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) exhibits a phase-change behavior from the insulating state to the metallic state around 340 K. By using this effect, we experimentally demonstrate a radiative thermal rectifier in the far-field regime with a thin film VO2 deposited on the silicon wafer. A rectification contrast ratio as large as two is accurately obtained by utilizing a one-dimensional steady-state heat flux measurement system. We develop a theoretical model of the thermal rectifier with optical responses of the materials retrieved from the measured mid-infrared reflection spectra, which is cross-checked with experimentally measured heat flux. Furthermore, we tune the operating temperatures by doping the VO2 film with tungsten (W). These results open up prospects in the fields of thermal management and thermal information processing.

  5. Experimental investigation of radiative thermal rectifier using vanadium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kota; Nishikawa, Kazutaka; Iizuka, Hideo; Toshiyoshi, Hiroshi

    2014-12-22

    Vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) exhibits a phase-change behavior from the insulating state to the metallic state around 340 K. By using this effect, we experimentally demonstrate a radiative thermal rectifier in the far-field regime with a thin film VO{sub 2} deposited on the silicon wafer. A rectification contrast ratio as large as two is accurately obtained by utilizing a one-dimensional steady-state heat flux measurement system. We develop a theoretical model of the thermal rectifier with optical responses of the materials retrieved from the measured mid-infrared reflection spectra, which is cross-checked with experimentally measured heat flux. Furthermore, we tune the operating temperatures by doping the VO{sub 2} film with tungsten (W). These results open up prospects in the fields of thermal management and thermal information processing.

  6. Humidity sensing properties of morphology-controlled ordered silicon nanopillar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Hu, Mingyue; Ge, Pengpeng; Wang, Jing; Guo, YanYan

    2014-10-01

    Ordered silicon nanopillar array (Si-NPA) was fabricated by nanosphere lithography. The size of silicon nanopillars can be easily controlled by an etching process. The period and density of nanopillar arrays are determined by the initial diameter of polystyrene (PS) spheres. It was studied as a sensing material to detect humidity. Room temperature current sensitivity of Si-NPA sensor was investigated at a relative humidity (RH) ranging from 50 to 70%. As a result, the measured current showed there was a significant increase at 70% RH. The response and recovery time was about 10 s and 15 s. These excellent sensing characteristics indicate that Si-NPA might be a practical sensing material.

  7. Nanostructured Silicon Membranes for Control of Molecular Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Srijanto, Bernadeta R; Retterer, Scott T; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2010-01-01

    A membrane that allows selective transport of molecular species requires precise engineering on the nanoscale. Membrane permeability can be tuned by controlling the physical structure of the pores. Here, a combination of electron-beam and optical lithography, along with cryogenic deep reactive ion etching, has been used to fabricate silicon membranes that are physically robust, have uniform pore-sizes, and are directly integrated into a microfluidic network. Additional reductions in pore size were achieved using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon dioxide to coat membrane surfaces. Cross sectioning of the membranes using focused ion beam milling was used to determine the physical shape of the membrane pores before and after coating.

  8. Physics of the frequency response of rectifying organic Schottky diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altazin, Stphane; Clerc, Raphal; Gwoziecki, Romain; Verilhac, Jean-Marie; Boudinet, Damien; Pananakakis, Georges; Ghibaudo, Grard; Chartier, Isabelle; Coppard, Romain

    2014-02-01

    The frequency response of unipolar organic Schottky diodes used in a rectifying circuit, such as an RFID tag, has been investigated in detail. The time dependent response of rectifying circuits has been simulated solving both the Drift Diffusion and Poisson equations to model the hole transport within the diode, coupled with time dependent circuit equations. Several approximations have also been discussed. It turns out that the cut off frequency of the rectifying circuit is indeed limited by the carrier time-of-flight and not by the diode equivalent capacitance. Simulations have also been confirmed by comparison with experiments, involving diodes with different mobilities and thicknesses. This work confirms that the 13.56 MHz frequency can be reached using polymer semiconductors, as already experimentally demonstrated in the literature, by an adequate control of the active layer thickness.

  9. Initial rectified attractors for perfect synchronization of chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; He, Xiongxiong; Yu, Li

    2005-12-01

    The controlled attractor with initial rectifying action, referred to as initial rectified attractor (IRA) in this Letter, is introduced for the purpose of chaos synchronization. An IRA-based design is presented to make the states of the drive system and the response system synchronized within finite time. The reaching time is shown independent of initial conditions and dynamics of the chaotic systems, and can be pre-specified. With numerical experiments we demonstrate that such perfect synchronization can be achieved for modified Chua's circuit systems and Genesio chaotic systems.

  10. Low Voltage Slow Controls for the Silicon Vertex Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerton, Kalee

    2012-10-01

    Nuclear physics research requires the use of detectors, like the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) being developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, to understand the fundamental properties of particles. This detector is designed to reconstruct the paths of charged particles, aiding in the determination of their momentum. Each of the SVT's 66 individual modules is connected to a High Flex Circuit Board (HFCB). A HFCB requires 4 low voltage channels. A slow controls program was developed to control the voltage. The program allows the user to set the voltage at the 2.5 V required for the HFCB. The program is also capable of reading back the voltage and current. It includes features for real-time data monitoring and offline data analysis. The program will be expanded to control all 264 channels used for the final SVT as well as measure more parameters such as temperature and humidity.

  11. Control and data acquisition electronics for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, K.J.; Nelson, C.A.; Shaw, T.M.; Wesson, T.R.

    1991-11-01

    A control and data acquisition system has been designed for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector (SVX) at Fermilab. The system controls the operation of the SVX Rev D integrated circuit (SVX IC) that is used to instrument a 46,000 microstrip silicon detector. The system consists of a Fastbus Sequencer, a Crate Controller and Digitizer modules. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Active control of flow and heat transfer in silicon microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guohua; Xu, Jinliang; Yang, Yongping; Zhang, Wei

    2010-04-01

    Boiling heat transfer in silicon microchannels needs high walls and liquid superheats for bubble nucleation, leading to a strong thermal non-equilibrium between vapor and liquid phases, which not only damages the heat transfer device at the start-up stage, but also causes two-phase flow instabilities. In this paper, the seed bubble technique is used as an active control strategy to improve the flow and heat transfer in silicon microchannels. Seed bubbles are miniature bubbles of micron size, which are produced on a set of microheaters upstream of microchannels driven by pulse voltage signal. They flow downstream of microchannels after they depart from microheaters to decrease and control the thermal non-equilibrium between vapor and liquid phases in microchannels. The working fluid was methanol and the hydraulic diameter of the microchannels was 100 m. The demand curves of pressure drops versus mass fluxes were examined with and without active control. Four regions (I, II, III and IV) of demand curves were identified. For the flow without active control, the four regions were the subcooled liquid flow, the superheated liquid flow, the unstable boiling flow and the vapor flow at high-vapor-mass qualities. Alternatively, for the flow with active control, the four regions were the subcooled liquid flow, the seed-bubble-triggered boiling flow, the seed-bubble-stabilized boiling flow and the vapor flow at high-vapor-mass qualities. The linear part of the demand curves is shortened when the seed bubble technique is used. The points at which the demand curves deviate from the linear part coincide into one point at different seed bubble frequencies. The seed bubbles have no influence on the subcooled liquid flow (region I) and the vapor flow at high-vapor-mass qualities (region IV). However, seed bubbles not only convert a superheated liquid flow into a quasi-stable boiling flow in region II, but also convert an unstable boiling flow into a quasi-stable boiling flow in region III. Besides, heat transfer coefficients with active control are several times those without active control in regions II and III. The higher the seed bubble frequencies, the more the heater surface temperatures decrease.

  13. Ordered silicon nanorod arrays with controllable geometry and robust hydrophobicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi-Wen, Wang; Jia-Qi, Cai; Yi-Zhi, Wu; Hui-Jie, Wang; Xiao-Liang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Highly ordered silicon nanorod (SiNR) arrays with controllable geometry are fabricated via nanosphere lithography and metal-assisted chemical etching. It is demonstrated that the key to achieving a high-quality metal mask is to construct a non-close-packed template that can be removed with negligible damage to the mask. Hydrophobicity of SiNR arrays of different geometries is also studied. It is shown that the nanorod structures are effectively quasi-hydrophobic with a contact angle as high as 142, which would be useful in self-cleaning nanorod-based device applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51272246) and the Scientific and Technological Research Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. 12010202035).

  14. Controlled delivery of acyclovir from porous silicon micro- and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniya, Nalin H.; Patel, Sanjaykumar R.; Murthy, Z. V. P.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, micro- and nanoparticles of porous silicon (PSi) are demonstrated to act as effective carrier for the controlled delivery of acyclovir (ACV). PSi films prepared by electrochemical etching were fractured by ultrasonication to prepare micro- and nanoparticles. PSi native particles were thermally oxidized (TOPSi) and thermally hydrosilylated using undecylenic acid (UnPSi). PSi particles with three different surface chemistries were then loaded with ACV by physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Such particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. In vitro ACV release experiments in phosphate buffered saline showed sustained release behaviour from both micro- and nanoparticles and order of release was found to be native PSi > TOPSi > UnPSi. Drug release kinetics study using Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggested a combination of both drug diffusion and Si scaffold erosion based drug release mechanisms.

  15. Method for rapid, controllable growth and thickness, of epitaxial silicon films

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Qi; Stradins, Paul; Teplin, Charles; Branz, Howard M.

    2009-10-13

    A method of producing epitaxial silicon films on a c-Si wafer substrate using hot wire chemical vapor deposition by controlling the rate of silicon deposition in a temperature range that spans the transition from a monohydride to a hydrogen free silicon surface in a vacuum, to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness is disclosed. The method includes placing a c-Si substrate in a HWCVD reactor chamber. The method also includes supplying a gas containing silicon at a sufficient rate into the reaction chamber to interact with the substrate to deposit a layer containing silicon thereon at a predefined growth rate to obtain phase-pure epitaxial silicon film of increased thickness.

  16. High Voltage Slow Controls for the Silicon Vertex Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabwera, Minnae

    2012-10-01

    The slow controls program developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, JLab, for the Silicon Vertex Tracker, SVT, controls and reports high voltage and reads back the current drawn. The SVT is a large acceptance spectrometer designed to detect charged particles and reconstruct their paths in order to determine their momentum. It consists of 66 identical modules, each of which is connected to a High Flex Circuit Board, HFCB. Each HFCB requires 2 high voltage channels. The slow controls LabVIEW program designed for the SVT allows the user to set the threshold settings at 75V required for the HFCB to operate. If the threshold settings for voltage or current are detected outside of the operating range the channel will shut-off at a ramp rate of 5V/sec to preserve the detector. The program includes features for real-time data monitoring and offline data analysis. It will be expanded to control 132 high voltage channels to be used in Hall B at JLab and will expand to measure more parameters such as temperature and humidity.

  17. Creating New VLS Silicon Nanowire Contact Geometries by Controlling Catalyst Migration.

    PubMed

    Alam, Sardar B; Panciera, Federico; Hansen, Ole; Mlhave, Kristian; Ross, Frances M

    2015-10-14

    The formation of self-assembled contacts between vapor-liquid-solid grown silicon nanowires and flat silicon surfaces was imaged in situ using electron microscopy. By measuring the structural evolution of the contact formation process, we demonstrate how different contact geometries are created by adjusting the balance between silicon deposition and Au migration. We show that electromigration provides an efficient way of controlling the contact. The results point to novel device geometries achieved by direct nanowire growth on devices. PMID:26367351

  18. Controlled 3D buckling of silicon nanowires for stretchable electronics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Lu, Wei; Zhu, Yong

    2011-01-25

    Silicon (Si) nanowire (NW) coils were fabricated on elastomeric substrates by a controlled buckling process. Si NWs were first transferred onto prestrained and ultraviolet/ozone (UVO)-treated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) substrates and buckled upon release of the prestrain. Two buckling modes (the in-plane wavy mode and the three-dimensional coiled mode) were found; a transition between them was achieved by controlling the UVO treatment of PDMS. Structural characterization revealed that the NW coils were oval-shaped. The oval-shaped NW coils exhibited very large stretchability up to the failure strain of PDMS (?104% in our study). Such a large stretchability relies on the effectiveness of the coil shape in mitigating the maximum local strain, with a mechanics that is similar to the motion of a coil spring. Single NW devices based on coiled NWs were demonstrated with a nearly constant electrical response in a large strain range. In addition to the wavy shape, the coil shape represents an effective architecture in accommodating large tension, compression, bending, and twist, which may find important applications for stretchable electronics and other stretchable technologies. PMID:21189041

  19. Electric field control of donor pair diatomic molecules in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baena, Alejandra; Saraiva, Andre; Caldern, Mara J.; Koiller, Belita

    2015-03-01

    Single donors are well-established building blocks for engineering electronic properties of semiconductors, acting effectively as giant hydrogen atoms. Donor pairs, analogous to effective hydrogen molecules, were recently investigated in the strongly interacting regime in silicon. In this regime, electric field control renders timid results. Pairs that are more distant are more susceptible to external fields, and may harbour single electron charge control. Theoretically, the molecular quantum mechanics analogy between a donor pair and the H2 molecule in vacuum is not as straightforward as it may seem. A detailed understanding of the electronic structure of these molecular systems is a current challenge. We analyze the lowest energy states within effective mass theory, including central cell corrected donor potential effects and the conduction band multiplicity in Si. The spectrum of ionized donor pairs and its response to an external electric field will be presented. We contemplate possible advantages of heteropolar diatomic molecules, e.g, Sb -As pairs, as more efficient elements for such devices and applications.

  20. A boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier

    SciTech Connect

    Loh, G. C.; Baillargeat, D.

    2014-06-28

    The precise guidance of heat from one specific location to another is paramount in many industrial and commercial applications, including thermal management and thermoelectric generation. One of the cardinal requirements is a preferential conduction of thermal energy, also known as thermal rectification, in the materials. This study introduces a novel nanomaterial for rectifying heat—the boron nitride nanotube peapod thermal rectifier. Classical non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are performed on this nanomaterial, and interestingly, the strength of the rectification phenomenon is dissimilar at different operating temperatures. This is due to the contingence of the thermal flux on the conductance at the localized region around the scatterer, which varies with temperature. The rectification performance of the peapod rectifier is inherently dependent on its asymmetry. Last but not least, the favourable rectifying direction in the nanomaterial is established.

  1. Steric stabilization of nonaqueous silicon slips. I - Control of particle agglomeration and packing. II - Pressure casting of powder compacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerkar, Awdhoot V.; Henderson, Robert J. M.; Feke, Donald L.

    1990-01-01

    The application of steric stabilization to control particle agglomeration and packing of silicon powder in benzene and trichloroethylene is reported. The results provide useful guidelines for controlling unfavorable particle-particle interactions during nonaqueous processing of silicon-based ceramic materials. The application of steric stabilization to the control and improvement of green processing of nonaqueous silicon slips in pressure consolidation is also demonstrated.

  2. Approaching the downsizing limit of silicon for surface-controlled lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Li, Xianglong; Luo, Bin; Hao, Long; Zhou, Min; Zhang, Xinghao; Fan, Zhuangjun; Zhi, Linjie

    2015-03-01

    Graphene-sheet-supported uniform ultrasmall (?3 nm) silicon quantum dots have been successfully synthesized by a simple and effective self-assembly strategy, exhibiting unprecedented fast, surface-controlled lithium-storage behavior and outstanding lithium-storage properties including extraordinary rate capability and remarkable cycling stability, attributable to the intrinsic role of approaching the downsizing limit of silicon. PMID:25581500

  3. Optical control of donor spin qubits in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gullans, M. J.; Taylor, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    We show how to achieve optical, spin-selective transitions from the ground state to excited orbital states of group-V donors (P, As, Sb, and Bi) in silicon. We consider two approaches based on either resonant, far-infrared (IR) transitions of the neutral donor or resonant, near-IR excitonic transitions. For far-IR light, we calculate the dipole matrix elements between the valley-orbit and spin-orbit split states for all the group-V donors using effective mass theory. We then calculate the maximum rate and amount of electron-nuclear spin-polarization achievable through optical pumping with circularly polarized light. We find this approach is most promising for Bi donors due to their large spin-orbit and valley-orbit interactions. Using near-IR light, spin-selective excitation is possible for all the donors by driving a two-photon ? transition from the ground state to higher orbitals with even parity. We show that externally applied electric fields or strain allow similar, spin-selective ? transition to odd-parity excited states. We anticipate these results will be useful for future spectroscopic investigations of donors, quantum control and state preparation of donor spin qubits, and for developing a coherent interface between donor spin qubits and single photons.

  4. Controlled silica synthesis inspired by diatom silicon biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Vrieling, Engel G; Sun, Qianyao; Beelen, Theo P M; Hazelaar, Sandra; Gieskes, Winfried W C; van Santen, Rutger A; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M

    2005-01-01

    Silica becomes increasingly used in chemical, pharmaceutical, and (nano)technological processes, resulting in an increased demand for well-defined silicas and silica-based materials. The production of highly structured silica from cheap starting materials and under ambient conditions, which is a target for many researchers, is already realized in the formation of diatom biosilica, producing highly hierarchical ordered meso- and macropores silica structures. This notion formed the starting point in our integrative biomolecular and biomimetic study on diatom silicon biomineralization in which we have analyzed silica transformations and structure-direction in polymer-mediated silica syntheses using a combination of (ultra)small-angle X-ray scattering and (cryo)electron microscopy. Using bio-analogous reaction conditions and reagents, such as waterglass and (combinations of) polyethylene oxide (PEO) based polymers, we demonstrate in this review the synthesis of tailor-made mesoporous silicas in which we can, as in biosilica synthesis, control the morphological features of the resulting materials on the nanometer level as well as on the micrometer level. PMID:15762163

  5. Control of carbon balance in a silicon smelting furnace

    DOEpatents

    Dosaj, V.D.; Haines, C.M.; May, J.B.; Oleson, J.D.

    1992-12-29

    The present invention is a process for the carbothermic reduction of silicon dioxide to form elemental silicon. Carbon balance of the process is assessed by measuring the amount of carbon monoxide evolved in offgas exiting the furnace. A ratio of the amount of carbon monoxide evolved and the amount of silicon dioxide added to the furnace is determined. Based on this ratio, the carbon balance of the furnace can be determined and carbon feed can be adjusted to maintain the furnace in carbon balance.

  6. All-optical control of light on a silicon chip.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Vilson R; Barrios, Carlos A; Panepucci, Roberto R; Lipson, Michal

    2004-10-28

    Photonic circuits, in which beams of light redirect the flow of other beams of light, are a long-standing goal for developing highly integrated optical communication components. Furthermore, it is highly desirable to use silicon--the dominant material in the microelectronic industry--as the platform for such circuits. Photonic structures that bend, split, couple and filter light have recently been demonstrated in silicon, but the flow of light in these structures is predetermined and cannot be readily modulated during operation. All-optical switches and modulators have been demonstrated with III-V compound semiconductors, but achieving the same in silicon is challenging owing to its relatively weak nonlinear optical properties. Indeed, all-optical switching in silicon has only been achieved by using extremely high powers in large or non-planar structures, where the modulated light is propagating out-of-plane. Such high powers, large dimensions and non-planar geometries are inappropriate for effective on-chip integration. Here we present the experimental demonstration of fast all-optical switching on silicon using highly light-confining structures to enhance the sensitivity of light to small changes in refractive index. The transmission of the structure can be modulated by up to 94% in less than 500 ps using light pulses with energies as low as 25 pJ. These results confirm the recent theoretical prediction of efficient optical switching in silicon using resonant structures. PMID:15510144

  7. Sized controlled synthesis, purification, and cell studies with silicon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Shiohara, Amane; Prabakar, Sujay; Faramus, Angelique; Hsu, Chia-Yen; Lai, Ping-Shan; Northcote, Peter T; Tilley, Richard D

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the size control synthesis of silicon quantum dots with simple microemulsion techniques. The silicon nanocrystals are small enough to be in the strong confinement regime and photoluminesce in the blue region of the visible spectrum and the emission can be tuned by changing the nanocrystal size. The silicon quantum dots were capped with allylamine either a platinum catalyst or UV-radiation. An extensive purification protocol is reported and assessed using (1)H NMR to produce ultra pure silicon quantum dots suitable for biological studies. The highly pure quantum dots were used in cellular uptake experiments and monitored using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the amine terminated silicon nanocrystals accumulated in lysosome but not in nuclei and could be used as bio-markers to monitor cancer cells over long timescales. PMID:21727983

  8. Distributed rectifier loads in electric power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Heydt, G.T.; Grady, W.M.

    1984-09-01

    The level of rectifier and flourescent loads in electric power systems is often significant in localized areas. Typically, the nonlinear loads are distributed over many distribution and subtransmission busses. In this paper, the harmonic signal levels resulting from distributed rectifier loads are examined using a recently reported harmonic power flow study algorithm. Because the algorithm does not rely on superposition or sinusoidal bus voltage assumptions, it may be applied in cases of high harmonic content such as nearresonant conditions. A case history is presented and examination of alternative methods of harmonic attenuation is presented. Also, for six pulse, line commutated rectifiers, the effect of dc circuit load variation and dc circuit inductance on harmonic signal levels is examined.

  9. Sized controlled synthesis, purification, and cell studies with silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiohara, Amane; Prabakar, Sujay; Faramus, Angelique; Hsu, Chia-Yen; Lai, Ping-Shan; Northcote, Peter T.; Tilley, Richard D.

    2011-08-01

    This article describes the size control synthesis of silicon quantum dots with simple microemulsion techniques. The silicon nanocrystals are small enough to be in the strong confinement regime and photoluminesce in the blue region of the visible spectrum and the emission can be tuned by changing the nanocrystal size. The silicon quantum dots were capped with allylamine either a platinum catalyst or UV-radiation. An extensive purification protocol is reported and assessed using 1H NMR to produce ultra pure silicon quantum dots suitable for biological studies. The highly pure quantum dots were used in cellular uptake experiments and monitored using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the amine terminated silicon nanocrystals accumulated in lysosome but not in nuclei and could be used as bio-markers to monitor cancer cells over long timescales.This article describes the size control synthesis of silicon quantum dots with simple microemulsion techniques. The silicon nanocrystals are small enough to be in the strong confinement regime and photoluminesce in the blue region of the visible spectrum and the emission can be tuned by changing the nanocrystal size. The silicon quantum dots were capped with allylamine either a platinum catalyst or UV-radiation. An extensive purification protocol is reported and assessed using 1H NMR to produce ultra pure silicon quantum dots suitable for biological studies. The highly pure quantum dots were used in cellular uptake experiments and monitored using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the amine terminated silicon nanocrystals accumulated in lysosome but not in nuclei and could be used as bio-markers to monitor cancer cells over long timescales. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10458f

  10. Analysis of parametric transformer with rectifier load

    SciTech Connect

    Ichinokura, O.; Jinzenji, T. ); Tajima, K. )

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes a push-pull parametric transformer constructed using a pair of orthogonal-cores. The operating characteristics of the parametric transformer with a rectifier load were analyzed based on SPICE simulations. The analysis results show good agreement with experiment. It was found that the input surge current of the full-wave rectifier circuit with a smoothing capacitor can be compensated by the parametric transformer. Use of the parametric transformer as a power stabilizer is anticipated owing to its various functions such as for voltage regulation and overload protection.

  11. PWM rectifier with low dc voltage ripple for magnet supply

    SciTech Connect

    Ciscato, D. ); Malesani, L.; Rosetto, L.; Tenti, P. ); Basile, G.L.; Pasti, M. ); Voelker, F. )

    1992-04-01

    PWM bridge rectifiers with GTO switches are considered for application to particle accelerator magnet power supplies, where two-quadrant operation and extremely low dc current ripple are required. Different control strategies, with both preprogrammed and variable switching patterns, are examined and compared in view of optimization of the system performance. In particular, optimum digital PWM, multilevel delta modulation, and hybrid PWM/delta techniques are analyzed. In this paper the validity of the control methods is verified by simulation and experimental tests on a 60-kW prototype.

  12. Controls on silicon cycling in Southeast Asian rice production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotzbcher, Thimo; Marxen, Anika; Vetterlein, Doris; Jahn, Reinhold

    2013-04-01

    Recent research suggests that silicon (Si) is beneficial for rice plants, i.e., a sufficient Si supply improves their resistance against pests and pathogens and increases the uptake of essential nutrients. Despite its potential importance for rice yields, cycling of Si in rice production systems is poorly studied. We assess plant-available Si (Sipa; determined using acetate extraction) in topsoils (Ap+Arp horizons) and Si uptake by plants at 70 paddy fields managed by local farmers in contrasting regions of Vietnam and the Philippines. First results show that Sipa contents are considerably larger in Philippine (217 100 mg Sipa kg-1 ) than in Vietnamese (32 19 mg Sipa kg-1) paddy soils. Rice straw from the Philippines contains 8.6 0.9 % Si, straw from Vietnam 5.0 1.2 % Si. Laboratory experiments showed that Si is limiting the growth of rice plants in some of the Vietnamese soils. We assume that differences in geo-/ pedologic conditions between Vietnam and the Philippines explain the data. Large Sipa contents in the Philippine soils are due to recent rock formation by active volcanism, hence, by a large Sipa input due to mineral weathering in recent geologic history. In contrast, parent materials of the Vietnamese paddy soils derive from old and highly weathered land surfaces. Hence, our data suggest that geo-/pedologic conditions are the main control for the availability of Si in paddy soils. Currently, we examine the relevance of agricultural practices for small-scale differences in the availability of Si within regions. Inadequate practices, such as removal of rice straw from the fields, might deplete Sipa in paddy soils causing a decrease in rice yields in some regions of Vietnam. We investigate the role of phytoliths (amorphous Si bodies contained in rice straw) as source of Sipa in paddy soils. Our methods include laboratory experiments and the assessment of turnover times of phytoliths in paddy soils; first results will be presented and discussed at the EGU conference.

  13. Modelling and engineering of stress based controlled oxidation effects for silicon nanostructure patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiang-Lei; Larrieu, Guilhem; Krzeminski, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Silicon nanostructure patterning with tight geometry control is an important challenge at the bottom level. In that context, stress based controlled oxidation appears to be an efficient tool for precise nanofabrication. Here, we investigate the stress-retarded oxidation phenomenon in various silicon nanostructures (nanobeams, nanorings and nanowires) at both the experimental and the theoretical levels. Different silicon nanostructures have been fabricated by a top-down approach. Complex dependence of the stress build-up on the nano-objects dimension, shape and size has been demonstrated experimentally and physically explained by modelling. For the oxidation of a two-dimensional nanostructure (nanobeam), relative independence to size effects has been observed. On the other hand, radial stress increase with geometry downscaling of a one-dimensional nanostructure (nanowire) has been carefully emphasized. The study of shape engineering by retarded oxidation effects for vertical silicon nanowires is finally discussed.

  14. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide includes heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  15. Process to produce silicon carbide fibers using a controlled concentration of boron oxide vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Lipowitz, Jonathan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing polycrystalline silicon carbide by heating an amorphous ceramic fiber that contains silicon and carbon in an environment containing boron oxide vapor. The boron oxide vapor is produced in situ by the reaction of a boron containing material such as boron carbide and an oxidizing agent such as carbon dioxide, and the amount of boron oxide vapor can be controlled by varying the amount and rate of addition of the oxidizing agent.

  16. Engineered Asymmetric Composite Membranes with Rectifying Properties.

    PubMed

    Wen, Liping; Xiao, Kai; Sainath, Annadanam V Sesha; Komura, Motonori; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xie, Ganhua; Zhang, Zhen; Tian, Ye; Iyoda, Tomokazu; Jiang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric composite membranes with rectifying properties are developed by grafting pH-stimulus-responsive materials onto the top layer of the composite structure, which is prepared by two novel block copolymers using a phase-separation technique. This engineered asymmetric composite membrane shows potential applications in sensors, filtration, and nanofluidic devices. PMID:26630640

  17. Chemical rectifiers: One-way catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Robert T.

    1980-04-01

    Chemical reactions can have net rates which have an asymmetric dependence on the sign of the free energy of reaction, and are thus analogous in function to rectifiers. Reactions whose forward rate varies as a large positive power of reactant concentrations, and as a large negative power of product concentrations, have an asymmetry which far exceeds that of an ideal electrical rectifier. A catalyst which switches cooperatively between active and inactive forms, in the manner of regulatory enzymes, can be such an extraordinarily good rectifier. For example, an enzyme of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux type, having six binding sites, and catalyzing a simple isomerization, is capable of catalyzing a forward reaction 107 times faster than the maximum rate of the reverse reaction. This rectification ratio is achievable for an enzyme which catalyzes the forward reaction at 20% of the rate permitted by the turnover number of the catalytic site, and with a free-energy drop of only 3 kcal/mol. Such chemical rectifiers may improve the efficiency of photochemical solar energy conversion.

  18. Size control of erbium-doped silicon nanocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, John St.; Coffer, Jeffery L.; Chen, Yandong; Pinizzotto, Russell F.

    2000-09-01

    This work describes the effects of pyrolysis oven length and erbium precursor on the preparation of discrete erbium-doped silicon nanoparticles. These doped nanoparticles were prepared by the co-pyrolysis of disilane and the volatile complex Er(tmhd)3 (tmhd=2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato). The particle sizes and size distributions were determined using high resolution and conventional transmission electron microscopy. Erbium-doped silicon nanoparticles exhibit a selected area electron diffraction pattern consistent with the diamond cubic phase and a distinctive dark contrast in the transmission electron microscope. The presence of erbium is confirmed by x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy. In general, the mean diameter of the individual nanoparticles increases as the length of the pyrolysis oven used during their preparation is increased.

  19. Novel plasma control method in PECVD for preparing microcrystalline silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimiya, T.; Kondo, M.; Matsuda, A.

    1997-07-01

    A novel plasma enhanced vapor deposition (PECVD) technique employing biased wall (BW) method has been developed for the enhanced growth rate of the hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon ({micro}c-Si:H) films. Using this method, the authors have achieved a growth rate of more than 6{angstrom}/sec for the formation of {micro}c-Si:H having an average grain size of 200{angstrom} at 350 C.

  20. Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells incorporating a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E. (Yardley, PA)

    1980-01-01

    Amorphous silicon Schottky barrier solar cells which incorporate a thin insulating layer and a thin doped layer adjacent to the junction forming metal layer exhibit increased open circuit voltages compared to standard rectifying junction metal devices, i.e., Schottky barrier devices, and rectifying junction metal insulating silicon devices, i.e., MIS devices.

  1. 46 CFR 120.360 - Semiconductor rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Semiconductor rectifier systems. 120.360 Section 120.360... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems 120.360 Semiconductor rectifier systems. (a) Each semiconductor rectifier system must have an adequate heat removal system that prevents overheating. (b) Where...

  2. 46 CFR 120.360 - Semiconductor rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Semiconductor rectifier systems. 120.360 Section 120.360... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems 120.360 Semiconductor rectifier systems. (a) Each semiconductor rectifier system must have an adequate heat removal system that prevents overheating. (b) Where...

  3. 46 CFR 129.360 - Semiconductor-rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Semiconductor-rectifier systems. 129.360 Section 129.360... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems 129.360 Semiconductor-rectifier systems. (a) Each semiconductor-rectifier system must have an adequate heat-removal system to prevent overheating. (b) If...

  4. 46 CFR 129.360 - Semiconductor-rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Semiconductor-rectifier systems. 129.360 Section 129.360... INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems 129.360 Semiconductor-rectifier systems. (a) Each semiconductor-rectifier system must have an adequate heat-removal system to prevent overheating. (b) If...

  5. RF sputtering for controlling dihydride and monohydride bond densities in amorphous silicon hydride

    DOEpatents

    Jeffery, F.R.; Shanks, H.R.

    1980-08-26

    A process is described for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicone produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous solicone hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  6. Active High Power Conversion Efficiency Rectifier With Built-In Dual-Mode Back Telemetry in Standard CMOS Technology.

    PubMed

    Bawa, G; Ghovanloo, M

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, we present an active rectifier with high power conversion efficiency (PCE) implemented in a 0.5- mum 5 V standard CMOS technology with two modes of built-in back telemetry; short- and open-circuit. As a rectifier, it ensures a PCE > 80%, taking advantage of active synchronous rectification technique in the frequency range of 0.125-1 MHz. The built-in complementary back telemetry feature can be utilized in implantable microelectronic devices (IMD), wireless sensors, and radio frequency identification (RFID) applications to reduce the silicon area, increase the data rate, and improve the reading range and robustness in load shift keying (LSK). PMID:23852968

  7. Advanced process control and novel test methods for PVD silicon and elastomeric silicone coatings utilized on ion implant disks, heatsinks and selected platens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, J.; Allen, B.; Wriggins, W.; Kuzbyt, R.; Sinclair, R.

    2012-11-01

    Coatings play multiple key roles in the proper functioning of mature and current ion implanters. Batch and serial implanters require strategic control of elemental and particulate contamination which often includes scrutiny of the silicon surface coatings encountering direct beam contact. Elastomeric Silicone Coatings must accommodate wafer loading and unloading as well as direct backside contact during implant plus must maintain rigid elemental and particulate specifications. The semiconductor industry has had a significant and continuous effort to obtain ultra-pure silicon coatings with sustained process performance and long life. Low particles and reduced elemental levels for silicon coatings are a major requirement for process engineers, OEM manufacturers, and second source suppliers. Relevant data will be presented. Some emphasis and detail will be placed on the structure and characteristics of a relatively new PVD Silicon Coating process that is very dense and homogeneous. Wear rate under typical ion beam test conditions will be discussed. The PVD Silicon Coating that will be presented here is used on disk shields, wafer handling fingers/fences, exclusion zones of heat sinks, beam dumps and other beamline components. Older, legacy implanters can now provide extended process capability using this new generation PVD silicon - even on implanter systems that were shipped long before the advent of silicon coating for contamination control. Low particles and reduced elemental levels are critical performance criteria for the silicone elastomers used on disk heatsinks and serial implanter platens. Novel evaluation techniques and custom engineered tools are used to investigate the surface interaction characteristics of multiple Elastomeric Silicone Coatings currently in use by the industry - specifically, friction and perpendicular stiction. These parameters are presented as methods to investigate the critical wafer load and unload function. Unique tools and test methods have been developed that deliver accurate and repeatable data, which will be described.

  8. Advanced process control and novel test methods for PVD silicon and elastomeric silicone coatings utilized on ion implant disks, heatsinks and selected platens

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, J.; Allen, B.; Wriggins, W.; Kuzbyt, R.; Sinclair, R.

    2012-11-06

    Coatings play multiple key roles in the proper functioning of mature and current ion implanters. Batch and serial implanters require strategic control of elemental and particulate contamination which often includes scrutiny of the silicon surface coatings encountering direct beam contact. Elastomeric Silicone Coatings must accommodate wafer loading and unloading as well as direct backside contact during implant plus must maintain rigid elemental and particulate specifications. The semiconductor industry has had a significant and continuous effort to obtain ultra-pure silicon coatings with sustained process performance and long life. Low particles and reduced elemental levels for silicon coatings are a major requirement for process engineers, OEM manufacturers, and second source suppliers. Relevant data will be presented. Some emphasis and detail will be placed on the structure and characteristics of a relatively new PVD Silicon Coating process that is very dense and homogeneous. Wear rate under typical ion beam test conditions will be discussed. The PVD Silicon Coating that will be presented here is used on disk shields, wafer handling fingers/fences, exclusion zones of heat sinks, beam dumps and other beamline components. Older, legacy implanters can now provide extended process capability using this new generation PVD silicon - even on implanter systems that were shipped long before the advent of silicon coating for contamination control. Low particles and reduced elemental levels are critical performance criteria for the silicone elastomers used on disk heatsinks and serial implanter platens. Novel evaluation techniques and custom engineered tools are used to investigate the surface interaction characteristics of multiple Elastomeric Silicone Coatings currently in use by the industry - specifically, friction and perpendicular stiction. These parameters are presented as methods to investigate the critical wafer load and unload function. Unique tools and test methods have been developed that deliver accurate and repeatable data, which will be described.

  9. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Control Dewar Valve Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-10-20

    This engineering note documents the calculations that were done to support the valve size selection for the magnet flow control valve, EVMF in the solenoid control dewar. The size selected was a control valve with a Cv = 0.32.

  10. Controlling optical properties and surface morphology of dry etched porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Maurice C.-K.; Roche, Philip J. R.; Hajj-Hassan, Mohamad; Kirk, Andrew G.; Mi, Zetian; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P.

    2011-01-01

    Porous silicon is a potentially useful substrate for fluorescence and scattering enhancement, with a large surface to volume ratio and thermal stability providing a potentially regenerable host matrix for sensor development. A simple process using XeF2 gas phase etching for creating porous silicon is explained. Moreover, how pores diameter can be controlled reproducibly with commensurate effects upon the silicon reflection and pore distribution is discussed. In previous work with this new system, it was clear that control on pore size and morphology was required and a systematic optimization of process conditions was performed to produce greater consistency of the result. The influence of the duration of the pre-etching processing in HF, concentration of the HF in the pre-etching process, and the XeF2 exposure time during the dry etching on surface morphology, pore size, and optical reflectance is explored.

  11. Etching anisotropy mechanisms lead to morphology-controlled silicon nanoporous structures by metal assisted chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bing; Li, Meicheng; Liang, Yu; Bai, Yang; Song, Dandan; Li, Yingfeng; Luo, Jian

    2016-01-28

    The etching anisotropy induced by the morphology and rotation of silver particles controls the morphology of silicon nanoporous structures, through various underlying complex etching mechanisms. The level of etching anisotropy can be modulated by controlling the morphology of the silver catalyst to obtain silicon nanoporous structures with straight pores, cone-shaped pores and pyramid-shaped pores. In addition, the structures with helical pores are obtained by taking advantage of the special anisotropic etching, which is induced by the rotation and revolution of silver particles during the etching process. An investigation of the etching anisotropy during metal assisted chemical etching will promote a deep understanding of the chemical etching mechanism of silicon, and provide a feasible approach to fabricate Si nanoporous structures with special morphologies. PMID:26785718

  12. Flow restrictor silicon membrane microvalve actuated by optically controlled paraffin phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolari, K.; Havia, T.; Stuns, I.; Hjort, K.

    2014-08-01

    Restrictor valves allow proportional control of fluid flow but are rarely integrated in microfluidic systems. In this study, an optically actuated silicon membrane restrictor microvalve is demonstrated. Its actuation is based on the phase transition of paraffin, using a paraffin wax mixed with a suitable concentration of optically absorbing nanographite particles. Backing up the membrane with oil (the melted paraffin) allows for a compliant yet strong contact to the valve seat, which enables handling of high pressures. At flow rates up to 30?L min-1 and at a pressure of 2 bars, the valve can successfully be closed and control the flow level by restriction. The use of this paraffin composite as an adhesive layer sandwiched between the silicon valve and glass eases fabrication. This type of restrictor valve is best suited for high pressure, low volume flow silicon-based nanofluidic systems.

  13. Etching anisotropy mechanisms lead to morphology-controlled silicon nanoporous structures by metal assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bing; Li, Meicheng; Liang, Yu; Bai, Yang; Song, Dandan; Li, Yingfeng; Luo, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The etching anisotropy induced by the morphology and rotation of silver particles controls the morphology of silicon nanoporous structures, through various underlying complex etching mechanisms. The level of etching anisotropy can be modulated by controlling the morphology of the silver catalyst to obtain silicon nanoporous structures with straight pores, cone-shaped pores and pyramid-shaped pores. In addition, the structures with helical pores are obtained by taking advantage of the special anisotropic etching, which is induced by the rotation and revolution of silver particles during the etching process. An investigation of the etching anisotropy during metal assisted chemical etching will promote a deep understanding of the chemical etching mechanism of silicon, and provide a feasible approach to fabricate Si nanoporous structures with special morphologies.

  14. An optical leaky wave antenna with silicon perturbations for electronic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campione, Salvatore; Song, Qi; Boyraz, Ozdal; Capolino, Filippo

    2011-10-01

    An optical leaky wave antenna (OLWA) is a device that radiates a light wave into the surrounding space from a leaky wave (LW) guided mode or receives optical power from the surrounding space into a guided optical mode. In this work, we propose and provide a 3D analysis of a novel CMOS compatible OLWA made of a silicon nitride (Si3N4) waveguide comprising periodic silicon perturbations which allow electronic tuning capability. The analysis presented here includes the effect of the number of semiconductor perturbations, the antenna radiation pattern and directivity. We show that the number of the silicon perturbations has to be large to provide a long radiating section required to achieve radiation with high directivity. In other words, the proposed structure allows for a very narrow-beam radiation. Preliminary results are confirmed by exploiting leaky wave and antenna array factor theory, as well as verified by means of two full-wave simulators (HFSS and COMSOL). Our purpose is to ultimately use PIN junctions as building blocks for each silicon implantation for the electronic control of the radiation. In particular, the electronic tunability of the optical parameters of silicon (such as refractive index and absorption coefficient) via current injection renders itself the ideal platform for optical antennas that can facilitate electronic beam control, and boost the efficiency of optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes, lasers and solar cells, and bio-chemical sensors.

  15. Initial Rotor Position Estimation of Half-Wave Rectified Brushless Synchronous Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Takashi; Oyama, Jun; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi

    This paper presents an initial rotor position estimation of Half-Wave Rectified Brushless Synchronous Motor. In the previous paper, we proposed this motor as AC servo motor, which is based on the half-wave rectified brushless excitation principle. The basic principle of this estimation technique utilizes the dependence of inductance on the rotor position. The bias frequency component of half-Wave rectified brushless excitation is used to estimate the rotor position error. The magnetic pole is discriminated by the switching condition of the diode inserted into the rotor field winding. This estimation technique is confirmed by simulation include inverter circuit, control program and motor model. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed estimation technique has been verified by experiments.

  16. A feedback controlled silicon microprobe for quantitative mechanical stimulation of nerve and tissue.

    PubMed

    Jackson, D; Kane, B J; Monroe, S; Li, J; Storment, C W; Kovacs, G T; Tanelian, D L

    1995-08-01

    The ability to apply and control the force and force velocity of mechanical stimulation is essential for the study of mechanoelectric transduction and adaptation processes. Silicon micromachining technology was used to produce miniature (20-70 microns wide) mechanical microprobes. Passive polysilicon, piezoresistive, force sensing elements were deposited onto the boron-doped epitaxial silicon and the individual devices were chemically etched from the bulk wafer. These microprobes display a linear force versus output voltage relationship. Stimulation forces up to 2 mN can be generated with a measurement resolution of 1.5 microN. The probes were mounted onto circuit board holders and their output sent to a proportional-integral controller which drives an electromagnetic actuator. By using this force-feedback control circuit coupled to a PC it is possible to define any stimulus wave form pattern and independently control and measure the actual stimulus force and velocity. A computer controlled 3-axis stepper motor (0.025 micron step capability) manipulator is used to position the silicon microprobe-actuator assembly relative to the mechanoreceptive field. Sensor feedback control coupled to the 3-axis stepper motor manipulator allows automatic touchdown control and/or preloading of the probe prior to stimulation. Three-dimensional topographic manipulator feedback position control allows automated receptive field mapping. PMID:8544475

  17. Three phase six-switch PWM buck rectifier with power factor improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafarullah Khan, M.; Mohsin Naveed, M.; Akbar Hussain, D. M.

    2013-06-01

    Conventional Phase Controlled Rectifier injects low order current harmonics into the AC mains. Large size filtering components are required to attenuate these harmonics. In this paper, three phase six-switch PWM buck rectifier is presented which operates at nearly unity power factor and provides variable output voltage. Small size energy storing components are required depending upon switching frequency. MATLAB simulation is performed and modified Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) switching technique is used in 3kW prototype converter to demonstrate low input current THD, nearly unity displacement factor, well regulated output voltage and reduced switching losses compared to conventional SPWM.

  18. Identification and control of the origin of photoluminescence from silicon quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Hao, H L; Shen, W Z

    2008-11-12

    We present a detailed investigation into the origin of photoluminescence (PL) from silicon quantum dots in hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride annealed in oxygen ambient. On the basis of structural characterization, temperature-dependent PL, time-resolved PL, and PL excitation spectra, we identify that the luminescence of the oxidized samples originates from the localized exciton radiative recombination via the surface states related to Si-N or Si-O-Si bonds. In combination with the results due to annealing in argon and hydrogen environments, we have further shown that control of the origin of the PL can be realized by modifying the radiative defect density through annealing treatment. PMID:21832793

  19. Surface photovoltage method for the quality control of silicon epitaxial layers on sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Yaremchuk, A. F.; Starkov, A. V.; Zaikin, A. V.; Alekseev, A. V.; Sokolov, E. M.

    2014-12-15

    The surface photovoltage method is used to study silicon-on-sapphire epitaxial layers with a thickness of 0.30.6 ?m, which are used to fabricate p-channel MOS (metaloxide-semiconductor) transistors with improved radiation hardness. It is shown that the manner in which the photoconductivity of the epitaxial layer decays after the end of a light pulse generated by a light-emitting diode (wavelength ?400 nm) strongly depends on the density of structural defects in the bulk of the structure. This enables control over how a silicon-on-sapphire structure is formed to provide the manufacturing of MOS structures with optimal operating characteristics.

  20. Energy-harvesting shock absorber with a mechanical motion rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongjie; Zuo, Lei; Kuang, Jian; Luhrs, George

    2013-02-01

    Energy-harvesting shock absorbers are able to recover the energy otherwise dissipated in the suspension vibration while simultaneously suppressing the vibration induced by road roughness. They can work as a controllable damper as well as an energy generator. An innovative design of regenerative shock absorbers is proposed in this paper, with the advantage of significantly improving the energy harvesting efficiency and reducing the impact forces caused by oscillation. The key component is a unique motion mechanism, which we called mechanical motion rectifier (MMR), to convert the oscillatory vibration into unidirectional rotation of the generator. An implementation of a MMR-based harvester with high compactness is introduced and prototyped. A dynamic model is created to analyze the general properties of the motion rectifier by making an analogy between mechanical systems and electrical circuits. The model is capable of analyzing electrical and mechanical components at the same time. Both simulation and experiments are carried out to verify the modeling and the advantages. The prototype achieved over 60% efficiency at high frequency, much better than conventional regenerative shock absorbers in oscillatory motion. Furthermore, road tests are done to demonstrate the feasibility of the MMR shock absorber, in which more than 15 Watts of electricity is harvested while driving at 15 mph on a smooth paved road. The MMR-based design can also be used for other applications of vibration energy harvesting, such as from tall buildings or long bridges.

  1. In situ characterization of a rectifying electrical junction.

    PubMed

    Rela, L; Szczupak, L

    2007-02-01

    Electrical synapses play significant roles in neural processing in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. The view of electrical synapses as plain bidirectional intercellular channels represents a partial picture because rectifying electrical synapses expand the complexity in the communication capabilities of neurons. Rectification derives, mostly, from the sensitivity of electrical junctions to the transjunctional potential (V(j)) across the coupled cells. We analyzed the characteristics of this sensitivity and their effect on neuronal signaling, studying rectifying junctions present in the leech nervous system. The NS neurons, a pair of premotor nonspiking neurons present in each midbody ganglion, are electrically coupled to virtually every excitatory motor neuron. Studied at rest, only hyperpolarizing signals can be transmitted from NS to the motoneurons, and only depolarizing signals are conducted in the opposite direction. Our results show that small changes in the NS membrane potential (V(m)) exerted an effective control of the firing frequency of the CV motoneurons (excitor of circular muscles). This effect revealed the existence of a threshold V(j) across which the electrical synapse shifts from a nonconducting to a conducting state. The junction can operate as a relatively symmetrical bidirectional bridge provided that the transmitted signals do not cross this threshold transjunctional potential. PMID:17167060

  2. Multi-crystalline silicon solidification under controlled forced convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cablea, M.; Zaidat, K.; Gagnoud, A.; Nouri, A.; Chichignoud, G.; Delannoy, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Multi-crystalline silicon wafers have a lower production cost compared to mono-crystalline wafers. This comes at the price of reduced quality in terms of electrical properties and as a result the solar cells made from such materials have a reduced efficiency. The presence of different impurities in the bulk material plays an important role during the solidification process. The impurities are related to different defects (dislocations, grain boundaries) encountered in multi-crystalline wafers. Applying an alternative magnetic field during the solidification process has various benefits. Impurities concentration in the final ingot could be reduced, especially metallic species, due to a convective term added in the liquid that reduces the concentration of impurities in the solute boundary layer. Another aspect is the solidification interface shape that is influenced by the electromagnetic stirring. A vertical Bridgman type furnace was used in order to study the solidification process of Si under the influence of a travelling magnetic field able to induce a convective flow in the liquid. The furnace was equipped with a Bitter type three-phase electromagnet that provides the required magnetic field. A numerical model of the furnace was developed in ANSYS Fluent commercial software. This paper presents experimental and numerical results of this approach, where interface markings were performed.

  3. Controlled release from a composite silicone/hydrogel membrane.

    PubMed

    Hu, Z; Wang, C; Nelson, K D; Eberhart, R C

    2000-01-01

    To enhance the drug uptake and release capacity of silicone rubber (SR), N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) hydrogel particles have been incorporated into a SR membrane. The NIPA particles were thoroughly blended with uncured SR with a certain ratio at room temperature. The mixture was then cast in a Petri dish to 1 mm thickness and cured 10 hours at 90 degrees C. The SR/NIPA composite gel can absorb water approximately equal to its dry weight. Brilliant blue, used as a mock drug, was loaded into the composite gel. Drug release increased exponentially to a final value that is temperature dependent: low at T> =34 degrees C, and high at T< 34 degrees C. This finding is because the hydrophobicity of NIPA changes with temperature. Pulsed release in response to temperature switching between 20 and 39 degrees C has been achieved. Drug uptake and release capability strongly depends upon the structure of the composite gel. The optimal range of NIPA composition is between 75 and 87% by volume. In the cited range, the NIPA particles form an interconnected network that provides a channel for diffusion of drug solution. The SR/NIPA composite gel has promising attributes as a wound dressing and other uses. PMID:10926140

  4. Coherent control of single spins in silicon carbide at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widmann, Matthias; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Son, Nguyen Tien; Fedder, Helmut; Paik, Seoyoung; Yang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Sen; Booker, Ian; Denisenko, Andrej; Jamali, Mohammad; Momenzadeh, S. Ali; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ohshima, Takeshi; Gali, Adam; Janzén, Erik; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-02-01

    Spins in solids are cornerstone elements of quantum spintronics. Leading contenders such as defects in diamond or individual phosphorus dopants in silicon have shown spectacular progress, but either lack established nanotechnology or an efficient spin/photon interface. Silicon carbide (SiC) combines the strength of both systems: it has a large bandgap with deep defects and benefits from mature fabrication techniques. Here, we report the characterization of photoluminescence and optical spin polarization from single silicon vacancies in SiC, and demonstrate that single spins can be addressed at room temperature. We show coherent control of a single defect spin and find long spin coherence times under ambient conditions. Our study provides evidence that SiC is a promising system for atomic-scale spintronics and quantum technology.

  5. Coherent control of single spins in silicon carbide at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Widmann, Matthias; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Son, Nguyen Tien; Fedder, Helmut; Paik, Seoyoung; Yang, Li-Ping; Zhao, Nan; Yang, Sen; Booker, Ian; Denisenko, Andrej; Jamali, Mohammad; Momenzadeh, S Ali; Gerhardt, Ilja; Ohshima, Takeshi; Gali, Adam; Janzén, Erik; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-02-01

    Spins in solids are cornerstone elements of quantum spintronics. Leading contenders such as defects in diamond or individual phosphorus dopants in silicon have shown spectacular progress, but either lack established nanotechnology or an efficient spin/photon interface. Silicon carbide (SiC) combines the strength of both systems: it has a large bandgap with deep defects and benefits from mature fabrication techniques. Here, we report the characterization of photoluminescence and optical spin polarization from single silicon vacancies in SiC, and demonstrate that single spins can be addressed at room temperature. We show coherent control of a single defect spin and find long spin coherence times under ambient conditions. Our study provides evidence that SiC is a promising system for atomic-scale spintronics and quantum technology. PMID:25437256

  6. Controlling the intrinsic bending of hetero-epitaxial silicon carbide micro-cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjbar Kermany, Atieh; Iacopi, Francesca

    2015-10-01

    We introduce a simple methodology to predict and tailor the intrinsic bending of a cantilever made of a single thin film of hetero-epitaxial silicon carbide grown on silicon. The combination of our novel method for the depth profiling of residual stress with a few nm resolution with finite element modelling allows for the prediction of the bending behaviour with great accuracy. We also demonstrate experimentally that a silicon carbide cantilever made of one distinct film type can be engineered to obtain the desired degree of either upward, flat, or downward bending, by selecting the appropriate thickness and cantilever geometry. A precise control of cantilever bending is crucial for microelectrical mechanical system applications such as micro-actuators, micro-switches, and resonant sensors.

  7. Controlled shallow single-ion implantation in silicon using an active substrate for sub-20-keV ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamieson, D. N.; Yang, C.; Hopf, T.; Hearne, S. M.; Pakes, C. I.; Prawer, S.; Mitic, M.; Gauja, E.; Andresen, S. E.; Hudson, F. E.; Dzurak, A. S.; Clark, R. G.

    2005-05-01

    We demonstrate a method for the controlled implantation of single ions into a silicon substrate with energy of sub-20-keV. The method is based on the collection of electron-hole pairs generated in the substrate by the impact of a single ion. We have used the method to implant single 14-keV P31 ions through nanoscale masks into silicon as a route to the fabrication of devices based on single donors in silicon.

  8. Development of high temperature gallium phosphide rectifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craford, M. G.; Keune, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Large area high performance, GaP rectifiers were fabricated by means of Zn diffusion into vapor phase epitaxial GaP. Devices with an active area of 0.01 sq cm typically exhibit forward voltages of 3 volts for a bias current of 1 ampere and have reverse breakdown voltages of 300 volts for temperatures from 27 C to 400 C. Typical device reverse saturation current at a reverse bias of 150 volts is less than 10 to the minus 9th power amp at 27 C and less than 0.000050 amp at 400 C.

  9. Silicon-Germanium Voltage-Controlled Oscillator at 105 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Alden; Larocca, Tim; Chang, M. Frank; Samoska, Lorene A.

    2011-01-01

    A group at UCLA, in collaboration with the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, has designed a voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) created specifically for a compact, integrated, electronically tunable frequency generator useable for submillimeter- wave science instruments operating in extreme cold environments.

  10. Single-shot readout and microwave control of an electron spin in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Andrea

    2011-03-01

    The electron spin of a donor in silicon is an excellent candidate for a solid-state qubit. It is known to have very long coherence and relaxation times in bulk, and several architectures have been proposed to integrate donor spin qubits with classical silicon microelectronics. Here we show the first experimental proof of single-shot readout of an electron spin in silicon. The device consists of implanted phosphorus donors, tunnel-coupled to a silicon Single-Electron Transistor (SET), where the SET island is used as a reservoir for spin-to-charge conversion. The large charge transfer signals allow readout fidelity > 90 % with 3 ? s response time. By measuring the occurrence of excited spin states as a function of wait time, we find spin lifetimes (T1) up to ~ 6 s at B = 1 . 5 T , and a magnetic-field dependence T1- 1 ~B5 consistent with that of phosphorus donors in silicon. In a subsequent experiment we have integrated the single-shot spin readout device with an on-chip microwave transmission line for coherent control of the electron spin. We have detected the spin resonance of a single electron, and observed two hyperfine-split resonance lines, consistent with Stark-shifted coupling to the 31P nuclear spin. Further experiments are underway to demonstrate coherent spin control and observe Rabi oscillations. This demonstrates the microwave control of a single spin, combined -- for the first time in the same experiment -- with electrically detected single-shot spin readout.

  11. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    SciTech Connect

    CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

    1999-10-25

    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  12. Controlling magnetic and electric dipole modes in hollow silicon nanocylinders.

