Sample records for silicon-based micro gas

  1. A Silicon-Based Micro Gas Turbine Engine for Power Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X.-C. Shan; Z.-F. Wang; Ryutaro Maeda; Y. F. Sun; M. Wu; J. S. Hua

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on our research in developing a micro power generation system based on gas turbine engine and piezoelectric converter. The micro gas turbine engine consists of a micro combustor, a turbine and a centrifugal compressor. Comprehensive simulation has been implemented to optimal the component design. We have successfully demonstrated a silicon-based micro combustor, which consists of seven layers

  2. A Silicon-Based Micro Gas Turbine Engine for Power Generation

    E-print Network

    Shan, X -C; Maeda, R; Sun, Y F; Wu, M; Hua, J S

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on our research in developing a micro power generation system based on gas turbine engine and piezoelectric converter. The micro gas turbine engine consists of a micro combustor, a turbine and a centrifugal compressor. Comprehensive simulation has been implemented to optimal the component design. We have successfully demonstrated a silicon-based micro combustor, which consists of seven layers of silicon structures. A hairpin-shaped design is applied to the fuel/air recirculation channel. The micro combustor can sustain a stable combustion with an exit temperature as high as 1600 K. We have also successfully developed a micro turbine device, which is equipped with enhanced micro air-bearings and driven by compressed air. A rotation speed of 15,000 rpm has been demonstrated during lab test. In this paper, we will introduce our research results major in the development of micro combustor and micro turbine test device.

  3. Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 A SILICON-BASED MICRO GAS TURBINE ENGINE FOR POWER GENERATION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    gas turbine engine consists of a micro combustor, a turbine and a centrifugal compressor and turbine consist of centrifugal blades with two-dimensional profiles. Centrifugal Compressor Combustor. Comprehensive simulation has been implemented to optimal the component design. We have successfully demonstrated

  4. Experimental Investigation of Silicon-Based Micro-Pulsating Heat Pipe for Cooling Electronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Qu; Hui-Ying Wu; Qian Wang

    2012-01-01

    A simultaneous temperature measurement and flow visualization experiment was performed to investigate the thermal and flow behaviors of a silicon-based micro-pulsating heat pipe (micro-PHP) with trapezoidal microchannels with a hydraulic diameter of 352 ?m. FC-72 and R113 were used as working fluids. Variations in temperature versus time at different locations of the micro-PHP under different power inputs and typical flow

  5. Improvement of porous silicon based gas sensors by polymer modification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. P. Bakker; H. Arwin; G. Wang; K. Järrendahl

    2003-01-01

    Gas sensing was performed using spectroscopic ellipsometry and porous silicon films. Modification of the porous layer by polymer deposition showed an increase in sensitivity to organic solvent vapor of up to 135%. The increase in sensitivity is strongly dependent on polymer concentration. At high concentrations, too much polymer is deposited, presumably blocking the pores, causing a decrease in sensitivity. At

  6. Studies on a micro combustor for gas turbine engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. C. Shan; Z. F. Wang; Y. F. Jin; M. Wu; J. Hua; C. K. Wong; R. Maeda

    2005-01-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a silicon-based micro combustor for gas turbine engines are reported in this paper. The micro combustor consists of seven-layer microstructures fabricated from silicon wafers, and it adopts a novel fuel-air recirculation channel for extending gas flow path. Numerical simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) demonstrate a guideline for selecting parameters during combustor operation

  7. The risk of power loss in crystalline silicon based photovoltaic modules due to micro-cracks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Köntges; I. Kunze; S. Kajari-Schröder; X. Breitenmoser; B. Bjørneklett

    2011-01-01

    Micro-cracks in wafer based silicon solar cell modules are nowadays identified by a human observer with the electroluminescence (EL) method. However, the essential question of how the micro-cracks affect the PV module performance has yet to be answered. We experimentally analyze the direct impact of micro-cracks on the module power and the consequences after artificial aging. We show that the

  8. Hybrid-assembled micro dosing system using silicon-based micropump\\/ valve and mass flow sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. T. Nguyen; S. Schubert; S. Richter; W. Dötzel

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid-assembled bidirectional micro dosing system for a water flow range of ?40 ?l\\/min to 80 ?l\\/min. The system consists of a silicon micropump\\/valve chip (9 mm × 9 mm), a silicon flow sensor (6 mm × 12 mm) and a piezoelectric as well as an electrostatic actuator. The technology of each component and the hybrid assembly

  9. Design, fabrication, and characterization of a planar, silicon-based, monolithically integrated micro laminar flow fuel cell with a bridge-shaped microchannel cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Montesinos, P. O.; Yossakda, N.; Schmidt, A.; Brushett, F. R.; Pelton, W. E.; Kenis, P. J. A.

    2011-05-01

    We report the fabrication of a planar, silicon-based, monolithically integrated micro laminar flow fuel cell (?LFFC) using standard MEMS and IC-compatible fabrication technologies. The ?LFFC operates with acid supported solutions of formic acid and potassium permanganate, as a fuel and oxidant respectively. The micro-fuel cell design features two in-plane anodic and cathodic microchannels connected via a bridge to confine the diffusive liquid-liquid interface away from the electrode areas and to minimize crossover. Palladium high-active-surface-area catalyst was selectively integrated into the anodic microchannel by electrodeposition, whereas no catalyst was required in the cathodic microchannel. A three-dimensional (3D) diffusion-convection model was developed to study the behavior of the diffusion zone and to extract appropriate cell-design parameters and operating conditions. Experimentally, we observed peak power densities as high as 26 mW cm-2 when operating single cells at a flow rate of 60 ?L min-1 at room temperature. The miniature membraneless fuel cell design presented herein offers potential for on-chip power generation, which has long been prohibited by integration complexities associated with the membrane.

  10. Integration of a silicon-based microprobe into a gear measuring instrument for accurate measurement of micro gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, N.; Krah, T.; Jeong, D. C.; Metz, D.; Kniel, K.; Dietzel, A.; Büttgenbach, S.; Härtig, F.

    2014-06-01

    The integration of silicon micro probing systems into conventional gear measuring instruments (GMIs) allows fully automated measurements of external involute micro spur gears of normal modules smaller than 1 mm. This system, based on a silicon microprobe, has been developed and manufactured at the Institute for Microtechnology of the Technische Universität Braunschweig. The microprobe consists of a silicon sensor element and a stylus which is oriented perpendicularly to the sensor. The sensor is fabricated by means of silicon bulk micromachining. Its small dimensions of 6.5 mm × 6.5 mm allow compact mounting in a cartridge to facilitate the integration into a GMI. In this way, tactile measurements of 3D microstructures can be realized. To enable three-dimensional measurements with marginal forces, four Wheatstone bridges are built with diffused piezoresistors on the membrane of the sensor. On the reverse of the membrane, the stylus is glued perpendicularly to the sensor on a boss to transmit the probing forces to the sensor element during measurements. Sphere diameters smaller than 300 µm and shaft lengths of 5 mm as well as measurement forces from 10 µN enable the measurements of 3D microstructures. Such micro probing systems can be integrated into universal coordinate measuring machines and also into GMIs to extend their field of application. Practical measurements were carried out at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt by qualifying the microprobes on a calibrated reference sphere to determine their sensitivity and their physical dimensions in volume. Following that, profile and helix measurements were carried out on a gear measurement standard with a module of 1 mm. The comparison of the measurements shows good agreement between the measurement values and the calibrated values. This result is a promising basis for the realization of smaller probe diameters for the tactile measurement of micro gears with smaller modules.

  11. A MICRO TURBINE DEVICE WITH ENHANCED MICRO AIR BEARINGS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. C. Shan; Q. D. Zhang; Y. F. Sun; R. Maeda

    As part of progress in developing a micro gas turbine engine, this paper presents the design, fabrication and testing of a silicon-based micro turbine device, which is driven by compressed air. To improve its rotational speed and stability, the turbine device has enhanced journal air bearing and thrust air bearings. The thrust air bearings are utilized for supporting the rotor

  12. MEMS micropump for a Micro Gas Analyzer

    E-print Network

    Sharma, Vikas, 1979-

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents a MEMS micro-vacuum pump designed for use in a portable gas analysis system. It is designed to be pneumatically-driven and as such does not have self-contained actuation (the focus of future work). ...

  13. Fiber-optic gas pressure sensing with a laser-heated silicon-based Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guigen; Han, Ming

    2015-06-01

    We report a novel fiber-optic sensor for measurement of static gas pressure based on the natural convection of a heated silicon pillar attached to a fiber tip functioning as a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). A visible laser beam is guided by the fiber to efficiently heat the silicon pillar, while an infrared whitelight source, also guided by the fiber, is used to measure the temperature of the FPI, which is influenced both by the laser power and the pressure through natural convection. We theoretically and experimentally show that, by monitoring the fringe shift caused by the laser heating, air pressure sensing with little temperature cross-sensitivity can be achieved. The pressure sensitivity can be easily tuned by adjusting the heating laser power. In our experiment, the sensor performance within the temperature range from 20°C to 50°C and the pressure range from 0 to 1400 psi has been characterized, showing an average sensitivity of -0.52??pm/psi. Compared to the passive version of the sensor, the pressure sensitivity was ?15 times larger, and the temperature cross-sensitivity was ?100 times smaller. PMID:26030532

  14. Development of compressor for ultra micro gas turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimpei Mizuki

    2007-01-01

    The major problems for the development of an ultra micro gas turbine system were discussed briefly from the stand point of\\u000a the internal flow and the performance characteristics. Following to these, the development of ultra micro centrifugal compression\\u000a systems for the ultra micro gas turbine is explained with the design and the manufacturing processes. The measured results\\u000a of ultra micro

  15. Silicon-based nanoenergetic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Asay, Blaine [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Son, Steven [PURDUE UNIV; Mason, Aaron [PURDUE UNIV; Yarrington, Cole [PURDUE UNIV; Cho, K Y [PURDUE UNIV; Gesner, J [PSU; Yetter, R A [PSU

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental combustion properties of silicon-based nano-energetic composites was studied by performing equilibrium calculations, 'flame tests', and instrumented burn-tube tests. That the nominal maximum flame temperature and for many Si-oxidizer systems is about 3000 K, with exceptions. Some of these exceptions are Si-metal oxides with temperatures ranging from 2282 to 2978 K. Theoretical maximum gas production of the Si composites ranged from 350-6500 cm{sup 3}/g of reactant with NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} - Si producing the most gas at 6500 cm{sup 3}/g and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} producing the least. Of the composites tested NH{sub 4}ClO{sub 4} - Si showed the fastest burning rates with the fastest at 2.1 km/s. The Si metal oxide burning rates where on the order of 0.03-75 mls the slowest of which was nFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} - Si.

  16. 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows (GasMems 2012)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arjan Frijns; Dimitris Valougeorgis; Stéphane Colin; Lucien Baldas

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is to advance research in Europe and worldwide in the field of gas micro flows as well as to improve global fundamental knowledge and to enable technological applications. Gas flows in microsystems are of great importance and touch almost every industrial field (e.g. fluidic microactuators for active control of

  17. Simulation of gas flows through micro-constrictions

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Imtiaz

    2001-01-01

    A series of numerical simulations based on a spectral element formulation of compressible Navier-Stokes equations are performed for gas flows through micro-constrictions, and the thermal/fluidic transport through these devices is studied in detail...

  18. Design and prototyping of micro centrifugal compressor for ultra micro gas turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimpei Mizuki; Toshiyuki Hirano; Yoshiyuki Koizumi; Gaku Minorikawa; Hoshio Tsujita; Mitsuo Iwahara; Ronglei Gu; Yutaka Ohta; Eisuke Outa

    2005-01-01

    In order to establish the design methodology of an ultra micro centrifugal compressor, which is the most important component\\u000a of an ultra micro gas turbine unit, a 10 times size of the final target compressor (impeller outer diameter 40 mm, corrected\\u000a rotational speed 220,000 r\\/min) was designed. The problems to be solved for downsizing were examined and a 2-dimensional impeller

  19. Silicon-based photonic devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Soref

    1995-01-01

    Silicon-based photonics is an important technology direction for research and development. The payoffs from Si photonic R&D will be low-cost, reliable opto-electronic integrated circuits (OEICs) and photonic integrated circuits (PICs) that will find application in optical communications, flat panel displays, optical storage, printing, imaging, sensing, and information processing. The motivation for making Si PICs and OEICs is to attain high-yield

  20. PREFACE: 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows (GasMems 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frijns, Arjan; Valougeorgis, Dimitris; Colin, Stéphane; Baldas, Lucien

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is to advance research in Europe and worldwide in the field of gas micro flows as well as to improve global fundamental knowledge and to enable technological applications. Gas flows in microsystems are of great importance and touch almost every industrial field (e.g. fluidic microactuators for active control of aerodynamic flows, vacuum generators for extracting biological samples, mass flow and temperature micro-sensors, pressure gauges, micro heat-exchangers for the cooling of electronic components or for chemical applications, and micro gas analyzers or separators). The main characteristic of gas microflows is their rarefaction, which for device design often requires modelling and simulation both by continuous and molecular approaches. In such flows various non-equilibrium transport phenomena appear, while the role played by the interaction between the gas and the solid device surfaces becomes essential. The proposed models of boundary conditions often need an empirical adjustment strongly dependent on the micro manufacturing technique. The 1st European Conference on Gas Micro Flows is organized under the umbrella of the recently established GASMEMS network (www.gasmems.eu/) consisting of 13 participants and six associate members. The main objectives of the network are to structure research and train researchers in the fields of micro gas dynamics, measurement techniques for gaseous flows in micro experimental setups, microstructure design and micro manufacturing with applications in lab and industry. The conference takes place on June 6-8 2012, at the Skiathos Palace Hotel, on the beautiful island of Skiathos, Greece. The conference has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreement ITN GASMEMS no. 215504. It owes its success to many people. We would like to acknowledge the support of all members of the Scientific Committee and of all referees for their thorough reviews and evaluation of the full papers. Above all, we would like to sincerely thank all authors for their valuable contributions to these proceedings as well as all the participants for creating a stimulating atmosphere through their presentations and discussions and making this conference a great success. Dr Arjan Frijns Editor and Event Coordinator Prof. Dimitris Valougeorgis Local Organizer Prof. Stéphane Colin Network Coordinator Dr Lucien Baldas Assistant Network Coordinator The PDF also contains details of the Conference Organizers.

  1. Simulation of gas flows through micro-constrictions 

    E-print Network

    Ahmed, Imtiaz

    2001-01-01

    -mirror systems are used in projection displays. Micro-valves and motors are used in industrial as well as medical applications. Tiny pressure sensors and shear stress sensors are being used in various instrumentation. Microfluidic drug dispensing systems... to the gas mean free path A?which is an intrinsic length scale for thermal/fluid transpotx. The ratio of the gas mean free path P. ) to a characteristic microfluidic length scale (L) is known as the Knudsen number (Kn = UL). At standard pressure...

  2. Design and prototyping of micro centrifugal compressor for ultra micro gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuki, Shimpei; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Koizumi, Yoshiyuki; Minorikawa, Gaku; Tsujita, Hoshio; Iwahara, Mitsuo; Gu, Ronglei; Ohta, Yutaka; Outa, Eisuke

    2005-12-01

    In order to establish the design methodology of an ultra micro centrifugal compressor, which is the most important component of an ultra micro gas turbine unit, a 10 times size of the final target compressor (impeller outer diameter 40 mm, corrected rotational speed 220,000 r/min) was designed. The problems to be solved for downsizing were examined and a 2-dimensional impeller was chosen as the first model due to its productivity. The conventional 1D prediction method and CFD were used. The prototyped compressor was tested by using cold air at the reduced speed of 110,000 r/min. Following to the 10 times model, a 5 times size of the final target model having fully 3-dimensional shape (impeller outer diameter 20mm, corrected rotational speed 500,000 r/min) was designed and tested by using hot gas at the reduced speed of 250,000 r/min.

  3. Current status and outlook for silicon-based optical biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, S. M.; Rong, G.; Lawrie, J. L.

    2009-05-01

    The importance of silicon photonic devices extends beyond passive structures for light guiding and light emission. Nano- and microstructured silicon photonic devices have emerged as viable gas, chemical, and biological sensors. The advantages of these silicon-based optical biosensors for high sensitivity detection include a low analyte volume requirement, reduced size, and compatibility with existing CMOS technology. Several advances in ring resonators, waveguides, and various porous silicon photonic structures for biosensing applications will be reviewed.

  4. Development of a catalytic combustion system for the MIT Micro Gas Turbine Engine

    E-print Network

    Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    As part of the MIT micro-gas turbine engine project, the development of a hydrocarbon-fueled catalytic micro-combustion system is presented. A conventionally-machined catalytic flow reactor was built to simulate the ...

  5. Hot gas stream application in micro-bonding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrijasevic, Daniela; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Smetana, Walter; Boehm, Stefan; Brenner, Werner

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a new concept for bonding micro-parts with dimensions in the range of 50 ?m to 300 ?m. Two different kinds of adhesives - polyurethane adhesive foil and hot melt glue - were applied to a basic substrate by different techniques. The focused and concentrated hot gas stream softened glue which had been applied in a solid state. Micro-parts were then embossed in the softened glue, or covered and shielded by it. In this way, a rigid and compact bond was obtained after cooling. For the positioning of micro-parts (optical fibers), it has been necessary to manufacture adequate V-grooves. Finite element analyses using the ANSYS TM program package were performed in order to evaluate parameters which govern the heat transfer to the adhesive and substrate respectively. Experimental results are in good agreement with results obtained by the numerical simulations. The advantages of this new approach are small system size, low capital costs, simple usage, applicability to many material combinations, easy integration into existing production lines, etc.

  6. Amorphous Silicon Based Neutron Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Liwei

    2004-12-12

    Various large-scale neutron sources already build or to be constructed, are important for materials research and life science research. For all these neutron sources, neutron detectors are very important aspect. However, there is a lack of a high-performance and low-cost neutron beam monitor that provides time and temporal resolution. The objective of this SBIR Phase I research, collaboratively performed by Midwest Optoelectronics, LLC (MWOE), the University of Toledo (UT) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is to demonstrate the feasibility for amorphous silicon based neutron beam monitors that are pixilated, reliable, durable, fully packaged, and fabricated with high yield using low-cost method. During the Phase I effort, work as been focused in the following areas: 1) Deposition of high quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films using very high frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (VHF PECVD) at high deposition rate and with low device shunting; 2) Fabrication of Si/SiO2/metal/p/i/n/metal/n/i/p/metal/SiO2/ device for the detection of alpha particles which are daughter particles of neutrons through appropriate nuclear reactions; and 3) Testing of various devices fabricated for alpha and neutron detection; As the main results: · High quality, low-defect-density, low-stress a-Si films have been successfully deposited using VHF PECVD on various low-cost substrates; · Various single-junction and double junction detector devices have been fabricated; · The detector devices fabricated have been systematically tested and analyzed. · Some of the fabricated devices are found to successfully detect alpha particles. Further research is required to bring this Phase I work beyond the feasibility demonstration toward the final prototype devices. The success of this project will lead to a high-performance, low-cost, X-Y pixilated neutron beam monitor that could be used in all of the neutron facilities worldwide. In addition, the technologies developed here could be used to develop X-ray and neutron monitors that could be used in the future for security checks at the airports and other critical facilities. The project would lead to devices that could significantly enhance the performance of multi-billion dollar neutron source facilities in the US and bring our nation to the forefront of neutron beam sciences and technologies which have enormous impact to materials, life science and military research and applications.

  7. Development of Micro-Heaters with Optimized Temperature Compensation Design for Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Woo-Jin; Shin, Kyu-Sik; Roh, Ji-Hyoung; Lee, Dae-Sung; Choa, Sung-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    One of the key components of a chemical gas sensor is a MEMS micro-heater. Micro-heaters are used in both semiconductor gas sensors and NDIR gas sensors; however they each require different heat dissipation characteristics. For the semiconductor gas sensors, a uniform temperature is required over a wide area of the heater. On the other hand, for the NDIR gas sensor, the micro-heater needs high levels of infrared radiation in order to increase sensitivity. In this study, a novel design of a poly-Si micro-heater is proposed to improve the uniformity of heat dissipation on the heating plate. Temperature uniformity of the micro-heater is achieved by compensating for the variation in power consumption around the perimeter of the heater. With the power compensated design, the uniform heating area is increased by 2.5 times and the average temperature goes up by 40 °C. Therefore, this power compensated micro-heater design is suitable for a semiconductor gas sensor. Meanwhile, the poly-Si micro-heater without compensation shows a higher level of infrared radiation under equal power consumption conditions. This indicates that the micro-heater without compensation is more suitable for a NDIR gas sensor. Furthermore, the micro-heater shows a short response time of less than 20ms, indicating a very high efficiency of pulse driving. PMID:22163756

  8. Silicon-based wire electrode array for neural interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Weihua; Zhao, Hui; Zhao, Shanshan; Fang, Xiaolei; Chen, Sanyuan; Gui, Qiang; Tang, Rongyu; Chen, Yuanfang; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Chen, Hongda

    2014-09-01

    Objectives. Metal-wire electrode arrays are widely used to record and stimulate neurons. Commonly, these devices are fabricated from a long insulated metal wire by cutting it into the proper length and using the cross-section as the electrode site. The assembly of a micro-wire electrode array with regular spacing is difficult. With the help of micro-machine technology, a silicon-based wire electrode array (SWEA) is proposed to simplify the assembling process and provide a wire-type electrode with tapered tips. Approach. Silicon wires with regular spacing coated with metal are generated from a silicon wafer through micro-fabrication and are ordered into a 3D array. A silicon wafer is cut into a comb-like structure with hexagonal teeth on both sides by anisotropic etching. To establish an array of silicon-based linear needles through isotropic wet etching, the diameters of these hexagonal teeth are reduced; their sharp edges are smoothed out and their tips are sharpened. The needle array is coated with a layer of parylene after metallization. The tips of the needles are then exposed to form an array of linear neural electrodes. With these linear electrode arrays, an array of area electrodes can be fabricated. Main results. A 6? × ?6 array of wire-type electrodes based on silicon is developed using this method. The time required to manually assemble the 3D array decreases significantly with the introduction of micro-fabricated 2D array. Meanwhile, the tip intervals in the 2D array are accurate and are controlled at no more than 1%. The SWEA is effective both in vitro and in vivo. Significance. Using this method, the SWEA can be batch-prepared in advance along with its parameters, such as spacing, length, and diameter. Thus, neural scientists can assemble proper electrode arrays in a short time.

  9. Micro Strip Gas Chambers Overcoated with Carbon, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, and Glass Films

    E-print Network

    Micro Strip Gas Chambers Overcoated with Carbon, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon, and Glass Films M Abstract The performance of glass and sapphire substrate Micro Strip Gas Chambers with chromium and molybdenum elec­ trodes overcoated with carbon, hydrogenated amorphous silicon and glass layers are reported

  10. SHIRTBUTTON-SIZED GAS TURBINES: THE ENGINEERING CHALLENGES OF MICRO HIGH SPEED ROTATING MACHINERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan H. Epstein; Stuart A. Jacobson; Jon M. Protz; Luc G. Frechette

    2000-01-01

    MIT is developing micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based gas turbine engines, turbogenerators, and rocket engines. Fabricated in large numbers in parallel using semicon- ductor manufacturing techniques, these engines-on-a-chip are based on micro-high speed rotating machinery with power den- sities approaching those of their more familiar, full-sized breth- ren. The micro-gas turbine is a 2 cm diameter by 3 mm thick Si or

  11. Gold Nanoparticle Chemiresistor Arrays for Micro-Gas Chromatography Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, Elizabeth Laura

    Thiolate-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticle (MPN) chemiresistors were studied as the sensing devices for micro-gas chromatography (microGC) systems. Because transport through chemiresistors is dominated by tunneling, they are highly sensitive. In order to improve their limit of detection, their fundamental noise was studied. Chemiresistors exhibit 1/f type noise where noise scales inversely with frequency. Chemiresistor noise was found to scale inversely with MPN film thickness. We lowered the noise prefactor of a 50x60 microm2 chemiresistor by coating a thick rather than monolayer MPN film. Electron beam induced crosslinking (EBIX) of the MPN film slightly reduced chemiresistor noise. A technique for patterning chemiresistor arrays with MPN films using EBIX was developed, and an array with four distinct MPNs was fabricated in an area ˜600 microm 2. This is the smallest chemiresistor array reported to date. Chemiresistors were exposed to vapors and provided differential sensitivities comparable to those from larger uncrosslinked chemiresistors. Chemiresistors were studied to assess their long term stability. Chemiresistors exhibited decreases in resistance over time that is likely caused by loss of MPN ligands. Temperature dependent current-voltage measurements verified the resistance change was not due to changes in the size of the MPN core. While resistance could change by orders of magnitude, vapor sensitivity did not show significant changes. Heating increased the change in resistance, but chemiresistors remained responsive after being held at 80°C for a cumulative 400 hours. It was unknown whether tunneling in the MPN film is through the highest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO) or lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). A new technique was explored to distinguish tunneling through the HOMO and LUMO by measuring the induced thermoelectric voltage caused by a temperature difference across the MPN film. For integration into a microGC system, we fabricated a chemiresistor array on the surface of a 2.2x2.2 mm2readout circuitry chip creating a monolithic sensor system. A model for determining the optimal sensor size for a microGC system is presented. While noise is inversely proportional to chemiresistor volume, the amount of analyte detectable is proportional to volume making smaller chemiresistors able to detect lesser amounts of analyte.

  12. Power and temperature control of fluctuating biomass gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kaneko; J. Brouwer; G. S. Samuelsen

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses how the power and temperature are controlled in a biomass gas fueled solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and micro gas turbine (MGT) hybrid system. A SOFC and MGT dynamic model are developed and used to simulate the hybrid system performance operating on biomass gas. The transient behavior of both the SOFC and MGT are discussed in detail.An

  13. Toward silicon-based longwave integrated optoelectronics (LIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soref, Richard

    2008-02-01

    The vision of longwave silicon photonics articulated in the Journal of Optics A, vol. 8, pp 840-848, 2006 has now come into sharper focus. There is evidence that newly designed silicon-based optoelectronic circuits will operate at any wavelength within the wide 1.6 to 200 ?m range. Approaches to that LWIR operation are reviewed here. A long-range goal is to manufacture LWIR OEIC chips in a silicon foundry by integrating photonics on-chip with CMOS, bipolar, or BiCMOS micro-electronics. A principal LWIR application now emerging is the sensing of chemical and biological agents with an OE laboratory-on-a-chip. Regarding on-chip IR sources, the hybrid evanescent-wave integration of III-V interband-cascade lasers and quantum-cascade lasers on silicon (or Ge/Si) waveguides is a promising technique, although an alternative all-group-IV solution is presently taking shape in the form of silicon-based Ge/SiGeSn band-to-band and inter-subband lasers. There is plenty of room for creativity in developing a complete suite of LWIR components. Materials modification, device innovation, and scaling of waveguide dimensions are needed to implement microphotonic, plasmonic and photonic-crystal LWIR devices, both active and passive. Such innovation will likely lead to significant LIO applications.

  14. Investigations of Slip Effect on the Performance of Micro Gas Bearings and Stability of Micro Rotor-Bearing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hai; Meng, Guang; Chen, Jieyu

    2007-01-01

    Incorporating the velocity slip effect of the gas flow at the solid boundary, the performance and dynamic response of a micro gas-bearing-rotor system are investigated in this paper. For the characteristic length scale of the micro gas bearing, the gas flow in the bearing resides in the slip regime rather than in the continuum regime. The modified Reynolds equations of different slip models are presented. Gas pressure distribution and load carrying capacity are obtained by solving the Reynolds equations with finite different method (FDM). Comparing results from different models, it is found that the second order slip model agrees reasonably well with the benchmarked solutions obtained from the linearized Boltzmann equation. Therefore, dynamic coefficients derived from the second order slip model are employed to evaluate the linear dynamic stability and vibration characteristics of the system. Compared with the continuum flow model, the slip effect reduces dynamic coefficients of the micro gas bearing, and the threshold speed for stable operation is consequently raised. Also, dynamic analysis shows that the system responses change with variation of the operating parameters including the eccentricity ratio, the rotational speed, and the unbalance ratio.

  15. Micro-miniature gas chromatograph column disposed in silicon wafers

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A micro-miniature gas chromatograph column is fabricated by forming matching halves of a circular cross-section spiral microcapillary in two silicon wafers and then bonding the two wafers together using visual or physical alignment methods. Heating wires are deposited on the outside surfaces of each wafer in a spiral or serpentine pattern large enough in area to cover the whole microcapillary area inside the joined wafers. The visual alignment method includes etching through an alignment window in one wafer and a precision-matching alignment target in the other wafer. The two wafers are then bonded together using the window and target. The physical alignment methods include etching through vertical alignment holes in both wafers and then using pins or posts through corresponding vertical alignment holes to force precision alignment during bonding. The pins or posts may be withdrawn after curing of the bond. Once the wafers are bonded together, a solid phase of very pure silicone is injected in a solution of very pure chloroform into one end of the microcapillary. The chloroform lowers the viscosity of the silicone enough that a high pressure hypodermic needle with a thumbscrew plunger can force the solution into the whole length of the spiral microcapillary. The chloroform is then evaporated out slowly to leave the silicone behind in a deposit.

  16. Micro-miniature gas chromatograph column disposed in silicon wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, C.M.

    2000-05-30

    A micro-miniature gas chromatograph column is fabricated by forming matching halves of a circular cross-section spiral microcapillary in two silicon wafers and then bonding the two wafers together using visual or physical alignment methods. Heating wires are deposited on the outside surfaces of each wafer in a spiral or serpentine pattern large enough in area to cover the whole microcapillary area inside the joined wafers. The visual alignment method includes etching through an alignment window in one wafer and a precision-matching alignment target in the other wafer. The two wafers are then bonded together using the window and target. The physical alignment methods include etching through vertical alignment holes in both wafers and then using pins or posts through corresponding vertical alignment holes to force precision alignment during bonding. The pins or posts may be withdrawn after curing of the bond. Once the wafers are bonded together, a solid phase of very pure silicone is injected in a solution of very pure chloroform into one end of the microcapillary. The chloroform lowers the viscosity of the silicone enough that a high pressure hypodermic needle with a thumbscrew plunger can force the solution into the whole length of the spiral microcapillary. The chloroform is then evaporated out slowly to leave the silicone behind in a deposit.

  17. Pressure-sensitive channel chip for visualization measurement of micro gas flows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Matsuda; Ryota Misaki; Hiroki Yamaguchi; Tomohide Niimi

    We have developed a new pressure sensing tool named pressure-sensitive channel chip (PSCC) by combining the pressure-sensitive\\u000a paint (PSP) technique with the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) micro-molding technique. The PSP technique based on the oxygen\\u000a quenching of luminescence is a potential diagnostic tool for pressure measurement of micro gas flows. However, the application\\u000a of PSP to micro scale measurement is very difficult,

  18. A review of two-phase gas–liquid adiabatic flow characteristics in micro-channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sira Saisorn; Somchai Wongwises

    2008-01-01

    A literature review of recent research on two-phase flow in micro-channels is provided in this article. Researches on the micro-hydrodynamics concerned with two-phase gas–liquid adiabatic flow characteristics in both circular and non-circular micro-channels are discussed. This review aims to survey and identify new findings obtained from this attractive area, which may contribute to optimum design and process control of high

  19. Integration of carbon felt gas diffusion layers in silicon micro fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gianmario Scotti; Petri Kanninen; Tanja Kallio; Sami Franssila

    2012-01-01

    We have integrated carbon felt, a traditional fuel cell gas diffusion layer, with silicon micro fuel cells. To this end we used two silicon microfabrication procedures using reactive ion etching: formation of black silicon and sinking of flowfield. The former decreases electrical contact resistance to the diffusion layer, the latter serves to contain the reactant gases. The micro fuel cells,

  20. Load Current Control Model for a Gas Micro-Turbine in Isolated Operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manuel A. Rendón; Marco A. R. Nascimento; Pedro P. C. Mendes

    2006-01-01

    Micro-turbines operation like power generator in oil facilities or rural industries, which are far away from generation and distribution services, is one of the most important applications for this generation device. This work presents a load current control model, for a 30 kW gas micro-turbine, fueled with natural gas, operating in isolated mode. A brief description of the isolated operation

  1. Micro-gas analysis system for measurement of nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide: Respiratory treatment and environmental mobile monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kei Toda; Yuki Hato; Shin-Ichi Ohira; Takao Namihira

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, novel microsystems for gas analysis and gas generation are described. The same microchannel devices covered with a gas permeable membrane were used for both the gas collection and the gas generation. For the first time, a dual liquid flow system was utilized in a micro-gas analysis system. Even though micropumps are utilized in the dual line microsystem,

  2. Progress in amorphous silicon based multijunction modules

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, R.R.; Oswald, R.S.; Li, Y.M. [Solarex Corp., Newtown, PA (United States). Thin-Film Div.] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Advances in amorphous silicon based alloys and device structure have led to the demonstration of 10.5% initial efficiency and 9.1% stabilized efficiency on 1 Ft{sup 2} a-Si/a-SiGe tandem junction module. Scale-up to 4 Ft{sup 2} in pilot production has resulted in the best initial efficiency of 9.75% as measured by NREL, which should result in a stabilized efficiency over 8%. Presently the 4 Ft{sup 2} modules have an average initial efficiency of 8.75% and a stabilized average efficiency of about 7.5%, as measured by Solarex.

  3. Silicon-based nanochannel glucose sensor

    E-print Network

    Wang, Xihua; Gibney, Katherine A; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Mohanty, Pritiraj

    2008-01-01

    Silicon nanochannel biological field effect transistors have been developed for glucose detection. The device is nanofabricated from a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a top-down approach and surface functionalized with glucose oxidase. The differential conductance of silicon nanowires, tuned with source-drain bias voltage, is demonstrated to be sensitive to the biocatalyzed oxidation of glucose. The glucose biosensor response is linear in the 0.5-8 mM concentration range with 3-5 min response time. This silicon nanochannel-based glucose biosensor technology offers the possibility of high density, high quality glucose biosensor integration with silicon-based circuitry.

  4. A study of micro-strip gas chambers for the measurement of ionizing radiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Miyamoto

    1997-01-01

    This dissertation presents some empirical and theoretical studies of micro-strip gas chambers (MSGC) with emphasis on their gain and energy resolution characteristics. The analysis was extended to the micro-gap chamber (MGC), which is a new and enhanced type of MSGC. MSGCs and MGCs are newly developed detectors of ionizing radiation closely related to the well-established multi-wire proportional counter. In MSGCs,

  5. Micro-and nanostructured silicon-based superomniphobic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong Nhung; Boukherroub, Rabah; Thomy, Vincent; Coffinier, Yannick

    2014-02-15

    We report on the fabrication of silicon nanostructured superhydrophobic and superoleophobic surfaces also called "superomniphobic" surfaces. For this purpose, silicon interfaces with different surface morphologies, single or double scale structuration, were investigated. These structured surfaces were chemically treated with perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFTS), a low surface energy molecule. The morphology of the resulting surfaces was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Their wetting properties: static contact angle (CA) and contact angle hysteresis (CAH) were investigated using liquids of various surface tensions. Despite that we found that all the different morphologies display a superhydrophobic character (CA>150° for water) and superoleophobic behavior (CA ? 140° for hexadecane), values of hysteresis are strongly dependent on the liquid surface tension and surface morphology. The best surface described in this study was composed of a dual scale texturation i.e. silicon micropillars covered by silicon nanowires. Indeed, this surface displayed high static contact angles and low hysteresis for all tested liquids. PMID:24370432

  6. Gas flow in miniaturized nozzles for micro-thrusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. La Torre

    2011-01-01

    A new satellite philosophy, developed during the last two decades, suggests to make satellites smaller and lighter rather than bigger and heavier. In other words, large (?m3), single system satellites are being replaced by ?eets of small (?dm3), so-called micro-satellites. Future developmentsmay result in swarms ofmicro satellites ?ying through space in formation. Together they would perform the same tasks as

  7. Feasibility of pulse combustion in micro gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honkatukia, Juha; Saari, Esa; Knuuttila, Timo; Larjola, Jaakko; Backman, Jari

    2012-10-01

    In gas turbines, a fast decrease of efficiency appears when the output decreases; the efficiency of a large gas turbine (20...30 MW) is in the order of 40 %, the efficiency of a 30 kW gas turbine with a recuperator is in the order of 25 %, but the efficiency of a very small gas turbine (2...6 kW) in the order of 4...6 % (or 8...12 % with an optimal recuperator). This is mainly a result of the efficiency decrease in kinetic compressors, due to the Reynolds number effect. Losses in decelerating flow in a flow passage are sensitive to the Reynolds number effects. In contrary to the compression, the efficiency of expansion in turbines is not so sensitive to the Reynolds number; very small turbines are made with rather good efficiency because the flow acceleration stabilizes the boundary layer. This study presents a system where the kinetic compressor of a gas turbine is replaced with a pulse combustor. The combustor is filled with a combustible gas mixture, ignited, and the generated high pressure gas is expanded in the turbine. The process is repeated frequently, thus producing a pulsating flow to the turbine; or almost a uniform flow, if several parallel combustors are used and triggered alternately in a proper way. Almost all the compression work is made by the temperature increase from the combustion. This gas turbine type is investigated theoretically and its combustor also experimentally with the conclusion that in a 2 kW power size, the pulse flow gas turbine is not as attractive as expected due to the big size and weight of parallel combustors and due to the efficiency being in the order of 8 % to 10 %. However, in special applications having a very low power demand, below 1000 W, this solution has better properties when compared to the conventional gas turbine and it could be worth of a more detailed investigation.

  8. SILICON-BASED TUNNEL DIODE TECHNOLOGY A Dissertation

    E-print Network

    SILICON-BASED TUNNEL DIODE TECHNOLOGY A Dissertation Submitted to Graduate School of the University;SILICON-BASED TUNNEL DIODE TECHNOLOGY Abstract By Yan Yan Tunnel diodes have received interest because of their remarkable multivalued I-V characteristic and inherent high switching speeds. The exploration of tunnel diode

  9. A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons.

    PubMed

    Walters, R J; van Loon, R V A; Brunets, I; Schmitz, J; Polman, A

    2010-01-01

    After decades of process scaling driven by Moore's law, the silicon microelectronics world is now defined by length scales that are many times smaller than the dimensions of typical micro-optical components. This size mismatch poses an important challenge for those working to integrate photonics with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics technology. One promising solution is to fabricate optical systems at metal/dielectric interfaces, where electromagnetic modes called surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) offer unique opportunities to confine and control light at length scales below 100 nm (refs 1, 2). Research groups working in the rapidly developing field of plasmonics have now demonstrated many passive components that suggest the potential of SPPs for applications in sensing and optical communication. Recently, active plasmonic devices based on III-V materials and organic materials have been reported. An electrical source of SPPs was recently demonstrated using organic semiconductors by Koller and colleagues. Here we show that a silicon-based electrical source for SPPs can be fabricated using established low-temperature microtechnology processes that are compatible with back-end CMOS technology. PMID:19966790

  10. Study on a micro-gas sensor with SnO 2–NiO sensitive film for indoor formaldehyde detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pin Lv; Zhen A. Tang; Jun Yu; Feng T. Zhang; Guang F. Wei; Zheng X. Huang; Yann Hu

    2008-01-01

    A micro-gas sensor is fabricated based on a micro-hotplate (MHP) with micromachining technology. The SnO2–NiO nanometer polycrystalline composite synthesized by a chemical co-precipitation method is coated onto a micro-hotplate as a sensitive film. The response and recovery time of the micro-gas sensor decrease rapidly with increasing the formaldehyde (HCHO) concentration at relatively low concentrations. The micro-gas sensor shows good stability,

  11. Sputtered alumina as a novel stationary phase for micro machined gas chromatography columns.

    PubMed

    Haudebourg, R; Matouk, Z; Zoghlami, E; Azzouz, I; Danaie, K; Sassiat, P; Thiebaut, D; Vial, J

    2014-02-01

    Silica and graphite sputtering have previously been reported as novel solid stationary phase deposition techniques for micro gas chromatography columns. As a conventional solid stationary phase in gas chromatography, compatible with sputtering yet so far unreported, alumina was evaluated in this study. Alumina sputtered semi-packed micro columns were fabricated (including an activation step) and proved able to separate a mixture of volatile alkanes (C1-C4 with isomers) in less than 1 min. Kinetic and a thermodynamic evaluation led to calculation of 4,500 theoretical plates for ethane in 1.1 m (HETPmin?=?250 ?m) and a Gibbs free energy for propane of 30.2 kJ mol(-1), making this stationary phase's properties very close to those observed with silica-sputtered micro columns. PMID:23989966

  12. Fabry-Pérot cavity sensors for multipoint on-column micro gas chromatography detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Sun, Yuze; Howard, Daniel J; Frye-Mason, Greg; Thompson, Aaron K; Ja, Shiou-Jyh; Wang, Siao-Kwan; Bai, Mengjun; Taub, Haskell; Almasri, Mahmoud; Fan, Xudong

    2010-06-01

    We developed and characterized a Fabry-Pérot (FP) sensor module based micro gas chromatography (microGC) detector for multipoint on-column detection. The FP sensor was fabricated by depositing a thin layer of metal and a layer of gas-sensitive polymer consecutively on the endface of an optical fiber, which formed the FP cavity. Light partially reflected from the metal layer and the polymer-air interface generated an interference spectrum, which shifted as the polymer layer absorbed the gas analyte. The FP sensor module was then assembled by inserting the FP sensor into a hole drilled in the wall of a fused-silica capillary, which can be easily connected to the conventional gas chromatography (GC) column through a universal quick seal column connector, thus enabling on-column real-time detection. We characterized the FP sensor module based microGC detector. Sensitive detection of various gas analytes was achieved with subnanogram detection limits. The rapid separation capability of the FP sensor module assembled with both single- and tandem-column systems was demonstrated, in which gas analytes having a wide range of polarities and volatilities were well-resolved. The tandem-column system obtained increased sensitivity and selectivity by employing two FP sensor modules coated with different polymers, showing great system versatility. PMID:20441156

  13. A six-wafer combustion system for a silicon micro gas turbine engine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mehra; Xin Zhang; A. A. Ayon; I. A. Waitz; M. A. Schmidt; C. M. Spadaccini

    2000-01-01

    As part of a program to develop a micro gas turbine engine capable of producing 10-50 W of electrical power in a package less than one cubic centimeter in volume, we present the design, fabrication, packaging, and experimental test results for the 6-wafer combustion system for a silicon microengine. Comprising the main nonrotating functional components of the engine, the device

  14. Ionic wind characteristics of an EHD micro gas pump constructed with needle-ring electrode system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ohyama; R. Ohyama

    2011-01-01

    An EHD micro gas pump using a needle-ring electrode system was constructed for an application of ionic wind to fluid flow operations without mechanical parts. The experimental EHD pump was consisted of a needle electrode and ring electrode which are on the same axis. The needle electrode was used as a conventional discharge electrode and the ring electrode connected to

  15. Optimal micro channel recuperators for small-sized gas turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martine Baelmans; Frederik Rogiers; Joris Van Eyndhoven; Willem Voets

    2008-01-01

    Thermodynamic efficiencies based on the first and second law of thermodynamics are assessed for their use in the design of recuperators in small-sized gas turbines. It is shown that the first and second law cycle efficiency as well as the Witte-Shamsundar efficiency for heat exchangers show a similar dependency on the heat exchanger pressure drops. This results in design relations

  16. Demonstration of motionless Knudsen pump based micro-gas chromatography featuring micro-fabricated columns and on-column detectors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Gupta, Naveen K; Wise, Kensall D; Gianchandani, Yogesh B; Fan, Xudong

    2011-10-21

    This paper reports the investigation of a micro-gas chromatography (?GC) system that utilizes an array of miniaturized motionless Knudsen pumps (KPs) as well as microfabricated separation columns and optical detectors. A prototype system was built to achieve a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) and 0.26 mL min(-1) for helium and dry air, respectively, when they were used as carrier gas. This system was then employed to evaluate GC performance compromises and demonstrate the ability to separate and detect gas mixtures containing analytes of different volatilities and polarities. Furthermore, the use of pressure programming of the KP array was demonstrated to significantly shorten the analysis time while maintaining a high detection resolution. Using this method, we obtained a high resolution detection of 5 alkanes of different volatilities within 5 min. Finally, we successfully detected gas mixtures of various polarities using a tandem-column ?GC configuration by installing two on-column optical detectors to obtain complementary chromatograms. PMID:21869988

  17. Gas flows through constricted shallow micro-channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, A.; Frankel, I.; Weihs, D.

    We study the viscous compressible flow through micro-channels of non-uniform cross-section. A lubrication approximation is applied to analyse the flow through shallow configurations whose gap width is small in comparison with the other characteristic dimensions. Focusing on channels with a symmetric constriction (or cavity) we obtain the solution to the problem by means of a Schwarz-Christoffel transformation. This analytic solution is verified by examining the convergence of numerical simulations with diminishing Reynolds number and gap width. Explicit closed-form expressions for the pressure-head and mass-flow-rate losses in terms of the geometrical parameters characterizing the constriction are presented and discussed in the context of experimental data existing in the literature.

  18. Design and simulation of a small polygeneration plant cofiring biomass and natural gas in a dual combustion micro gas turbine (BIO_MGT)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Riccio; D. Chiaramonti

    2009-01-01

    The operation and performances of an innovative small scale polygeneration system (BIO_MGT), which combines biomass and natural gas in a micro gas turbine, has been simulated in the present work by means of a thermodynamic matching analysis. The BIO_MGT unit matches an externally fired cycle with a commercial Micro Gas Turbine (MGT, 100kWe). A significant share of the total energy

  19. Nanoparticle SnO2 Gas Sensor with Circuit and Micro Heater on Chip Fabricated Using CMOS-MEMS Technique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Liang Dai; Mao-Chen Liu

    2007-01-01

    The fabrication of a carbon monoxide (CO) micro gas sensor integrated with an inverting amplifier circuit and a micro heater on chip using the commercial 0.35mum complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process and a post-process have been implemented. The gas sensor is composed of a polysilicon resistor and a CO gas sensing film. Tin dioxide prepared by the sol-gel method

  20. High-Speed Gas Bearings for Micro-Turbomachinery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoltán S. Spakovszky

    \\u000a The mechanical design and architecture of high-speed rotating machinery, independent of size or scale, are strongly governed\\u000a by the rotordynamic behavior of the spool and its bearing arrangement. Large-scale gas turbine engines yield multi-spool shaft\\u000a constructions where the rolling contact bearings are close to the centerline of the engine supporting the shaft and disk assemblies\\u000a as shown in Fig. 6.1

  1. Silicon based microfluidic cell for terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baragwanath, A. J.; Swift, G. P.; Dai, D.; Gallant, A. J.; Chamberlain, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the design, fabrication and testing of a silicon based, microfluidic cell, for transmission terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The sensitivity of the device is tested through a range of experiments involving primary alcohol/water mixtures. The dielectric properties of these solutions are subsequently extracted using a Nelder-Mead search algorithm, and are in good agreement with literature values obtained via alternative techniques. Quantities in the order of 2 ?mol can be easily distinguished for primary alcohols in solution, even with the subwavelength optical path lengths used. A further display of the device sensitivity is shown through the analysis of commercial whiskeys, where there are clear, detectable differences between samples. Slight absorption variations were identified between samples of the same commercial brand, owing to a 2.5% difference in their alcoholic content. Results from data taken on subsequent days after system realignment are also presented, confirming the robustness of the technique, and the data extraction algorithm used. One final experiment, showing the possible use of this device to analyze aqueous biological samples is detailed; where biotin, a molecule known for its specific terahertz absorptions, is analyzed in solution. The device sensitivity is once again displayed, where quantities of 3 nmol can be clearly detected between samples.

  2. Growth of carbon nanotubes by Fe-catalyzed chemical vapor processes on silicon-based substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelucci, Renato; Rizzoli, Rita; Vinciguerra, Vincenzo; Fortuna Bevilacqua, Maria; Guerri, Sergio; Corticelli, Franco; Passini, Mara

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, a site-selective catalytic chemical vapor deposition synthesis of carbon nanotubes on silicon-based substrates has been developed in order to get horizontally oriented nanotubes for field effect transistors and other electronic devices. Properly micro-fabricated silicon oxide and polysilicon structures have been used as substrates. Iron nanoparticles have been obtained both from a thin Fe film evaporated by e-gun and from iron nitrate solutions accurately dispersed on the substrates. Single-walled nanotubes with diameters as small as 1 nm, bridging polysilicon and silicon dioxide “pillars”, have been grown. The morphology and structure of CNTs have been characterized by SEM, AFM and Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Peristaltic Micro-pump Generated from Heating Trapped Gas in a Superhydrophobic Microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hann, Sungyun; Kim, Tae Jin; Hidrovo, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Study of micro-pumps has been actively pursued as they may be integrated into portable fluidic systems. Since one major application of developing portable fluidic devices is in medical drug delivery systems, the study of valveless micro-peristaltic pumps has attracted many researchers, particularly due to its low contamination risk of the working fluid. However, conventional peristaltic micro-pumps involve complex fabrication steps, including alignment of multiple device layers. The purpose of this research is to design a low cost, single layer peristaltic pump which utilizes thermal expansion of gas bubbles trapped in the microchannel walls. The microchannel walls are corrugated with a high roughness factor to prevent water from protruding into the gaps, thus rendering the surface superhydrophobic. The gas pockets are heated from the side walls, where the microheaters are fabricated by flowing molten metal into satellite microchannels and then solidifying them. We expect that the expanding gas pockets will act as a series of valves and that the fluid flow can be generated by sequentially heating the gas pockets along the microchannel.

  4. Volatile Reaction Products From Silicon-Based Ceramics in Combustion Environments Identified

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.

    1997-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics and composites are prime candidates for use as components in the hot sections of advanced aircraft engines. These materials must have long-term durability in the combustion environment. Because water vapor is always present as a major product of combustion in the engine environment, its effect on the durability of silicon-based ceramics must be understood. In combustion environments, silicon-based ceramics react with water vapor to form a surface silica (SiO2) scale. This SiO2 scale, in turn, has been found to react with water vapor to form volatile hydroxides. Studies to date have focused on how water vapor reacts with high-purity silicon carbide (SiC) and SiO2 in model combustion environments. Because the combustion environment in advanced aircraft engines is expected to contain about 10-percent water vapor at 10-atm total pressure, the durability of SiC and SiO2 in gas mixtures containing 0.1- to 1-atm water vapor is of interest. The reactions of SiC and SiO2 with water vapor were monitored by measuring weight changes of sample coupons in a 0.5-atm water vapor/0.5-atm oxygen gas mixture with thermogravimetric analysis.

  5. Plasma-Sprayed Refractory Oxide Coatings on Silicon-Base Ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewari, Surendra

    1997-01-01

    Silicon-base ceramics are promising candidate materials for high temperature structural applications such as heat exchangers, gas turbines and advanced internal combustion engines. Composites based on these materials are leading candidates for combustor materials for HSCT gas turbine engines. These materials possess a combination of excellent physical and mechanical properties at high temperatures, for example, high strength, high toughness, high thermal shock resistance, high thermal conductivity, light weight and excellent oxidation resistance. However, environmental durability can be significantly reduced in certain conditions such as when molten salts, H2 or water vapor are present. The oxidation resistance of silicon-base materials is provided by SiO2 protective layer. Molten salt reacts with SiO2 and forms a mixture of SiO2 and liquid silicate at temperatures above 800C. Oxygen diffuses more easily through the chemically altered layer, resulting in a catastrophic degradation of the substrate. SiC and Si3N4 are not stable in pure H2 and decompose to silicon and gaseous species such as CH4, SiH, SiH4, N2, and NH3. Water vapor is known to slightly increase the oxidation rate of SiC and Si3N4. Refractory oxides such as alumina, yttria-stabilized zirconia, yttria and mullite (3Al2O3.2SiO2) possess excellent environmental durability in harsh conditions mentioned above. Therefore, refractory oxide coatings on silicon-base ceramics can substantially improve the environmental durability of these materials by acting as a chemical reaction barrier. These oxide coatings can also serve as a thermal barrier. The purpose of this research program has been to develop refractory oxide chemical/thermal barrier coatings on silicon-base ceramics to provide extended temperature range and lifetime to these materials in harsh environments.

  6. Silicon rich nitride for silicon based laser devices

    E-print Network

    Yi, Jae Hyung

    2008-01-01

    Silicon based light sources, especially laser devices, are the key components required to achieve a complete integrated silicon photonics system. However, the fundamental physical limitation of the silicon material as light ...

  7. Effects of Gas Rarefaction on Dynamic Characteristics of Micro Spiral-Grooved Thrust Bearing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ren; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Xiao-Qing

    2012-04-01

    The effects of gas-rarefaction on dynamic characteristics of micro spiral-grooved-thrust-bearing are studied. The Reynolds equation is modified by the first order slip model, and the corresponding perturbation equations are then obtained on the basis of the linear small perturbation method. In the converted spiral-curve-coordinates system, the finite-volume-method (FVM) is employed to discrete the surface domain of micro bearing. The results show, compared with the continuum-flow model, that under the slip-flow regime, the decrease in the pressure and stiffness become obvious with the increasing of the compressibility number. Moreover, with the decrease of the relative gas-film-thickness, the deviations of dynamic coefficients between slip-flow-model and continuum-flow-model are increasing. PMID:23904692

  8. Toward Silicon-Based Lasers for Terahertz Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen A. Lynch; Douglas J. Paul; Paul Townsend; Guy Matmon; Zhang Suet; Robert W. Kelsall; Zoran Ikonic; Paul Harrison; Jing Zhang; David J. Norris; Anthony G. Cullis; Carl R. Pidgeon; Pawel Murzyn; Ben Murdin; Mike Bain; Harry S. Gamble; Ming Zhao; Wei-Xin Ni

    2006-01-01

    Producing an electrically pumped silicon-based laser at terahertz frequencies is gaining increased attention these days. This paper reviews the recent advances in the search for a silicon-based terahertz laser. Topics covered include resonant tunneling in p-type Si\\/SiGe, terahertz intersubband electroluminescence from quantum cascade structures, intersubband lifetime measurements in Si\\/SiGe quantum wells, enhanced optical guiding using buried silicide layers, and the

  9. Transient Flow Dynamics in Optical Micro Well Involving Gas Bubbles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.; Chen, C. P.; Jenkins, A.; Spearing, S.; Monaco, L. A.; Steele, A.; Flores, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Lab-On-a-Chip Application Development (LOCAD) team at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center is utilizing Lab-On-a-Chip to support technology development specifically for Space Exploration. In this paper, we investigate the transient two-phase flow patterns in an optic well configuration with an entrapped bubble through numerical simulation. Specifically, the filling processes of a liquid inside an expanded chamber that has bubbles entrapped. Due to the back flow created by channel expansion, the entrapped bubbles tend to stay stationary at the immediate downstream of the expansion. Due to the huge difference between the gas and liquid densities, mass conservation issues associated with numerical diffusion need to be specially addressed. The results are presented in terms of the movement of the bubble through the optic well. Bubble removal strategies are developed that involve only pressure gradients across the optic well. Results show that for the bubble to be moved through the well, pressure pulsations must be utilized in order to create pressure gradients across the bubble itself.

  10. Adaptable chip-level microfluidic packaging for a micro-scale gas chromatograph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan Wardl; Xiaoyi Mul; Gustavo Serrano; Elizabeth Covington; Cagliyan Kurdak; Edward T. Zellers; Andrew J. Masonl; Wen Lil

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a robust and adaptable technique to integrate microfluidics with an on-chip thiolate-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticle coated chemiresistorarray for vapor analyte detection in a micro-scale gas chromatograph (?GC). The process involves mounting a sensing chip and capillary tubes within a silicon “extension carrier” (EC), capping the chemiresistor-array with a glass lid, and sealing the microfluidic package with

  11. Development of micro-strip gas chambers for high rate operation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Bouclier; M Capéans-Garrido; C. Garabatos; G. Manzin; Gilbert Million; Leszek Ropelewski; Fabio Sauli; L. I. Shekhtman; T. Temmel; G Della Mea; G. Maggioni; V. Rigato

    1995-01-01

    We describe the developments of micro-strip gas chambers able to withstand the very high rates foreseen for operation as vertex detector in high luminosity experiments, and for applications in medical diagnostics. To avoid surface charging-up processes, we have used as supports electron-conducting glass with resistivity in the range 109 to 1012 ? cm, and boro-silicate glass with thin coatings of

  12. MICRO-HEAT ENGINES, GAS TURBINES, AND ROCKET ENGINES THE MIT MICROENGINE PROJECT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Epstein; S. D. Senturia; O. Al-Midani; A. Ayon; K. Breuer; K-S Chen; F. E. Ehrich; E. Esteve; L. Frechette; G. Gauba; R. Ghodssi; C. Groshenry; S. Jacobson; J. L. Kerrebrock; J. H. Lang; J. Lopata; A. Mehra; J. O. Mur Miranda; S. Nagle; D. J. Orr; E. Piekos; M. A. Schmidt; G. Shirley; S. M. Spearing; C. S. Tan; I. A. Waitz

    1997-01-01

    This is a report on work in progress on microelectrical and mechanical systems (MEMS)-based gas turbine en- gines, turbogenerators, and rocket engines currently un- der development at MIT. Fabricated in large numbers in parallel using semiconductor manufacturing techniques, these engines are based on micro-high speed rotating machinery with the same power density as that achieved in their more familiar, full-sized

  13. Scale Effect on Gaseous Flow around a Micro-Scaled Gas Turbine Blade

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toru Yamada; Yutaka Asako

    2007-01-01

    Two-dimensional compressible momentum and energy equations are solved on gaseous flows around a micro-scaled gas turbine blade (GE-E) for which the axial chord length ranges from 86.1 ? m to 86.1 mm to obtain the scale effect. The numerical methodology is based on Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method. The flow is assumed to be “no heat conduction” flow. The computations were performed

  14. X-ray Polarimetry with a Micro-Pattern Gas Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Joe

    2005-01-01

    Topics covered include: Science drivers for X-ray polarimetry; Previous X-ray polarimetry designs; The photoelectric effect and imaging tracks; Micro-pattern gas polarimeter design concept. Further work includes: Verify results against simulator; Optimize pressure and characterize different gases for a given energy band; Optimize voltages for resolution and sensitivity; Test meshes with 80 micron pitch; Characterize ASIC operation; and Quantify quantum efficiency for optimum polarization sensitivity.