    PubMed

    van de Haar, Marie Anne; van de Groep, Jorik; Brenny, Benjamin J M; Polman, Albert

    2016-02-01

    We propose a dielectric nanoresonator geometry consisting of hollow dielectric nanocylinders which support geometrical resonances. We fabricate such hollow Si particles with an outer diameter of 108-251 nm on a Si substrate, and determine their resonant modes with cathodo-luminescence (CL) spectroscopy and optical dark-field (DF) scattering measurements. The scattering behavior is numerically investigated in a systematic fashion as a function of wavelength and particle geometry. We find that the additional design parameter as a result of the introduction of a center gap can be used to control the relative spectral spacing of the resonant modes, which will enable additional control over the angular radiation pattern of the scatterers. Furthermore, the gap offers direct access to the enhanced magnetic dipole modal field in the center of the particle. PMID:26906780

  13. Wafer-scale synthesis of single-crystal zigzag silicon nanowire arrays with controlled turning angles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huan; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Lee, Chun-Sing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2010-03-10

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) having curved structures may have unique advantages in device fabrication. However, no methods are available to prepare curved SiNWs controllably. In this work, we report the preparation of three types of single-crystal SiNWs with various turning angles via metal-assisted chemical etching using (111)-oriented silicon wafers near room temperature. The zigzag SiNWs are single crystals and can be p- or n-doped using corresponding Si wafer as substrate. The controlled growth direction is attributed to the preferred movement of Ag nanoparticles along 001 and other directions in Si wafer. Our results demonstrate that metal-assisted chemical etching may be a viable approach to fabricate SiNWs with desired turning angles by utilizing the various crystalline directions in a Si wafer. PMID:20104856

  14. Quantum Entanglement and Spin Control in Silicon Nanocrystal

    PubMed Central

    Berec, Vesna

    2012-01-01

    Selective coherence control and electrically mediated exchange coupling of single electron spin between triplet and singlet states using numerically derived optimal control of proton pulses is demonstrated. We obtained spatial confinement below size of the Bohr radius for proton spin chain FWHM. Precise manipulation of individual spins and polarization of electron spin states are analyzed via proton induced emission and controlled population of energy shells in pure 29Si nanocrystal. Entangled quantum states of channeled proton trajectories are mapped in transverse and angular phase space of 29Si axial channel alignment in order to avoid transversal excitations. Proton density and proton energy as impact parameter functions are characterized in single particle density matrix via discretization of diagonal and nearest off-diagonal elements. We combined high field and low densities (1 MeV/92 nm) to create inseparable quantum state by superimposing the hyperpolarizationed proton spin chain with electron spin of 29Si. Quantum discretization of density of states (DOS) was performed by the Monte Carlo simulation method using numerical solutions of proton equations of motion. Distribution of gaussian coherent states is obtained by continuous modulation of individual spin phase and amplitude. Obtained results allow precise engineering and faithful mapping of spin states. This would provide the effective quantum key distribution (QKD) and transmission of quantum information over remote distances between quantum memory centers for scalable quantum communication network. Furthermore, obtained results give insights in application of channeled protons subatomic microscopy as a complete versatile scanning-probe system capable of both quantum engineering of charged particle states and characterization of quantum states below diffraction limit linear and in-depth resolution. PACS numbers: 03.65.Ud, 03.67.Bg, 61.85.+p, 67.30.hj PMID:23028884

  15. A molecular half-wave rectifier.

    PubMed

    Nijhuis, Christian A; Reus, William F; Siegel, Adam C; Whitesides, George M

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes the performance of junctions based on self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as the functional element of a half-wave rectifier (a simple circuit that converts, or rectifies, an alternating current (AC) signal to a direct current (DC) signal). Junctions with SAMs of 11-(ferrocenyl)-1-undecanethiol or 11-(biferrocenyl)-1-undecanethiol on ultraflat, template-stripped Ag (Ag(TS)) bottom electrodes, and contacted by top electrodes of eutectic indium-gallium (EGaIn), rectified AC signals, while similar junctions based on SAMs of 1-undecanethiol-SAMs lacking the ferrocenyl terminal group-did not. SAMs in these AC circuits (operating at 50 Hz) remain stable over a larger window of applied bias than in DC circuits. AC measurements, therefore, can investigate charge transport in SAM-based junctions at magnitudes of bias inaccessible to DC measurements. For junctions with SAMs of alkanethiols, combining the results from AC and DC measurements identifies two regimes of bias with different mechanisms of charge transport: (i) low bias (|V| < 1.3 V), at which direct tunneling dominates, and (ii) high bias (|V| > 1.3 V), at which Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling dominates. For junctions with SAMs terminated by Fc moieties, the transition to FN tunneling occurs at |V| ≈ 2.0 V. Furthermore, at sufficient forward bias (V > 0.5 V), hopping makes a significant contribution to charge transport and occurs in series with direct tunneling (V ≲ 2.0 V) until FN tunneling activates (V ≳ 2.0 V). Thus, for Fc-terminated SAMs at forward bias, three regimes are apparent: (i) direct tunneling (V = 0-0.5 V), (ii) hopping plus direct tunneling (V ≈ 0.5-2.0 V), and (iii) FN tunneling (V ≳ 2.0 V). Since hopping does not occur at reverse bias, only two regimes are present over the measured range of reverse bias. This difference in the mechanisms of charge transport at forward and reverse bias for junctions with Fc moieties resulted in large rectification ratios (R > 100) and enabled half-wave rectification. PMID:21842878

  16. 46 CFR 120.360 - Semiconductor rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiconductor rectifier systems. 120.360 Section 120.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.360 Semiconductor rectifier systems. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 129.360 - Semiconductor-rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semiconductor-rectifier systems. 129.360 Section 129.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.360 Semiconductor-rectifier systems. (a)...

  18. 46 CFR 120.360 - Semiconductor rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semiconductor rectifier systems. 120.360 Section 120.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.360 Semiconductor rectifier systems. (a)...

  19. 46 CFR 129.360 - Semiconductor-rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiconductor-rectifier systems. 129.360 Section 129.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.360 Semiconductor-rectifier systems. (a)...

  20. 46 CFR 129.360 - Semiconductor-rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Semiconductor-rectifier systems. 129.360 Section 129.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 129.360 Semiconductor-rectifier systems. (a)...

  1. 46 CFR 120.360 - Semiconductor rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Semiconductor rectifier systems. 120.360 Section 120.360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 120.360 Semiconductor rectifier systems. (a)...

  2. High-Efficiency Harmonically Terminated Diode and Transistor Rectifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberg, M; Reveyrand, T; Ramos, I; Falkenstein, EA; Popovic, Z

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of harmonically terminated high-efficiency power rectifiers and experimental validation on a class-C single Schottky-diode rectifier and a class-F-1 GaN transistor rectifier. The theory is based on a Fourier analysis of current and voltage waveforms, which arise across the rectifying element when different harmonic terminations are presented at its terminals. An analogy to harmonically terminated power amplifier (PA) theory is discussed. From the analysis, one can obtain an optimal value for the dc load given the RF circuit design. An upper limit on rectifier efficiency is derived for each case as a function of the device on-resistance. Measured results from fundamental frequency source-pull measurement of a Schottky diode rectifier with short-circuit terminations at the second and third harmonics are presented. A maximal device rectification efficiency of 72.8% at 2.45 GHz matches the theoretical prediction. A 2.14-GHz GaN HEMT rectifier is designed based on a class-F-1 PA. The gate of the transistor is terminated in an optimal impedance for self-synchronous rectification. Measurements of conversion efficiency and output dc voltage for varying gate RF impedance, dc load, and gate bias are shown with varying input RF power at the drain. The rectifier demonstrates an efficiency of 85% for a 10-W input RF power at the transistor drain with a dc voltage of 30 V across a 98-Omega resistor.

  3. Inward rectifier current noise in frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    DeCoursey, T E; Dempster, J; Hutter, O F

    1984-01-01

    Inwardly rectifying K+ currents were studied in cut muscle fibres from frogs using the Vaseline-gap voltage-clamp method. Both faces of the membrane were exposed to 120 mM-K+ methylsulphate solution. At small negative potentials, -10 and -21 mV, the current noise spectrum, after subtraction of a control spectrum at the zero current potential, could be fitted by a Lorentzian spectral component, usually with an additional 1/f component, where f is the frequency. At more negative potentials the 1/f component predominated. The zero frequency amplitude of the Lorentzian averaged 2.6 X 10(-24) A2 Hz-1 at -10 mV and 4.6 X 10(-24) A2 Hz-1 at -21 mV, with a mean half-power frequency, fc, of 34 Hz and 45 Hz, respectively. The time constant of the K+ current activation upon hyperpolarization agrees with that calculated from fc, and the Lorentzian disappears upon replacement of external K+ by tetraethylammonium (TEA+) or Rb+. Thus, the Lorentzian component appears to be ascribable to fluctuations originating in the inwardly rectifying mechanism. The noise spectra and macroscopic currents were interpreted by assuming that the inwardly rectifying K+ conductance is proportional to the product of two parameters: ps representing the state of the mechanism that gives rise to the observable macroscopic current relaxations and to the current fluctuations resulting in the observed Lorentzian spectra, and pf describing the instantaneous rectification of the single-channel conductance. Alternatively, pf may represent another mechanism in series with ps, but which fluctuates too rapidly to measure. Using this model the limiting single-channel conductance, gamma, was found to be approximately 9 pS. The corresponding specific density of channels is about 1 micron-2, assuming uniform distribution over all regions of the membrane. A preliminary value for gamma ( DeCoursey & Hutter , 1982) was derived without consideration of instantaneous rectification. Systematic errors in these results due to voltage decrement in the T-tubules are evaluated in an Appendix, and are found to be tolerably small in the voltage range studied. PMID:6330346

  4. Candidate locations for SPS rectifying antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, A. W.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of placing 120 Satellite Power System (SPS) rectifying antenna (rectenna) sites across the U.S. was studied. An initial attempt is made to put two land sites in each state using several land site selection criteria. When only 69 land sites are located, it is decided to put the remaining sites in the sea and sea site selection criteria are identified. An estimated projection of electrical demand distribution for the year 2000 is then used to determine the distribution of these sites along the Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts. A methodology for distributing rectenna sites across the country and for fine-tuning exact locations is developed, and recommendations on rectenna design and operations are made.

  5. Formation of size controlled silicon nanocrystals in nitrogen free silicon dioxide matrix prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Laube, J. Gutsch, S.; Hiller, D.; Zacharias, M.; Bruns, M.; Kübel, C.; Weiss, C.

    2014-12-14

    This paper reports the growth of silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) from SiH4–O{sub 2} plasma chemistry. The formation of an oxynitride was avoided by using O{sub 2} instead of the widely used N{sub 2}O as precursor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to prove the absence of nitrogen in the layers and determine the film stoichiometry. It is shown that the Si rich film growth is achieved via non-equilibrium deposition that resembles a interphase clusters mixture model. Photoluminescence and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy are used to monitor the formation process of the SiNCs, to reveal that the phase separation is completed at lower temperatures as for SiNCs based on oxynitrides. Additionally, transmission electron microscopy proves that the SiNC sizes are well controllable by superlattice configuration, and as a result, the optical emission band of the Si nanocrystal can be tuned over a wide range.

  6. Neural induction suppresses early expression of the inward-rectifier K+ channel in the ascidian blastomere.

    PubMed Central

    Okamura, Y; Takahashi, K

    1993-01-01

    1. Early expression of ion channels following neural induction was examined in isolated, cleavage-arrested blastomeres from the ascidian embryo using a two-electrode voltage clamp. Currents were recorded from the isolated, cleavage-arrested blastomere, a4-2, after treatment with serine protease, subtilisin, which induces neural differentiation as consistently as cell contact. 2. The inward-rectifier K+ current increased at the late gastrula stage shortly after the sensitive period for neural induction both in the induced (protease-treated) and uninduced cells. Ca2+ channels, characteristic of epidermal-type differentiation, and delayed-rectifier K+ channels and differentiated-type Na+ channels, characteristic of neural-type differentiation appeared much later than the inward-rectifier K+ channels, at a time corresponding to the tail bud stage of the intact embryo. 3. When cells were treated with subtilisin during the critical period for neural induction, the increase in the inward-rectifier K+ current from the late gastrula stage to the neurula stage was about three times smaller (3.67 +/- 1.74 nA, mean +/- S.D., n = 14) than in untreated cells (11.25 +/- 3.10 nA, n = 26). The same changes in the inward-rectifier K+ channel were also observed in a4 2 blastomeres which were induced by cell contact with an A4-1 blastomere. However, when cells were treated with subtilisin after the critical period for neural induction, the amplitude of the inward-rectifier K+ current was the same as in untreated cells. Thus the expressed level of the inward-rectifier K+ channel was linked to the determination of neural or epidermal cell types. 4. There was no significant difference in the input capacitance of induced and uninduced cells, indicating that the difference in the amplitude of the inward-rectifier K+ currents derived from a difference in the channel density rather than a difference in cell surface area. 5. The expression of the inward-rectifier K+ channel at the late gastrula stage was sensitive to alpha-amanitin, a highly specific transcription inhibitor. In both induced and uninduced cells, injection of alpha-amanitin at the 32-cell stage reduced the current density of the inward-rectifier K+ channel to about 2 nA/nF, corresponding to 13% of that recorded from uninjected cells. By contrast, the expression of the fast-inactivating-type Na+ current, which transiently increased along with the inward-rectifier K+ channel, was resistant to alpha-amanitin injection. 6. The dose of alpha-amanitin injected was controlled by monitoring co-injected fluorescent dye, fura-2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 11 PMID:8246182

  7. Lateral resistance reduction induced by light-controlled leak current in silicon-based Schottky junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuan-Hu; Zhang, Xu; Zou, Lv-Kuan; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Wen-Xin; Sun, Ji-Rong

    2015-10-01

    Lateral resistance of silicon-based p-type and n-type Schottky junctions is investigated. After one electrode on a metallic film is irradiated, the differential lateral resistance of the system is dependent on the direction of the bias current: it keeps constant in one direction and decreases in the opposite direction. By systematically investigating the electrical potential changes in silicon and the junction, we propose a new mechanism based on light-controlled leak current. Our work provides an insight into the nature of this phenomenon and will facilitate the advanced design of switchable devices. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921801) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 111374348).

  8. Gate-controlled-diodes in silicon-on-sapphire: A computer simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gassaway, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The computer simulation of the electrical behavior of a Gate-Controlled Diode (GCD) fabricated in Silicon-On-Sapphire (SOS) was described. A procedure for determining lifetime profiles from capacitance and reverse current measurements on the GCD was established. Chapter 1 discusses the SOS structure and points out the need of lifetime profiles to assist in device design for GCD's and bipolar transistors. Chapter 2 presents the one-dimensional analytical formula for electrostatic analysis of the SOS-GCD which are useful for data interpretation and setting boundary conditions on a simplified two-dimensional analysis. Chapter 3 gives the results of a two-dimensional analysis which treats the field as one-dimensional until the silicon film is depleted and the field penetrates the sapphire substrate. Chapter 4 describes a more complete two-dimensional model and gives results of programs implementing the model.

  9. Water/glycol temperature control circuit failed in the automatic mode: Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An anomaly report concerning failure of the water/glycol temperature control circuit during the Apollo 16 flight is presented. The anomaly is described and diagrams of the system are presented. The malfunction was caused by cracked semiconductor chips in the output silicon-controlled rectifier. Surface contamination in the crack allowed the device to self-gate on and remain on, resulting in a secondary failure of the feedback capacitor.

  10. Polypropylene vs silicone Ahmed valve with adjunctive mitomycin C in paediatric age group: a prospective controlled study

    PubMed Central

    El Sayed, Y; Awadein, A

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the results of silicone and polypropylene Ahmed glaucoma valves (AGV) implanted during the first 10 years of life. Methods A prospective study was performed on 50 eyes of 33 patients with paediatric glaucoma. Eyes were matched to either polypropylene or silicone AGV. In eyes with bilateral glaucoma, one eye was implanted with polypropylene and the other eye was implanted with silicone AGV. Results Fifty eyes of 33 children were reviewed. Twenty five eyes received a polypropylene valve, and 25 eyes received a silicone valve. Eyes implanted with silicone valves achieved a significantly lower intraocular pressure (IOP) compared with the polypropylene group at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years postoperatively. The average survival time was significantly longer (P=0.001 by the log-rank test) for the silicone group than for the polypropylene group and the cumulative probability of survival by the log-rank test at the end of the second year was 80% (SE: 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6496%) in the silicone group and 56% (SE: 9.8, 95% CI: 4090%) in the polypropylene group. The difference in the number of postoperative interventions and complications between both groups was statistically insignificant. Conclusion Silicone AGVs can achieve better IOP control, and longer survival with less antiglaucoma drops compared with polypropylene valves in children younger than 10 years. PMID:23579403

  11. Silicon oxide nanowires: facile and controlled large area fabrication of vertically oriented silicon oxide nanowires for photoluminescence and sensor applications.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Taiwo R; Yuan, Dajun; Bucknall, David; Das, Suman

    2013-09-25

    We describe a technique for the fabrication of dense and patterned arrays of aligned silicon oxide nanowires for applications in surface modification, optoelectronic, and electromechanical based devices. Conventional techniques for the fabrication of silicon oxide nanowires based on the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes involve the use of high temperatures and catalysts. We demonstrate a technique that extends the use of a plasma thermal reactive ion etching for the fabrication of aligned silicon oxide nanowires with aspect ratios extending up to 20 and lengths exceeding 1 ?m. The process incorporates phase separated PS-b-P4VP block copolymer loaded with an iron salt. The iron salt preferentially segregates into the P4VP layer and during an O2 etch is not removed but forms a hexagonally packed array on the silicon oxide substrate. Further etching with CHF3/O2 gas mixture over time can generate nanodots, to nanopillars, and then nanowires of silicon oxide. The photoluminescence property of the as-fabricated nanowire arrays as well as the parasitic ferromagnetic effect from the iron oxide-tipped section of the wires resulting in coalescence under an scanning electron microscope (SEM) are demonstrated. This technique is simpler compared to existing VLS fabrication approaches and can be used for the direct fabrication of patterned arrays of nanowires when a laser interference ablation step is incorporated into the fabrication procedure. PMID:23915216

  12. Guiding Principle of Energy Level Controllability of Silicon Dangling Bonds in HfSiON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, Naoto; Shiraishi, Kenji; Miyazaki, Seiichi; Uedono, Akira; Akasaka, Yasushi; Inumiya, Seiji; Hasunuma, Ryu; Yamabe, Kikuo; Momida, Hiroyoshi; Ohno, Takahisa; Ohmori, Kenji; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Nara, Yasuo; Yamada, Keisaku

    2007-04-01

    Silicon dangling bonds (Si-DBs) in HfSiOx have been studied using first-principles calculations. Interestingly, our computational result revealed that the Si-DB-related gap state in HfSiOx locates in a much lower energy region than that in SiOx. This is because Hf atoms enhance the ionic character of the HfSiOx film, which in turn induces a positive charge at the Si site. We consider that the low-lying Si-DB level, which is now very near the N 2p state, contributes to the formation of strong Si-N bonds in HfSiON. The lower shift of the Si-DB level upon cation metal inclusion can be useful information not only for improving the electric properties of high-k gate stacks but also for developing prominent silicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) nonvolatile memories where controllability of the charge trap level is a crucial issue.

  13. Self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Ian D.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Nicols, Samuel P.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, John L.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Haller, Eugene E.

    2002-04-01

    Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. {sup 30}Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched {sup 28}Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850 C and 1100 C. A specially designed ion- implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.

  14. A CMOS microdisplay with integrated controller utilizing improved silicon hot carrier luminescent light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, Petrus J.; Alberts, Antonie C.; du Plessis, Monuko; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen; Goosen, Marius E.; Janse van Rensburg, Christo; Rademeyer, Pieter; Fauré, Nicolaas M.

    2013-03-01

    Microdisplay technology, the miniaturization and integration of small displays for various applications, is predominantly based on OLED and LCoS technologies. Silicon light emission from hot carrier electroluminescence has been shown to emit light visibly perceptible without the aid of any additional intensification, although the electrical to optical conversion efficiency is not as high as the technologies mentioned above. For some applications, this drawback may be traded off against the major cost advantage and superior integration opportunities offered by CMOS microdisplays using integrated silicon light sources. This work introduces an improved version of our previously published microdisplay by making use of new efficiency enhanced CMOS light emitting structures and an increased display resolution. Silicon hot carrier luminescence is often created when reverse biased pn-junctions enter the breakdown regime where impact ionization results in carrier transport across the junction. Avalanche breakdown is typically unwanted in modern CMOS processes. Design rules and process design are generally tailored to prevent breakdown, while the voltages associated with breakdown are too high to directly interact with the rest of the CMOS standard library. This work shows that it is possible to lower the operating voltage of CMOS light sources without compromising the optical output power. This results in more efficient light sources with improved interaction with other standard library components. This work proves that it is possible to create a reasonably high resolution microdisplay while integrating the active matrix controller and drivers on the same integrated circuit die without additional modifications, in a standard CMOS process.

  15. Precision envelope detector and linear rectifier circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Thomas J. (Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for the precise linear rectification and envelope detection of oscillatory signals. The signal is applied to a voltage-to-current converter which supplies current to a constant current sink. The connection between the converter and the sink is also applied through a diode and an output load resistor to a ground connection. The connection is also connected to ground through a second diode of opposite polarity from the diode in series with the load resistor. Very small amplitude voltage signals applied to the converter will cause a small change in the output current of the converter, and the difference between the output current and the constant current sink will be applied either directly to ground through the single diode, or across the output load resistor, dependent upon the polarity. Disclosed also is a full-wave rectifier utilizing constant current sinks and voltage-to-current converters. Additionally, disclosed is a combination of the voltage-to-current converters with differential integrated circuit preamplifiers to boost the initial signal amplitude, and with low pass filtering applied so as to obtain a video or signal envelope output.

  16. Nitrate-Dependent Control of Shoot K Homeostasis by the Nitrate Transporter1/Peptide Transporter Family Member NPF7.3/NRT1.5 and the Stelar K+ Outward Rectifier SKOR in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Drechsler, Navina; Zheng, Yue; Bohner, Anne; Nobmann, Barbara; von Wirn, Nicolaus; Kunze, Reinhard; Rausch, Christine

    2015-12-01

    Root-to-shoot translocation and shoot homeostasis of potassium (K) determine nutrient balance, growth, and stress tolerance of vascular plants. To maintain the cation-anion balance, xylem loading of K(+) in the roots relies on the concomitant loading of counteranions, like nitrate (NO3 (-)). However, the coregulation of these loading steps is unclear. Here, we show that the bidirectional, low-affinity Nitrate Transporter1 (NRT1)/Peptide Transporter (PTR) family member NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is important for the NO3 (-)-dependent K(+) translocation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Lack of NPF7.3/NRT1.5 resulted in K deficiency in shoots under low NO3 (-) nutrition, whereas the root elemental composition was unchanged. Gene expression data corroborated K deficiency in the nrt1.5-5 shoot, whereas the root responded with a differential expression of genes involved in cation-anion balance. A grafting experiment confirmed that the presence of NPF7.3/NRT1.5 in the root is a prerequisite for proper root-to-shoot translocation of K(+) under low NO3 (-) supply. Because the depolarization-activated Stelar K(+) Outward Rectifier (SKOR) has previously been described as a major contributor for root-to-shoot translocation of K(+) in Arabidopsis, we addressed the hypothesis that NPF7.3/NRT1.5-mediated NO3 (-) translocation might affect xylem loading and root-to-shoot K(+) translocation through SKOR. Indeed, growth of nrt1.5-5 and skor-2 single and double mutants under different K/NO3 (-) regimes revealed that both proteins contribute to K(+) translocation from root to shoot. SKOR activity dominates under high NO3 (-) and low K(+) supply, whereas NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is required under low NO3 (-) availability. This study unravels nutritional conditions as a critical factor for the joint activity of SKOR and NPF7.3/NRT1.5 for shoot K homeostasis. PMID:26508776

  17. Nitrate-Dependent Control of Shoot K Homeostasis by the Nitrate Transporter1/Peptide Transporter Family Member NPF7.3/NRT1.5 and the Stelar K+ Outward Rectifier SKOR in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Drechsler, Navina; Zheng, Yue; Nobmann, Barbara; Rausch, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Root-to-shoot translocation and shoot homeostasis of potassium (K) determine nutrient balance, growth, and stress tolerance of vascular plants. To maintain the cation-anion balance, xylem loading of K+ in the roots relies on the concomitant loading of counteranions, like nitrate (NO3−). However, the coregulation of these loading steps is unclear. Here, we show that the bidirectional, low-affinity Nitrate Transporter1 (NRT1)/Peptide Transporter (PTR) family member NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is important for the NO3−-dependent K+ translocation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Lack of NPF7.3/NRT1.5 resulted in K deficiency in shoots under low NO3− nutrition, whereas the root elemental composition was unchanged. Gene expression data corroborated K deficiency in the nrt1.5-5 shoot, whereas the root responded with a differential expression of genes involved in cation-anion balance. A grafting experiment confirmed that the presence of NPF7.3/NRT1.5 in the root is a prerequisite for proper root-to-shoot translocation of K+ under low NO3− supply. Because the depolarization-activated Stelar K+ Outward Rectifier (SKOR) has previously been described as a major contributor for root-to-shoot translocation of K+ in Arabidopsis, we addressed the hypothesis that NPF7.3/NRT1.5-mediated NO3− translocation might affect xylem loading and root-to-shoot K+ translocation through SKOR. Indeed, growth of nrt1.5-5 and skor-2 single and double mutants under different K/NO3− regimes revealed that both proteins contribute to K+ translocation from root to shoot. SKOR activity dominates under high NO3− and low K+ supply, whereas NPF7.3/NRT1.5 is required under low NO3− availability. This study unravels nutritional conditions as a critical factor for the joint activity of SKOR and NPF7.3/NRT1.5 for shoot K homeostasis. PMID:26508776

  18. Compensation of power factor in rectifier systems utilized in oil drilling rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Caldeira, P.P.A.; Watanabe, E.H.

    1988-03-01

    A detailed analysis of the power factor in three-phase rectifier systems utilized in oil drilling rigs is presented and the use of the thyristor-controlled reactor (TCR)/fixed capacitor is proposed as a solution to improve factor in these systems. The input/output mathematical models for the conventional full-bridge and modified converter (as proposed by Stefanovic) are presented for all firing angles and various types of load. Advantages of utilizing the power-factor compensation in oil drilling rigs, such as fuel and maintenance costs savings, the possibility of turning off one or more prime movers, and improvement in the diesel engine loading characteristics, are shown. The study was primarily developed for power-factor correction in oil drilling rigs but can be used in most industrial three-phase controlled rectifier systems.

  19. Electrically conductive, black thermal control coatings for space craft application. II - Silicone matrix formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hribar, V. F.; Bauer, J. L.; O'Donnell, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Five black electrically conductive thermal-control coatings have been formulated and tested for application on the Galileo spacecraft. The coatings consisted of organic and inorganic systems applied on titanium and aluminum surfaces. The coatings were tested under simulated space environment conditions. Coated specimens were subjected to thermal radiation and convective and conductive heating from -196 to 538 C. Mechanical, physical, thermal, electrical, and optical characteristics, formulation, mixing, application, surface preparation of substrates, and a method of determining electrical resistance are presented for the silicone matrix formulation designated as GF-580.

  20. Pore Size Control of Ultra-thin Silicon Membranes by Rapid Thermal Carbonization

    PubMed Central

    Fang, David Z.; Striemer, Christopher C.; Gaborski, Thomas R.; McGrath, James L.; Fauchet, Philippe M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid thermal carbonization in a dilute acetylene (C2H2) atmosphere has been used to chemically modify and precisely tune the pore size of ultrathin porous nanocrystalline silicon (pnc-Si). The magnitude of size reduction was controlled by varying the process temperature and time. Under certain conditions, the carbon coating displayed atomic ordering indicative of graphene layer formation conformal to the pore walls. Initial experiments show that carbonized membranes follow theoretical predictions for hydraulic permeability and retain the precise separation capabilities of untreated membranes. PMID:20839831

  1. Maximal rectification ratios for idealized bi-segment thermal rectifiers

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Tien-Mo; Gao, Zhaojing; Guo, Ziquan; Merlitz, Holger; Pagni, Patrick J.; Chen, Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Thermal rectifiers whose forward heat fluxes are greater than reverse counterparts have been extensively studied. Here we have discovered, idealized, and derived the ultimate limit of such rectification ratios, which are partially validated by numerical simulations, experiments, and micro-scale Hamiltonian-oscillator analyses. For rectifiers whose thermal conductivities (κ) are linear with the temperature, this limit is simply a numerical value of 3. For those whose conductivities are nonlinear with temperatures, the maxima equal κmax/κmin, where two extremes denote values of the solid segment materials that can be possibly found or fabricated within a reasonable temperature range. Recommendations for manufacturing high-ratio rectifiers are also given with examples. Under idealized assumptions, these proposed rectification limits cannot be defied by any bi-segment thermal rectifiers. PMID:26238970

  2. 99. POWER DISTRIBUTION UNITS FOR BATTERIES AND RECTIFIERS, NORTHEAST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. POWER DISTRIBUTION UNITS FOR BATTERIES AND RECTIFIERS, NORTHEAST SIDE OF LANDLINE INSTRUMENTATION ROOM (106), LSB (BLDG. 770) - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. Controlling the spectrum of photons generated on a silicon nanophotonic chip

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ranjeet; Ong, Jun Rong; Savanier, Marc; Mookherjea, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    Directly modulated semiconductor lasers are widely used, compact light sources in optical communications. Semiconductors can also be used to generate nonclassical light; in fact, CMOS-compatible silicon chips can be used to generate pairs of single photons at room temperature. Unlike the classical laser, the photon-pair source requires control over a two-dimensional joint spectral intensity (JSI) and it is not possible to process the photons separately, as this could destroy the entanglement. Here we design a photon-pair source, consisting of planar lightwave components fabricated using CMOS-compatible lithography in silicon, which has the capability to vary the JSI. By controlling either the optical pump wavelength, or the temperature of the chip, we demonstrate the ability to select different JSIs, with a large variation in the Schmidt number. Such control can benefit high-dimensional communications where detector-timing constraints can be relaxed by realizing a large Schmidt number in a small frequency range. PMID:25410792

  4. Single-Phase Voltage-Quadrupler Rectifier Using Only One Dual-Switch Power Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Ryozo; Ishizaka, Kouichi; Neba, Yasuhiko; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Haraguchi, Takahiro

    A single-phase voltage-quadrupler rectifier using only one dual-switch power module is presented. This is based on the half-bridge converter and the higher output voltage can easily be obtained by introducing the pumping action. The prototype, employing a power module with two insulated-gate bipolar transistors, is implemented. The experimental results under the current-mode control confirm that the input current can be wave-shaped sinusoidally with a near-unity power factor.

  5. Controllable electrical and physical breakdown of poly-crystalline silicon nanowires by thermally assisted electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Young; Moon, Dong-Il; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Park, Sang-Jae; Lee, Hee Chul; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The importance of poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) in semiconductor manufacturing is rapidly increasing due to its highly controllable conductivity and excellent, uniform deposition quality. With the continuing miniaturization of electronic components, low dimensional structures such as 1-dimensional nanowires (NWs) have attracted a great deal of attention. But such components have a much higher current density than 2- or 3- dimensional films, and high current can degrade device lifetime and lead to breakdown problems. Here, we report on the electrical and thermal characteristics of poly-Si NWs, which can also be used to control electrical and physical breakdown under high current density. This work reports a controllable catastrophic change of poly-Si NWs by thermally-assisted electromigration and underlying mechanisms. It also reports the direct and real time observation of these catastrophic changes of poly-Si nanowires for the first time, using scanning electron microscopy.

  6. Outdoor performance stability and controlled light-soak testing of amorphous silicon multijunction modules at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Mrig, L.; Burdick, J.; Luft, W.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been testing amorphous silicon (a-Si) Photovoltaic (PV) modules for more than a decade. NREL has been conducting controlled light-soak testing of multifunction a-Si modules to characterize their performance for stability evaluation as well as to benchmark the technology status. Some of the test modules, after controlled light-soak testing, have been installed outdoors. The authors have observed that under outdoor exposure, the modules further degrade in performance, possibly due to lower outdoor temperatures and varying spectra. The paper presents data on the light-induced degradation for the third controlled light-soak test on multijunction a-Si modules as well as outdoor performance data on single and multijunction modules under prevailing conditions.

  7. Controllable electrical and physical breakdown of poly-crystalline silicon nanowires by thermally assisted electromigration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jun-Young; Moon, Dong-Il; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Park, Sang-Jae; Lee, Hee Chul; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The importance of poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) in semiconductor manufacturing is rapidly increasing due to its highly controllable conductivity and excellent, uniform deposition quality. With the continuing miniaturization of electronic components, low dimensional structures such as 1-dimensional nanowires (NWs) have attracted a great deal of attention. But such components have a much higher current density than 2- or 3- dimensional films, and high current can degrade device lifetime and lead to breakdown problems. Here, we report on the electrical and thermal characteristics of poly-Si NWs, which can also be used to control electrical and physical breakdown under high current density. This work reports a controllable catastrophic change of poly-Si NWs by thermally-assisted electromigration and underlying mechanisms. It also reports the direct and real time observation of these catastrophic changes of poly-Si nanowires for the first time, using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26782708

  8. Controllable electrical and physical breakdown of poly-crystalline silicon nanowires by thermally assisted electromigration.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun-Young; Moon, Dong-Il; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Jeon, Chang-Hoon; Jeon, Gwang-Jae; Han, Jin-Woo; Kim, Choong-Ki; Park, Sang-Jae; Lee, Hee Chul; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    The importance of poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si) in semiconductor manufacturing is rapidly increasing due to its highly controllable conductivity and excellent, uniform deposition quality. With the continuing miniaturization of electronic components, low dimensional structures such as 1-dimensional nanowires (NWs) have attracted a great deal of attention. But such components have a much higher current density than 2- or 3- dimensional films, and high current can degrade device lifetime and lead to breakdown problems. Here, we report on the electrical and thermal characteristics of poly-Si NWs, which can also be used to control electrical and physical breakdown under high current density. This work reports a controllable catastrophic change of poly-Si NWs by thermally-assisted electromigration and underlying mechanisms. It also reports the direct and real time observation of these catastrophic changes of poly-Si nanowires for the first time, using scanning electron microscopy. PMID:26782708

  9. Phosphoinositide regulation of inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels

    PubMed Central

    Frst, Oliver; Mondou, Benoit; D'Avanzo, Nazzareno

    2014-01-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels are integral membrane proteins charged with a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential of excitable cells through selective control of the permeation of K+ ions across cell membranes. In conjunction with secondary anionic phospholipids, members of this family are directly regulated by phosphoinositides (PIPs) in the absence of other proteins or downstream signaling pathways. Different Kir isoforms display distinct specificities for the activating PIPs but all eukaryotic Kir channels are activated by PI(4,5)P2. On the other hand, the bacterial KirBac1.1 channel is inhibited by PIPs. Recent crystal structures of eukaryotic Kir channels in apo and lipid bound forms reveal one specific binding site per subunit, formed at the interface of N- and C-terminal domains, just beyond the transmembrane segments and clearly involving some of the key residues previously identified as controlling PI(4,5)P2 sensitivity. Computational, biochemical, and biophysical approaches have attempted to address the energetic determinants of PIP binding and selectivity among Kir channel isoforms, as well as the conformational changes that trigger channel gating. Here we review our current understanding of the molecular determinants of PIP regulation of Kir channel activity, including in context with other lipid modulators, and provide further discussion on the key questions that remain to be answered. PMID:24409153

  10. Wireless power transmission for biomedical implants: The role of near-zero threshold CMOS rectifiers.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Ali; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet R

    2015-08-01

    Biomedical implants require an electronic power conditioning circuitry to provide a stable electrical power supply. The efficiency of wireless power transmission is strongly dependent on the power conditioning circuitry specifically the rectifier. A cross-connected CMOS bridge rectifier is implemented to demonstrate the impact of thresholds of rectifiers on wireless power transfer. The performance of the proposed rectifier is experimentally compared with a conventional Schottky diode full wave rectifier over 9cm distance of air and tissue medium between the transmitter and receiver. The output voltage generated by the CMOS rectifier across a 1K? resistive load is around twice as much as the Schottky rectifier. PMID:26737525

  11. Silicon microgyroscope temperature prediction and control system based on BP neural network and Fuzzy-PID control method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Kong, Lun; Hu, Yiwei; Ni, Peizhen

    2015-02-01

    We present a novel silicon microgyroscope (SMG) temperature prediction and control system in a narrow space. As the temperature of SMG is closely related to its drive mode frequency and driving voltage, a temperature prediction model can be established based on the BP neural network. The simulation results demonstrate that the established temperature prediction model can estimate the temperature in the range of -40 to 60?C with an error of less than 0.05?C. Then, a temperature control system based on the combination of fuzzy logic controller and the increment PID control method is proposed. The simulation results prove that the Fuzzy-PID controller has a smaller steady state error, less rise time and better robustness than the PID controller. This is validated by experimental results that show the Fuzzy-PID control method can achieve high precision in keeping the SMG temperature stable at 55?C with an error of less than 0.2?C. The scale factor can be stabilized at 8.7?mV//s with a temperature coefficient of 33?ppm?C-1. ZRO (zero rate output) instability is decreased from 1.10/s (9.5?mV) to 0.08/s (0.7?mV) when the temperature control system is implemented over an ambient temperature range of -40 to 60?C.

  12. Silicon-based current-controlled reconfigurable magnetoresistance logic combined with non-volatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaozhong; Luo, Zhaochu

    2015-03-01

    Silicon-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors have achieved great success. However, the traditional development pathway is approaching its fundamental limits. Magnetoelectronics logic, especially magnetic-field-based logic, shows promise for surpassing the development limits of CMOS logic. Existing proposals of magnetic-field-based logic are based on exotic semiconductors and difficult for further technological implementation. We proposed a kind of diode-assisted geometry-enhanced low-magnetic-field magnetoresistance (MR) mechanism. It couples p-n junction's nonlinear transport characteristic and Lorentz force by geometry, and shows extremely large low-magnetic-field MR (>120% at 0.15 T) Further, it is applied to experimentally demonstrate current-controlled reconfigurable MR logic on the silicon platform at room temperature. This logic device could perform Boolean logic AND, OR, NAND and NOR in one device. Combined with non-volatile magnetic memory, this logic architecture has the advantages of current-controlled reconfiguration, zero refresh consumption, instant-on performance and would bridge the processor-memory gap.

  13. Control of the Pore Texture in Nanoporous Silicon via Chemical Dissolution.

    PubMed

    Secret, Emilie; Wu, Chia-Chen; Chaix, Arnaud; Galarneau, Anne; Gonzalez, Philippe; Cot, Didier; Sailor, Michael J; Jestin, Jacques; Zanotti, Jean-Marc; Cunin, Frdrique; Coasne, Benoit

    2015-07-28

    The surface and textural properties of porous silicon (pSi) control many of its physical properties essential to its performance in key applications such as optoelectronics, energy storage, luminescence, sensing, and drug delivery. Here, we combine experimental and theoretical tools to demonstrate that the surface roughness at the nanometer scale of pSi can be tuned in a controlled fashion using partial thermal oxidation followed by removal of the resulting silicon oxide layer with hydrofluoric acid (HF) solution. Such a process is shown to smooth the pSi surface by means of nitrogen adsorption, electron microscopy, and small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering. Statistical mechanics Monte Carlo simulations, which are consistent with the experimental data, support the interpretation that the pore surface is initially rough and that the oxidation/oxide removal procedure diminishes the surface roughness while increasing the pore diameter. As a specific example considered in this work, the initial roughness ? ? 3.2 nm of pSi pores having a diameter of 7.6 nm can be decreased to 1.0 nm following the simple procedure above. This study allows envisioning the design of pSi samples with optimal surface properties toward a specific process. PMID:26135844

  14. Robust Two-Qubit Gates for Donors in Silicon Controlled by Hyperfine Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalra, Rachpon; Laucht, Arne; Hill, Charles D.; Morello, Andrea; CentreQuantum Computation; Communication Technology, Australia Team

    2015-03-01

    The electron spin of a single atom in silicon is an excellent candidate for the building-block of a quantum computer. Recent breakthrough experiments have shown an individual phosphorus impurity atom can be used to store and elaborate one bit of quantum information. To continue along this exciting path, it is necessary to couple multiple phosphorus atoms in a controllable way and demonstrate quantum logic operations between pairs of qubits. This was thought to require exquisite control of their mutual interaction, and atomically-precise placement of the spins. Our work shows that the nuclei, to which the electrons are bound, can be exploited to enable a logic operation based on selective resonant excitation. This operation has the enormous advantage that the inter-qubit interaction does not require any modification. Our calculations show that high-fidelity operations can be performed while tolerating a rather wide range of distances between atoms. This drastically reduces the demands posed on device fabrication, paving the way forward for large-scale quantum-information processing in silicon. Funded by the Australian Research Council (CE11E000127) and the U.S. Army Research Office (W911NF-13-1-0024).

  15. Precision control of thermal transport in cryogenic single-crystal silicon devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-03-28

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path ℓ is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than ℓ, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 5–10 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 μm. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order ℓ, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of ±8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  16. Precision Control of Thermal Transport in Cryogenic Single-Crystal Silicon Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostem, K.; Chuss, D. T.; Colazo, F. A.; Crowe, E. J.; Denis, K. L.; Lourie, N. P.; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, T. R.; Wollack, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the diffusive-ballistic thermal conductance of multi-moded single-crystal silicon beams measured below 1 K. It is shown that the phonon mean-free-path is a strong function of the surface roughness characteristics of the beams. This effect is enhanced in diffuse beams with lengths much larger than, even when the surface is fairly smooth, 510 nm rms, and the peak thermal wavelength is 0.6 microns. Resonant phonon scattering has been observed in beams with a pitted surface morphology and characteristic pit depth of 30 nm. Hence, if the surface roughness is not adequately controlled, the thermal conductance can vary significantly for diffuse beams fabricated across a wafer. In contrast, when the beam length is of order, the conductance is dominated by ballistic transport and is effectively set by the beam cross-sectional area. We have demonstrated a uniformity of +/-8% in fractional deviation for ballistic beams, and this deviation is largely set by the thermal conductance of diffuse beams that support the micro-electro-mechanical device and electrical leads. In addition, we have found no evidence for excess specific heat in single-crystal silicon membranes. This allows for the precise control of the device heat capacity with normal metal films. We discuss the results in the context of the design and fabrication of large-format arrays of far-infrared and millimeter wavelength cryogenic detectors.

  17. Fabrication of Size-Controlled Gold Nanoparticles on Silicone Oil Surface and Mechanism for Size-Controllability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuhang; Feng, Yuanxin

    2015-07-01

    By thermal evaporation method, size-controlled gold (Au) nanoparticles were fabricated on silicone oil surface and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) study showed that quasi-circular granules with height of 10.0 nm and diameter of 60.0 nm were formed on the oil surface, which was independent with substrate temperature Ts. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation revealed that the granules were further composed of Au nanoparticles. By changing Ts from 285 to 343 K, the mean diameter of nanoparticles can be well manipulated from 7.2 0.7 to 10.1 1.0 nm. The one dimensional power spectra density analysis and high resolution TEM study demonstrated that the origin of the size-controllability of the Au nanoparticles were dominated by the simple aggregation of small nanoparticles. Subsequently, a sequential growth model for Au nanoparticle was presented.

  18. Rectifying thermal fluctuations: Minimal pumping and Maxwell's demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Dibyendu

    Molecular complexes with movable components form the basis of nanoscale machines. Their inherent stochastic nature makes it a challenge to generate any controllable movement. Rather than fighting these fluctuations, one can utilize them by the periodic modulation of system parameters, or stochastic pumping. For the no-pumping theorem (NPT), which establishes minimal conditions for directed pumping, we present a simplified proof using an elementary graph theoretical construction. Motivated by recent experiments, we propose a new class of "hybrid" models combining elements of both the purely discrete and purely continuous descriptions prevalent in the field. We formulate the NPT in this hybrid framework to give a detailed justification of the original experiment observation. We also present an extension of the NPT to open stochastic systems. Next we consider the paradox of "Maxwell's demon," an imaginary intelligent being that rectifies thermal fluctuations in a manner that seems to violate the second law of thermodynamics. We present two exactly solvable, autonomous models that can reproduce the actions of the demon. Of necessity, both of these models write information on a memory device as part of their operation. By exposing their explicit, transparent mechanisms, our models offer simple paradigms to investigate the autonomous rectification of thermal fluctuations and the thermodynamics of information processing.

  19. Accurate control of oxygen level in cells during culture on silicone rubber membranes with application to stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Powers, Daryl E; Millman, Jeffrey R; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Rappel, Michael J; Colton, Clark K

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen level in mammalian cell culture is often controlled by placing culture vessels in humidified incubators with a defined gas phase partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2gas)). Because the cells are consuming oxygen supplied by diffusion, a difference between pO(2gas) and that experienced by the cells (pO(2cell)) arises, which is maximal when cells are cultured in vessels with little or no oxygen permeability. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that highly oxygen-permeable silicone rubber membranes can be used to control pO(2cell) during culture of cells in monolayers and aggregates much more accurately and can achieve more rapid transient response following a disturbance than on polystyrene and fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer membranes. Cell attachment on silicone rubber was achieved by physical adsorption of fibronectin or Matrigel. We use these membranes for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to cardiomyocytes and compare the results with culture on polystyrene or on silicone rubber on top of polystyrene. The fraction of cells that are cardiomyocyte-like increases with decreasing pO(2) only when using oxygen-permeable silicone membrane-based dishs, which contract on silicone rubber but not polystyrene. The high permeability of silicone rubber results in pO(2cell) being equal to pO(2gas) at the tissue-membrane interface. This, together with geometric information from histological sections, facilitates development of a model from which the pO(2) distribution within the resulting aggregates is computed. Silicone rubber membranes have significant advantages over polystyrene in controlling pO(2cell), and these results suggest they are a valuable tool for investigating pO(2) effects in many applications, such as stem cell differentiation. PMID:20039374

  20. Precise Depth Control of Silicon Etching Using Chlorine Atomic Layer Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Duk; Min, Kyung-Suk; Yoon, Byoung-Young; Lee, Do-Haing; Yeom, Geun-Young

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the atomic layer etching (ALE) of Si was carried out using Cl2 adsorption followed by Ar+ ion beam irradiation with a low energy Ar+ ion beam generated by an inductively coupled plasma ion gun. A saturated silicon etch rate due to chlorine ALE could be obtained when the Ar+ ion acceleration voltage of the ion gun was in the range of 70 to 90 V, as a result of the preferential etching of silicon chloride formed during the chlorine adsorption period by the Ar+ ions while the silicon sputter etch rate remains insignificant. This was attributed to the differences in the silicon-to-silicon and silicon-to-silicon chloride binding energies. The saturated silicon etch rate by ALE was dependent on the chlorine flow rate, i.e. the surface coverage of chlorine and the Ar+ ion irradiation time. In this experiment, a silicon etch rate of 1.36 /cycle, which is a (100) silicon monolayer per cycle, could be obtained by flowing more than 10 sccm chlorine gas followed by bombarding the surface by Ar+ ions with an acceleration voltage of 70 V for more than 40 seconds. Under this condition, when a 30 nm scale silicon etch profile was examined after 200 cycles, a silicon etch profile with no undercut could be obtained.

  1. Chemically doped random network carbon nanotube p-n junction diode for rectifier.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Chandan; Lee, Si Young; Ly, Thuc Hue; Ghosh, Arunabha; Dang, Quoc Nguyen; Lee, Young Hee

    2011-12-27

    Semiconductors with higher carrier mobility and carrier density are required to fabricate a p-n junction diode for high-speed device operation and high-frequency signal processing. Here, we use a chemically doped semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) random network for a field effect transistor (FET) and demonstrate a rectifier operated at a wide range of frequencies by fabricating a p-n junction diode. The p-n diode was fabricated by using a pristine p-type SWCNT-FET where half was covered by SiO(2) and the other half was chemically doped by using benzyl viologen molecules, which was converted into an n-type channel. The half-wave rectifier of the random network SWCNT p-n junction diode clearly highlights the device operation under high input signal frequencies up to 10 MHz with very low output distortion, which a commercial silicon p-n junction diode cannot access. These results indicate that the random network SWCNT p-n junction diodes can be used as building blocks of complex circuits in a range of applications in microelectronics, optoelectronics, sensors, and other systems. PMID:22040293

  2. Novel micropatterns mechanically control fibrotic reactions at the surface of silicone implants.

    PubMed

    Majd, Hicham; Scherer, Saja S; Boo, Stellar; Ramondetti, Silvio; Cambridge, Elizabeth; Raffoul, Wassim; Friedrich, Michael; Pittet, Brigitte; Pioletti, Dominique; Hinz, Boris; Pietramaggiori, Giorgio

    2015-06-01

    Over the past decade, various implantable devices have been developed to treat diseases that were previously difficult to manage such diabetes, chronic pain, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, translation of these novel technologies into clinical practice is often difficult because fibrotic encapsulation and/or rejection impairs device function after body implantation. Ideally, cells of the host tissue should perceive the surface of the implant being similar to the normal extracellular matrix. Here, we developed an innovative approach to provide implant surfaces with adhesive protein micropatterns. The patterns were designed to promote adhesion of fibroblasts and macrophages by simultaneously suppressing fibrogenic activation of both cell types. In a rat model, subcutaneously implanted silicone pads provided with the novel micropatterns caused 6-fold lower formation of inflammatory giant cells compared with clinical grade, uncoated, or collagen-coated silicone implants. We further show that micropatterning of implants resulted in 2-3-fold reduced numbers of pro-fibrotic myofibroblast by inhibiting their mechanical activation. Our novel approach allows controlled cell attachment to implant surfaces, representing a critical advance for enhanced biointegration of implantable medical devices. PMID:25907047

  3. An ultra-low-voltage rectifier for PE energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jingmin, Wang; Zheng, Yang; Zhangming, Zhu; Yintang, Yang

    2016-02-01

    An ultra low voltage rectifier with high power conversion efficiency (PCE) for PE energy harvesting applications is presented in this paper. This is achieved by utilizing the DTMOS which the body terminal is connected to the gate terminal in a diode connected transistor. This implementation facilitates the rectifier with dynamic control over the threshold voltage. Moreover, we use input powered to take the place of output powered to reduce the power loss and thereby increasing the power conversion efficiency. Based on standard SMIC 0.18 μm CMOS technology, the simulation results show that the voltage conversion efficiency and the power conversion efficiency can reach up to 90.5% and 95.5% respectively, when the input voltage equals to 0.2 V @ 100 Hz with load resistance 50 kω. Input voltages with frequencies in the range of 10 Hz–1 kHz can be rectified. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61234002, 61322405, 61306044, 61376033) and the National High-Tech Program of China (No. 2013AA014103).

  4. Isolation and Control of Spins in Silicon Carbide with Millisecond-Coherence Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christle, David J.; Falk, Abram L.; Andrich, Paolo; Klimov, Paul V.; Awschalom, David D.; Hassan, Jawad Ul; Son, Nguyen T.; Janzn, Erik; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2015-03-01

    The elimination of defects from silicon carbide (SiC) has facilitated its move to the forefront of the optoelectronics and power-electronics industries. Nonetheless, because the electronic states of SiC defects can have sharp optical and spin transitions, they are increasingly recognized as a valuable resource for quantum-information and nanoscale-sensing applications. We demonstrate that individual electronic spin states of the divacancy defect in highly purified monocrystalline 4H-SiC can be isolated and coherently controlled. This defect has analogous behavior to the prominent nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, yet exists in a material amenable to modern growth and microfabrication techniques. We spectroscopically identify the different forms of divacancies, and show that divacancy spins exhibit an exceptionally long ensemble Hahn-echo coherence time that exceeds one millisecond. Funding by NSF, AFOSR MURI, and the Knut & Alice Wallenberg Foundation is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Fabrication of Silicon Microdisk Resonators with Movable Waveguides for Control of Power Coupling Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Sato, Yuichi; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Silicon microdisk resonators with monolithically integrated comb-drive microactuators were fabricated for optical switches. Each of the resonators mainly consisted of a microdisk, a movable waveguide, a fixed waveguide, and a comb-drive microactuator. The gap distance between the movable waveguide and the microdisk could be controlled with the microactuator. Therefore, the power coupling ratios of the resonators were varied. Using the comb-drive microactuator, the resonator could be driven at low voltage of 21 V which had been difficult to drive the resonator using a parallel plate electrostatic microactuator ever. We fabricated the microdisk with a diameter of 10 m. At a resonant wavelength of 1553.3 nm and a voltage of 21 V applied to the microactuator, it was obtained that the light propagating into a through port was switched to the microdisk with an extinction ratio of 8.8 dB, a FWHM of 0.17 nm, and a quality factor of 9137.

  6. Controllable surface-plasmon resonance in engineered nanometer epitaxial silicide particles embedded in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; Ksendzov, A.; Iannelli, J. M.; George, T.

    1991-01-01

    Epitaxial CoSi2 particles in a single-crystal silicon matrix are grown by molecular-beam epitaxy using a technique that allows nanometer control over particle size in three dimensions. These composite layers exhibit resonant absorption predicted by effective-medium theory. Selection of the height and diameter of disklike particles through a choice of growth conditions allows tailoring of the depolarization factor and hence of the surface-plasmon resonance energy. Resonant absorption from 0.49 to 1.04 eV (2.5 to 1.2 micron) is demonstrated and shown to agree well with values predicted by the Garnett (1904, 1906) theory using the bulk dielectric constants for CoSi2 and Si.

  7. Doping strategies to control A-centres in silicon: insights from hybrid density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Chroneos, A; Londos, C A; Sgourou, E N; Schwingenschlgl, U

    2014-05-14

    Hybrid density functional theory is used to gain insights into the interaction of intrinsic vacancies (V) and oxygen-vacancy pairs (VO, known as A-centres) with the dopants (D) germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), and lead (Pb) in silicon (Si). We determine the structures as well as binding and formation energies of the DVO and DV complexes. The results are discussed in terms of the density of states and in view of the potential of isovalent doping to control A-centres in Si. We argue that doping with Sn is the most efficient isovalent doping strategy to suppress A-centres by the formation of SnVO complexes, as these are charge neutral and strongly bound. PMID:24667874

  8. Microscopic control of 29Si nuclear spins near phosphorus donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jrvinen, J.; Zvezdov, D.; Ahokas, J.; Sheludyakov, S.; Vainio, O.; Lehtonen, L.; Vasiliev, S.; Fujii, Y.; Mitsudo, S.; Mizusaki, T.; Gwak, M.; Lee, SangGap; Lee, Soonchil; Vlasenko, L.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate an efficient control of 29Si nuclear spins for specific lattice sites near 31P donors in silicon at temperatures below 1 K and in a high magnetic field of 4.6 T. Excitation of the forbidden electron-nuclear transitions leads to a pattern of well-resolved holes and peaks in the electron spin resonance (ESR) lines of 31P . The pattern originates from dynamic polarization (DNP) of the 29Si nuclear spins near the donors via the solid effect. DNP of 29Si is demonstrated also with the Overhauser effect where the allowed ESR transitions are excited. In this case mostly the remote 29Si nuclei having weak interaction with the donors are polarized, which results in a single hole and a sharp peak pair in the ESR spectrum. Our work shows that the solid effect can be used for initialization of 29Si nuclear spin qubits near the donors.

  9. "Thunderstruck": Plasma-Polymer-Coated Porous Silicon Microparticles As a Controlled Drug Delivery System.

    PubMed

    McInnes, Steven J P; Michl, Thomas D; Delalat, Bahman; Al-Bataineh, Sameer A; Coad, Bryan R; Vasilev, Krasimir; Griesser, Hans J; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2016-02-24

    Controlling the release kinetics from a drug carrier is crucial to maintain a drug's therapeutic window. We report the use of biodegradable porous silicon microparticles (pSi MPs) loaded with the anticancer drug camphothecin, followed by a plasma polymer overcoating using a loudspeaker plasma reactor. Homogenous "Teflon-like" coatings were achieved by tumbling the particles by playing AC/DC's song "Thunderstruck". The overcoating resulted in a markedly slower release of the cytotoxic drug, and this effect correlated positively with the plasma polymer coating times, ranging from 2-fold up to more than 100-fold. Ultimately, upon characterizing and verifying pSi MP production, loading, and coating with analytical methods such as time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetry, water contact angle measurements, and fluorescence microscopy, human neuroblastoma cells were challenged with pSi MPs in an in vitro assay, revealing a significant time delay in cell death onset. PMID:26836366

  10. Electrical control of interfacial trapping for magnetic tunnel transistor on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Y. Lacour, D.; Lengaigne, G.; Le Gall, S.; Suire, S.; Montaigne, F.; Hehn, M.; Wu, M. W.