  15. Pore size determination in modified micro- and mesoporous materials. Pitfalls and limitations in gas adsorption data analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan C. Groen; Louk A. A. Peffer; Javier Pérez-Ram??rez

    2003-01-01

    Physical gas adsorption is extensively used in the characterization of micro- and mesoporous materials and is often considered as a straightforward-to-interpret technique. However, physical phenomena like the tensile strength effect, adsorbate phase transitions, and monolayer formation in combined micro- and mesoporous materials frequently lead to extra contributions in the adsorption isotherm. Models for pore size determination mostly do not account

  16. A comparison of ground source heat pumps and micro-combined heat and power as residential greenhouse gas reduction strategies

    E-print Network

    Guyer, Brittany (Brittany Leigh)

    2009-01-01

    Both ground source heat pumps operating on electricity and micro-combined heat and power systems operating on fossil fuels offer potential for the reduction of green house gas emissions in comparison to the conventional ...

  17. MEMS & BioMEMS Chip-Scale Quadrupole Mass Filters for a Micro Gas Analyzer ...................................................................................................................MS.1

    E-print Network

    Reif, Rafael

    MEMS & BioMEMS Chip-Scale Quadrupole Mass Filters for a Micro Gas Analyzer...................................................................................................................MS.2 MEMS-based Plasma Probes for Spacecraft Re-entry Monitoring.........................................................................MS.4 Direct Patterning of Metallic MEMS through Microcontact Printing

  18. Treatment to Control Adhesion of Silicone-Based Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III; Puleo, Bernadette J.; Waters, Deborah L.

    2013-01-01

    Seals are used to facilitate the joining of two items, usually temporarily. At some point in the future, it is expected that the items will need to be separated. This innovation enables control of the adhesive properties of silicone-based elastomers. The innovation may also be effective on elastomers other than the silicone-based ones. A technique has been discovered that decreases the level of adhesion of silicone- based elastomers to negligible levels. The new technique causes less damage to the material compared to alternative adhesion mitigation techniques. Silicone-based elastomers are the only class of rubber-like materials that currently meet NASA s needs for various seal applications. However, silicone-based elastomers have natural inherent adhesive properties. This stickiness can be helpful, but it can frequently cause problems as well, such as when trying to get items apart. In the past, seal adhesion was not always adequately addressed, and has caused in-flight failures where seals were actually pulled from their grooves, preventing subsequent spacecraft docking until the seal was physically removed from the flange via an extravehicular activity (EVA). The primary method used in the past to lower elastomer seal adhesion has been the application of some type of lubricant or grease to the surface of the seal. A newer method uses ultraviolet (UV) radiation a mixture of UV wavelengths in the range of near ultraviolet (NUV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths.

  19. Transition from glow silent discharge to micro-discharges in nitrogen gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gherardi, Nicolas; Gouda, Gamal; Gat, Eric; Ricard, André; Massines, François

    2000-08-01

    At atmospheric pressure, the electrical breakdown of a silent discharge can occur in many thin filaments (leading to micro-discharges) or in a single discharge canal covering the entire electrode surface (leading to a glow discharge). The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the transition from a glow silent discharge to micro-discharges in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. For this purpose, the two types of regime have been studied by emission spectroscopy and electrical measurements. The transition is always observed due to an increase of the power dissipated in the gas gap, but the maximum power that can be used while maintaining a glow discharge depends on the nature of the dielectric surface in contact with the gas. These results have been explained by the predominance of the density of metastable nitrogen molecules on the discharge regime. Due to the creation of seed electrons via Penning ionization, these metastable molecules can control the gas breakdown and so the discharge regime. Their density essentially depends on their quenching rate. The products etched from the surfaces in contact with the discharge appear to be the main source of the metastable molecules quenching. Therefore, the nature of the surface controls the nature of the quenching of the metastable molecules and the power dissipated in the discharge the quencher density.

  20. Integration of a wave rotor to an ultra-micro gas turbine (UmuGT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iancu, Florin

    2005-12-01

    Wave rotor technology has shown a significant potential for performance improvement of thermodynamic cycles. The wave rotor is an unsteady flow machine that utilizes shock waves to transfer energy from a high energy fluid to a low energy fluid, increasing both the temperature and the pressure of the low energy fluid. Used initially as a high pressure stage for a gas turbine locomotive engine, the wave rotor was commercialized only as a supercharging device for internal combustion engines, but recently there is a stronger research effort on implementing wave rotors as topping units or pressure gain combustors for gas turbines. At the same time, Ultra Micro Gas Turbines (UmuGT) are expected to be a next generation of power source for applications from propulsion to power generation, from aerospace industry to electronic industry. Starting in 1995, with the MIT "Micro Gas Turbine" project, the mechanical engineering research world has explored more and more the idea of "Power MEMS". Microfabricated turbomachinery like turbines, compressors, pumps, but also electric generators, heat exchangers, internal combustion engines and rocket engines have been on the focus list of researchers for the past 10 years. The reason is simple: the output power is proportional to the mass flow rate of the working fluid through the engine, or the cross-sectional area while the mass or volume of the engine is proportional to the cube of the characteristic length, thus the power density tends to increase at small scales (Power/Mass=L -1). This is the so-called "cube square law". This work investigates the possibilities of incorporating a wave rotor to an UmuGT and discusses the advantages of wave rotor as topping units for gas turbines, especially at microscale. Based on documented wave rotor efficiencies at larger scale and subsidized by both, a gasdynamic model that includes wall friction, and a CFD model, the wave rotor compression efficiency at microfabrication scale could be estimated at about 70%, which is much higher than the obtained efficiency obtained for centrifugal compressors in a microfabricated gas turbine. This dissertation also proposes several designs of ultra-micro wave rotors, including the novel concept of a radial-flow configuration. It describes a new and simplified design procedure as well as numerical simulations of these wave rotors. Results are obtained using FLUENT, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial code. The vast information about the unsteady processes occurring during simulation is visualized. Last, two designs for experimental tests have been created, one for a micro shock tube and one for the ultra-micro wave rotor. Theoretical and numerical results encourage the idea that at microscale, compression by shock waves may be more efficient than by conventional centrifugal compressors, thus making the ultra-micro wave rotor (UmuWR) a feasible idea for enhancing (upgrading) UmuGT.

  1. In-situ Micro-structural Studies of Gas Hydrate Formation in Sedimentary Matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhs, Werner F.; Chaouachi, Marwen; Falenty, Andrzej; Sell, Kathleen; Schwarz, Jens-Oliver; Wolf, Martin; Enzmann, Frieder; Kersten, Michael; Haberthür, David

    2015-04-01

    The formation process of gas hydrates in sedimentary matrices is of crucial importance for the physical and transport properties of the resulting aggregates. This process has never been observed in-situ with sub-micron resolution. Here, we report on synchrotron-based micro-tomographic studies by which the nucleation and growth processes of gas hydrate were observed in different sedimentary matrices (natural quartz, glass beds with different surface properties, with and without admixtures of kaolinite and montmorillonite) at varying water saturation. The nucleation sites can be easily identified and the growth pattern is clearly established. In under-saturated sediments the nucleation starts at the water-gas interface and proceeds from there to form predominantly isometric single crystals of 10-20?m size. Using a newly developed synchrotron-based method we have determined the crystallite size distributions (CSD) of the gas hydrate in the sedimentary matrix confirming in a quantitative and statistically relevant manner the impressions from the tomographic reconstructions. It is noteworthy that the CSDs from synthetic hydrates are distinctly smaller than those of natural gas hydrates [1], which suggest that coarsening processes take place in the sedimentary matrix after the initial hydrate formation. Understanding the processes of formation and coarsening may eventually permit the determination of the age of gas hydrates in sedimentary matrices [2], which are largely unknown at present. Furthermore, the full micro-structural picture and its evolution will enable quantitative digital rock physics modeling to reveal poroelastic properties and in this way to support the exploration and exploitation of gas hydrate resources in the future. [1] Klapp S.A., Hemes S., Klein H., Bohrmann G., McDonald I., Kuhs W.F. Grain size measurements of natural gas hydrates. Marine Geology 2010; 274(1-4):85-94. [2] Klapp S.A., Klein H, Kuhs W.F. First determination of gas hydrate crystallite size distribution using high-energy synchrotron radiation. Geophys.Res.Letters, 2007 ; 34 : L13608, DOI:10.1029/2006GL029134

  2. Direct observations of gas-hydrate formation in natural porous media on the micro-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaouachi, M.; Sell, K.; Falenty, A.; Enzmann, F.; Kersten, M.; Pinzer, B.; Saenger, E. H.; Kuhs, W. F.

    2013-12-01

    Gas hydrates (GH) are crystalline, inclusion compounds consisting of hydrogen-bonded water network encaging small gas molecules such as methane, ethane, CO2, etc (Sloan and Koh 2008). Natural gas hydrates are found worldwide in marine sediments and permafrost regions as a result of a reaction of biogenic or thermogenic gas with water under elevated pressure. Although a large amount of research on GH has been carried out over the years, the micro-structural aspects of GH growth, and in particular the contacts with the sedimentary matrix as well as the details of the distribution remain largely speculative. The present study was undertaken to shed light onto the well-established but not fully understood seismic anomalies, in particular the unusual attenuation of seismic waves in GH-bearing sediments, which may well be linked to micro-structural features. Observations of in-situ GH growth have been performed in a custom-build pressure cell (operating pressures up to several bar) mounted at the TOMCAT beam line of SLS/ PSI. In order to provide sufficient absorption contrast between phases and reduce pressure requirements for the cell we have used Xe instead of CH4. To the best of our knowledge this represents the first direct observation of GH growth in natural porous media with sub-micron spatial resolution and gives insight into the nucleation location and growth process of GH. The progress of the formation of sI Xe-hydrate in natural quartz sand was observed with a time-resolution of several minutes; the runs were conducted with an excess of a free-gas phase and show that the nucleation starts at the gas-water interface. Initially, a GH film is formed at this interface with a typical thickness of several ?m; this film may well be permeable to gas as suggested in the past - which would explain the rapid transport of gas molecules for further conversion of water to hydrate, completed in less than 20 min. Clearly, initially the growth is directed mainly into the liquid (and not into the gas phase as sometimes suggested). The observations of the 2D slices after full transformation show for all systems studied that hydrates tend to concentrate in the center of pore spaces and do not adhere in a systematic manner to quartz grains. Whether or not a thin film of water remained at the quartz-GH interface after completion of the reaction is presently under investigation. Sloan, E.D., Koh, C.A., (2008) Clathrate hydrates of natural gases. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

  3. THETRIS: A MICRO-SCALE TEMPERATURE AND GAS RELEASE MODEL FOR TRISO FUEL

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ortensi; A.M. Ougouag

    2011-12-01

    The dominating mechanism in the passive safety of gas-cooled, graphite-moderated, high-temperature reactors (HTRs) is the Doppler feedback effect. These reactor designs are fueled with sub-millimeter sized kernels formed into TRISO particles that are imbedded in a graphite matrix. The best spatial and temporal representation of the feedback effect is obtained from an accurate approximation of the fuel temperature. Most accident scenarios in HTRs are characterized by large time constants and slow changes in the fuel and moderator temperature fields. In these situations a meso-scale, pebble and compact scale, solution provides a good approximation of the fuel temperature. Micro-scale models are necessary in order to obtain accurate predictions in faster transients or when parameters internal to the TRISO are needed. Since these coated particles constitute one of the fundamental design barriers for the release of fission products, it becomes important to understand the transient behavior inside this containment system. An explicit TRISO fuel temperature model named THETRIS has been developed and incorporated into the CYNOD-THERMIX-KONVEK suite of coupled codes. The code includes gas release models that provide a simple predictive capability of the internal pressure during transients. The new model yields similar results to those obtained with other micro-scale fuel models, but with the added capability to analyze gas release, internal pressure buildup, and effects of a gap in the TRISO. The analyses show the instances when the micro-scale models improve the predictions of the fuel temperature and Doppler feedback. In addition, a sensitivity study of the potential effects on the transient behavior of high-temperature reactors due to the presence of a gap is included. Although the formation of a gap occurs under special conditions, its consequences on the dynamic behavior of the reactor can cause unexpected responses during fast transients. Nevertheless, the strong Doppler feedback forces the reactor to quickly stabilize.

  4. Experimental Investigation of A Twin Shaft Micro Gas-Turbine System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadig, Hussain; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Ibrahim, Idris

    2013-06-01

    Due to the fast depletion of fossil fuels and its negative impact on the environment, more attention has been concentrated to find new resources, policies and technologies, which meet the global needs with regard to fuel sustainability and emissions. In this paper, as a step to study the effect of burning low calorific value fuels on gas-turbine performance; a 50 kW slightly pressurized non-premixed tubular combustor along with turbocharger based twin shaft micro gas-turbine was designed and fabricated. A series of tests were conducted to characterize the system using LPG fuel. The tests include the analysis of the temperature profile, pressure and combustor efficiency as well as air fuel ratio and speed of the second turbine. The tests showed a stable operation with acceptable efficiency, air fuel ratio, and temperature gradient for the single and twin shaft turbines.

  5. Micro computed tomography and CFD simulation of drop deposition on gas diffusion layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilizzoni, M.; Santini, M.; Lorenzi, M.; Knisel, V.; Fest-Santini, S.

    2014-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical power generation system which may achieve high energy efficiencies with environmentally friendly emissions. Among the different types, Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) seem at present one of the most promising choices. A very important component of a PEMFC is the gas diffusion layer (GDL), which has the primary role of managing water in the cell, allowing reactant gases transport to the catalyst layer while keeping the membrane correctly hydrated and preventing electrode flooding. Therefore, GDLs have to be porous and very hydrophobic. Carbon clothes or carbon papers coated with a hydrophobizing agent – typically a fluoropolymer – are used. Given the complex chemistry and morphology of the GDLs, wettability analyses on them present some critical issues when using the conventional contact angle measurement techniques. In this paper, the deposition of a drop on a GDL (produced using polytetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoroalcoxy vinyl ether as the fluorinated polymer) was investigated by means of micro computed tomography (microCT) and numerical simulation. The microCT facility operational at the University of Bergamo was used to acquire a 3D tomography of a water drop deposed on a sample GDL. The reconstructed drop dataset allows thorough understanding of the real drop shape, of its contact area and contact line. The GDL dataset was used to create a realistic mesh for the numerical simulation of the drop deposition, which was performed using the OpenFOAM® interFOAM solver.

  6. Investigation of the frequency shift of a SAD circuit loop and the internal micro-cantilever in a gas sensor.

    PubMed

    Guan, Liu; Zhao, Jiahao; Yu, Shijie; Li, Peng; You, Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Micro-cantilever sensors for mass detection using resonance frequency have attracted considerable attention over the last decade in the field of gas sensing. For such a sensing system, an oscillator circuit loop is conventionally used to actuate the micro-cantilever, and trace the frequency shifts. In this paper, gas experiments are introduced to investigate the mechanical resonance frequency shifts of the micro-cantilever within the circuit loop(mechanical resonance frequency, MRF) and resonating frequency shifts of the electric signal in the oscillator circuit (system working frequency, SWF). A silicon beam with a piezoelectric zinc oxide layer is employed in the experiment, and a Self-Actuating-Detecting (SAD) circuit loop is built to drive the micro-cantilever and to follow the frequency shifts. The differences between the two resonating frequencies and their shifts are discussed and analyzed, and a coefficient ? related to the two frequency shifts is confirmed. PMID:22163588

  7. Silicon-Based Semiconductor Heterostructures: Column IV Bandgap Engineering

    E-print Network

    Bean, John C.

    Silicon-Based Semiconductor Heterostructures: Column IV Bandgap Engineering JOHN C. BEAN, FELLOW, IEEE Invited Paper Semiconductor heterostructures greatly enhance the range of possible device the electrical or chemical quality of Si02 [3].These compound semiconductor heterostructures have thus achieved

  8. Ultrafast silicon-based active plasmonics at telecom wavelengths

    E-print Network

    Van Driel, Henry M.

    Ultrafast silicon-based active plasmonics at telecom wavelengths Jan N. Caspers,1,2,* Nir Rotenberg pulses we demonstrate an ultrafast spectral shift to a surface plasmon polariton coupling resonance recombination. ©2010 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (230.4110) Modulators; (240.6680) Surface plasmons

  9. Visualisation by high resolution synchrotron X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography of gas films on submerged superhydrophobic leaves.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, Torsten; Glavina, Kyriaki; Colmer, Timothy David; Winkel, Anders; Irvine, Sarah; Lefmann, Kim; Feidenhans'l, Robert; Pedersen, Ole

    2014-10-01

    Floods can completely submerge terrestrial plants but some wetland species can sustain O2 and CO2 exchange with the environment via gas films forming on superhydrophobic leaf surfaces. We used high resolution synchrotron X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography in a novel approach to visualise gas films on submerged leaves of common cordgrass (Spartina anglica). 3D tomograms enabled a hitherto unmatched level of detail regarding the micro-topography of leaf gas films. Gas films formed only on the superhydrophobic adaxial leaf side (water droplet contact angle, ?=162°) but not on the abaxial side (?=135°). The adaxial side of the leaves of common cordgrass is plicate with a longitudinal system of parallel grooves and ridges and the vast majority of the gas film volume was found in large ?180?m deep elongated triangular volumes in the grooves and these volumes were connected to each neighbouring groove via a fine network of gas tubules (?1.7?m diameter) across the ridges. In addition to the gas film retained on the leaf exterior, the X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography also successfully distinguished gas spaces internally in the leaf tissues, and the tissue porosity (gas volume per unit tissue volume) ranged from 6.3% to 20.3% in tip and base leaf segments, respectively. We conclude that X-ray phase contrast micro-tomography is a powerful tool to obtain quantitative data of exterior gas features on biological samples because of the significant difference in electron density between air, biological tissues and water. PMID:25175398

  10. 78 FR 21100 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Dow Corning Corporation (Silicon-Based Products); Midland, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...Subzone Status; Dow Corning Corporation (Silicon-Based Products); Midland, MI Pursuant...certain manufacturing authority at the silicon- based products manufacturing facility...activity related to the manufacturing of silicon-based products at the facility of...

  11. Micro/Nano gas sensors: a new strategy towards in-situ wafer-level fabrication of high-performance gas sensing chips.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lei; Dai, Zhengfei; Duan, Guotao; Guo, Lianfeng; Wang, Yi; Zhou, Hong; Liu, Yanxiang; Cai, Weiping; Wang, Yuelin; Li, Tie

    2015-01-01

    Nano-structured gas sensing materials, in particular nanoparticles, nanotubes, and nanowires, enable high sensitivity at a ppb level for gas sensors. For practical applications, it is highly desirable to be able to manufacture such gas sensors in batch and at low cost. We present here a strategy of in-situ wafer-level fabrication of the high-performance micro/nano gas sensing chips by naturally integrating microhotplatform (MHP) with nanopore array (NPA). By introducing colloidal crystal template, a wafer-level ordered homogenous SnO2 NPA is synthesized in-situ on a 4-inch MHP wafer, able to produce thousands of gas sensing units in one batch. The integration of micromachining process and nanofabrication process endues micro/nano gas sensing chips at low cost, high throughput, and with high sensitivity (down to ~20?ppb), fast response time (down to ~1?s), and low power consumption (down to ~30?mW). The proposed strategy of integrating MHP with NPA represents a versatile approach for in-situ wafer-level fabrication of high-performance micro/nano gas sensors for real industrial applications. PMID:26001035

  12. High pressure micro glow discharge: Detailed approach to gas temperature modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobli, Mostafa; Farouk, Tanvir

    2014-10-01

    High pressure micro plasma discharge has been the center of interest in recent years, unlike low pressure discharges; gas heating is an important factor in these discharges. A Dirichlet temperature boundary condition (iso-thermal) which is the most commonly used, is unable to capture the cathode and anode wall temperature temporal changes, effects of materials thermal characteristics and also forces an artificial cooling of the discharge. To overcome this inadequacy a conjugate heat transfer (CHT) model has been implemented which is found to resolve the gas temperature predictions both in the volume and the electrode surfaces more accurately. The implemented CHT model increases the overall computational overhead due to resolution of the temperature field in the solid phase, hence a novel temperature boundary condition has been proposed that resolves a temporally evolving electrode surface temperature without implicitly solving the temperature in the solid phase. Comparison with the experimental results shows that these two new approaches are able to predict an agreeable gas temperature distribution. The effect of pressure on the discharge characteristics also has been studied. Work was supported by DARPA under Army Research Office (ARO) Grant No. W911NF1210007.

  13. Aging studies on micro-fabricated alkali buffer-gas cells for miniature atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, S.; Affolderbach, C.; Gruet, F.; Mileti, G.

    2015-04-01

    We report an aging study on micro-fabricated alkali vapor cells using neon as a buffer gas. An experimental atomic clock setup is used to measure the cell's intrinsic frequency, by recording the clock frequency shift at different light intensities and extrapolating to zero intensity. We find a drift of the cell's intrinsic frequency of (-5.2 ± 0.6) × 10-11/day and quantify deterministic variations in sources of clock frequency shifts due to the major physical effects to identify the most probable cause of the drift. The measured drift is one order of magnitude stronger than the total frequency variations expected from clock parameter variations and corresponds to a slow reduction of buffer gas pressure inside the cell, which is compatible with the hypothesis of loss of Ne gas from the cell due to its permeation through the cell windows. A negative drift on the intrinsic cell frequency is reproducible for another cell of the same type. Based on the Ne permeation model and the measured cell frequency drift, we determine the permeation constant of Ne through borosilicate glass as (5.7 ± 0.7) × 10-22 m2 s-1 Pa-1 at 81 °C. We propose this method based on frequency metrology in an alkali vapor cell atomic clock setup based on coherent population trapping for measuring permeation constants of inert gases.

  14. Fault Diagnosis for Micro-Gas Turbine Engine Sensors via Wavelet Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bing; Liu, Dongdong; Zhang, Tianhong

    2011-01-01

    Sensor fault diagnosis is necessary to ensure the normal operation of a gas turbine system. However, the existing methods require too many resources and this need can’t be satisfied in some occasions. Since the sensor readings are directly affected by sensor state, sensor fault diagnosis can be performed by extracting features of the measured signals. This paper proposes a novel fault diagnosis method for sensors based on wavelet entropy. Based on the wavelet theory, wavelet decomposition is utilized to decompose the signal in different scales. Then the instantaneous wavelet energy entropy (IWEE) and instantaneous wavelet singular entropy (IWSE) are defined based on the previous wavelet entropy theory. Subsequently, a fault diagnosis method for gas turbine sensors is proposed based on the results of a numerically simulated example. Then, experiments on this method are carried out on a real micro gas turbine engine. In the experiment, four types of faults with different magnitudes are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnosis is efficient. PMID:22163734

  15. Analytical estimation of neutron yield in a micro gas-puff X pinch

    SciTech Connect

    Derzon, M. S.; Galambos, P. C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Hagen, E. C. [NSTec, North Las Vegas, Nevada 89031 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present the basic concepts for developing a micro x pinch as a small-scale neutron source. For compact sources, these concepts offer repetitive function at higher yields and pulsing rates than competing methods. The uniqueness of these concepts arises from the use of microelectronic technology to reduce the size of the target plasma and to efficiently heat the target gas. The use of repetitive microelectromechanical systems (MEMs) gas puff technology, as compared to cryogenic wires or solid targets (for the beam-target alternatives), has the potential to be robust and have a long lifetime because the plasma is not created from solid surfaces. The modeling suggests that a 50 J at the wall plug pulse could provide >10{sup 5} tritium (DT) neutrons and 10{sup 3} deuterium (DD) neutrons at temperatures of a few keV. At 1 kHz, this would be >10{sup 8} and 10{sup 6} neutrons per second, DT and DD, respectively, with a 250 {mu}m anode-cathode gap. DT gas puff devices may provide >10{sup 12} neutrons/s operating at 1 kHz and requiring 100 kW. The MEMs approach offers potentially high pulse rates and yields.

  16. Rarefied gas flow behavior in micro/nanochannels under specified wall heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaj, Mojtaba; Akhlaghi, Hassan; Roohi, Ehsan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of convective heat transfer on the argon gas flow through micro/nanochannels subject to uniform wall heat flux (UWH) boundary condition using the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Both the hot wall (qwall > 0) and the cold wall (qwall < 0) cases are considered. We consider the effect of wall heat flux on the centerline pressure, velocity profile and mass flow rate through the channel in the slip regime. The effects of rarefaction, property variations and compressibility are considered. We show that UWH boundary condition leads to the thermal transpiration. Our investigations showed that this thermal transpiration enhances the heat transfer rate at the walls in the case of hot walls and decreases it where the walls are being cooled. We also show that the deviation of the centerline pressure distribution from the linear distribution depends on the direction of the wall heat flux.

  17. Rarefied-gas heat transfer in micro- and nanoscale Couette flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W. D.; Liu, B.; Yu, S. K.; Hua, W.

    2010-01-01

    The physics of the heat conduction and viscous dissipation in rarefied gases is analyzed and discussed. A heat transfer model valid for arbitrary Knudsen numbers, defined as the ratio of the molecular mean free path to the characteristic length of channels, is derived by treating the heat transfer behavior in the slip and transition regimes as an intermediate function of continuum heat transfer model and free molecular heat transfer model. Comparison studies reveal that this model not only shows good agreement with the numerical results based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, but also has some unique features that can overcome the deficiencies existing in the previous models. Therefore, this model is capable to study the heat transport phenomena in very dilute gas Couette flows through micro/nanochannels more accurately.

  18. Investigation of combustion in miniaturised combustor for application to micro gas turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidez, J.; Roux, P.; Poirson, N.; Jourdanneau, E.; Orain, M.; Grisch, F.

    2009-09-01

    Assessing the feasibility of combustion in miniaturised combustors (volume less than 1 cm3) is a key point for the development of micro gas turbines. This paper presents the results obtained in a combustion chamber operating with a hydrogen-air mixture. A stable combustion was obtained with an output power between 100 and 1200 W, for air mass flow rate from 0.1 to 0.5 g/s, and equivalence ratio between 0.3 and 0.7. Experimental results were obtained using thermocouples to measure temperature of the burnt gases at the outlet of the combustor, and information on combustion efficiency and output power was derived. In addition, laser-based measurements were performed using spontaneous Raman spectroscopy and Rayleigh scattering to determine radial profiles of temperature and main species concentrations at the outlet of the combustor.

  19. Development of two-dimensional micro-pixel gas chamber capable of individual line readout for neutron measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Toh; H. Yamagishi; K. Sakasai; T. Nakamura; K. Soyama

    2009-01-01

    An improved micro-pixel detector element that showed high voltage tolerance was fabricated, and irradiation experiments using a Cf-252 neutron source were conducted on it. A gas-based neutron detection system capable of individual line readout, consisting of the developed detector element, gas chamber, amplifier-shaper-discriminator boards, optical signal transmission device, and a fast data acquisition device, was constructed for the experiment. The

  20. Exchange in silicon-based quantum computer architecture.

    PubMed

    Koiller, Belita; Hu, Xuedong; Das Sarma, S

    2002-01-14

    The silicon-based quantum computer proposal has been one of the actively pursued ideas during the past three years. Here we calculate the donor electron exchange in silicon and germanium, and demonstrate an atomic-scale challenge for quantum computing in Si (and Ge), as the six (four) conduction-band minima in Si (Ge) lead to intervalley electronic interference, generating strong oscillations in the exchange splitting of two-donor two-electron states. Donor positioning with atomic-scale precision within the unit cell thus becomes a decisive factor in determining the strength of the exchange coupling-a fundamental ingredient for two-qubit operations in a silicon-based quantum computer. PMID:11801039

  1. A silicon-based cluster state quantum computer

    E-print Network

    Morton, John J L

    2009-01-01

    It has been over ten years since Kane's influential proposal for a silicon-based nuclear spin quantum computer using phosphorous donors. Since then, silicon-based architectures have been refined as the experimental challenges associated with the original proposal have become better understood, while simultaneously a number of powerful and generic models for quantum computation have emerged. Here, I discuss how the cluster state or "one-way" model for quantum computing might be advantageously applied to donors in silicon, with the potential to substantially reduce the practical requirements of a successful implementation. The essence of the scheme is to use the electron spin associated with a donor to weave an entangled network between 31P donor nuclear spins. This resource has been shown to have exceptional coherence times and supports universal quantum computation through local measurements on the nuclear spins. Some of the key ingredients, such as global spin manipulation, have been robustly established, wh...

  2. Micro-Simulation Models of Urban Regions: Anticipating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transport and Housing in Austin, Texas

    E-print Network

    Kockelman, Kara M.

    of the light duty vehicle fleet, residential building stock and travel decisions of persons and businessesMicro-Simulation Models of Urban Regions: Anticipating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Transport and firm travel and building decisions. This paper demonstrates the development and application

  3. Silicone-based Composite for Relining of Removable Dental Prosthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Cazacu; Carmen Racles; Angelica Vlad; Magda Antohe; Norina Forna

    2009-01-01

    A high molecular weight dimethylmethylvinylsiloxane copolymer (Mv = 450, 000) has been synthesized, analyzed, and used as matrix to prepare a composite by mixing with a proper amount of silica. A mixture of Fe2O 3\\/TiO2 was added to obtain a color close to the natural. 2,4-Dichlorobenzoyl peroxide was also incorporated as a crosslinking catalyst. This heat curable silicone-based formulation was

  4. Corrosion of silicon-based ceramics in combustion environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathan S. Jacobson

    1993-01-01

    Silicon-based ceramics and composites are prime candidates for heat engines and heat exchanger structural components. In such applications these materials are exposed to combustion gases and deposit-forming corrodents. In this paper combustion environments are defined for various applications. These environments lead to five main types of corrosive degradation: passive oxidation, deposit-induced corrosion, active oxidation, scale\\/substrate interactions, and scale volatility. Each

  5. Silicon-Based Microring Resonator Modulators for Intensity Modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Zhang; Yunchu Li; Jeng-Yuan Yang; Muping Song; Raymond G. Beausoleil; Alan E. Willner

    2010-01-01

    We numerically analyze the characteristics of silicon-based microring modulators consisting of a single-ring resonator. Performance of the devices as digital intensity modulators is examined in terms of extinction ratio, pulsewidth, frequency chirp, spectral broadening, and signal quality. Three types of the modulators built in single-waveguide under-\\/overcoupling and dual-waveguide configurations are discussed. We show that cavity dynamics significantly affect the modulation

  6. A silicon-based shear force sensor: development and characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin Wang; David J. Beebe

    2000-01-01

    A silicon-based shear force sensitive sensor is developed using microfabrication technology. Four ion-implanted piezoresistors are embedded in a silicon diaphragm and used as independent strain gauges. An epoxy mesa is built-up on top of the diaphragm to convert an applied force to a distributed stress. Both the normal and the shear components of an applied force can be resolved from

  7. X-ray Polarization Measurements with a Micro-pattern Gas Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. E.; Black, J. K.; Deines-Jones, P.; Jahoda, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Costa, E.; Kaaret, P.; Minuti, M.; Spandre, G.; Swank, J. H.

    2006-01-01

    The benefits of Astrophysical X-ray polarization measurements have been discussed in the literature for decades and with respect to a variety of detectors. Despite this, a dedicated polarimeter for the measurement of Astrophysical sources has not flown since the 1970's, when the definitive measurement of the Crab Nebula was made. More recently, an indirect measurement of the polarization of two gamma-ray bursts has been extracted from BATSE data, re-emphasizing the importance of polarization measurements in constraining a physical model. We describe a sensitive and, and extremely versatile, photoelectric polarimeter using a micro-pattern gas detector, with an 80micron pixel ASIC anode, to image the primary photoelectron track. The detector can be optimized to a preferred energy range between 1 keV and 50 keV. We present measurements of polarized 4.5 keV X-rays and unpolarized 6 keV X-rays obtained with a prototype detector using Carbon Dioxide gas.

  8. Micro-machined planar field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometer as a gas chromatographic detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiceman, G. A.; Nazarov, E. G.; Miller, R. A.; Krylov, E. V.; Zapata, A. M.

    2002-01-01

    A planar high field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometer (PFAIMS) with a micro-machined drift tube was characterized as a detector for capillary gas chromatography. The performance of the PFAIMS was compared directly to that of a flame ionization detector (FID) for the separation of a ketone mixture from butanone to decanone. Effluent from the column was continuously sampled by the detector and mobility scans could be obtained throughout the chromatographic analysis providing chemical inforrmation in mobility scans orthogonal to retention time. Limits of detection were approximately I ng for measurement of positive ions and were comparable or slightly better than those for the FID. Direct comparison of calibration curves for the FAIMS and the FID was possible over four orders of magnitude with a semi-log plot. The concentration dependence of the PFAIMS mobility scans showed the dependence between ion intensity and ion clustering, evident in other mobility spectrometers and atmospheric pressure ionization technologies. Ions were identified using mass spectrometry as the protonated monomer and the proton bound dimer of the ketones. Residence time for column effluent in the PFAIMS was calculated as approximately 1 ms and a 36% increase in extra-column broadening versus the FID occurred with the PFAIMS.

  9. Micro and nano-scale hollow TiO 2 fibers by coaxial electrospinning: Preparation and gas sensing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Zhang; Sun-Woo Choi; Sang Sub Kim

    2011-01-01

    We report the preparation of micro- and nano-scale hollow TiO2 fibers using a coaxial electrospinning technique and their gas sensing properties in terms of CO. The diameter of hollow TiO2 fibers can be controlled from 200nm to several micrometers by changing the viscosity of electrospinning solutions. Lower viscosities produce slim hollow nanofibers. In contrast, fat hollow microfibers are obtained in

  10. Analysis of design and part load performance of micro gas turbine\\/organic Rankine cycle combined systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joon Hee Lee; Tong Seop Kim

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the design and part load performance of a power generation system combining a micro gas turbine (MGT)\\u000a and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Design performances of cycles adopting several different organic fluids are analyzed and\\u000a compared with performance of the steam based cycle. All of the organic fluids recover greater MGT exhaust heat than the steam\\u000a cycle

  11. Low-pressure micro-strip gas chamber and a search for a high-efficiency secondary-electron emitter

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States). Particle Detector Group; Sbarra, C. [INFN-Pisa (Italy)

    1994-11-01

    The test beam performance of a low-pressure micro-strip gas chamber with a thick CsI secondary-electron emitting surface as the source of primary ionization is presented. A study of the secondary-electron yield of CsI and KCl coated surfaces are discussed, as well as a promising new technique, CsI-treated CVD diamond films.

  12. Fabrication of a gas sensor array with micro-wells for VOCs gas sensing based on polymer/carbon nanotube thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guangzhong; Xie, Tao; Zhu, Tao; Jiang, Yadong; Tai, Huiling

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, gas sensor array with micro-well was designed and prepared by Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. The micro-well and interdigital electrodes of sensor array were prepared using photolithography process, reactive ion etching (RIE) process, wet etching and conventional vacuum evaporation. In the manufacture process of the gas sensor array, KOH wet etching process was mainly discussed. The optimum etching processing parameters were as follows: 30 wt% KOH solution at 80 °C, a cooling back-flow device and a magnetic stirrer. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)-polyethyleneoxide (PEO) and MWNTs-Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) composite films were utilized as sensitive layers to test gas-sensing properties. Response performances of MWCNTs- PEO and MWNTs-PVP composite films to toluene vapor and methanol vapor at room temperature were investigated. The results revealed that the sensor array showed a larger sensitivity to toluene vapor than to methanol vapor. In addition, the sensing mechanisms were studied as well.

  13. Cooling performance of silicon-based thermoelectric device on high power LED

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jen-Hau Cheng; Chun-Kai Liu; Yu-Lin Chao; Ra-Min Tain

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a new thermal management application of silicon-based thermoelectric (TE) device on high power LED is unveiled. The silicon-based TE device is fabricated by the microfabrication and flip-chip assembly process. Thermal images photographed by infrared camera demonstrate the cooling function of the silicon-based TE devices. Because the LED chip is encapsulated in a package, the junction temperature of

  14. A silicon-based cluster state quantum computer

    E-print Network

    John J. L. Morton

    2009-05-25

    It has been over ten years since Kane's influential proposal for a silicon-based nuclear spin quantum computer using phosphorous donors. Since then, silicon-based architectures have been refined as the experimental challenges associated with the original proposal have become better understood, while simultaneously a number of powerful and generic models for quantum computation have emerged. Here, I discuss how the cluster state or "one-way" model for quantum computing might be advantageously applied to donors in silicon, with the potential to substantially reduce the practical requirements of a successful implementation. The essence of the scheme is to use the electron spin associated with a donor to weave an entangled network between 31P donor nuclear spins. This resource has been shown to have exceptional coherence times and supports universal quantum computation through local measurements on the nuclear spins. Some of the key ingredients, such as global spin manipulation, have been robustly established, while others, such as single spin measurement, have seen much progress in recent years. A key challenge will be the demonstration of electron transfer between donors that preserves spin coherence.

  15. Electroluminescence efficiencies of erbium in silicon-based hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Cueff, Sébastien, E-mail: sebastien-cueff@brown.edu, E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France) [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France); School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Manel Ramírez, Joan; Berencén, Yonder; Garrido, Blas [MIND-IN2UB, Department Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain)] [MIND-IN2UB, Department Electrònica, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Zia, Rashid [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States) [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States); Rizk, Richard; Labbé, Christophe, E-mail: sebastien-cueff@brown.edu, E-mail: christophe.labbe@ensicaen.fr [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France)] [Centre de Recherche sur les Ions, les Matériaux et la Photonique (CIMAP), UMR 6252 CNRS/CEA/Ensicaen/UCBN, Caen 14050 (France)

    2013-11-04

    We report on room-temperature 1.5??m electroluminescence from trivalent erbium (Er{sup 3+}) ions embedded in three different CMOS-compatible silicon-based hosts: SiO{sub 2}, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, and SiN{sub x}. We show that although the insertion of either nitrogen or excess silicon helps enhance electrical conduction and reduce the onset voltage for electroluminescence, it drastically decreases the external quantum efficiency of Er{sup 3+} ions from 2% in SiO{sub 2} to 0.001% and 0.0004% in SiN{sub x} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, respectively. Furthermore, we present strong evidence that hot carrier injection is significantly more efficient than defect-assisted conduction for the electrical excitation of Er{sup 3+} ions. These results suggest strategies to optimize the engineering of on-chip electrically excited silicon-based nanophotonic light sources.

  16. Effect of surrounding gas condition on surface integrity in micro-drilling of SiC by ns pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Asako, Kiichi; Nishi, Norio; Sakagawa, Tomokazu; Okada, Akira

    2015-06-01

    The influence of the surrounding gas conditions on the surface integrity in the micro-drilling of silicon carbide was experimentally investigated using ns pulsed laser of 266 nm wavelength. Moreover, micro-machining characteristics were observed using high-speed shutter and video cameras in the micro-drilling of silicon carbide. The size and intensity of the laser-induced plasma were larger, and the plasma affected area was larger and deeper in argon than that in air. Although the intensity of the plasma was lower in helium than that in other gases, the surface around the drilled hole was roughened by the spread of the plasma in the vicinity of the drilled hole. Debris was removed along the flow field generated by laser shot in the opposite direction to the laser irradiation. The gas flow behavior and the spectrum and intensity of the laser-induced plasma were influenced by the surrounding gas type and pressure. The appearance of plasma generation affected the surface integrity at the circumference of the drilled hole, and the surface integrity was improved by reducing the pressure.

  17. Measurement of Gas-Liquid Two-Phase Flow in Micro-Pipes by a Capacitance Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Haifeng; Li, Huajun; Huang, Zhiyao; Wang, Baoliang; Li, Haiqing

    2014-01-01

    A capacitance measurement system is developed for the measurement of gas-liquid two-phase flow in glass micro-pipes with inner diameters of 3.96, 2.65 and 1.56 mm, respectively. As a typical flow regime in a micro-pipe two-phase flow system, slug flow is chosen for this investigation. A capacitance sensor is designed and a high-resolution and high-speed capacitance measurement circuit is used to measure the small capacitance signals based on the differential sampling method. The performance and feasibility of the capacitance method are investigated and discussed. The capacitance signal is analyzed, which can reflect the voidage variation of two-phase flow. The gas slug velocity is determined through a cross-correlation technique using two identical capacitance sensors. The simulation and experimental results show that the presented capacitance measurement system is successful. Research work also verifies that the capacitance sensor is an effective method for the measurement of gas liquid two-phase flow parameters in micro-pipes. PMID:25587879

  18. Microfabricated thermal modulator for comprehensive two-dimensional micro gas chromatography: design, thermal modeling, and preliminary testing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jin; Reidy, Shaelah M; Block, Bruce P; Wise, Kensall D; Zellers, Edward T; Kurabayashi, Katsuo

    2010-07-01

    In comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC), a modulator is placed at the juncture between two separation columns to focus and re-inject eluting mixture components, thereby enhancing the resolution and the selectivity of analytes. As part of an effort to develop a microGC x microGC prototype, in this report we present the design, fabrication, thermal operation, and initial testing of a two-stage microscale thermal modulator (microTM). The microTM contains two sequential serpentine Pyrex-on-Si microchannels (stages) that cryogenically trap analytes eluting from the first-dimension column and thermally inject them into the second-dimension column in a rapid, programmable manner. For each modulation cycle (typically 5 s for cooling with refrigeration work of 200 J and 100 ms for heating at 10 W), the microTM is kept approximately at -50 degrees C by a solid-state thermoelectric cooling unit placed within a few tens of micrometres of the device, and heated to 250 degrees C at 2800 degrees C s(-1) by integrated resistive microheaters and then cooled back to -50 degrees C at 250 degrees C s(-1). Thermal crosstalk between the two stages is less than 9%. A lumped heat transfer model is used to analyze the device design with respect to the rates of heating and cooling, power dissipation, and inter-stage thermal crosstalk as a function of Pyrex-membrane thickness, air-gap depth, and stage separation distance. Experimental results are in agreement with trends predicted by the model. Preliminary tests using a conventional capillary column interfaced to the microTM demonstrate the capability for enhanced sensitivity and resolution as well as the modulation of a mixture of alkanes. PMID:20556268

  19. Theory for hydrostatic gas journal bearings for micro-electro-mechanical systems

    E-print Network

    Liu, Lixian, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the MIT micro-engine project is to develop high-speed rotating Power MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) using computer chip fabrication technologies. To produce high power (10-50 W) in a small volume (less ...

  20. Silicon-Based Optical Modulator with Ferroelectric Layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    According to a proposal, a silicon dioxide layer in a high-speed, low-power, silicon- based electro-optical modulator would be replaced by a layer of lead zirconate titanate or other ferroelectric oxide material. The purpose of this modification is to enhance the power performance and functionality of the modulator. In its unmodified form, the particular silicon- based electro-optical modulator is of an advanced design that overcomes the speed limitation of prior silicon-based electro- optical modulators. Whereas modulation frequencies of such devices had been limited to about 20 MHz, this modulator can operate at modulation frequencies as high as 1 GHz. This modulator can be characterized as a silicon-waveguide-based metal oxide/semiconductor (MOS) capacitor phase shifter in which modulation of the index of refraction in silicon is obtained by exploiting the free-charge-carrier-plasma dispersion effect. As shown in the figure, the modulator includes an n-doped crystalline silicon slab (the silicon layer of a silicon- on-insulator wafer) and a p-doped polycrystalline silicon rib with a gate oxide layer (the aforementioned silicon dioxide layer) sandwiched between them. Under accumulation conditions, the majority charge carriers in the silicon waveguide modify the index of refraction so that a phase shift is induced in the optical mode propagating in the waveguide. The advantage of using an MOS capacitor phase shifter is that it is possible to achieve high modulation speed because there are no slow carrier-generation or -recombination processes involved in the accumulation operation. The main advantage of the proposed substitution of a ferroelectric oxide layer for the silicon dioxide layer would arise from the spontaneous polarization effect of the ferroelectric layer: This spontaneous polarization would maintain accumulation conditions in the absence of applied voltage. Consequently, once the device had been switched to a given optical state, it would remain in that state, even in the absence of applied voltage (in other words, even with power turned off). A secondary advantage is that because the ferroelectric layer would have an index of refraction larger than that of silicon dioxide, there could be some reduction of optical losses attributable to fabrication of the modulator

  1. Original Research Article Influence of anodic gas recirculation on solid oxide fuel cells in a micro

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    of fresh fuel and exhaust gas. It is also important to note that the anode off-gas recycle accomplishes Anode off-gas recycle a b s t r a c t The recycle of anode depleted gas has been employed in solid oxide configuration without the use of anode off-gas recycling is compared with a configuration which includes

  2. The influence of the gas environment on morphology and chemical composition of surfaces micro-machined with a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehr, Jorge; de Marchi, Fabrizio; Matus, Luke; MacLeod, Jennifer; Rosei, Federico; Kietzig, Anne-Marie

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the influence of different gas environments on the fabrication of surfaces, homogeneously covered with equally sized and spaced micro-structures. Two types of structures have been successfully micro-machined with a femtosecond laser on titanium surfaces in various atmospheres. The surface chemistry of samples machined in oxygen and helium shows TiO2, while machining in nitrogen leads to an additional share of TiN. The actual surface structure was found to vary significantly as a function of the gas environment. We found that the ablated particles and their surface triggered two consecutive events: The optical properties of the gas environment became non-isotropic which then led to the pulse intensity being redistributed throughout the cross section of the laser beam. Additionally, the effective intensity was further reduced for TiN surfaces due to TiN's high reflectivity. Thus, the settings for the applied raster-scanning machining method had to be adjusted for each gas environment to produce comparable structures. In contrast to previous studies, where only noble gases were found suitable to produce homogeneous patches, we obtained them in an oxygen environment.

  3. Brillouin scattering from porous silicon-based optical Bragg mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, L. C.; Andrews, G. T.

    2012-06-01

    Brillouin light scattering experiments were done on porous silicon-based optical Bragg mirrors with modulation wavelengths of ˜100 nm. By using a combination of pseudo-reflection and backscattering geometries, phonon dispersion curves along the superlattice modulation axis were mapped. Excellent agreement is obtained with the bulk acoustic mode band structure calculated using a one-dimensional elastic continuum model. In addition to zone-folding of the bulk longitudinal mode dispersion curve, the samples are marked by a surface-localized acoustic mode at the superlattice-air interface. The frequency of this mode lies near the upper edge of a phononic band gap centered at ˜16 GHz. These results, along with optical reflectance data showing visible-range photonic band gaps, reveal that these samples are one-dimensional hypersonic phononic-photonic crystals.

  4. Optical properties of porous-silicon-based structures with modified nanodiamond films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzova, V. A.; Korets, A. Ya.; Merkushev, F. F.; Semenova, O. V.

    2015-02-01

    We have studied the optical properties of silicon-based sandwich structures with diamond-like films deposited by electrophoresis from aqueous suspensions of modified detonation nanodiamonds. It is shown that these films can be used as antireflection and protective coatings for silicon-based solar cells.

  5. In-situ formation of nanoparticles within a silicon-based matrix

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G. (Albuquerque, NM); Wilcoxon, Jess P. (Albuquerque, NM); Abrams, Billie L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-06-10

    A method for encapsulating nanoparticles with an encapsulating matrix that minimizes aggregation and maintains favorable properties of the nanoparticles. The matrix comprises silicon-based network-forming compounds such as ormosils and polysiloxanes. The nanoparticles are synthesized from precursors directly within the silicon-based matrix.

  6. A Highly Tunable Silicone-Based Magnetic Elastomer with Nanoscale Homogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Benjamin A.; Fiser, Briana L.; Prins, Willem J.; Rapp, Daniel J.; Shields, Adam R.; Glass, Daniel R.; Superfine, R.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic elastomers have been widely pursued for sensing and actuation applications. Silicone-based magnetic elastomers have a number of advantages over other materials such as hydrogels, but aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles within silicones is difficult to prevent. Aggregation inherently limits the minimum size of fabricated structures and leads to non-uniform response from structure to structure. We have developed a novel material which is a complex of a silicone polymer (polydimethylsiloxane-co-aminopropylmethylsiloxane) adsorbed onto the surface of magnetite (?-Fe203) nanoparticles 7–10 nm in diameter. The material is homogenous at very small length scales (< 100 nm) and can be crosslinked to form a flexible, magnetic material which is ideally suited for the fabrication of micro- to nanoscale magnetic actuators. The loading fraction of magnetic nanoparticles in the composite can be varied smoothly from 0 – 50% wt. without loss of homogeneity, providing a simple mechanism for tuning actuator response. We evaluate the material properties of the composite across a range of nanoparticle loading, and demonstrate a magnetic-field-induced increase in compressive modulus as high as 300%. Furthermore, we implement a strategy for predicting the optimal nanoparticle loading for magnetic actuation applications, and show that our predictions correlate well with experimental findings. PMID:22184482

  7. Development of a hydrogen fuelled 1 kW ultra micro gas turbine with special respect to designing, testing and mapping of the µ-scale combustor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. E. Robinson; H. H.-W. Funke; P. Hendrick; E. Recker; J. Peirs

    2008-01-01

    This paper will provide an insight into the ongoing development of an ultra micro gas turbine rated for an estimated electrical power output of 1 kW. For a safe operation of this gas turbine with hydrogen as a fuel a new combustion chamber has to be developed and tested using the proven micromix burning principle. Detailed investigations on the burning

  8. Evaluation of micro flat-tube solid-oxide fuel cell modules using simple gas heating apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Toshiaki; Sumi, Hirofumi; Hamamoto, Koichi; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Fujishiro, Yoshinobu

    2014-12-01

    Micro flat-tube solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) modules consisting of 1 mm thick, 1.2 cm wide micro flat-tube SOFCs, gas manifold, and insulator have been fabricated and evaluated using simple gas heating apparatus. The cell consists of NiO - yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as an anode (flat-tube support), scandia stabilized zirconia (ScSZ) as an electrolyte, gadolinia doped ceria (GDC) for an interlayer, and (La, Sr)(Fe, Co)O3 (LSCF) - GDC as a cathode, which has been fabricated using cost effective extrusion technique and dip-coating technique. The cell has been investigated between 600 and 650 °C operating temperature and showed the power density at 0.75 V of 0.19 and 0.385 W cm-2, respectively. Using the cell, a five and ten-series modules were assembled and stored in insulator with small gas heaters powered by a 24 V power source for start-up. The module successfully operated using hydrogen and methane fuel.

  9. Characterisation of gas hydrates formation using a new high pressure Micro-DSC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Le Parlouër; Christine Dalmazzone; B. Herzhaft; L. Rousseau; C. Mathonat

    2004-01-01

    Gas hydrates are solid structures formed from water and gas under low temperature and high pressure conditions. Differential\\u000a scanning calorimeter, operating under high pressure, is a very useful technique for the determination of the thermodynamic\\u000a properties and the kinetics of gas hydrate formation. Specific gas tight controlled pressure vessels have to be used to obtain\\u000a the hydrate formation in complex

  10. Optimized temperature modulation of micro-hotplate gas sensors through pseudorandom binary sequences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Vergara; Eduard Llobet; Jesús Brezmes; Xavier Vilanova; Peter Ivanov; Isabel Gràcia; Carles Cané; Xavier Correig

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, modulating the working temperature of metal-oxide gas sensors has been one of the most widely used methods to enhance sensor selectivity. When the working temperature of a gas sensor is modulated, the kinetics of the gas-sensor interaction are altered, and this leads to characteristic response patterns. Many works have shown that it is possible to identify and

  11. Setting characteristics of silicone-based resilient denture liners.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Koichi; Arikawa, Hiroyuki; Kanie, Takahito; Ban, Seiji; Inoue, Mitsuko

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the setting characteristics of seven silicone-based resilient denture liners during setting. Maximum extrusion force--at the flow rate of 1 cm/min--ranged from 0.183 to 1.26 MPa. Working time and setting time ranged from 2.0 to 5.0 minutes and 1.9 to 6.8 minutes respectively. Consistency as described in JIS T6519-2000 was 32.4 to 46.5 mm. As normal load of 1 kgf was applied to a specimen held between two glass plates after mixing, the time at which film thickness reached up to 1 mm was 4.0 to 13.0 minutes at 23 degrees C and 2.2 to 5.5 minutes at 37 degrees C. These results suggested that the reaction rate of materials used in this study differed from one brand to another. Against this backdrop of differing reaction rates amongst brands, it is therefore vital that a denture liner material's setting characteristics be carefully considered whenever it is used in clinical dentistry to prevent any undesirable or unexpected results and outcome. PMID:15693163

  12. Reactions of silicon-based ceramics in mixed oxidation chlorination environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marra, John E.; Kreidler, Eric R.; Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fox, Dennis S.

    1988-01-01

    The reaction of silicon-based ceramics with 2 percent Cl2/Ar and 1 percent Cl2/1 percent to 20 percent O2/Ar at 950 C was studied with thermogravimetric analysis and high-pressure mass spectrometry. Pure Si, SiO2, several types of SiC, and Si3N4 were examined. The primary corrosion products were SiCl4(g) and SiO2(s) with smaller amounts of volatile silicon oxychlorides. The reactions appear to occur by chlorine penetration of the SiO2 layer, and gas-phase diffusion of the silicon chlorides away from the sample appears to be rate limiting. Pure SiO2 shows very little reaction with Cl2, SiC with excess Si is more reactive than the other materials with Cl2, whereas SiC with excess carbon is more reactive than the other materials with Cl2/O2. Si3N4 shows very little reaction with Cl2. These differences are explained on the basis of thermodynamic and microstructural factors.

  13. How I came across the silicon-based cross-coupling reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tamejiro Hiyama

    2002-01-01

    Briefly reviewed are the historical background, motivation for invention, and salient features of the silicon-based cross-coupling reaction, now simply called Hiyama Coupling, in addition to recent progress.

  14. Nested potassium hydroxide etching and protective coatings for silicon-based microreactors

    E-print Network

    de Mas, Nuria

    We have developed a multilayer, multichannel silicon-based microreactor that uses elemental fluorine as a reagent and generates hydrogen fluoride as a byproduct. Nested potassium hydroxide etching (using silicon nitride ...

  15. Canopy photosynthesis and transpiration in micro-gravity: Gas exchange measurements aboard Mir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Monje; G. E. Bingham; J. G. Carman; W. F. Campbell; F. B. Salisbury; B. K. Eames; V. Sytchev; M. A. Levinskikh; I. Podolsky

    2000-01-01

    The SVET Greenhouse on-board the Orbital Station Mir was used to measure canopy photosynthesis and transpiration rates for the first time in space. During the Greenhouse IIB experiment on Mir (June – January 1997), carbon and water vapor fluxes from two wheat (cv. Superdwarf) canopies were measured using the US developed Gas Exchange Measurement System (GEMS). Gas analyzers capable of

  16. Influence of the Adsorbent Material in the Performances of a Micro Gas Preconcentrator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. H. M. Camara; P. Breuil; D. Briand; L. Guillot; C. Pijolat; J. P. Viricelle; N. F. de Rooij

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of different adsorbents for the improvement of the performances of a gas preconcentrator by targeting the adsorption of a large range of volatiles organics compounds (VOCs) The objectives of this work are to find the adequate adsorbent for a given gas target in specific experimental conditions and to select an efficient deposition process. Results related

  17. Surface tension effects on adiabatic gas–liquid flow across micro pillars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santosh Krishnamurthy; Yoav Peles

    2009-01-01

    The effect of surface tension on adiabatic two-phase flow across a bank of 100?m diameter staggered circular micro pillars, 100?m long with pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.5, for Reynolds number between 5 and 50, was investigated. Experiments with ethanol were performed and compared to results with water. Flow maps revealed similar flow patterns, but the transition lines were different for the

  18. A Rapid, Micro FAME Preparation Method for Vegetable Oil Fatty Acid Analysis by Gas Chromatography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul K. Lall; Andrew Proctor; Vishal P. Jain

    2009-01-01

    A 30-min, micro-base-catalyzed method for vegetable oil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) preparation was developed using only\\u000a 1 mg of oil sample by limiting the solvent volumes used. This method was primarily developed to quickly analyze fatty acid\\u000a composition of CLA-rich soy oil but can be further applicable to pure vegetable oils. Existing base-catalyzed FAME preparation\\u000a methods are not appropriate to

  19. Recent Research on One-Dimensional Silicon-Based Semiconductor Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Structures, Properties and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhenyu Zhang; Rujia Zou; Li Yu; Junqing Hu

    2011-01-01

    The field of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and silicon-based 1D nanostructured heterostructures represent one of the most important research subjects within the nanomaterials family. A series of synthesis approaches of SiNWs and silicon-based 1D nanostructured heterostructures have been developed, and have garnered the greatest attention in the past decades for a variety of applications. This article provides an overview on recent

  20. Compact silicon-based wavelength-selective photonic integrated devices and the applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Daoxin; He, Sailing

    2009-02-01

    In wavelength-division multiplexing systems, it is important to develop various wavelength-selective components to have flexible and reconfigurable nodes. When using conventional optical waveguides with low index contrast, the sizes of these wavelength-selective components are usually several cm2, which is too large to integrate more components in a single wafer or chip. In order to improve the integration density and reduce the cost, it is desirable to minimize the component sizes. In our case, two kinds of strongly-confined optical waveguides on silicon wafer are considered for compact wavelength-selective devices. One is the popular silicon-on-insulator (SOI) nanowire and the other is SU-8 strip optical waveguide with an air cladding and a SiO2 insulator layer on a Si substrate. In this paper, we give a review of our recent work on wavelength-selective photonic integrated devices based on these two kinds of silicon-based optical waveguides with strong-confinements. Arrayed-waveguide grating (AWG) and microring resonator (MRR), which are two typical wavelength-selective components are included. First we give a review for several new layouts for SOI-nanowire AWG to have a further size-reduction and our novel designs for diminishing the polarization dependency of AWGs. Secondly we present the design and fabrication of multimode interference (MMI) couplers for MRRs. A novel design method for tapered MMI couplers is presented and the diminishment of polarization in a MMI coupler is proposed by optimizing the tapered MMI section. We also present our experimental results on optical sensor combining MRRs and micro-fluid channel. The measured sensitivity is about 180nm/RIU.