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate an electrical control of an interfacial trapping effect for hot electrons injected in silicon by studying a magnetic tunnel transistor on wafer bonded Si substrate. Below 25 K, hot electrons are trapped at the Cu/Si interface, resulting in collector current suppression through scattering in both parallel and antiparallel magnetic configurations. Consequently, the magneto-current ratio strongly decreases from 300% at 27 K to 30% at 22 K. The application of a relatively small electric field (∼333 V/cm) across the Cu/Si interface is enough to strip the trapped electrons and restore the magneto-current ratio at low temperature. We also present a model taking into account the effects of both electric field and temperature that closely reproduces the experimental results and allows extraction of the trapping binding energy (∼1.6 meV)

  11. High-fidelity readout and control of a nuclear spin qubit in silicon.

    PubMed

    Pla, Jarryd J; Tan, Kuan Y; Dehollain, Juan P; Lim, Wee H; Morton, John J L; Zwanenburg, Floris A; Jamieson, David N; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

    2013-04-18

    Detection of nuclear spin precession is critical for a wide range of scientific techniques that have applications in diverse fields including analytical chemistry, materials science, medicine and biology. Fundamentally, it is possible because of the extreme isolation of nuclear spins from their environment. This isolation also makes single nuclear spins desirable for quantum-information processing, as shown by pioneering studies on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. The nuclear spin of a (31)P donor in silicon is very promising as a quantum bit: bulk measurements indicate that it has excellent coherence times and silicon is the dominant material in the microelectronics industry. Here we demonstrate electrical detection and coherent manipulation of a single (31)P nuclear spin qubit with sufficiently high fidelities for fault-tolerant quantum computing. By integrating single-shot readout of the electron spin with on-chip electron spin resonance, we demonstrate quantum non-demolition and electrical single-shot readout of the nuclear spin with a readout fidelity higher than 99.8 percent-the highest so far reported for any solid-state qubit. The single nuclear spin is then operated as a qubit by applying coherent radio-frequency pulses. For an ionized (31)P donor, we find a nuclear spin coherence time of 60 milliseconds and a one-qubit gate control fidelity exceeding 98 percent. These results demonstrate that the dominant technology of modern electronics can be adapted to host a complete electrical measurement and control platform for nuclear-spin-based quantum-information processing. PMID:23598342

  12. Single-Phase Boost Rectifier Adding a Capacitor for Pumping Action in DC Circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Hayato; Neba, Yasuhiko; Ishizaka, Kouichi; Itoh, Ryozo

    To obtain higher DC output voltage, a single-phase boost rectifier adding a capacitor for pumping action in DC circuit is studied. This gives two-stage boost operation by means of inductive and capacitive energy storage/transfer mechanisms under the high-frequency switching. The experimental prototype, employing an insulated-gate bipolar transistor as an active power switching device and a PI controller for output voltage regulation, is implemented to investigate the operation. The experimental results confirm that the input current can almost be waveshaped sinusoidally with a near-unity power factor by the current-mode control.

  13. Through-Silicon-Via Design with Clustering Structure and Adaptive Through-Silicon-Via Control for Three-Dimentional Solid-State-Drive Boost Converter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johguchi, Koh; Hatanaka, Teruyoshi; Takeuchi, Ken

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a through-silicon-via (TSV) design methodology for three-dimentional solid-state-drive (3D-SSD) system with the 20 V boost converter. Although TSV technologies give compact packaging and high performance compared to the conventional wire-bonding technology, the parasitic resistors and capacitors of TSVs may cause the performance degradation. Additionally, since the number of the activated NAND chip is dynamically changed as access patterns from real processor, the optimum design point for the boost converter is also moved according to the situation. Then, the clustering method with two different sizes of Cu-TSVs and the adaptive TSV number controlling technique for polycrystalline silicon TSVs are proposed to reduce the parasitic resistors and capacitors. With the cluster structure and Cu-TSVs, the performance of the proposed 3D-SSD is improved by ˜10%. Furthermore, the adaptive TSV number controller enhances the performance up to 2 times higher for poly-Si TSV case by reducing the parasitic elements due to TSVs.

  14. Inward rectifiers and their regulation by endogenous polyamines

    PubMed Central

    Baronas, Victoria A.; Kurata, Harley T.

    2014-01-01

    Inwardly-rectifying potassium (Kir) channels contribute to maintenance of the resting membrane potential and regulation of electrical excitation in many cell types. Strongly rectifying Kir channels exhibit a very steep voltage dependence resulting in silencing of their activity at depolarized membrane voltages. The mechanism underlying this steep voltage dependence is blockade by endogenous polyamines. These small multifunctional, polyvalent metabolites enter the long Kir channel pore from the intracellular side, displacing multiple occupant ions as they migrate to a stable binding site in the transmembrane region of the channel. Numerous structure-function studies have revealed structural elements of Kir channels that determine their susceptibility to polyamine block, and enable the steep voltage dependence of this process. In addition, various channelopathies have been described that result from alteration of the polyamine sensitivity or activity of strongly rectifying channels. The primary focus of this article is to summarize current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of polyamine block, and provide some perspective on lingering uncertainties related to this physiologically important mechanism of ion channel blockade. We also briefly review some of the important and well understood physiological roles of polyamine sensitive, strongly rectifying Kir channels, primarily of the Kir2 family. PMID:25221519

  15. 35 GHz integrated circuit rectifying antenna with 33 percent efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, T.-W.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    A 35 GHz integrated circuit rectifying antenna (rectenna) has been developed using a microstrip dipole antenna and beam-lead mixer diode. Greater than 33 percent conversion efficiency has been achieved. The circuit should have applications in microwave/millimeter-wave power transmission and detection.

  16. 46 CFR 183.360 - Semiconductor rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Meet Sections 35.84.2 and 35.84.4 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Semiconductor rectifier systems. 183.360 Section 183.360... TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems 183.360 Semiconductor...

  17. 125. JOB NO. LINE 5044, INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER CORP., RACHELLE LABORATORIES, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. JOB NO. LINE 5044, INTERNATIONAL RECTIFIER CORP., RACHELLE LABORATORIES, INC., LONG BEACH, CA, BY J.C. FULTON, SEPTEMBER 1982, LINE 5044, CLIFTON AND CO., ON FILE ENGINEERS DEPARTMENT, PORT OF LONG BEACH - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 46 CFR 183.360 - Semiconductor rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Meet Sections 35.84.2 and 35.84.4 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Semiconductor rectifier systems. 183.360 Section 183.360... TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.360 Semiconductor...

  19. 46 CFR 183.360 - Semiconductor rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Meet Sections 35.84.2 and 35.84.4 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Semiconductor rectifier systems. 183.360 Section 183.360... TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.360 Semiconductor...

  20. 46 CFR 183.360 - Semiconductor rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Meet Sections 35.84.2 and 35.84.4 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Semiconductor rectifier systems. 183.360 Section 183.360... TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.360 Semiconductor...

  1. 46 CFR 183.360 - Semiconductor rectifier systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Meet Sections 35.84.2 and 35.84.4 of the ABS Steel Vessel Rules (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Semiconductor rectifier systems. 183.360 Section 183.360... TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Power Sources and Distribution Systems § 183.360 Semiconductor...

  2. Application of artificial intelligence control to the vapor-liquid-solid silicon carbide whisker process

    SciTech Connect

    Shalek, P.D.; Parkinson, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Silicon carbide whiskers have excellent mechanical and chemical properties, making them very desirable as a reinforcement for structural ceramic and other composite materials. Los Alamos has developed a laboratory-scale batch process for producing very high quality SiC whiskers by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method which is an active candidate for technology transfer involving significant scale-up. The process, however, involves quite complex chemical/physical and parametric relationships and has not as yet lent itself successfully to modeling. An expert computer system was therefore developed to facilitate the transfer of this technology to industry. Optimum conditions were determined by relating the many process parameters to product results to establish a set of rules for running the process. These are incorporated in a two-phase expert system designed to guide inexperienced users. In Phase 1, an expert consultant program provides the user with information that enables him to set up the run. This information is incorporated into the rule base that makes up Phase 2 --- the control system. At present, the operator functions as the controller by responding to the decisions of the expert system; automation can be added later. 13 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Implementation of Statistical Process Control: Evaluating the Mechanical Performance of a Candidate Silicone Elastomer Docking Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has been developing a novel docking system to meet the requirements of future exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and beyond. A dynamic gas pressure seal is located at the main interface between the active and passive mating components of the new docking system. This seal is designed to operate in the harsh space environment, but is also to perform within strict loading requirements while maintaining an acceptable level of leak rate. In this study, a candidate silicone elastomer seal was designed, and multiple subscale test articles were manufactured for evaluation purposes. The force required to fully compress each test article at room temperature was quantified and found to be below the maximum allowable load for the docking system. However, a significant amount of scatter was observed in the test results. Due to the stochastic nature of the mechanical performance of this candidate docking seal, a statistical process control technique was implemented to isolate unusual compression behavior from typical mechanical performance. The results of this statistical analysis indicated a lack of process control, suggesting a variation in the manufacturing phase of the process. Further investigation revealed that changes in the manufacturing molding process had occurred which may have influenced the mechanical performance of the seal. This knowledge improves the chance of this and future space seals to satisfy or exceed design specifications.

  4. Vertically aligned crystalline silicon nanowires with controlled diameters for energy conversion applications: Experimental and theoretical insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razek, Sara Abdel; Swillam, Mohamed A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2014-05-01

    Vertically orientated single crystalline silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with controlled diameters are fabricated via a metal-assisted chemical etching method. The diameter of the fabricated nanowires is controlled by simply varying the etching time in HF/H2O2 electrolytes. The fabricated SiNWs have diameters ranging from 117 to 650 nm and lengths from 8 to 18 ?m. The optical measurements showed a significant difference in the reflectance/absorption of the SiNWs with different diameters, where the reflectance increases with increasing the diameter of the SiNWs. The SiNWs showed significant photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra with peaks lying between 380 and 670 nm. The PL intensity increases as the diameter increases and shows red shift for peaks at 670 nm. The increase or decrease of reflectivity is coincident with PL intensity at wavelength 660 nm. The x-ray diffraction patterns confirm the high crystallinity of the fabricated SiNWs. In addition, the Raman spectra showed a shift in the first order transverse band toward lower frequencies compared to that usually seen for c-Si. Finite difference time domain simulations have been performed to confirm the effect of change of diameter on the optical properties of the nanowires. The simulation results showed good agreement with the experimental results for the SiNWs of different diameters.

  5. Vertically aligned crystalline silicon nanowires with controlled diameters for energy conversion applications: Experimental and theoretical insights

    SciTech Connect

    Razek, Sara Abdel; Swillam, Mohamed A.; Allam, Nageh K.

    2014-05-21

    Vertically orientated single crystalline silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays with controlled diameters are fabricated via a metal-assisted chemical etching method. The diameter of the fabricated nanowires is controlled by simply varying the etching time in HF/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} electrolytes. The fabricated SiNWs have diameters ranging from 117 to 650 nm and lengths from 8 to 18 μm. The optical measurements showed a significant difference in the reflectance/absorption of the SiNWs with different diameters, where the reflectance increases with increasing the diameter of the SiNWs. The SiNWs showed significant photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra with peaks lying between 380 and 670 nm. The PL intensity increases as the diameter increases and shows red shift for peaks at ∼670 nm. The increase or decrease of reflectivity is coincident with PL intensity at wavelength ∼660 nm. The x-ray diffraction patterns confirm the high crystallinity of the fabricated SiNWs. In addition, the Raman spectra showed a shift in the first order transverse band toward lower frequencies compared to that usually seen for c-Si. Finite difference time domain simulations have been performed to confirm the effect of change of diameter on the optical properties of the nanowires. The simulation results showed good agreement with the experimental results for the SiNWs of different diameters.

  6. Controlling damping and quality factors of silicon microcantilevers by selective metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosale, Guruprasad; Das, Kaushik; Fréchette, Luc; Vengallatore, Srikar

    2011-10-01

    Ceramic microresonators coated with relatively thin metallic films are widely used for sensing, scanning probe microscopy, signal processing and vibration energy harvesting. The metallization improves optical reflectivity and electrical conductivity, but invariably degrades the quality factor (Q) of resonance by increasing the amount of energy dissipated during vibration. Developing strategies for controlling damping due to metallization is vital for the design of high-performance microresonators. This paper presents a strategy based on the insight that dissipation is a function of the deformation experienced by the thin film during oscillation. Therefore, damping can be controlled by patterning the metal in regions of low strain. A simple analytical model is developed to quantify the change in damping as a function of selective metallization along the length of a microcantilever. The predictions of this model are in good agreement with measurements of damping in single-crystal silicon microcantilevers that are partially coated on one surface with 100 nm thick aluminum films. Crucially, damping due to clamping, support and viscous losses is minimized in these structures to enable a careful comparison of theory with experiments. Coating 20% of the length of the beam starting from the tip has no significant impact on damping in either the first or the second mode of vibration. In contrast, placing the same size of metallization at the root leads to considerable dissipation; in the first mode, the damping due to this patch is ~60% of that caused by a full coat.

  7. Strain and electric field control of hyperfine interactions for donor spin qubits in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, M.; Hill, C. D.; Rahman, R.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y.; Rogge, S.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Control of hyperfine interactions is a fundamental requirement for quantum computing architecture schemes based on shallow donors in silicon. However, at present, there is lacking an atomistic approach including critical effects of central-cell corrections and nonstatic screening of the donor potential capable of describing the hyperfine interaction in the presence of both strain and electric fields in realistically sized devices. We establish and apply a theoretical framework, based on atomistic tight-binding theory, to quantitatively determine the strain and electric-field-dependent hyperfine couplings of donors. Our method is scalable to millions of atoms, and yet captures the strain effects with an accuracy level of DFT method. Excellent agreement with the available experimental data sets allow reliable investigation of the design space of multiqubit architectures, based on both strain only as well as hybrid (strain + field) control of qubits. The benefits of strain are uncovered by demonstrating that a hybrid control of qubits based on (001) compressive strain and in-plane (100 or 010) fields results in higher gate fidelities and or faster gate operations, for all of the four donor species considered (P, As, Sb, and Bi). The comparison between different donor species in strained environments further highlights the trends of hyperfine shifts, providing predictions where no experimental data exists. While faster gate operations are realizable with in-plane fields for P, As, and Sb donors, only for the Bi donor, our calculations predict faster gate response in the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane fields, truly benefiting from the proposed planar field control mechanism of the hyperfine interactions.

  8. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier with Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Ning, Puqi; Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that there exist second-order harmonic current and corresponding ripple voltage on dc bus for single phase PWM rectifiers. The low frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus which results in low power density. This paper proposed an active ripple energy storage method that can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The feed-forward control method and design considerations are provided. Simulation and 15 kW experimental results are provided for verification purposes.

  9. Deconvolving the controls on the deep ocean's silicon stable isotope distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Gregory F.; Slater, Richard D.; Dunne, John P.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.

    2014-07-01

    We trace the marine biogeochemical silicon (Si) cycle using the stable isotope composition of Si dissolved in seawater (expressed as δ30Si). Open ocean δ30Si observations indicate a surprisingly strong influence of the physical circulation on the large-scale marine Si distribution. Here, we present an ocean general circulation model simulation that deconvolves the physical and biogeochemical controls on the δ30Si distribution in the deep oceanic interior. By parsing dissolved Si into its preformed and regenerated components, we separate the influence of deep water formation and circulation from the effects of biogeochemical cycling related to opal dissolution at depth. We show that the systematic meridional δ30Si gradient observed in the deep Atlantic Ocean is primarily determined by the preformed component of Si, whose distribution in the interior is controlled solely by the circulation. We also demonstrate that the δ30Si value of the regenerated component of Si in the global deep ocean is dominantly set by oceanic regions where opal export fluxes to the deep ocean are large, i.e. primarily in the Southern Ocean's opal belt. The global importance of this regionally dynamic Si cycling helps explain the observed strong physical control on the oceanic δ30Si distribution, since most of the regenerated Si present within the deep Atlantic and Indo-Pacific Oceans is in fact transported into these basins by deep waters flowing northward from the Southern Ocean. Our results thus provide a mechanistic explanation for the observed δ30Si distribution that emphasizes the dominant importance of the Southern Ocean in the marine Si cycle.

  10. Controllable growth of silicon nanowire arrays fabricated by two-step silver catalyzed chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Silicon nanowire arrays (SiNWs) were prepared by the two-step silver catalyzed chemical etching process. The influence of various factors such as deposition time of silver nanoparticles, etching process and post-treatment conditions on the morphology and structure of SiNWs were systematically investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to characterize the SiNWs. The results revealed the existence of a positive linear relationship between length and etching time, which could be used to control the length of the SiNWs. The length and diameter of the nanowires both gradually decreased as the duration of the post-treatment process increased. SiNWs can be obtained with better uniformity by optimizing the post-treatment duration. In addition, four different lengths of SiNWs with regular and uniform morphology were fabricated using the above controllable growth process. The results showed that the silver catalyst was completely removed after the as-obtained SiNWs were immersed into HNO3. All the as-prepared SiNWs showed a good light reflection performance, which was enhanced with increasing lengths of the arrays. The reflectance of the as-obtained SiNWs was found to be less than 1% within the range of the visible spectrum (300-800nm). These results confirm that this simple fabrication method can help achieve controllable growth of SiNWs of desired sizes.

  11. PLGA-Mesoporous Silicon Microspheres for the in Vivo Controlled Temporospatial Delivery of Proteins.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Silvia; Pandolfi, Laura; Taraballi, Francesca; De Rosa, Enrica; Yazdi, Iman K; Liu, Xeuwu; Ferrari, Mauro; Tasciotti, Ennio

    2015-08-01

    In regenerative medicine, the temporospatially controlled delivery of growth factors (GFs) is crucial to trigger the desired healing mechanisms in the target tissues. The uncontrolled release of GFs has been demonstrated to cause severe side effects in the surrounding tissues. The aim of this study was to optimize a translational approach for the fine temporal and spatial control over the release of proteins, in vivo. Hence, we proposed a newly developed multiscale composite microsphere based on a core consisting of the nanostructured silicon multistage vector (MSV) and a poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) outer shell. Both of the two components of the resulting composite microspheres (PLGA-MSV) can be independently tailored to achieve multiple release kinetics contributing to the control of the release profile of a reporter protein in vitro. The influence of MSV shape (hemispherical or discoidal) and size (1, 3, or 7 μm) on PLGA-MSV's morphology and size distribution was investigated. Second, the copolymer ratio of the PLGA used to fabricate the outer shell of PLGA-MSV was varied. The composites were fully characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, ζ potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis-differential scanning calorimetry, and their release kinetics over 30 days. PLGA-MSV's biocompatibility was assessed in vitro with J774 macrophages. Finally, the formulation of PLGA-MSV was selected, which concurrently provided the most consistent microsphere size and allowed for a zero-order release kinetic. The selected PLGA-MSVs were injected in a subcutaneous model in mice, and the in vivo release of the reporter protein was followed over 2 weeks by intravital microscopy, to assess if the zero-order release was preserved. PLGA-MSV was able to retain the payload over 2 weeks, avoiding the initial burst release typical of most drug delivery systems. Finally, histological evaluation assessed the biocompatibility of the platform in vivo. PMID:26108253

  12. Parameter Plane Synthesis and Performance Investigation of a Three-Phase Three-Level Bidirectional Rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Abdul Hamid; Langer, Nitin

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, parameter plane synthesis of a three-phase neutral-point clamped bidirectional rectifier has been performed. The converter involves one outer-loop PI voltage controller and two inner-loop PI current controllers for the closed-loop control. D-partition technique has been employed for the precise design of the voltage controller. An experimental prototype of the converter has been developed, and the experimental investigation of the converter performance in closed loop has been carried out. DSP DS1104 of dSPACE has been used for real-time implementation of the designed controller. The converter gives a very good performance in steady state and dynamic state (for rectification as well as inversion modes of operation) using the designed controller parameters.

  13. Interface control and mechanical property improvements in silicon carbide/titanium composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, W. D.; Unnam, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several composite systems made of titanium matrix reinforced with silicon carbide fiber were investigated to obtain a better understanding of composite-degradation mechanisms and to develop techniques to minimize loss of mechanical properties during fabrication and in service. Emphasis was on interface control by fiber or matrix coatings. X-ray diffraction studies on planar samples showed that the formation of titanium silicides was greatly inhibited by the presence of aluminum or Ti3A1 layers at the fiber-matrix interface, with the Ti3A1 being more effective in reducing the reactions. Fiber studies showed that coating the fiber with a 1-micron-thick layer of aluminum improved the as-fabricated strength of a stoichiometric SiC fiber and reduced the fiber degradation during exposure to composite-fabrication conditions. Applying an interfacial barrier by coating the matrix foils instead of the fibers was found to be an effective method for improving composite strength. Reducing the fabrication temperature also resulted in significant improvements in composite strengths. Good-quality, well-consolidated composites were fabricated at temperatures well below those currently used for SiC-Ti composite fabrication.

  14. Controllable light-induced conic structures in silicon nanowire arrays by metal-assisted chemical etching.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shenli; Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Hong; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-01-17

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have long been considered a promising material due to their extraordinary electrical and optical properties. As a simple, highly efficient fabrication method for SiNWs, metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) has been intensively studied over recent years. However, effective control by modulation of simple parameters is still a challenging topic and some key questions still remain in the mechanistic processes. In this work, a novel method to manipulate SiNWs with a light-modulated MACE process has been systematically investigated. Conic structures consisting of inclined and clustered SiNWs can be generated and effectively modified by the incident light while new patterns such as 'bamboo shoot' arrays can also be formed under certain conditions. More importantly, detailed study has revealed a new top-down 'diverting etching' model of the conic structures in this process, different from the previously proposed 'bending' model. As a consequence of this mechanism, preferential lateral mass transport of silver particles occurs. Evidence suggests a relationship of this phenomenon to the inhomogeneous distribution of the light-induced electron-hole pairs beneath the etching front. Study on the morphological change and related mechanism will hopefully open new routes to understand and modulate the formation of SiNWs and other nanostructures. PMID:24334462

  15. Controllable light-induced conic structures in silicon nanowire arrays by metal-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shenli; Wang, Xinwei; Liu, Hong; Shen, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) have long been considered a promising material due to their extraordinary electrical and optical properties. As a simple, highly efficient fabrication method for SiNWs, metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) has been intensively studied over recent years. However, effective control by modulation of simple parameters is still a challenging topic and some key questions still remain in the mechanistic processes. In this work, a novel method to manipulate SiNWs with a light-modulated MACE process has been systematically investigated. Conic structures consisting of inclined and clustered SiNWs can be generated and effectively modified by the incident light while new patterns such as bamboo shoot arrays can also be formed under certain conditions. More importantly, detailed study has revealed a new top-down diverting etching model of the conic structures in this process, different from the previously proposed bending model. As a consequence of this mechanism, preferential lateral mass transport of silver particles occurs. Evidence suggests a relationship of this phenomenon to the inhomogeneous distribution of the light-induced electron-hole pairs beneath the etching front. Study on the morphological change and related mechanism will hopefully open new routes to understand and modulate the formation of SiNWs and other nanostructures.

  16. Erbium-doped slot waveguides containing size-controlled silicon nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, R.; Beyer, J. Heitmann, J.; Klemm, V.; Rafaja, D.; Johnson, B. C.; McCallum, J. C.

    2015-04-28

    Silicon based slot waveguides with a slot containing Si nanocrystals (Si-nc) and Erbium ions (Er{sup 3+}) inside a silica matrix were prepared using sputter deposition and low-energy ion implantation. This sequence enabled independent optimization of nanocrystal formation and Er{sup 3+} incorporation parameters. Using a superlattice approach, the size of the Si-nc inside the slot could be controlled and optimized for maximum Er{sup 3+} luminescence yield at 1.54 μm. Er{sup 3+} is found to be efficiently pumped by Si-nc of sizes around 3 to 4 nm. Increasing Er{sup 3+} photoluminescence at 1.54 μm with increasing post-implantation annealing temperatures up to 1000 °C is attributed to annealing of matrix or Si-nc interface defects mainly. Additionally, a dependence of the Er{sup 3+} luminescence intensity on both the excitation and emission linear polarization orientation is shown, which demonstrates efficient field enhancement in sputtered slot waveguide structures.

  17. Silicon as Reducing Agent for Controlled Production of Plasmonic Copper Nanocomposite Glasses: A Spectroscopic Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimnez, Jos A.

    2015-11-01

    The use of silicon to produce metal nanocomposite phosphate glasses with plasmonic properties is proposed. It is demonstrated how the reducing properties of Si powder allow for producing Cu nanocomposite glasses in a controlled manner during heat treatment (HT). Cu/Si-codoped glasses were prepared in a 50BaO-50P2O5 matrix by a simple melt-quench method in ambient atmosphere. The worst-case scenario is considered by having the noble metal introduced in its higher oxidation state as copper(II) oxide, i.e., instead of using monovalent copper. Optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, including emission decay dynamics, were employed for characterization of the melt-quenched glass, and for investigating the influence of HT on material optical properties. Remarkably, increasing amounts of Si powder were observed to suppress and ultimately remove the Cu2+ visible absorption band in the CuO-containing glasses. Moreover, subsequent HT of the glass with the highest Si content resulted in progressive development of the surface plasmon resonance of Cu nanoparticles with increasing holding time. PL spectroscopy analysis is further employed towards elucidating the Cu2+ ? Cu+ ? Cu0 valence state changes likely occurring during the melting and subsequent thermal processing.

  18. Method of purifying metallurgical grade silicon employing reduced pressure atmospheric control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingle, W. M.; Thompson, S. W.; Chaney, R. E. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A method in which a quartz tube is charged with chunks of metallurgical grade silicon and/or a mixture of such chunks and high purity quartz sand, and impurities from a class including aluminum, boron, as well as certain transition metals including nickel, iron, and manganese is described. The tube is then evacuated and heated to a temperature within a range of 800 C to 1400 C. A stream of gas comprising a reactant, such as silicon tetrafluoride, is continuously delivered at low pressures through the charge for causing a metathetical reaction of impurities of the silicon and the reactant to occur for forming a volatile halide and leaving a residue of silicon of an improved purity. The reactant which included carbon monoxide gas and impurities such as iron and nickel react to form volatile carbonyls.

  19. A 13.56 MHz CMOS Active Rectifier With Switched-Offset and Compensated Biasing for Biomedical Wireless Power Transfer Systems.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Ki, Wing-Hung

    2013-07-01

    A full-wave active rectifier switching at 13.56 MHz with compensated bias current for a wide input range for wirelessly powered high-current biomedical implants is presented. The four diodes of a conventional passive rectifier are replaced by two cross-coupled PMOS transistors and two comparator- controlled NMOS switches to eliminate diode voltage drops such that high voltage conversion ratio and power conversion efficiency could be achieved even at low AC input amplitude |VAC|. The comparators are implemented with switched-offset biasing to compensate for the delays of active diodes and to eliminate multiple pulsing and reverse current. The proposed rectifier uses a modified CMOS peaking current source with bias current that is quasi-inversely proportional to the supply voltage to better control the reverse current over a wide AC input range (1.5 to 4 V). The rectifier was fabricated in a standard 0.35 ?m CMOS N-well process with active area of 0.0651 mm(2). For the proposed rectifier measured at |VAC| = 3.0 V, the voltage conversion ratios are 0.89 and 0.93 for RL=500 ? and 5 k?, respectively, and the measured power conversion efficiencies are 82.2% to 90.1% with |VAC| ranges from 1.5 to 4 V for RL=500 ?. PMID:23846494

  20. Development of a Thermal Rectifier Usable at High Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Tsunehiro; Goto, Hiroki; Toyama, Yasuhiro; Itoh, Takashi; Mikami, Masashi

    2011-05-01

    By using Al-based metallic alloys characterized by a disordered structure and a narrow pseudogap of a few hundred meV in energy width persisting at the Fermi level, we succeeded in preparing materials possessing a large increase of thermal conductivity with increasing temperature. This unusual increase of thermal conductivity is caused by the electronic structure effect known as the bipolar diffusion effect (BDE) in the context of the two-band model. A thermal rectifier was constructed using materials exhibiting the BDE. By showing the thermal rectification of the bulk sample prepared in this study, we demonstrate that our newly proposed idea of a thermal rectifier using the BDE is applicable for practical use.

  1. Rectifying behaviour of spin coated pn hetero-junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogamalar, N. Rajeswari; Bose, A. Chandra

    2015-06-01

    Rectifying pn hetero- junction is fabricated with an acceptor p-type organic semiconductor namely tetra- chloro dihydroxy tetra-iodo fluorescein (Rose Bengal (RB)) followed by an inorganic n-type ZnO semiconductor on indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. The n-type ZnO films are formed by unintentional doping and doping with aluminium (Al) and yttrium (Y) donors. The surface morphology and the distribution of grains are observed from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the rectifying diode is measured to characterize the junction properties. The I-V plots obtained from the hetero- junction with electric contact shows a diode characteristic different from that of an ideal behavior. The overall efficiency of the diode exhibits a greater dependency on the film crystallinity, carrier concentration, and reverse saturation current.

  2. Process for the controlled growth of single-crystal films of silicon carbide polytypes on silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, David J. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the controlled growth of single-crystal semiconductor-device-quality films of SiC polytypes on vicinal (0001) SiC wafers with low tilt angles is presented. Both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial SiC films can be produced on the same wafer. In particular, 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films can be produced within selected areas of the same 6H-SiC wafer.

  3. Process for the controlled growth of single-crystal films of silicon carbide polytypes on silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    This invention is a method for the controlled growth of single-crystal semiconductor device quality films of SiC polytypes on vicinal (0001) SiC wafers with low tilt angles. Both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial SiC films can be produced on the same wafer. In particular, 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films can be produced within selected areas of the same 6H-SiC wafer.

  4. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Tang, Lixin; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  5. Receptor stimulation causes slow inhibition of IRK1 inwardly rectifying K+ channels by direct protein kinase A-mediated phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Wischmeyer, E; Karschin, A

    1996-01-01

    Strongly rectifying IRK-type inwardly rectifying K+ channels are involved in the control of neuronal excitability in the mammalian brain. Whole-cell patch-clamp experiments show that cloned rat IRK1 (Kir 2.1) channels, when heterologously expressed in mammalian COS-7 cells, are inhibited following the activation of coexpressed serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) type 1A receptors by receptor agonists. Inhibition is mimicked by internal perfusion with GTP[gamma-S] and elevation of internal cAMP concentrations. Addition of the catalytic subunits of protein kinase A (PKA) to the internal recording solution causes complete inhibition of wild-type IRK1 channels, but not of mutant IRK1(S425N) channels in which a C-terminal PKA phosphorylation site has been removed. Our data suggest that in the nervous system serotonin may negatively control IRK1 channel activity by direct PKA-mediated phosphorylation. Images Fig. 3 PMID:8650176

  6. 50 MHz rectifier based on an organic diode.

    PubMed

    Steudel, Soeren; Myny, Kris; Arkhipov, Vladimir; Deibel, Carsten; De Vusser, Stijn; Genoe, Jan; Heremans, Paul

    2005-08-01

    A main focus of research on organic semiconductors is their potential application in passive organic radio-frequency identification (RF-ID) tags. First prototypes working at 125 kHz have been shown by industrial research groups. However, to be commercially viable, the organic RF-ID tag would need to be compatible with the base-carrier frequency of 13.56 MHz (ref. 2). High-frequency operation has been out of reach for devices based on organic semiconducting material, because of the intrinsically low mobility of those materials. Here, we report on a rectifier based on a pentacene diode that can rectify an incoming a.c. signal at 50 MHz. At 14 MHz, a rectified voltage of 11 V for an a.c. voltage with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 36 V has been achieved. On the basis of those results, we estimate the frequency limits of an organic diode showing that even the ultra-high-frequency band at around 800 MHz is within reach. PMID:16041378

  7. Failure Detecting Method of Fault Current Limiter System with Rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, Noriaki; Matsubara, Yoshio; Asano, Masakuni; Ohkuma, Takeshi; Sato, Yoshibumi; Takahashi, Yoshihisa

    A fault current limiter (FCL) is extensively needed to suppress fault current, particularly required for trunk power systems connecting high-voltage transmission lines, such as 500kV class power system which constitutes the nucleus of the electric power system. We proposed a new type FCL system (rectifier type FCL), consisting of solid-state diodes, DC reactor and bypass AC reactor, and demonstrated the excellent performances of this FCL by developing the small 6.6kV and 66kV model. It is important to detect the failure of power devices used in the rectifier under the normal operating condition, for keeping the excellent reliability of the power system. In this paper, we have proposed a new failure detecting method of power devices most suitable for the rectifier type FCL. This failure detecting system is simple and compact. We have adapted the proposed system to the 66kV prototype single-phase model and successfully demonstrated to detect the failure of power devices.

  8. Doping controlled roughness and defined mesoporosity in chemically etched silicon nanowires with tunable conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSweeney, W.; Lotty, O.; Mogili, N. V. V.; Glynn, C.; Geaney, H.; Tanner, D.; Holmes, J. D.; O'Dwyer, C.

    2013-07-01

    By using Si(100) with different dopant type (n++-type (As) or p-type (B)), we show how metal-assisted chemically etched (MACE) nanowires (NWs) can form with rough outer surfaces around a solid NW core for p-type NWs, and a unique, defined mesoporous structure for highly doped n-type NWs. We used high resolution electron microscopy techniques to define the characteristic roughening and mesoporous structure within the NWs and how such structures can form due to a judicious choice of carrier concentration and dopant type. The n-type NWs have a mesoporosity that is defined by equidistant pores in all directions, and the inter-pore distance is correlated to the effective depletion region width at the reduction potential of the catalyst at the silicon surface in a HF electrolyte. Clumping in n-type MACE Si NWs is also shown to be characteristic of mesoporous NWs when etched as high density NW layers, due to low rigidity (high porosity). Electrical transport investigations show that the etched nanowires exhibit tunable conductance changes, where the largest resistance increase is found for highly mesoporous n-type Si NWs, in spite of their very high electronic carrier concentration. This understanding can be adapted to any low-dimensional semiconducting system capable of selective etching through electroless, and possibly electrochemical, means. The process points to a method of multiscale nanostructuring NWs, from surface roughening of NWs with controllable lengths to defined mesoporosity formation, and may be applicable to applications where high surface area, electrical connectivity, tunable surface structure, and internal porosity are required.

  9. Factors controlling the silicon isotope composition of dissolved silicate and biogenic silica in the Peruvian Upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasse, P.; Haynert, K.; Brzezinski, M. A.; Frank, M.

    2014-12-01

    The stable silicon (Si) isotope composition (?30Si) of dissolved silicic acid (Si(OH)4) and of biogenic silica (bSiO2) reflects changes in nutrient utilization and biogeochemical cycling in the present and past ocean. Here we present dissolved and biogenic Si isotope signatures at 9 shelf stations in the upwelling area off Peru obtained during RV Meteor cruise M93 in February 2013 in the frame of the German SFB 754 project to better understand the processes influencing the Si isotope distributions. Primary productivity in the upwelling area of Peru is dominated by diatoms, which preferentially incorporate the lighter 28Si when building their frustules thus leaving seawater enriched in 30Si. Previous studies have suggested that the fractionation factors accompanying this process are species dependent ranging from -0.5 to -2.1 and that the dissolved Si isotope signature off Peru is strongly influenced by water mass mixing resulting in less fractionated surface water signatures during strong upwelling. To disentangle these processes, information on the Si isotope composition of dissolved and particulate Si is compared with that of the corresponding diatom assemblages. Si isotope signatures of particulate samples are consistently lower than the surrounding seawater ranging from 1 to 2 (0.2 2sd). The highest fractionation factors between bSiO2 and Si(OH)4 (?bSiO2-SI(OH)4) in surface waters are found at the lowest Si(OH)4 concentrations with an average fractionation factor of -0.9, which agrees well with previously reported values. Diatom species effects do not seem to exert a major influence on the isotope signature of the biogenic silica, which instead appears to be mainly controlled by fractionation during biological uptake and water mass mixing.

  10. High reliability megawatt transformer/rectifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zwass, Samuel; Ashe, Harry; Peters, John W.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the two phase program is to develop the technology and design and fabricate ultralightweight high reliability DC to DC converters for space power applications. The converters will operate from a 5000 V dc source and deliver 1 MW of power at 100 kV dc. The power weight density goal is 0.1 kg/kW. The cycle to cycle voltage stability goals was + or - 1 percent RMS. The converter is to operate at an ambient temperature of -40 C with 16 minute power pulses and one hour off time. The uniqueness of the design in Phase 1 resided in the dc switching array which operates the converter at 20 kHz using Hollotron plasma switches along with a specially designed low loss, low leakage inductance and a light weight high voltage transformer. This approach reduced considerably the number of components in the converter thereby increasing the system reliability. To achieve an optimum transformer for this application, the design uses four 25 kV secondary windings to produce the 100 kV dc output, thus reducing the transformer leakage inductance, and the ac voltage stresses. A specially designed insulation system improves the high voltage dielectric withstanding ability and reduces the insulation path thickness thereby reducing the component weight. Tradeoff studies and tests conducted on scaled-down model circuits and using representative coil insulation paths have verified the calculated transformer wave shape parameters and the insulation system safety. In Phase 1 of the program a converter design approach was developed and a preliminary transformer design was completed. A fault control circuit was designed and a thermal profile of the converter was also developed.

  11. Size Control of Porous Silicon-Based Nanoparticles via Pore-Wall Thinning.

    PubMed

    Secret, Emilie; Leonard, Camille; Kelly, Stefan J; Uhl, Amanda; Cozzan, Clayton; Andrew, Jennifer S

    2016-02-01

    Photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals are very attractive for biomedical and electronic applications. Here a new process is presented to synthesize photoluminescent silicon nanocrystals with diameters smaller than 6 nm from a porous silicon template. These nanoparticles are formed using a pore-wall thinning approach, where the as-etched porous silicon layer is partially oxidized to silica, which is dissolved by a hydrofluoric acid solution, decreasing the pore-wall thickness. This decrease in pore-wall thickness leads to a corresponding decrease in the size of the nanocrystals that make up the pore walls, resulting in the formation of smaller nanoparticles during sonication of the porous silicon. Particle diameters were measured using dynamic light scattering, and these values were compared with the nanocrystallite size within the pore wall as determined from X-ray diffraction. Additionally, an increase in the quantum confinement effect is observed for these particles through an increase in the photoluminescence intensity of the nanoparticles compared with the as-etched nanoparticles, without the need for a further activation step by oxidation after synthesis. PMID:26796986

  12. On the Controlling Mechanism of Preferential Orientation of Polycrystalline-Silicon Thin Films Grown by Aluminum-Induced Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Mina; Okada, Atsushi; Saito, Takanobu; Suemasu, Takashi; Usami, Noritaka

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the controlling mechanism of preferential orientation in polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) on glass substrate by Al-induced crystallization using an in situ monitoring system and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements. Poly-Si film with (111)-preferential orientation was obtained by the layer exchange of the initial amorphous silicon (a-Si)/Al/glass into Al/poly-Si/glass. Cross-sectional EBSD revealed that Al crystal grains are much smaller than those of Si, and randomly oriented without any epitaxial relationship between (111)-oriented Si despite the fact that (111)-oriented Si is believed to originate from epitaxial growth on ?-Al2O3/Al(111). This suggests that another mechanism such as minimization of surface energy affects the formation of (111)-oriented poly-Si.

  13. The properties of polycrystalline silicon solar cells with controlled titanium additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, A.; Hopkins, R. H.; Davis, J. R., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    By coupling the results of electrical measurements, such as spectral response, lighted and dark I-V determinations, and deep-level-transient spectroscopy with optical and laser scan photomicroscopy, the effects of grain boundaries and impurities on silicon solar cells were evaluated. Titanium, which produces two deep levels in silicon, degrades cell performance by reducing bulk lifetime and thus cell short-circuit current. Electrically active grain boundaries induce carrier recombination in the bulk and depletion regions of the solar cell. Experimental data imply a small but measurable segregation of titanium into some grain boundaries of the polycrystalline silicon containing high Ti concentration. However, for the titanium-contaminated polycrystalline material used in this study, solar cell performance is dominated by the electrically active titanium concentration in the grains. Microstructural impacts on the devices are of secondary importance

  14. Ultrafast optical control using the Kerr nonlinearity in hydrogenated amorphous silicon microcylindrical resonators

    PubMed Central

    Vukovic, N.; Healy, N.; Suhailin, F. H.; Mehta, P.; Day, T. D.; Badding, J. V.; Peacock, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Microresonators are ideal systems for probing nonlinear phenomena at low thresholds due to their small mode volumes and high quality (Q) factors. As such, they have found use both for fundamental studies of light-matter interactions as well as for applications in areas ranging from telecommunications to medicine. In particular, semiconductor-based resonators with large Kerr nonlinearities have great potential for high speed, low power all-optical processing. Here we present experiments to characterize the size of the Kerr induced resonance wavelength shifting in a hydrogenated amorphous silicon resonator and demonstrate its potential for ultrafast all-optical modulation and switching. Large wavelength shifts are observed for low pump powers due to the high nonlinearity of the amorphous silicon material and the strong mode confinement in the microcylindrical resonator. The threshold energy for switching is less than a picojoule, representing a significant step towards advantageous low power silicon-based photonic technologies. PMID:24097126

  15. Electrical Control of g-Factor in a Few-Hole Silicon Nanowire MOSFET.

    PubMed

    Voisin, B; Maurand, R; Barraud, S; Vinet, M; Jehl, X; Sanquer, M; Renard, J; De Franceschi, S

    2016-01-13

    Hole spins in silicon represent a promising yet barely explored direction for solid-state quantum computation, possibly combining long spin coherence, resulting from a reduced hyperfine interaction, and fast electrically driven qubit manipulation. Here we show that a silicon-nanowire field-effect transistor based on state-of-the-art silicon-on-insulator technology can be operated as a few-hole quantum dot. A detailed magnetotransport study of the first accessible hole reveals a g-factor with unexpectedly strong anisotropy and gate dependence. We infer that these two characteristics could enable an electrically driven g-tensor-modulation spin resonance with Rabi frequencies exceeding several hundred mega-Hertz. PMID:26599868

  16. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  17. RF rectifiers for EM power harvesting in a Deep Brain Stimulating device.

    PubMed

    Hosain, Md Kamal; Kouzani, Abbas Z; Tye, Susannah; Kaynak, Akif; Berk, Michael

    2015-03-01

    A passive deep brain stimulation (DBS) device can be equipped with a rectenna, consisting of an antenna and a rectifier, to harvest energy from electromagnetic fields for its operation. This paper presents optimization of radio frequency rectifier circuits for wireless energy harvesting in a passive head-mountable DBS device. The aim is to achieve a compact size, high conversion efficiency, and high output voltage rectifier. Four different rectifiers based on the Delon doubler, Greinacher voltage tripler, Delon voltage quadrupler, and 2-stage charge pumped architectures are designed, simulated, fabricated, and evaluated. The design and simulation are conducted using Agilent Genesys at operating frequency of 915 MHz. A dielectric substrate of FR-4 with thickness of 1.6 mm, and surface mount devices (SMD) components are used to fabricate the designed rectifiers. The performance of the fabricated rectifiers is evaluated using a 915 MHz radio frequency (RF) energy source. The maximum measured conversion efficiency of the Delon doubler, Greinacher tripler, Delon quadrupler, and 2-stage charge pumped rectifiers are 78, 75, 73, and 76 % at -5 dBm input power and for load resistances of 5-15 k?. The conversion efficiency of the rectifiers decreases significantly with the increase in the input power level. The Delon doubler rectifier provides the highest efficiency at both -5 and 5 dBm input power levels, whereas the Delon quadrupler rectifier gives the lowest efficiency for the same inputs. By considering both efficiency and DC output voltage, the charge pump rectifier outperforms the other three rectifiers. Accordingly, the optimised 2-stage charge pumped rectifier is used together with an antenna to harvest energy in our DBS device. PMID:25600671

  18. An Adaptive Reconfigurable Active Voltage Doubler/Rectifier for Extended-Range Inductive Power Transmission.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2012-01-01

    We present an adaptive reconfigurable active voltage doubler (VD)/rectifier (REC) (VD/REC) in standard CMOS, which can adaptively change its topology to either a VD or a REC by sensing the output voltage, leading to more robust inductive power transmission over an extended range. Both active VD and REC modes provide much lower dropout voltage and far better power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to their passive counterparts by adopting offset-controlled high-speed comparators that drive the rectifying switches at proper times in the high-frequency band. We have fabricated the active VD/REC in a 0.5-m 3-metal 2-poly CMOS process, occupying 0.585 mm(2) of chip area. In an exemplar setup, VD/REC extended the power transmission range by 33% (from 6 to 8 cm) in relative coil distance and 41.5% (from 53 to 75) in relative coil orientation compared to using the REC alone. While providing 3.1-V dc output across a 500-? load from 2.15- (VD) and 3.7-V (REC) peak ac inputs at 13.56 MHz, VD/REC achieved measured PCEs of 70% and 77%, respectively. PMID:24633369

  19. An Adaptive Reconfigurable Active Voltage Doubler/Rectifier for Extended-Range Inductive Power Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    We present an adaptive reconfigurable active voltage doubler (VD)/rectifier (REC) (VD/REC) in standard CMOS, which can adaptively change its topology to either a VD or a REC by sensing the output voltage, leading to more robust inductive power transmission over an extended range. Both active VD and REC modes provide much lower dropout voltage and far better power conversion efficiency (PCE) compared to their passive counterparts by adopting offset-controlled high-speed comparators that drive the rectifying switches at proper times in the high-frequency band. We have fabricated the active VD/REC in a 0.5-m 3-metal 2-poly CMOS process, occupying 0.585 mm2 of chip area. In an exemplar setup, VD/REC extended the power transmission range by 33% (from 6 to 8 cm) in relative coil distance and 41.5% (from 53 to 75) in relative coil orientation compared to using the REC alone. While providing 3.1-V dc output across a 500-? load from 2.15- (VD) and 3.7-V (REC) peak ac inputs at 13.56 MHz, VD/REC achieved measured PCEs of 70% and 77%, respectively. PMID:24633369

  20. Rectified cell migration on saw-like micro-elastically patterned hydrogels with asymmetric gradient ratchet teeth.

    PubMed

    Kidoaki, Satoru; Sakashita, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    To control cell motility is one of the essential technologies for biomedical engineering. To establish a methodology of the surface design of elastic substrate to control the long-range cell movements, here we report a sophisticated cell culture hydrogel with a micro-elastically patterned surface that allows long-range durotaxis. This hydrogel has a saw-like pattern with asymmetric gradient ratchet teeth, and rectifies random cell movements. Durotaxis only occurs at boundaries in which the gradient strength of elasticity is above a threshold level. Consequently, in gels with unit teeth patterns, durotaxis should only occur at the sides of the teeth in which the gradient strength of elasticity is above this threshold level. Therefore, such gels are expected to support the long-range biased movement of cells via a mechanism similar to the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet, i.e., rectified cell migration. The present study verifies this working hypothesis by using photolithographic microelasticity patterning of photocurable gelatin gels. Gels in which each teeth unit was 100-120 m wide with a ratio of ascending:descending elasticity gradient of 1:2 and a peak elasticity of ca. 100 kPa supported the efficient rectified migration of 3T3 fibroblast cells. In addition, long-range cell migration was most efficient when soft lanes were introduced perpendicular to the saw-like patterns. This study demonstrates that asymmetric elasticity gradient patterning of cell culture gels is a versatile means of manipulating cell motility. PMID:24147112

  1. Power Factor Improvement of Single-Phase Diode Rectifier Circuit By Field-Weakening of Inverter Driven IPM Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Isao; Haga, Hitoshi

    This paper proposes a novel inverter drive system to improve input power factor of the single-phase diode rectifier. Conventional rectifier needs a high frequency switching devices and a reactor to improve input power factor. However, the proposed power converter doesnt need the switching device, the electrolytic capacitor and the reactor. By making many ripples across the dc-bus voltage and then, the input power factor can be improved. The proposed system consists of an only single-phase diode rectifier, small film capacitor, three-phase inverter and motor. The proposed system adopts an interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor. The IPM motor is well known as a high efficiency motor and can get field weakening. The basic ideas of the inverter control method are based on two following operations. First, the inverters controlled synchronous with the dc-bus ripple voltage by field-weakening method.The other is direct active power feeding from the source side to the motor without smoothing the dc-bus voltage. This paper describes that the proposed method can obtain the input power factor 97.3% by experimental tests, and realize the small size and the long life of the system.

  2. Controlled Patterning of Vertical Silicon Structures Using Polymer Lithography and Wet Chemical Etching.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Jung; Lee, Su-Han; Lee, Jihye; Lee, Eung-Sug; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Jung, Joo-Yun; Jeong, Jun-Ho; Choi, Dae-Geun

    2015-06-01

    In order to improve their performance for various applications, a facile method for the wafer-scale fabrication of micro/nano-patterned vertical silicon (Si) structures such as silicon nanowires (SiNWs), silicon nanorods (SiNRs), and porous silicon (p-Si) was developed. The method is based on the combination of lithography techniques (photolithography, thermal nano-imprint lithography, nanosphere lithography) and wet chemical etching (electro-chemical etching, metal-assisted chemical etching) processes. Micro-patterned p-Si with various pore diameters from 30 nm to 1.2 um were fabricated via electro-chemical etching. Micro/nano-patterned Si microstructures, nanorods, and nanowires were also successfully fabricated by changing the thickness of the metal layer of 5 nm or 20 nm in the metal-assisted chemical etching process. This study also investigated the effect of the etching time and patterning on the etched SiNWs length. This method provides advantages of simplicity, speed, large-scale production, easy size and shape manipulation, and low cost. PMID:26369075

  3. Antagonism of levcromakalim by imidazoline- and guanidine-derivatives in rat portal vein: involvement of the delayed rectifier.

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, T.; Edwards, G.; Weston, A. H.

    1993-01-01

    1. In rat whole portal veins, guanabenz (100 nM to 10 microM) and antazoline (100 nM to 100 microM) each increased the amplitude, frequency and duration of spontaneous contractions. In addition, guanabenz (30 microM) and antazoline (30 microM) each antagonized the ability of levcromakalim (3 nM to 10 microM) to inhibit the spontaneous contractions of this tissue. 2. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from freshly-isolated rat portal vein cells dispersed by a collagenase/pronase enzyme treatment. The ability of several agents (antazoline, cirazoline, clonidine, guanabenz and phentolamine, each containing an imidazoline or guanidine moiety), to modulate potassium (K) currents and to inhibit the actions of levcromakalim was investigated. 3. Antazoline, cirazoline, clonidine, guanabenz and phentolamine (each at a concentration of 30 microM) had little effect on control non-inactivating currents but inhibited the delayed-rectifier current, IK(V). 4. Levcromakalim (1 microM) induced a non-inactivating current, IK(ATP), and also inhibited the delayed rectifier current, IK(V). 5. Glibenclamide (1 microM) had no effect on control delayed rectifier or non-inactivating currents, but it inhibited the simultaneous induction of IK(ATP) and reduction of IK(V) produced by levcromakalim (1 microM). 6. Antazoline, cirazoline, clonidine and guanabenz (each at a concentration of 30 microM) prevented the induction of IK(ATP) by levcromakalim (1 microM). Phentolamine (30 microM) and clonidine (30 microM) each inhibited the IK(ATP) generated by levcromakalim (1 microM). 7. It is concluded that a variety of agents which possess either an imidazoline (antazoline, cirazoline, clonidine and phentolamine) or a guanidine (guanabenz) moiety within their structure inhibit the delayed rectifier current, IK(V).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8306101

  4. Rectifying calibration error of Goldmann applanation tonometer is easy!

    PubMed Central

    Choudhari, Nikhil S; Moorthy, P Krishna; Tungikar, Vinod B; Kumar, Mohan; George, Ronnie; Rao, Harsha L; Senthil, Sirisha; Vijaya, Lingam; Garudadri, Chandra Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT) is the current Gold standard tonometer. However, its calibration error is common and can go unnoticed in clinics. Its company repair has limitations. The purpose of this report is to describe a self-taught technique of rectifying calibration error of GAT. Materials and Methods: Twenty-nine slit-lamp-mounted Haag-Streit Goldmann tonometers (Model AT 900 C/M; Haag-Streit, Switzerland) were included in this cross-sectional interventional pilot study. The technique of rectification of calibration error of the tonometer involved cleaning and lubrication of the instrument followed by alignment of weights when lubrication alone didnt suffice. We followed the South East Asia Glaucoma Interest Group's definition of calibration error tolerance (acceptable GAT calibration error within 2, 3 and 4 mm Hg at the 0, 20 and 60-mm Hg testing levels, respectively). Results: Twelve out of 29 (41.3%) GATs were out of calibration. The range of positive and negative calibration error at the clinically most important 20-mm Hg testing level was 0.5 to 20 mm Hg and -0.5 to -18 mm Hg, respectively. Cleaning and lubrication alone sufficed to rectify calibration error of 11 (91.6%) faulty instruments. Only one (8.3%) faulty GAT required alignment of the counter-weight. Conclusions: Rectification of calibration error of GAT is possible in-house. Cleaning and lubrication of GAT can be carried out even by eye care professionals and may suffice to rectify calibration error in the majority of faulty instruments. Such an exercise may drastically reduce the downtime of the Gold standard tonometer. PMID:25494251

  5. Performance Analysis of Rectifier in NH3-H2O Absorprtion Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Ozaki, Eiichi; Nakao, Kazushige

    It is necessary to have rectifier in NH3-H20 absorption cycle in order to remove steam from ammonia and steam mixed vapor that is regenerated in generator. Although many studies have made to investigate the performance of rectifier using various fluids experimentally, few theoretical analysis has made without any constant from experimental data. In this study in order to investigate the characteristic of rectifying process, experimental and analytical approach was made concerning plate-type rectifier. In the experiment, the effect of vapor flow rate and NH3 mass concentration of solution on rectifying performance were investigated. And in the analysis the model of heat and mass transfer was proposed considering the distribution of mass concentration in boundary layer. As a result it was found that NH3 mass concentration at rectifier outlet slightly decreased as vapor flow rate increased and that the model could predict NH3 mass concentration in outlet vapor for various concentration in solution.

  6. Detection of epileptic seizures from single lead ECG by means of phase rectified signal averaging.

    PubMed

    Varon, Carolina; Caicedo, Alexander; Jansen, Katrien; Lagae, Lieven; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Epileptic seizures have a clear effect on the regulatory mechanisms of the autonomic nervous system, especially on the cardiac and respiratory controls. Changes in heart rate and respiration are well known to occur around the onset of the seizure. This paper studies the ECG signals recorded from patients suffering from epilepsy, whose ages ranged from 3 to 48 years. Both focal and generalized seizures are considered. Changes in cardiorespiratory control and coupling, are assessed using phase rectified signal averaging (PRSA), which is a technique that finds quasi-periodicities in noisy and non-stationary signals. A positive predictive value (PPV) of 86.21% with sensitivity of 100% was obtained for focal seizures, and a PPV of 84.3% with 93.1% sensitivity for generalized seizures. PMID:25570816

  7. Bandpass integrated Bragg gratings in silicon-on-insulator with well-controlled amplitude and phase responses.

    PubMed

    Simard, Alexandre D; Strain, Michael J; Meriggi, Laura; Sorel, Marc; LaRochelle, Sophie

    2015-03-01

    Bandpass filters with square shape amplitude responses and well-controlled dispersion characteristics are achieved by accurate apodization of Bragg grating structures in silicon-on-insulator waveguides. For these devices, precise tailoring of their frequency response typically requires low coupling coefficients and relatively long on-chip propagation lengths. These challenges are addressed by implementing apodization by phase-modulation and using wider strip waveguides to reduce phase noise. This design approach is demonstrated with a dispersion-less narrowband filter and a chirped bandpass filter. PMID:25723420

  8. Novel synthetic methodology for controlling the orientation of zinc oxide nanowires grown on silicon oxide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Jinhyun; Salleh, Najah; Blanco, Carlos; Yang, Sungwoo; Lee, Chul-Jin; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jungsang; Liu, Jie

    2014-03-01

    This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology.This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH- concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH- concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional SEM images, photographs of seed solution and XRD peaks and XPS. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr03694d

  9. Electronic transport properties of silicon clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, Yukihito

    2016-02-01

    The electronic transport properties of silicon clusters were examined via theoretical calculations using the first-principles method. Additionally, p-type doping and n-type doping were analyzed by calculating conductance and current of boron- and phosphorus-doped silicon clusters. The p-type doping and n-type doping provided a new transmission peak at an energy level around the Fermi level to increase conductance. Furthermore, simultaneous boron and phosphorus doping resulted in noticeable rectifying characteristics, with the current drive in forward bias being three times higher than that in the reverse bias. A p-n junction was achieved even on a molecular scale.