  1. Remote-Raman and Micro-Raman Studies of Solid CO2, CH4, Gas Hydrates and Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Lucey, P. G.; Exarhos, G. J.; Windisch, C. F., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that on Mars CO2 is the principal constituent of the thin atmosphere and on a seasonal basis CO2 snow and frost coats the polar caps. Also over 25% of the Martian atmosphere freezes out and sublimes again each year. The Mars Odyssey Emission Imaging system (THEMIS) has discovered water ice exposed near the edge of Mars southern perennials cap. In recent years, it has been suggested that in Martian subsurface CO2 may exist as gas hydrate (8CO2 + 44 H2O) with melting temperature of 10C. Since the crust of Mars has been stable for enough time there is also a possibility that methane formed by magmatic processes and/or as a byproduct of anaerobic deep biosphere activity to have raised toward the planet s surface. This methane would have been captured and stored as methane hydrate, which concentrates methane and water. Determination of abundance and distribution of these ices on the surface and in the near surface are of fundamental importance for understanding Martian atmosphere, and for future exploration of Mars. In this work, we have evaluated feasibility of using remote Raman and micro-Raman spectroscopy as potential nondestructive and non-contact techniques for detecting solid CO2, CH4 gas, and gas hydrates as well as water-ice on planetary surfaces.

  2. Fabrication of silicon-based shape memory alloy micro-actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, A. David; Busch, John D.; Ray, Curtis A.; Sloan, Charles L.

    1992-01-01

    Thin film shape memory alloy has been integrated with silicon in a new actuation mechanism for microelectromechanical systems. This paper compares nickel-titanium film with other actuators, describes recent results of chemical milling processes developed to fabricate shape memory alloy microactuators in silicon, and describes simple actuation mechanisms which have been fabricated and tested.

  3. Rapid determination of spore chemistry using thermochemolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jonathan S; Sephton, Mark A; Sephton, Sarah V; Self, Stephen; Fraser, Wesley T; Lomax, Barry H; Gilmour, Iain; Wellman, Charles H; Beerling, David J

    2007-06-01

    Spore chemistry is at the centre of investigations aimed at producing a proxy record of harmful ultraviolet radiation (UV-B) through time. A biochemical proxy is essential owing to an absence of long-term (century or more) instrumental records. Spore cell material contains UV-B absorbing compounds that appear to be synthesised in variable amounts dependent on the ambient UV-B flux. To facilitate these investigations we have developed a rapid method for detecting variations in spore chemistry using combined thermochemolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and micro-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our method was tested using spores obtained from five populations of the tropical lycopsid Lycopodium cernuum growing across an altitudinal gradient (650-1981 m a.s.l.) in S.E. Asia with the assumption that they experienced a range of UV-B radiation doses. Thermochemolysis and subsequent pyrolysis liberated UV-B pigments (ferulic and para-coumaric acid) from the spores. All of the aromatic compounds liberated from spores by thermochemolysis and pyrolysis were active in UV-B protection. The various functional groups associated with UV-B protecting pigments were rapidly detected by micro-FTIR and included the aromatic C[double bond, length as m-dash]C absorption band which was exclusive to the pigments. We show increases in micro-FTIR aromatic absorption (1510 cm(-1)) with altitude that may reflect a chemical response to higher UV-B flux. Our results indicate that rapid chemical analyses of historical spore samples could provide a record ideally suited to investigations of a proxy for stratospheric O3 layer variability and UV-B flux over historical (century to millennia) timescales. PMID:17549272

  4. Optical measurements of gas bubbles in oil behind a cavitating micro-orifice flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iben, Uwe; Wolf, Fabian; Freudigmann, Hans-Arndt; Fröhlich, Jochen; Heller, Winfried

    2015-06-01

    In hydraulic systems, it is common for air release to occur behind valves or throttles in the form of bubbles. These air bubbles can affect the behavior and the performance of these systems to a substantial extent. In the paper, gas release in a liquid flow behind an orifice is analyzed by optical methods for various operation points. The bubbles are observed with a digital camera, and a detection algorithm based on the Hough transformation is used to determine their number and size. The appearance of gas bubbles is very sensitive to the inlet and outlet pressure of the orifice. Gas bubbles are only observed if choking cavitation occurs. An empirical relationship between an adjusted cavitation number and the appearance of gas release is presented. It is assumed that the observed bubbles contain mostly air. With the applied pressure differences, up to 30 % of the dissolved air was degassed in the form of bubbles.

  5. DETERMINATION OF CHLOROETHENES IN ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES USING GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY COUPLED WITH SOLID PHASE MICRO EXTRACTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    An analytical method has been developed to determine the chloroethene series, tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE),cisdichloroethene (cis-DCE) andtransdichloroethene (trans-DCE) in environmental biotreatment studies using gas chromatography coupled with a solid phase mi...

  6. A low-power pressure-and temperature-programmed separation system for a micro gas chromatograph.

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, Richard D. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Robinson, Alex Lockwood (Advanced Sensor Technologies, Albuquerque, NM); Lambertus, Gordon R. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Potkay, Joseph A. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI); Wise, Kensall D. (University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI)

    2006-10-01

    This thesis presents the theory, design, fabrication and testing of the microvalves and columns necessary in a pressure- and temperature-programmed micro gas chromatograph ({micro}GC). Two microcolumn designs are investigated: a bonded Si-glass column having a rectangular cross section and a vapor-deposited silicon oxynitride (Sion) column having a roughly circular cross section. Both microcolumns contain integrated heaters and sensors for rapid, controlled heating. The 3.2 cm x 3.2 cm, 3 m-long silicon-glass column, coated with a non-polar polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stationary phase, separates 30 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in less than 6 min. This is the most efficient micromachined column reported to date, producing greater than 4000 plates/m. The 2.7 mm x 1.4 mm Sion column eliminates the glass sealing plate and silicon substrate using deposited dielectrics and is the lowest power and fastest GC column reported to date; it requires only 11 mW to raise the column temperature by 100 C and has a response time of 11s and natural temperature ramp rate of 580 C/min. A 1 m-long PDMS-coated Sion microcolumn separates 10 VOCs in 52s. A system-based design approach was used for both columns.

  7. Multi-loop control strategy of a solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiao-Juan; Zhu, Xin-Jian

    2011-10-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell and micro gas turbine (SOFC/MGT) hybrid system is a promising distributed power technology. In order to ensure the system safe operation as well as long lifetime of the fuel cell, an effective control manner is expected to regulate the temperature and fuel utilization at the desired level, and track the desired power output. Thus, a multi-loop control strategy for the hybrid system is investigated in this paper. A mathematical model for the SOFC/MGT hybrid system is built firstly. Based on the mathematical model, control cycles are introduced and their design is discussed. Part load operation condition is employed to investigate the control strategies for the system. The dynamic modeling and control implementation are realized in the MATLAB/SIMULINK environment, and the simulation results show that it is feasible to build the multi-loop control methods for the SOFC/MGT hybrid system with regard to load disturbances.

  8. Start-up and Self-sustain Test of 500 W Ultra-Micro Gas Turbine Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong Min; Park, Jun Young; Seog Choi, Bum

    2013-12-01

    This paper provides the performance test for start-up and self-sustaining of 500W ultra-micro gas turbine (UMGT) generator. Each component of UMGT, a centrifugal compressor, a radial turbine, an annular combustor and a shaft is already designed, manufactured and tested to meet design requirements in previous researches. However, they are not tested to work in an integrate system. Currently, integrated test unit with a compressor, a combustor and a turbine, is developed to find the proper condition of start-up and self-sustain. Ignition sequence depending on rotating speed is designed. Performance test for start-up and self-sustain is designed based on the ignition possible condition. An air impingement starter and a hot bulb inginer are applied. LPG is used as main fuel.

  9. Characterization and Modeling of Segmental Dynamics in Silicone Based Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R S; Baumann, T; Gee, R; Maiti, A; Patel, M; Lewicki, J

    2009-03-27

    The addition of nano-particles with novel chemical, optical, or barrier properties further opens the door to the development of so-called multifunctional materials (1). Key to developing robust, tailored composites is a detailed understanding of the structural contributions to the engineering properties of the composite and how they may change with time in harsh service conditions. The segmental dynamics and local order underlie much of the fundamental physics that influence the performance of elastomers and can serve as important diagnostics for reinforcement and other fundamental properties (e.g., network topology, cross-link density, the number and distance between chemical and physical (entanglements) cross-links, the type and volume fraction of filler) and thus provide a route to this fundamental understanding. {sup 1}H MQ-NMR spectroscopy has shown the ability to provide more reliable and quantitative information regarding the elastomer network structure and heterogeneities (2). {sup 1}H MQ-NMR methods allow for the measurement of absolute residual dipolar couplings (<{Omega}{sub d}>) and thus the segmental/cooperative dynamics Thus, the MQ-NMR method allows for the direct measure of network topology and in many cases, filler-particle interactions. The ability of MD methods to uncover structural motifs and dynamics at the atomistic scale is well known. In polymer systems, however, the relationship to bulk material properties can be somewhat tenuous due to often limited number of atoms and short time durations that can be studied. Extending these MD simulations to large assemblies of atoms and extending them to longer times using state of the art computational resources has allowed us to probe some useful relationships. MD provides static and dynamic properties for a collection of particles that allow atomic scale insights that are difficult to gain otherwise. We have been exploiting these methods to characterize the effects of network structure and filler content on a number of silicone based nanocomposite systems. This data is providing improved insight into the structural contributions to the changes in segmental dynamics. Here we provide an overview of our ongoing work toward understanding the influence of the network structure on the physical and chemical properties of advanced composite elastomers, including material performance in severe environments (high temperature, high strains, high radiation fluxes).

  10. Recent Progress in Silicon-Based MEMS Field Emission Thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenard, Roger X.; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Tajmar, Martin

    2005-02-01

    The Indium Field Emission Thruster (In-FET) is a highly characterized and space-proven device based on space-qualified liquid metal ion sources. There is also extensive experience with liquid metal ion sources for high-brightness semiconductor fabrications and inspection Like gridded ion engines, In-FETs efficiently accelerate ions through a series of high voltage electrodes. Instead of a plasma discharge to generate ions, which generates a mixture of singly and doubly charged ions as well as neutrals, indium metal is melted (157°C) and fed to the tip of a capillary tube where very high local electric fields perform more-efficient field emission ionization, providing nearly 100% singly charged species. In-FETs do not have the associated losses or lifetime concerns of a magnetically confined discharge and hollow cathode in ion thrusters. For In-FETs, propellant efficiencies ˜100% stipulate single-emitter currents ?10?A, perhaps as low as 5?A of current. This low emitter current results in ?0.5 W/emitter. Consequently, if the In-FET is to be used for future Human and Robotic missions under President Bush's Exploration plan, a mechanism to generate very high power levels is necessary. Efficient high-power operation requires many emitter/extractor pairs. Conventional fabrication techniques allow 1-10 emitters in a single module, with pain-staking precision required. Properly designed and fabricated In-FETs possess electric-to-jet efficiency >90% and a specific mass <0.25 kg/kWe. MEMS techniques allow reliable batch processing with ˜160,000 emitters in a 10×10-cm array. Developing a 1.5kW 10×10-cm module is a necessary stepping-stone for >500 kWe systems where groups of 9 or 16 modules, with a single PPU/feed system, form the building blocks for even higher-power exploration systems. In 2003, SNL and ARCS produced a MEMS-based In-FET 5×5 emitter module with individually addressable emitter/extractor pairs on a 15×15mm wafer. The first MEMS thruster prototype has already been tested to demonstrate the proof-of-concept in laboratory-scale testing. In this paper we discuss progress that has been achieved in the past year on fabricating silicon-based MEMS In-FETs.

  11. Design and part-load performance of a hybrid system based on a solid oxide fuel cell reactor and a micro gas turbine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Costamagna; L. Magistri; A. F. Massardo

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses the design and off-design analysis of a hybrid system (HS) based on the coupling of a recuperated micro gas turbine (MGT) with a high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) reactor. The SOFC reactor model is presented and discussed, taking into account the influence of the reactor lay-out, the current density, the air utilisation factor, the cell

  12. Smart multi-channel two-dimensional micro-gas chromatography for rapid workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds measurement.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Seo, Jung Hwan; Li, Yubo; Chen, Di; Kurabayashi, Katsuo; Fan, Xudong

    2013-03-01

    We developed a novel smart multi-channel two-dimensional (2-D) micro-gas chromatography (?GC) architecture that shows promise to significantly improve 2-D ?GC performance. In the smart ?GC design, a non-destructive on-column gas detector and a flow routing system are installed between the first dimensional separation column and multiple second dimensional separation columns. The effluent from the first dimensional column is monitored in real-time and decision is then made to route the effluent to one of the second dimensional columns for further separation. As compared to the conventional 2-D ?GC, the greatest benefit of the smart multi-channel 2-D ?GC architecture is the enhanced separation capability of the second dimensional column and hence the overall 2-D GC performance. All the second dimensional columns are independent of each other, and their coating, length, flow rate and temperature can be customized for best separation results. In particular, there is no more constraint on the upper limit of the second dimensional column length and separation time in our architecture. Such flexibility is critical when long second dimensional separation is needed for optimal gas analysis. In addition, the smart ?GC is advantageous in terms of elimination of the power intensive thermal modulator, higher peak amplitude enhancement, simplified 2-D chromatogram re-construction and potential scalability to higher dimensional separation. In this paper, we first constructed a complete smart 1 × 2 channel 2-D ?GC system, along with an algorithm for automated control/operation of the system. We then characterized and optimized this ?GC system, and finally employed it in two important applications that highlight its uniqueness and advantages, i.e., analysis of 31 workplace hazardous volatile organic compounds, and rapid detection and identification of target gas analytes from interference background. PMID:23303462

  13. Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High-T and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Hai; Tsai, Hai-Lung; Dong, Junhang

    2014-09-30

    This is the final report for the program “Micro-Structured Sapphire Fiber Sensors for Simultaneous Measurements of High Temperature and Dynamic Gas Pressure in Harsh Environments”, funded by NETL, and performed by Missouri University of Science and Technology, Clemson University and University of Cincinnati from October 1, 2009 to September 30, 2014. Securing a sustainable energy economy by developing affordable and clean energy from coal and other fossil fuels is a central element to the mission of The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). To further this mission, NETL funds research and development of novel sensor technologies that can function under the extreme operating conditions often found in advanced power systems. The main objective of this research program is to conduct fundamental and applied research that will lead to successful development and demonstration of robust, multiplexed, microstructured silica and single-crystal sapphire fiber sensors to be deployed into the hot zones of advanced power and fuel systems for simultaneous measurements of high temperature and gas pressure. The specific objectives of this research program include: 1) Design, fabrication and demonstration of multiplexed, robust silica and sapphire fiber temperature and dynamic gas pressure sensors that can survive and maintain fully operational in high-temperature harsh environments. 2) Development and demonstration of a novel method to demodulate the multiplexed interferograms for simultaneous measurements of temperature and gas pressure in harsh environments. 3) Development and demonstration of novel sapphire fiber cladding and low numerical aperture (NA) excitation techniques to assure high signal integrity and sensor robustness.

  14. Numerical analysis of gas separator with thermal transpiration in micro channels II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaye, Shoeji; Sugimoto, Hiroshi

    2014-12-01

    A membrane gas separator which operates with only a small temperature difference across a membrane is designed, and its capability is numerically proved. The separator system consists of three Knudsen pumps - a motionless pump that utilizes the thermal transpiration of the rarefied gas. Each pump is composed of a porous membrane and one channel along each of the two surfaces of the membrane. Two of the pumps induce a variation of mole fraction using a combination of the thermal transpiration and pressure driven flow through the membrane, and the other one provides the former two pumps with a required pressure difference. This paper reports the first numerical calculations that demonstrate a neon-argon binary gas mixture can be separated into pure neon gas and argon gas with the proposed design. The temperature difference is no more than 90 K, and the total length of the membrane is ˜ 15 cm at standard ambient temperature and pressure. The production rate of the separator is proportional to the width of the membrane. For example, when the width is 10 cm, the flow rates of the product gases are 0.8 sccm for argon and 1.9 sccm for neon.

  15. Investigation of Isotope Effects in the Gas Streams Supplied by a 1:1 ITER Storage Bed Using a Micro Gas Chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Beloglazov, S.; Glugla, M.; Wagner, R.; Fanghaenel, E.; Gruenhagen, S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2005-07-15

    In the present design of the Storage and Delivery System of the ITER Tritium Plant deuterium, tritium and their mixtures are stored in hydrogen storage beds with a storage capacity of 100 g. During plasma operation it is required that deuterium-tritium gases with well defined ratios of D/T are supplied by the different hydrogen storage beds. Due to the isotope effects the composition of the hydrogen gas mixture supplied by the getter bed may be different from the one absorbed in the getter and may even change during unloading of the bed depending on the variation of the isotope effect with the actual amount of hydrogen isotopes stored in the bed.At the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe a 1:1 prototype of ITER hydrogen storage bed with a capacity of 100 g tritium and a target supply rate of up to 200 Pam3s-1 was designed and manufactured. The getter bed is currently filled with zirconium-cobalt and is installed in an experimental rig coupled with a micro gas chromatograph in order to perform texts under different operation conditions and to characterize the possible isotope effects. In this work a first data on the isotope effect during loading and unloading of the getter bed with the different hydrogen-deuterium mixtures is presented.

  16. Studies of Free Gas in Scattering Media at Micro and Macroscopic Scales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gronlund; Linda Persson; M. Sjoholm; M. Andersson; S. Svanberg

    2006-01-01

    Free gases in scattering media and different techniques for such studies are discussed in the present paper. Connections between two techniques that constitute a major research area at our laboratory are presented. One of the techniques concerns measurements of free gas in scattering media, such as human tissue and food products, on a small scale, while the other one is

  17. Development of High Precision Metal Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems Column for Portable Surface Acoustic Wave Gas Chromatograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwaya, Takamitsu; Akao, Shingo; Sakamoto, Toshihiro; Tsuji, Toshihiro; Nakaso, Noritaka; Yamanaka, Kazushi

    2012-07-01

    In the field of environmental measurement and security, a portable gas chromatograph (GC) is required for the on-site analysis of multiple hazardous gases. Although the gas separation column has been downsized using micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) technology, an MEMS column made of silicon and glass still does not have sufficient robustness and a sufficiently low fabrication cost for a portable GC. In this study, we fabricated a robust and inexpensive high-precision metal MEMS column by combining diffusion-bonded etched stainless-steel plates with alignment evaluation using acoustic microscopy. The separation performance was evaluated using a desktop GC with a flame ionization detector and we achieved the high separation performance comparable to the best silicon MEMS column fabricated using a dynamic coating method. As an application, we fabricated a palm-size surface acoustic wave (SAW) GC combining this column with a ball SAW sensor and succeeded in separating and detecting a mixture of volatile organic compounds.

  18. A programmable palm-size gas analyzer for use in micro-autonomous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordenker, Robert J. M.; Wise, Kensall D.

    2012-06-01

    Gas analysis systems having small size, low power, and high selectivity are badly needed for defense (detection of explosives and chemical warfare agents), homeland security, health care, and environmental applications. This paper presents a palm-size gas chromatography system having analysis times of 5-50sec, detection limits less than 1ppb, and an average power dissipation less than one watt. It uses no consumables. The three-chip fluidic system consists of a preconcentrator, a 25cm-3m separation column, and a chemi-resistive detector and is supported by a microcomputer and circuitry for programmable temperature control. The entire system, including the mini-pump and battery, occupies less than 200cc and is configured for use on autonomous robotic vehicles.

  19. Fabrication and Preliminary Results for LiGA Fabricated Nickel Micro Gas Chromatograph Columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abhinav Bhushan; Dawit Yemane; Edward B. Overton; Jost Goettert; Michael C. Murphy

    2007-01-01

    High aspect ratio nickel microfluidic columns were fabricated using the LiGA technique. The 2-m-long 50-mum-wide high aspect ratio columns will be the separation component of a handheld gas chromatograph device for detecting semivolatile and volatile compounds. As a first step, 600-mum-deep electrodeposited nickel columns were fabricated. The serpentine columns were sealed and pressure-flow rate characteristics compared with the theoretical values.

  20. A Computational Model of Micro-Bubble-Induced Blood Vessel Deformation in Gas Embolotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Bull, Joseph L.

    2004-11-01

    Gas embolotherapy is a potential cancer treatment modality that involves injecting liquid perfluorocarbon droplets into the vasculature, and using ultrasound to vaporize the droplets to form larger gas bubbles that can then embolize tumors. The rapid volume expansion during the droplet vaporization may potentially rupture blood vessels. In previous work, we have presented results for the wall stresses in the vaporization process assuming the vessel wall is rigid. In this study, we present a computational model of a bubble expansion in a long tube with an elastic wall to model the flexibility of blood vessels. Deformations of the tube wall and the interface are determined as part of the solution. The unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a sharp-interface, moving boundary, finite-volume method. Tube wall expansion due to the bubble expansion results in an in flow of liquid at the open ends of the tube. The liquid in the vicinity of the bubble, however, moves in the opposite direction because of the bubble expansion. The two counteracting mechanisms create a complex flow pattern in the tube. The time-dependent wall stresses are also investigated to assess the potential for wall damage. This work is supported by NIH grant EB003541-01 and NSF grant BES-0301278.

  1. Modeling Transport in Gas Chromatography Columns for the Micro-ChemLab

    SciTech Connect

    ADKINS,DOUGLAS R.; FRYE-MASON,GREGORY CHARLES; HUDSON,MARY L.; KOTTENSTETTE,RICHARD; MATZKE,CAROLYN M.; SALINGER,ANDREW G.; SHADID,JOHN N.; WONG, CHUNGNIN CHANN

    1999-09-01

    The gas chromatography (GC) column is a critical component in the microsystem for chemical detection ({mu}ChemLab{trademark}) being developed at Sandia. The goal is to etch a meter-long GC column onto a 1-cm{sup 2} silicon chip while maintaining good chromatographic performance. Our design strategy is to use a modeling and simulation approach. We have developed an analytical tool that models the transport and surface interaction process to achieve an optimized design of the GC column. This analytical tool has a flow module and a separation module. The flow module considers both the compressibility and slip flow effects that may significantly influence the gas transport in a long and narrow column. The separation module models analyte transport and physico-chemical interaction with the coated surface in the GC column. It predicts the column efficiency and performance. Results of our analysis will be presented in this paper. In addition to the analytical tool, we have also developed a time-dependent adsorption/desorption model and incorporated this model into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate analyte transport and separation process in GC columns. CFD simulations can capture the complex three-dimensional flow and transport dynamics, whereas the analytical tool cannot. Different column geometries have been studied, and results will be presented in this paper. Overall we have demonstrated that the modeling and simulation approach can guide the design of the GC column and will reduce the number of iterations in the device development.

  2. Toward a Micro Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiberg, D. V.; Eyre, F. B.; Orient, O.; Chutjian, A.; Garkarian, V.

    2001-01-01

    Miniature mass filters (e.g., quadrupoles, ion traps) have been the subject of several miniaturization efforts. A project is currently in progress at JPL to develop a miniaturized Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS) system, incorporating and/or developing miniature system components including turbomolecular pumps, scroll type roughing pump, quadrupole mass filter, gas chromatograph, precision power supply and other electronic components. The preponderance of the system elements will be fabricated using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques. The quadrupole mass filter will be fabricated using an X-ray lithography technique producing high precision, 5x5 arrays of quadrupoles with pole lengths of about 3 mm and a total volume of 27 cubic mm. The miniature scroll pump will also be fabricated using X-ray lithography producing arrays of scroll stages about 3 mm in diameter. The target detection range for the mass spectrometer is 1 to 300 atomic mass units (AMU) with are solution of 0.5 AMU. This resolution will allow isotopic characterization for geochronology, atmospheric studies and other science efforts dependant on the understanding of isotope ratios of chemical species. This paper will discuss the design approach, the current state-of-the art regarding the system components and the progress toward development of key elements. The full system is anticipated to be small enough in mass, volume and power consumption to allow in situ chemical analysis on highly miniaturized science craft for geochronology, atmospheric characterization and detection of life experiments applicable to outer planet roadmap missions.

  3. Laboratory simulations of fluid/gas induced micro-earthquakes: application to volcano seismology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Sergio; Nasseri, Mohamed; Young, R.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding different seismic signals recorded in active volcanic regions allows geoscientists to derive insight into the processes that generate them. A key type is known as Low Frequency or Long Period (LP) event, generally understood to be generated by different fluid types resonating in cracks and faults. The physical mechanisms of these signals have been linked to either resonance/turbulence within fluids, or as a result of fluids ‘sloshing’ due to a mixture of gas and fluid being present in the system. Less well understood, however, is the effect of the fluid type (phase) on the measured signal. To explore this, we designed an experiment in which we generated a precisely controlled liquid to gas transition in a closed system by inducing rapid decompression of fluid-filled fault zones in a sample of basalt from Mt. Etna Volcano, Italy. We find that fluid phase transition is accompanied by a marked frequency shift in the accompanying microseismic dataset that can be compared to volcano seismic data. Moreover, our induced seismic activity occurs at pressure conditions equivalent to hydrostatic depths of 200 to 750 meters. This is consistent with recently measured dominant frequencies of LP events and with numerous models.

  4. A finite element analysis of a silicon based double quantum dot structure

    E-print Network

    S. Rahman; J. Gorman; C. H. W. Barnes; D. A. Williams; H. P. Langtangen

    2006-04-06

    We present the results of a finite-element solution of the Laplace equation for the silicon-based trench-isolated double quantum-dot and the capacitively-coupled single-electron transistor device architecture. This system is a candidate for charge and spin-based quantum computation in the solid state, as demonstrated by recent coherent-charge oscillation experiments. Our key findings demonstrate control of the electric potential and electric field in the vicinity of the double quantum-dot by the electric potential applied to the in-plane gates. This constitutes a useful theoretical analysis of the silicon-based architecture for quantum information processing applications.

  5. Porous Silicon-Based Quantum Dot Broad Spectrum Radiation Detector

    PubMed Central

    Urdaneta, M.; Stepanov, P.; Weinberg, I. N.; Pala, I. R.; Brock, S.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon is a convenient and inexpensive platform for radiation detection, but has low stopping power for x-rays and gamma-rays with high energy (e.g., 100 keV, as used in computed tomography and digital radiography, or 1 MeV, as desired for detection of nuclear materials). We have effectively increased the stopping power of silicon detectors by producing a layer of porous or micro-machined silicon, and infusing this layer with semiconductor quantum dots made of electron-dense materials. Results of prototype detectors show sensitivity to infrared, visible light, and x-rays, with dark current of less than 1 nA/mm2. PMID:24432047

  6. Porous Silicon-Based Quantum Dot Broad Spectrum Radiation Detector.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, M; Stepanov, P; Weinberg, I N; Pala, I R; Brock, S

    2011-01-11

    Silicon is a convenient and inexpensive platform for radiation detection, but has low stopping power for x-rays and gamma-rays with high energy (e.g., 100 keV, as used in computed tomography and digital radiography, or 1 MeV, as desired for detection of nuclear materials). We have effectively increased the stopping power of silicon detectors by producing a layer of porous or micro-machined silicon, and infusing this layer with semiconductor quantum dots made of electron-dense materials. Results of prototype detectors show sensitivity to infrared, visible light, and x-rays, with dark current of less than 1 nA/mm(2). PMID:24432047

  7. Semiconductor-based micro-biosensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Jaffrezic-Renault; C. Martelet

    1997-01-01

    Through two specific examples, the possibilities offered by silicon-based micro-biosensors are presented: the urea-ENFET (enzymatic field-effect transistor) and the impedimetric immunosensor. We have shown that an optimization of the urea-ENFET is possible using permselective membranes chosen regarding their charge properties and the measurement medium (increase of sensitivity, lower detection limit, larger dynamic range). Electrical properties are of primary importance for

  8. Silicon Carbide Micro-devices for Combustion Gas Sensing under Harsh Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby N. Ghosh; Reza Loloee; Roger G. Tobin; Yung Ho Kahng

    2006-04-01

    A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device that can detect hydrogen-containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature environments. For fast and stable sensor response measurements, a gate activation process is required. Activation of all sensors took place by switching back and forth between oxidizing (1.0% oxygen in nitrogen) and reducing (10% hydrogen in nitrogen) gases for several hours at a sensor temperature {ge}620 C. All 52 devices on the sensor chip were activated simultaneously by flooding the entire chip with gas. The effects of activation on surface morphology and structure of Pt gates before and after activation were investigated. The optical images obtained from Pt gates demonstrated a clear transition from a smooth and shiny surface to a grainy and cloudy surface morphology. XRD scans collected from Pt gates suggest the presence of an amorphous layer and species other than Pt (111) after activation. The reliability of the gate insulator of our metal-oxide-SiC sensors for long-term device operation at 630 C was studied. We find that the dielectric is stable against breakdown due to electron injection from the substrate with gate leakage current densities as low at 5nA/cm{sup 2} at 630 C. We also designed and constructed a new nano-reactor capable of high gas flow rates at elevated pressure. Our reactor, which is a miniature version of an industrial reactor, is designed to heat the flowing gas up to 700 C. Measurements in ultrahigh vacuum demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide readily deposits sulfur on the gate surface, even at the very high hydrogen/hydrogen sulfide ratios (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5}) expected in applications. Once deposited, the sulfur adversely affects sensor response, and could not be removed by exposure to hydrogen at the temperatures and pressures accessible in the ultrahigh vacuum experiments. Oxygen exposures, however, were very effective at removing sulfur, and the device performance after sulfur removal was indistinguishable from performance before exposure to H{sub 2}S.

  9. Fabrication of a nano/micro hybrid lens using gas-assisted hot embossing with an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jing-Tang; Chang, Wei-Yi; Yang, Sen-Yeu

    2010-07-01

    This paper reports a novel and effective method for the fabrication of a polymeric nano/micro hybrid lens array. The nanostructure and microlens arrays are fabricated on the same polycarbonate (PC) substrate by hot embossing in sequence. First, an anti-reflection PC film with sub-wavelength nanostructures is fabricated using an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template. The anti-reflection characteristic of nanostructures on the PC film is evaluated. Then an array of convex microlenses is formed from the nanostructured PC film using a stainless steel mold with a microhole array. Both processes employ gas-assisted hot embossing to perform the partial protrusion of the film into nano-sized or micro-sized holes in the AAO template and steel mold. The optical property of the microlens has been verified. This proposed technique has proven its potential for effectively fabricating a nano/micro hybrid lens array on a polymeric substrate.

  10. Heterogeneous metal-oxide nanowire micro-sensor array for gas sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeMeo, Dante; MacNaughton, Sam; Wang, Zhilong; Zhang, Xinjie; Sonkusale, Sameer; Vandervelde, Thomas E.

    2014-04-01

    Vanadium oxide, manganese oxide, tungsten oxide, and nickel oxide nanowires were investigated for their applicability as chemiresistive gas sensors. Nanowires have excellent surface-to-volume ratios which yield higher sensitivities than bulk materials. Sensing elements consisting of these materials were assembled in an array to create an electronic nose platform. Dielectrophoresis was used to position the nanomaterials onto a microfabricated array of electrodes, which was subsequently mounted onto a leadless chip carrier and printed circuit board for rapid testing. Samples were tested in an enclosed chamber with vapors of acetone, isopropanol, methanol, and aqueous ammonia. The change in resistance of each assembly was measured. Responses varied between nanowire compositions, each demonstrating unique and repeatable responses to different gases; this enabled direct detection of the gases from the ensemble response. Sensitivities were calculated based on the fractional resistance change in a saturated environment and ranged from 6 × 10-4 to 2 × 10-5%change ppm-1.

  11. A multidimensional micro gas chromatograph employing a parallel separation multi-column chip and stop-flow ?GC × ?GCs configuration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bo-Xun; Hung, Te-Yu; Jian, Rih-Sheng; Lu, Chia-Jung

    2013-04-01

    A dual-chip, multidimensional micro gas chromatographic module was designed, built and evaluated. Column chips were fabricated on a silicon wafer with an etched rectangular channel 100 ?m (width) × 250 ?m (depth) using a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process. The column chip for the first GC dimension was 3 m long and was coated with polydimethylsiloxane (DB-1) as the stationary phase. The columns on the second dimensional chip were etched with the same width and depth as the first chip, but the flow channel was split into three parallel columns, 1 m long, on the same sized silicon chip (i.e., 3 cm × 3 cm). These three parallel columns on the second chip were coated with polyethylene oxide (DB-Wax), trifluoropropylpolymethylsilicone (OV-210) and cyanopropylmethylphenylmethylpolysilicone (OV-225), accordingly, in order to provide diversified chromatographic retention. These two chips were connected via a stop-flow configuration to simultaneously generate multiple two-dimensional gas chromatograms for every analysis. This stop-flow ?GC × ?GCs design allowed the first column to function as a pre-separator and as a sequencing injector for the second parallel-separation chip. Fifteen volatile organic compounds with boiling points that ranged from 80-131 °C with various functional groups were tested using this ?GC × ?GCs module. Three discrete 2-D chromatograms were generated simultaneously, which demonstrated the advantages of simultaneously combining GC × GC with parallel separation GCs in microchip chromatography. The total traveling length in the column was only 4 m for each eluted peak and fully resolved separation was achieved through the cross reference among triplet 2-D chromatograms. PMID:23381092

  12. A contribution to spectroscopic diagnostics and cathode sheath modeling of micro-hollow gas discharge in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveji?, M.; Spasojevi?, Dj.; Šišovi?, N. M.; Konjevi?, N.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, the hydrogen Balmer beta line shape from a micro-hollow gas discharge (MHGD) in argon with traces of hydrogen is used for simultaneous diagnostics of plasma and cathode sheath (CS) parameters. For this purpose, a simple model of relevant processes responsible for the line broadening is introduced and applied to the Balmer beta profile recorded from a MHGD generated in the microhole (diameter 100 ?m at narrow side and 130 ?m at wider side) of a gold-alumina-gold sandwich in the pressure range (100-900 mbar). The electron number density Ne in the range (0.4-4.5) × 1020 m-3 is determined from the width of the central part of the Balmer beta line profile, while, from the extended wings of the Balmer beta profile, induced by dc Stark effect, the next three parameters are determined: the average value Ea of electric field strength in the CS in the range (16-95 kV/cm), the electric field strength E0 at the cathode surface in the range (32-190 kV/cm), and the CS thickness zg in the range (18-70 ?m). All four MHGD parameters, Ne, Ea, E0, and zg, compare reasonably well with results of the modeling experiment by M. J. Kushner [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 38, 1633 (2005)]. The results for Ne are compared with other emission experiments.

  13. Silicon Carbide Micro-devices for Combustion Gas Sensing under Harsh Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby Ghosh; Reza Loloee; Roger Tobin

    2008-09-30

    A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device, Pt/SiO{sub 2}/SiC that can detect hydrogen-containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature (600 C) environments. We demonstrate that the device can be used as a hydrogen monitor in syngas applications of common interferants as well as sulfur and water vapor. These measurements were made in the Catalyst Screening Unit at NETL, Morgantown under atmospheric conditions. The sensor response to hydrogen gas at 350 C is 240 mV/decade, this is significantly higher than the device response to room temperature gas or that predicted from vacuum chamber studies. The enhanced catalytic activity of the platinum sensing film under energy plant operating conditions was investigated via AFM, x-ray diffraction, TEM and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Our characterization indicated that exposure to high temperature gases significantly modifies the morphology of the Pt catalytic film and the Pt/SiO{sub 2} interfacial region, which we tentatively attribute to the enhanced hydrogen sensitivity of the sensing film. A model for the hydrogen/oxygen response of the SiC device under atmospheric conditions was developed. It is based on two independent phenomena: a chemically induced shift in the metal-semiconductor work function difference and the passivation/creation of charged states at the SiO{sub 2}-SiC interface. The optimum operating set point for the SiC sensor with respect to response time and long term reliability was determined to be close to mid-gap. Ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) techniques were used to investigate the effects of sulfur contamination on the Pt gate. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide, even in the presence of hydrogen or oxygen at partial pressures of 20-600 times greater than the H2S level, rapidly coated the gate with a monolayer of sulfur. Although hydrogen exposure could not remove the adsorbed sulfur, oxygen was effective at removing sulfur with no evidence of irreversible changes in device behavior. The role of oxygen in the functioning of the SiC sensors was also investigated. All of the results are consistent with oxygen acting through its surface reactions with hydrogen, including the need for oxygen to reset the device to a fully hydrogen-depleted state and competition between hydrogen oxidation and hydrogen diffusion to metal/oxide interface sites. A strong sensor response to the unsaturated linear hydrocarbon propene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) was observed.

  14. SILICON CARBIDE MICRO-DEVICES FOR COMBUSTION GAS SENSING UNDER HARSH CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ruby N. Ghosh; Peter Tobias; Roger G. Tobin

    2004-10-01

    A sensor based on the wide bandgap semiconductor, silicon carbide (SiC), has been developed for the detection of combustion products in power plant environments. The sensor is a catalytic gate field effect device that can detect hydrogen containing species in chemically reactive, high temperature environments. For these capacitive sensors we have determined that the optimum sensor operating point in terms of sensor lifetime and response time is at midgap. Detailed measurements of the oxide leakage current as a function of temperature were performed to investigate the high temperature reliability of the devices. In addition, robust metallization and electrical contacting techniques have been developed for device operation at elevated temperatures. To characterize the time response of the sensor responses in the millisecond range, a conceptually new apparatus has been built. Using laser induced fluorescence imaging techniques we have shown that the gas underneath the sensor can be completely exchanged with a time constant under 1 millisecond. Ultrahigh vacuum studies of the surface chemistry of the platinum gate have shown that sensor deactivation by adsorbed sulfur is a possible problem. Investigations on the chemical removal of sulfur by catalytic oxidation or reduction are continuing.

  15. A micro CO2 gas sensor based on sensing of pH-sensitive hydrogel swelling by means of a pressure sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Herber; J. Bomer; W. Olthuis; P. Bergveld; A. van den Berg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a sensor is presented for the detection of carbon dioxide gas inside the stomach in order to diagnose gastrointestinal ischemia. The operational principle of the sensor is measuring the CO2 induced pressure generation of a confined pH-sensitive hydrogel by means of a micro pressure sensor. The sensor is capable of measuring CO2 with a response time between

  16. Porous silicon-based humidity sensor with interdigital electrodes and internal heaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Fürjes; A. Kovács; Cs. Dücso?; M. Ádám; B. Müller; U. Mescheder

    2003-01-01

    A novel design of a one wafer side processed porous silicon-based humidity sensor with interdigital electrodes is presented. An integrated heater element over the porous layer provides the effective heating and the low power consumption of the device. Reliable contacts between metal and porous Si are formed via crystalline n-Si islands within the porous layer, formed by exploiting the selectivity

  17. Design and Optimization of Silicon-Based Patch Antennas Using Time-Domain Techniques

    E-print Network

    Papapolymerou, Ioannis "John"

    Design and Optimization of Silicon-Based Patch Antennas Using Time-Domain Techniques G. DeJean, N. Bushyager, E. Dalton, M. M. Tentzeris, and J. Papapolymerou Georgia Electronic Design Center, School of ECE-based microstrip patch antenna are presented. The antenna structure includes an additional layer of low

  18. The recovery of latent fingermarks and DNA using a silicone-based casting material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita Shalhoub; Ignacio Quinones; Carole Ames; Bryan Multaney; Stuart Curtis; Haj Seeboruth; Stephen Moore; Barbara Daniel

    2008-01-01

    There are many techniques available for the recovery of fingermarks at scenes of crime including the possibility of taking casts of the marks. Casts can be advantageous in cases where other destructive recovery techniques might not be suitable, such as when recovering finger marks deposited on valued or immobile items.In this research, Isomark™ (a silicone-based casting material) was used to

  19. Synthesis of 2'-O-Methoxyethyl-Guanosine Using a Novel Silicon-Based Protecting Group

    E-print Network

    Theodorakis, Emmanuel

    S1 Synthesis of 2'-O-Methoxyethyl-Guanosine Using a Novel Silicon-Based Protecting Group Ke Wen of compound 6 #12;S14 Table 1. Crystal data and structure refinement for KW5. Identification code campana None Refinement method Full-matrix least-squares on F2 Data / restraints / parameters 15921 / 3 / 657

  20. Acoustic phonon engineering of thermal properties of silicon-based nanostructures

    E-print Network

    Acoustic phonon engineering of thermal properties of silicon- based nanostructures N D Zincenco1]. In the technologically important semiconductors and dielectrics heat is mostly carried by the acoustic phonons small structures, due to the modification of acoustic phonon energy spectra and decrease in the phonon

  1. Chemical Vapor Deposition Epitaxy of Silicon-based Materials using Neopentasilane

    E-print Network

    Chemical Vapor Deposition Epitaxy of Silicon-based Materials using Neopentasilane J. C. Sturm and K as a precursor for the chemical vapor deposition epitaxy of silicon and Si1-yCy alloys at temperatures from 550. Traditionally, the rate of silicon chemical vapor deposition drops quickly below 700 o C, so that the cycle

  2. Syngas generation from n-butane with an integrated MEMS assembly for gas processing in micro-solid oxide fuel cell systems.

    PubMed

    Bieberle-Hütter, A; Santis-Alvarez, A J; Jiang, B; Heeb, P; Maeder, T; Nabavi, M; Poulikakos, D; Niedermann, P; Dommann, A; Muralt, P; Bernard, A; Gauckler, L J

    2012-11-21

    An integrated system of a microreformer and a carrier allowing for syngas generation from liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for micro-SOFC application is discussed. The microreformer with an overall size of 12.7 mm × 12.7 mm × 1.9 mm is fabricated with micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) technologies. As a catalyst, a special foam-like material made from ceria-zirconia nanoparticles doped with rhodium is used to fill the reformer cavity of 58.5 mm(3). The microreformer is fixed onto a microfabricated structure with built-in fluidic channels and integrated heaters, the so-called functional carrier. It allows for thermal decoupling of the cold inlet gas and the hot fuel processing zone. Two methods for heating the microreformer are compared in this study: a) heating in an external furnace and b) heating with the two built-in heaters on the functional carrier. With both methods, high butane conversion rates of 74%-85% are obtained at around 550 °C. In addition, high hydrogen and carbon monoxide yields and selectivities are achieved. The results confirm those from classical lab reformers built without MEMS technology (N. Hotz et al., Chem. Eng. Sci., 2008, 63, 5193; N. Hotz et al., Appl. Catal., B, 2007, 73, 336). The material combinations and processing techniques enable syngas production with the present MEMS based microreformer with high performance for temperatures up to 700 °C. The functional carrier is the basis for a new platform, which can integrate the micro-SOFC membranes and the gas processing unit as subsystem of an entire micro-SOFC system. PMID:23044760

  3. Micro mechatronics and micro actuators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hidenoni Ishihara; Fumihito Arai; Toshio Fukuda

    1996-01-01

    Micro mechatronics is the synergetic integration of both mechanical and electronic systems based on scaling effects in the micro world. A micro mechatronics system is expected to be the key component of the mechanical system, such as in electronic automotive technologies. Micro mechatronics requires the organic combination of micro devices such as micro processor, micro sensor, and micro actuator. Among

  4. Fabrication of silicon-based multilevel nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation and anisotropic wet etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y. Y.; Zhang, J.; Luo, G.; Zhou, X.; Xie, G. Y.; Zhu, T.; Liu, Z. F.

    2005-04-01

    A rational approach is described for fabricating multilevel silicon-based nanostructures via scanning probe oxidation (SPO) and anisotropic wet etching. Using silicon oxide nanopatterns on Si(100) and Si(110) surfaces created by SPO as masks, two-dimensional (2D) nanostructures with high aspect ratio and a variety of patterns can be formed by anisotropic wet etching with KOH. By employing a mixture of KOH solutions and isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as an alternative to KOH alone, control of the morphology of the etched silicon surfaces, crucial for further fabrication, was greatly improved. The SPO and etching processes can be continually repeated on the 2D nanostructures, permitting the formation of various multilevel silicon-based nanostructures, including a T-gate structure useful for electronic circuitry. In addition, these multilevel silicon structures can be used as nanoimprint moulds for their rapid replication.

  5. Analysis of silicon-based optical racetrack resonator for acceleration sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Wenqin; Wu, Huaming; Gao, Dingshan; Zhou, Zhiping

    2010-10-01

    Silicon based racetrack resonator are demonstrated as highly sensitive acceleration sensor. The sensor consists of a straight waveguide coupled with a racetrack resonator, and a crossbeam seismic mass serving as the vibration unit. The resonant wavelength, which depends on the optical phase change per round trip, is sensitive to external accelerations due to the waveguide increment and stress-optic effect. With a 30-dB signal-to-noise ratio measurement system, the detection limit and dynamic range are theoretically obtained as high as 4.8×10-4 g under the frequency of acceleration below 200 Hz. The new silicon-based accelerometer will have great potential in seismic prospecting due to its high sensitivity, light weight and immunity to electromagnetic interference.

  6. Nanoscale phosphorus atom arrays created using STM for the fabrication of a silicon based quantum computer.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, J. L. (Jeremy L.); Schofield, S. R. (Steven R.); Simmons, M. Y. (Michelle Y.); Clark, R. G. (Robert G.); Dzurak, A. S. (Andrew S.); Curson, N. J. (Neil J.); Kane, B. E. (Bruce E.); McAlpine, N. S. (Neal S.); Hawley, M. E. (Marilyn E.); Brown, G. W. (Geoffrey W.)

    2001-01-01

    Quantum computers offer the promise of formidable computational power for certain tasks. Of the various possible physical implementations of such a device, silicon based architectures are attractive for their scalability and ease of integration with existing silicon technology. These designs use either the electron or nuclear spin state of single donor atoms to store quantum information. Here we describe a strategy to fabricate an array of single phosphorus atoms in silicon for the construction of such a silicon based quantum computer. We demonstrate the controlled placement of single phosphorus bearing molecules on a silicon surface. This has been achieved by patterning a hydrogen mono-layer 'resist' with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) tip and exposing the patterned surface to phosphine (PH3) molecules. We also describe preliminary studies into a process to incorporate these surface phosphorus atoms into the silicon crystal at the array sites. Keywords: Quantum computing, nanotechriology scanning turincling microscopy, hydrogen lithography

  7. Gas anti-solvent precipitation assisted salt leaching for generation of micro- and nano-porous wall in bio-polymeric 3D scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Flaibani, Marina; Elvassore, Nicola

    2012-08-01

    The mass transport through biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric 3D porous scaffolds may be depleted by non-porous impermeable internal walls. As consequence the concentration of metabolites and growth factors within the scaffold may be heterogeneous leading to different cell fate depending on spatial cell location, and in some cases it may compromise cell survival. In this work, we fabricated polymeric scaffolds with micro- and nano-scale porosity by developing a new technique that couples two conventional scaffold production methods: solvent casting-salt leaching and gas antisolvent precipitation. 10-15 w/w solutions of a hyaluronic benzyl esters (HYAFF11) and poly-(lactic acid) (PLA) were used to fill packed beds of 0.177-0.425 mm NaCl crystals. The polymer precipitation in micro and nano-porous structures between the salt crystals was induced by high-pressure gas, then its flushing extracted the residual solvent. The salt was removed by water-wash. Morphological analysis by scanning electron microscopy showed a uniform porosity (~70%) and a high interconnectivity between porous. The polymeric walls were porous themselves counting for 30% of the total porosity. This wall porosity did not lead to a remarkable change in compressive modulus, deformation, and rupture pressure. Scaffold biocompatibility was tested with murine muscle cell line C2C12 for 4 and 7 days. Viability analysis and histology showed that micro- and nano-porous scaffolds are biocompatible and suitable for 3D cell culture promoting cell adhesion on the polymeric wall and allowing their proliferation in layers. Micro- and nano-scale porosities enhance cell migration and growth in the inner part of the scaffold. PMID:24364970

  8. The micro void neutron detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, Menyhért

    2004-08-01

    The Gas-filled Micro Void Particle Detector is based on gas-filled micro voids placed in an external electric field. This detector presents common features of solid state and gas filled devices as internal amplification, unlimited size and shape, dense, high efficiency parallax reducing structure. The gas filling in the void and/or the wall of the micro void serves as radiation detector. The working principle was tested on syntactic foam composed of glass micro bubbles embedded in an epoxy matrix.

  9. Flip-chip mounted silicon-based Impatt diodes for automotive applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Wollitzer; K. M. Strohm; H. Jorke; J.-F. Luy; R. H. Rasshofer; E. M. Biebl

    1998-01-01

    We present the first silicon-based active antenna based on flip-chip mounted Impatt diodes. Our results show that flip-chip integration of Impatt diodes is a very promising alternative to monolithic integration since expected output power and heat removal is improved significantly. Compared to active antennas based on monolithic integration, the chip size of the novel flip-chip device is reduced by a

  10. Tribological Characterization of Several Silicon-Based Materials Under Ionic-Liquids Lubrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoxin Xie; Quan Wang; Lina Si; Shuhai Liu; Gang Li

    2009-01-01

    The tribological behaviors of three silicon-based materials (low temperature silicon oxide (LTO), polysilicon (Poly Si) and\\u000a silicon nitride (Si3N4) films) under ion liquids (ILs) lubrication have been investigated by varying the applied load and the sliding velocity.\\u000a An atomic force microscope and a nanoindentor were used to characterize the deposited films, and the worn surfaces after frictional\\u000a tests were analyzed

  11. Functionality of novel black silicon based nanostructured surfaces studied by TOF SIMS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Talian; Monika Aranyosiova; Andrej Orinák; Dušan Veli?; Daniel Hasko; Dusan Kaniansky; Renáta Orináková; Jörg Hübner

    2010-01-01

    A functionality of the novel black silicon based nanostructured surfaces (BS 2) with different metal surface modifications was tested by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF SIMS). Mainly two surface functions were studied: analytical signal enhancement and analyte pre-ionization effect in SIMS due to nanostructure type and the assistance of the noble metal surface coating (Ag or Au) for secondary

  12. Roll-to-roll production of amorphous silicon based triple junction solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subhendu Guha

    2003-01-01

    We have recently commissioned a new production facility for the manufacture of thin film amorphous silicon based solar panels with an annual capacity of 30 MW. The amorphous silicon alloy processor uses the roll-to-roll concept pioneered by Energy Conversion Devices, Inc. The machine is approximately 90 m long and 3 m tall, and is capable of depositing triple-junction cells onto

  13. Numerical modeling of an amorphous-silicon-based p-i-n solar cell

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. Pawlikiewicz; S. Guha

    1990-01-01

    A simulation program for amorphous-silicon-based p-i-n solar cells which allows for accurate calculation of single-junction or multijunction cell response under monochromatic or global AM1.5 illumination is discussed. The device model is based on a complete set of Poisson and current continuity equations describing the amorphous intrinsic and microcrystalline or amorphous n+ and p+ contacts. It predicts solar cell behavior with

  14. High-speed silicon-based integrated optical modulators for optical-fiber telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Kensuke

    2014-03-01

    A monolithically integrated silicon-based optical modulator is reviewed with respect to design and high-speed performance. The integrated silicon-based optical modulator consists of nested in-phase/quadrature Mach-Zehnder modulator operated in quadrature phase-shift keying formats. Design and performance of high-speed silicon ribwaveguide phase shifters and high-frequency coplanar-waveguide traveling-wave electrode are presented as key modulator elements which allow high-speed zero-chirp operation of the integrated optical modulator in the quadrature phase-shift keying formats. Transmission performance of the integrated optical modulator in differential quadrature phase-shift keying format is characterized in direct-detection constellation-diagram and bit-error-rate measurements towards 44.6-Gbit/s optical-fiber transmission. High-speed quadrature phase-shift keying operation is characterized in coherent-detection constellation-diagram measurements in C and L bands, and QPSK at bit rates up to 64-Gbit/s is presented. A partial-rib-waveguide polarization rotator, which is essential for 128-Gbit/s small-footprint silicon-based optical modulator for digital coherent communication, is described and high-extinction ratio low-loss polarization conversion over C and L bands is evidenced.

  15. Influence of gas pressure and applied voltage on Xe excimer radiation from a micro dielectric barrier discharge for plasma display panel

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Giichiro; Kajiyama, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Tsutae [Graduate School of Advanced Science of Matter, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8530 (Japan); Uchida, Satoshi [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji 192-0397 (Japan)

    2009-10-01

    We present the influence of gas pressure and applied voltage on Xe excimer radiation from a microdielectric barrier discharge (micro-DBD) in Ne/Xe gas mixture for plasma display panel. Measurements show that the excimer radiation with the 172 nm band lines is strongly observed in the afterglow, and drastically increases with an increase in gas pressure and applied voltage. It is also found that for high gas pressure and low voltage, excimer molecule (Xe{sub 2}{sup *}) is efficiently produced because of less infrared emission from Xe excited atom. The reaction processes of Xe metastable atom (Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *}), which is a precursor for Xe{sub 2}{sup *}, are theoretically analyzed using a one-dimensional fluid model. Increasing gas pressure results in large excimer radiation due to the enhancement of the following three processes, i.e., the conversion process from Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *} to Xe{sub 2}{sup *}, the direct electron impact excitation from ground state to Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *}, and the collisional de-excitation process from upper level (Xe{sup **}) to Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *}. The simulation analytical result shows that for lower voltage, Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *} is efficiently produced due to the increase in the ratio of direct excitation to Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *} from ground state and the suppression of the stepwise ionization from Xe{sub 1s5}{sup *} by electron collisions. While for high voltage operation of micro-DBD, the recombination process with Xe molecular ion (Xe{sub 2}{sup +}) and electron contributes to the total excimer radiation, which can be responsible for the large excimer radiation observed in experiment.

  16. iGC2: an architecture for micro gas chromatographs utilizing integrated bi-directional pumps and multi-stage preconcentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yutao; Gianchandani, Yogesh B.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports an integrated micro gas chromatography (µGC) architecture which utilizes a bi-directional micropump. Four integral components--the bi-directional Knudsen pump (KP2), a two-stage preconcentrator-focuser (PCF2), a separation column, and a gas detector--are integrated in a 4.3 cm3 stack, forming a serial flow path. All four components are fabricated using the same three-mask process. Compared to the conventional approach used with multi-stage preconcentrators, in which valves are used to reverse flow between the sampling phase and the separation phase, this µGC architecture reduces the overall complexity. In this architecture, the vapors being sampled are drawn through the detector and column before reaching the PCF2. The microsystem operation is experimentally validated by quantitative analyses of benzene, toluene, and xylene vapors ranging in concentration from 43-1167 mg m-3.

  17. [Applications of multi-micro-volume pressure-assisted derivatization reaction device for analysis of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yiru; Chen, Fangxiang; Shi, Yamei; Tan, Connieal; Chen, Xi

    2013-01-01

    A multi-micro-volume pressure-assisted derivatization reaction device has been designed and made for the silylation derivatization of polar heterocyclic aromatic amines by N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl )-N-methyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) with 1% catalyst tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane (TBDMCS) at a high temperature. The tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives then could be automatically analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Using the pressure-assisted device, the silylation reaction may occur at a temperature higher than the boiling points of the reagents, and several micro-volume samples can be simultaneously pretreated in the same device to shorten the sample-preparation time and to improve the repeatability. The derivatization conditions including the headspace volume of the vial, the evaporative surface area of the reagent, derivatization temperature and time have been discussed for the use of the pressure-assisted device. The experimental results proved that the device is an effective way for the simultaneous derivatization of several micro-volume samples at a high temperature. Compared with a common device, the derivative amounts were obviously increased when using the pressure-assisted device at 90 degrees C. Quantitative derivatization can be achieved even at 150 degrees C while there was no common device could be applied at such a high temperature due to the heavy losses of reagents by evaporation. However, no obviously higher reaction speed has been observed in such a circumstance with a higher temperature and a higher pressure using the pressure-assisted device. PMID:23667982

  18. A Micro Electrical Mechanical Systems (MEMS)-based Cryogenic Deformable Mirror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Enya; H. Kataza; P. Bierden

    2009-01-01

    We present our first results on the development and evaluation of a cryogenic deformable mirror (DM) based on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technology. A MEMS silicon-based DM chip with 32 channels, in which each channel is N, zooming optics, electric drivers. The surface of the mirror at 95 K deformed in response to the application of a voltage, and

  19. Etching process for improving the strength of a laser-machined silicon-based ceramic article

    DOEpatents

    Copley, Stephen M. (Palos Verdes, CA); Tao, Hongyi (Covina, CA); Todd-Copley, Judith A. (Palos Verdes, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A process for improving the strength of laser-machined articles formed of a silicon-based ceramic material such as silicon nitride, in which the laser-machined surface is immersed in an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid for a duration sufficient to remove substantially all of a silicon film residue on the surface but insufficient to allow the solution to unduly attack the grain boundaries of the underlying silicon nitride substrate. This effectively removes the silicon film as a source of cracks that otherwise could propagate downwardly into the silicon nitride substrate and significantly reduce its strength.

  20. Micromachined silicon-based analytical microinstruments for space science and planetary exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Grunthaner, F.J.; Stalder, R.E.; Boumsellek, S.; Van Zandt, T.R.; Kenny, T.W.; Hecht, M.H.; Ksendzov, A.; Homer, M.L.; Terhune, R.W.; Lane, A.L. [and others

    1994-09-01

    For future planetary science missions, the authors are developing a series of microinstruments using the techniques of silicon-based micromachining. Conventional instruments such as chemical sensors, charged particle analyzers and mass spectrometers are reduced in size and effective volume to the dimension of cubic centimeters, while maintaining or enhancing performance. Using wafer/wafer bonding techniques, selective chemical etching, thin Film growth, and high resolution lithography, complex three dimensional structures can be assembled. This paper discusses the design, implementation and performance of two new instruments: The Micromachined Bessel Box Auger Electron Spectrometer, and the Mars Soil Chemistry Experiment (MOx).

  1. Optical biosensing of bacteria and cells using porous silicon based, photonic lamellar gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirsky, Y.; Nahor, A.; Edrei, E.; Massad-Ivanir, N.; Bonanno, L. M.; Segal, E.; Sa'ar, A.

    2013-07-01

    We report on a method to extend the optical sensing capabilities of conventional RIFTS (reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy) biosensors for real-time detection of large microorganisms, such as bacteria and cells. Using macro porous silicon based 2D arrays of phase (lamellar) grating, we demonstrate that the zero-order optical reflectivity exhibits a similar interference pattern to that obtained for ordinary RIFTS biosensors, which can be Fourier transformed into optical thickness and exploited for biosensing. The sensing capabilities are demonstrated for Escherichia coli bacteria that were captured inside the macro-pores. The entrapment process is monitored and verified by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  2. Synthesis and devolatilization of M-97 NVB silicone gum compounded into silica reinforced silicone base

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.W.

    1986-06-01

    Silica reinforced silicon bases having 0.31 weight percent vinyl content were prepared by using a blend of low and high vinyl content devolatilized M-97 NVB silicone gum. The M-97 NVB is a custom dimethyl-, diphenyl-, methylvinylsiloxane gum. The silicon gum was devolatilized to evaluate the anticipated improved handling characteristics. Previous procured batches of M-97 NVB had not been devolatilized and difficult handling problems were encountered. The synthesis, devolatilization, and compound processes for the M-97 NVB silicone gum are discussed.