  10. Optically-controlled extinction ratio and Q-factor tunable silicon microring resonators based on optical forces

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yun; Wang, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Tunability is a desirable property of microring resonators to facilitate superior performance. Using light to control light, we present an alternative simple approach to tuning the extinction ratio (ER) and Q-factor of silicon microring resonators based on optical forces. We design an opto-mechanical tunable silicon microring resonator consisting of an add-drop microring resonator and a control-light-carrying waveguide (“controlling” waveguide). One of the two bus waveguides of the microring resonator is a deformable nanostring put in parallel with the “controlling” waveguide. The tuning mechanism relies on the optical force induced deflection of suspended nanostring, leading to the change of coupling coefficient of microring and resultant tuning of ER and Q-factor. Two possible geometries, i.e. double-clamped nanostring and cantilever nanostring, are studied in detail for comparison. The obtained results imply a favorable structure with the microring positioned at the end of the cantilever nanostring. It features a wide tuning range of ER from 5.6 to 39.9 dB and Q-factor from 309 to 639 as changing the control power from 0 to 1.4 mW. PMID:24958225

  11. A novel method for gas flow and impurity control in directional solidification of multi-crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellmann, M. P.; Lindholm, D.; M'Hamdi, M.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper the potential of a specially designed argon gas injector for controlling the gas flow and transport of impurities in directional solidification of multi-crystalline silicon is evaluated. The gas injector which consists of a valve allows one to control the flow direction independently in the vertical and horizontal directions. Based on a gas flow model derived from a semi-industrial crystallization furnace the impact of different gas injection combinations on the gas flow pattern and impurity transport is studied. Special focus is given to the SiO evacuation from the melt-free surface, the CO formation at graphite surfaces and the CO evacuation from the furnace interior. It is found that for gas flow pattern formed through horizontal rather than vertical gas injection, SiO and CO are evacuated most effectively from the furnace interior and the formation of CO is inhibited. Such a type of gas injector presents a versatile tool for controlling the flow and impurity transport in the gas phase and possibly improving the material properties of crystalline silicon.

  12. Design of a nanomechanical fluid control valve based on functionalized silicon cantilevers: coupling molecular mechanics with classical engineering design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solares, Santiago D.; Blanco, Mario; Goddard, William A., III

    2004-11-01

    Process engineering design relies on a host of mechanical devices that enable transport phenomena to take place under controlled conditions. These devices include pipes, valves, pumps, chemical reactors, heat exchangers, packed columns, etc. Mass, energy, and momentum transfer will also be essential phenomena in nanoprocess engineering, particularly at the interface between micro- and nanodevices. Control valves are one of the most fundamental components. In this paper we explore the design of a silicon cantilever valve for fluid transport control at the molecular level (34.5-70 nm in length). We utilize design elements that can be synthesized with existing or emerging chemical and solid state fabrication methods. Thus, the valve is constructed with functionalized silicon surfaces, single-wall carbon nanotubes, and organic monolayers. While molecular mechanics design limitations were overcome with help from classical engineering approximations, nonlinear effects, such as nanotube crimping (for an in-line valve design), are accounted for through full-physics atomistic simulations. Optimal design geometries and operating deflection ranges have been estimated for a device containing over 75 000 atoms.

  13. Self-Vth-Cancellation High-Efficiency CMOS Rectifier Circuit for UHF RFIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotani, Koji; Ito, Takashi

    A high-efficiency CMOS rectifier circuit for UHF RFID applications was developed. The rectifier utilizes a self-Vth-cancellation (SVC) scheme in which the threshold voltage of MOSFETs is cancelled by applying gate bias voltage generated from the output voltage of the rectifier itself. A very simple circuit configuration and zero power dissipation characteristics in biasing enable excellent power conversion efficiency (PCE), especially under small RF input power conditions. At higher RF input power conditions, the PCE of the rectifier automatically decreases. This is the built-in self-power-regulation function. The proposed SVC CMOS rectifier was fabricated with a 0.35-m CMOS process and the measured performance was compared with those of conventional nMOS, pMOS, and CMOS rectifiers and other types of Vth cancellation rectifiers as well. The SVC CMOS rectifier achieves 32% of PCE at the -10dBm RF input power condition. This PCE is larger than rectifiers reported to date under this condition.

  14. Influence on the rectifiers of rotor losses in high-speed permanent magnet synchronous alternator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Seok-Myeong; Cho, Han-Wook; Jeong, Yeon-Ho

    2006-04-01

    This article deals with the rotor losses in the high-speed permanent magnet (PM) synchronous alternator for distributed power generation system. Specifically, the influence of rectifiers on the rotor losses is investigated. On the basis of analytical field analysis and two-dimensional finite element analysis, this article predicts the flux harmonics and rotor losses in the PM alternator considering the rectifier load. The prototype machine with the rectifier load has been fabricated and tested. Moreover, the difference of rotor losses between the high-speed alternator with and without the rectifier is made quantitatively clear in this work.

  15. Process for fabricating device structures for real-time process control of silicon doping

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H. (San Jose, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon device structures designed to allow measurement of important doping process parameters immediately after the doping step has occurred. The test structures are processed through contact formation using standard semiconductor fabrication techniques. After the contacts have been formed, the structures are covered by an oxide layer and an aluminum layer. The aluminum layer is then patterned to expose the contact pads and selected regions of the silicon to be doped. Doping is then performed, and the whole structure is annealed with a pulsed excimer laser. But laser annealing, unlike standard annealing techniques, does not effect the aluminum contacts because the laser light is reflected by the aluminum. Once the annealing process is complete, the structures can be probed, using standard techniques, to ascertain data about the doping step. Analysis of the data can be used to determine probable yield reductions due to improper execution of the doping step and thus provide real-time feedback during integrated circuit fabrication.

  16. Controlled release of theophylline from poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels/porous silicon nanostructured systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Rincón, N.; Medellín-Rodríguez, F. J.; Escobar-Barrios, V. A.; Palestino, G.

    2013-03-01

    In this research, hybrid hydrogels of poly (vinyl alcohol)/ porous silicon (PSi)/theophylline were synthesized by the freezing and thawing method. We evaluated the influence of the synthesis parameters of the poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels in relation to their ability to swell and drug released. The parameters studied (using an experimental design developed in Minitab 16) were the polymer concentration, the freezing temperature and the number of freezing/thawing (f/t) cycles. Nanostructured porous silicon particles (NsPSi) and theophylline were added within the polymer matrix to increase the drug charge and the polymer mechanical strength. The hybrid hydrogels were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), drug delivery kinetics were engineered according to the desired drug release schedule.

  17. Physiological and molecular characterization of an IRK-type inward rectifier K+ channel in a tumour mast cell line.

    PubMed

    Wischmeyer, E; Lentes, K U; Karschin, A

    1995-04-01

    The basophilic leucaemia cell line RBL-2H3 exhibits a robust inwardly rectifying potassium current, IKIR, which is likely to be modulated by G proteins. We examined the physiological and molecular properties of this KIR conductance to define the nature of the underlying channel species. The macroscopic conductance revealed characteristics typical of classical K+ inward rectifiers of the IRK type. Channel gating was rapid, first order (tau approximately 1 ms at -100 mV) and steeply voltage dependent. Both activation potential and slope conductance were dependent on extracellular K+ concentration ([K+]o) and inward rectification persisted in the absence of internal Mg2+. The current was susceptible to a concentration- and voltage-dependent block by extracellular Na+, Cs+ and Ba2+. Initial IKIR whole-cell amplitudes as well as current rundown were dependent on the presence of 1 mM internal ATP. Perfusion of intracellular guanosine 5'-Q-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP[gamma S]) suppressed IKIR with an average half-time of decline of approximately 400 s. It was demonstrated that the dominant IRK-type 25 pS conductance channel was indeed suppressed by 100 microM preloaded GTP[gamma S]. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) with RBL cell poly(A)+ RNA identified a full length K+ inward rectifier with 94% base pair homology to the recently cloned mouse IRK1 channel. It is concluded that RBL cells express a classical voltage-dependent IRK-type K+ inward rectifier RBL-IRK1 which is negatively controlled by G proteins. PMID:7603835

  18. Novel synthetic methodology for controlling the orientation of zinc oxide nanowires grown on silicon oxide substrates.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jinhyun; Salleh, Najah; Blanco, Carlos; Yang, Sungwoo; Lee, Chul-Jin; Kim, Young-Woo; Kim, Jungsang; Liu, Jie

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a simple method to reproducibly obtain well-aligned vertical ZnO nanowire arrays on silicon oxide (SiOx) substrates using seed crystals made from a mixture of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and zinc acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2) solution. In comparison, high levels of OH(-) concentration obtained using NaOH or KOH solutions lead to incorporation of Na or K atoms into the seed crystals, destroying the c-axis alignment of the seeds and resulting in the growth of misaligned nanowires. The use of NH4OH eliminates the metallic impurities and ensures aligned nanowire growth in a wide range of OH(-) concentrations in the seed solution. The difference of crystalline orientations between NH4OH- and NaOH-based seeds is directly observed by lattice-resolved images and electron diffraction patterns using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). This study obviously suggests that metallic impurities incorporated into the ZnO nanocrystal seeds are one of the factors that generates the misaligned ZnO nanowires. This method also enables the use of silicon oxide substrates for the growth of vertically aligned nanowires, making ZnO nanostructures compatible with widely used silicon fabrication technology. PMID:24584438

  19. Rapid thermal processing of high-efficiency silicon solar cells with controlled in-situ annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Doshi, P.; Rohatgi, A.; Ropp, M.; Chen, Z.; Ruby, D.; Meier, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Silicon solar cell efficiencies of 17.1%, 16.4%, 14.8%, and 14.9% have been achieved on FZ, Cz, multicrystalline (mc-Si), and dendritic web (DW) silicon, respectively, using simplified, cost-effective rapid thermal processing (RTP). These represent the highest reported efficiencies for solar cells processed with simultaneous front and back diffusion with no conventional high-temperature furnace steps. Appropriate diffusion temperature coupled with the added in-situ anneal resulted in suitable minority-carrier lifetime and diffusion profiles for high-efficiency cells. The cooling rate associated with the in-situ anneal can improve the lifetime and lower the reverse saturation current density (J{sub 0}), however, this effect is material and base resistivity specific. PECVD antireflection (AR) coatings provided low reflectance and efficient front surface and bulk defect passivation. Conventional cells fabricated on FZ silicon by furnace diffusions and oxidations gave an efficiency of 18.8% due to greater short wavelength response and lower J{sub 0}.

  20. Controlled Prelithiation of Silicon Monoxide for High Performance Lithium-Ion Rechargeable Full Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Jin; Choi, Sunghun; Lee, Seung Jong; Seo, Myung Won; Lee, Jae Goo; Deniz, Erhan; Lee, Yong Ju; Kim, Eun Kyung; Choi, Jang Wook

    2016-01-13

    Despite the recent considerable progress, the reversibility and cycle life of silicon anodes in lithium-ion batteries are yet to be improved further to meet the commercial standards. The current major industry, instead, adopts silicon monoxide (SiOx, x ≈ 1), as this phase can accommodate the volume change of embedded Si nanodomains via the silicon oxide matrix. However, the poor Coulombic efficiencies (CEs) in the early period of cycling limit the content of SiOx, usually below 10 wt % in a composite electrode with graphite. Here, we introduce a scalable but delicate prelithiation scheme based on electrical shorting with lithium metal foil. The accurate shorting time and voltage monitoring allow a fine-tuning on the degree of prelithiation without lithium plating, to a level that the CEs in the first three cycles reach 94.9%, 95.7%, and 97.2%. The excellent reversibility enables robust full-cell operations in pairing with an emerging nickel-rich layered cathode, Li[Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05]O2, even at a commercial level of initial areal capacity of 2.4 mAh cm(-2), leading to a full cell energy density 1.5-times as high as that of graphite-LiCoO2 counterpart in terms of the active material weight. PMID:26694703

  1. Inward rectifier potassium currents in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres

    PubMed Central

    DiFranco, Marino; Yu, Carl; Quiñonez, Marbella; Vergara, Julio L

    2015-01-01

    Inward rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play a central role in maintaining the resting membrane potential of skeletal muscle fibres. Nevertheless their role has been poorly studied in mammalian muscles. Immunohistochemical and transgenic expression were used to assess the molecular identity and subcellular localization of Kir channel isoforms. We found that Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channels were targeted to both the surface andthe transverse tubular system membrane (TTS) compartments and that both isoforms can be overexpressed up to 3-fold 2 weeks after transfection. Inward rectifying currents (IKir) had the canonical features of quasi-instantaneous activation, strong inward rectification, depended on the external [K+], and could be blocked by Ba2+ or Rb+. In addition, IKir records show notable decays during large 100 ms hyperpolarizing pulses. Most of these properties were recapitulated by model simulations of the electrical properties of the muscle fibre as long as Kir channels were assumed to be present in the TTS. The model also simultaneously predicted the characteristics of membrane potential changes of the TTS, as reported optically by a fluorescent potentiometric dye. The activation of IKir by large hyperpolarizations resulted in significant attenuation of the optical signals with respect to the expectation for equal magnitude depolarizations; blocking IKir with Ba2+ (or Rb+) eliminated this attenuation. The experimental data, including the kinetic properties of IKir and TTS voltage records, and the voltage dependence of peak IKir, while measured at widely dissimilar bulk [K+] (96 and 24 mm), were closely predicted by assuming Kir permeability (PKir) values of ∼5.5 × 10−6 cm s−1 and equal distribution of Kir channels at the surface and TTS membranes. The decay of IKir records and the simultaneous increase in TTS voltage changes were mostly explained by K+ depletion from the TTS lumen. Most importantly, aside from allowing an accurate estimation of most of the properties of IKir in skeletal muscle fibres, the model demonstrates that a substantial proportion of IKir (>70%) arises from the TTS. Overall, our work emphasizes that measured intrinsic properties (inward rectification and external [K] dependence) and localization of Kir channels in the TTS membranes are ideally suited for re-capturing potassium ions from the TTS lumen during, and immediately after, repetitive stimulation under physiological conditions. Key points This paper provides a comprehensive electrophysiological characterization of the external [K+] dependence and inward rectifying properties of Kir channels in fast skeletal muscle fibres of adult mice. Two isoforms of inward rectifier K channels (IKir2.1 and IKir2.2) are expressed in both the surface and the transverse tubular system (TTS) membranes of these fibres. Optical measurements demonstrate that Kir currents (IKir) affect the membrane potential changes in the TTS membranes, and result in a reduction in luminal [K+]. A model of the muscle fibre assuming that functional Kir channels are equally distributed between the surface and TTS membranes accounts for both the electrophysiological and the optical data. Model simulations demonstrate that the more than 70% of IKir arises from the TTS membranes. [K+] increases in the lumen of the TTS resulting from the activation of K delayed rectifier channels (Kv) lead to drastic enhancements of IKir, and to right-shifts in their reversal potential. These changes are predicted by the model. PMID:25545278

  2. Silicon nanocrystals in SiN{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} hetero-superlattices: The loss of size control after thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenina, A. Zacharias, M.; Sarikov, A.; Zhigunov, D. M.; Weiss, C.; Zakharov, N.; Werner, P.; López-Conesa, L.; Peiró, F.

    2014-06-28

    Superlattices containing 3 nm thick silicon rich silicon nitride sublayers and 3 nm and 10 nm thick SiO{sub 2} barriers were prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Despite the as-prepared samples represented a well-kept multilayer structure with smooth interfaces, the high temperature annealing resulted in the total destruction of multilayer structure in the samples containing 3 nm SiO{sub 2} barriers. Energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy images of these samples indicated a silicon nanoclusters formation with sizes of 2.5–12.5 nm, which were randomly distributed within the structure. Although in the sample with 10 nm SiO{sub 2} barriers some fragments of the multilayer structure could be still observed after thermal annealing, nevertheless, the formation of large nanocrystals with diameters up to 10 nm was confirmed by dark field transmission electron microscopy. Thus, in contrast to the previously published results, the expected size control of silicon nanocrystals was lost. According to the FTIR results, the thermal annealing of SiN{sub x}/SiO{sub 2} superlattices led to the formation of silicon nanocrystals in mostly oxynitride matrix. Annealed samples demonstrated a photoluminescence peak at 885 nm related to the luminescence of silicon nanocrystals, as confirmed by time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The loss of nanocrystals size control is discussed in terms of the migration of oxygen atoms from the SiO{sub 2} barriers into the silicon rich silicon nitride sublayers. A thermodynamic mechanism responsible for this process is proposed. According to this mechanism, the driving force for the oxygen migration is the gain in the configuration entropy related to the relative arrangements of oxygen and nitrogen atoms.

  3. Rectifying filamentary resistive switching in ion-exfoliated LiNbO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xinqiang; Shuai, Yao; Wu, Chuangui; Luo, Wenbo; Sun, Xiangyu; Zeng, Huizhong; Zhou, Shengqiang; Bttger, Roman; Ou, Xin; Mikolajick, Thomas; Zhang, Wanli; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2016-01-01

    In this letter, we report the resistive switching properties of ion-exfoliated LiNbO3 thin films. After annealing in Ar or in vacuum, electro-forming has been observed on the thin films, and the oxygen gas bubbles can be eliminated by tuning the annealing conditions in order to prevent the destruction of top electrodes. The thin films show rectifying filamentary resistive switching after forming, which is interpreted by a simplified model that the local filament does not penetrate throughout the LiNbO3 thin film, resulting in asymmetric contact barriers at the two interfaces. The well controlled electro-forming step and the highly reproducible switching properties are attributed to the more homogeneous distribution of defects in single crystalline materials and the specific geometry of filament.

  4. A novel solid-state thermal rectifier based on reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Xie, Dan; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling; Zhang, Gang; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Peng, Ping-Gang; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Li-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Recently, manipulating heat transport by phononic devices has received significant attention, in which phonon--a heat pulse through lattice, is used to carry energy. In addition to heat control, the thermal devices might also have broad applications in the renewable energy engineering, such as thermoelectric energy harvesting. Elementary phononic devices such as diode, transistor and logic devices have been theoretically proposed. In this work, we experimentally create a macroscopic scale thermal rectifier based on reduced graphene oxide. Obvious thermal rectification ratio up to 1.21 under 12?K temperature bias has been observed. Moreover, this ratio can be enhanced further by increasing the asymmetric ratio. Collectively, our results raise the exciting prospect that the realization of macroscopic phononic device with large-area graphene based materials is technologically feasible, which may open up important applications in thermal circuits and thermal management. PMID:22826801

  5. Silicone metalization

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  6. Silicone metalization

    DOEpatents

    Maghribi, Mariam N.; Krulevitch, Peter; Hamilton, Julie

    2006-12-05

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  7. Fabrication of periodic silicon nanopillars in a two-dimensional hexagonal array with enhanced control on structural dimension and period.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jea-Young; Alford, T L; Honsberg, Christiana B

    2015-04-01

    We present a method to fabricate well-controlled periodic silicon nanopillars (Si NPs) in hexagonal arrays using silica nanosphere (SNS) lithography (SNL) combined with metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE). The period of the Si NPs is easily changed by using our silica nanosphere (SNS) spin-coating process, which provides excellent monolayer uniformity and coverage (>95%) over large surface areas. The size of the deposited SNS is adjusted by reactive ion etching (RIE) to produce a target diameter at a fixed period for control of the surface pattern size after a gold metal mask layer deposition. The Si NPs are etched with the MaCE technique following introduction of a Ni interfacial layer between the Si and Au catalyst layer for adhesion and improved lithographical accuracy. The result is a fast, convenient, and large-area applicable Si surface nanolithography technique for accurate and reproducible Si NP fabrication. PMID:25781034

  8. Suppression of reverse recovery surge voltage of silicon power diode by adjusting trap energy levels through local lifetime control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Yusuke; Machida, Satoru; Sugiyama, Takahide

    2014-01-01

    To suppress the reverse recovery surge voltage of silicon power diodes, the effects of adjusting trap energy levels through local lifetime control were investigated by device simulation and theoretical analysis of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) model. In general, local lifetime control techniques localize carrier traps at the anode side of a diode and optimize the carrier lifetime profile to suppress surge voltage. However, the suppression effect of a certain localized trap density distribution on surge voltage varies with a change in trap energy level, even if the trap density distribution is the same. It became clear that deep trap energy levels suppress surge voltage more than shallow trap energy levels at 1000 A/cm2 or less. Thus, deep trap energy levels such as Et - Ei = 0.0-0.2 eV are favorable for suppressing surge voltage in almost all power devices.

  9. Chemical control over the formation and reactivity of ultra-thin films and amino-terminated layers on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Reyes, Juan Carlos F.

    The physical-chemical properties of several interfacial systems of technological relevance are investigated, having as a common goal the elucidation of strategies towards their atomic- and molecular-level control. Such systems can be classified in three groups: (i) ultra-thin films deposited using metalorganic precursors, (ii) metalorganic monolayers on silicon, and (iii) amine-functionalized silicon surfaces. Experimental, theoretical and chemometric methods are conveniently combined to gain a solid understanding of these systems. The ultra-thin films under investigation are titanium carbonitride (TiNC) and hafnium oxide (HfO2). Since these films may serve as substrates for deposition of other materials in circuit components, their surface chemistry needs to be understood and controlled in order to facilitate further deposition steps. The surface of a TiCN film is transformed to titanium nitride (TiN) through nitridation with ammonia; this compositional change can be reversed by the partial decomposition of ethylene molecules on the surface. The surface reactivity is observed to depend on the film composition, and therefore the method described above serves to reversibly tune the reactivity of Ti-based films. As for HfO2 films, it is found that the deposition temperature affects the degree of crystallinity of the films, which in turn affects their surface chemistry. Thus, together with a control of the composition, it is found that the reactivity of a film can be controlled precisely by controlling the crystallinity. The investigation of metalorganic monolayers on silicon surfaces was motivated by the need for understanding the first steps of metalorganic-based deposition of films, which is usually characterized by a heavy presence of contaminants that degrade the film properties. Through a combination of vibrational (infrared) spectroscopy and theoretical methods, a feasible pathway for the adsorption and decomposition of Ti[N(CH3)2]4 is found. This pathway starts with the ligand-mediated attachment of the precursor (through a N atom), followed by dissociation of a metal-ligand bond. In addition, the C-H bond is broken, possibly forming Si-C bonds and causing carbon incorporation. This model is found to be rather robust and to adequately describe other types of metalorganic precursors. It allows establishing a generalized model able to explain the success or failure of a metalorganic precursor chemistry for film deposition. Finally, amine-functionalized silicon surfaces are considered as prototypical systems where the spatial distribution of adsorbates and the control over the reactivity of surface sites can be investigated. The spatial distribution of molecules is investigated at the atomic level by considering the saturation of a Si(100) surface with NH3. It is found that the distribution of (Si)NH2 species can be controlled thermally and, more importantly, that during thermal decomposition N inserts into the substrate in manners that minimize the arising strain. When the surface is covered with NH 3 or with organic amines, its chemical behavior is determined by the basicity of the molecule functionalizing the surface. The precise tuning of the reactivity (basicity) of surface sites opens the doors for highly controllable, selective reactions. Although these results are obtained from rather fundamental grounds, their interpretation is often translated into manners in which technological applications can be improved. Further directions worth exploring emanated from this work are outlined and discussed. Ultimately, this work intends to highlight the current importance of surface physical chemistry in the continuous development of modern society through the improvement of its technology.

  10. Plasma monitoring and PECVD process control in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Onno; Kirner, Simon; Klick, Michael; Stannowski, Bernd; Schlatmann, Rutger

    2014-02-01

    A key process in thin film silicon-based solar cell manufacturing is plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of the active layers. The deposition process can be monitored in situ by plasma diagnostics. Three types of complementary diagnostics, namely optical emission spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and non-linear extended electron dynamics are applied to an industrial-type PECVD reactor. We investigated the influence of substrate and chamber wall temperature and chamber history on the PECVD process. The impact of chamber wall conditioning on the solar cell performance is demonstrated.

  11. Control of interface fracture in silicon nitride ceramics: influence of different rare earth elements

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, E.Y.; Becher, P.F.; Waters, S.B.; Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Plucknett, K.P.; Hoffmann, M.J.

    1996-10-01

    The toughness of self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramics is improved by enhancing crack deflection and crack bridging mechanisms. Both mechanisms rely on the interfacial debonding process between the elongated {Beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and the intergranular amorphous phases. The various sintering additives used for densification may influence the interfacial debonding process by modifying the thermal and mechanical properties of the intergranular glasses, which will result in different residual thermal expansion mismatch stresses; and the atomic bonding structure across the {Beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} glass interface. Earlier studies indicated that self-reinforced silicon nitrides sintered with different rare earth additives and/or different Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:AI{sub 2}0{sub 3} ratios could exhibit different fracture behavior that varied from intergranular to transgranular fracture. No studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of sintering additives on the interfacial fracture in silicon nitride ceramics. Because of the complexity of the material system and the extremely small scale, it is difficult to conduct quantitative analyses on the chemistry and stress states of the intergranular glass phases and to relate the results to the bulk properties. The influence of different sintering additives on the interfacial fracture behavior is assessed using model systems in which {Beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}whiskers are embedded in SIAIRE (RE: rare-earth) oxynitride glasses. By systematically varying the glass composition, the role of various rare-earth additives on interfacial fracture has been examined. Specifically, four different additives were investigated: Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}0{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, applying the results from the model systems, the R- curve behavior of self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramics sintered with different Y{sub 2}0{sub 3}:AI{sub 2}0{sub 3} ratios was characterized.

  12. Microcomputer controlled soft start of motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Miao; Wang, Yanpeng; Li, Shian

    2005-12-01

    Improving the starting characteristics of a motor is an important part of the motor control. An intelligent soft starting technique was adopted in the starter and used in the present study because of its many advantages compared with conventional starting processes. The core of the soft starter was a single chip (Atmel 8098), its soul was the software and its control object was a Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR). The starter achieved not only current-limit starting, but also closed-loop control with a stator current detection circuit. In conclusion, as a result of digital control, starting characteristic can be conveniently chosen according to the load. In addition the starter is of small size, and starting is smooth and reliable due to current feedback.

  13. Self-rectifying electron beam melter for pendant-drop containerless processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pyun, D. S.; Collings, E. W.

    1993-01-01

    A self-rectifying electron beam melting technique is described. Utilizing an ac power supply, in contrast to the more usual dc supply, the in situ self-rectifying approach offers a simple and very inexpensive means of producing metallic pendant drops for use in containerless melt-processing experiments.

  14. Etched profile control in anisotropic etching of silicon by TMAH+Triton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Prem; Gosálvez, M. A.; Sato, K.

    2012-06-01

    The adverse effect of mechanical agitation (magnetic bead stirring) as well as galvanic interaction between the evolving facets of the etch front on the amount of undercutting during anisotropic etching of Si{1 0 0} wafers in surfactant-added tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) is studied by etching different mask patterns in magnetically stirred and nonstirred solutions. Triton X-100, with formula C14H22O(C2H4O)n, where n = 9-10, is used as the surfactant. The stirring results conclude that the adsorption of the surfactant on the etched silicon surfaces is predominantly physical in nature rather than chemical (physisorption versus chemisorption). The proposed model to account for the galvanic interaction between the evolving facets indicates that the underlying chemical etching process can be significantly surpassed by the onset of an electrochemical etching contribution when the relative area of the exposed {1 0 0} surface becomes relatively small in comparison to that of the developed {1 1 1} sidewalls. This study is useful for engineering applications where surfactant-added TMAH is used for the fabrication of silicon MEMS structures that should contain negligible undercutting.

  15. Performance of Thin-Window Silicon Drift Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Carini, , G.A.; Chen, W.; De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Gaskin, J.A.; Keister; J.W.; Li, Z.; Ramsey, B.D.; Rehak, P.; Siddons, D.P.

    2008-10-20

    Several sets of hexagonal Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) arrays were produced at BNL and by a commercial vendor, KETEK. Each array consists of 14 independent detectors (pixels) and two additional test pixels at two of the corners. The side of the detector upon which the X-ray radiation is incident (window side) has a thin junction covering the entire active area. The opposite side (device side) contains a drift-field electrode structure in the form of a hexagonal spiral and an electron collecting anode. There are 4 guard rings surrounding the 14-pixel array area on both sides of the detector. Within each array, 7 of the pixels have an aluminum field plate - interrupted spirals that stabilize the electric potential under the Si-SiO2 interface, while the other 7 do not. The drift field in the silicon volume is controlled by three biases: one is applied to a rectifying contact, one to the detector entrance window, and the third to a contact on the outer portion of the spiral common to all pixels in the array. Some arrays have been newly measured in NSLS beam line U3C at BNL. The complete assemblies were installed in the vacuum and cooled to ?27 C. During this run, spectra for energies ranging between 400 and 900 eV were collected in several pixels, some with field plates and others without. The detailed testing results of several arrays are reported here.

  16. Single-molecule designs for electric switches and rectifiers.

    PubMed

    Kornilovitch, Pavel; Bratkovsky, Alexander; Williams, Stanley

    2003-12-01

    A design for molecular rectifiers is proposed. Current rectification is based on the spatial asymmetry of a molecule and requires only one resonant conducting molecular orbital. Rectification is caused by asymmetric coupling of the orbital to the electrodes, which results in asymmetric movement of the two Fermi levels with respect to the orbital under external bias. Results from numerical studies of the family of suggested molecular rectifiers, HS-(CH(2))(n)-C(6)H(4)(CH(2))(m)SH, are presented. Current rectification ratios in excess of 100 are achievable for n = 2 and m > 6. A class of bistable stator-rotor molecules is proposed. The stationary part connects the two electrodes and facilitates electron transport between them. The rotary part, which has a large dipole moment, is attached to an atom of the stator via a single sigma bond. Electrostatic bonds formed between the oxygen atom of the rotor and hydrogen atoms of the stator make the symmetric orientation of the dipole unstable. The rotor has two potential minima with equal energy for rotation about the sigma bond. The dipole can be flipped between the two states by an external electric field. Both rotor-orientation states have asymmetric current-voltage characteristics that are the reverse of each other, so they are distinguishable electrically. Theoretical results on conformation, energy barriers, retention times, switching voltages, and current-voltage characteristics are presented for a particular stator-rotor molecule. Such molecules could be the base for single-molecule switches, reversible diodes, and other molecular electronic devices. PMID:14976019

  17. Hot electron pump: a plasmonic rectifying antenna (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanik, Ahmet A.; Hossain, Golam I.

    2015-09-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures have been widely explored to improve absorption efficiency of conventional solar cells, either by employing them as a light scatterer, or as a source of local field enhancement. Unavoidable ohmic loss associated with the plasmonic metal nanostructures in visible spectrum, limits the efficiency improvement of photovoltaic devices by employing this local photon density of states (LDOS) engineering approach. Instead of using plasmonic structures as efficiency improving layer, recently, there has been a growing interest in exploring plasmoinc nanoparticle as the active medium for photovoltaic device. By extracting hot electrons that are created in metallic nanoparticles in a non-radiative Landau decay of surface plasmons, many novel plasmonic photovoltaic devices have been proposed. Moreover, these hot electrons in metal nanoparticles promises high efficiency with a spectral response that is not limited by the band gap of the semiconductors (active material of conventional solar cell). In this work, we will show a novel photovoltaic configuration of plasmonic nanoparticle that acts as an antenna by capturing free space ultrahigh frequency electromagnetic wave and rectify them through an ultrafast hot electron pump and eventually inject DC current in the contact of the device. We will introduce a bottom-up quantum mechanical approach model to explain fundamental physical processes involved in this hot electron pump rectifying antenna and it's ultrafast dynamics. Our model is based on non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, a robust theoretical framework to investigate transport and design nanoscale electronic devices. We will demonstrate some fundamental limitations that go the very foundations of quantum mechanics.

  18. Controlling the shape and gap width of silicon electrodes using local anodic oxidation and anisotropic TMAH wet etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi, Jalal; Mahmud, Shahrom; Derita Hutagalung, Sabar; Naderi, Nima; Kakooei, Saeid; Johar Abdullah, Mat

    2012-06-01

    A simple method for fabricating silicon electrodes with various shapes and gap widths was designed using the special properties of anisotropic tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) wet etching and local anodic oxidation (LAO). A statistical system was used for the optimization of the parameters of the LAO process to facilitate a better understanding and precise analysis of the process. Analyses of the interaction effects among the significant factors of LAO showed that the relative humidity and applied voltage were interdependent. They had the strongest interaction effect on the dimensions of the oxide mask. TMAH with a concentration of 25% was used as an etchant solution in (1 0 0) silicon with a rectangular oxide mask. The observed undercutting at convex corners, tip shape of emitters and gap widths of electrodes were exactly consistent with theoretical studies. Combination of the LAO method and anisotropic TMAH wet etching was successfully used to fabricate Si nano-gap electrodes. This fabrication method of sharp and round tip emitters was simple, controllable and faster than common techniques. These results indicate that the method can be a new approach for studying the electrical properties of nano-gap electrodes.

  19. Highly sensitive silicon nanowire biosensor with novel liquid gate control for detection of specific single-stranded DNA molecules.

    PubMed

    Adam, Tijjani; Hashim, U

    2015-05-15

    The study demonstrates the development of a liquid-based gate-control silicon nanowire biosensor for detection of specific single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules. The sensor was fabricated using conventional photolithography coupled with an inductively coupled plasma dry etching process. Prior to the application of DNA to the device, its linear response to pH was confirmed by serial dilution from pH 2 to pH 14. Then, the sensor surface was silanized and directly aminated with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane to create a molecular binding chemistry for biofunctionalization. The resulting Si‒O‒Si‒ components were functionalized with receptor ssDNA, which interacted with the targeted ssDNA to create a field across the silicon nanowire and increase the current. The sensor shows selectivity for the target ssDNA in a linear range from target ssDNA concentrations of 100 pM to 25 nM. With its excellent detection capabilities, this sensor platform is promising for detection of specific biomarkers and other targeted proteins. PMID:25453738

  20. High-stroke silicon-on-insulator MEMS nanopositioner: Control design for non-raster scan atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Maroufi, Mohammad Fowler, Anthony G. Bazaei, Ali Moheimani, S. O. Reza

    2015-02-15

    A 2-degree of freedom microelectromechanical systems nanopositioner designed for on-chip atomic force microscopy (AFM) is presented. The device is fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator-based process and is designed as a parallel kinematic mechanism. It contains a central scan table and two sets of electrostatic comb actuators along each orthogonal axis, which provides displacement ranges greater than 10??m. The first in-plane resonance modes are located at 1274 Hz and 1286 Hz for the X and Y axes, respectively. To measure lateral displacements of the stage, electrothermal position sensors are incorporated in the design. To facilitate high-speed scans, the highly resonant dynamics of the system are controlled using damping loops in conjunction with internal model controllers that enable accurate tracking of fast sinusoidal set-points. To cancel the effect of sensor drift on controlled displacements, washout controllers are used in the damping loops. The feedback controlled nanopositioner is successfully used to perform several AFM scans in contact mode via a Lissajous scan method with a large scan area of 20??m 20??m. The maximum scan rate demonstrated is 1?kHz.

  1. High-stroke silicon-on-insulator MEMS nanopositioner: Control design for non-raster scan atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maroufi, Mohammad; Fowler, Anthony G.; Bazaei, Ali; Moheimani, S. O. Reza

    2015-02-01

    A 2-degree of freedom microelectromechanical systems nanopositioner designed for on-chip atomic force microscopy (AFM) is presented. The device is fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator-based process and is designed as a parallel kinematic mechanism. It contains a central scan table and two sets of electrostatic comb actuators along each orthogonal axis, which provides displacement ranges greater than 10 ?m. The first in-plane resonance modes are located at 1274 Hz and 1286 Hz for the X and Y axes, respectively. To measure lateral displacements of the stage, electrothermal position sensors are incorporated in the design. To facilitate high-speed scans, the highly resonant dynamics of the system are controlled using damping loops in conjunction with internal model controllers that enable accurate tracking of fast sinusoidal set-points. To cancel the effect of sensor drift on controlled displacements, washout controllers are used in the damping loops. The feedback controlled nanopositioner is successfully used to perform several AFM scans in contact mode via a Lissajous scan method with a large scan area of 20 ?m 20 ?m. The maximum scan rate demonstrated is 1 kHz.

  2. The inward rectifier potassium channel Kir2.1 is required for osteoblastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sacco, Sonia; Giuliano, Serena; Sacconi, Sabrina; Desnuelle, Claude; Barhanin, Jacques; Amri, Ez-zoubir; Bendahhou, Sad

    2015-01-15

    Andersen's syndrome (AS) is a rare and dominantly inherited pathology, linked to the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir2.1. AS patients exhibit a triad of symptoms that include periodic paralysis, cardiac dysrhythmia and bone malformations. Some progress has been made in understanding the contribution of the Kir2.1 channel to skeletal and cardiac muscle dysfunctions, but its role in bone morphogenesis remains unclear. We isolated myoblast precursors from muscle biopsies of healthy individuals and typical AS patients with dysmorphic features. Myoblast cultures underwent osteogenic differentiation that led to extracellular matrix mineralization. Osteoblastogenesis was monitored through the activity of alkaline phosphatase, and through the hydroxyapatite formation using Alizarin Red and Von Kossa staining techniques. Patch-clamp recordings revealed the presence of an inwardly rectifying current in healthy cells that was absent in AS osteoblasts, showing the dominant-negative effect of the Kir2.1 mutant allele in osteoblasts. We also found that while control cells actively synthesize hydroxyapatite, AS osteoblasts are unable to efficiently form any extracellular matrix. To further demonstrate the role of the Kir2.1 channels during the osteogenesis, we inhibited Kir2.1 channel activity in healthy patient cells by applying extracellular Ba(2+) or using adenoviruses carrying mutant Kir2.1 channels. In both cases, cells were no longer able to produce extracellular matrixes. Moreover, osteogenic activity of AS osteoblasts was restored by rescue experiments, via wild-type Kir2.1 channel overexpression. These observations provide a proof that normal Kir2.1 channel function is essential during osteoblastogenesis. PMID:25205110

  3. Surface polarity control to reinforce dopant adhesion in laser doping of textured silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Hideki; Okamura, Takanori; Yamamoto, Yuki; Fuyuki, Takashi

    2014-05-01

    Increasing energy conversion efficiency without any extra cost is required for crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. Laser doping (LD) can meet these requirements because it can be performed in an ambient atmosphere at room temperature. In this study, spin-coated phosphorus silicate glass (PSG) was formed on textured c-Si as a precursor for LD. We found that after LD, the reinforcement of the interface between PSG and the Si surface improved the photovoltaic characteristics Voc and Jsc. The interface was reinforced by changing the c-Si surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic before spin coating. The reinforced interface led to a reduction in the number of surface voids and an enhancement of the transfer of dopant atoms.

  4. Kinetics and fracture resistance of lithiated silicon nanostructure pairs controlled by their mechanical interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ryu, Ill; Nix, William D.; Gao, Huajian; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Following an explosion of studies of silicon as a negative electrode for Li-ion batteries, the anomalous volumetric changes and fracture of lithiated single Si particles have attracted significant attention in various fields, including mechanics. However, in real batteries, lithiation occurs simultaneously in clusters of Si in a confined medium. Hence, understanding how the individual Si structures interact during lithiation in a closed space is necessary. Here, we demonstrate physical and mechanical interactions of swelling Si structures during lithiation using well-defined Si nanopillar pairs. Ex situ SEM and in situ TEM studies reveal that compressive stresses change the reaction kinetics so that preferential lithiation occurs at free surfaces when the pillars are mechanically clamped. Such mechanical interactions enhance the fracture resistance of lithiated Si by lessening the tensile stress concentrations in Si structures. This study will contribute to improved design of Si structures at the electrode level for high-performance Li-ion batteries. PMID:26112834

  5. Voltage controlling mechanisms in low resistivity silicon solar cells: A unified approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E.; Godlewski, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental technique capable of resolving the dark saturation current into its base and emitter components is used as the basis of an analysis in which the voltage limiting mechanisms were determined for a variety of high voltage, low resistivity silicon solar cells. The cells studied include the University of Florida hi-low emitter cell, the NASA and the COMSAT multi-step diffused cells, the Spire Corporation ion-implanted emitter cell, and the University of New South Wales MINMIS and MINP cells. The results proved to be, in general, at variance with prior expectations. Most surprising was the finding that the MINP and the MINMIS voltage improvements are due, to a considerable extent, to a previously unrecognized optimization of the base component of the saturation current. This result is substantiated by an independent analysis of the material used to fabricate these devices.

  6. A study of the factors which control the efficiency of ion-implanted silicon solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, E. C.; Daiello, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine experimentally the ion-implantation parameters and furnace annealing conditions required to produce high-efficiency solar cells. A comprehensive experimental study was conducted in which the optimum ion-implantation parameters were found by a systematic variation of the implant parameters followed by detailed studies of solar-cell devices. Two furnace heat-treatment techniques were found which effectively anneal the implanted layers and at the same time preserve or improve the diffusion length in the bulk silicon. Detailed characteristics of both the junction and bulk properties of solar cells fabricated over the spectrum of implant parameters are discussed. Optimized implant parameters and annealing conditions were found which allow for the fabrication of 14-15-percent (AM1) efficient solar cells.

  7. Kinetics and fracture resistance of lithiated silicon nanostructure pairs controlled by their mechanical interaction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ryu, Ill; Nix, William D; Gao, Huajian; Cui, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Following an explosion of studies of silicon as a negative electrode for Li-ion batteries, the anomalous volumetric changes and fracture of lithiated single Si particles have attracted significant attention in various fields, including mechanics. However, in real batteries, lithiation occurs simultaneously in clusters of Si in a confined medium. Hence, understanding how the individual Si structures interact during lithiation in a closed space is necessary. Here, we demonstrate physical and mechanical interactions of swelling Si structures during lithiation using well-defined Si nanopillar pairs. Ex situ SEM and in situ TEM studies reveal that compressive stresses change the reaction kinetics so that preferential lithiation occurs at free surfaces when the pillars are mechanically clamped. Such mechanical interactions enhance the fracture resistance of lithiated Si by lessening the tensile stress concentrations in Si structures. This study will contribute to improved design of Si structures at the electrode level for high-performance Li-ion batteries. PMID:26112834

  8. Kinetics and fracture resistance of lithiated silicon nanostructure pairs controlled by their mechanical interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ryu, Ill; Nix, William D.; Gao, Huajian; Cui, Yi

    2015-06-01

    Following an explosion of studies of silicon as a negative electrode for Li-ion batteries, the anomalous volumetric changes and fracture of lithiated single Si particles have attracted significant attention in various fields, including mechanics. However, in real batteries, lithiation occurs simultaneously in clusters of Si in a confined medium. Hence, understanding how the individual Si structures interact during lithiation in a closed space is necessary. Here, we demonstrate physical and mechanical interactions of swelling Si structures during lithiation using well-defined Si nanopillar pairs. Ex situ SEM and in situ TEM studies reveal that compressive stresses change the reaction kinetics so that preferential lithiation occurs at free surfaces when the pillars are mechanically clamped. Such mechanical interactions enhance the fracture resistance of lithiated Si by lessening the tensile stress concentrations in Si structures. This study will contribute to improved design of Si structures at the electrode level for high-performance Li-ion batteries.

  9. Enhanced light absorption of amorphous silicon thin film by substrate control and ion irradiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Large-area periodically aligned silicon nanopillar (PASiNP) arrays were fabricated by magnetic sputtering with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on substrates coated by a monolayer of close-packed polystyrene (PS) nanospheres. The structure of PASiNP arrays could be manipulated by changing the diameter of PS nanospheres. Enhanced light absorptance within a wavelength range from 300 to 1,000nm was observed as the diameter of nanopillars and porosity of PASiNP arrays increased. Meanwhile, Xe ion irradiation with dose from 1??1014 to 50??1014 ions/cm2 was employed to modify the surface morphology and top structure of thin films, and the effect of the irradiation on the optical bandgap was discussed. PACS code 81.15.Cd; 78.66.Jg; 61.80.Jh PMID:24717078

  10. Characterization of a controlled electroless deposition of copper thin film on germanium and silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scudiero, Louis; Fasasi, Ayuba; Griffiths, Peter R.

    2011-02-01

    Nanofilms of copper were deposited on silicon and, for the first time, on polycrystalline germanium substrates by electroless deposition. Germanium or silicon disks were immersed in a 10 mM copper sulfate solution containing dilute hydrofluoric acid at room temperature. This simple one-step deposition does not require the use of laborious operations or expensive equipment, that the reaction medium be degassed, or that the film be annealed. The copper film grows in a few minutes, producing a film on both Ge and Si that covers a very large area of the substrate in contrast to other metals such as Au, Ag, Pt and Pd for which deposition on Ge and Si produces islands or dendrites. Atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were used to characterize the microstructure and confirmed the formation of elemental copper nanofilms. The AFM micrographs reveal a Stranski-Krastanov type of film growth (layers + islands) that varies with the length of time the Ge or Si substrate is immersed in the CuSO4 solution. Thicker films were observed on the Ge than on the Si substrate resulting in larger particles and rougher surface than on Si. XPS analysis shows that the elemental copper is deposited on both Ge and Si substrates and that the films oxidize over a period of weeks with air exposure at room temperature. Finally, PXRD data reveal two preferential orientations (1 1 1) and (2 0 0) for the copper crystallites grown on both Ge and Si. The same intensity of the (1 1 1)-texture was measured on both Ge and Si substrate which is an important result because it has been shown that the (1 1 1) texture reduces stress-induced voiding and increases resistance to electromigration in metal interconnects.

  11. Semiconductor-metal phase transition of vanadium dioxide nanostructures on silicon substrate: Applications for thermal control of spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Leahu, G. L. Li Voti, R. Larciprete, M. C. Belardini, A. Mura, F. Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Fratoddi, I.

    2014-06-19

    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO2) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO2 phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared (MIR) region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO2 which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory, together with a strong hysteresis phenomenon, both useful to design tunable thermal devices to be applied for the thermal control of spacecraft. We have also applied the photothermal radiometry in order to study the changes in the modulated emissivity induced by laser. Experimental results show how the use of these techniques represent a good tool for a quantitative measurement of the optothermal properties of vanadium dioxide based structures.

  12. Study of radial growth rate and size control of silicon nanocrystals in square-wave-modulated silane plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen-Tran, Th.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P.; Patriarche, G.

    2007-09-10

    The growth of silicon nanocrystals in high pressure and high dilution silane plasmas is investigated by using the temporal evolution of the self-bias on the radio frequency electrode and transmission electron microscopy. A square-wave-modulated plasma was used in order to control the growth of monodispersed nanoparticles with sizes smaller than 12 nm. To this end, the plasma on time was kept below 1 s. The radial growth rate of nanoparticles was varied in the range from 7.5 to 75 nm/s by changing silane partial pressure. Nanoparticles grown in silane-helium discharges have been found amorphous while they are crystalline in silane-hydrogen-argon discharges. Surprisingly, the crystallization in the gaseous phase does not depend on how slow or fast the particles grow but on the presence of atomic hydrogen.

  13. Evaluation of the SCR controller noise problem

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, R R; Barnaby, B E

    1981-12-01

    Several types of solid state controllers are available for application to electric vehicles. The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) type provides a current waveform of fixed pulse height and variable ratio on to off time. The controller provides step-free operation through a four-speed manual transmission. However, because the current is chopped, the circuits produce loud hums of varying frequency, which in some mounting situations may be amplified. This noise disappoints those who expect an electric vehicle to boast relatively silent operation. To evaluate the problem, components of a test bed, consisting of a battery bank, dc motor, SCR controller, charger, and appropriate cabling, were fitted with accelerometers, and the noises were evaluated for amplitude and spectral characteristics. Transient currents and voltages were also measured and analyzed to identify the source of the noise and the frequencies involved.

  14. 75 FR 24747 - SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier Operations Division A Wholly Owned Subsidiary of SCI, LLC/ON...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration SCI, LLC/Zener-Rectifier Operations Division A Wholly Owned Subsidiary..., 2009, applicable to workers of SCI LLC/Zener-Rectifier, Operations Division, a wholly owned subsidiary... issued as follows: All workers of SCI LLC/Zener-Rectifier, Operations Division, a wholly owned...

  15. Factors controlling the silicon isotope distribution in waters and surface sediments of the Peruvian coastal upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlert, Claudia; Grasse, Patricia; Mollier-Vogel, Elfi; Bschen, Tebke; Franz, Jasmin; de Souza, Gregory F.; Reynolds, Ben C.; Stramma, Lothar; Frank, Martin

    2012-12-01

    We present the first systematic study of the silicon isotope composition in the water column (?30Si) and in diatoms (?30Sidiatom) from the underlying surface sediments in a coastal upwelling region. The surface waters upwelling on the shelf off Peru are mainly fed by southward flowing subsurface waters along the coast, which show a mean ?30Si of +1.5. The concentration of dissolved silicic acid (Si(OH)4) increases towards the south in these waters and with increasing water depth, suggesting lateral mixing with water masses from the south and intense remineralisation of particulate biogenic silica (bSiO2) in the water column and in the surface sediments. Surface waters in the realm of the most intense upwelling between 5S and 15S have only marginally elevated ?30Si values (?30Si = +1.7) with respect to the source Si isotope composition, whereas further north and south, where upwelling is less pronounced, surface waters are more strongly fractionated (?30Si up to +2.8) due to the stronger utilisation of the smaller amounts of available Si(OH)4. The degree of Si(OH)4 utilisation in the surface waters along the shelf estimated from the Si(OH)4 concentration data ranges from 51% to 93%. The ?30Sidiatom values of hand-picked diatoms in the underlying surface sediments vary from +0.6 to +2.0, which is within the range of the expected fractionation between surface waters and diatoms. The fractionation signal in the surface waters produced during formation of the diatoms is reflected by the ?30Sidiatom values in the underlying sediments, with the lowest ?30Sidiatom values in the main upwelling region. The silicon isotope compositions of bSiO2 (?30Si) from the same surface sediment samples are generally much lower than the ?30Sidiatom signatures indicating a significant contamination of the bSiO2 with biogenic siliceous material other than diatoms, such as sponge spicules. This shift towards lighter ?30Si values by up to -1.3 compared to ?30Sidiatom signatures for the same surface sediment samples potentially biases the interpretation of ?30Si paleorecords from sediments with low bSiO2 concentrations, and thus the reconstruction of past Si(OH)4 utilisation in surface waters.

  16. Cell technology: Advanced silicon sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Andrew D.

    1986-01-01

    The Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA)-sponsored Fourth Silicon Stress/Strain Workshop reviewed, coordinated, and assessed the progress in understanding and controlling stress and strain during the crystal growth of silicon ribbons. dislocation electrical activity and limits on solar cell efficiency, and on studying the effects of dopants on EFG characteristics. Work on silicon for high-efficiency solar cells, stress-strain relationships in silicon ribbon, and high temperature deformation of dendritic web ribbon was also discussed.

  17. Inward rectifier potassium currents in mammalian skeletal muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    DiFranco, Marino; Yu, Carl; Quionez, Marbella; Vergara, Julio L

    2015-03-01

    Inward rectifying potassium (Kir) channels play a central role in maintaining the resting membrane potential of skeletal muscle fibres. Nevertheless their role has been poorly studied in mammalian muscles. Immunohistochemical and transgenic expression were used to assess the molecular identity and subcellular localization of Kir channel isoforms. We found that Kir2.1 and Kir2.2 channels were targeted to both the surface and the transverse tubular system membrane (TTS) compartments and that both isoforms can be overexpressed up to 3-fold 2 weeks after transfection. Inward rectifying currents (IKir) had the canonical features of quasi-instantaneous activation, strong inward rectification, depended on the external [K(+)], and could be blocked by Ba(2+) or Rb(+). In addition, IKir records show notable decays during large 100 ms hyperpolarizing pulses. Most of these properties were recapitulated by model simulations of the electrical properties of the muscle fibre as long as Kir channels were assumed to be present in the TTS. The model also simultaneously predicted the characteristics of membrane potential changes of the TTS, as reported optically by a fluorescent potentiometric dye. The activation of IKir by large hyperpolarizations resulted in significant attenuation of the optical signals with respect to the expectation for equal magnitude depolarizations; blocking IKir with Ba(2+) (or Rb(+)) eliminated this attenuation. The experimental data, including the kinetic properties of IKir and TTS voltage records, and the voltage dependence of peak IKir, while measured at widely dissimilar bulk [K(+)] (96 and 24 mm), were closely predicted by assuming Kir permeability (PKir) values of ?5.5 10(-6 ) cm s(-1) and equal distribution of Kir channels at the surface and TTS membranes. The decay of IKir records and the simultaneous increase in TTS voltage changes were mostly explained by K(+) depletion from the TTS lumen. Most importantly, aside from allowing an accurate estimation of most of the properties of IKir in skeletal muscle fibres, the model demonstrates that a substantial proportion of IKir (>70%) arises from the TTS. Overall, our work emphasizes that measured intrinsic properties (inward rectification and external [K] dependence) and localization of Kir channels in the TTS membranes are ideally suited for re-capturing potassium ions from the TTS lumen during, and immediately after, repetitive stimulation under physiological conditions. PMID:25545278

  18. All-Optical Control of an Individual Resonance in a Silicon Microresonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Y. Henry; Kuzucu, Onur; Fridman, Moti; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Luo, Lian-Wee; Lipson, Michal

    2012-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate selective control of the Q and transmission of an individual resonance of an optical microcavity by optically controlling its intracavity loss via inverse Raman scattering. A strongly overcoupled resonance is brought into critical coupling with continuous tuning of the on-resonance transmission by >9dB and reduction of the intrinsic Q factor by more than a factor of five. Adjacent resonances experience minimal disturbance and can be selectively controlled by tuning the control beam to the appropriate control resonance. These dynamics are analogous to Zeno effects observed in decoherence-driven atomic ensembles and two-level systems.