  3. Etching process for improving the strength of a laser-machined silicon-based ceramic article

    DOEpatents

    Copley, S.M.; Tao, H.; Todd-Copley, J.A.

    1991-06-11

    A process is disclosed for improving the strength of laser-machined articles formed of a silicon-based ceramic material such as silicon nitride, in which the laser-machined surface is immersed in an etching solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid for a duration sufficient to remove substantially all of a silicon film residue on the surface but insufficient to allow the solution to unduly attack the grain boundaries of the underlying silicon nitride substrate. This effectively removes the silicon film as a source of cracks that otherwise could propagate downwardly into the silicon nitride substrate and significantly reduce its strength. 1 figure.

  4. Silicon-Based Thermoelectrics: Harvesting Low Quality Heat Using Economically Printed Flexible Nanostructured Stacked Thermoelectric Junctions

    SciTech Connect

    None

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UIUC is experimenting with silicon-based materials to develop flexible thermoelectric devices—which convert heat into energy—that can be mass-produced at low cost. A thermoelectric device, which resembles a computer chip, creates electricity when a different temperature is applied to each of its sides. Existing commercial thermoelectric devices contain the element tellurium, which limits production levels because tellurium has become increasingly rare. UIUC is replacing this material with microscopic silicon wires that are considerably cheaper and could be equally effective. Improvements in thermoelectric device production could return enough wasted heat to add up to 23% to our current annual electricity production.

  5. Studies on a micro turbine device with both journal and thrust-air bearings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. C. Shan; Q. D. Zhang; Y. F. Sun; R. Maeda

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents design, fabrication, analysis and test of a silicon-based micro turbine device that is driven by compressed\\u000a air. To improve the motion stability at high rotational speed, the turbine device employs an enhanced micro air bearing system\\u000a that includes both journal air bearing and thrust air bearings. The double-sides dynamic thrust air bearings are designed\\u000a to support the

  6. Deformation and focal length analysis of electrostatic actuated micro deformable mirror

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng-Ju Lin; Ko-Wei Wu; Shih-Hsiung Huang

    2010-01-01

    In this work, deformation and focal length of a circular shape micro deformable mirror under different applying voltage is analyzed. This mirror has round shape. And it is circular clamped. In this work, the mirror is designed as MEMS (Micro-electro-mechanical systems) device. Therefore, it is considered to be fabricated by silicon-based micromachining. Such that, the material used as structure layer

  7. Design, Fabrication and Prototype testing of a Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator combined On-Board Range Extender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Mueller, C.; Reinecke, H.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we present the design, fabrication and prototype testing of Chip Integrated Micro PEM Fuel Cell Accumulator (CI?-PFCA) combined On-Board Range Extender (O-BRE). CI?-PFCA is silicon based micro-PEM fuel cell system with an integrated hydrogen storage feature (palladium metal hydride), the run time of CI?-PFCA is dependent on the stored hydrogen, and in order to extend its run time an O-BRE is realized (catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride, NaBH4. Combining the CI?-PFCA and O-BRE on a system level have few important design requirements to be considered; hydrogen regulation, gas -liquid separator between the CI?-PFCA and the O-RE. The usage of traditional techniques to regulate hydrogen (tubes), gas-liquid phase membranes (porous membrane separators) are less desirable in the micro domain, due to its space constraint. Our approach is to use a passive hydrogen regulation and gas-liquid phase separation concept; to use palladium membrane. Palladium regulates hydrogen by concentration diffusion, and its property to selectively adsorb only hydrogen is used as a passive gas-liquid phase separator. Proof of concept is shown by realizing a prototype system. The system is an assembly of CI?-PFCA, palladium membrane and the O-BRE. The CI?-PFCA consist of 2 individually processed silicon chips, copper supported palladium membrane realized by electroplating followed by high temperature annealing process under inter atmosphere and the O-BRE is realized out of a polymer substrate by micromilling process with platinum coated structures, which functions as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of NaBH4. The functionality of the assembled prototype system is demonstrated by the measuring a unit cell (area 1 mm2) when driven by the catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride (NaBH4 and the prototype system shows run time more than 15 hours.

  8. Improved performance of micro-fabricated preconcentrators using silica nanoparticles as a surface template.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Muhammad; Wang, Dong; Goodman, Ryan; Hoover, Ashley; Rice, Gary; Heflin, James R; Agah, Masoud

    2013-12-27

    A new approach of enhancing the adsorption capability of the widely used polymer adsorbent Tenax TA poly(2,6-diphenylene oxide) through its deposition on a nano-structured template is reported. The modified Tenax TA-coated silica nanoparticles (SNP) are incorporated as an adsorbent bed in silicon based micro-thermal preconcentrator (?TPC) chips with an array of square microposts embedded inside the cavity and sealed with a Pyrex cover. The interior surface of the chip is first modified by depositing SNP using a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique followed by coating with Tenax TA. The adsorption capacity of the SNP-Tenax TA ?TPC is enhanced by as much as a factor of three compared to the one coated solely with thin film Tenax TA for the compounds tested. The increased adsorption ability of the Tenax TA is attributed to the higher surface area provided by the underlying porous SNP coating and the pores between SNPs affecting the morphology of deposited Tenax TA film by bringing nano-scale features into the polymer. In addition, the adsorption ability of the SNP coating as a pseudo-selective inorganic adsorption bed for polar compounds was also observed. The modified Tenax TA-coated SNP ?TPC is a promising development toward integrated micro-gas chromatography systems. PMID:24268363

  9. MicroChemLab: an integrated microanalytical system for chemical analysis using parallel gas and liquid phase microseparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory A. Thomas; Gregory C. Frye-Mason; Christopher G. Bailey; Mial E. Warren; Julia A. Fruetel; Karl Wally; Janson Wu; Richard J. Kottenstette; Edwin J. Heller

    1999-01-01

    The ability to characterize suspect facilities for intelligence or counterforce purposes will rely heavily on the ability to identify chemical effluents from such facilities. Sandia is developing a complete micro-scale chemical analysis system named (mu) ChemLabTM. This system will be extremely small and low power because of the utilization of integrated circuit fabrication techniques. The use of monolithic integration of

  10. Micro-fluidic target chamber machined by proton beam writing for the in situ analysis of gas absorption in synthetic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feder, René; Menzel, Frank; Butz, Tilman

    2011-10-01

    Many synthetic crystals used for chemical and industrial applications have special internal structures, e.g. nano-pores, which allow separating different gases and fluids. Ion beam analytical methods can be used to study the gas diffusion and absorption in these materials in situ and to visualize their inner surfaces which affect these processes. For this purpose, a small target chamber was constructed in PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) using proton beam writing (PBW). This micro-fluidic structure enables the establishment of a defined atmosphere around a crystal and allows the simultaneous ion beam analysis. In order to confine the gas from the high vacuum in the measurement chamber Si3N4-windows of 200 nm thickness were thermally bonded to the structured PMMA block yielding a closed target chamber with the possibility to accomplish PIXE and RBS measurements. In addition, two capillaries were connected to the chamber for gas inlet and evacuation. First tests showed that the construction is leak-proof and allows to establish a defined atmosphere. After that, the Argon gas diffusion into Zn(tbip)-crystals was studied. These measurements have shown unexpectedly high nickel concentrations in the host crystal which reduces the Argon density in these areas after absorption, because the Ni atoms decrease the pore size by replacing Zn-atoms in the Zn(tbip)-lattice. It could be demonstrated that gas diffusion and absorption in organic crystals can be studied in situ with high lateral resolution using ion beam analysis in a dedicated target chamber machined by PBW.

  11. Accuracy and Precision of Silicon Based Impression Media for Quantitative Areal Texture Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Robert H.; Darras, Laurent P.; Purnell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Areal surface texture analysis is becoming widespread across a diverse range of applications, from engineering to ecology. In many studies silicon based impression media are used to replicate surfaces, and the fidelity of replication defines the quality of data collected. However, while different investigators have used different impression media, the fidelity of surface replication has not been subjected to quantitative analysis based on areal texture data. Here we present the results of an analysis of the accuracy and precision with which different silicon based impression media of varying composition and viscosity replicate rough and smooth surfaces. Both accuracy and precision vary greatly between different media. High viscosity media tested show very low accuracy and precision, and most other compounds showed either the same pattern, or low accuracy and high precision, or low precision and high accuracy. Of the media tested, mid viscosity President Jet Regular Body and low viscosity President Jet Light Body (Coltène Whaledent) are the only compounds to show high levels of accuracy and precision on both surface types. Our results show that data acquired from different impression media are not comparable, supporting calls for greater standardisation of methods in areal texture analysis. PMID:25991505

  12. Micro-Raman Mapping of 3C-SiC Thin Films Grown by Solid-Gas Phase Epitaxy on Si (111).

    PubMed

    Perova, T S; Wasyluk, J; Kukushkin, S A; Osipov, A V; Feoktistov, N A; Grudinkin, S A

    2010-01-01

    A series of 3C-SiC films have been grown by a novel method of solid-gas phase epitaxy and studied by Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that during the epitaxial growth in an atmosphere of CO, 3C-SiC films of high crystalline quality, with a thickness of 20 nm up to few hundreds nanometers can be formed on a (111) Si wafer, with a simultaneous growth of voids in the silicon substrate under the SiC film. The presence of these voids has been confirmed by SEM and micro-Raman line-mapping experiments. A significant enhancement of the Raman signal was observed in SiC films grown above the voids, and the mechanisms responsible for this enhancement are discussed. PMID:20730078

  13. Micro-Raman Mapping of 3C-SiC Thin Films Grown by Solid–Gas Phase Epitaxy on Si (111)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A series of 3C-SiC films have been grown by a novel method of solid–gas phase epitaxy and studied by Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It is shown that during the epitaxial growth in an atmosphere of CO, 3C-SiC films of high crystalline quality, with a thickness of 20 nm up to few hundreds nanometers can be formed on a (111) Si wafer, with a simultaneous growth of voids in the silicon substrate under the SiC film. The presence of these voids has been confirmed by SEM and micro-Raman line-mapping experiments. A significant enhancement of the Raman signal was observed in SiC films grown above the voids, and the mechanisms responsible for this enhancement are discussed. PMID:20730078

  14. Fluid inclusion volatile analysis by gas chromatography with photoionization micro-thermal conductivity detectors: Applications to magmatic MoS 2 and other H 2 O-CO 2 and H 2 OCH 4 fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. Bray; E. T. C. Spooner

    1992-01-01

    Eighteen fluid inclusion volatile peaks have been detected and identified from 1-2 g samples (quartz) by gas chromatography using heated (~105°C) on-line crushing, helium carrier gas, a single porous polymer column (HayeSep R; 10' × 1\\/8'':100\\/120#; Ni alloy tubing), two temperature programme conditions for separate sample aliquots, micro-thermal conductivity (TCD) and photoionization detectors (PID; 11.7 eV lamp), and off-line digital

  15. Porous SiO?/MgF? broadband antireflection coatings for superstrate-type silicon-based tandem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na-Fu; Kuo, Ting-Wei; Tsai, Yu-Zen; Lin, Shi-Xiong; Hung, Pin-Kun; Lin, Chiung-Lin; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2012-03-26

    The purpose of this study is to reduce the glass substrate reflectivity over a wide spectral range (400-1200 nm) without having high reflectivity in the near-infrared region. After making porous SiO?/MgF? double-layer antireflection (DLAR) thin film structure, the superstrate-type silicon-based tandem cells are added. In comparison to having only silicon-based tandem solar cells, the short-circuit current density has improved by 6.82% when porous SiO?/MgF? DLAR thin film is applied to silicon-based tandem solar cells. This study has demonstrated that porous SiO?/MgF? DLAR thin film structure provides antireflection properties over a broad spectral range (400-1200 nm) without having high reflectivity at near-infrared wavelengths. PMID:22453424

  16. Preparation of rich handles soft cellulosic fabric using amino silicone based softener. Part-I: Surface smoothness and softness properties.

    PubMed

    Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Tabassum, Shazia; Barkaat-ul-Hasin, Syed; Zuber, Mohammad; Jamil, Tahir; Jamal, Muhammad Asghar

    2011-04-01

    A series of amino silicone based softeners with different emulsifiers were prepared and adsorbed onto the surfaces of cotton and blends of cotton/polyester fabrics. Factors affecting the performance properties of the finished substrate such as post-treatment with amino functional silicone based softener varying different emulsifiers in their formulations and its concentration on different processed fabrics were studied. Fixation of the amino-functional silicone softener onto/or within the cellulose structure is accompanied by the formation of semi-inter-penetrated network structure thereby enhancing both the extent of crosslinking and networking as well as providing very high softness. The results of the experiments indicate that the amino silicone can form a hydrophobic film on both cotton and blends of cotton/polyester fabrics and its coating reduces the surface roughness significantly. Furthermore, the roughness becomes lesser with an increase in the applied strength of amino silicone based softener. PMID:21255604

  17. Coherent Visible-Light-Generation Enhancement in Silicon-Based Nanoplasmonic Waveguides via Third-Harmonic Conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sederberg, S.; Elezzabi, A. Y.

    2015-06-01

    We report visible third-harmonic conversion at ? =517 nm in subwavelength silicon-based nanoplasmonic waveguides at an unprecedented conversion efficiency of 2.3 ×10-5 . This marks both the highest third-harmonic conversion efficiency in a silicon-based or nanoplasmonic structure and the smallest silicon waveguide structure demonstrated to date. The high conversion efficiency is attributed to tight electric field confinement and strong light-matter coupling arising from surface plasmon modes in the nanoplasmonic waveguide, enabling efficient nonlinear optical mixing over micrometer length scales. The nonresonant geometry of the waveguide enables the entire ? =1550 nm femtosecond pulse spectrum to be converted to its third harmonic, which may be easily extended to the entire visible spectrum. We envisage that third-harmonic generation in silicon-based nanoplasmonic waveguides could provide a platform for integrated, broadband visible light sources and entangled triplet photons on future hybrid electronic-silicon photonic chips.

  18. Mobile monitoring along a street canyon and stationary forest air monitoring of formaldehyde by means of a micro-gas analysis system.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Tokunaga, Wataru; Gushiken, Yosuke; Hirota, Kazutoshi; Nose, Teppei; Suda, Daisaku; Nagai, Jun; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

    2012-05-01

    A micro-gas analysis system (?GAS) was developed for mobile monitoring and continuous measurements of atmospheric HCHO. HCHO gas was trapped into an absorbing/reaction solution continuously using a microchannel scrubber in which the microchannels were patterned in a honeycomb structure to form a wide absorbing area with a thin absorbing solution layer. Fluorescence was monitored after reaction of the collected HCHO with 2,4-pentanedione (PD) in the presence of acetic acid/ammonium acetate. The system was portable, battery-driven, highly sensitive (limit of detection = 0.01 ppbv) and had good time resolution (response time 50 s). The results revealed that the PD chemistry was subject to interference from O(3). The mechanism of this interference was investigated and the problem was addressed by incorporating a wet denuder. Mobile monitoring was performed along traffic roads, and elevated HCHO levels in a street canyon were evident upon mapping of the obtained data. The system was also applied to stationary monitoring in a forest in which HCHO formed naturally via reaction of biogenic compounds with oxidants. Concentrations of a few ppbv-HCHO and several-tens of ppbv of O(3) were then simultaneously monitored with the ?GAS in forest air monitoring campaigns. The obtained 1 h average data were compared with those obtained by 1 h impinger collection and offsite GC-MS analysis after derivatization with o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBOA). From the obtained data in the forest, daily variations of chemical HCHO production and loss are discussed. PMID:22508343

  19. Graphene as a transparent electrode for amorphous silicon-based solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaianella, F.; Rosolen, G.; Maes, B.

    2015-06-01

    The properties of graphene in terms of transparency and conductivity make it an ideal candidate to replace indium tin oxide (ITO) in a transparent conducting electrode. However, graphene is not always as good as ITO for some applications, due to a non-negligible absorption. For amorphous silicon photovoltaics, we have identified a useful case with a graphene-silica front electrode that improves upon ITO. For both electrode technologies, we simulate the weighted absorption in the active layer of planar amorphous silicon-based solar cells with a silver back-reflector. The graphene device shows a significantly increased absorbance compared to ITO-based cells for a large range of silicon thicknesses (34.4% versus 30.9% for a 300 nm thick silicon layer), and this result persists over a wide range of incidence angles.

  20. The recovery of latent fingermarks and DNA using a silicone-based casting material.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, Rita; Quinones, Ignacio; Ames, Carole; Multaney, Bryan; Curtis, Stuart; Seeboruth, Haj; Moore, Stephen; Daniel, Barbara

    2008-07-01

    There are many techniques available for the recovery of fingermarks at scenes of crime including the possibility of taking casts of the marks. Casts can be advantageous in cases where other destructive recovery techniques might not be suitable, such as when recovering finger marks deposited on valued or immobile items. In this research, Isomark (a silicone-based casting material) was used to recover casts of finger marks placed on a variety of substrates. Casts were enhanced using cyanoacrylate fuming. Good quality marks were successfully recovered from a range of smooth, non-porous surfaces. Recovery from semi-porous surfaces was shown to be inefficient. DNA was subsequently extracted from the casts using QIAamp Mini extraction kits, amplified and profiled. Full DNA profiles were obtained 34% of samples extracted. PMID:18502070

  1. Small silicon based pressure transducers for measurements in turbulent boundary layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfdahl, L.; Kälvesten, E.; Stemme, G.

    1994-06-01

    Small silicon based sensors for the measurement of wall-pressure in turbulent flows have been designed and fabricated using microelectronic technology. The sensor diaphragms have a side length of 100 and 300 ?m, and polysilicon piezoresistive gauges were used for detection of the deflection. A two-dimensional flat plate boundary layer was employed to determine the performance of the pressure transducers, and comparisons with established data from the literature were made. A threshold value for the pressure fluctuations of about the double Kolmogorov length scale was estimated independently from the probability distribution as well as from the power spectra. In good agreement with theoretical predictions of Blake (1986), the slope of the power spectra was found to be ? -1 in the intermediate and ? -5 in the high frequency range.

  2. Protection of concrete structures in immersion service from biological fouling with silicone-based coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, D.; Connor, J.; Dolderer, G.; Riha, R.; Dyas, B.

    1997-05-01

    The unrestricted growth of aquatic organisms (macrofouling) on surfaces of submerged concrete intake structures and circulating water systems of power plants is a significant problem in the industry, resulting in substantial operating and maintenance costs. Traditional chemical approaches to control the problem are under increasing legislative scrutiny, and regulatory actions that limit chemical discharge and require toxic use reduction may also further curtail the use of biocides. Nontoxic, silicon-based foul release coating systems appear to be an especially attractive solution to conventional treatment methods; however, criteria for coating selection and successful application are not well defined due to the relatively limited use of this technology in the industry. This article presents case histories from two utilities, reviews their testing and coating selection strategies, and discusses the application difficulties with coating-aged concrete surfaces in immersion service.

  3. Design, fabrication, and measurement of two silicon-based ultraviolet and blue-extended photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changping; Wang, Han; Jiang, Zhenyu; Jin, Xiangliang; Luo, Jun

    2014-12-01

    Two silicon-based ultraviolet (UV) and blue-extended photodiodes are presented, which were fabricated for light detection in the ultraviolet/blue spectral range. Stripe-shaped and octagon-ring-shaped structures were designed to verify parameters of the UV-responsivity, UV-selectivity, breakdown voltage, and response time. The ultra-shallow lateral pn junction had been successfully realized in a standard 0.5-?m complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process to enlarge the pn junction area, enhance the absorption of UV light, and improve the responsivity and quantum efficiency. The test results illustrated that the stripe-shaped structure has the lower breakdown voltage, higher UV-responsicity, and higher UV-selectivity. But the octagon-ring-shaped structure has the lower dark current. The response time of both structures was almost the same.

  4. Silicon-based photonic crystals fabricated using proton beam writing combined with electrochemical etching method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A method for fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanostructures based on selective formation of porous silicon using ion beam irradiation of bulk p-type silicon followed by electrochemical etching is shown. It opens a route towards the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D silicon-based photonic crystals with high flexibility and industrial compatibility. In this work, we present the fabrication of 2D photonic lattice and photonic slab structures and propose a process for the fabrication of 3D woodpile photonic crystals based on this approach. Simulated results of photonic band structures for the fabricated 2D photonic crystals show the presence of TE or TM gap in mid-infrared range. PMID:22824206

  5. Preparation of rich handles soft cellulosic fabric using amino silicone based softener, part II: colorfastness properties.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Mohammad; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Tabassum, Shazia; Jamil, Tahir; Barkaat-Ul-Hasin, Syed; Khosa, Muhammad Kaleem

    2011-07-01

    The preparation of amino silicone based softeners with different emulsifiers was carried out and adsorbed onto the surfaces of cotton and blends of cotton/polyester fabrics. The softened fabrics have high surface area, so poorly performance in washing and rubbing fastness. It is obvious from the results of colorfastness to rubbing and washing that some of the samples of the dyed fabric treated with prepared softeners have shown some poor rating as compared to the untreated fabrics. However the other two samples have shown acceptable rubbing fastness results without losing softness and permanent handle. It can be observed that washing of the printed treated fabric remains unaffected almost in all the studied samples. Moreover, the application of the prepared softeners has imparted anti pilling property to the fabric. It can be seen that there is a remarkable increase in weights of treated fabrics as compared to the untreated fabrics. PMID:21300085

  6. The synthesis of porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} micro cuboid structures by solvothermal approach and investigation of its gas sensing properties and catalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Jamil, Saba, E-mail: saba_hrb@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Jing, Xiaoyan [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: zhqw1888@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Li, Songnan; Liu, Jingyuan [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Zhang, Milin [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Micro cuboid Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particle prepared by solvothermal method. • Study of morphology of synthesized cuboids before and after calcinations. • Investigation of formation mechanism of porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} from cuboid CoCO{sub 3}. • Investigation of gas sensing properties of porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Study of catalytic activity of product. - Abstract: The cobalt carbonate cuboids are prepared by adopting a simple solvothermal approach by using diethylene glycol and water in specific ratio as solvent. The prepared cobalt carbonate is subjected to different instrumentation to investigate its morphology and other properties. It is clear from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that the product is distinct cuboid in shape with a size of approximately 3 ?m from each face of the cube. Each particle of cuboid cobalt carbonate seems to comprise of layer by layer assembly of unit cells that consequently leads to a cuboid geometry. The cuboid cobalt carbonate was calcined at 700 °C in a furnace under argon atmosphere that decompose cobalt carbonate into porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} with the loosely packed arrangement of nano architectures. The gas sensing properties and catalytic activity of porous cuboids Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are also investigated.

  7. Corrosion-Prevention Capabilities of a Water-Borne, Silicone-Based, Primerless Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; MacDowell, Louis G.; Vinje, Rubie D.

    2005-01-01

    Comparative tests have been performed to evaluate the corrosion-prevention capabilities of an experimental paint of the type described in Water-Borne, Silicone-Based, Primerless Paints, NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 11 (November 2002), page 30. To recapitulate: these paints contain relatively small amounts of volatile organic solvents and were developed as substitutes for traditional anticorrosion paints that contain large amounts of such solvents. An additional desirable feature of these paints is that they can be applied without need for prior application of primers to ensure adhesion. The test specimens included panels of cold-rolled steel, stainless steel 316, and aluminum 2024-T3. Some panels of each of these alloys were left bare and some were coated with the experimental water-borne, silicone-based, primerless paint. In addition, some panels of aluminum 2024-T3 and some panels of a fourth alloy (stainless steel 304) were coated with a commercial solvent-borne paint containing aluminum and zinc flakes in a nitrile rubber matrix. In the tests, the specimens were immersed in an aerated 3.5-weight-percent aqueous solution of NaCl for 168 hours. At intervals of 24 hours, the specimens were characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and measurements of corrosion potentials. The specimens were also observed visually. As indicated by photographs of specimens taken after the 168-hour immersion (see figure), the experimental primerless silicone paint was effective in preventing corrosion of stainless steel 316, but failed to protect aluminum 2024-T3 and cold-rolled steel. The degree of failure was greater in the case of the cold-rolled steel. On the basis of visual observations, EIS, and corrosion- potential measurements, it was concluded that the commercial aluminum and zinc-filled nitrile rubber coating affords superior corrosion protection to aluminum 2024-T3 and is somewhat less effective in protecting stainless steel 304.

  8. DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A SILICON-BASED MEMS ROTARY ENGINE Kelvin Fu, Aaron J. Knobloch, Fabian C. Martinez, David C. Walther,

    E-print Network

    Liepmann, Dorian

    Q DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A SILICON-BASED MEMS ROTARY ENGINE Kelvin Fu, Aaron J. Knobloch, Fabian of a Silicon-based MEMS rotary engine are discussed in this paper. This work is part of an effort currently of this power generation system are small-scale rotary internal combustion engines fueled by high energy density

  9. Microfabrication and characterization of a silicon-based millimeter scale, PEM fuel cell operating with hydrogen, methanol, or formic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Yeom; G. Z. Mozsgai; B. R. Flachsbart; E. R. Choban; A. Asthana; M. A. Shannon; P. J. A. Kenis

    2005-01-01

    A silicon-based microfabricated fuel cell has been developed to provide a high energy and power density power source on the millimeter size scale. An integrated silicon microscale membrane electrode assembly (Si-?MEA) consisting of a Nafion 112™ membrane bonded between two electrodes on microstructured silicon substrates forms the core element of this polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. The use of silicon

  10. Response of silicon-based linear energy transfer spectrometers: implication for radiation risk assessment in space flights

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. D. Badhwar; P. M. O'Neill

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing silicon-based telescopes because of their compactness and low power requirements. Three such telescopes have been flown on board the Space Shuttle to measure the linear energy transfer spectra of trapped, galactic cosmic ray, and solar energetic particles. Dosimeters based on single silicon detectors have also been flown on the Mir orbital station. A comparison

  11. Investigations of surface interactions and deposition mechanisms in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of silicon-based materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Ray McCurdy

    1999-01-01

    Plasma processing of silicon-based materials is widely used in the semiconductor industry for the production integrated circuits. Two very important materials are silicon carbide and silicon nitride. Silicon carbide has found applications in solar cells, flat panel displays, photoreceptors, and photoresist materials, while silicon nitride thin films are used as gate dielectrics and barrier coatings in microelectronic devices, as capacitors

  12. Dispersive micro solid-phase extraction for the rapid analysis of synthetic polycyclic musks using thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wu-Hsun; Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2013-09-13

    A simple and solvent-free method for the rapid analysis of five synthetic polycyclic musks in water samples is described. The method involves the use of dispersive micro solid-phase extraction (D-?-SPE) coupled with direct thermal desorption (TD) gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) operating in the selected-ion-storage (SIS) mode. The parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from water sample and the thermal desorption conditions in the GC injection-port were optimized using a central composite design method. The optimal extraction conditions involved immersing 3.2mg of a typical octadecyl (C18) bonded silica adsorbent (i.e., ENVI-18) in a 10mL water sample. After extraction by vigorously shaking for 1.0min, the adsorbents were collected and dried on a filter. The adsorbents were transferred to a micro-vial, which was directly inserted into GC temperature-programmed injector, and the extracted target analytes were then thermally desorbed in the GC injection-port at 337°C for 3.8min. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were determined to be 1.2-3.0ng/L. Precision, as indicated by relative standard deviations (RSDs), was less than 9% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 74 and 90%. A preliminary analysis of the river water samples revealed that galaxolide (HHCB) and tonalide (AHTN) were the two most common synthetic polycyclic musks present. Using a standard addition method, their concentrations were determined to in the range from 11 to 140ng/L. PMID:23932027

  13. Ultra-Micro Wave Rotor Investigations Florin Iancu, Janusz Piechna*

    E-print Network

    Müller, Norbert

    Ultra-Micro Wave Rotor Investigations Florin Iancu, Janusz Piechna* , Emmett Dempsey, Norbert Nowowiejska Str., 00-665 Warsaw, Poland Abstract Ultra Micro Gas Turbines (UµGT) are expected to be a next of incorporating a wave rotor to an ultra-micro gas turbine and the advantages of wave rotors, topping gas turbines

  14. Micro-Discharge Micro-Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slough, John; Ewing, J. J.

    2004-09-01

    This talk summarizes the experiments and analysis of the micro-discharge micro-thruster developed jointly by Ewing Technology Associates and the University of Washington. The key experimental result has been demonstrating that a discharge can be struck in a micro-discharge type of structure (aperture < 300 microns) under very demanding flow conditions. In addition, the micro-discharge provides for power addition to the neutral gas in discharges that transition from high pressure ( 10-100 mTorr) to vacuum on the supersonic flow side of the limiting aperture "nozzle" separating the discharge region from the vacuum region. The fact that a fairly stable discharge is maintained on the downstream side suggests that the fairly hot plasma ( 2 eV) deposits power into the neutral gas (Argon) in a manner that produces a neutral flow of similar energy, much like an arcjet but at very low power (2-10 W). A crude measurement of the power deposition into the gas via an energy balance approach was obtained from thermocouple measurements, which also imply that the gas temperature may be as high as 1-2 eV. Coupling thrust measurements to measurements of discharge and plasma properties is an integral part of the path to future understanding. Ultimately a model needs to be developed to explain the gas and plasma dynamics involved in the device. High-temperature nozzle flows at low Reynolds numbers are typically studied numerically by the direct simulation Monte Carlo method, and results from initial calculations will be presented, as well as future plans.