  19. Hierarchical porous silicon carbide with controlled micropores and mesopores for electric double layer capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myeongjin; Oh, Ilgeun; Kim, Jooheon

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional hierarchical micro and mesoporous silicon carbide spheres (MMPSiC) are prepared by the template method and carbonization reaction via the aerosol spray drying method. The mesopores are generated by the self-assembly of the structure-directing agents, whereas the micropores are derived from the partial evaporation of Si atoms during carbonization. To investigate the effect of mesopore size on electrochemical performance, three types of MMPSiC with different mesopore size were fabricated by using three different structure directing agents (cetyltriethylammonium bromide (CTAB), Polyethylene glycol hexadecyl ether (Brij56), and Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (P123)). The MMPSiC electrode prepared with Brij56 exhibits the highest charge storage capacity with a specific capacitance of 253.7 F g-1 at a scan rate of 5 mV s-1 and 87.9% rate performance from 5 to 500 mV s-1 in 1 M Na2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The outstanding electrochemical performance might be because of the ideal mesopore size, which effectively reduces the resistant pathways for ion diffusion in the pores and provides a large accessible surface area for ion transport/charge storage. These encouraging results demonstrate that the MMPSiC prepared with Brij56 is a promising candidate for high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  20. Wave-aberration control with a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) spatial phase modulator.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Enrique J; Prieto, Pedro M; Artal, Pablo

    2009-06-22

    Liquid crystal on Silicon (LCOS) spatial phase modulators offer enhanced possibilities for adaptive optics applications in terms of response velocity and fidelity. Unlike deformable mirrors, they present a capability for reproducing discontinuous phase profiles. This ability also allows an increase in the effective stroke of the device by means of phase wrapping. The latter is only limited by the diffraction related effects that become noticeable as the number of phase cycles increase. In this work we estimated the ranges of generation of the Zernike polynomials as a means for characterizing the performance of the device. Sets of images systematically degraded with the different Zernike polynomials generated using a LCOS phase modulator have been recorded and compared with their theoretical digital counterparts. For each Zernike mode, we have found that image degradation reaches a limit for a certain coefficient value; further increase in the aberration amount has no additional effect in image quality. This behavior is attributed to the intensification of the 0-order diffraction. These results have allowed determining the usable limits of the phase modulator virtually free from diffraction artifacts. The results are particularly important for visual simulation and ophthalmic testing applications, although they are equally interesting for any adaptive optics application with liquid crystal based devices. PMID:19550501

  1. Kinetics and fracture resistance of lithiated silicon nanostructure pairs controlled by their mechanical interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seok Woo; Lee, Hyun-Wook; Ryu, Ill; Nix, William D.; Gao, Huajian; Cui, Yi; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept. /SLAC

    2015-06-01

    Following an explosion of studies of silicon as a negative electrode for Li-ion batteries, the anomalous volumetric changes and fracture of lithiated single Si particles have attracted significant attention in various fields, including mechanics. However, in real batteries, lithiation occurs simultaneously in clusters of Si in a confined medium. Hence, understanding how the individual Si structures interact during lithiation in a closed space is necessary. Herein, we demonstrate physical/mechanical interactions of swelling Si structures during lithiation using well-defined Si nanopillar pairs. Ex situ SEM and in situ TEM studies reveal that compressive stresses change the reaction kinetics so that preferential lithiation occurs at free surfaces when the pillars are mechanically clamped. Such mechanical interactions enhance the fracture resistance of This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Contract No. DE-AC02-76SF00515. SLAC-PUB-16300 2 lithiated Si by lessening the tensile stress concentrations in Si structures. This study will contribute to improved design of Si structures at the electrode level for high performance Li-ion batteries.

  2. Novel silicone compatible cross-linkers for controlled functionalization of PDMS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Frederikke B.; Egede Daugaard, Anders; Hvilsted, Sren; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2013-04-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are excellent materials for dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs) due to their high efficiency and fast response. PDMS suffers, however, from low dielectric permittivity and high voltages are therefore required when the material is used for DEAP actuators. In order to improve the dielectric properties of PDMS a novel system is developed where push-pull dipoles are grafted to a new silicone compatible cross-linker. The grafted cross-linkers are prepared by reaction of two different push-pull dipole alkynes as well as a fluorescent alkyne with the new azide-functional cross-linker by click chemistry. The dipole cross-linkers are used to prepare PDMS elastomers of various chains lengths providing different network densities. The functionalized cross-linkers are incorporated successfully into the networks and are well distributed as determined by the fluorescent functional cross-linker and fluorescence microscopy. The thermal, mechanical and electro-mechanical properties of PDMS elastomers of 0 wt% to 3.6 wt% of push-pull dipole cross-linker are investigated. An increase in the dielectric permittivity of 19 % at only 0.46 wt% of pure push-pull dipole is observed. Furthermore, the dielectric losses are found to be very low while the electrical breakdown strengths are high and adequate for DEAP applications.

  3. Controllably Interfacing with Ferroelectric Layer: A Strategy for Enhancing Water Oxidation on Silicon by Surface Polarization.

    PubMed

    Cui, Wei; Xia, Zhouhui; Wu, Shan; Chen, Fengjiao; Li, Yanguang; Sun, Baoquan

    2015-11-25

    Silicon (Si) is an important material in photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting because of its good light-harvesting capability as well as excellent charge-transport properties. However, the shallow valence band edge of Si hinders its PEC performance for water oxidation. Generally, thanks to their deep valence band edge, metal oxides are incorporated with Si to improve the performance, but they also decrease the transportation of carriers in the electrode. Here, we integrated a ferroelectric poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) [P(VDF-TrFE)] layer with Si to increase the photovoltage as well as the saturated current density. Because of the prominent ferroelectric property from P(VDF-TrFE), the Schottky barrier between Si and the electrolyte can be facially tuned by manipulating the poling direction of the ferroelectric domains. The photovoltage is improved from 460 to 540 mV with a forward-poled P(VDF-TrFE) layer, while the current density increased from 5.8 to 12.4 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 V bias versus reversible hydrogen electrode. PMID:25844486

  4. Effect of proportion on rectification in organic co-oligomer spin rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Gui-Chao; Wang, Hui; Ren, Jun-Feng

    2011-07-01

    The rectification behaviours in organic magnetic/nonmagnetic co-oligomer spin rectifiers are investigated theoretically. It is found that both the charge current and the spin current through the device are rectified at the same time. By adjusting the proportion between the magnetic and nonmagnetic components, the threshold voltage and the rectification ratio of the rectifier are modulated. A large rectification ratio is obtained when the two components are equal in length. The intrinsic mechanism is analysed in terms of the asymmetric localization of molecular orbitals under biases. The effect of molecular length on the rectification is also discussed. These results will be helpful in the future design of organic spin diodes.

  5. Optimum system design of a three-phase rectifier-inverter type of frequency changer

    SciTech Connect

    Ziogas, P.D.; Kang, Y-G.; Stefanovic, V.R.

    1985-09-01

    Steadily decreasing prices and improved performance of semiconductor devices have raised expectations towards the development and large-scale application of motor-mounted static converters. In view of this, the design of a rectifier-inverter type of frequency changer which requires very small reactive components is considered. Accordingly, rectifier and inverter PWM schemes which generate the minimum possible harmonic distortion are first discussed. By using a suitable analysis method, ''optimum'' design data are obtained for every major system component. Resulting reactive component values are shown to be considerably smaller than the ones required by typical rectifier-inverter structures. Predicted key results are verified by computer simulation.

  6. Controls on the silicon isotope distribution in the ocean: New diagnostics from a data-constrained model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzer, Mark; Brzezinski, Mark A.

    2015-03-01

    The global distributions of the silicon isotopes within silicic acid are estimated by adding isotope fractionation to an optimized, data-constrained model of the oceanic silicon cycle that is embedded in a data-assimilated steady circulation. Including fractionation during opal dissolution improves the model's ability to capture the approximately linear relation between isotope ratio, ?30Si, and inverse silicic acid concentration observed in the deep Atlantic. To quantify the importance of hydrographic control on the isotope distribution, ?30Si is partitioned into contributions from preformed and regenerated silicic acid, further partitioned according to euphotic zone origin. We find that the large-scale features of the isotope distribution in the Atlantic basin are dominated by preformed silicic acid, with regenerated silicic acid being important for setting vertical gradients. In the Pacific and Indian Oceans, preformed and regenerated silicic acid make roughly equally important contributions to the pattern of the isotope ratio, with gradients of the preformed and regenerated contributions tending to cancel each other in the deep Pacific. The Southern Ocean euphotic zone is the primary origin of both the preformed and regenerated contributions to ?30Si. Nearly the entire preformed part of ?30Si is of Southern Ocean and North Atlantic origin. The regenerated part of ?30Si in the Atlantic basin also has a contribution of Central Atlantic (40S-40N) origin that is comparable in magnitude to the North Atlantic contribution. In other basins, the Central Pacific and Indian Ocean are the second largest contributors to the regenerated part of ?30Si.

  7. Glass frit bonding with controlled width and height using a two-step wet silicon etching procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yifang, Liu; Daner, Chen; Liwei, Lin; Gaofeng, Zheng; Jianyi, Zheng; Lingyun, Wang; Daoheng, Sun

    2016-03-01

    A simple and versatile two-step silicon wet etching technique for the control of the width and height of the glass frit bonding layer has been developed to improve bonding strength and reliability in wafer-level microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) packaging processes. The height of the glass frit bonding layer is set by the design of a vertical reference wall which regulates the distance between the silicon wafer and the encapsulation capping substrate. On the other hand, the width of the bonding layer is constrained between two micro grooves which are used to accommodate the spillages of extra glass frit during the bonding process. An optimized thermal bonding process, including the formation of glass liquid, removal of gas bubbles under vacuum and the filling of voids under normal atmospheric condition has been developed to suppress the formation of the bubbles/voids. The stencil printing and pre-sintering processes for the glass frit have been characterized before the thermal bonding process under different magnitudes of bonding pressure. The bonding gap thickness is found to be equal to the height of the reference wall of 10 μm in the prototype design. The bubbles/voids are found to be suppressed effectively and the bonding strength increases from 10.2 to 19.1 MPa as compared with a conventional thermal annealing process in air. Experimentally, prototype samples are measured to have passed the high hermetic sealing leakage tests of 5  ×  10‑8 atm cc s‑1.

  8. Finite element modeling of electrically rectified piezoelectric energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, P. H.; Shu, Y. C.

    2015-09-01

    Finite element models are developed for designing electrically rectified piezoelectric energy harvesters. They account for the consideration of common interface circuits such as the standard and parallel-/series-SSHI (synchronized switch harvesting on inductor) circuits, as well as complicated structural configurations such as arrays of piezoelectric oscillators. The idea is to replace the energy harvesting circuit by the proposed equivalent load impedance together with the capacitance of negative value. As a result, the proposed framework is capable of being implemented into conventional finite element solvers for direct system-level design without resorting to circuit simulators. The validation based on COMSOL simulations carried out for various interface circuits by the comparison with the standard modal analysis model. The framework is then applied to the investigation on how harvested power is reduced due to fabrication deviations in geometric and material properties of oscillators in an array system. Remarkably, it is found that for a standard array system with strong electromechanical coupling, the drop in peak power turns out to be insignificant if the optimal load is carefully chosen. The second application is to design broadband energy harvesting by developing array systems with suitable interface circuits. The result shows that significant broadband is observed for the parallel (series) connection of oscillators endowed with the parallel-SSHI (series-SSHI) circuit technique.

  9. Permeation and Gating of an Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Han; Sackin, Henry; Palmer, Lawrence G.

    1998-01-01

    Permeation, gating, and their interrelationship in an inwardly rectifying potassium (K+) channel, ROMK2, were studied using heterologous expression in Xenopus oocytes. Patch-clamp recordings of single channels were obtained in the cell-attached mode. The gating kinetics of ROMK2 were well described by a model having one open and two closed states. One closed state was short lived (?1 ms) and the other was longer lived (?40 ms) and less frequent (?1%). The long closed state was abolished by EDTA, suggesting that it was due to block by divalent cations. These closures exhibit a biphasic voltage dependence, implying that the divalent blockers can permeate the channel. The short closures had a similar biphasic voltage dependence, suggesting that they could be due to block by monovalent, permeating cations. The rate of entering the short closed state varied with the K+ concentration and was proportional to current amplitude, suggesting that permeating K+ ions may be related to the short closures. To explain the results, we propose a variable intrapore energy well model in which a shallow well may change into a deep one, resulting in a normally permeant K+ ion becoming a blocker of its own channel. PMID:9758862

  10. Mitigating impact of rectified RF sheath potential on the ELMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang

    2014-10-01

    Here we report on the BOUT++ simulation results for the mitigating impact of rectified RF sheath potential on the peeling-ballooning modes. The limiter and the RF wave antenna are placed at the outer middle plane in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) in shift-circle geometry. The external shear flow is induced by the limiter and the RF wave. Besides this, the sheath boundary conditions are imposed on the perturbed potential and parallel current. From the three-field simulations, it is found that the energy loss is suppressed by the external shear flow in the nonlinear phase. The external shear flow due to the RF wave leads to a broad turbulence spectrum. The wider spectrum leads to a weaker turbulence transport and results in a smaller energy loss. The perturbed electric potential and the parallel current near the sheath region are also suppressed locally due to the sheath boundary condition. Based on this work, this effect of limiter will also be applied in six-field which includes more physics effects. The effect of sheath boundary conditions on the thermal conductivities and heat flux will be studied. This work was performed for USDOE by LLNL under DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL LDRD project 12-ERD-022 and the China Natural Science Foundation under Contract No. 10721505. LLNL-ABS-657008.

  11. Remote electrical stimulation by means of implanted rectifiers.

    PubMed

    Ivorra, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Miniaturization of active implantable medical devices is currently compromised by the available means for electrically powering them. Most common energy supply techniques for implants--batteries and inductive couplers--comprise bulky parts which, in most cases, are significantly larger than the circuitry they feed. Here, for overcoming such miniaturization bottleneck in the case of implants for electrical stimulation, it is proposed to make those implants act as rectifiers of high frequency bursts supplied by remote electrodes. In this way, low frequency currents will be generated locally around the implant and these low frequency currents will perform stimulation of excitable tissues whereas the high frequency currents will cause only innocuous heating. The present study numerically demonstrates that low frequency currents capable of stimulation can be produced by a miniature device behaving as a diode when high frequency currents, neither capable of thermal damage nor of stimulation, flow through the tissue where the device is implanted. Moreover, experimental evidence is provided by an in vivo proof of concept model consisting of an anesthetized earthworm in which a commercial diode was implanted. With currently available microelectronic techniques, very thin stimulation capsules (diameter <500 m) deliverable by injection are easily conceivable. PMID:21850274

  12. Analysis of three-phase rectifiers with AC-side switches and interleaved three-phase voltage-source converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Stephanie Katherine Teixeira

    Of all the alternative and renewable energy sources, wind power is the fastest growing alternative energy source with a total worldwide capacity of over 93 GW as of the end of 2007. However, making wind energy a sustainable and reliable source of electricity doesn't come without its set of challenges. As the wind turbines increase in size and turbine technology moves towards off-shore wind farms and direct drive transmission, the need for a reliable and efficient power electronics interface to convert the variable-frequency variable-magnitude output of the wind turbine's generator into the fixed-frequency fixed-magnitude voltage of the utility grid is critical. This dissertation investigates a power electronics interface envisioned to operate with an induction generator-based variable-speed wind turbine. The research conclusions and the interface itself are applicable to a variety of applications, including uninterruptible power supplies, industrial drives, and power quality applications, among others. The three-phase PWM rectifiers with ac-side bidirectional switches are proposed as the rectification stage of the power electronics interface. Modulation strategies are proposed for the rectifiers and the operation of the rectifiers in conjunction with an induction generator is demonstrated. The viability of using these rectifiers in place of the standard three-phase voltage-source converter is analyzed by comparing losses and common-mode voltage generation of the two topologies. Parallel three-phase voltage-source converter modules operated in an interleaved fashion are proposed for the inversion stage of the power electronics interface. The interleaved three-phase voltage-source converters are analyzed by deriving analytical models for the common-mode voltage, ac phase current, and dc-link current to reveal their spectra and the harmonic cancellation effects of interleaving. The practical problem of low frequency circulating current in parallel voltage-source converters is also analyzed. The low frequency circulating current characteristics of abc, dq, and nonlinear average current control are determined and experimental results for the nonlinear average current control are presented.

  13. An RF energy harvester system using UHF micropower CMOS rectifier based on a diode connected CMOS transistor.

    PubMed

    Shokrani, Mohammad Reza; Khoddam, Mojtaba; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar B; Kamsani, Noor Ain; Rokhani, Fakhrul Zaman; Shafie, Suhaidi Bin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type diode connected MOS transistor to improve CMOS conventional rectifier's performance in RF energy harvester systems for wireless sensor networks in which the circuits are designed in 0.18? ?m TSMC CMOS technology. The proposed diode connected MOS transistor uses a new bulk connection which leads to reduction in the threshold voltage and leakage current; therefore, it contributes to increment of the rectifier's output voltage, output current, and efficiency when it is well important in the conventional CMOS rectifiers. The design technique for the rectifiers is explained and a matching network has been proposed to increase the sensitivity of the proposed rectifier. Five-stage rectifier with a matching network is proposed based on the optimization. The simulation results shows 18.2% improvement in the efficiency of the rectifier circuit and increase in sensitivity of RF energy harvester circuit. All circuits are designed in 0.18 ?m TSMC CMOS technology. PMID:24782680

  14. An RF Energy Harvester System Using UHF Micropower CMOS Rectifier Based on a Diode Connected CMOS Transistor

    PubMed Central

    Shokrani, Mohammad Reza; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar B.; Rokhani, Fakhrul Zaman; Shafie, Suhaidi Bin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type diode connected MOS transistor to improve CMOS conventional rectifier's performance in RF energy harvester systems for wireless sensor networks in which the circuits are designed in 0.18??m TSMC CMOS technology. The proposed diode connected MOS transistor uses a new bulk connection which leads to reduction in the threshold voltage and leakage current; therefore, it contributes to increment of the rectifier's output voltage, output current, and efficiency when it is well important in the conventional CMOS rectifiers. The design technique for the rectifiers is explained and a matching network has been proposed to increase the sensitivity of the proposed rectifier. Five-stage rectifier with a matching network is proposed based on the optimization. The simulation results shows 18.2% improvement in the efficiency of the rectifier circuit and increase in sensitivity of RF energy harvester circuit. All circuits are designed in 0.18??m TSMC CMOS technology. PMID:24782680

  15. D0 Silicon Strip Detector Upgrade Project SVX Sequencer Controller Board

    SciTech Connect

    Utes, M.; /Fermilab

    2001-05-29

    The Sequencer Controller boards are 9U by 340mm circuit boards that will reside in slot 1 of each of eight Sequencer crates in the D0 detector platform. The primary purpose is to control the Sequencers during data acquisition based on trigger information from the D0 Trigger Framework. Functions and features are as follows: (1) Receives the Serial Command Link (SCL) from the D0 Trigger System and controls the operation of the Sequencers by forming a custom serial control link (NRZ/Clock) which is distributed individually to each Sequencer via the 11 Backplane; (2) Controllable delays adjust NRZ control link phasing to compensate for the various cable-length delays between the Sequencers and SVX chips, delay control is common for slots 2-11, and for slots 12-21 of the crate; (3) Each NRZ control link is phase controlled so that commands reach each Sequencer in a given half-crate simultaneously, i.e., the link is compensated for backplane propagation delays; (4) External communication via MIL-STD-1553; (5) Stand-alone operation via 1553 trigger commands in absence of an SCL link; (6) 1553-writeable register for triggering a laser, etc. followed by an acquisition cycle; (7) TTL front panel input to trigger an acquisition cycle, e.g. from a scintillator; (8) Synch Trig, Veto, Busy and Preamp Reset TTL outputs on front panel LEMOs; (9) On-board 53.104 MHz oscillator for stand-alone operation; (10) 1553 or SCL-triggerable Cal-inject cycle; (11) Front-panel inputs to accept NRZ/Clock link from the VRB Controller; (12) Front panel displays and LEDs show the board status at a glance; and (13) In-system programmable EPLDs are programmed via Altera's 'Byteblaster'.

  16. Comparative studies of direct photovoltaic and AC rectified power supplies for battery charging

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, H.; Stefanakos, E.; Arbogast, T.; Smith, T.

    1995-12-31

    The Clean Energy and Vehicle Research Center at the University of South Florida (USF) is operating a 20 kW (peak) photovoltaic (PV) system in which PV panels form the roof of a 12 bay carport. 4 of the 12 bays has a potential 6kW output that can be used for simultaneous computer controlled direct DC-DC charging and utility interconnection. The program has been created to evaluate the potential contribution of photovoltaics as a method for offsetting the fuel cost of electric vehicles while reducing air pollution generated by power plants, that are fueled by non-renewable sources. When charging lead acid batteries in an EV, a large percentage (22%--40%) of the charging power is lost, which raises the cost of operation. The charger losses usually include power conditioning, power factor, and heat losses, which cumulatively can range between 3%--25%. However, this loss is not a constant and can be affected by the charging process. To determine the impact that charging has on battery losses, two chargers with different power conditioning and charging algorithms will be used under controlled conditions. The battery pack is a 120V 183Ah (5 hr rate) flooded lead acid system located in a Chevy S-10 EV. The first charger (charger A) derives its power from the 6kW photovoltaic array. This charger is computer controlled and prevents gassing throughout the entire charge. This power is pure DC with no ripple. The second charger (charger B) derives its power from the 208V single phase AC grid. This power is condition through a transformer and then rectified with no filtering. The charger conducts only when the rectified voltage exceeds that of the battery pack, which results in the output consisting of current ripples. Test results will be presented to show the extent the ripple power of charger B causes losses in the battery pack, how it influences the battery temperature and the extra losses associated during the gassing phase.

  17. Bi-Sn alloy catalyst for simultaneous morphology and doping control of silicon nanowires in radial junction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhongwei; Lu, Jiawen; Qian, Shengyi; Misra, Soumyadeep; Yu, Linwei; Xu, Jun; Xu, Ling; Wang, Junzhuan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Kunji; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2015-10-01

    Low-melting point metals such as bismuth (Bi) and tin (Sn) are ideal choices for mediating a low temperature growth of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) for radial junction thin film solar cells. The incorporation of Bi catalyst atoms leads to sufficient n-type doping in the SiNWs core that exempts the use of hazardous dopant gases, while an easy morphology control with pure Bi catalyst has never been demonstrated so far. We here propose a Bi-Sn alloy catalyst strategy to achieve both a beneficial catalyst-doping and an ideal SiNW morphology control. In addition to a potential of further growth temperature reduction, we show that the alloy catalyst can remain quite stable during a vapor-liquid-solid growth, while providing still sufficient n-type catalyst-doping to the SiNWs. Radial junction solar cells constructed over the alloy-catalyzed SiNWs have demonstrated a strongly enhanced photocurrent generation, thanks to optimized nanowire morphology, and largely improved performance compared to the reference samples based on the pure Bi or Sn-catalyzed SiNWs.

  18. Intravitreal controlled release of dexamethasone from engineered microparticles of porous silicon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengyun; Hou, Huiyuan; Nan, Kaihui; Sailor, Michael J; Freeman, William R; Cheng, Lingyun

    2014-12-01

    Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid that is widely used in the ophthalmic arena. The recent FDA approved dexamethasone implant can provide a three month efficacy but with high rate of drug related cataract and high intraocular pressure (IOP). It seems that higher steroid in aqueous humor and around lens may be associated with these complications based on clinical fact that higher IOP was observed with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) than with subtenon TA. We hypothesize that placing a sustained dexamethasone release system near back of the eye through a fine needle can maximize efficacy while mitigate higher rate of IOP rise and cataract. To develop a sustained intravitreal dexamethasone delivery system, porous silicon dioxide (pSiO2) microparticles were fabricated and functionalized with amines as well as carboxyl groups. Dexamethasone was conjugated to pSiO2 through the Steglich Esterification Reaction between hydroxyl of dexamethasone and carboxyl groups on the pSiO2. The drug loading was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and loading efficiency was quantitated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In vitro release was conducted for three months and dexamethasone was confirmed in the released samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A pilot ocular safety and determination of vitreous drug level was performed in rabbit eyes. The drug loading study demonstrated that loading efficiency was from 5.96% to 10.77% depending on the loading reaction time, being higher with longer loading reaction time before reaching saturation around 7 days. In vitro drug release study revealed that dexamethasone release from pSiO2 particles was sustainable for over 90 days and was 80 days longer than free dexamethasone or infiltration-loaded pSiO2 particle formulation in the same setting. Pilot in vivo study demonstrated no sign of ocular adverse reaction in rabbit eyes following a single 3 mg intravitreal injection and free drug level at 2-week was 107.23 10.54 ng/mL that is well above the therapeutic level but only around 20% level of dexamethasone released from OZURDEX() (dexamethasone intravitreal implant) in a rabbit eye model. In conclusion, dexamethasone is able to covalently load to the pSiO2 particles and provide sustained drug release for at least 3 months in vitro. Intravitreal injection of these particles were well tolerated in rabbit eyes and free drug level in vitreous at 2-week was well above the therapeutic level. PMID:25446320

  19. Intravitreal Controlled Release of Dexamethasone from Engineered Microparticles of Porous Silicon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengyun; Hou, Huiyuan; Nan, Kaihui; Sailor, Michael J; Freeman, William R.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2014-01-01

    Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid that is widely used in the ophthalmic arena. The recent FDA approved dexamethasone implant can provide a three month efficacy but with high rate of drug related cataract and high intraocular pressure (IOP). It seems that higher steroid in aqueous humor and around lens may be associated with these complications based on clinical fact that higher IOP was observed with intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (TA) than with subtenon TA. We hypothesize that placing a sustained dexamethasone release system near back of the eye through a fine needle can maximize efficacy while mitigate higher rate of IOP rise and cataract. To develop a sustained intravitreal dexamethasone delivery system, porous silicon dioxide (pSiO2) microparticles were fabricated and functionalized with amines as well as carboxyl groups. Dexamethasone was conjugated to pSiO2 through the Steglich Esterificaion Reaction between hydroxyl of dexamethasone and carboxyl groups on the pSiO2. The drug loading was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and loading efficiency was quantitated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In vitro release was conducted for three months and dexamethasone was confirmed in the released samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A pilot ocular safety and determination of vitreous drug level was performed in rabbit eyes. The drug loading study demonstrated that loading efficiency was from 5.96% to 10.77% depending on the loading reaction time, being higher with longer loading reaction time before reaching saturation around 7 days. In vitro drug release study revealed that dexamethasone release from pSiO2 particles was sustainable for over 90 days and was 80 days longer than free dexamethasone or infiltration-loaded pSiO2 particle formulation in the same setting. Pilot in vivo study demonstrated no sign of ocular adverse reaction in rabbit eyes following a single 3 mg intravitreal injection and free drug level at 2-week was 107.23+/?10.54 ng/mL that is well above the therapeutic level but only around 20% level of dexamethasone released from OZURDEX (dexamethasone intravitreal implant) in a rabbit eye model. In conclusion, dexamethasone is able to covalently load to the pSiO2 particles and provide sustained drug release for at least 3 months in vitro. Intravitreal injection of these particles were well tolerated in rabbit eyes and free drug level in vitreous at 2-week was well above the therapeutic level. PMID:25446320

  20. Design and test of a 2.25-MW transformer rectifier assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cormier, R.; Daeges, J.

    1989-01-01

    A new 2.25-MW transformer rectifier assembly was fabricated for DSS-13 at Goldstone, California. The transformer rectifier will provide constant output power of 2.25 MW at any voltage from 31 kV to 125 kV. This will give a new capability of 1 MW of RF power at X-band, provided appropriate microwave tubes are in the power amplifier. A description of the design and test results is presented.

  1. Electron irradiation effect on minority carrier lifetime and other electrical characteristics in silicon power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuochi, P. G.; Di Marco, P. G.; Monti, A.; Bisio, G. M.; Di Zitti, E.; Passerini, B.; Tenconi, S.

    Irradiation of silicon power rectifiers with electrons of 12 MeV energy has been carried out. Minority carrier lifetime ?, forward voltage V F, reverse recovered charge Q RR, reverse recovery time t RR for the diodes, circuit commutated turn-off time t q, and on-state voltage V T for the thyristors are measured as a function of dose. Power diodes and thyristors obtained from <111> neutron transutation or phosphorus doped float-zone silicon slices having 120?cm and 65?cm starting resistivity respectively and Ga-diffused are irradiated at room temperature. A linear relationship between carrier lifetime of irradiated diodes and electron dose is found and the calculated damage coefficients are k ? = 1.1x10 -8 cm 2/s and 7.2x10 -9 cm 2/s for the low-level and high-level lifetimes respectively at 25C. For irradiated thyristors the linear relationship between turn-off time and dose yields k tq = 3x10 -9 cm 2/s at 125C. Electron irradiation also affects the resistivity of the starting n-type silicon, increasing it of ? 15?cm for radiation doses > 110 4 Gy. A dose rate effect on the electrical characteristics of the devices using pulses of different duration is analyzed. Annealing studies are carried out at 150 C, 200C and 360C to assess the stability of the defects produced by the electron bombardment by monitoring the variation of the electrical characteristics of the irradiated devices in the temperature range of interest. DLTS measurements performed on electron irradiated power rectifiers have revealed a complex defect pattern. The E 1 defect level (E c-0.17 ev) is the principal recombination center that controls lifetime following room temperature irradiation. The energy levels and capture cross sections of these irradiation induced-defects are reported. This study confirms that lifetime control in silicon power devices is feasible by high energy electrons. The major advantages of this technique over metallic diffusion or 60Co ?-irradiation methods are: better quality, lower processing cost and higher device yields. Annealing after irradiation is important to ensure long-term device stability.

  2. Effects of insertion of hole injection layers on pentacene rectifying diodes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chan-Mo; Cho, Hyunduck; Park, Myeongjin; Roh, Jeongkyun; Lee, Changhee

    2014-07-01

    The main issue of the organic rectifier, the key element in radio frequency identification tags, is to improve forward-bias current density of an organic diode in the rectifier, which increases the frequency response of the rectifier. One approach to achieve high current density is inserting a hole injection layer (HIL) between the anode and the active layer to enhance the charge injection efficiency. Here we study the effect of HILs in pentacene rectifying diodes. Three different hole injection layers are applied to the pentacene diode: molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN), and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). A rectifier consists of the diode with a capacitor. The results show that current density of diodes with HILs is increased by more than three orders of magnitude compared with the diode without a HIL. The diode with MoO3 and that with HAT-CN shows similar forward bias current density, while that of the diode with PEDOT:PSS is slightly lower than those. Finally, the output voltage of the rectifier with a HIL is 4.6 V at 100 MHz when input voltage of 10 V is applied. PMID:24758021

  3. Performance Analysis of Rectifier in NH3-H2O Absorprtion Heat Pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, Atsushi; Ozaki, Eiichi; Nakao, Kazushige

    Heat and mass transfer model for plate-type rectifier was presented in the previous paper and it was found that there existed the distribution of NH3 concentration in boundary layer in vapor and solution phase, which was the resistance to heat and mass transfer. In order to enhance heat and mass transfer, packed tower-type rectifiers have been considered effective and used in the field of chemical engineering. And many data have been accumulated for each rectification-packing with give fluid to design packed tower. But it has rarely be seen to present heat and mass transfer model in order to evaluate the performance of packed tower rectifier without any experimental constant. In this study heat and mass transfer model in packed tower-type rectifier was presented considering the specification of rectification-packing decided by surface area and porosity, and the calculation results were compared with experimental data. As a result it was found that over-all mass transfer coefficient increased as mass flow rate of vapor increased and that the model could expect over-all mass transfer coefficient within 30 [%] difference to experimental data. It was also cleared that mass transfer in packed-type rectifier was two to five times more enhanced than that in plate-type rectifier.

  4. An idealized model of the one-dimensional carbon dioxide rectifier effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Vincent E.; Volkmer, Hans

    2008-09-01

    The net flux of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the land surface into the atmospheric boundary layer has a diurnal cycle. Drawdown of CO2 occurs during daytime photosynthesis, and return of CO2 to the atmosphere occurs during night. Even when the net diurnal-average surface flux vanishes, the diurnal-average profile of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio is usually not vertically uniform. This is because of the diurnal rectifier effect, by which atmospheric vertical transport and the surface flux conspire to produce a surplus of CO2 near the ground and a deficit aloft. This paper constructs an idealized, 1-D, eddy-diffusivity model of the rectifier effect and provides an analytic series solution. When non-dimensionalized, the intensity of the rectifier effect is related solely to a single `rectifier parameter'. Given this model's governing equation and boundary conditions, we prove that the existence of the rectifier effect is related to the correlation of CO2 gradient and transport, and also to the day-night symmetry of transport. The rectifier-induced near-surface CO2 surplus ought to be included in inverse calculations that use near-surface CO2 mixing ratio to infer land-surface sources and sinks of carbon. Such inverse modeling is facilitated by our model's simplicity. To illustrate, we use a 1-D inverse calculation to infer the amplitude of diurnal CO2 surface flux.

  5. Operational research on a high-T c rectifier-type superconducting flux pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Jianzhao; Matsuda, K.; Fu, Lin; Shen, Boyang; Zhang, Xiuchang; Coombs, T. A.

    2016-03-01

    High-T c superconducting (HTS) flux pumps are capable of injecting flux into a superconducting circuit, which can achieve persistent current operation for HTS magnets. In this paper, we studied the operation of a rectifier-type HTS flux pump. The flux pump employs a transformer to generate high alternating current in its secondary winding, which is connected to an HTS load shorted by an HTS bridge. A high frequency ac field is intermittently applied perpendicular to the bridge, thus, generating flux flow. The dynamic resistance caused by the flux flow ‘rectifies’ the secondary current, resulting in a direct current in the load. We have found that the final load current can easily be controlled by changing the phase difference between the secondary current and the bridge field. The bridge field of frequency ranging from 10 to 40 Hz and magnitude ranging from 0 to 0.66 T was tested. Flux pumping was observed for field magnitudes of 50 mT or above. We have found that both higher field magnitude and higher field frequency result in a faster pumping speed and a higher final load current. This can be attributed to the influence of dynamic resistance. The dynamic resistance measured in the flux pump is comparable with the theoretical calculation. The experimental results fully support a first order circuit model. The flux pump is much more controllable than the traveling wave flux pumps based on permanent magnets, which makes it promising for practical use.

  6. BOREAS TE-18, 60-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 2 1 Jun-1995. The 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18-Sep-1994 in the SSA and 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (1991). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, the full-resolution (30-m) images may not be publicly distributed. However, this spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images may be openly distributed and is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. After the radiometric rectification processing, the original data were degraded to a 60-m pixel size from the original 30-m pixel size by averaging the data over a 2- by 2-pixel window. The data are stored in binary image-format files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. BOREAS TE-18, 30-m, Radiometrically Rectified Landsat TM Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-18 team used a radiometric rectification process to produce standardized DN values for a series of Landsat TM images of the BOREAS SSA and NSA in order to compare images that were collected under different atmospheric conditions. The images for each study area were referenced to an image that had very clear atmospheric qualities. The reference image for the SSA was collected on 02-Sep-1994, while the reference image for the NSA was collected on 21-Jun-1995. the 23 rectified images cover the period of 07-Jul-1985 to 18 Sep-1994 in the SSA and from 22-Jun-1984 to 09-Jun-1994 in the NSA. Each of the reference scenes had coincident atmospheric optical thickness measurements made by RSS-11. The radiometric rectification process is described in more detail by Hall et al. (199 1). The original Landsat TM data were received from CCRS for use in the BOREAS project. The data are stored in binary image-format files. Due to the nature of the radiometric rectification process and copyright issues, these full-resolution images may not be publicly distributed. However, a spatially degraded 60-m resolution version of the images is available on the BOREAS CD-ROM series. See Sections 15 and 16 for information about how to possibly acquire the full resolution data. Information about the full-resolution images is provided in an inventory listing on the CD-ROMs. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Activity Archive Center (DAAC).

  8. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Cryolab Control Valve Modification Information for D0-EVMF-H

    SciTech Connect

    Rucincki, Russ; /Fermilab

    1995-10-26

    This engineering note documents some information regarding the solenoid magnet flow valve, EVMF. See also EN-437 'Control Dewar valve sizing' also for further information on this valve. This note documents the modification done to the valve to change it to a Cv = 0.32.

  9. On the Control of the Fixed Charge Densities in Al2O3-Based Silicon Surface Passivation Schemes.

    PubMed

    Simon, Daniel K; Jordan, Paul M; Mikolajick, Thomas; Dirnstorfer, Ingo

    2015-12-30

    A controlled field-effect passivation by a well-defined density of fixed charges is crucial for modern solar cell surface passivation schemes. Al2O3 nanolayers grown by atomic layer deposition contain negative fixed charges. Electrical measurements on slant-etched layers reveal that these charges are located within a 1 nm distance to the interface with the Si substrate. When inserting additional interface layers, the fixed charge density can be continuously adjusted from 3.5 10(12) cm(-2) (negative polarity) to 0.0 and up to 4.0 10(12) cm(-2) (positive polarity). A HfO2 interface layer of one or more monolayers reduces the negative fixed charges in Al2O3 to zero. The role of HfO2 is described as an inert spacer controlling the distance between Al2O3 and the Si substrate. It is suggested that this spacer alters the nonstoichiometric initial Al2O3 growth regime, which is responsible for the charge formation. On the basis of this charge-free HfO2/Al2O3 stack, negative or positive fixed charges can be formed by introducing additional thin Al2O3 or SiO2 layers between the Si substrate and this HfO2/Al2O3 capping layer. All stacks provide very good passivation of the silicon surface. The measured effective carrier lifetimes are between 1 and 30 ms. This charge control in Al2O3 nanolayers allows the construction of zero-fixed-charge passivation layers as well as layers with tailored fixed charge densities for future solar cell concepts and other field-effect based devices. PMID:26618751

  10. Damping of a parallel ac-dc power system using PID power system stabilizers and rectifier current regulators

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Y.Y.; Wang, L. )

    1988-09-01

    A novel approach is presented to improve the dynamic stability of a parallel AC-DC power system. The developed scheme employs a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) power system stabilizer (PSS) and a PID rectifier current regulator (RCR) to enhance the damping for the electromagnetical mode of the system. The parameters of the proposed PID controllers are determined using a unified approach based on modal control theory. Eigenvalue analyses are performed for the system under various operating conditions in order to compare the damping effects provided by the two different control schemes. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed damping schemes under disturbance conditions simulated dynamic response tests based on a nonlinear system model are also performed.

  11. DNA Physical Mapping via the Controlled Translocation of Single Molecules through a 5-10nm Silicon Nitride Nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Derek; Reisner, Walter; Jiang, Zhijun; Hagerty, Nick; Wood, Charles; Chan, Jason

    2009-03-01

    The ability to map the binding position of sequence-specific markers, including transcription-factors, protein-nucleic acids (PNAs) or deactivated restriction enzymes, along a single DNA molecule in a nanofluidic device would be of key importance for the life-sciences. Such markers could give an indication of the active genes at particular stage in a cell's transcriptional cycle, pinpoint the location of mutations or even provide a DNA barcode that could aid in genomics applications. We have developed a setup consisting of a 5-10 nm nanopore in a 20nm thick silicon nitride film coupled to an optical tweezer setup. The translocation of DNA across the nanopore can be detected via blockades in the electrical current through the pore. By anchoring one end of the translocating DNA to an optically trapped microsphere, we hope to stretch out the molecule in the nanopore and control the translocation speed, enabling us to slowly scan across the genome and detect changes in the baseline current due to the presence of bound markers.

  12. Controlled thickness and dielectric constant titanium-doped SiO2 thin films on silicon by sol gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. L.; Wang, S. S.; Zhou, Yan; Lam, Yee Loy; Chan, Yuen Chuen; Kam, Chan Hin

    1997-08-01

    In this paper, we report the preparation of crack-free relatively thick SiO2-TiO2 thin films on silicon substrates using the sol-gel spin-coating method. The influence of the process parameters on the quality of the film, such as the solution condition, the spin-coating speed, the heat treatment temperature and time, have been studied. We found that the cracking of the film could be avoided by selecting the right sol composition ratios, adding PVA to the sold and properly controlling the heat treatment. Most importantly, we discovered that by polishing the edges of the film after the deposition of each single layer, the number of such layers that deposited without crack formation could be substantially increased. The refractive index profile and thickness of the film have been determined using prism coupling technique and the inverse WKB method. The refractive index was found to depend on the content of TiO2 as well as the heat treatment condition. Using an AFM, the surface morphology of the film was found to be good.

  13. Controlled aluminum-induced crystallization of an amorphous silicon thin film by using an oxide-layer diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Kwak, Hyunmin; Kwon, Myeung Hoi

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) of amorphous silicon with an Al2O3 diffusion barrier was investigated for controlling Si crystallization and preventing layer exchange during the annealing process. An Al2O3 layer was deposited between the a-Si and the Al films (a-Si/Al2O3/Al/Glass) and was blasted with an air spray gun with alumina beads to form diffusion channels between the Si and the Al layers. During the annealing process, small grain Si x Al seeds were formed at the channels. Then, the Al2O3 diffusion barrier was restructured to close the channels and prevent further diffusion of Al atoms into the a-Si layer. A polycrystalline Si film with (111), (220) and (311) crystallization peaks in the X-ray diffraction pattern was formed by annealing at 560 °C in a conventional furnace. That film showed a p-type semiconducting behavior with good crystallinity and a large grain size of up to 14.8 µm. No layer conversion occurred between the Si and the Al layers, which had been the fundamental obstacle to the applications in the crystallization of a-Si films by using the AIC method.

  14. A superconducting/magnetic hybrid rectifier based on Fe single-crystal nanocentres: role of magnetic and geometric asymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, A.; Gonzalez, E. M.; Iglesias, M.; Sanchez, N.; Palomares, F. J.; Cebollada, F.; Gonzalez, J. M.; Vicent, J. L.

    2013-03-01

    Vortex lattice motion driven by alternating forces on asymmetric pinning potentials generates a net flow of vortices. This rectifier (ratchet) effect is studied in hybrid samples fabricated with arrays of Fe single-crystal nanotriangles embedded in Nb films. In these samples two different asymmetric potentials generate the ratchet effect: (i) potentials with geometric asymmetry and (ii) potentials with magnetic asymmetry. The asymmetry of the geometric potential cannot be manipulated, but the asymmetry of the magnetic potential can be tailored. In geometric ratchet interstitial vortices play a crucial role and they permit tuning the output voltage polarity. In magnetic ratchet the output voltage amplitude can be controlled by tailoring the magnetic stray field configurations due to different magnetic remanent states of the Fe single-crystal nanostructures. These configurations are modified by changing the direction of the saturating applied field and also by using different orientations of the Fe magnetocrystalline easy axes within the triangles. When both mechanisms coexist, the geometric potential governs the rectifier effect behaviour.

  15. High-performance polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistors with two-dimensional location control of the grain boundary via excimer laser crystallization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao-Lung; Lee, I-Che; Wu, Chun-Yu; Liao, Chan-Yu; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Cheng, Huang-Chung

    2012-07-01

    High-performance low-temperature polycrystalline silicon (Poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) have been fabricated with two-dimensional (2-D) location-controlled grain boundaries using excimer laser crystallization (ELC). By locally increased thickness of the amorphous silicon (a-Si) film that was served as the seed crystals with a partial-melting crystallization scheme, the cross-shaped grain boundary structures were produced between the thicker a-Si grids. The Poly-Si TFTs with one parallel and one perpendicular grain boundary along the channel direction could therefore be fabricated to reach excellent field-effect mobility of 530 cm2/V-s while the conventional ones exhibited field-effect mobility of 198 cm2/V-s. Furthermore, the proposed TFTs achieved not only superior electric properties but also improved uniformity as compared with the conventional ones owing to the artificially controlled locations of grain boundaries. PMID:22966599

  16. Characteristics of degenerately doped silicon for spectral control in thermophotovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ehsani, H.; Bhat, I.; Borrego, J.; Gutmann, R.; Brown, E.; Dzeindziel, R.; Freeman, M.; Choudhury, N.

    1995-07-01

    Heavily doped Si was investigated for use as spectral control filter in thermal photovoltaic (TPV) system. These filters should reflect radiation at 4 {micro}m and above and transmit radiation at 2 {micro}m and below. Two approaches have been used for introducing impurities into Si to achieve high doping concentration. One was the diffusion technique, using spin-on dopants. The plasma wavelength ({lambda}{sub p}) of these filters could be adjusted by controlling the diffusion conditions. The minimum plasma wavelength achieved was 4.8 {micro}m. In addition, a significant amount of absorption was observed for the wavelength 2 {micro}m and below. The second approach was doping by ion implantation followed by thermal annealing with a capped layer of doped glass. Implantation with high dosage of B and As followed by high temperature annealing (> 1,000 C) resulted in a plasma wavelength that could be controlled between 3.5 and 6 {micro}m. The high temperature annealing (> 1,000 C) that was necessary to activate the dopant atoms and to heal the implantation damage, also caused significant absorption at 2 {micro}m. For phosphorus implanted Si, a moderate temperature (800--900 C) was sufficient to activate most of the phosphorus and to heal the implantation damage. The position of the plasma turn-on wavelength for an implantation dose of 2 {times} 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}2} of P was at 2.9 {micro}m. The absorption at 2 {micro}m was less than 20% and the reflection at 5 {micro}m was about 70%.

  17. Commissioning of the control and data acquisition electronics for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Tkaczyk, S.M.; Turner, K.J.; Nelson, C.A.; Shaw, T.M.; Wesson, T.R. ); Bailey, M.W.; Kruse, M.C. ); Castro, A. )

    1991-11-01

    The SVX data acquisition system includes three components: a Fastbus Sequencer, an SVX Rabbit Crate Controller and a Digitizer. These modules are integrated into the CDF DAQ system and operate the readout chips. The results of the extensive functional tests of the SVX modules are reported. We discuss the stability of the Sequencers, systematic differences between them and methods of synchronization with the Tevatron beam crossings. The Digitizer ADC calibration procedure run on the microsequencer is described. The microsequencer code used for data taking and SVX chip calibration modes is described. Measurements of the SVX data scan time are discussed.

  18. An 18.2%-efficient black-silicon solar cell achieved through control of carrier recombination in nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jihun; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Branz, Howard M

    2012-11-01

    Silicon nanowire and nanopore arrays promise to reduce manufacturing costs and increase the power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. So far, however, photovoltaic cells based on nanostructured silicon exhibit lower power conversion efficiencies than conventional cells due to the enhanced photocarrier recombination associated with the nanostructures. Here, we identify and separately measure surface recombination and Auger recombination in wafer-based nanostructured silicon solar cells. By identifying the regimes of junction doping concentration in which each mechanism dominates, we were able to design and fabricate an independently confirmed 18.2%-efficient nanostructured 'black-silicon' cell that does not need the antireflection coating layer(s) normally required to reach a comparable performance level. Our results suggest design rules for efficient high-surface-area solar cells with nano- and microstructured semiconductor absorbers. PMID:23023643

  19. Formation mechanism and control of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions in non-oriented silicon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan-hui; Zeng, Ya-nan; Xu, Rui; Cai, Kai-ke

    2014-11-01

    On the basis of the practical production of non-oriented silicon steel, the formation of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions was analyzed in the process of "basic oxygen furnace (BOF) → RH → compact strip production (CSP)". The thermodynamic and kinetic conditions of the formation of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions were discussed, and the behavior of slag entrapment in molten steel during RH refining was simulated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The results showed that the MgO/Al2O3 mass ratio was in the range from 0.005 to 0.017 and that MgO·Al2O3 inclusions were not observed before the RH refining process. In contrast, the MgO/Al2O3 mass ratio was in the range from 0.30 to 0.50, and the percentage of MgO·Al2O3 spinel inclusions reached 58.4% of the total inclusions after the RH refining process. The compositions of the slag were similar to those of the inclusions; furthermore, the critical velocity of slag entrapment was calculated to be 0.45 m·s-1 at an argon flow rate of 698 L·min-1, as simulated using CFD software. When the test steel was in equilibrium with the slag, [Mg] was 0.00024wt%-0.00028wt% and [Al]s was 0.31wt%-0.37wt%; these concentrations were theoretically calculated to fall within the MgO·Al2O3 formation zone, thereby leading to the formation of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions in the steel. Thus, the formation of MgO·Al2O3 inclusions would be inhibited by reducing the quantity of slag entrapment, controlling the roughing slag during casting, and controlling the composition of the slag and the MgO content in the ladle refractory.

  20. 3D spirals with controlled chirality fabricated using metal-assisted chemical etching of silicon.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, Owen J; Fedorov, Andrei G; Wong, Ching Ping

    2012-11-27

    The ability to fabricate 3D spiraling structures using metal-assisted chemical etching (MaCE) is one of the unique advantages of MaCE over traditional etching methods. However, control over the chirality of the spiraling structures has not been established. In this work, a systematic parametric study was undertaken for MaCE of star-shaped catalysts, examining the influence of arm shape, arm length, number of arms, center core diameter, and catalyst thickness on the rotation direction. This data was used to identify a set of geometric parameters that reliably induce rotation in a predefined direction such that large arrays of 3D spiraling structures can be fabricated with the same chirality. Electroless deposition into the MaCE template was used to examine the full etch path of the catalyst and an experimental fit was established to control rotation angle by adjusting the catalyst's center core diameter. The ability to fabricate large arrays of 3D spiraling structures with predefined chirality could have important applications in photonics and optoelectronics. PMID:23039816

  1. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Zinc and Silicon Oxides Doped Cu Ferrite for Temperature Controller Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessien, M. M.; Ahmed, E. M.; Hemeda, O. M.

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Si+4 and Zn+2 substitutions on the structural and magnetic properties of Cu1-xZnx+ySiyFe2-2yO4 ferrites prepared by double sintering ceramic technique have been investigated. From X-ray diffraction analysis, it was found that substitution of Zn and Si enhanced sintering process and crystallization. The XRD peaks increase by increasing Zn and Si content. On the other hand, the initial permeability decreases sharply at Curie temperature for all samples, which makes Zn/Si co-doped CuFe2O4 spinel ferrites a very promising candidate for magnetic switches, magnetic temperature transducers (MTT), and for fabrication of temperature sensitive controller devices. The important change of Curie temperature of CuFe2O4 compound occurs by simply controlling the content of Zn and Si within CuFe2O4 and results in obtaining magnetic materials with desired Curie temperature. Magnetic hysteresis loop measurements show that the samples have soft magnetic character.

  2. Interactions of cations with the cytoplasmic pores of inward rectifier K(+) channels in the closed state.

    PubMed

    Inanobe, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2011-12-01

    Ion channels gate at membrane-embedded domains by changing their conformation along the ion conduction pathway. Inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channels possess a unique extramembrane cytoplasmic domain that extends this pathway. However, the relevance and contribution of this domain to ion permeation remain unclear. By qualitative x-ray crystallographic analysis, we found that the pore in the cytoplasmic domain of Kir3.2 binds cations in a valency-dependent manner and does not allow the displacement of Mg(2+) by monovalent cations or spermine. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that the cytoplasmic pore of Kir3.2 selectively binds positively charged molecules and has a higher affinity for Mg(2+) when it has a low probability of being open. The selective blocking of chemical modification of the side chain of pore-facing residues by Mg(2+) indicates that the mode of binding of Mg(2+) is likely to be similar to that observed in the crystal structure. These results indicate that the Kir3.2 crystal structure has a closed conformation with a negative electrostatic field potential at the cytoplasmic pore, the potential of which may be controlled by conformational changes in the cytoplasmic domain to regulate ion diffusion along the pore. PMID:21982822

  3. Position-controlled uniform GaAs nanowires on silicon using nanoimprint lithography.

    PubMed

    Munshi, A M; Dheeraj, D L; Fauske, V T; Kim, D C; Huh, J; Reinertsen, J F; Ahtapodov, L; Lee, K D; Heidari, B; van Helvoort, A T J; Fimland, B O; Weman, H

    2014-02-12

    We report on the epitaxial growth of large-area position-controlled self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires (NWs) directly on Si by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Nanohole patterns are defined in a SiO2 mask on 2 in. Si wafers using nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for the growth of positioned GaAs NWs. To optimize the yield of vertical NWs the MBE growth parameter space is tuned, including Ga predeposition time, Ga and As fluxes, growth temperature, and annealing treatment prior to NW growth. In addition, a non-negligible radial growth is observed with increasing growth time and is found to be independent of the As species (i.e., As2 or As4) and the growth temperatures studied. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy analysis of the GaAs NW/Si substrate heterointerface reveals an epitaxial growth where NW base fills the oxide hole opening and eventually extends over the oxide mask. These findings have important implications for NW-based device designs with axial and radial p-n junctions. Finally, NIL positioned GaAs/AlGaAs core-shell heterostructured NWs are grown on Si to study the optical properties of the NWs. Room-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy of ensembles of as-grown core-shell NWs reveals uniform and high optical quality, as required for the subsequent device applications. The combination of NIL and MBE thereby demonstrates the successful heterogeneous integration of highly uniform GaAs NWs on Si, important for fabricating high throughput, large-area position-controlled NW arrays for various optoelectronic device applications. PMID:24467394

  4. Silicon control of strontium and cesium partitioning in hydroxide-weathered sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorover, Jon; Choi, Sunkyung; Rotenberg, Paula; Serne, R. Jeff; Rivera, Nelson; Strepka, Caleb; Thompson, Aaron; Mueller, Karl T.; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2008-04-01

    Cation partitioning and speciation in an aqueous soil suspension may depend on the coupling of reaction time, sorbate amount and mineral weathering reactions. These factors were varied in sediment suspension experiments to identify geochemical processes that affect migration of Sr 2+ and Cs + introduced to the subsurface by caustic high level radioactive waste (HLRW). Three glacio-fluvial and lacustrine sediments from the Hanford Site (WA, USA) were subjected to hyperalkaline (pH > 13), Na-Al-NO 3-OH solution conditions within a gradient field of (i) sorptive concentration (10 -5-10 -3 m) and (ii) reaction time (0-365 d). Strontium uptake ( qSr) exceeded that of cesium at nearly all reaction times. Sorbent affinity for both Cs + and Sr 2+ increased with clay plus silt content at early times, but a prolonged slow uptake process was observed over the course of sediment weathering that erased the texture effect for Sr 2+; all sediments showed similar mass normalized uptake after several months of reaction time. Strontium became progressively recalcitrant to desorption after 92 d, with accumulation and aging of neoformed aluminosilicates. Formation of Cs + and Sr 2+-containing cancrinite and sodalite was observed after 183 d by SEM and synchrotron ?-XRF and ?-XRD. EXAFS data for qSr ? 40 mmol kg -1 showed incorporation of Sr 2+ into both feldspathoid and SrCO 3(s) coordination environments after one year. Adsorption was predominant at early times and low sorbate amount, whereas precipitation, controlled largely by sediment Si release, became increasingly important at longer times and higher sorbate amount. Kinetics of contaminant desorption at pH 8 from one year-weathered sediments showed significant dependence on background cation (Ca 2+ versus K +) composition. Results of this study indicate that co-precipitation and ion exchange in neoformed aluminosilicates may be an important mechanism controlling Sr 2+ and Cs + mobility in siliceous sediments impacted by hyperalkaline HLRW.

  5. Silicon Control of Strontium and Cesium Partitioning in Hydroxide-Weathered Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Chorover, Jon; Choi, Sunkyung; Rotenberg, P.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Rivera, Nelson; Strepka, Caleb R.; Thompson, Aaron; Mueller, Karl T.; O'Day, Peggy A.

    2008-04-15

    Cation partitioning in an aqueous soil suspension depends on the coupling of reaction time, sorbate amount and mineral weathering reactions. These factors were varied in sediment suspension experiments to identify geochemical processes that affect migration of Sr2+ and Cs+ introduced to the subsurface by caustic high level radioactive waste (HLRW). Three glacio-fluvial and lacustrine sediments from the Hanford Site were subjected to hyperalkaline (pH > 13), Na–Al–NO3–OH solution conditions within a gradient field of (i) sorptive concentration (10-5–10-3 M) and (ii) reaction time (0–365 d). Strontium uptake (qSr) exceeded that of cesium at nearly all reaction times. Sorbent affinity for both Cs+ and Sr2+ increased with clay plus silt content at early times, but a prolonged slow uptake process was observed over the course of sediment weathering that erased the texture effect for Sr2+; all sediments showed similar mass normalized uptake after several months of reaction time. Strontium became progressively recalcitrant to desorption after 92 d, with accumulation and aging of neoformed aluminosilicates. Formation of Cs+ and Sr2+-containing cancrinite and sodalite was observed after 183 d by SEM and synchrotron u-XRF and u-XRD. EXAFS data showed ncorporation of Sr2+ into both feldspathoid and SrCO3(s) coordination environments after one year. Adsorption was predominant at early times and low sorbate amount, whereas recipitation, controlled largely by sediment Si release, became increasingly important at longer times and higher sorbate amount. Kinetics of contaminant desorption at pH 8 from one year-weathered sediments showed significant dependence on background cation (Ca2+ versus K+) composition. Results of this study indicate that co-precipitation and ion exchange in neoformed aluminosilicates may be an important mechanism controlling Sr2+ and Cs+ mobility in siliceous sediments impacted by hyperalkaline HLRW.

  6. Iodine 125 Brachytherapy With Vitrectomy and Silicone Oil in the Treatment of Uveal Melanoma: 1-to-1 Matched Case-Control Series

    SciTech Connect

    McCannel, Tara A. McCannel, Colin A.

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: We initially reported the radiation-attenuating effect of silicone oil 1000 centistokes for iodine 125. The purpose of this report was to compare the clinical outcomes in case patients who had iodine 125 brachytherapy with vitrectomy and silicone oil 1000 centistokes with the outcomes in matched control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone. Methods and Materials: Consecutive patients with uveal melanoma who were treated with iodine 125 plaque brachytherapy and vitrectomy with silicone oil with minimum 1-year follow-up were included. Control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone were matched for tumor size, location, and sex. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics and tumor response to radiation, final visual acuity, macular status, central macular thickness by ocular coherence tomography (OCT), cataract progression, and metastasis at last follow-up visit were compared. Surgical complications were also determined. Results: Twenty case patients met the inclusion criteria. The average follow-up time was 22.1 months in case patients and 19.4 months in control patients. The final logMAR vision was 0.81 in case patients and 1.1 in control patients (P=.071); 8 case patients and 16 control patients had abnormal macular findings (P=.011); and the average central macular thickness by OCT was 293.2 μm in case patients and 408.5 μm in control patients (P=.016). Eleven case patients (55%) and 1 control patient (5%) had required cataract surgery at last follow-up (P=.002). Four patients in the case group and 1 patient in the control group experienced metastasis (P=.18). Among the cases, intraoperative retinal tear occurred in 3 patients; total serous retinal detachment and macular hole developed in 1 case patient each. There was no case of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, treatment failure, or local tumor dissemination in case patients or control patients. Conclusions: With up to 3 years of clinical follow-up, silicone oil during brachytherapy for the treatment of uveal melanoma resulted in fewer abnormal maculas, lower central macular thickness on OCT, and a trend toward better final visual acuity in comparison with matched control patients who underwent brachytherapy alone.

  7. Characterization and properties of controlled nucleation thermochemical deposited (CNTD) silicon carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.; Rice, R. W.; Graham, H. C.; Mendiratta, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    The microstructure of controlled nucleation thermochemical deposition (CNTD) - SiC material was studied and the room temperature and high temperature bend strength and oxidation resistance was evaluated. Utilizing the CNTD process, ultrafine grained (0.01-0.1 mm) SiC was deposited on W - wires (0.5 mm diameter by 20 cm long) as substrates. The deposited SiC rods had superior surface smoothness and were without any macrocolumnar growth commonly found in conventional CVD material. At both room and high temperature (1200 - 1380 C), the CNTD - SiC exhibited bend strength approximately 200,000 psi (1380 MPa), several times higher than that of hot pressed, sintered, or CVD SiC. The excellent retention of strength at high temperature was attributed to the high purity and fine grain size of the SiC deposit and the apparent absence of grain growth at elevated temperatures. The rates of weight change for CNTD - SiC during oxidation were lower than for NC-203 (hot pressed SiC), higher than for GE's CVD - SiC, and considerably below those for HS-130 (hot pressed Si3N4). The high purity, fully dense, and stable grain size CNTD - SiC material shows potential for high temperature structural applications; however problem areas might include: scaling the process to make larger parts, deposition on removable substrates, and the possible residual tensile stress.

  8. Controlled Release of Antibiotics From Vitamin E-Loaded Silicone-Hydrogel Contact Lenses.

    PubMed

    Paradiso, Patrizia; Serro, Ana Paula; Saramago, Benilde; Colaço, Rogério; Chauhan, Anuj

    2016-03-01

    Symptoms of bacterial and fungal keratitis are typically treated through the frequent application of antibiotic and antifungal eye drops. The high frequency of half hourly or hourly eye drop administration required to treat these indications is tedious and could reduce compliance. Here, we combine in vitro experiments with a mathematical model to develop therapeutic soft contact lenses to cure keratitis by extended release of suitable drugs. We specifically focus on increasing the release duration of levofloxacin and chlorhexidine from 1-DAY ACUVUE(®) TrueEye™ and ACUVUE OASYS(®) contact lenses by incorporating vitamin E diffusion barriers. Results show that 20% of vitamin E loading in the contact lens increases the release duration of levofloxacin to 100 h and 50 h from 1-DAY ACUVUE(®) TrueEye™ and ACUVUE OASYS(®), respectively, which is a 3- and 6-fold increase, respectively, for the 2 lenses. For chlorhexidine, the increase is 2.5- and 10-fold, for the TrueEye™ and OASYS(®), respectively, to 130 h and 170 h. The mass of drug loaded in the lenses can be controlled to achieve a daily release comparable to the commonly prescribed eye drop therapy. The vitamin E-loaded lenses retain all critical properties for in vivo use. PMID:26886333

  9. Surface trimming of silicon photonics devices using controlled reactive ion etching chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, S.; Das, B. K.

    2015-06-01

    Surface trimming of rib waveguides fabricated in 5-?m SOI substrate has been carried out successfully without any significant increase of propagation losses. A reactive ion etching chemistry has been optimized for trimming and an empirical model has been developed to obtain the resulting waveguide geometries. This technique has been used to demonstrate smaller footprint devices like multimode interference based power splitters and ring resonators after defining them photolithographically with relatively large cross-section rib waveguides. We have been also successful to fabricate 2D tapered spot-size converter useful for monolithic integration of waveguides with varying heights and widths. The taper length is again precisely controlled by photolithographic definition. Minimum insertion loss of such a spot-size converter integrated between waveguides with 3-?m height difference has been recorded to be ?2 dB. It has been also shown that the overall fiber-to-chip coupling loss can be reduced by >3 dB by using such spot-size converters at the input/output side of the waveguides.

  10. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Control Dewar Venturi Calibration Explanation for Toshiba

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwazaki, Andrew; /Fermilab

    1997-01-24

    This document is intended to explain the calibration data for the venturi, FE-3253H, which is installed in the control dewar. Further, this document will help explain how to use the venturi to make mass flow measurements during typical operating conditions. The purpose of the calibration data enclosed from the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. is to experimentally show that the venturi follows the flow equation which is enclosed as Eq. 7-36 on page 155, from the Applied Fluid Dynamics Handbook. The calibration data serves to show that the Subsonic Venturi, Serial Number 611980-18, produces results predicted by the compressible subsonic flow mass flow rate equation above and to experimentally determine the discharge coefficient C. Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. ran tests at 15 independent differential pressures to conclude that use of this venturi will perform according to the mass flow rate equation. In order to verify the results from the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station Inc. we have provided you with a step-by-step procedure using the values they have chosen.

  11. Cloning and expression of a rat cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channel.

    PubMed Central

    Paulmichl, M; Nasmith, P; Hellmiss, R; Reed, K; Boyle, W A; Nerbonne, J M; Peralta, E G; Clapham, D E

    1991-01-01

    We have cloned a cDNA (designated RAK) coding for a delayed-rectifier K current (IRAK) from adult rat heart atrium and expressed it in Xenopus oocytes. RAK differs from the cloned rat brain K current, BK2 [McKinnon, D. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 8230-8236], by one amino acid at residue 411. RAK expressed in oocytes compares closely to the intrinsic adult rat atrial delayed-rectifier current measured by using whole-cell recording of single isolated cells. Northern blot analysis confirmed the presence of the channel in adult rat atrium, and to a lesser extent, in rat ventricle. IRAK activates with time constants ranging from 58 ms at -20 mV to 6 ms at +60 mV and does not show significant inactivation over 800 ms. It is blocked by 4-aminopyridine greater than barium much greater than tetraethylammonium chloride, which is similar to the relative potencies of these blockers on the native delayed rectifier current. We conclude that the main delayed rectifier K current in adult rat atria is virtually identical to a neuronal delayed rectifier, BK2. Images PMID:1715584

  12. High-performance AlGaN /GaN lateral field-effect rectifiers compatible with high electron mobility transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wanjun; Wong, King-Yuen; Huang, Wei; Chen, Kevin J.

    2008-06-01

    A high electron mobility transistor (HEMT)-compatible power lateral field-effect rectifier (L-FER) with low turn-on voltage is demonstrated using the same fabrication process as that for normally off AlGaN /GaN HEMT, providing a low-cost solution for GaN power integrated circuits. The power rectifier features a Schottky-gate-controlled two-dimensional electron gas channel between the cathode and anode. By tying up the Schottky gate and anode together, the forward turn-on voltage of the rectifier is determined by the threshold voltage of the channel instead of the Schottky barrier. The L-FER with a drift length of 10?m features a forward turn-on voltage of 0.63V at a current density of 100A/cm2. This device also exhibits a reverse breakdown voltage (BV) of 390V at a current level of 1mA/mm and a specific on resistance (RON,sp) of 1.4m?cm2, yielding a figure of merit (BV2/RON,sp) of 108MW/cm2. The excellent device performance, coupled with the lateral device structure and process compatibility with AlGaN /GaN HEMT, make the proposed L-FER a promising candidate for GaN power integrated circuits.

  13. Crystal Structure of the Eukaryotic Strong Inward-Rectifier K[superscript +] Channel Kir2.2 at 3.1 Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Xiao; Avalos, Jose L.; Chen, Jiayun; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2010-03-29

    Inward-rectifier potassium (K{sup +}) channels conduct K{sup +} ions most efficiently in one direction, into the cell. Kir2 channels control the resting membrane voltage in many electrically excitable cells, and heritable mutations cause periodic paralysis and cardiac arrhythmia. We present the crystal structure of Kir2.2 from chicken, which, excluding the unstructured amino and carboxyl termini, is 90% identical to human Kir2.2. Crystals containing rubidium (Rb{sup +}), strontium (Sr{sup 2+}), and europium (Eu{sup 3+}) reveal binding sites along the ion conduction pathway that are both conductive and inhibitory. The sites correlate with extensive electrophysiological data and provide a structural basis for understanding rectification. The channel's extracellular surface, with large structured turrets and an unusual selectivity filter entryway, might explain the relative insensitivity of eukaryotic inward rectifiers to toxins. These same surface features also suggest a possible approach to the development of inhibitory agents specific to each member of the inward-rectifier K{sup +} channel family.

  14. Reconfigurable Resonant Regulating Rectifier With Primary Equalization for Extended Coupling- and Loading-Range in Bio-Implant Wireless Power Transfer.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Meng, Xiaodong; Tsui, Chi-Ying; Ki, Wing-Hung

    2015-12-01

    Wireless power transfer using reconfigurable resonant regulating ( R(3) ) rectification suffers from limited range in accommodating varying coupling and loading conditions. A primary-assisted regulation principle is proposed to mitigate these limitations, of which the amplitude of the rectifier input voltage on the secondary side is regulated by accordingly adjusting the voltage amplitude Veq on the primary side. A novel current-sensing method and calibration scheme track Veq on the primary side. A ramp generator simultaneously provides three clock signals for different modules. Both the primary equalizer and the R(3) rectifier are implemented as custom integrated circuits fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process, with the global control implemented in FPGA. Measurements show that with the primary equalizer, the workable coupling and loading ranges are extended by 250% at 120 mW load and 300% at 1.2 cm coil distance compared to the same system without the primary equalizer. A maximum rectifier efficiency of 92.5% and a total system efficiency of 62.4% are demonstrated. PMID:26742141

  15. A Novel Approach of Daunorubicin Application on Formation of Proliferative Retinopathy Using a Porous Silicon Controlled Delivery System: Pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Huiyuan; Huffman, Kristyn; Rios, Sandy; Freeman, William R.; Sailor, Michael J.; Cheng, Lingyun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is the most common cause of poor visual outcomes in association with retinal detachment surgeries and ocular trauma. Daunorubicin (DNR) has shown the strongest efficacy in proliferation inhibition in vitro. However, clinical studies have shown only mild effect owing to limitations of narrow therapeutic window and short vitreous half-life. Methods. Three milligrams of DNR-loaded particles were intravitreally injected into 18 pigmented rabbits, and vitreous samples were collected up to 84 days for analysis. Thirty-seven rabbits were used for a dose-escalation (1, 3, 6 mg) safety and efficacy study in a rabbit PVR model using a pretreatment design. Results. Loading efficiency of DNR was 108.55 12 ?g per 1 mg particles. Eighty-four days of follow-up did not reveal any adverse reaction. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated a vitreous half-life of 29 days with a maximum DNR concentration of 178 ng/mL and a minimum concentration of 29 ng/mL at day 84. Daunorubicin-loaded porous silicon (pSi) particles were dosed 8 to 9 weeks before PVR induction, and PVR severity score was dose dependent (Spearman ? = ?0.25, P = 0.0005). Proliferative vitreoretinopathy with tractional retinal detachment was 88% in the control group, 63% in the low-dose group, 14% in the medium-dose group, and 0% in the high-dose group (Cochran-Armitage Trend Test, Z = 8.99, ? = ?0.67, P < 0.0001). Conclusions. Daunorubicin-loaded pSi particles can safely reside in the vitreous for at least 3 months. The pSi-based delivery expanded the therapeutic window of DNR by a factor of 862 and drove down the minimum effective concentration by a factor of 175. PMID:25829415

  16. Charge-controlled fixation of DNA molecules on silicon surface and electro-physical properties of Au-DNA-Si interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazlov, N. V.; Vyvenko, O. F.; Sokolov, P. A.; Kas'yanenko, N. A.; Petrov, Yu V.

    2013-02-01

    Light-induced fixation of DNA molecules on silicon surface was done and electro-physical properties of Schottky diodes with DNA on interfaces were investigated. Thymus DNA molecules were deposited on silicon from a water solution. Fixed molecular structures were observed with helium ionic microscopy and atomic force microscopy and then they were covered with thermal sputtered gold film. Obtained structures Au-DNA-(n-Si) were examined with current-voltage and frequency dependent admittance measurements. In darkness immobilizing of molecules leaded to form DNA ropes with thickness up to 10 nm and distances between them about 1 mkm. Fixation under illumination resulted in forming of single DNA mesh with thickness about 1 nm and cell size about 100 nm. Presence of molecular mesh on interface leaded to increasing of charge density controlled by metal Fermi level and improved diode quality. Presence of molecular ropes resulted in increasing of charge density controlled by semiconductor. From the estimation of interface state density values the origin of the states at the interface between DNA and silicon substrate is suggested to be DNA phosphate groups contacting or being close to the substrate surface.

  17. Microrectenna: A Terahertz Antenna and Rectifier on a Chip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A microrectenna that would operate at a frequency of 2.5 THz has been designed and partially fabricated. The circuit is intended to be a prototype of an extremely compact device that could be used to convert radio-beamed power to DC to drive microdevices (see Figure 1). The microrectenna (see Figure 2) circuit consists of an antenna, a diode rectifier and a DC output port. The antenna consists of a twin slot array in a conducting ground plane (denoted the antenna ground plane) over an enclosed quarter-wavelength-thick resonant cavity (denoted the reflecting ground plane). The circuit also contains a planar high-frequency low-parasitic Schottky-barrier diode, a low-impedance microstrip transmission line, capacitors, and contact beam leads. The entire 3-D circuit is fabricated monolithically from a single GaAs wafer. The resonant cavity renders the slot radiation pattern unidirectional with a half-power beam width of about 65. A unique metal mesh on the rear of the wafer forms the backplate for the cavity but allows the GaAs to be wet etched from the rear surface of the twin slot antennas and ground plane. The beam leads protrude past the edge of the chip and are used both to mount the microrectenna and to make the DC electrical connection with external circuitry. The antenna ground plane and the components on top of it are formed on a 2- m thick GaAs membrane that is grown in the initial wafer MBE (molecular beam epitaxy) process. The side walls of the antenna cavity are not metal coated and, hence, would cause some loss of power; however, the relatively high permittivity (epsilon=13) of the GaAs keeps the cavity modes well confined, without the usual surface-wave losses associated with thick dielectric substrates. The Schottky-barrier diode has the usual submicron dimensions associated with THz operation and is formed in a mesa process above the antenna ground plane. The diode is connected at the midpoint of a microstrip transmission line, which is formed on 1- m-thick SiO (permittivity of 5) laid down on top of the GaAs membrane. The twin slots are fed in phase by this structure. To prevent radio-frequency (RF) leakage past the slot antennas, low-loss capacitors are integrated into the microstrip transmission line at the edges of the slots. The DC current- carrying lines extend from the outer edges of the capacitors, widen approaching the edges of the chip, and continue past the edges of the chip to become the beam leads used in tacking down the devices. The structure provides a self-contained RF to DC converter that works in the THz range.

  18. Polycrystalline silicon availability for photovoltaic and semiconductor industries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferber, R. R.; Costogue, E. N.; Pellin, R.

    1982-01-01

    Markets, applications, and production techniques for Siemens process-produced polycrystalline silicon are surveyed. It is noted that as of 1982 a total of six Si materials suppliers were servicing a worldwide total of over 1000 manufacturers of Si-based devices. Besides solar cells, the Si wafers are employed for thyristors, rectifiers, bipolar power transistors, and discrete components for control systems. An estimated 3890 metric tons of semiconductor-grade polycrystalline Si will be used in 1982, and 6200 metric tons by 1985. Although the amount is expected to nearly triple between 1982-89, research is being carried out on the formation of thin films and ribbons for solar cells, thereby eliminating the waste produced in slicing Czolchralski-grown crystals. The free-world Si production in 1982 is estimated to be 3050 metric tons. Various new technologies for the formation of polycrystalline Si at lower costs and with less waste are considered. New entries into the industrial Si formation field are projected to produce a 2000 metric ton excess by 1988.

  19. Theoretical study on the rectifying performance of organoimido derivatives of hexamolybdates.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shizheng; Yang, Guochun; Yan, Likai; Li, Haibin; Su, Zhongmin

    2013-02-25

    We design a new type of molecular diode, based on the organoimido derivatives of hexamolybdates, by exploring the rectifying performances using density functional theory combined with the non-equilibrium Green's function. Asymmetric current-voltage characteristics were obtained for the models with an unexpected large rectification ratio. The rectifying behavior can be understood by the asymmetrical shift of the transmission peak observed under different polarities. It is interesting to find that the preferred electron-transport direction in our studied system is different from that of the organic D-bridge-A system. The results show that the studied organic-inorganic hybrid systems have an intrinsically robust rectifying ratio, which should be taken into consideration in the design of the molecular diodes. PMID:23303530

  20. Size control, quantum confinement, and oxidation kinetics of silicon nanocrystals synthesized at a high rate by expanding thermal plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Lihao E-mail: A.H.M.Smets@tudelft.nl; Zeman, Miro; Smets, Arno H. M. E-mail: A.H.M.Smets@tudelft.nl

    2015-05-25

    The growth mechanism of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) synthesized at a high rate by means of expanding thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition technique are studied in this letter. A bimodal Gaussian size distribution is revealed from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images, and routes to reduce the unwanted large Si NCs are discussed. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopies are employed to study the size-dependent quantum confinement effect, from which the average diameters of the small Si NCs are determined. The surface oxidation kinetics of Si NCs are studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the importance of post-deposition passivation treatments of hydrogenated crystalline silicon surfaces are demonstrated.

  1. Composition Comprising Silicon Carbide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehregany, Mehran (Inventor); Zorman, Christian A. (Inventor); Fu, Xiao-An (Inventor); Dunning, Jeremy L. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of depositing a ceramic film, particularly a silicon carbide film, on a substrate is disclosed in which the residual stress, residual stress gradient, and resistivity are controlled. Also disclosed are substrates having a deposited film with these controlled properties and devices, particularly MEMS and NEMS devices, having substrates with films having these properties.

  2. Recovery Act: High-Efficiency, Wideband Three-Phase Rectifiers and Adaptive Rectifier Management for Telecomm Central Office and Large Data Center Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mark A. Johnson

    2012-06-29

    Lineage Power and Verizon teamed up to address a DOE funding opportunity focused on improving the power conversion chain in telecommunications facilities and data centers. The project had three significant elements: the design and development of high efficiency and high power three-phase rectifiers by Lineage Power, design and development of software to optimize overall plant energy efficiency by Lineage Power, and a field trial in active Verizon telecommunications facilities where energy consumption was measured before and after efficiency upgrades.

  3. Crossbar memory array of organic bistable rectifying diodes for nonvolatile data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadi, Kamal; Li, Mengyuan; Stingelin, Natalie; Blom, Paul W. M.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2010-11-01

    Cross-talk in memories using resistive switches in a cross-bar geometry can be prevented by integration of a rectifying diode. We present a functional cross bar memory array using a phase separated blend of a ferroelectric and a semiconducting polymer as storage medium. Each intersection acts simultaneously as a bistable rectifying diode. A logic table of a 4-bit memory and integration into a 33 cross bar array are demonstrated. The most difficult state, a high resistance bit completely surrounded by low resistance bits could be unambiguously identified.

  4. Maxwell's demon, rectifiers, and the second law: Computer simulation of Smoluchowski's trapdoor

    SciTech Connect

    Skordos, P.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 545 Technology Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 ); Zurek, W.H. Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe )

    1992-10-01

    An automated version of Maxwell's demon inspired by Smoluchowski's ideas of 1912 is simulated numerically. Two gas chambers of equal volume are connected via an opening that is covered by a trapdoor. The trapdoor can open to the left but not to the right, and is intended to rectify naturally occurring fluctuations in density between the two chambers. The simulation results confirm that though the trapdoor behaves as a rectifier when large density differences are imposed by external means, it cannot extract useful work from the thermal motion of the molecules when left on its own.

  5. Enantioselective Protein-Sterol Interactions Mediate Regulation of Both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Inward Rectifier K+ Channels by Cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    D'Avanzo, Nazzareno; Hyrc, Krzysztof; Enkvetchakul, Decha; Covey, Douglas F.; Nichols, Colin G.

    2011-01-01

    Cholesterol is the major sterol component of all mammalian cell plasma membranes and plays a critical role in cell function and growth. Previous studies have shown that cholesterol inhibits inward rectifier K+ (Kir) channels, but have not distinguished whether this is due directly to protein-sterol interactions or indirectly to changes in the physical properties of the lipid bilayer. Using purified bacterial and eukaryotic Kir channels reconstituted into liposomes of controlled lipid composition, we demonstrate by 86Rb+ influx assays that bacterial Kir channels (KirBac1.1 and KirBac3.1) and human Kir2.1 are all inhibited by cholesterol, most likely by locking the channels into prolonged closed states, whereas the enantiomer, ent-cholesterol, does not inhibit these channels. These data indicate that cholesterol regulates Kir channels through direct protein-sterol interactions likely taking advantage of an evolutionarily conserved binding pocket. PMID:21559361

  6. Investigation of device geometry- and temperature-dependent characteristics of AlGaN/GaN lateral field-effect rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wanjun; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhigang; Wei, Jin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Kevin J.

    2013-01-01

    The temperature-dependent characteristics of AlGaN/GaN lateral field-effect rectifiers (L-FER) are studied in detail by investigating the dependence of forward and reverse characteristics on the device geometry (Schottky-gate-controlled channel) and temperature. The forward current increased with the decrease of channel length, while the specific on-resistance showed a positive temperature coefficient. Moreover, different temperature-dependent reverse characteristics were observed for the L-FERs with different device geometries. A combination of impact ionization in the Schottky-gate-controlled channel and the Schottky reverse leakage current is applied to understand the reverse breakdown of L-FER.

  7. Silicones as nonocclusive topical agents.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    De Paepe K; Sieg A; Le Meur M; Rogiers V

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Silicone excipients are commonly used ingredients because of their emollient and skin-conditioning effects, and their ability to form uniform, water-resistant, yet permeable films. Based on comparisons with organic materials and conflicting knowledge from silicones used in scar treatment, the misconception still exists that silicone topical excipients are occlusive substances that may block the passive loss of water through the upper skin layers. Therefore, 3 types of common silicone excipients and 3 water-in-(oil-plus-silicone) or W/(O + Si) creams, containing 10% (w/w) of the respective silicones, were investigated as a function of time and compared to petrolatum.METHODS: Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration measurements were carried out after a single topical application on forearm skin of 26 healthy young female volunteers.RESULTS: Both petrolatum and silicones significantly decreased TEWL 15 min after application, but the measurements for the silicones were not significantly different from the untreated control values. The tested silicones did not moisturize the skin. Petrolatum formed an occlusive layer, creating an increase in skin hydration for more than 4 h. The results measured for the W/(O + Si) creams indicated that they moisturized the skin, without any effect on TEWL.CONCLUSION: A clear difference was shown between the skin occlusive properties of petrolatum and the water vapor permeability of the common silicone excipient materials.

  8. Recent Progresses in GaN Power Rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alquier, Daniel; Cayrel, Frederic; Menard, Olivier; Bazin, Anne-Elisabeth; Yvon, Arnaud; Collard, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    In this work, both Schottky to Schottky structure (STS) and pseudo-vertical Schottky barrier diode (pv-SBD) have been processed on GaN heteroepitaxially grown on sapphire or silicon by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and characterized physically and electrically. Ni and Ti/Al were used to obtain respectively Schottky and Ohmic contacts using rapid thermal annealing (RTA). Adequate passivation steps and insertion of a resistive guard ring were also implemented in pv-SBD. The STS results, presented in this paper, evidence the impact of the substrate on the growth as well as all the progresses that have been done on GaN material quality. Furthermore, we demonstrate that high quality Schottky diodes can be obtained on GaN grown on sapphire by MOCVD. Indeed, ideality factors of 1.09 as well as a barrier height of 1.06 eV were obtained on pv-SBD devices that have a breakdown voltage over 600 V.

  9. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    SciTech Connect

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  10. IPM Motor Drive Method Using a New Inverter Having the Operation of High Power Factor Single-phase Diode Rectifier without Electrolytic Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Isao; Ohishi, Kiyoshi

    This paper proposes a new inverter drive system for an interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous motor and an inverter control strategy to obtain the unity power factor operation of the single-phase diode rectifier. The motor drive system for home appliances requires improving the input power factor without a reactor, an electrolytic capacitor and a switching device. This paper can achieve to improve the input power factor without a reactor, a current control-switching converter and an electrolytic capacitor. The proposed system consists of only single-phase diode rectifier, small film capacitor (10uF/kW) across the dc-bus, three-phase inverter and IPM motor. Source side energy provides directly to the motor without smoothing the dc-bus voltage. There are many ripple voltages across the dc-bus. A principle of unity-power-factor operation is that the inverter makes the waveform of input current sinusoidal. The unity power factor operation is achieved by dither effect. For IPM motor, the inverter control scheme in this paper is based on direct torque control (DTC). The proposed system is constructed by the input current controller based on DTC. The additional current controller improves its input current waveform. This paper describes that the proposed method achieves the power factor 98.8% by experimental tests.

  11. Conformational changes underlying pore dilation in the cytoplasmic domain of mammalian inward rectifier K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Inanobe, Atsushi; Nakagawa, Atsushi; Kurachi, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    The cytoplasmic domain of inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channels associates with cytoplasmic ligands and undergoes conformational change to control the gate present in its transmembrane domain. Ligand-operated activation appears to cause dilation of the pore at the cytoplasmic domain. However, it is still unclear how the cytoplasmic domain supports pore dilation and how alterations to this domain affect channel activity. In the present study, we focused on 2 spatially adjacent residues, i.e., Glu236 and Met313, of the G protein-gated Kir channel subunit Kir3.2. In the closed state, these pore-facing residues are present on adjacent ?D and ?H strands, respectively. We mutated both residues, expressed them with the m2-muscarinic receptor in Xenopus oocytes, and measured the acetylcholine-dependent K(+) currents. The dose-response curves of the Glu236 mutants tended to be shifted to the right. In comparison, the slopes of the concentration-dependent curves were reduced and the single-channel properties were altered in the Met313 mutants. The introduction of arginine at position 236 conferred constitutive activity and caused a leftward shift in the conductance-voltage relationship. The crystal structure of the cytoplasmic domain of the mutant showed that the arginine contacts the main chains of the ?H and ?I strands of the adjacent subunit. Because the ?H strand forms a ? sheet with the ?I and ?D strands, the immobilization of the pore-forming ? sheet appears to confer unique properties to the mutant. These results suggest that the G protein association triggers pore dilation at the cytoplasmic domain in functional channels, and the pore-constituting structural elements contribute differently to these conformational changes. PMID:24244570

  12. Involvement of inward rectifier and M-type currents in carbachol-induced epileptiform synchronization.

    PubMed

    Cataldi, Mauro; Panuccio, Gabriella; Cavaccini, Anna; D'Antuono, Margherita; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Avoli, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to cholinergic agonists is a widely used paradigm to induce epileptogenesis in vivo and synchronous activity in brain slices maintained in vitro. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. Here, we used field potential recordings from the lateral entorhinal cortex in horizontal rat brain slices to explore whether two different K(+) currents regulated by muscarinic receptor activation, the inward rectifier (K(IR)) and the M-type (K(M)) currents, have a role in carbachol (CCh)-induced field activity, a prototypical model of cholinergic-dependent epileptiform synchronization. To establish whether K(IR) or K(M) blockade could replicate CCh effects, we exposed slices to blockers of these currents in the absence of CCh. K(IR) channel blockade with micromolar Ba(2+) concentrations induced interictal-like events with duration and frequency that were lower than those observed with CCh; by contrast, the K(M) blocker linopirdine was ineffective. Pre-treatment with Ba(2+) or linopirdine increased the duration of epileptiform discharges induced by subsequent application of CCh. Baclofen, a GABA(B) receptor agonist that activates K(IR), abolished CCh-induced field oscillations, an effect that was abrogated by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 55845, and prevented by Ba(2+). Finally, when applied after CCh, the K(M) activators flupirtine and retigabine shifted leftward the cumulative distribution of CCh-induced event duration; this effect was opposite to what seen during linopirdine application under similar experimental conditions. Overall, our findings suggest that K(IR) rather than K(M) plays a major regulatory role in controlling CCh-induced epileptiform synchronization. PMID:21144855

  13. Corticotropin releasing hormone inhibits an inwardly rectifying potassium current in rat corticotropes.

    PubMed Central

    Kuryshev, Y A; Haak, L; Childs, G V; Ritchie, A K

    1997-01-01

    1. The perforated-patch-clamp technique was used to identify an inwardly rectifying K+ current (IK(IR)) in cultured rat anterior pituitary cells highly enriched in corticotropes. IK(IR) was rapidly activating and highly selective for K+. The K+ conductance was approximately proportional to the square root of the extracellular K+ concentration. 2. IK(IR) was blocked in a voltage-dependent manner by external Ba2+ and Cs+, slightly attenuated by 5 mM 4-aminopyridine (15% inhibition) and insensitive to 10 mM tetraethylammonium, 2 mM Ca2+, 1 mM Cd2+ and 50 microM La3+. 3. In physiological saline, 100 microM Ba2+, which inhibits 86% of IK(IR) at the cell resting potential, depolarized cells by 6.1 +/- 0.7 mV from a mean resting potential of -59.6 +/- 0.8 mV. 4. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), which activates adenylyl cyclase and stimulates adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion from corticotropes, inhibited IK(IR) by 25% and depolarized the cells by 10.2 +/- 1.0 mV. Dibutyryl cAMP ((Bu)2cAMP) mimicked these effects. 5. The membrane depolarization evoked by Ba2+ or CRH increased the cell firing frequency. Comparison of cells exhibiting a membrane potential of approximately -50 mV revealed that spike frequency in the presence of CRH (109 +/- 7 spikes (5 min)-1) was greater than in control (60 +/- 5 spikes (5 min)-1) or Ba(2+)-treated (77 +/- 15 spikes (5 min)-1) corticotropes. 6. The data suggest that IK(IR) contributes to maintenance of the resting membrane potential of rat corticotropes. Inhibition of IK(IR) plays a role in, but does not account for all of, the membrane depolarization and enhancement of firing frequency evoked by CRH. PMID:9263909

  14. Improving point registration in dental cephalograms by two-stage rectified point translation transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, W. K.; Lee, H. J.

    2012-02-01

    Cephalometric analysis requires to detect landmarks on cephalograms. Current registration techniques, such as that use scale-invariant feature descriptor (SIFT), perform poorly on cephalograms. We proposed to improve the registration technique for detecting the landmarks on cephalograms. The results were compared with the landmark identified by dental professionals. Twenty digital cephalograms were collected from a dental clinic. Twenty orthodontic landmarks were identified by dental professionals on each image; one of them was used as a template image. We automatically locate the landmarks using a two stages approach, the global registration of the interest points between two images and a local registration of the landmarks. In the first stage, SIFT was employed to establish point-to-point matching pairs. The matched points on the input image were treated as a set of translation transforms from the original template image. The consistence of the translation was controlled by applying a rectification factor defined in this study. In the second stage, we localized the search within the suspected regions around the landmarks derived by the translations in the first stage. Local registrations were rectified and fine-tuned until the translations close to the identified landmarks were obtained. Our method could detect all the landmarks with error distances less than the 2mm standard set forth by previous researcher. By improving the consistence of the translations, the performance of registration between two images was greatly improved. This method can be used as an initial step to locate the regions around the landmarks for improving detection in the future work.

  15. 27 CFR 1.21 - Domestic producers, rectifiers, blenders, and warehousemen.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Domestic producers, rectifiers, blenders, and warehousemen. 1.21 Section 1.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BASIC PERMIT REQUIREMENTS UNDER...

  16. Inwardly rectifying K(+) current and differentiation of human placental cytotrophoblast cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Clarson, L H; Greenwood, S L; Mylona, P; Sibley, C P

    2001-04-01

    Ion transport is important for driving nutrient transport across the syncytiotrophoblast and yet is poorly understood. We have examined K(+)currents under basal conditions in cultured cytotrophoblast cells, at various stages of differentiation, using the whole cell patch clamp technique. Cytotrophoblast cells were isolated from human term placenta and maintained in culture for up to 3 days. Cells were studied at four stages of progressive morphological differentiation: (i) mononuclear cells, (ii) mononuclear cells in aggregates, (iii) small multinucleate cells and (iv) large multinucleate syncytiotrophoblast-like cells. In the conditions of whole cell recording the only K(+) selective current identified in all cell types was a strong inwardly rectifying current which was sensitive to Ba(2+) and Cs(+). This current was unaffected by intracellular ATP whereas intracellular GTPgammas caused either run down of the current or activated a linear current. The characteristics of the current described are consistent with those of the inwardly rectifying K(+) channel Kir2.1. The inwardly rectifying K(+) current was observed in three out of 19 (16 per cent ) mononuclear cells, seven out of 21 (33 per cent ) mononuclear aggregates, eight out of 21 (38 per cent ) small multinucleate cells and 16 out of 19 (84 per cent ) large multinucleate cells. This inwardly rectifying K(+) current is likely to have an important role in determining net K(+) diffusion across the syncytiotrophoblast cell membrane, perhaps increasing in importance as the cells terminally differentiate. PMID:11286569

  17. A high-efficiency low-voltage CMOS rectifier for harvesting energy in implantable devices.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, S Saeid; Sawan, Mohamad; Savaria, Yvon

    2012-08-01

    We present, in this paper, a new full-wave CMOS rectifier dedicated for wirelessly-powered low-voltage biomedical implants. It uses bootstrapped capacitors to reduce the effective threshold voltage of selected MOS switches. It achieves a significant increase in its overall power efficiency and low voltage-drop. Therefore, the rectifier is good for applications with low-voltage power supplies and large load current. The rectifier topology does not require complex circuit design. The highest voltages available in the circuit are used to drive the gates of selected transistors in order to reduce leakage current and to lower their channel on-resistance, while having high transconductance. The proposed rectifier was fabricated using the standard TSMC 0.18 ?m CMOS process. When connected to a sinusoidal source of 3.3 V peak amplitude, it allows improving the overall power efficiency by 11% compared to the best recently published results given by a gate cross-coupled-based structure. PMID:23853177

  18. Gravity-Feed Growth of Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    In inverted Stepanov apparatus, silicon is melted in vee-shaped crucible that has long narrow slot at bottom of vee. Molten silicon flows from slot at a rate controlled by fluid pressure. As it emerges, it cools and solidifies to form a continuous ribbon. To eliminate surface-tension effects, crucible walls are made of a material that liquid silicon does not wet.

  19. Local controlled release of 1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate using silicone-rubber matrices. Effects of sterilization on in vitro release and in vivo efficacy.

    PubMed

    Johnston, T P; Bove, E L; Bolling, S F; Schoen, F J; Boyd, J A; Golomb, G; Levy, R J

    1988-01-01

    Calcification (CALC) is the most frequent cause of the clinical failure of bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs). Controlled release of disodium ethanehydroxydiphosphonate (EHDP) has been demonstrated to inhibit subdermal BHV calcification at effective low local doses, avoiding adverse effects. However, the eventual circulatory use of controlled release EHDP necessitates addressing several critical issues that may affect efficacy. These include the effects of sterilization on EHDP release and the efficacy of sustained release matrices containing CaEHDP, which is less soluble than NaEHDP. The effects of CaEHDP-NaEHDP incorporation and steam sterilization on controlled release of EHDP from silicone-rubber matrices was studied both in vitro and in vivo using a rat subdermal model and sheep tricuspid valve replacements. Autoclaved EHDP matrices (20% wt/wt) released 88.9% +/- 7.84 of contained drug after 140 days in vitro, compared with control (87.6% +/- 10.3 cumulative release). Autoclaved EHDP matrices completely inhibited BHV CALC in 60 day rat subdermal implants (8.84 +/- 3.68 micrograms Ca++/mg tissue), comparable to nonsterilized EHDP-loaded matrices (7.06 +/- 2.00 micrograms Ca++/mg tissue). Nontreated CALC levels were 183 +/- 7.60 micrograms Ca++/mg tissue. Na-CaEHDP co-incorporation into silicone rubber matrices markedly prolonged controlled release with the 1:1 Na-CaEHDP mixture demonstrating an extrapolated release duration of approximately 20 years, assuming the total amount of dispersed drug was released. Data from tricuspid valve replacements in sheep demonstrate erratic control calcification (41.3 +/- 14.9 micrograms Ca++/mg tissue), but complete suppression of BHV calcification with Na2EHDP controlled release (5.74 +/- 1.35 micrograms Ca++/mg tissue) after 150 days. PMID:3143390

  20. Controllability of self-aligned four-terminal planar embedded metal double-gate low-temperature polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors on a glass substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsawa, Hiroki; Sasaki, Shun; Hara, Akito

    2016-03-01

    Self-aligned four-terminal n-channel (n-ch) and p-channel (p-ch) planar embedded metal double-gate polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated on a glass substrate at a low temperature of 550 °C. This device includes a metal top gate (TG) and a metal bottom gate (BG), which are used as the drive and control gates or vice versa. The BG was embedded in a glass substrate, and a poly-Si channel with large lateral grains was fabricated by continuous-wave laser lateral crystallization. The threshold voltage modulation factors under various control gate voltages (γ = ΔVth/ΔVCG) were nearly equal to the theoretical predictions in both the n- and p-ch TFTs. By exploiting this high controllability, an enhancement depletion (ED) inverter was fabricated, and successful operation at 2.0 V was confirmed.

  1. Fluorescence of silicon nanoparticles suspended in water: reactive co-deposition for the control of surface properties of clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Haeften, K.; Akraiam, A.; Torricelli, G.; Brewer, A.

    2010-10-01

    Fluorescent silicon nanoparticles have been produced in a two-step process in ultra high vacuum. First, silicon clusters were produced in the gas phase in a molecular beam. At the end of the cluster beam machine the cluster were co-deposited with water onto a cold target. Melting of the ice yields a suspension that fluoresces at 420 nm when excited with ultraviolet light. The fluorescence intensity remains constant over a period of more than a year. Photo-absorption and photo-luminescence spectra provide evidence of a Si/SiO2 core-shell structure having a silicon core size of at least 1.4 nm in diameter and oxygen deficient O-Si-O defects as the origin of the deep-blue fluorescence. Furthermore, the fluorescent suspension was deposited on freshly cleaved highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). AFM images recorded in UHV showed networks of agglomerated clusters, their smallest units having a diameter of typically 0.7 nm.

  2. Bacterial endogenous endophthalmitis in Vietnam: a randomized controlled trial comparing vitrectomy with silicone oil versus vitrectomy alone

    PubMed Central

    Do, Tan; Hon, Do N; Aung, Tin; Hien, Nguyen DTN; Cowan, Claude L

    2014-01-01

    Background/aims To compare treatment outcomes with and without silicone oil tamponade in patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for severe endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (BEE). Methods One hundred and eight consecutive patients with severe BEE (defined by the absence of pupil red reflex at presentation and/or dense vitreous opacity on ultrasound and no improvement after 2436 hours of medical treatment) were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: Group 1, standard PPV with intravitreal antibiotics; and Group 2, PPV with intravitreal antibiotics and silicone tamponade. Overall success was defined as: a visual acuity ? count fingers at 1 meter, with an attached retina, and no intraocular oil. Results Fifty three patients were randomized to Group 1 and 55 patients to Group 2. The mean age of study subjects was 32 years and baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. At the final follow-up visit at 9 months, the overall success rate of Group 2 (67.3%) was significantly better than Group 1 (43.4%; P=0.01). There were also fewer devastating complications (such as inoperable retinal detachment, phthisis bulbi) in Group 2 compared with Group 1 (21.8% versus 43.4%; P=0.01). Conclusion The outcome at 9 months of patients with BEE treated by vitrectomy with silicone oil was better than those treated by vitrectomy alone. PMID:25210432

  3. A new approach to combatting iodine deficiency in developing countries: the controlled release of iodine in water by a silicone elastomer.

    PubMed Central

    Fisch, A; Pichard, E; Prazuck, T; Sebbag, R; Torres, G; Gernez, G; Gentilini, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Four hundred million people or more may be exposed to iodine deficiency worldwide, in developing countries in particular. Because of the practical problems with existing methods for the large-scale prevention of iodine deficiency, the authors developed a new approach to collective prophylaxis. METHODS. This approach relies on the controlled diffusion of iodine into water from a silicone elastomer. Silicone matrices installed in a bore well released iodine at a rate sufficient to permit the daily per capita intake of at least 100 micrograms of iodine, the amount recommended by the World Health Organization. The matrices were tested over 1 year in a village in Mali, West Africa, an area in which goiter was highly endemic. The effects on the well water and population were compared with those of a placebo system in a control village. RESULTS. An increase in urinary iodine levels was observed in the treated population, and after 12 months the incidence of goiter had fallen from 53.2% to 29.2%. CONCLUSIONS. This new concept, adaptable to all sources of water supply, may contribute to the eradication of iodine deficiency. PMID:8460731

  4. Properties of the K+ inward rectifier in the plasma membrane of xylem parenchyma cells from barley roots: effects of TEA+, Ca2+, Ba2+ and La3+.

    PubMed

    Wegner, L H; De Boer, A H; Raschke, K

    1994-12-01

    Xylem parenchyma cells are situated around the (apoplastic) xylem vessels and are involved in the control of the composition of the xylem sap by exporting and resorbing solutes. We investigated properties of the K+ inward rectifier in the plasma membrane of these cells by performing patch clamp experiments on protoplasts in the whole-cell configuration. Inward currents were sensitive to the K+ channel blocker TEA+ at a high concentration (20 mM). Barium, another "classical" K+ channel blocker, inhibited K+ currents with a Ki of about 1.3 mM. In contrast to guard cells, the cytosolic Ca2+ level proved to be ineffective in regulating the K+ conductance at hyperpolarization. External Ca2+ blocked currents weakly in a voltage-dependent manner. From instantaneous current-voltage curves, we identified a binding site in the channel pore with an electrical distance of about 0.2 to 0.5. Lanthanum ions reduced the inward current in a voltage-dependent manner and simultaneously displaced the voltage at which half of the channels are in the open state to more positive values. This finding was interpreted as resulting from a sum of two molecular effects, an interaction with the mouth of the channel that causes a reduction of current, and a binding to the voltage sensor, leading to a shielding of surface charges and, subsequently, a modulation of channel gating. A comparison between the K+ inward rectifier in xylem parenchyma cells, guard cells and KAT1 from Arabidopsis leads to the conclusion that these rectifiers form subtypes within one class of ion channels. The ineffectiveness of Ca2+ to control K+ influx in xylem parenchyma cells is interpreted in physiological terms. PMID:7707363

  5. Silicon nitride/silicon carbide composite powders

    DOEpatents

    Dunmead, Stephen D.; Weimer, Alan W.; Carroll, Daniel F.; Eisman, Glenn A.; Cochran, Gene A.; Susnitzky, David W.; Beaman, Donald R.; Nilsen, Kevin J.

    1996-06-11

    Prepare silicon nitride-silicon carbide composite powders by carbothermal reduction of crystalline silica powder, carbon powder and, optionally, crystalline silicon nitride powder. The crystalline silicon carbide portion of the composite powders has a mean number diameter less than about 700 nanometers and contains nitrogen. The composite powders may be used to prepare sintered ceramic bodies and self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramic bodies.

  6. Simple evaporation controller for thin-film deposition from a resistively heated boat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scofield, John H.; Bajuk, Lou; Mohler, William

    1990-01-01

    A simple, inexpensive circuit is described for switching the current through a resistively heated evaporation boat during thin-film deposition. The circuit uses a silicon-controlled rectifier (SCR) to switch the 0-15-A current in the primary of a 2-kV A step-down transformer that supplies the 0-200-A current to an evaporation boat. The circuit is controlled by a 0-10 V-dc signal similar to that furnished by an Inficon XTC deposition-rate controller. This circuit may be assembled from a handful of parts for a cost of about $400, nearly one-tenth the cost of similar commercial units. Minimum construction is required, since the circuit is built around an off-the-shelf, self-contained SCR unit.

  7. Lithographic wavelength control of an external cavity laser with a silicon photonic crystal cavity-based resonant reflector.

    PubMed

    Liles, Alexandros A; Debnath, Kapil; O'Faolain, Liam

    2016-03-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of a new design for external cavity hybrid lasers consisting of a III-V semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) with fiber reflector and a photonic crystal (PhC)-based resonant reflector on SOI. The silicon reflector is composed of an SU8 polymer bus waveguide vertically coupled to a PhC cavity and provides a wavelength-selective optical feedback to the laser cavity. This device exhibits milliwatt-level output power and side-mode suppression ratios of more than 25 dB. PMID:26974073

  8. Silicon isotope fractionation during FZ growth of silicon crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishita, Y.; Satoh, H.

    2003-01-01

    We have carried out evaporation and crystal growth experiments, and precisely determined silicon isotopic ratios for the run products of the experiments using the ims-1270 SIMS with multicollectors at the Geological Survey of Japan. The silicon isotope fractionation factor between vapor and melt under vacuum was determined to be 0.9821 at a temperature of 1680 C, while that under 10 5 Pa of Ar was 0.9947. The SIMS microanalysis revealed isotopic zoning in a single silicon crystal which was produced during its growth. It is inferred that the silicon isotopic ratios in a silicon crystal during the floating zone growth were controlled by the growth conditions such as the growth and rotation rates as well as the fractionation factor between the crystal and its melt.

  9. Study of Microstructure and Transient, Instantaneous Current in Different Excitations During Silicon Micromachining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A. V.; Jain, V. K.; Misra, K. A.

    2012-09-01

    Study of transient, instantaneous current during silicon micromachining using electrochemical spark process is carried out. Voltage excitation of three kinds namely, dc, Half wave rectified and ac are used to carve the micro channels. The transient and instantaneous process current is measured online and analyzed for each excitation. Micromachining and the surface topography results are presented. The transient current reveals the mechanism of the spark formation and explains the inherent process stages.

  10. Controlling the reproducibility of Coulomb blockade phenomena for gold nanoparticles on an organic monolayer/silicon system.

    PubMed

    Caillard, L; Sattayaporn, S; Lamic-Humblot, A-F; Casale, S; Campbell, P; Chabal, Y J; Pluchery, O

    2015-02-13

    Two types of highly ordered organic layers were prepared on silicon modified with an amine termination for binding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). These two grafted organic monolayers (GOMs), consisting of alkyl chains with seven or 11 carbon atoms, were grafted on oxide-free Si(111) surfaces as tunnel barriers between the silicon electrode and the AuNPs. Three kinds of colloidal AuNPs were prepared by reducing HAuCl4 with three different reactants: citrate (Turkevich synthesis, diameter ∼16 nm), ascorbic acid (diameter ∼9 nm), or NaBH4 (Natan synthesis, diameter ∼7 nm). Scanning tunnel spectroscopy (STS) was performed in a UHV STM at 40 K, and Coulomb blockade behaviour was observed. The reproducibility of the Coulomb behavior was analysed as a function of several chemical and physical parameters: size, crystallinity of the AuNPs, influence of surrounding surfactant molecules, and quality of the GOM/Si interface (degree of oxidation after the full processing). Samples were characterized with scanning tunneling microscope, STS, atomic force microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high resolution transmission electronic microscope. We show that the reproducibility in observing Coulomb behavior can be as high as ∼80% with the Natan synthesis of AuNPs and GOMs with short alkyl chains. PMID:25611611

  11. Controlling the reproducibility of Coulomb blockade phenomena for gold nanoparticles on an organic monolayer/silicon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillard, L.; Sattayaporn, S.; Lamic-Humblot, A.-F.; Casale, S.; Campbell, P.; Chabal, Y. J.; Pluchery, O.

    2015-02-01

    Two types of highly ordered organic layers were prepared on silicon modified with an amine termination for binding gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). These two grafted organic monolayers (GOMs), consisting of alkyl chains with seven or 11 carbon atoms, were grafted on oxide-free Si(111) surfaces as tunnel barriers between the silicon electrode and the AuNPs. Three kinds of colloidal AuNPs were prepared by reducing HAuCl4 with three different reactants: citrate (Turkevich synthesis, diameter ˜16 nm), ascorbic acid (diameter ˜9 nm), or NaBH4 (Natan synthesis, diameter ˜7 nm). Scanning tunnel spectroscopy (STS) was performed in a UHV STM at 40 K, and Coulomb blockade behaviour was observed. The reproducibility of the Coulomb behavior was analysed as a function of several chemical and physical parameters: size, crystallinity of the AuNPs, influence of surrounding surfactant molecules, and quality of the GOM/Si interface (degree of oxidation after the full processing). Samples were characterized with scanning tunneling microscope, STS, atomic force microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and high resolution transmission electronic microscope. We show that the reproducibility in observing Coulomb behavior can be as high as ˜80% with the Natan synthesis of AuNPs and GOMs with short alkyl chains.

  12. Silicone-Acyclovir Controlled Release Devices Suppress Primary Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Varicella Zoster Virus Infections In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Berkower, Carol L.; Johnson, Nicole M.; Longdo, Stephen B.; McGusty-Robinson, Shenika O.; Semenkow, Samantha L.; Margulies, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Following initial infection, herpesviruses retreat into a permanent latent state with periodic reactivation resulting in an enhanced likelihood of transmission and clinical disease. The nucleoside analogue acyclovir reduces clinical symptoms of the three human alpha herpesviruses, HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV. Long-term administration of acyclovir (ACV) can reduce the frequency and severity of reactivation, but its low bioavailability and short half-life require a daily drug regimen. Our lab is working to develop a subcutaneous delivery system to provide long-lasting, sustained release of ACV. Previously, we demonstrated that an implantable silicone (MED-4050) device, impregnated with ACV protected against HSV-1 both in vitro and in vivo. Here, we extend our in vitro observations to include protection against both HSV-2 and VZV. We also demonstrate protection against HSV-2 in vitro using MED-4750, a silicone polymer designed for long-term use in humans. When release of ACV from MED-4750 is quantitated on a daily basis, an initial burst of 5 days is observed, followed by a long period of slow release with near-zero-order kinetics, with an average daily release of 1.3923 0.5908??g ACV over days 2060. Development of a slow-release implant has the potential to significantly impact the treatment of human alpha herpesvirus infections. PMID:23983683

  13. Principle and Basic Characteristics of Linear Synchronous Motor with Half-Wave Rectified Self Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi; Oyama, Jun; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Takashi

    This paper presents principle and basic characteristics of a novel linear synchronous motor based on half-wave rectified self excitation principle. The field winding is short circuited through a diode and the armature winding is conventional 3-pahase windings. If the amplitude of the balanced 3-phase currents is modulated by an alternating wave with bias frequency, the produced magnetomotive force pulsates at bias frequency and moves at synchronous velocity. This pulsating magnetomotive force induces the electromotive force with bias frequency in the field winding. The field excitation is obtained by rectifying the electromotive force with the diode of the field winding. In this paper, we design and build the experimental machine and confirm the basic characteristics. We also deduce the performance equations and investigate on the thrust ripple reduction.

  14. Biradical and triradical organic magnetic molecules as spin filters and rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Yao, K. L.; Liu, Z. L.

    2012-03-01

    We have theoretically investigated the spin-polarized transport properties of molecular junctions consisting of biradical and triradical organic magnetic molecules sandwiched between two symmetric gold electrodes, respectively. It shows that these junctions function as a spin rectifier or a combination of spin and charge rectifiers with high spin rectification ratios exceeding 100, wherein the spin diode/rectification effect stems from the conjugated length and asymmetry of the molecular framework, which is the pre-requisite for electronic asymmetry of the adsorbed species. The negative differential resistance, spin-filtering and switching properties are also unveiled. In particular, it is revealed that the strong couplings between the electrodes and molecules are responsible for the negative differential resistance.

  15. Composition Change Characteristics of R407C by a Packed Column Rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Takashi; Katoh, Yohei; Obayashi, Tomoyoshi; Hirata, Yushi

    The composition separation of R407C is used to improve performance of air conditioners and heat pump water heater units. Therefore, it is important to grasp a separation performance of a packed column rectifier and make a useful nondimensional equation of mass transfer coefficients for design of the rectifier. The experiments were carried out to investigate an influence of the vapor velocity on the separation performance, and an overall mass transfer coefficient of gas side was measured. The nondimensional equation for the mass transfer coefficients was made based on the measured data. The influence of the refrigerant charge and the packed height on the separation performance was evaluated with the experiments and calculated results with the equation. The calculated results agreed with the experimental results.

  16. Analysis of UHF RFID CMOS rectifier structures and input impedance characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Behnam; Ranasinghe, Damith C.; Cole, Peter H.

    2005-12-01

    Passive radio frequency identification (RFID) systems deployment efforts are revolutionizing supply chain logistics by providing unprecedented supply chain visibility. The widely used bandwidth of operation in modern systems is the UHF ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical) band. The performance of UHF RFID systems are largely reliant on low power CMOS circuits, efficient power rectification and the ability of RFID label antennas to match to the input impedance of the RFID label IC. This paper examines a new rectifying structure and considers it for its merits in RFID applications while analysing contribution of the rectifying structure to the input impedance of RFID chips as this is an important consideration in impedance matching to an external antenna.

  17. Small-molecule modulators of inward rectifier K+ channels: recent advances and future possibilities

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Gautam; Lonergan, Daniel; Chauder, Brian A; Denton, Jerod S

    2010-01-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels have been postulated as therapeutic targets for several common disorders including hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias and pain. With few exceptions, however, the small-molecule pharmacology of this family is limited to nonselective cardiovascular and neurologic drugs with off-target activity toward inward rectifiers. Consequently, the actual therapeutic potential and drugability of most Kir channels has not yet been determined experimentally. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of publicly disclosed Kir channel small-molecule modulators and highlight recent targeted drug-discovery efforts toward Kir1.1 and Kir2.1. The review concludes with a brief speculation on how the field of Kir channel pharmacology will develop over the coming years and a discussion of the increasingly important role academic laboratories will play in this progress. PMID:20543968

  18. Expression and purification of recombinant human inward rectifier K+ (KCNJ) channels in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    D'Avanzo, Nazzareno; Cheng, Wayland W L; Xia, Xiaobing; Dong, Liang; Savitsky, Pavel; Nichols, Colin G; Doyle, Declan A

    2010-05-01

    The inward rectifier family of potassium (KCNJ) channels regulate vital cellular processes including cell volume, electrical excitability, and insulin secretion. Dysfunction of different isoforms have been linked to numerous diseases including Bartter's, Andersen-Tawil, Smith-Magenis Syndromes, Type II diabetes mellitus, and epilepsy, making them important targets for therapeutic intervention. Using a family-based approach, we succeeded in expressing 10 of 11 human KCNJ channels tested in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. GFP-fusion proteins showed that these channels traffic correctly to the plasma-membrane suggesting that the protein is functional. A 2-step purification process can be used to purify the KCNJ channels to >95% purity in a mono-dispersed form. After incorporation into liposomes, (86)Rb(+) flux assays confirm the functionality of the purified proteins as inward rectifier potassium channels. PMID:20064617

  19. Ohmic Versus Rectifying Contacts of Au to N-gaas by Ion Sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y. X.; Holloway, P. H.; Wang, W. L.; Li, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    Results of investigations of argon ion sputtering of heavily doped n-GaAs are compared with those obtained from studies of Au/low doping density n-GaAs contacts. The Au contact on Si-doped GaAs was nearly ohmic when the surface contamination (carbon and oxides) was reduced prior to deposition by chemical cleaning. However, when ion sputtering was used in situ to clean the surface, rectifying contact was produced whose barrier height varied with the energy of the sputtering ion. It was found that ion sputtering of GaAs doped to more than 3 x 10 to the 18th power/cu may be used to change ohmic contact to rectifying contacts. The barrier height may be changed by changing the ion energy. The behavior results from the sputter creation of deep level acceptor states at the GaAs surface. Annealing after sputtering can restore the contact to nearly an ohmic character.

  20. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan; Burgos, Rolando; Lai, Rixin; Ning, Puqi; Rajashekara, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  1. Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Inward-Rectifying K+ Channels in Conjunction with Stomatal Closure1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Papanatsiou, Maria; Scuffi, Denisse; Blatt, Michael R.; Garca-Mata, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is the third biological gasotransmitter, and in animals, it affects many physiological processes by modulating ion channels. H2S has been reported to protect plants from oxidative stress in diverse physiological responses. H2S closes stomata, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we report the selective inactivation of current carried by inward-rectifying K+ channels of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) guard cells and show its close parallel with stomatal closure evoked by submicromolar concentrations of H2S. Experiments to scavenge H2S suggested an effect that is separable from that of abscisic acid, which is associated with water stress. Thus, H2S seems to define a unique and unresolved signaling pathway that selectively targets inward-rectifying K+ channels. PMID:25770153

  2. Inwardly rectifying currents in hair cells and supporting cells in the goldfish sacculus.

    PubMed Central

    Sugihara, I; Furukawa, T

    1996-01-01

    1. Inwardly rectifying ionic currents were studied using patch-clamp recording methods in oscillatory-type and spike-type hair cells and supporting cells dissociated from the goldfish sacculus. These cells had different types of inwardly rectifying currents. The biophysical properties of these currents were investigated. 2. A unique potassium current (Isc) was the sole ionic current recognized in supporting cells. Isc was active throughout the membrane potential range between +30 and -170 mV, but showed weak inward rectification and no inactivation. 3. In spike-type hair cells, inwardly rectifying current (Ik1) was selectively permeable to K+ (K+:Na+ permeability ratio, 1:0.0021). Ik1 could underlie the high negative resting potential of these hair cells because it is partially active at this potential. The strong inward rectification of Ik1 contributed to the low negative plateau potential seen in spike-type hair cells. 4. In oscillatory-type hair cells, hyperpolarization-activated potassium-sodium current (Ih), which had properties similar to that in photoreceptor and other neurons, was present instead of inwardly rectifying K+ current. 5. In the cell-attached and inside-out modes with 125 microM external K+ ([K+]o), IK1 channel had a unitary conductance of 27 pS and showed inactivation with increasing hyperpolarization. Putative Ih and Iso single channels had unitary conductances of 7 and 61 pS, respectively, in the cell-attached mode with 125 microM Ko+. Images Figure 1 PMID:8887774

  3. The terrestrial magnetosphere: a half-wave rectifier of the interplanetary electric field.

    PubMed

    Burton, R K; McPherron, R L; Russell, C T

    1975-08-29

    A study of geomagnetic disturbances during 1967 and 1968, for which in situ solar wind observations are available, reveals that the magnetosphere acts as a half-wave rectifier of the interplanetary electric field. The rate of injection of energy into the magnetosphere, as inferred from the strength of the disturbance, is approximately linearly proportional to the component of the electric field from dawn to dusk but is effectively zero if the electricfield has a component from dusk to dawn. PMID:17792538

  4. Multi-Service Highly Sensitive Rectifier for Enhanced RF Energy Scavenging

    PubMed Central

    Shariati, Negin; Rowe, Wayne S. T.; Scott, James R.; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing implications of energy costs and carbon footprints, the need to adopt inexpensive, green energy harvesting strategies are of paramount importance for the long-term conservation of the environment and the global economy. To address this, the feasibility of harvesting low power density ambient RF energy simultaneously from multiple sources is examined. A high efficiency multi-resonant rectifier is proposed, which operates at two frequency bands (478–496 and 852–869 MHz) and exhibits favorable impedance matching over a broad input power range (−40 to −10 dBm). Simulation and experimental results of input reflection coefficient and rectified output power are in excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of this innovative low-power rectification technique. Measurement results indicate an effective efficiency of 54.3%, and an output DC voltage of 772.8 mV is achieved for a multi-tone input power of −10 dBm. Furthermore, the measured output DC power from harvesting RF energy from multiple services concurrently exhibits a 3.14 and 7.24 fold increase over single frequency rectification at 490 and 860 MHz respectively. Therefore, the proposed multi-service highly sensitive rectifier is a promising technique for providing a sustainable energy source for low power applications in urban environments. PMID:25951137

  5. Gating mechanism of the cloned inward rectifier potassium channel from mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, K; Hiraoka, M

    1994-10-01

    The complementary DNA encoding the inward rectifier potassium channel was cloned from the adult mouse heart by using the polymerase chain reaction. The clone had the nucleotide sequence identical to that of the IRK1 gene cloned from a mouse macrophage cell line. Northern blot analysis revealed that the transcript of this gene was mainly expressed in the ventricle, where the inward rectifier K+ channel plays a predominant role in maintaining the high negative value of the resting membrane potential. The current expressed by injection of the complementary RNA of the cloned gene into Xenopus oocytes showed a marked inward rectification that depends on the driving force of K+. A region of negative slope conductance was observed in the current-voltage relationship at potentials positive to the reversal potential. When the extracellular K+ concentration was raised, the increase in outward current amplitude resulted in the "crossover" of outward current-voltage relations. The fast time-dependent increase in current amplitude was recorded upon membrane repolarization from a potential positive to the reversal potential. The kinetics of the time-dependent current was very similar to that of the intrinsic gating mechanism of the native cardiac inward rectifier K+ channel. Our results suggest the existence of the intrinsic gating mechanism, accounting for the extent of rectification in the current-voltage relationship in the expressed channel. PMID:7707353

  6. Mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio-frequency sheath potentials on edge localized modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, B.; Xu, X. Q.; Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D. A.

    2014-11-01

    The mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio frequency (RF) sheath potentials on the peeling-ballooning modes is studied non-linearly by employing a two-fluid three-field simulation model based on the BOUT++ framework. Additional shear flow and the Kelvin-Helmholtz effect due to the thermal and rectified RF sheath potential are induced. It is found that the shear flow increases the growth rate while the K-H effect decreases the growth rate slightly when there is a density gradient, but the energy loss of these cases is suppressed in the nonlinear phase. The stronger external electrostatic field due to the sheaths has a more significant effect on the energy loss suppression. From this study, it is found the growth rate in the linear phase mainly determines the onset of edge-localized modes, while the mode spectrum width in the nonlinear phase has an important impact on the turbulent transport. The wider mode spectrum leads to weaker turbulent transport and results in a smaller energy loss. Due to the thermal sheath and rectified RF sheath potential in the scrape-off-layer, the modified shear flow tears apart the peeling-ballooning filament and makes the mode spectrum wider, resulting in less energy loss. The perturbed electric potential and the parallel current near the sheath region is also suppressed locally due to the sheath boundary condition.

  7. Microfluidic rectifier based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) membrane and its application to a micropump.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming; Lin Liou, Lung-Kai

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic rectifier incorporating an obstructed microchannel and a PDMS membrane is proposed. During forward flow, the membrane deflects in the upward direction; thereby allowing the fluid to pass over the obstacle. Conversely, during reverse flow, the membrane seals against the obstacle, thereby closing the channel and preventing flow. It is shown that the proposed device can operate over a wide pressure range by increasing or decreasing the membrane thickness as required. A microfluidic pump is realized by integrating the rectifier with a simple stepper motor mechanism. The experimental results show that the pump can achieve a vertical left height of more than 2?m. Moreover, it is shown that a maximum flow rate of 6.3 ml/min can be obtained given a membrane thickness of 200??m and a motor velocity of 80 rpm. In other words, the proposed microfluidic rectifier not only provides an effective means of preventing reverse flow but also permits the realization of a highly efficient microfluidic pump. PMID:24404051

  8. ?1-Adrenoceptor autoantibodies affect action potential duration and delayed rectifier potassium currents in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuhui; Huang, Haixia; Du, Yunhui; Li, Xiao; Lv, Tingting; Zhang, Suli; Wei, Hua; Shang, Jianyu; Liu, Ping; Liu, Huirong

    2015-01-01

    ?1-Adrenoceptor autoantibodies (?1-AAs) affect the action potential duration (APD) in cardiomyocytes and are related to ventricular arrhythmias. The delayed rectifier potassium current (I K) plays a crucial role in APD, but the effects of ?1-AAs on I K have not been completely illuminated. This work aimed to observe the effects of ?1-AAs on I K and APD and further explore the mechanisms of ?1-AA-mediated ventricular arrhythmias. ?1-AAs were obtained from sera of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. With whole-cell patch clamp technique, action potentials and I K were recorded. The results illustrated 0.1 ?mol/L ?1-AAs shortened APD at 50 % (APD50) and 90 % (APD90) of the repolarization. However, at 0.01 ?mol/L, ?1-AAs had no effects on either APD90 or APD50 (P > 0.05). At 0.001 ?mol/L, ?1-AAs significantly prolonged APD90 and APD50. Moreover, ?1-AAs (0.001, 0.01, 0.1 ?mol/L) dose-dependently increased the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I Kr), but similarly decreased the slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (I Ks) and increased L-type calcium currents at the different concentrations. Taken together, the IKr increase induced by high ?1-AA concentrations is responsible for a significant APD reduction which would contribute to repolarization changes and trigger the malignant ventricular arrhythmias in CHD patients. PMID:24894912

  9. Increased inwardly rectifying potassium currents in HEK-293 cells expressing murine transient receptor potential 4.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Z; Tang, Y; Zhu, M X

    2001-01-01

    Drosophila transient receptor potential (Trp) and its mammalian homologues are postulated to form capacitative Ca2+ entry or store-operated channels. Here we show that expression of murine Trp4 in HEK 293 cells also leads to an increase in inwardly rectifying K+ currents. No similar increase was found in cell lines expressing Trp1, Trp3 or Trp6. Consistent with typical characteristics of inward rectifiers, the K+ currents in Trp4-expressing cells were blocked by low millimolar concentrations of Cs+ and Ba2+, but not by 1.2 mM Ca2+, and were only slightly inhibited by 5 mM tetraethylammonium. Single channel recordings of excised inside-out patches revealed the presence of two conducting states of 51 pS and 94 pS in Trp4-expressing cells. The outward current in the excised patches was blocked by 1 mM spermine, but not by 1 mM Mg2+. How Trp4 expression causes the increase in the K+ currents is not known. We propose that Trp4 either participates in the formation of a novel K+ channel or up-regulates the expression or activity of endogenous inwardly rectifying K+ channels. PMID:11237877

  10. Capacity of Rectified Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential in Correcting Asymmetric Muscle Contraction Power

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kun Woo; Jung, Jae Yun; Lee, Jeong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Rectified vestibular evoked myogenic potential (rVEMP) is new method that simultaneously measures the muscle contraction power during VEMP recordings. Although there are a few studies that have evaluated the effect of the rVEMP, there is no study that has evaluated the capacity of rVEMP during asymmetrical muscle contraction. Methods Thirty VEMP measurements were performed among 20 normal subjects (mean age, 28.22.1 years; male, 16). VEMP was measured in the supine position. The head was turned to the right side by 0, 15, 30, and 45 and the VEMPs were recorded in each position. The interaural amplitude difference (IAD) ratio was calculated by the conventional non-rectified VEMP (nVEMP) and rVEMP. Results The nVEMP IAD increased significantly according to increasing neck rotation. The IAD in rVEMP was almost similar from 0 to 30. However, the IAD was significantly larger than the other positions when the neck was rotated 45. When IAD during 0 was set as a standard, the IAD of the rVEMP was significantly smaller that the nVEMP only during the 30rotaion. Conclusion Rectified VEMP is capable of correcting asymmetrical muscle contraction power. In contrast, it cannot correct the asymmetry if muscle contraction power asymmetry is 44.8% or larger. Also, it is not necessary if muscle contraction power asymmetry is 22.5% or smaller. PMID:24353859

  11. Microfluidic rectifier based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) membrane and its application to a micropump

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Fu, Lung-Ming; Lin Liou, Lung-Kai

    2013-01-01

    A microfluidic rectifier incorporating an obstructed microchannel and a PDMS membrane is proposed. During forward flow, the membrane deflects in the upward direction; thereby allowing the fluid to pass over the obstacle. Conversely, during reverse flow, the membrane seals against the obstacle, thereby closing the channel and preventing flow. It is shown that the proposed device can operate over a wide pressure range by increasing or decreasing the membrane thickness as required. A microfluidic pump is realized by integrating the rectifier with a simple stepper motor mechanism. The experimental results show that the pump can achieve a vertical left height of more than 2?m. Moreover, it is shown that a maximum flow rate of 6.3 ml/min can be obtained given a membrane thickness of 200??m and a motor velocity of 80 rpm. In other words, the proposed microfluidic rectifier not only provides an effective means of preventing reverse flow but also permits the realization of a highly efficient microfluidic pump. PMID:24404051

  12. Multi-service highly sensitive rectifier for enhanced RF energy scavenging.

    PubMed

    Shariati, Negin; Rowe, Wayne S T; Scott, James R; Ghorbani, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing implications of energy costs and carbon footprints, the need to adopt inexpensive, green energy harvesting strategies are of paramount importance for the long-term conservation of the environment and the global economy. To address this, the feasibility of harvesting low power density ambient RF energy simultaneously from multiple sources is examined. A high efficiency multi-resonant rectifier is proposed, which operates at two frequency bands (478-496 and 852-869?MHz) and exhibits favorable impedance matching over a broad input power range (-40 to -10?dBm). Simulation and experimental results of input reflection coefficient and rectified output power are in excellent agreement, demonstrating the usefulness of this innovative low-power rectification technique. Measurement results indicate an effective efficiency of 54.3%, and an output DC voltage of 772.8?mV is achieved for a multi-tone input power of -10?dBm. Furthermore, the measured output DC power from harvesting RF energy from multiple services concurrently exhibits a 3.14 and 7.24 fold increase over single frequency rectification at 490 and 860?MHz respectively. Therefore, the proposed multi-service highly sensitive rectifier is a promising technique for providing a sustainable energy source for low power applications in urban environments. PMID:25951137

  13. Controlled release delivery of penciclovir via a silicone (MED-4750) polymer: kinetics of drug delivery and efficacy in preventing primary feline herpesvirus infection in culture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens that infect and cause recurrent disease in multiple animal species. Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), a member of the alphaherpesvirus family, causes respiratory illness and conjunctivitis, and approximately 80% of domestic cats are latently infected. Oral administration of famciclovir or topical application of cidofovir has been shown in masked, placebo-controlled prospective trials to reduce clinical signs and viral shedding in experimentally inoculated cats. However, to the authors knowledge, other drugs have not been similarly assessed or were not safe or effective. Likewise, to our knowledge, no drugs have been assessed in a placebo-controlled manner in cats with recrudescent herpetic disease. Controlled-release devices would permit long-term administration of these drugs and enhance compliance. Methods We therefore engineered implantable cylindrical devices made from silicone (MED-4750) impregnated with penciclovir, for long-term, steady-state delivery of this drug. Results Our data show that these devices release penciclovir with a burst of drug delivery until the tenth day of release, then at an average rate of 5.063??1.704?g per day through the next 50days with near zero-order kinetics (in comparison to MED-4750-acyclovir devices, which show the same burst kinetics and average 2.236??0.625?g/day thereafter). Furthermore, these devices suppress primary infection of FHV-1 in a cell culture system. Conclusions The clinical deployment of these silicone-penciclovir devices may allow long-term treatment of FHV-1 infection with a single intervention that could last the life of the host cat. PMID:24558980

  14. Decrease in an Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Conductance in Mouse Mammary Secretory Cells after Forced Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Kamikawa, Akihiro; Sugimoto, Shota; Ichii, Osamu; Kondoh, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Mammary glands are physiologically active in female mammals only during nursing. Immediately after weaning, most lactation-related genes are downregulated and milk production ceases. In our previous study, we have detected an inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 2.1-like current in mammary secretory (MS) cells freshly isolated from lactating mice. This current is highly sensitive to external Ba2+. The potassium permeability of the Kir channels may contribute to the secretion and/or preservation of ions in milk. We hypothesized that the functions of the Kir channels in MS cells are regulated after weaning. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of forced weaning on the Ba2+-sensitive Kir current and Kir2.1 expression in the mouse mammary glands. Twenty-four hours after weaning, the lumina of mammary acini were histologically enlarged by milk accumulation. The whole-cell patch-clamp analyses showed that the Ba2+-sensitive Kir current in the post-weaning MS cells was smaller than in the lactating MS cells. The inward conductances of the current in the lactating and post-weaning cells were 4.25 0.77 and 0.93 0.34 nS, respectively. Furthermore, real-time PCR and Western blot analyses showed that Kir2.1 mRNA and protein expression decreased in the post-weaning mammary gland (mRNA, 90% reduction; protein, 47% reduction). Moreover, the local milk accumulation caused by teat sealing decreased Kir conductance in MS cells (2.74 0.45 and 0.36 0.27 nS for control and sealed mammary glands, respectively). This was concomitant with the reduction in the Kir2.1 mRNA expression. Our results suggest that milk stasis after weaning immediately decreases the Kir conductance in MS cells. This decrease in the Kir conductance may be partly caused by the reduction in the Kir2.1 mRNA and protein expression. These alterations during the post-weaning period may be involved in the cessation of ion secretion and/or preservation in the milk. PMID:26484867

  15. Hydrogen-silicon carbide interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Misra, Ajay K.; Humphrey, Donald L.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1990-01-01

    A study of the thermochemistry and kinetics of hydrogen environmental attack of silicon carbide was conducted for temperatures in the range from 1100 C to 1400 C. Thermodynamics maps based on the parameters of pressure and oxygen/moisture content were constructed. With increasing moisture levels, four distinct regions of attack were identified. Each region is defined by the thermodynamically stable solid phases. The theoretically stable solid phases of region 1 are silicon carbide and silicon. Experimental evidence is provided to support this thermodynamic prediction. Silicone carbide is the single stable solid phase in region 2. Active attack of the silicon carbide in this region occurs by the formation of gases of SiO, CO, CH4, SiH4 and SiH. Analyses of the kinetics of reaction for region 2 at 1300 C show the attack of the silicon carbide to be controlled by gas phase diffusion of H2O to the sample. Silicon carbide and silica are the stable phases common to regions 3 and 4. These two regions are characterized by the passive oxidation of silicon carbide and formation of a protective silica layer.

  16. Hydrogen-silicon carbide interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckel, Andrew J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Misra, Ajay K.; Humphrey, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    A study of the thermochemistry and kinetics of hydrogen environmental attack of silicon carbide was conducted for temperatures in the range from 1100 C to 1400 C. Thermodynamic maps based on the parameters of pressure and oxygen/moisture content were constructed. With increasing moisture levels, four distinct regions of attack were identified. Each region is defined by the thermodynamically stable solid phases. The theoretically stable solid phases of Region 1 are silicon carbide and silicon. Experimental evidence is provided to support this thermodynamic prediction. Silicon carbide is the single stable solid phase in Region 2. Active attack of the silicon carbide in this region occurs by the formation of gases of SiO, CO, CH4, SiH4, and SiH. Analysis of the kinetics of reaction for Region 2 at 1300 C show the attack of the silicon carbide to be controlled by gas phase diffusion of H2O to the sample. Silicon carbide and silica are the stable phases common to Regions 3 and 4. These two regions are characterized by the passive oxidation of silicon carbide and formation of a protective silica layer.

  17. Properties of rectified averaging of an evoked-type signal: theory and application to the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Colebatch, J G

    2009-11-01

    The properties of rectified averages were investigated using the VEMP (vestibular-evoked myogenic potential) as an example of an evoked-type response. Recordings were made of surface EMG from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles of six volunteers, unstimulated, at different levels of tonic activation and then in response to clicks of different intensities. The stochastic properties of the surface EMG recorded were shown to be well modelled using a zero mean normal distribution with a standard deviation equivalent to the mean RMS (root mean squared) value (mean residual error variance 0.87%). Assuming a normal distribution, equations were derived for the expected value of both the rectified and RMS average with the addition of constant waveforms of different sizes. A simulation using recorded EMG and added sine waves of different amplitudes demonstrated that the equations predicted the rectified averages accurately. It also confirmed the importance of the relative amplitude of the added signal in determining whether it was detected using rectified averages. The same equations were then applied to actual data consisting of VEMPs of different relative amplitudes recorded from the volunteers. Whilst the signal-to-noise ratio (measured by corrected amplitude) was a major determinant of the nature of the rectified average, consistent deviations were detected between the predicted and actual rectified averages. Deviations from predicted values indicated that the VEMP did not behave simply like a constant signal added to tonic background EMG. A more complicated model, which included temporal jitter as well as inhibition of background EMG during the VEMP, was required to fit the physiological recordings. Rectified averages are sensitive to physiological properties, which are not apparent when using unrectified averages alone. Awareness of the properties of rectified averages should improve their interpretation. PMID:19787346

  18. Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on silicon upon polarization controlled two-color double-pulse irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hhm, Sandra; Herzlieb, Marcel; Rosenfeld, Arkadi; Krger, Jrg; Bonse, Jrn

    2015-01-12

    Two-color double-fs-pulse experiments were performed on silicon wafers to study the temporally distributed energy deposition in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A Mach-Zehnder interferometer generated parallel or cross-polarized double-pulse sequences at 400 and 800 nm wavelength, with inter-pulse delays up to a few picoseconds between the sub-ablation 50-fs-pulses. Multiple two-color double-pulse sequences were collinearly focused by a spherical mirror to the sample. The resulting LIPSS characteristics (periods, areas) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. A wavelength-dependent plasmonic mechanism is proposed to explain the delay-dependence of the LIPSS. These two-color experiments extend previous single-color studies and prove the importance of the ultrafast energy deposition for LIPSS formation. PMID:25835654

  19. TOPICAL REVIEW: Black silicon method X: a review on high speed and selective plasma etching of silicon with profile control: an in-depth comparison between Bosch and cryostat DRIE processes as a roadmap to next generation equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, H V; de Boer, M J; Unnikrishnan, S; Louwerse, M C; Elwenspoek, M C

    2009-03-01

    An intensive study has been performed to understand and tune deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) processes for optimum results with respect to the silicon etch rate, etch profile and mask etch selectivity (in order of priority) using state-of-the-art dual power source DRIE equipment. The research compares pulsed-mode DRIE processes (e.g. Bosch technique) and mixed-mode DRIE processes (e.g. cryostat technique). In both techniques, an inhibitor is added to fluorine-based plasma to achieve directional etching, which is formed out of an oxide-forming (O2) or a fluorocarbon (FC) gas (C4F8 or CHF3). The inhibitor can be introduced together with the etch gas, which is named a mixed-mode DRIE process, or the inhibitor can be added in a time-multiplexed manner, which will be termed a pulsed-mode DRIE process. Next, the most convenient mode of operation found in this study is highlighted including some remarks to ensure proper etching (i.e. step synchronization in pulsed-mode operation and heat control of the wafer). First of all, for the fabrication of directional profiles, pulsed-mode DRIE is far easier to handle, is more robust with respect to the pattern layout and has the potential of achieving much higher mask etch selectivity, whereas in a mixed-mode the etch rate is higher and sidewall scalloping is prohibited. It is found that both pulsed-mode CHF3 and C4F8 are perfectly suited to perform high speed directional etching, although they have the drawback of leaving the FC residue at the sidewalls of etched structures. They show an identical result when the flow of CHF3 is roughly 30 times the flow of C4F8, and the amount of gas needed for a comparable result decreases rapidly while lowering the temperature from room down to cryogenic (and increasing the etch rate). Moreover, lowering the temperature lowers the mask erosion rate substantially (and so the mask selectivity improves). The pulsed-mode O2 is FC-free but shows only tolerable anisotropic results at -120 C. The downside of needing liquid nitrogen to perform cryogenic etching can be improved by using a new approach in which both the pulsed and mixed modes are combined into the so-called puffed mode. Alternatively, the use of tetra-ethyl-ortho-silicate (TEOS) as a silicon oxide precursor is proposed to enable sufficient inhibiting strength and improved profile control up to room temperature. Pulsed-mode processing, the second important aspect, is commonly performed in a cycle using two separate steps: etch and deposition. Sometimes, a three-step cycle is adopted using a separate step to clean the bottom of etching features. This study highlights an issue, known by the authors but not discussed before in the literature: the need for proper synchronization between gas and bias pulses to explore the benefit of three steps. The transport of gas from the mass flow controller towards the wafer takes time, whereas the application of bias to the wafer is relatively instantaneous. This delay causes a problem with respect to synchronization when decreasing the step time towards a value close to the gas residence time. It is proposed to upgrade the software with a delay time module for the bias pulses to be in pace with the gas pulses. If properly designed, the delay module makes it possible to switch on the bias exactly during the arrival of the gas for the bottom removal step and so it will minimize the ionic impact because now etch and deposition steps can be performed virtually without bias. This will increase the mask etch selectivity and lower the heat impact significantly. Moreover, the extra bottom removal step can be performed at (also synchronized!) low pressure and therefore opens a window for improved aspect ratios. The temperature control of the wafer, a third aspect of this study, at a higher etch rate and longer etch time, needs critical attention, because it drastically limits the DRIE performance. It is stressed that the exothermic reaction (high silicon loading) and ionic impact (due to metallic masks and/or exposed silicon) are the main sources of heat that might raise the wafer temperature uncontrollably, and they show the weakness of the helium backside technique using mechanical clamping. Electrostatic clamping, an alternative technique, should minimize this problem because it is less susceptible to heat transfer when its thermal resistance and the gap of the helium backside cavity are minimized; however, it is not a subject of the current study. Because oxygen-growth-based etch processes (due to their ultra thin inhibiting layer) rely more heavily on a constant wafer temperature than fluorocarbon-based processes, oxygen etches are more affected by temperature fluctuations and drifts during the etching. The fourth outcome of this review is a phenomenological model, which explains and predicts many features with respect to loading, flow and pressure behaviour in DRIE equipment including a diffusion zone. The model is a reshape of the flow model constructed by Mogab, who studied the loading effect in plasma etching. Despite the downside of needing a cryostat, it is shown thatwhen selecting proper conditionsa cryogenic two-step pulsed mode can be used as a successful technique to achieve high speed and selective plasma etching with an etch rate around 25 m min-1 (<1% silicon load) with nearly vertical walls and resist etch selectivity beyond 1000. With the model in hand, it can be predicted that the etch rate can be doubled (50 m min-1 at an efficiency of 33% for the fluorine generation from the SF6 feed gas) by minimizing the time the free radicals need to pass the diffusion zone. It is anticipated that this residence time can be reduced sufficiently by a proper inductive coupled plasma (ICP) source design (e.g. plasma shower head and concentrator). In order to preserve the correct profile at such high etch rates, the pressure during the bottom removal step should be minimized and, therefore, the synchronized three-step pulsed mode is believed to be essential to reach such high etch rates with sufficient profile control. In order to improve the etch rate even further, the ICP power should be enhanced; the upgrading of the turbopump seems not yet to be relevant because the throttle valve in the current study had to be used to restrict the turbo efficiency. In order to have a versatile list of state-of-the-art references, it has been decided to arrange it in subjects. The categories concerning plasma physics and applications are, for example, books, reviews, general topics, fluorine-based plasmas, plasma mixtures with oxygen at room temperature, wafer heat transfer and high aspect ratio trench (HART) etching. For readers 'new' to this field, it is advisable to study at least one (but rather more than one) of the reviews concerning plasma as found in the first 30 references. In many cases, a paper can be classified into more than one category. In such cases, the paper is directed to the subject most suited for the discussion of the current review. For example, many papers on heat transfer also treat cryogenic conditions and all the references dealing with highly anisotropic behaviour have been directed to the category HARTs. Additional pointers could get around this problem but have the disadvantage of creating a kind of written spaghetti. I hope that the adapted organization structure will help to have a quick look at and understanding of current developments in high aspect ratio plasma etching. Enjoy reading... Henri Jansen 18 June 2008

  20. Preparation of Aligned Ultra-long and Diameter-controlled Silicon Oxide Nanotubes by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Electrospun PVP Nanofiber Template.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Jinyuan; Li, Ruishan; Xie, Erqing

    2009-01-01

    Well-aligned and suspended polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers with 8 mm in length were obtained by electrospinning. Using the aligned suspended PVP nanofibers array as template, aligned ultra-long silicon oxide (SiOx) nanotubes with very high aspect ratios have been prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The inner diameter (20-200 nm) and wall thickness (12-90 nm) of tubes were controlled, respectively, by baking the electrospun nanofibers and by coating time without sacrificing the orientation degree and the length of arrays. The micro-PL spectrum of SiOx nanotubes shows a strong blue-green emission with a peak at about 514 nm accompanied by two shoulders around 415 and 624 nm. The blue-green emission is caused by the defects in the nanotubes. PMID:21711837

  1. Preparation of Aligned Ultra-long and Diameter-controlled Silicon Oxide Nanotubes by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Electrospun PVP Nanofiber Template

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Well-aligned and suspended polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) nanofibers with 8 mm in length were obtained by electrospinning. Using the aligned suspended PVP nanofibers array as template, aligned ultra-long silicon oxide (SiOx) nanotubes with very high aspect ratios have been prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process. The inner diameter (20–200 nm) and wall thickness (12–90 nm) of tubes were controlled, respectively, by baking the electrospun nanofibers and by coating time without sacrificing the orientation degree and the length of arrays. The micro-PL spectrum of SiOx nanotubes shows a strong blue–green emission with a peak at about 514 nm accompanied by two shoulders around 415 and 624 nm. The blue–green emission is caused by the defects in the nanotubes. PMID:21711837

  2. Silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, L. C.

    1984-01-01

    Silicon nitride deposition was studied as a method of passivation for silicon solar cell surfaces. The following three objectives were the thrust of the research: (1) the use of pecvd silicon nitride for passivation of silicon surfaces; (2) measurement techniques for surface recombination velocity; and (3) the importance of surface passivation to high efficiency solar cells.

  3. Damage Mechanisms and Controlled Crack Propagation in a Hot Pressed Silicon Nitride Ceramic. Ph.D. Thesis - Northwestern Univ., 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony Martin

    1994-01-01

    The subcritical growth of cracks from pre-existing flaws in ceramics can severely affect the structural reliability of a material. The ability to directly observe subcritical crack growth and rigorously analyze its influence on fracture behavior is important for an accurate assessment of material performance. A Mode I fracture specimen and loading method has been developed which permits the observation of stable, subcritical crack extension in monolithic and toughened ceramics. The test specimen and procedure has demonstrated its ability to generate and stably propagate sharp, through-thickness cracks in brittle high modulus materials. Crack growth for an aluminum oxide ceramic was observed to be continuously stable throughout testing. Conversely, the fracture behavior of a silicon nitride ceramic exhibited crack growth as a series of subcritical extensions which are interrupted by dynamic propagation. Dynamic initiation and arrest fracture resistance measurements for the silicon nitride averaged 67 and 48 J/sq m, respectively. The dynamic initiation event was observed to be sudden and explosive. Increments of subcritical crack growth contributed to a 40 percent increase in fracture resistance before dynamic initiation. Subcritical crack growth visibly marked the fracture surface with an increase in surface roughness. Increments of subcritical crack growth loosen ceramic material near the fracture surface and the fracture debris is easily removed by a replication technique. Fracture debris is viewed as evidence that both crack bridging and subsurface microcracking may be some of the mechanisms contributing to the increase in fracture resistance. A Statistical Fracture Mechanics model specifically developed to address subcritical crack growth and fracture reliability is used together with a damaged zone of material at the crack tip to model experimental results. A Monte Carlo simulation of the actual experiments was used to establish a set of modeling input parameters. It was demonstrated that a single critical parameter does not characterize the conditions required for dynamic initiation. Experimental measurements for critical crack lengths, and the energy release rates exhibit significant scatter. The resulting output of the model produces good agreement with both the average values and scatter of experimental measurements.

  4. High Efficiency Silicon Photonic Interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Liang

    Silicon photonic has provided an opportunity to enhance future processor speed by replacing copper interconnects with an on chip optical network. Although photonics are supposed to be efficient in terms of power consumption, speed, and bandwidth, the existing silicon photonic technologies involve problems limiting their efficiency. Examples of limitations to efficiency are transmission loss, coupling loss, modulation speed limited by electro-optical effect, large amount of energy required for thermal control of devices, and the bandwidth limit of existing optical routers. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate novel materials and methods to enhance the efficiency of silicon photonic devices. The first part of this dissertation covers the background, theory and design of on chip optical interconnects, specifically silicon photonic interconnects. The second part describes the work done to build a 300mm silicon photonic library, including its process flow, comprised of basic elements like electro-optical modulators, germanium detectors, Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) interconnects, and a high efficiency grating coupler. The third part shows the works done to increase the efficiency of silicon photonic modulators, unitizing the chi(3) nonlinear effect of silicon nanocrystals to make DC Kerr effect electro-optical modulator, combining silicon with lithium niobate to make chi(2) electro-optical modulators on silicon, and increasing the efficiency of thermal control by incorporating micro-oven structures in electro-optical modulators. The fourth part introduces work done on dynamic optical interconnects including a broadband optical router, single photon level adiabatic wavelength conversion, and optical signal delay. The final part summarizes the work and talks about future development.

  5. Advances in the understanding of low molecular weight silicon formation and implications for control by AMC filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobert, Jürgen M.; Cate, Philip W.; Ruede, David J.; Wildgoose, Joseph R.; Miller, Charles M.; Gaudreau, John C.

    2010-03-01

    Trimethylsilanol (TMS) is a low molecular weight / low boiling point silicon-containing, airborne contaminant that has received increased interest over the past few years as an important cause for contamination of optical surfaces in lithography equipment. TMS is not captured well by carbon-based filters, and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO), even though captured well, can be converted to TMS when using acidic filter media commonly used for ammonia removal. TMS and HMDSO co-exist in a chemical equilibrium, which is affected by the acidity and moisture of their environment. This publication shows that HMDSO is converted to TMS by acidic media at concentrations typically found in cleanroom environments. This is contrary to published results that show a re-combination of TMS to HMDSO on acid media. We also demonstrate that, based on its conversion to TMS, HMDSO is not a suitable test compound for hybrid chemical filter performance, as the apparent lifetime/capacity of the filter can be substantially skewed towards larger numbers when conversion to TMS is involved. We show lifetime test results with toluene and HMDSO on acidic and non-acidic filter media. Appropriately designed, asymmetric hybrid chemical filters significantly minimize or eliminate the conversion of HMDSO to TMS, thereby reducing the risk to scanner optical elements. Similarly, such filters can also prevent or reduce acid-sensitive reactions of other AMC when passing through filter systems.

  6. Controlled translocation of DNA through nanopores in carbon nano-, silicon-nitride- and lipid-coated membranes.

    PubMed

    Sischka, Andy; Galla, Lukas; Meyer, Andreas J; Spiering, Andre; Knust, Sebastian; Mayer, Michael; Hall, Adam R; Beyer, Andr; Reimann, Peter; Glzhuser, Armin; Anselmetti, Dario

    2015-07-21

    We investigated experimentally and theoretically the translocation forces when a charged polymer is threaded through a solid-state nanopore and found distinct dependencies on the nanopore diameter as well as on the nano membrane material chemistry. For this purpose we utilized dedicated optical tweezers force mechanics capable of probing the insertion of negatively charged double-stranded DNA inside a helium-ion drilled nanopore. We found that both the diameter of the nanopore and the membrane material itself have significant influences on the electroosmotic flow through the nanopore and thus on the threading force. Compared to a bare silicon-nitride membrane, the threading of DNA through only 3 nm thin carbon nano membranes as well as lipid bilayer-coated nanopores increased the threading force by 15% or 85%, respectively. This finding was quantitatively described by our recently developed theoretical model that also incorporates hydrodynamic slip effects on the translocating DNA molecule and the force dependence on the membrane thickness. The additional measurements presented in this paper further support our model. PMID:25768647

  7. Polytype control by activity ratio of silicon to carbon during SiC solution growth using multicomponent solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horio, Atsushi; Harada, Shunta; Koike, Daiki; Murayama, Kenta; Aoyagi, Kenta; Sakai, Takenobu; Tagawa, Miho; Ujihara, Toru

    2016-01-01

    We report on the relationship between grown polytypes and the activity ratio of silicon to carbon during SiC solution growth using multicomponent solvents. From the thermodynamic calculation as well as crystallization experiments, we revealed that a high activity ratio (aSi/aC) in the solution leads to the growth of low-hexagonality polytypes, and low aSi/aC results in the growth of high-hexagonality polytypes. 4H-SiC is stable when aSi/aC is relatively low (?101 > aSi/aC), 3C-SiC is stable when aSi/aC is relatively high (?104 < aSi/aC), and 6H-SiC is stable in the intermediate aSi/aC range (?102 < aSi/aC < ?103). From these results, the CrSi solvent at high temperatures is expected to be suitable for 4H-SiC growth, and ScSi and FeSi solvents at relatively low temperatures are expected to be suitable for 3C-SiC growth.

  8. Versatile control of metal-assisted chemical etching for vertical silicon microwire arrays and their photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Um, Han-Don; Kim, Namwoo; Lee, Kangmin; Hwang, Inchan; Hoon Seo, Ji; Yu, Young J; Duane, Peter; Wober, Munib; Seo, Kwanyong

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study was conducted into the use of metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) to fabricate vertical Si microwire arrays, with several models being studied for the efficient redox reaction of reactants with silicon through a metal catalyst by varying such parameters as the thickness and morphology of the metal film. By optimizing the MacEtch conditions, high-quality vertical Si microwires were successfully fabricated with lengths of up to 23.2 μm, which, when applied in a solar cell, achieved a conversion efficiency of up to 13.0%. These solar cells also exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 547.7 mV, a short-circuit current density of 33.2 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor of 71.3% by virtue of the enhanced light absorption and effective carrier collection provided by the Si microwires. The use of MacEtch to fabricate high-quality Si microwires therefore presents a unique opportunity to develop cost-effective and highly efficient solar cells. PMID:26060095

  9. Versatile control of metal-assisted chemical etching for vertical silicon microwire arrays and their photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Han-Don; Kim, Namwoo; Lee, Kangmin; Hwang, Inchan; Hoon Seo, Ji; Yu, Young J.; Duane, Peter; Wober, Munib; Seo, Kwanyong

    2015-06-01

    A systematic study was conducted into the use of metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) to fabricate vertical Si microwire arrays, with several models being studied for the efficient redox reaction of reactants with silicon through a metal catalyst by varying such parameters as the thickness and morphology of the metal film. By optimizing the MacEtch conditions, high-quality vertical Si microwires were successfully fabricated with lengths of up to 23.2 μm, which, when applied in a solar cell, achieved a conversion efficiency of up to 13.0%. These solar cells also exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 547.7 mV, a short-circuit current density of 33.2 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 71.3% by virtue of the enhanced light absorption and effective carrier collection provided by the Si microwires. The use of MacEtch to fabricate high-quality Si microwires therefore presents a unique opportunity to develop cost-effective and highly efficient solar cells.

  10. Versatile control of metal-assisted chemical etching for vertical silicon microwire arrays and their photovoltaic applications

    PubMed Central

    Um, Han-Don; Kim, Namwoo; Lee, Kangmin; Hwang, Inchan; Hoon Seo, Ji; Yu, Young J.; Duane, Peter; Wober, Munib; Seo, Kwanyong

    2015-01-01

    A systematic study was conducted into the use of metal-assisted chemical etching (MacEtch) to fabricate vertical Si microwire arrays, with several models being studied for the efficient redox reaction of reactants with silicon through a metal catalyst by varying such parameters as the thickness and morphology of the metal film. By optimizing the MacEtch conditions, high-quality vertical Si microwires were successfully fabricated with lengths of up to 23.2 μm, which, when applied in a solar cell, achieved a conversion efficiency of up to 13.0%. These solar cells also exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 547.7 mV, a short-circuit current density of 33.2 mA/cm2, and a fill factor of 71.3% by virtue of the enhanced light absorption and effective carrier collection provided by the Si microwires. The use of MacEtch to fabricate high-quality Si microwires therefore presents a unique opportunity to develop cost-effective and highly efficient solar cells. PMID:26060095

  11. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-01-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  12. Production of electronic grade lunar silicon by disproportionation of silicon difluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosto, William N.

    1993-03-01

    Waldron has proposed to extract lunar silicon by sodium reduction of sodium fluorosilicate derived from reacting sodium fluoride with lunar silicon tetrafluoride. Silicon tetrafluoride is obtained by the action of hydrofluoric acid on lunar silicates. While these reactions are well understood, the resulting lunar silicon is not likely to meet electronic specifications of 5 nines purity. Dale and Margrave have shown that silicon difluoride can be obtained by the action of silicon tetrafluoride on elemental silicon at elevated temperatures (1100-1200 C) and low pressures (1-2 torr). The resulting silicon difluoride will then spontaneously disproportionate into hyperpure silicon and silicon tetrafluoride in vacuum at approximately 400 C. On its own merits, silicon difluoride polymerizes into a tough waxy solid in the temperature range from liquid nitrogen to about 100 C. It is the silicon analog of teflon. Silicon difluoride ignites in moist air but is stable under lunar surface conditions and may prove to be a valuable industrial material that is largely lunar derived for lunar surface applications. The most effective driver for lunar industrialization may be the prospects for industrial space solar power systems in orbit or on the moon that are built with lunar materials. Such systems would require large quantities of electronic grade silicon or compound semiconductors for photovoltaics and electronic controls. Since silicon is the most abundant semimetal in the silicate portion of any solar system rock (approximately 20 wt percent), lunar silicon production is bound to be an important process in such a solar power project. The lunar silicon extraction process is discussed.

  13. Large area silicon sheet by EFG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Some hypotheses to explain both of these features are advanced and the possible implications for solar cell performance are touched upon. The multiple ribbon growth system has shown a number of flaws with respect to the reliability of the basic furnace design. These definitely need to be rectified before any significant demonstration of multiple ribbon growth can proceed. The cartridges, however, have performed quite well. The work on 3" cartridge design and automatic controls has proceeded nearly on schedule and the report contains a detailed description of the approach and the equipment to be used for automatic control of ribbon growth.

  14. Anchoring proteins confer G protein sensitivity to an inward-rectifier K(+) channel through the GK domain.

    PubMed

    Hibino, H; Inanobe, A; Tanemoto, M; Fujita, A; Doi, K; Kubo, T; Hata, Y; Takai, Y; Kurachi, Y

    2000-01-01

    Anchoring proteins cluster receptors and ion channels at postsynaptic membranes in the brain. They also act as scaffolds for intracellular signaling molecules including synGAP and NO synthase. Here we report a new function for intracellular anchoring proteins: the regulation of synaptic ion channel function. A neuronal G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel, Kir3.2c, can not be activated either by M(2)-muscarinic receptor stimulation or by G(betagamma) overexpression. When coexpressed with SAP97, a member of the PSD/SAP anchoring protein family, the channel became sensitive to G protein stimulation. Although the C-terminus of Kir3. 2c bound to the second PDZ domain of SAP97, functional analyses revealed that the guanylate kinase (GK) domain of SAP97 is crucial for sensitization of the Kir3.2c channel to G protein stimulation. Furthermore, SAPAP1/GKAP, which binds specifically to the GK domain of membrane-associated guanylate kinases, prevented the SAP97-induced sensitization. The function of a synaptic ion channel can therefore be controlled by a network of various intracellular proteins. PMID:10619846

  15. Evaluation of acceleration and deceleration cardiac processes using phase-rectified signal averaging in healthy and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bas, Rosana; Vallverd, Montserrat; Valencia, Jose F; Voss, Andreas; de Luna, Antonio Bays; Caminal, Pere

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the suitability of the Phase-Rectified Signal Averaging (PRSA) method for improved risk prediction in cardiac patients. Moreover, this technique, which separately evaluates acceleration and deceleration processes of cardiac rhythm, allows the effect of sympathetic and vagal modulations of beat-to-beat intervals to be characterized. Holter recordings of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) patients were analyzed: high-risk (HR), who suffered sudden cardiac death (SCD) during the follow-up; and low-risk (LR), without any kind of cardiac-related death. Moreover, a control group of healthy subjects was analyzed. PRSA indexes were analyzed, for different time scales T and wavelet scales s, from RR series of 24 h-ECG recordings, awake periods and sleep periods. Also, the behavior of these indexes from simulated data was analyzed and compared with real data results. Outcomes demonstrated the PRSA capacity to significantly discriminate healthy subjects from IDC patients and HR from LR patients on a higher level than traditional temporal and spectral measures. The behavior of PRSA indexes agrees with experimental evidences related to cardiac autonomic modulations. Also, these parameters reflect more regularity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in HR patients. PMID:25585858

  16. Molecular and functional characterization of Anopheles gambiae inward rectifier potassium (Kir1) channels: A novel role in egg production

    PubMed Central

    Raphemot, Rene; Estvez-Lao, Tania Y.; Rouhier, Matthew F.; Piermarini, Peter M.; Denton, Jerod S.; Hillyer, Julin F.

    2014-01-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play essential roles in regulating diverse physiological processes. Although Kir channels are encoded in mosquito genomes, their functions remain largely unknown. In this study, we identified the members of the Anopheles gambiae Kir gene family and began to investigate their function. Notably, we sequenced the A. gambiae Kir1 (AgKir1) gene and showed that it encodes all the canonical RIP features of a Kir channel: an ion pore that is composed of a pore helix and a selectivity filter, two transmembrane domains that flank the ion pore, and the so-called G-loop. Heterologous expression of AgKir1 in Xenopus oocytes revealed that this gene encodes a functional, barium-sensitive Kir channel. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments then showed that relative AgKir1 mRNA levels are highest in the pupal stage, and that AgKir1 mRNA is enriched in the adult ovaries. Gene silencing of AgKir1 by RNA interference did not affect the survival of female mosquitoes following a blood in mosquito fecundity, and further validates them as promising molecular targets for the meal, but decreased their egg output. These data provide evidence for a new role of Kir channels development of a new class of mosquitocides to be used in vector control. PMID:24855023

  17. Role of slow delayed rectifying potassium current in dynamics of repolarization and electrical memory in swine ventricles.

    PubMed

    Jing, Linyuan; Brownson, Kathleen; Patwardhan, Abhijit

    2014-05-01

    Dynamics of repolarization, quantified as restitution and electrical memory, impact conduction stability. Relatively less is known about role of slow delayed rectifying potassium current, I(Ks), in dynamics of repolarization and memory compared to the rapidly activating current I(Kr). Trans-membrane potentials were recorded from right ventricular tissues from pigs during reduction (chromanol 293B) and increases in I(Ks) (mefenamic acid). A novel pacing protocol was used to explicitly control diastolic intervals to quantify memory. Restitution hysteresis, a consequence of memory, increased after chromanol 293B (loop thickness and area increased 27 and 38 %) and decreased after mefenamic acid (52 and 53 %). Standard and dynamic restitutions showed an increase in average slope after chromanol 293B and a decrease after mefenamic acid. Increase in slope and memory are hypothesized to have opposite effects on electrical stability; therefore, these results suggest that reduction and enhancement of I(Ks) likely also have offsetting components that affect stability. PMID:24682806

  18. Stress-induced glucocorticoid signaling remodels neurovascular coupling through impairment of cerebrovascular inwardly rectifying K+ channel function

    PubMed Central

    Longden, Thomas A.; Dabertrand, Fabrice; Hill-Eubanks, David C.; Hammack, Sayamwong E.; Nelson, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of stress effects on the brain have traditionally focused on neurons, without considering the cerebral microcirculation. Here we report that stress impairs neurovascular coupling (NVC), the process that matches neuronal activity with increased local blood flow. A stressed phenotype was induced in male rats by administering a 7-d heterotypical stress paradigm. NVC was modeled by measuring parenchymal arteriole (PA) vasodilation in response to neuronal stimulation in amygdala brain slices. After stress, vasodilation of PAs to neuronal stimulation was greatly reduced, and dilation of isolated PAs to external K+ was diminished, suggesting a defect in smooth muscle inwardly rectifying K+ (KIR) channel function. Consistent with these observations, stress caused a reduction in PA KIR2.1 mRNA and smooth muscle KIR current density, and blocking KIR channels significantly inhibited NVC in control, but not in stressed, slices. Delivery of corticosterone for 7 d (without stressors) or RU486 (before stressors) mimicked and abrogated NVC impairment by stress, respectively. We conclude that stress causes a glucocorticoid-mediated decrease in functional KIR channels in amygdala PA myocytes. This renders arterioles less responsive to K+ released from astrocytic endfeet during NVC, leading to impairment of this process. Because the fidelity of NVC is essential for neuronal health, the impairment characterized here may contribute to the pathophysiology of brain disorders with a stress component. PMID:24808139

  19. Identification of common synaptic inputs to motor neurons from the rectified electromyogram

    PubMed Central

    Farina, Dario; Negro, Francesco; Jiang, Ning

    2013-01-01

    Oscillatory common inputs of cortical or peripheral origin can be identified from the motor neuron output with coherence analysis. Linear transmission is possible despite the motor neuron non-linearity because the same input is sent commonly to several neurons. Because of the linear transmission, common input components to motor neurons can be investigated from the surface EMG, for example by EEG–EMG or EMG–EMG coherence. In these studies, there is an open debate on the utility and appropriateness of EMG rectification. The present study addresses this issue using an analytical, simulation and experimental approach. The main novel theoretical contribution that we report is that the spectra of both the rectified and the raw EMG contain input spectral components to motor neurons. However, they differ by the contribution of amplitude cancellation which influences the rectified EMG spectrum when extracting common oscillatory inputs. Therefore, the degree of amplitude cancellation has an impact on the effectiveness of EMG rectification in extracting input spectral peaks. The theoretical predictions were exactly confirmed by realistic simulations of a pool of motor neurons innervating a muscle in a cylindrical volume conductor of EMG generation and by experiments conducted on the first dorsal interosseous and the abductor pollicis brevis muscles of seven healthy subjects during pinching. It was concluded that when the contraction level is relatively low, EMG rectification may be preferable for identifying common inputs to motor neurons, especially when the energy of the action potentials in the low frequency range is low. Nonetheless, different levels of cancellation across conditions influence the relative estimates of the degree of linear transmission of oscillatory inputs to motor neurons when using the rectified EMG. PMID:23507877

  20. High-voltage 4H-SiC trench MOS barrier Schottky rectifier with low forward voltage drop using enhanced sidewall layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Doohyung; Sim, Seulgi; Park, Kunsik; Won, Jongil; Kim, Sanggi; Kim, Kwangsoo

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a 4H-SiC trench MOS barrier Schottky (TMBS) rectifier with an enhanced sidewall layer (ESL) is proposed. The proposed structure has a high doping concentration at the trench sidewall. This high doping concentration improves both the reverse blocking and forward characteristics of the structure. The ESLTMBS rectifier has a 7.4% lower forward voltage drop and a 24% higher breakdown voltage. However, this structure has a reverse leakage current that is approximately three times higher than that of a conventional TMBS rectifier owing to the reduction in energy barrier height. This problem is solved when ESL is used partially, since its use provides a reverse leakage current that is comparable to that of a conventional TMBS rectifier. Thus, the forward voltage drop and breakdown voltage improve without any loss in static and dynamic characteristics in the ESLTMBS rectifier compared with the performance of a conventional TMBS rectifier.

  1. Design of an input filter for the six-pulse bridge rectifier

    SciTech Connect

    Dewan, S.B.; Shahrodi, E.B.

    1985-09-01

    The design of an input filter for the six-pulse bridge rectifier is discussed. For industrial applications of mid-range power, two types of input filter are examined. It is shown that these filters with minimum number of components can meet most operational requirements if designed properly. The variation of performance factors with filter type and parameters are discussed. As the ultimate decision in selecting the filter components depends on the type of application, the design guidelines are described. The materials for custom designing of the filter are included. The features and advantages of each type of filter are outlined. For comparison purposes, several design examples are also included.

  2. Single molecule spectroscopic studies of organic rectifiers composed of pyrene and perylenebisimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scardino, Debra Jo; Kota, Rajesh; Mattern, Daniell L.; Hammer, Nathan I.

    2012-10-01

    Single molecule spectroscopic characteristics of two organic molecular rectifiers are reported. Composed of pyrene as the donor and perylenebisimide (PBI) as the acceptor, these groups are separated by bridges of one or four carbon atoms. Whereas the solution phase absorption and fluorescence spectra are similar, spectra are much more diverse and exhibit different degrees of photostability at the single molecule level. It was found that the addition of pyrene affects the stability of PBI's emission and analysis of dipole emission patterns reveal that pyrene functions as an orientational directing group for PBI in polymer thin films.

  3. New clean power rectifier systems for utility interface of static converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bang Sup

    Large harmonics, poor power factor and high total harmonic distortion (THD) in the utility interface are common problems when nonlinear loads such as adjustable speed drives (ASD) and power supplies are connected to electric utilities in large numbers. In response to these concerns, this dissertation proposes several robust three phase rectifier topologies which draw near sinusoidal currents from the utility at unity power factor. A low kVA 12-pulse rectifier system is first proposed, which results in cancellation of 5,7 harmonic currents in the utility line. The polyphase transformer in the proposed 12-pulse system is rated at 82% smaller than that in the conventional system. This contributes to lower cost, weight and volume. A 24-pulse rectifier system is then introduced. In this system harmonics up to 23sprd are cancelled in the utility line currents. A unique tapped interphase transformer with two additional diodes is shown to extend the 12-pulse operation to 24-pulse from the input current standpoint. The system is fully analyzed taking into consideration the impedance mismatches and pre-existing voltage distortion in the utility. These inequalities are shown to result in unequal current sharing among the rectifiers. In order to improve performance and promote equal current sharing, the two diodes in the interphase transformer are replaced with SCR's. In the third study, a new active interphase transformer (IPT) is introduced to draw high quality line currents (<1% THD) from the input utility. A current Isbx is injected into the secondary winding of the IPT to shape the input utility line current Isba. The exact shape of Isbx is calculated mathematically and is shown to be near triangular in shape. A low kVA two switch PWM inverter is employed to inject a triangular shaped current Isbx in response to load condition. A US patent is pending on this approach and the technology has been licensed to a leading US power supply manufacturer. All of the above approaches have been analyzed along with specific design examples to facilitate comparison. Finally, experimental results on a 208V, 10kVA laboratory proto-type and a 460V, 400kVA industrial proto-type are discussed.

  4. Rectifying performance and negative differential behavior in graphitechaincarbon nanotube junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Ming; Li, Jiangfan; Liew, K. M.; Yuan, Chris

    2014-01-13

    In this paper, the (5, 5) capped carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in contact with different lengths of sp monoatomic chains grown on the surface of graphite substrate are fabricated and its electronic transport properties sandwiched between CNT and graphite electrodes are investigated. The first-principles calculations based on nonequilibrium Green's function in combination with density-functional theory show that their rectifying performance and negative differential resistance behavior are observed under very low biases and obviously are enhanced when the length increases. From our analysis, the charge transfer, transmission spectra, projected density of states and evolutions of molecular orbitals are responsible for these phenomena.

  5. Current-driven antivortex core resonance measured by the rectifying effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Minori; Nozaki, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate the current-driven resonance of a single antivortex core confined in a cross-shaped Ni81Fe19 wire. The antivortex core dynamics can be excited purely by spin transfer torque; therefore, it is significant to understand the current-induced magnetization dynamics. The antivortex core resonance can be measured from the frequency dependence of a rectified voltage generated by an alternating current application. We found that the resonance frequency and peak amplitude greatly depend on the external magnetic field. This result is in good agreement with micromagnetic simulation.

  6. Rectifying the Optical-Field-Induced Current in Dielectrics: Petahertz Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. D.; Yun, Won Seok; Park, Noejung

    2016-02-01

    Investigating a theoretical model of the optical-field-induced current in dielectrics driven by strong few-cycle laser pulses, we propose an asymmetric conducting of the current by forming a heterojunction made of two distinct dielectrics with a low hole mass (mh*≪me*) and low electron mass (me*≪mh* ), respectively. This proposition introduces the novel concept of a petahertz (1015 Hz ) diode to rectify the current in the petahertz domain, which should be a key ingredient for the electric signal manipulation of future light-wave electronics. Further, we suggest the candidate dielectrics for the heterojunction.

  7. Rectifying the Optical-Field-Induced Current in Dielectrics: Petahertz Diode.

    PubMed

    Lee, J D; Yun, Won Seok; Park, Noejung

    2016-02-01

    Investigating a theoretical model of the optical-field-induced current in dielectrics driven by strong few-cycle laser pulses, we propose an asymmetric conducting of the current by forming a heterojunction made of two distinct dielectrics with a low hole mass (m_{h}^{*}≪m_{e}^{*}) and low electron mass (m_{e}^{*}≪m_{h}^{*}), respectively. This proposition introduces the novel concept of a petahertz (10^{15}  Hz) diode to rectify the current in the petahertz domain, which should be a key ingredient for the electric signal manipulation of future light-wave electronics. Further, we suggest the candidate dielectrics for the heterojunction. PMID:26894731

  8. In situ ZnO nanowire growth to promote the PVDF piezo phase and the ZnO-PVDF hybrid self-rectified nanogenerator as a touch sensor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zetang; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe

    2014-03-28

    A PVDF-ZnO nanowires (NWs) hybrid generator (PZHG) was designed. A simple, cost effective method to produce the PVDF β phase by nano force is introduced. With the ZnO NWs growing, the in situ nano extension force promotes the phase change. A theoretical analysis of the ZnO NWs acting as a self-rectifier of the nano generator is established. The ZnO NWs acted as a self-adjustment diode to control the current output of the PZHG by piezo-electric and semi-conductive effects. Based on the self-controllability of the piezoelectric output, three kinds of finger touching are distinguished by the output performances of the PZHG, which is applicable to an LCD touch pad. PMID:24515250

  9. Semiconductor systems utilizing materials that form rectifying junctions in both N and P-type doping regions, whether metallurgically or field induced, and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

    2000-01-01

    Disclosed are semiconductor systems, such as integrated circuits utilizing Schotky barrier and/or diffused junction technology, which semiconductor systems incorporate material(s) that form rectifying junctions in both metallurgically and/or field induced N and P-type doping regions, and methods of their use. Disclosed are Schottky barrier based inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to multiple device CMOS systems and which can be operated as modulators, N and P-channel MOSFETS and CMOS formed therefrom, and (MOS) gate voltage controlled rectification direction and gate voltage controlled switching devices, and use of such material(s) to block parasitic current flow pathways. Simple demonstrative five mask fabrication procedures for inverting and non-inverting gate voltage channel induced semiconductor single devices with operating characteristics similar to multiple device CMOS systems are also presented.

  10. Comparison between Phase-Shift Full-Bridge Converters with Noncoupled and Coupled Current-Doubler Rectifier

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Cheng-Tao; Tseng, Sheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents comparison between phase-shift full-bridge converters with noncoupled and coupled current-doubler rectifier. In high current capability and high step-down voltage conversion, a phase-shift full-bridge converter with a conventional current-doubler rectifier has the common limitations of extremely low duty ratio and high component stresses. To overcome these limitations, a phase-shift full-bridge converter with a noncoupled current-doubler rectifier (NCDR) or a coupled current-doubler rectifier (CCDR) is, respectively, proposed and implemented. In this study, performance analysis and efficiency obtained from a 500?W phase-shift full-bridge converter with two improved current-doubler rectifiers are presented and compared. From their prototypes, experimental results have verified that the phase-shift full-bridge converter with NCDR has optimal duty ratio, lower component stresses, and output current ripple. In component count and efficiency comparison, CCDR has fewer components and higher efficiency at full load condition. For small size and high efficiency requirements, CCDR is relatively suitable for high step-down voltage and high efficiency applications. PMID:24381521

  11. Comparison between phase-shift full-bridge converters with noncoupled and coupled current-doubler rectifier.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Tao; Su, Jye-Chau; Tseng, Sheng-Yu

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents comparison between phase-shift full-bridge converters with noncoupled and coupled current-doubler rectifier. In high current capability and high step-down voltage conversion, a phase-shift full-bridge converter with a conventional current-doubler rectifier has the common limitations of extremely low duty ratio and high component stresses. To overcome these limitations, a phase-shift full-bridge converter with a noncoupled current-doubler rectifier (NCDR) or a coupled current-doubler rectifier (CCDR) is, respectively, proposed and implemented. In this study, performance analysis and efficiency obtained from a 500 W phase-shift full-bridge converter with two improved current-doubler rectifiers are presented and compared. From their prototypes, experimental results have verified that the phase-shift full-bridge converter with NCDR has optimal duty ratio, lower component stresses, and output current ripple. In component count and efficiency comparison, CCDR has fewer components and higher efficiency at full load condition. For small size and high efficiency requirements, CCDR is relatively suitable for high step-down voltage and high efficiency applications. PMID:24381521

  12. Hybrid solar cells with conducting polymers and vertically aligned silicon nanowire arrays: The effect of silicon conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Sungho; Hoon Jeong, Jae; Kun Lyu, Hong; Jeong, Seonju; Hyoung Sim, Jun; Hyun Kim, Wook; Soo Han, Yoon; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2012-08-01

    Organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells, based on vertically aligned n-type silicon nanowires (n-Si NWs) and p-type conducting polymers (PEDOT:PSS), were investigated as a function of Si conductivity. The n-Si NWs were easily prepared from the n-Si wafer by employing a silver nanodot-mediated micro-electrochemical redox reaction. This investigation shows that the photocurrent-to-voltage characteristics of the n-Si NW/PEDOT:PSS cells clearly exhibit a stable rectifying diode behavior. The increase in current density and fill factor using high conductive silicon is attributed to an improved charge transport towards the electrodes achieved by lowering the device's series resistance. Our results also show that the surface area of the nanowire that can form heterojunction domains significantly influences the device performance.

  13. Programmable controller system for wind tunnel diversion vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    A programmable controller (PC) system automatic sequence control, which acts as a supervisory controller for the servos, selects the proper drives, and automatically sequences the vanes, was developed for use in a subsonic wind tunnel. Tunnel modifications include a new second test section (80 ft x 100 ft with a maximum air speed capability of 110 knots) and an increase in maximum velocity flow from 200 knots to 300 knots. A completely automatic sequence control is necessary in order to allow intricate motion of the 14 triangularly arranged vanes which can be as large as 70 ft high x 35 ft wide and which require precise acceleration and deceleration control. Rate servos on each drive aid in this control, and servo cost was minimized by using four silicon controlled rectifier controllers to control the 20 dc drives. The PC has a programming capacity which facilitated the implementation of extensive logic design. A series of diagrams sequencing the vanes and a block diagram of the system are included.

  14. Self-contained sub-millimeter wave rectifying antenna integrated circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The invention is embodied in a monolithic semiconductor integrated circuit in which is formed an antenna, such as a slot dipole antenna, connected across a rectifying diode. In the preferred embodiment, the antenna is tuned to received an electromagnetic wave of about 2500 GHz so that the device is on the order of a wavelength in size, or about 200 microns across and 30 microns thick. This size is ideal for mounting on a microdevice such as a microrobot for example. The antenna is endowed with high gain in the direction of the incident radiation by providing a quarter-wavelength (30 microns) thick resonant cavity below the antenna, the cavity being formed as part of the monolithic integrated circuit. Preferably, the integrated circuit consists of a thin gallium arsenide membrane overlying the resonant cavity and supporting an epitaxial Gallium Arsenide semiconductor layer. The rectifying diode is a Schottky diode formed in the GaAs semiconductor layer and having an area that is a very small fraction of the wavelength of the 2500 GHz incident radiation. The cavity provides high forward gain in the antenna and isolation from surrounding structure.

  15. Simulation and Analysis of Three-Phase Rectifiers for Aerospace Power Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Long V.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the nature of planned planetary missions, fairly large advanced power systems are required for the spacecraft. These future high power spacecrafts are expected to use dynamic power conversion systems incorporating high speed alternators as three-phase AC electrical power source. One of the early design considerations in such systems is the type of rectification to be used with the AC source for DC user loads. This paper address the issues involved with two different rectification methods, namely the conventional six and twelve pulses. Two circuit configurations which involved parallel combinations of the six and twelve-pulse rectifiers were selected for the simulation. The rectifier s input and output power waveforms will be thoroughly examined through simulations. The effects of the parasitic load for power balancing and filter components for reducing the ripple voltage at the DC loads are also included in the analysis. Details of the simulation circuits, simulation results, and design examples for reducing risk from damaging of spacecraft engines will be presented and discussed.

  16. Mechanism underlying bupivacaine inhibition of G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Arrabit, Christine; Choe, Senyon; Slesinger, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Local anesthetics, commonly used for treating cardiac arrhythmias, pain, and seizures, are best known for their inhibitory effects on voltage-gated Na+ channels. Cardiovascular and central nervous system toxicity are unwanted side-effects from local anesthetics that cannot be attributed to the inhibition of only Na+ channels. Here, we report that extracellular application of the membrane-permeant local anesthetic bupivacaine selectively inhibited G protein-gated inwardly rectifying K+ channels (GIRK:Kir3) but not other families of inwardly rectifying K+ channels (ROMK:Kir1 and IRK:Kir2). Bupivacaine inhibited GIRK channels within seconds of application, regardless of whether channels were activated through the muscarinic receptor or directly via coexpressed G protein G?? subunits. Bupivacaine also inhibited alcohol-induced GIRK currents in the absence of functional pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins. The mutated GIRK1 and GIRK2 (GIRK1/2) channels containing the high-affinity phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) domain from IRK1, on the other hand, showed dramatically less inhibition with bupivacaine. Surprisingly, GIRK1/2 channels with high affinity for PIP2 were inhibited by ethanol, like IRK1 channels. We propose that membrane-permeant local anesthetics inhibit GIRK channels by antagonizing the interaction of PIP2 with the channel, which is essential for G?? and ethanol activation of GIRK channels. PMID:11353868

  17. Power spectrum of the rectified EMG: when and why is rectification beneficial for identifying neural connectivity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negro, Francesco; Keenan, Kevin; Farina, Dario

    2015-06-01

    Objective. The identification of common oscillatory inputs to motor neurons in the electromyographic (EMG) signal power spectrum is often preceded by EMG rectification for enhancing the low-frequency oscillatory components. However, rectification is a nonlinear operator and its influence on the EMG signal spectrum is not fully understood. In this study, we aim at determining when EMG rectification is beneficial in the study of oscillatory inputs to motor neurons. Approach. We provide a full mathematical description of the power spectrum of the rectified EMG signal and the influence of the average shape of the motor unit action potentials on it. We also provide a validation of these theoretical results with both simulated and experimental EMG signals. Main results. Simulations using an advanced computational model and experimental results demonstrated the accuracy of the theoretical derivations on the effect of rectification on the EMG spectrum. These derivations proved that rectification is beneficial when assessing the strength of low-frequency (delta and alpha bands) common synaptic inputs to the motor neurons, when the duration of the action potentials is short, and when the level of cancellation is relatively low. On the other hand, rectification may distort the estimation of common synaptic inputs when studying higher frequencies (beta and gamma), in a way dependent on the duration of the action potentials, and may introduce peaks in the coherence function that do not correspond to physiological shared inputs. Significance. This study clarifies the conditions when rectifying the surface EMG is appropriate for studying neural connectivity.

  18. High-performance microfluidic rectifier based on sudden expansion channel with embedded block structure.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chien-Hsiung; Lin, Che-Hsin; Fu, Lung-Ming; Chen, Hui-Chun

    2012-06-01

    A high-performance microfluidic rectifier incorporating a microchannel and a sudden expansion channel is proposed. In the proposed device, a block structure embedded within the expansion channel is used to induce two vortex structures at the end of the microchannel under reverse flow conditions. The vortices reduce the hydraulic diameter of the microchannel and, therefore, increase the flow resistance. The rectification performance of the proposed device is evaluated by both experimentally and numerically. The experimental and numerical values of the rectification performance index (i.e., the diodicity, Di) are found to be 1.54 and 1.76, respectively. Significantly, flow rectification is achieved without the need for moving parts. Thus, the proposed device is ideally suited to the high pressure environment characteristic of most micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS)-based devices. Moreover, the rectification performance of the proposed device is superior to that of existing valveless rectifiers based on Tesla valves, simple nozzle/diffuser structures, or cascaded nozzle/diffuser structures. PMID:22655019

  19. Rectifier of aberrant mRNA splicing recovers tRNA modification in familial dysautonomia

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Mayumi; Kataoka, Naoyuki; Miyauchi, Kenjyo; Ohe, Kenji; Iida, Kei; Yoshida, Suguru; Nojima, Takayuki; Okuno, Yukiko; Onogi, Hiroshi; Usui, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Akihide; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Hagiwara, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    Familial dysautonomia (FD), a hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, is caused by missplicing of exon 20, resulting from an intronic mutation in the inhibitor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells, kinase complex-associated protein (IKBKAP) gene encoding IKK complex-associated protein (IKAP)/elongator protein 1 (ELP1). A newly established splicing reporter assay allowed us to visualize pathogenic splicing in cells and to screen small chemicals for the ability to correct the aberrant splicing of IKBKAP. Using this splicing reporter, we screened our chemical libraries and identified a compound, rectifier of aberrant splicing (RECTAS), that rectifies the aberrant IKBKAP splicing in cells from patients with FD. Here, we found that the levels of modified uridine at the wobble position in cytoplasmic tRNAs are reduced in cells from patients with FD and that treatment with RECTAS increases the expression of IKAP and recovers the tRNA modifications. These findings suggest that the missplicing of IKBKAP results in reduced tRNA modifications in patients with FD and that RECTAS is a promising therapeutic drug candidate for FD. PMID:25675486

  20. Making silicon stronger.

    SciTech Connect

    Boyce, Brad Lee

    2010-11-01

    Silicon microfabrication has seen many decades of development, yet the structural reliability of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) is far from optimized. The fracture strength of Si MEMS is limited by a combination of poor toughness and nanoscale etch-induced defects. A MEMS-based microtensile technique has been used to characterize the fracture strength distributions of both standard and custom microfabrication processes. Recent improvements permit 1000's of test replicates, revealing subtle but important deviations from the commonly assumed 2-parameter Weibull statistical model. Subsequent failure analysis through a combination of microscopy and numerical simulation reveals salient aspects of nanoscale flaw control. Grain boundaries, for example, suffer from preferential attack during etch-release thereby forming failure-critical grain-boundary grooves. We will discuss ongoing efforts to quantify the various factors that affect the strength of polycrystalline silicon, and how weakest-link theory can be used to make worst-case estimates for design.

  1. Performance of a Thin-Wndow Silicon Drift Detector X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Carini, G.; Chen, W.; De Geronimo, G.; Gaskin, J.; Keister, J.; Li, Z.; Ramey, B.; Rehak, P. and Siddons, P.

    2009-10-01

    Several sets of hexagonal Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) arrays were produced by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and by the commercial vendor, KETEK. These detector arrays were tested at BNL. Each array consists of 14 independent SDD detectors (pixels) and two additional test pixels located at two corners of the array. The side of the detector upon which the X-ray radiation is incident (window side) has a thin junction covering the entire active area. The opposite side (device side) contains a drift-field electrode structure in the form of a hexagonal spiral and an electron collecting anode. There are four guard rings surrounding the 14-pixel array area on each side of the detector. Within each array, seven pixels have aluminum field plates - interrupted spirals that stabilize the electric potential under the Si-SiO{sub 2} interface, while the other seven do not. Three bias voltages are applied to control the drift field in the silicon volume; one is applied to a rectifying contact surrounding the central anode (one for each pixel), one is applied to the detector entrance window (common to the full array), and a third bias is applied to a contact on the outer portion of the spiral, common to all pixels in the array. Some arrays were recently tested in NSLS beam line U3C at BNL. For this work, we installed the complete assemblies in the vacuum and cooled them to -27degC. During this beam run, we collected spectra for energies ranging between 350 and 900 eV in several pixels, some with field plates and others without. The detailed testing results of several arrays are reported here.

  2. Silicon Micromachined Microlens Array for THz Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choonsup; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Mehdi, IImran; Gill, John J.; Jung-Kubiak, Cecile D.; Llombart, Nuria

    2013-01-01

    5 5 silicon microlens array was developed using a silicon micromachining technique for a silicon-based THz antenna array. The feature of the silicon micromachining technique enables one to microfabricate an unlimited number of microlens arrays at one time with good uniformity on a silicon wafer. This technique will resolve one of the key issues in building a THz camera, which is to integrate antennas in a detector array. The conventional approach of building single-pixel receivers and stacking them to form a multi-pixel receiver is not suited at THz because a single-pixel receiver already has difficulty fitting into mass, volume, and power budgets, especially in space applications. In this proposed technique, one has controllability on both diameter and curvature of a silicon microlens. First of all, the diameter of microlens depends on how thick photoresist one could coat and pattern. So far, the diameter of a 6- mm photoresist microlens with 400 m in height has been successfully microfabricated. Based on current researchers experiences, a diameter larger than 1-cm photoresist microlens array would be feasible. In order to control the curvature of the microlens, the following process variables could be used: 1. Amount of photoresist: It determines the curvature of the photoresist microlens. Since the photoresist lens is transferred onto the silicon substrate, it will directly control the curvature of the silicon microlens. 2. Etching selectivity between photoresist and silicon: The photoresist microlens is formed by thermal reflow. In order to transfer the exact photoresist curvature onto silicon, there needs to be etching selectivity of 1:1 between silicon and photoresist. However, by varying the etching selectivity, one could control the curvature of the silicon microlens. The figure shows the microfabricated silicon microlens 5 x5 array. The diameter of the microlens located in the center is about 2.5 mm. The measured 3-D profile of the microlens surface has a smooth curvature. The measured height of the silicon microlens is about 280 microns. In this case, the original height of the photoresist was 210 microns. The change was due to the etching selectivity of 1.33 between photoresist and silicon. The measured surface roughness of the silicon microlens shows the peak-to-peak surface roughness of less than 0.5 microns, which is adequate in THz frequency. For example, the surface roughness should be less than 7 microns at 600 GHz range. The SEM (scanning electron microscope) image of the microlens confirms the smooth surface. The beam pattern at 550 GHz shows good directivity.

  3. Filament Guides for Silicon-Ribbon Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, A. D.

    1985-01-01

    Contamination reduced in modified growth system. In Silicon-ribbongrowth apparatus, capillary filament guides are integral parts of crucible, extending from bottom to top of melt. Addition of guides expected to result in better thermal control of growth process and higher silicon purity.

  4. Asymmetric Die Grows Purer Silicon Ribbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalejs, J. P.; Chalmers, B.; Surek, T.

    1983-01-01

    Concentration of carbide impurities in silicon ribbon is reduced by growing crystalline ribbon with die one wall higher than other. Height difference controls shape of meniscus at liquid/crystal interface and concentrates silicon carbide impurity near one of broad faces. Opposite face is left with above-average purity. Significantly improves efficiency of solar cells made from ribbon.

  5. Control and expression of -NH2, -SH, -COOH and SiO2 on the surface of silicon carbide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwania, Munuve; Aguirre-Medel, Susana; Kroll, Peter

    2015-03-01

    We present simple protocols for reliably tailoring the surfaces of zinc blende silicon carbide quantum dots (?-SiC QDs). The SiC QDs are synthesized via photo-assisted electrochemical corrosion of bulk powders at different temperatures and time scales. After washing the residual acid and resuspending in H2O, the surfaces of SiC QDs were controllably coated with four different functional groups, specifically -NH2, -SH, and -COOH and -SiO2. We began by covalently attaching primary amines (-NH2) to the QD surface. The amine terminations were then converted to amine/thiolate (-NH2/SH) and amine/carboxylate (-NH2/COOH) functional groups. SiO2 shells around SiC QDs (to create SiC@SiO2nano-structures) were grown using a TEOS-mediated Stber method. The presence of amine and thiol groups was confirmed by fluoresceamine assay test, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). While a negative fluoresceamine assay test confirmed the replacement of amine groups by thiol groups, the thiolation of the surface was also confirmed through Ellman's assay, XPS and FTIR. The presence of the SiO2 shells was examined using transmission electron microscopy and XPS. Our results open up possibilities to manipulate SiC QDs for various applications.

  6. Photo-EMF sensitivity of porous silicon thin layer-crystalline silicon heterojunction to ammonia adsorption.

    PubMed

    Vashpanov, Yuriy; Jung, Jae Il; Kwack, Kae Dal

    2011-01-01

    A new method of using photo-electromotive force in detecting gas and controlling sensitivity is proposed. Photo-electromotive force on the heterojunction between porous silicon thin layer and crystalline silicon wafer depends on the concentration of ammonia in the measurement chamber. A porous silicon thin layer was formed by electrochemical etching on p-type silicon wafer. A gas and light transparent electrical contact was manufactured to this porous layer. Photo-EMF sensitivity corresponding to ammonia concentration in the range from 10 ppm to 1,000 ppm can be maximized by controlling the intensity of illumination light. PMID:22319353

  7. Silicon limitation on primary production and its destiny in Jiaozhou Bay, China. V: Silicon deficit process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongfang; Gao, Zhenhui; Wang, Peigang; Sun, Peiyan; Liu, Shuang

    2005-06-01

    Silicon is a necessary nutrient for diatoms, silicon uptake in diatom reproduction decreased seawater silicon content. This paper clarified the characteristics of silicon transferring in the sea, which plays an important role in phytoplankton growth, zooplankton graze and marine ecosystem. Analysis revealed that silicate is supplied by terrestrial sources, through plankton uptake, death, and eventually deposits to the sea bottom, and cannot diffuse upward. This is a general silicon deficit process. Many global marine waters showed the same silicon transfer route: land?silicon biogeochemical process?sea bottom. River flow brings abundant silicate into marine waters, silicate concentration in the waters decreased in the distance away from the river estuaries. In discussion of silicon characteristics and its transfer route, it was considred that the main factor controlling the mechanism of diatom and non-diatom red tides occurrence is silicon, and the changes in silicon source. Human activities, such as sea-route cutting by building embankment and dam, and silicon supplement by the sea, such as sandstorm, rainstorm and storm tide, have largely impaired the earth ecosystem and hugely threatened the human existence. It is suggested in this paper that man should resume the original face of the Si input into the sea to keep natural ecosystem in sustainable pattern.

  8. Long-term stability of neural prosthetic control signals from silicon cortical arrays in rhesus macaque motor cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin D.; Fan, Joline M.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Churchland, Mark M.; Rivera-Alvidrez, Zuley; Cunningham, John P.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2011-08-01

    Cortically-controlled prosthetic systems aim to help disabled patients by translating neural signals from the brain into control signals for guiding prosthetic devices. Recent reports have demonstrated reasonably high levels of performance and control of computer cursors and prosthetic limbs, but to achieve true clinical viability, the long-term operation of these systems must be better understood. In particular, the quality and stability of the electrically-recorded neural signals require further characterization. Here, we quantify action potential changes and offline neural decoder performance over 382 days of recording from four intracortical arrays in three animals. Action potential amplitude decreased by 2.4% per month on average over the course of 9.4, 10.4, and 31.7 months in three animals. During most time periods, decoder performance was not well correlated with action potential amplitude (p > 0.05 for three of four arrays). In two arrays from one animal, action potential amplitude declined by an average of 37% over the first 2 months after implant. However, when using simple threshold-crossing events rather than well-isolated action potentials, no corresponding performance loss was observed during this time using an offline decoder. One of these arrays was effectively used for online prosthetic experiments over the following year. Substantial short-term variations in waveforms were quantified using a wireless system for contiguous recording in one animal, and compared within and between days for all three animals. Overall, this study suggests that action potential amplitude declines more slowly than previously supposed, and performance can be maintained over the course of multiple years when decoding from threshold-crossing events rather than isolated action potentials. This suggests that neural prosthetic systems may provide high performance over multiple years in human clinical trials.

  9. Long-term stability of neural prosthetic control signals from silicon cortical arrays in rhesus macaque motor cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chestek, Cynthia A.; Gilja, Vikash; Nuyujukian, Paul; Foster, Justin D.; Fan, Joline M.; Kaufman, Matthew T.; Churchland, Mark M.; Rivera-Alvidrez, Zuley; Cunningham, John P.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2013-01-01

    Cortically-controlled prosthetic systems aim to help disabled patients by translating neural signals from the brain into control signals for guiding prosthetic devices. Recent reports have demonstrated reasonably high levels of performance and control of computer cursors and prosthetic limbs, but to achieve true clinical viability the long-term operation of these systems must be better understood. In particular, the quality and stability of the electrically-recorded neural signals requires further characterization. Here, we quantify action potential changes and offline neural decoder performance over 382 days of recording from 4 intracortical arrays in 3 animals. Action potential amplitude decreased by 2.4% per month on average over the course of 9.4, 10.4, and 31.7 months in 3 animals. During most time periods, decoder performance was not well correlated with action potential amplitude (p > 0.05 for 3 of 4 arrays). In two arrays from one animal, action potential amplitude declined by an average of 37% over the first 2 months after implant. However, when using simple threshold crossing events rather than well isolated action potentials, no corresponding performance loss was observed during this time using an offline decoder. One of these arrays was effectively used for online prosthetic experiments over the following year. Substantial short-term variations in waveforms were quantified using a wireless system for contiguous recording in one animal, and compared within and between days for all three animals. Overall, this study suggests that action potential amplitude declines more slowly than previously supposed, and performance can be maintained over the course of multiple years when decoding from threshold crossing events rather than isolated action potentials. This suggests that neural prosthetic systems may provide high performance over multiple years in human clinical trials. PMID:21775782

  10. Point defects in silicon carbide as a promising basis for spectroscopy of single defects with controllable quantum states at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltamov, V. A.; Tolmachev, D. O.; Il'in, I. V.; Astakhov, G. V.; Dyakonov, V. V.; Soltamova, A. A.; Baranov, P. G.

    2015-05-01

    The spin and optical properties of silicon vacancy defects in silicon carbide of the hexagonal 6 H polytype have been investigated using photoluminescence, electron paramagnetic resonance, and X-band optically detected magnetic resonance. It has been shown that different configurations of these defects can be used to create an optical alignment of their spin sublevels as in the case of low temperatures and at temperatures close to room temperature ( T = 293 K). The main specific feature of silicon vacancy centers in silicon carbide is that the zero-magnetic-field-splitting parameter of some centers remains constant with variations in the temperature, which indicates prospects for the use of these centers for quantum magnetometry. It has also been shown that a number of centers, on the contrary, are characterized by a strong dependence of the zero-magnetic-field-splitting parameter on the temperature, which indicates prospects for the use of these centers as temperature sensors.

  11. Controlled self-assembly and photovoltaic characteristics of porphyrin derivatives on a silicon surface at solid-liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinhua; Chen, Haihui; Huang, Jiangen; Wang, Jingxia; Tian, Dongliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lei

    2014-04-21

    Two meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP) derivatives with different central metal ions, namely ZnTPP, CuTPP, were synthesized, and characterized by a series of spectroscopic methods. Their self-assembly behaviors in mixed solvents without surfactant were systematically investigated. The morphology of the thus produced nanoarchitectures could be efficiently controlled. Nanoslices can be manufactured when a volume of cyclohexane is involved, octahedrons can be produced when a mixed solvent of chloroform and isopropanol is employed, while four-leaf clover-shaped structures can be produced with a large volume of methanol injected. The nanostructures have been characterized by electronic absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and photoelectric conversion techniques. The internal structures of the nanostructures are well described by XRD. The nanostructures exhibit a power conversion under illumination intensity of 2.3 mW cm(-2). The present result appears to represent an effort toward controlling the morphology of self-assembled nanostructures of porphyrin derivatives via synthesis through introduction of metal-ligand and solvent interaction. Nevertheless, the fundamental study will be helpful to understand photoinduced energy/charge transport in an organic interface and this might also serve as promising building blocks for nanoscale power sources for potential application in solar energy technologies and organic electronics and optoelectronics. PMID:24647426

  12. Silicon sheet surface studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danyluk, S.

    1984-01-01

    Several activities were performed in the area of silicon sheet surface studies. An interferometry technique was developed for measuring residual stresses in short, thin silicon sheets. Simulation of abrasion of silicon by diamond and by scrating and indentation tests was carried out. The wear rate in silicon was correlated with a wear model.

  13. Position control of PbS quantum dot using nanohole on silicon substrate processed by scanning probe lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Kohki; Hirota, Akinobu; Nakashima, Seisuke

    2015-04-01

    We report a method of processing of nanometer-size holes using an oxide mask drawn by scanning probe microscopy (SPM), and show that a nanohole can be used for the position control of a single colloidal quantum dot. An apertureless mask process was developed for the formation of nanometer-wide holes. The process conditions used to obtain a large slope angle at the edge of the oxide mask and high Si/oxide selectivity during dry etching were investigated to make a nanohole sufficiently deep to trap quantum dots. SPM observation suggested that a 6 nm PbS quantum dot was trapped by the smallest nanohole with a width of 10 18 nm2 and a depth of 5 nm.

  14. Nonlinear spin transport in a rectifying ferromagnet/semiconductor Schottky contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, R.; Spiesser, A.; Saito, H.; Yuasa, S.

    2015-08-01

    The electrical creation and detection of spin accumulation in ferromagnet/semiconductor Schottky contacts that exhibit highly nonlinear and rectifying electrical transport is evaluated. If the spin accumulation in the semiconductor is small, the expression for the spin voltage is identical to that of linear transport. However, if the spin accumulation is comparable to the characteristic energy scale that governs the degree of nonlinearity, the spin detection sensitivity and the spin voltage are notably reduced. Moreover, the nonlinearity enhances the backflow of spins into the ferromagnet and its detrimental effect on the injected spin current, and the contact resistance required to avoid backflow is larger than for linear transport. It is also shown that by virtue of the nonlinearity, a nonmagnetic metal contact can be used to electrically detect spin accumulation in a semiconductor.

  15. Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Bodhinathan, Karthik; Slesinger, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) produces a wide range of pharmacological effects on the nervous system through its actions on ion channels. The molecular mechanism underlying ethanol modulation of ion channels is poorly understood. Here we used a unique method of alcohol-tagging to demonstrate that alcohol activation of a G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3) channel is mediated by a defined alcohol pocket through changes in affinity for the membrane phospholipid signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Surprisingly, hydrophobicity and size, but not the canonical hydroxyl, were important determinants of alcohol-dependent activation. Altering levels of G protein G?? subunits, conversely, did not affect alcohol-dependent activation, suggesting a fundamental distinction between receptor and alcohol gating of GIRK channels. The chemical properties of the alcohol pocket revealed here might extend to other alcohol-sensitive proteins, revealing a unique protein microdomain for targeting alcohol-selective therapeutics in the treatment of alcoholism and addiction. PMID:24145411

  16. Mover Design and Simulation of Linear Synchronous Motor with Half-Wave-Rectified Self Excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Tadashi; Higuchi, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Takashi; Oyama, Jun

    This paper presents a design method for a linear synchronous motor with half-wave-rectified self excitation; this method enables the construction of a motor with small thrust ripple. The mover of the motor is designed to be asymmetrical for reducing the thrust ripple. First, we design the structure of the asymmetrical mover and the field winding of the mover by using the finite element method and a characteristic equation. The asymmetrical mover is built, and the thrust ripple reduction is verified by performing experiments. Next, the linear synchronous motor is modeled using a circuit simulator in order to confirm its high-speed performance. The operation characteristics are clarified by performing a simulation.

  17. Effect of guide vanes on the performance of a variable chord self-rectifying air turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govardhan, M.; Dhanasekaran, T. S.

    1998-12-01

    Wells turbine is a self rectifying air flow turbine capable of converting pneumatic power of the periodically reversing air stream in Oscillating Water Column into mechanical energy. One of the principal reasons for the low efficiency of the Wells turbine is its lower tangential force compared to its axial force. Guide vanes before and after the rotor suggest a means to improve the tangential force, hence its efficiency. Experimental investigations are carried out on the Wells turbine with a variable chord (VACR) blade rotor fitted with inlet and outlet guide vanes to understand the aerodynamics especially improvement in efficiency and starting characteristics. Numerical simulation has been made to clarify the unsteady characteristics of the turbine with guide vanes. Studies are done at various flow coefficients covering the entire range of flow coefficients over which the turbine is operable. The efficiency, starting characteristics of the Wells turbine has improved when compared with the turbine without guide vanes.

  18. Identification of inwardly rectifying potassium channels in bovine retinal and choroidal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Eschke, Dagmar; Richter, Maik; Brylla, Elke; Lewerenz, Anne; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina; Nieber, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Ion channels were studied using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in bovine retinal and choroidal microvascular endothelial cells (MVEC) cultured under the same conditions. The two types of MVEC expressed inward currents at hyperpolarizing voltage steps and showed small outward currents at depolarizing steps. The extrapolated reversal potentials of the inward currents were near to the potassium equilibrium potential. Cs(+) and the K(+) channel blocker TEA reduced the amplitudes of the currents indicating the selectivity and permeability for potassium. This was confirmed by changes of outside K(+) concentration shifting the I-V curves to the right. RT-PCR studies revealed the presence of mRNA of Kir2.1, an inwardly rectifying K(+) channel, in retinal and choroidal MVEC. The profile of the small outward currents is related to the Kv family but not identical with the Kv1.4 subtype. PMID:12483021

  19. Development of a Rectifying Interface for a Hybrid Pulse-Tube/Reverse-Brayton Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diab, A. K.; Nellis, G. F.; Maddocks, J. R.; Yarbrough, S.

    2004-06-01

    A hybrid cryogenic refrigeration cycle that combines a turbomachine-based, reverse-Brayton lower stage with a pulse-tube upper stage avoids the inherent losses associated with a regenerator at low temperature and therefore has the potential for high performance. One of the key technical issues relative to the successful development of this cryocooler is the integration of an oscillating flow regenerative system with a continuous flow recuperative system. This integration requires a rectifying interface composed of check valves and buffer volumes operating at cryogenic temperature. This paper describes the effect of the interface performance on the system-level performance. The resulting performance targets are translated into component-level requirements and used to optimize the check valve geometry. Test results from experiments with the interface integrated with a pulse-tube are presented and compared to model predictions. The implications of the results relative to the design of a prototype, hybrid cryocooler are discussed.

  20. OsKAT2 is the prevailing functional inward rectifier potassium channels in rice guard cell

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyunsik; Yoon, Jin-Young; Cho, Hana; Kim, Beom-Gi

    2013-01-01

    AtKAT1 plays roles as a major channel to uptake K+ in guard cell when stomata open in dicot model plant Arabidopsis. In a recent publication, we isolated 3 KAT-like potassium channels in rice. We expressed them in CHO cell to identify electrophysiological characteristics of the channels. OsKAT2 showed much bigger inwardly rectifying potassium channel activities among them. The histochemical X-glu staining of transgenic rice leaf blades expressing ?-glucuronidase fused with OsKAT2 promoter showed that the OsKAT2 is dominantly expressed in rice guard cell. These findings indicate that OsKAT2 may be a functional ortholog of AtKAT1 in rice. Thus this gene will be the prime target for engineering the guard cell movement to improve drought tolerance in monocot plants, including most major crops. PMID:24103920

  1. Computational Design of Intrinsic Molecular Rectifiers Based on Asymmetric Functionalization of N-Phenylbenzamide.

    PubMed

    Ding, Wendu; Koepf, Matthieu; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Batra, Arunabh; Venkataraman, Latha; Negre, Christian F A; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Batista, Victor S

    2015-12-01

    We report a systematic computational search of molecular frameworks for intrinsic rectification of electron transport. The screening of molecular rectifiers includes 52 molecules and conformers spanning over 9 series of structural motifs. N-Phenylbenzamide is found to be a promising framework with both suitable conductance and rectification properties. A targeted screening performed on 30 additional derivatives and conformers of N-phenylbenzamide yielded enhanced rectification based on asymmetric functionalization. We demonstrate that electron-donating substituent groups that maintain an asymmetric distribution of charge in the dominant transport channel (e.g., HOMO) enhance rectification by raising the channel closer to the Fermi level. These findings are particularly valuable for the design of molecular assemblies that could ensure directionality of electron transport in a wide range of applications, from molecular electronics to catalytic reactions. PMID:26642992

  2. Negative differential resistance and rectifying performance induced by doped graphene nanoribbons p-n device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuhong; Qiu, Nianxiang; Li, Runwei; Guo, Zhansheng; Zhang, Jian; Fang, Junfeng; Huang, Aisheng; He, Jian; Zha, Xianhu; Luo, Kan; Yin, Jingshuo; Li, Qiuwu; Bai, Xiaojing; Huang, Qing; Du, Shiyu

    2016-03-01

    Employing nonequilibrium Green's Functions in combination with density functional theory, the electronic transport properties of armchair graphene nanoribbon (GNR) devices with various widths are investigated in this work. In the adopted model, two semi-infinite graphene electrodes are periodically doped with boron or nitrogen atoms. Our calculations reveal that these devices have a striking nonlinear feature and show notable negative differential resistance (NDR). The results also indicate the diode-like properties are reserved and the rectification ratios are high. It is found the electronic transport properties are strongly dependent on the width of doped nanoribbons and the positions of dopants and three distinct families are elucidated for the current armchair GNR devices. The NDR as well as rectifying properties can be well explained by the variation of transmission spectra and the relative shift of discrete energy states with applied bias voltage. These findings suggest that the doped armchair GNR is a promising candidate for the next generation nanoscale device.

  3. Delayed rectifier K channels contribute to contrast adaptation in mammalian retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Weick, Michael; Demb, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Retinal ganglion cells adapt by reducing their sensitivity during periods of high contrast. Contrast adaptation in the firing response depends on both presynaptic and intrinsic mechanisms. Here, we investigated intrinsic mechanisms for contrast adaptation in OFF Alpha ganglion cells in the in vitro guinea pig retina. Using either visual stimulation or current injection, we show that brief depolarization evoked spiking and suppressed firing during subsequent depolarization. The suppression could be explained by Na channel inactivation, as shown in salamander cells. However, brief hyperpolarization in the physiological range (5–10 mV) also suppressed firing during subsequent depolarization. This suppression was sensitive selectively to blockers of delayed-rectifier K channels (KDR). Somatic membrane patches showed TEA-sensitive KDR currents with activation near −25 mV and removal of inactivation at voltages negative to Vrest. Brief periods of hyperpolarization apparently remove KDR inactivation and thereby increase the channel pool available to suppress excitability during subsequent depolarization. PMID:21745646

  4. Study of atrial activities for abnormality detection by phase rectified signal averaging technique.

    PubMed

    Maji, U; Pal, S; Mitra, M

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive detection of Atrial Fibrillation (AF) and Atrial Flutter (AFL) from ECG at the time of their onset can prevent forthcoming dangers for patients. In most of the previous detection algorithms, one of the steps includes filtering of the signal to remove noise and artefacts present in the signal. In this paper, a method of AF and AFL detection is proposed from ECG without the conventional filtering stage. Here Phase Rectified Signal Average (PRSA) technique is used with a novel optimized windowing method to achieve an averaged signal without quasi-periodicities. Both time domain and statistical features are extracted from a novel SQ concatenated section of the signal for non-linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) based classification. The performance of the proposed algorithm is tested with the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database and good performance parameters are obtained, as indicated in the result section. PMID:26084877

  5. Molecular mechanism underlying ethanol activation of G-proteingated inwardly rectifying potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Bodhinathan, Karthik; Slesinger, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol (ethanol) produces a wide range of pharmacological effects on the nervous system through its actions on ion channels. The molecular mechanism underlying ethanol modulation of ion channels is poorly understood. Here we used a unique method of alcohol-tagging to demonstrate that alcohol activation of a G-proteingated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK or Kir3) channel is mediated by a defined alcohol pocket through changes in affinity for the membrane phospholipid signaling molecule phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Surprisingly, hydrophobicity and size, but not the canonical hydroxyl, were important determinants of alcohol-dependent activation. Altering levels of G protein G?? subunits, conversely, did not affect alcohol-dependent activation, suggesting a fundamental distinction between receptor and alcohol gating of GIRK channels. The chemical properties of the alcohol pocket revealed here might extend to other alcohol-sensitive proteins, revealing a unique protein microdomain for targeting alcohol-selective therapeutics in the treatment of alcoholism and addiction. PMID:24145411

  6. Pacemaker Created in Human Ventricle by Depressing Inward-Rectifier K+ Current: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yue; Li, Qince; Zhang, Henggui

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac conduction disorders are common diseases which cause slow heart rate and syncope. The best way to treat these diseases by now is to implant electronic pacemakers, which, yet, have many disadvantages, such as the limited battery life and infection. Biopacemaker has been expected to replace the electronic devices. Automatic ventricular myocytes (VMs) could show pacemaker activity, which was induced by depressing inward-rectifier K+ current (IK1). In this study, a 2D model of human biopacemaker was created from the ventricular endocardial myocytes. We examined the stability of the created biopacemaker and investigated its driving capability by finding the suitable size and spatial distribution of the pacemaker for robust pacing and driving the surrounding quiescent cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest that the rhythm of the pacemaker is similar to that of the single cell at final stable state. The driving force of the biopacemaker is closely related to the pattern of spatial distribution of the pacemaker. PMID:26998484

  7. Rectifying properties of ZnO thin films deposited on FTO by electrodeposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jianguo; Sun, Yue; Zhao, Min; Cao, Li; Xu, Jiayuan; He, Gang; Zhang, Miao; Sun, Zhaoqi

    2016-03-01

    ZnO thin films were successfully grown on fluorine-doped tin oxide glass by electrodeposition technique. The crystal structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films were investigated. The average crystallite size and intensity of A1(LO) mode increase with improving the absolute value of deposition potential. The best preferential orientation along c-axis and the richest oxygen interstitial defects have been observed in the sample deposited at -0.8 V. A heterojunction device consisting of ZnO thin film and n-type fluorine-doped tin oxide was fabricated. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of the p-n heterojunction device deposited at -0.8 V shows the best rectifying diode behavior. The p-type conductivity of the ZnO thin film could be attributed to complex defect of unintentional impurity and interstitial oxygen.

  8. Reduced volume-regulated outwardly rectifying anion channel activity in ventricular myocyte of type 1 diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shintaro; Ichishima, Kunihiko; Ehara, Tsuguhisa

    2009-03-01

    The currents through the volume-regulated outwardly rectifying anion channel (VRAC) were measured in single ventricular myocytes obtained from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, using whole-cell voltage-clamp method. In myocytes from STZ-diabetic mice, the density of VRAC current induced by hypotonic perfusion was markedly reduced, compared with that in the cells form normal control mice. Video-image analysis showed that the regulatory volume decrease (RVD), which was seen in normal cells after osmotic swelling, was almost lost in myocytes from STZ-diabetic mice. Some mice were pretreated with 3-O-methylglucose before STZ injection, to prevent the STZ's beta cell toxicity. In the myocytes obtained from such mice, the magnitude of VRAC current and the degree of RVD seen during hypotonic challenge were almost normal. Incubation of the myocytes from STZ-diabetic mice with insulin reversed the attenuation of VRAC current. These findings suggested that the STZ-induced chronic insulin-deficiency was an important causal factor for the attenuation of VRAC current. Intracellular loading of the STZ-diabetic myocytes with phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), but not phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), also reversed the attenuation of VRAC current. Furthermore, treatment of the normal cells with wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, suppressed the development of VRAC current. We postulate that an impairment PI3K-PIP3 pathway, which may be insulin-dependent, is responsible for the attenuation of VRAC currents in STZ-diabetic myocytes. PMID:19340548

  9. Docetaxel modulates the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) and ATP-sensitive potassium current (IKATP) in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Song, Zhi-Guo; Jiang, Da-Qing; Nie, Hong-Guang; Han, Dong-Yun

    2015-04-01

    Ion channel expression and activity may be affected during tumor development and cancer growth. Activation of potassium (K(+)) channels in human breast cancer cells is reported to be involved in cell cycle progression. In this study, we investigated the effects of docetaxel on the delayed rectifier potassium current (I K) and the ATP-sensitive potassium current (I KATP) in two human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-435S, using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Our results show that docetaxel inhibited the I K and I KATP in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the control at a potential of +60 mV, treatment with docetaxel at doses of 0.1, 1, 5, and 10 µM significantly decreased the I K in MCF-7 cells by 16.1 ± 3.5, 30.2 ± 5.2, 42.5 ± 4.3, and 46.4 ± 9% (n = 5, P < 0.05), respectively and also decreased the I KATP at +50 mV. Similar results were observed in MDA-MB-435S cells. The G-V curves showed no significant changes after treatment of either MCF-7 or MDA-MB-435S cells with 10 μM docetaxel. The datas indicate that the possible mechanisms of I K and I KATP inhibition by docetaxel may be responsible for its effect on the proliferation of human breast cancer cells. PMID:25421218

  10. Mechanisms rectifying the annual mean response of tropical Atlantic rainfall to precessional forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigchelaar, Michelle; Timmermann, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Numerous reconstructions of tropical hydroclimate in the Pleistocene display substantial variability on precessional timescales. Precessionally-induced insolation variations, with a mean period of {˜ }21{,}000 years, affect the strength of the seasonal cycle, but not annual mean insolation. The existence of variations in annual mean climate on precessional timescales therefore hints at the existence of nonlinear mechanisms that rectify the zero annual mean forcing into a non-zero annual mean response. The aim of this study is to identify these nonlinear rectification mechanisms. The traditional view of precessionally-forced precipitation changes is that tropical precipitation increases with summer insolation. By comparing two simulations with an earth system model (CESM1.0.3) we find that this paradigm is true for continental but not for oceanic changes in precipitation. Focusing on the Atlantic intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), we find that the continental temperature and precipitation response to precessional forcing are key rectifiers of annual mean precipitation over the ocean. A boundary layer response to temperature changes over northern Africa affects the meridional position of the ITCZ over the North Atlantic in boreal spring and summer, but not in fall and winter. Over the equatorial and South Atlantic, the intensity of precipitation is strongly impacted by diabatic forcing from the continents through an adjustment of the full troposphere. Although the top of atmosphere insolation forcing is seasonally symmetric, continental precipitation changes are largest in boreal summer, thus skewing the annual mean response. These results show that it is important to take into account the seasonality of climatic forcings, even when studying annual mean climate change.

  11. Thin silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Cotter, J.; Hughes-Lampros, T.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M.

    1992-12-01

    The silicon-film design achieves high performance by using a dun silicon layer and incorporating light trapping. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The high-performance silicon-film design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. Light trapping properties of silicon-film on ceramic solar cells are presented and analyzed. Recent advances in process development are described here.

  12. A transparent diode with high rectifying ratio using amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide/SiNx coupled junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myung-Jea; Kim, Myeong-Ho; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a transparent diode that shows both high rectifying ratio and low leakage current at process temperature below 250 C. This device is clearly distinguished from all previous transparent diodes in that the rectifying behavior results from the junction between a semiconductor (amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO)) and insulator (SiNx). We systematically study the properties of each junction within the device structure and demonstrate that the a-IGZO/SiNx junction is the source of the outstanding rectification. The electrical characteristics of this transparent diode are: 2.8 A/cm2 on-current density measured at -7 V; lower than 7.3 10-9 A/cm2 off-current density; 2.53 ideality factor; and high rectifying ratio of 108-109. Furthermore, the diode structure has a transmittance of over 80% across the visible light range. The operating principle of the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/a-IGZO/SiNx/ITO device was examined with an aid of the energy band diagram and we propose a preliminary model for the rectifying behavior. Finally, we suggest further directions for research on this transparent diode.

  13. Perceived Harm of Online Drug-Encouraging Messages: Third-Person Effect and Adolescents' Support for Rectifying Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Wan Chi; Lo, Ven-Hwei

    2015-01-01

    This study examines third-person perceptions (TPP) of two types of online messages--antisocial messages that encourage drug abuse and prosocial messages in the youth anti-drug campaign--and their relationship with support for three types of rectifying measures: restrictive, corrective, and promotional. A survey of 778 secondary school students

  14. Perceived Harm of Online Drug-Encouraging Messages: Third-Person Effect and Adolescents' Support for Rectifying Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Wan Chi; Lo, Ven-Hwei

    2015-01-01

    This study examines third-person perceptions (TPP) of two types of online messages--antisocial messages that encourage drug abuse and prosocial messages in the youth anti-drug campaign--and their relationship with support for three types of rectifying measures: restrictive, corrective, and promotional. A survey of 778 secondary school students…

  15. Silicon Web Process Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, C. S.; Seidensticker, R. G.; Hopkins, R. H.; Mchugh, J. P.; Hill, F. E.; Heimlich, M. E.; Driggers, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in the development of techniques to grow silicon web at 25 wq cm/min output rate is reported. Feasibility of web growth with simultaneous melt replenishment is discussed. Other factors covered include: (1) tests of aftertrimmers to improve web width; (2) evaluation of growth lid designs to raise speed and output rate; (3) tests of melt replenishment hardware; and (4) investigation of directed gas flow systems to control unwanted oxide deposition in the system and to improve convective cooling of the web. Compatibility with sufficient solar cell performance is emphasized.

  16. Optimization of the mechanical properties of silicon carbide-fiber-reinforced zirconia titanate matrix composites through controlled processing

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, B.A.; Jessen, T.L.; Lewis, D. III )

    1992-06-01

    This paper reports on the effects of processing parameters on the microstructure and mechanical behavior of a SiC-fiber-reinforced ZrTiO{sub 4} matrix composite were evaluated through a controlled study. The microstructure was analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Mechanical behavior was characterized by strength and toughness measurements, which were correlated with the microstructure of the composite. The optimized processing schedule developed included incorporation of CO-heat-treated BN-coated fibers, composite calcination at 530{degrees}C, and consolidation via hot-pressing at 1270{degrees}C and 17.25 MPa applied pressure in an atmosphere of CO at an overpressure of 111.5 kPa (1.1 atm). Use of this processing schedule improved in situ fiber strength and modified the fiber/matrix interfacial microstructure to ameliorate its sliding and debonding resistance, leading to a composite with average strength over 1 GPa and a toughness of 26 MPa {center dot}m{sup 1/2}.

  17. Characterization and control of crystal nucleation in amorphous electron beam evaporated silicon for thin film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sontheimer, Tobias; Scherf, Simone; Klimm, Carola; Becker, Christiane; Rech, Bernd

    2011-09-15

    The kinetics of crystal nucleation in high-rate electron beam evaporated amorphous Si for polycrystalline thin film solar cells was systematically studied on SiN and selected ZnO:Al-coated glass substrates with dissimilar surface topographies by employing Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. The influence of the surface topography of the substrate and the disorder of the deposited amorphous Si could be correlated to the respective characteristics of the transient and steady state regime of the nucleation rate. The steady state nucleation rate I{sub ss}, its corresponding activation energy E{sub Iss}, and consequently the size of the grains in the crystallized Si were found to be governed by the interplay between the surface roughness and the deposition temperature. The steady state nucleation rate I{sub ss} increased gradually upon increasing the substrate roughness, while lowering the deposition temperature of the amorphous Si on rough textures resulted in a decline of I{sub ss}. The time-lag {tau}, which represents a distinctive parameter for the transient regime, was only slightly affected by the substrate topography. The deposition temperature, however, had a significant influence on {tau}, with {tau} increasing by a factor of 8 upon lowering the deposition temperature from 300 to 200 deg. C for all substrate topographies. These characteristics could be correlated with the increasing structural disorder of the deposited a-Si upon decreasing the deposition temperature. Based on this analysis, we could determine design rules for the controlled preparation of large-grained poly-Si in minimized processing time on any of the used substrate types by individually adjusting the deposition temperature and implementing nucleation layers.

  18. Tracing mechanisms controlling the release of dissolved silicon in forest soil solutions using Si isotopes and Ge/Si ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelis, J.-T.; Delvaux, B.; Cardinal, D.; Andr, L.; Ranger, J.; Opfergelt, S.

    2010-07-01

    The terrestrial biogenic Si (BSi) pool in the soil-plant system is ubiquitous and substantial, likely impacting the land-ocean transfer of dissolved Si (DSi). Here, we consider the mechanisms controlling DSi in forest soil in a temperate granitic ecosystem that would differ from previous works mostly focused on tropical environments. This study aims at tracing the source of DSi in forest floor leachates and in soil solutions under various tree species at homogeneous soil and climate conditions, using stable Si isotopes and Ge/Si ratios. Relative to granitic bedrock, clays minerals were enriched in 28Si and had high Ge/Si ratios, while BSi from phytoliths was also enriched in 28Si, but had a low Ge/Si ratio. Such a contrast is useful to infer the relative contribution of silicate weathering and BSi dissolution in the shallow soil on the release of DSi in forest floor leachate solutions. The ? 30Si values in forest floor leachates (-1.38 to -2.05) are the lightest ever found in natural waters, and Ge/Si ratios are higher in forest floor leachates relative to soil solution. These results suggest dissolution of 28Si and Ge-enriched secondary clay minerals incorporated by bioturbation in organic-rich horizons in combination with an isotopic fractionation releasing preferentially light Si isotopes during this dissolution process. Ge/Si ratios in soil solutions are governed by incongruent weathering of primary minerals and neoformation of secondary clays minerals. Tree species influence Si-isotopic compositions and Ge/Si ratios in forest floor leachates through differing incorporation of minerals in organic horizons by bioturbation and, to a lesser extent, through differing Si recycling.

  19. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  20. Localization and role of inward rectifier K(+) channels in Malpighian tubules of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Piermarini, Peter M; Dunemann, Sonja M; Rouhier, Matthew F; Calkins, Travis L; Raphemot, Rene; Denton, Jerod S; Hine, Rebecca M; Beyenbach, Klaus W

    2015-12-01

    Malpighian tubules of adult female yellow fever mosquitoes Aedes aegypti express three inward rectifier K(+) (Kir) channel subunits: AeKir1, AeKir2B and AeKir3. Here we 1) elucidate the cellular and membrane localization of these three channels in the Malpighian tubules, and 2) characterize the effects of small molecule inhibitors of AeKir1 and AeKir2B channels (VU compounds) on the transepithelial secretion of fluid and electrolytes and the electrophysiology of isolated Malpighian tubules. Using subunit-specific antibodies, we found that AeKir1 and AeKir2B localize exclusively to the basolateral membranes of stellate cells and principal cells, respectively; AeKir3 localizes within intracellular compartments of both principal and stellate cells. In isolated tubules bathed in a Ringer solution containing 34 mM K(+), the peritubular application of VU590 (10 μM), a selective inhibitor of AeKir1, inhibited transepithelial fluid secretion 120 min later. The inhibition brings rates of transepithelial KCl and fluid secretion to 54% of the control without a change in transepithelial NaCl secretion. VU590 had no effect on the basolateral membrane voltage (Vbl) of principal cells, but it significantly reduced the cell input conductance (gin) to values 63% of the control within ∼90 min. In contrast, the peritubular application of VU625 (10 μM), an inhibitor of both AeKir1 and AeKir2B, started to inhibit transepithelial fluid secretion as early as 60 min later. At 120 min after treatment, VU625 was more efficacious than VU590, inhibiting transepithelial KCl and fluid secretion to ∼35% of the control without a change in transepithelial NaCl secretion. Moreover, VU625 caused the Vbl and gin of principal cells to respectively drop to values 62% and 56% of the control values within only ∼30 min. Comparing the effects of VU590 with those of VU625 allowed us to estimate that AeKir1 and AeKir2B respectively contribute to 46% and 20% of the transepithelial K(+) secretion when the tubules are bathed in a Ringer solution containing 34 mM K(+). Thus, we uncover an important role of AeKir1 and stellate cells in transepithelial K(+) transport under conditions of peritubular K(+) challenge. The physiological role of AeKir3 in intracellular membranes of both stellate and principal cells remains to be determined. PMID:26079629