  15. Headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction, gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of terpenoids in the latex of Euphorbia species.

    PubMed

    Patel, Asmita V; Sumner, Stephen; Thompson, H Leslie; Blunden, Gerald; Wright, David; Liu, Jun-Feng; Zan, Jun-Feng

    2013-01-01

    The volatile and semi-volatile terpenoids in the latex of Euphorbia amygdaloides, E. exigua, E. helioscopia, and E. peplus were analyzed by headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME), coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The volatiles were extracted using a 100 microm polydimethylsiloxane SPME fiber under optimized extraction conditions. The compounds detected encompassed a range of chemical classes, but only terpenoids were evaluated. Only sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were detected in the tested samples of E. exigua, E. helioscopia, and E. peplus, with beta-caryophyllene being the major one, but were never recorded in latex samples of E. amygdaloides, in which only the diterpene hydrocarbon kaur-16-ene was detected. Alpha-Humulene was consistently found in samples of E. helioscopia, and E. peplus, but never in those of the other two species. These preliminary results show that the developed procedure is suitable for the analysis of small samples of Euphorbia latex and that, for each individual species, there is very little qualitative difference between samples, regardless of either place or date of collection. PMID:23472461

  16. Performance Analysis and Optimum Operation Planning of Distributed Energy System Based on Micro Gas Turbine-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Aina; Kimijima, Shinji

    In this paper, the economical and energy saving advantages of the distributed energy system, which consists of a micro gas turbine-solid oxide fuel cell hybrid power generation system, waste heat recovery devices and air-conditioning equipments, are investigated. Firstly, the thermodynamical performance evaluation of the hybrid system with the heat recovery devices is discussed to estimate the energy conversion efficiency of the whole system. Secondly, by using 1inear programming technique, the optimum operation planning of the cogeneration plant based on the hybrid system is discussed to predict the reduction of the primary fuel consumption and utility cost. Throughout detailed investigation, it is found that the energy conversion efficiency, which includes the waste heat utilization, reaches over 80% (LHV). In addition, the optimum operation of the hybrid system, of which power generation capacity is appropriate for the energy demand, achieve the highly effective energy saving against the traditional energy supply scheme, that is, the fuel reduction reaches around 40% to the conventional value.

  17. A carbon foam with a bimodal micro–mesoporous structure prepared from larch sawdust for the gas-phase toluene adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shouxin, E-mail: liushouxin@126.com [Key Laboratory of Bio-Based Material Science and Technology of The Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China); Huang, Zhanhua; Wang, Rui [Key Laboratory of Bio-Based Material Science and Technology of The Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Highlights: ? Network carbon foam containing a bimodal pore distribution was prepared from Larch. ? Liquefaction route was used for the preparation of morphology controllable carbon. ? Pore structure of carbon foam was controlled through KOH activation. - Abstract: A carbon foam with a bimodal micro–mesopore distribution, was prepared by submitting larch sawdust to liquefaction, resinification, foaming, carbonization and KOH activation. The morphology, pore texture and crystal microstructure was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption analysis and X-ray powder diffraction. A honeycomb structure with adjacent cells was observed for the precursor of carbon foam. After KOH activation, the cell wall of precursor shrunk and broke. This lead to the formation of a well-connected 3D network and developed ligament pore structure (surface area of 554–1918 m{sup 2}/g) containing bimodal pores, 2.1 and 3.9 nm in diameter. The porous carbon foam prepared at 700 °C exhibited a much higher gas-phase toluene removal than commercial activated carbon fiber owing to the 3D network and bimodal pore structure.

  18. [Determination of nitroaromatics and cyclo ketones in sea water' by gas chromatography coupled with activated carbon fiber solid-phase micro-extraction].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hanna; Zhu, Mengya; Wang, Yalin; Sun, Tonghua; Jia, Jinping

    2009-05-01

    A gas chromatography (GC) coupled with solid-phase micro-extraction using a special activated carbon fiber (ACF) was developed for the analysis of 6 nitroaromatics and cyclic ketones, nitrobenzene (NB), 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), isophorone, 1,4-naphthaquinone (1,4-NPQ), in sea water samples. The sample was extracted for 30 min under saturation of NaCl at 1,500 r/min and 60 degrees C in head space. The desorption was performance at 280 degrees C for 2 min. The linear ranges were from 0.01 to 400 microg/L. The limits of detection (LODs) were 1.4 - 3.2 ng/L. This method has been successfully applied to the determination of nitroaromatics and cyclic ketones in the sea water samples obtained from East China Sea. The concentrations of nitrobenzene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene and 2,6-dinitrotoluene in the sea water sample were 0.756, 0.944, 0.890 microg/L, respectively. The recoveries were 86.3% - 101.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.7% -7.8%. The method is suitable for analyzing nitroaromatics and cyclic ketones at low concentration levels in sea water samples. PMID:19803142

  19. High-separation efficiency micro-fabricated multi-capillary gas chromatographic columns for simulants of the nerve agents and blister agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Du, Xiaosong; Wang, Yang; Tai, Huiling; Qiu, Dong; Lin, Qinghao; Jiang, Yadong

    2014-01-01

    To achieve both high speed and separation efficiency in the separation of a mixture of nerve and blister agent simulants, a high-aspect-ratio micro-fabricated multi-capillary column (MCC, a 50-cm-long, 450-?m-deep, and 60-?m-wide four-capillary column) was fabricated by the application of the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) techniques. Mixtures of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants - dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), and methyl salicylate - were used as samples. The fabricated MCC allowed for the separation of all the components of the gaseous mixture within 24 s, even when the difference in boiling point was 4°C, as in the case of TEP and methyl salicylate. Furthermore, interfering agents - dichloromethane, ethanol, and toluene - were also included in the subsequent gaseous mixture samples. The boiling point of these six components ranged from 78°C to 219°C. All six components were clearly separated within 70 s. This study is the first to report the clear separation of gas mixtures of components with close boiling points. The column efficiency was experimentally determined to be 12,810 plates/m. PMID:24899869

  20. High-separation efficiency micro-fabricated multi-capillary gas chromatographic columns for simulants of the nerve agents and blister agents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To achieve both high speed and separation efficiency in the separation of a mixture of nerve and blister agent simulants, a high-aspect-ratio micro-fabricated multi-capillary column (MCC, a 50-cm-long, 450-?m-deep, and 60-?m-wide four-capillary column) was fabricated by the application of the microelectromechanical system (MEMS) techniques. Mixtures of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants - dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP), triethyl phosphate (TEP), and methyl salicylate - were used as samples. The fabricated MCC allowed for the separation of all the components of the gaseous mixture within 24 s, even when the difference in boiling point was 4°C, as in the case of TEP and methyl salicylate. Furthermore, interfering agents - dichloromethane, ethanol, and toluene - were also included in the subsequent gaseous mixture samples. The boiling point of these six components ranged from 78°C to 219°C. All six components were clearly separated within 70 s. This study is the first to report the clear separation of gas mixtures of components with close boiling points. The column efficiency was experimentally determined to be 12,810 plates/m. PMID:24899869

  1. Sensitive and robotic determination of bromate in sea water and drinking deep-sea water by headspace solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2012-09-01

    A robotic method has been established for the determination of bromate in sea water and drinking deep-sea water. Bromate in water was converted into volatile derivative, which was measured with headspace solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME GC-MS). Derivatization reagent and the HS-SPME parameters (selection of fibre, extraction/derivatization temperature, heating time and; the morality of HCl) were optimized and selected. Under the established conditions, the detection and the quantification limits were 0.016 ?g L(-1) and 0.051 ?g L(-1), respectively, and the intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 7% at concentrations of 1.0 and 10.0 ?g L(-1). The calibration curve showed good linearity with r(2)=0.9998. The common ions Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), HPO(4)(2-), H(2)PO(4)(-), K(+), Na(+), NH(4)(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Ba(2+), Mn(4+), Mn(2+), Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) did not interfere even when present in 1000-fold excess over the active species. The method was successfully applied to the determination of bromate in sea water and drinking deep-sea water. PMID:22840702

  2. Synthesis of new 18F-radiolabeled silicon-based nitroimidazole compounds.

    PubMed

    Joyard, Yoann; Azzouz, Rabah; Bischoff, Laurent; Papamicaël, Cyril; Labar, Daniel; Bol, Anne; Bol, Vanessa; Vera, Pierre; Grégoire, Vincent; Levacher, Vincent; Bohn, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    The syntheses of new nitroimidazole compounds using silicon-[(18)F]fluorine chemistry for the potential detection of tumor hypoxia are described. [(18)F]silicon-based compounds were synthesized by coupling 2-nitroimidazole with silyldinaphtyl or silylphenyldi-tert-butyl groups and labeled by fluorolysis or isotopic exchange. Dinaphtyl compounds (6, 10) were labeled in 56-71% yield with a specific activity of 45 GBq/?mol, however these compounds ([(18)F]7 and [(18)F]11) were not stable in plasma. Phenyldi-tert-butyl compounds were labeled in 70% yield with a specific activity of 3 GBq/?mol by isotopic exchange, or in 81% yield by fluorolysis of siloxanes with a specific activity of 45 GBq/?mol. The labeled compound [(18)F]18 was stable in plasma and excreted by the liver and kidneys in vivo. In conclusion, the fluorosilylphenyldi-tert-butyl (SiFA) group is more stable in plasma than fluorosilyldiphenyl moiety. Thus, compound [(18)F]18 is suitable for further in vivo assessments. PMID:23665140

  3. A silicon-based, three-dimensional neural interface: manufacturing processes for an intracortical electrode array.

    PubMed

    Campbell, P K; Jones, K E; Huber, R J; Horch, K W; Normann, R A

    1991-08-01

    A method has been developed for the manufacture of a "three-dimensional" electrode array geometry for chronic intracortical stimulation. This silicon based array consists of a 4.2 x 4.2 x 0.12 mm thick monocrystalline substrate, from which project 100 conductive, silicon needles sharpened to facilitate cortical penetration. Each needle is electrically isolated from the other needles, and is about 0.09 mm thick at its base and 1.5 mm long. The sharpened end of each needle is coated with platinum to facilitate charge transfer into neural tissue. The following manufacturing processes were used to create this array. 1) Thermomigration of 100 aluminum pads through an n-type silicon block. This creates trails of highly conductive p+ silicon isolated from each other by opposing pn junctions. 2) A combination of mechanical and chemical micromachining which creates individual penetrating needles of the p+ silicon trails. 3) Metal deposition to create active electrode areas and electrical contact pads. 4) Array encapsulation with polyimide. The geometrical, mechanical, and electrical properties of these arrays should make them well suited as interfaces to cortical tissue. PMID:1937509

  4. Silicon-based current-controlled reconfigurable magnetoresistance logic combined with non-volatile memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaozhong; Luo, Zhaochu

    2015-03-01

    Silicon-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) transistors have achieved great success. However, the traditional development pathway is approaching its fundamental limits. Magnetoelectronics logic, especially magnetic-field-based logic, shows promise for surpassing the development limits of CMOS logic. Existing proposals of magnetic-field-based logic are based on exotic semiconductors and difficult for further technological implementation. We proposed a kind of diode-assisted geometry-enhanced low-magnetic-field magnetoresistance (MR) mechanism. It couples p-n junction's nonlinear transport characteristic and Lorentz force by geometry, and shows extremely large low-magnetic-field MR (>120% at 0.15 T) Further, it is applied to experimentally demonstrate current-controlled reconfigurable MR logic on the silicon platform at room temperature. This logic device could perform Boolean logic AND, OR, NAND and NOR in one device. Combined with non-volatile magnetic memory, this logic architecture has the advantages of current-controlled reconfiguration, zero refresh consumption, instant-on performance and would bridge the processor-memory gap.

  5. PREFACE: Coordination Action on Defects Relevant to Engineering Silicon-Based Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans-Freeman, Jan

    2005-06-01

    This issue contains a selection of papers presented at the First International Workshop of the European project entitled Coordination Action on Defects Relevant to Engineering Silicon-Based Devices (CADRES) held in Catania, Sicily, 26--28 September 2004. The CADRES project is sponsored by the European Commission in the Framework 6 IST programme. The Workshop was attended by about 107 delegates, from many European countries, who heard presentations from speakers prominent in their fields from all over the world, plus several excellent student presentations. Over the three days there were opportunities for very focussed discussion, and all who attended could benefit from new collaboration and training opportunities available as a result of this meeting. I would like to thank the local organizers, Professor Francesco Priolo and his students for the smooth running of the workshop, and Professor Bengt Svensson for acting as the Programme Chairman. I would also like to thank Professors Svensson and Priolo for their help with the selection of papers for the workshop and with the Proceedings.

  6. Understanding and mitigating DNA induced corrosion in porous silicon based biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yiliang; Lawrie, Jenifer L.; Laibinis, Paul E.; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2014-03-01

    Porous silicon structures have been demonstrated as effective biosensors due to their large surface area, size-selective filtering capabilities, and tunable optical properties. However, porous silicon surfaces are highly susceptible to oxidation and corrosion in aqueous environments and solutions containing negative charges. In DNA sensing applications, porous silicon corrosion can mask the DNA binding signal as the typical increase in refractive index that results from a hybridization event can be countered by the decrease in refractive index due to corrosion of the porous silicon matrix. Such signal ambiguity should be eliminated in practical devices. In this work, we carefully examined the influence of charge density and surface passivation on the corrosion process in porous silicon waveguides in order to control this process in porous silicon based biosensors. Both increased DNA probe density and increased target DNA concentration enhance the corrosion process, leading to an overall blueshift of the waveguide resonance. While native porous silicon structures degrade upon prolonged exposure to solutions containing negative charges, porous silicon waveguides that are sufficiently passivated to prevent oxidation/corrosion in aqueous solution exhibit a saturation effect in the corrosion process, which increases the reliability of the sensor. For practical implementation of porous silicon DNA sensors, the negative charges from DNA must be mitigated. We show that a redshift of the porous silicon waveguide resonance results from either replacing the DNA target with neutral charge PNA or introducing Mg2+ ions to shield the negative charges of DNA.

  7. A compact polarization converter for silicon-based slot waveguides using a hybrid plasmonic effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yin; Xiao, Jinbiao; Sun, Xiaohan

    2014-08-01

    A compact polarization converter for silicon-based slot waveguides is proposed, in which a metal strip of silver (Ag) with a right-angled cross section located at the upper-right corner of the slot waveguide is embedded in its upper claddings. Owing to the characteristics of the introduced asymmetric hybrid plasmonic waveguide, the modal hybridness is highly enhanced and the optimal optical axis rotation angle, 45°, is realized by optimizing the location and size of the Ag, resulting in high polarization conversion efficiency (PCE). Numerical results show that a polarization converter of 15.2 ?m in length, operating at a wavelength of 1.55 ?m for TM-to-TE conversion, is achieved, where the PCE and insertion loss are 96.9% and 0.7 dB, respectively, and bandwidth with PCE >92% is ˜67 nm (from 1524 to 1591 nm), covering the entire C-band. Moreover, fabrication tolerances to the structural parameters and field evolution along the propagation distance are investigated.

  8. A Chemical Ionization High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer Coupled to a Micro Orifice Volatilization Impactor (MOVI-HRToF-CIMS) for Analysis of Gas and Particle-Phase Organic Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Reddy L. N. Yatavelli; Felipe Lopez-Hilfiker; Julia D. Wargo; Joel R. Kimmel; Michael J. Cubison; Timothy H. Bertram; Jose L. Jimenez; Marc Gonin; Douglas R. Worsnop; Joel A. Thornton

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new instrument, chemical ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer coupled to a micro-orifice volatilization impactor (MOVI-HRToF-CIMS). The MOVI-HRToF-CIMS instrument is unique in that, within a compact field-deployable package, it provides (1) quantifiable molecular-level information for both gas and particle phase organic species on timescales ranging from ?1 second for gases and 10 - 60 minutes for particle-phase compounds

  9. Modliser l'ADN avec Graphite-MicroMgas Modeling DNA with Graphite-MicroMgas

    E-print Network

    Lévy, Bruno

    Modéliser l'ADN avec Graphite-MicroMégas Modeling DNA with Graphite-MicroMégas Samuel Hornus reconstruire virtuellement les assemblages de protéines et d'ADN. Il ne s'agit pas uniquement d'illustrer en 3D de l'ADN. Techniquement, MicroMé- gas est un plugin du logiciel Graphite, qui est une plateforme de

  10. In vivo silicon-based flexible radio frequency integrated circuits monolithically encapsulated with biocompatible liquid crystal polymers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Geon-Tae; Im, Donggu; Lee, Sung Eun; Lee, Jooseok; Koo, Min; Park, So Young; Kim, Seungjun; Yang, Kyounghoon; Kim, Sung June; Lee, Kwyro; Lee, Keon Jae

    2013-05-28

    Biointegrated electronics have been investigated for various healthcare applications which can introduce biomedical systems into the human body. Silicon-based semiconductors perform significant roles of nerve stimulation, signal analysis, and wireless communication in implantable electronics. However, the current large-scale integration (LSI) chips have limitations in in vivo devices due to their rigid and bulky properties. This paper describes in vivo ultrathin silicon-based liquid crystal polymer (LCP) monolithically encapsulated flexible radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) for medical wireless communication. The mechanical stability of the LCP encapsulation is supported by finite element analysis simulation. In vivo electrical reliability and bioaffinity of the LCP monoencapsulated RFIC devices are confirmed in rats. In vitro accelerated soak tests are performed with Arrhenius method to estimate the lifetime of LCP monoencapsulated RFICs in a live body. The work could provide an approach to flexible LSI in biointegrated electronics such as an artificial retina and wireless body sensor networks. PMID:23617401

  11. In-vivo implant mechanics of flexible, silicon-based ACREO microelectrode arrays in rat cerebral cortex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winnie Jensen; Ken Yoshida; Ulrich G. Hofmann

    2006-01-01

    The mechanical behavior of an electrode during implantation into neural tissue can have a profound effect on the neural connections and signaling that takes place within the tissue. The objective of the present work was to investigate the in vivo implant mechanics of flexible, silicon-based ACREO microelectrode arrays recently developed by the VSAMUEL consortium (European Union, grant #IST-1999-10073). We have

  12. Effect of porous silicon on the performances of silicon solar cells during the porous silicon-based gettering procedure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Nouri; M. Bouaïcha; B. Bessaïs

    2009-01-01

    In this work we analyse the effect of porous silicon on the performances of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells during the porous silicon-based gettering procedure. This procedure consists of forming PS layers on both front and back sides of the mc-Si wafers followed by an annealing in an infrared furnace under a controlled atmosphere at different temperatures. Three sets of

  13. Formation of Silicon-Based Thin Films Prepared by Catalytic Chemical Vapor Deposition (Cat-CVD) Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideki Matsumura

    1998-01-01

    This paper is a review of the catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) method and properties of silicon-based thin films, such as amorphous-silicon (a-Si), polycrystalline-silicon (p-Si) and silicon nitride (SiNx) films, prepared by the Cat-CVD method. In the Cat-CVD method, also known as the hot-wire CVD (HWCVD) method, deposition gases are decomposed by catalytic cracking reactions with a heated catalyzer placed

  14. Angular dependence of the magnetoresistance effect in a silicon based p-n junction device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Si, Mingsu; Yang, Dezheng; Shi, Zhong; Wang, Fangcong; Yang, Zhaolong; Zhou, Shiming; Xue, Desheng

    2014-03-01

    We report a pronounced angular dependence of the magnetoresistance (MR) effect in a silicon based p-n junction device at room temperature by manipulating the space charge region of the p-n junction under a magnetic field. For the p-n junction device with various space charge region configurations, we find that all the angular dependence of the MR effect is proportional to sin2(?), where the ? is the angle between the magnetic field and the driving current. With increasing the magnetic field and driving current, the anisotropic MR effect is obviously improved. At room temperature, under a magnetic field 2 T and driving current 20 mA, the MR ratio is about 50%, almost one order of amplitude larger than that in the magnetic material permalloy. Our results reveal an interpretation of the MR effect in the non-magnetic p-n junction in terms of the Lorentz force and give a new way for the development of future magnetic sensors with non-magnetic p-n junctions.We report a pronounced angular dependence of the magnetoresistance (MR) effect in a silicon based p-n junction device at room temperature by manipulating the space charge region of the p-n junction under a magnetic field. For the p-n junction device with various space charge region configurations, we find that all the angular dependence of the MR effect is proportional to sin2(?), where the ? is the angle between the magnetic field and the driving current. With increasing the magnetic field and driving current, the anisotropic MR effect is obviously improved. At room temperature, under a magnetic field 2 T and driving current 20 mA, the MR ratio is about 50%, almost one order of amplitude larger than that in the magnetic material permalloy. Our results reveal an interpretation of the MR effect in the non-magnetic p-n junction in terms of the Lorentz force and give a new way for the development of future magnetic sensors with non-magnetic p-n junctions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: S1(a) shows the I-V characteristics of the p-n junction device for various magnetic field orientations in the x-z plane at room temperature. S1(b) shows the corresponding anisotropic MR curves at specific current I = 20 mA. S2 shows the I-V characteristics of the p-n junction device while the magnetic field is applied in the x-y plane. S3 shows the I-V curves at negative bias with various magnetic fields. S4(a) shows the I-V curves of the sample in various electrodes without a magnetic field. The size of the sample is 2.9 mm × 2.26 mm, and the thickness is 0.14 mm. S4(b) shows the Hall voltage in the sample's n region for the current I = 0.01 mA. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04077a

  15. Interaction of silicon-based quantum dots with gibel carp liver: oxidative and structural modifications

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) interaction with living organisms is of central interest due to their various biological and medical applications. One of the most important mechanisms proposed for various silicon nanoparticle-mediated toxicity is oxidative stress. We investigated the basic processes of cellular damage by oxidative stress and tissue injury following QD accumulation in the gibel carp liver after intraperitoneal injection of a single dose of 2 mg/kg body weight Si/SiO2 QDs after 1, 3, and 7 days from their administration. QDs gradual accumulation was highlighted by fluorescence microscopy, and subsequent histological changes in the hepatic tissue were noted. After 1 and 3 days, QD-treated fish showed an increased number of macrophage clusters and fibrosis, while hepatocyte basophilia and isolated hepatolytic microlesions were observed only after substantial QDs accumulation in the liver parenchyma, at 7 days after IP injection. Induction of oxidative stress in fish liver was revealed by the formation of malondialdehyde and advanced oxidation protein products, as well as a decrease in protein thiol groups and reduced glutathione levels. The liver enzymatic antioxidant defense was modulated to maintain the redox status in response to the changes initiated by Si/SiO2 QDs. So, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were upregulated starting from the first day after injection, while the activity of superoxide dismutase increased only after 7 days. The oxidative damage that still occurred may impair the activity of more sensitive enzymes. A significant inhibition in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glutathione-S-transferase activity was noted, while glutathione reductase remained unaltered. Taking into account that the reduced glutathione level had a deep decline and the level of lipid peroxidation products remained highly increased in the time interval we studied, it appears that the liver antioxidant defense of Carassius gibelio does not counteract the oxidative stress induced 7 days after silicon-based QDs exposure in an efficient manner. PMID:23718202

  16. Compatibility study of thin passivation layers with hydrazine for silicon-based MEMS microthruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Pijus; Ghosh, Avijit; Das, Soumen; Bhattacharyya, T. K.

    2012-03-01

    In this work, the compatibility studies of silicon and its different multilayer structures with hydrazine for possible applications to MEMS have been reported. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction patterns of the r.f. sputtered Si/SiO2/Si3N4 stack layer show preferably oriented crystalline structure after hydrazine treatment at different temperatures. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic measurement reveals that local bonding of the constituent atoms of the surface layers, where Si-O bond is replaced partially by Si-N bond while treated. Further, the surface morphology carried out by atomic force microscopy exhibits the tendency of reducing surface roughness with the increase in temperature during hydrazine treatment. From the axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA), it is observed that static contact angle changes slightly for different wettability nature of solid surface due to aggregation of crystallites in the valley of the surface fluctuation and anisotropic modification in preferred orientation of the film surface. On the basis of equation of state theory with approximation of solid surface-liquid, interfacial energy was applied to determine the solid surface free energy providing the limited variation in different stack layers. Lastly, the J-V characteristic of the stack layer treated by hydrazine at different temperatures shows multiple current conduction regions with the same current density for varying electric field. Therefore, among various single or multilayer silicon-based thin film combinations, the Si/SiO2/Si3N4 stack layer is the most promising passivation layer for hydrazine-based MEMS applications.

  17. Research on defects and transport in amorphous-silicon-based semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, E. A.; Antoniadis, H.; Gu, Q.; Lee, J. K.; Wang, Q.; Zafar, S.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes work on three individual tasks as follows. (1) Electron and hole drift measurements in a-Si(1-x)Ge(x):H and a-Si(1-x)C(x):H p-i-n solar cells: Multijunction solar cells incorporating modified band gap a-Si:H in a triple-junction structure are generally viewed as the most promising avenue for achieving an amorphous silicon-based solar cell with 15% stabilized conversion efficiency. The specific objective of this task was to document the mobilities and deep-trapping mobility-lifetime products for electrons and holes in a-Si(1-x)Ge(x):H and a-Si(1-x)C(x):H alloys materials. (2) Electroabsorption measurements and built-in potential (V(sub bi)) in solar cells: V(sub bi) in a p-i-n solar cell may be limiting the open-circuit voltage (V(sub oc)) in wide-band-gap cells (E(sub g) greater than 1.8 eV) currently under investigation as the top cell for 15% triple junction devices. The research addressed four issues that need to be resolved before the method can yield an error less than 0.1 V for V(sub bi). (3) Defect relaxation and Shockley-Read kinetics in a-Si:H: Quantitative modeling of solar cells is usually based on Shockley-Read kinetics. An important assumption of this approach is that the rate of emission of a photocarrier trapped on a defect is independent of quasi-Fermi level location.

  18. Identification of metabolites from liquid chromatography-coulometric array detection profiling: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and refractionation provide essential information orthogonal to LC-MS/microNMR.

    PubMed

    Gathungu, Rose M; Bird, Susan S; Sheldon, Diane P; Kautz, Roger; Vouros, Paul; Matson, Wayne R; Kristal, Bruce S

    2014-06-01

    Liquid chromatography-coulometric array detection (LC-EC) is a sensitive, quantitative, and robust metabolomics profiling tool that complements the commonly used mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based approaches. However, LC-EC provides little structural information. We recently demonstrated a workflow for the structural characterization of metabolites detected by LC-EC profiling combined with LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS and microNMR. This methodology is now extended to include (i) gas chromatography (GC)-electron ionization (EI)-MS analysis to fill structural gaps left by LC-ESI-MS and NMR and (ii) secondary fractionation of LC-collected fractions containing multiple coeluting analytes. GC-EI-MS spectra have more informative fragment ions that are reproducible for database searches. Secondary fractionation provides enhanced metabolite characterization by reducing spectral overlap in NMR and ion suppression in LC-ESI-MS. The need for these additional methods in the analysis of the broad chemical classes and concentration ranges found in plasma is illustrated with discussion of four specific examples: (i) characterization of compounds for which one or more of the detectors is insensitive (e.g., positional isomers in LC-MS, the direct detection of carboxylic groups and sulfonic groups in (1)H NMR, or nonvolatile species in GC-MS), (ii) detection of labile compounds, (iii) resolution of closely eluting and/or coeluting compounds, and (iv) the capability to harness structural similarities common in many biologically related, LC-EC-detectable compounds. PMID:24657819

  19. Micro-machined resonator

    DOEpatents

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1993-03-30

    A micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micro-machinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrode through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  20. Gas

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and pain in the belly—especially after a big meal. Foods that can cause gas Some people naturally produce ... your stomach or throw up . Your breasts are big and sore . The area around your nipples gets darker. You crave certain foods. Or you really dislike certain foods. You feel ...

  1. Millimeter-wave silicon-based ultra-wideband automotive radar transceivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Vipul

    Since the invention of the integrated circuit, the semiconductor industry has revolutionized the world in ways no one had ever anticipated. With the advent of silicon technologies, consumer electronics became light-weight and affordable and paved the way for an Information-Communication-Entertainment age. While silicon almost completely replaced compound semiconductors from these markets, it has been unable to compete in areas with more stringent requirements due to technology limitations. One of these areas is automotive radar sensors, which will enable next-generation collision-warning systems in automobiles. A low-cost implementation is absolutely essential for widespread use of these systems, which leads us to the subject of this dissertation---silicon-based solutions for automotive radars. This dissertation presents architectures and design techniques for mm-wave automotive radar transceivers. Several fully-integrated transceivers and receivers operating at 22-29 GHz and 77-81 GHz are demonstrated in both CMOS and SiGe BiCMOS technologies. Excellent performance is achieved indicating the suitability of silicon technologies for automotive radar sensors. The first CMOS 22-29-GHz pulse-radar receiver front-end for ultra-wideband radars is presented. The chip includes a low noise amplifier, I/Q mixers, quadrature voltage-controlled oscillators, pulse formers and variable-gain amplifiers. Fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS, the receiver achieves a conversion gain of 35-38.1 dB and a noise figure of 5.5-7.4 dB. Integration of multi-mode multi-band transceivers on a single chip will enable next-generation low-cost automotive radar sensors. Two highly-integrated silicon ICs are designed in a 0.18-mum BiCMOS technology. These designs are also the first reported demonstrations of mm-wave circuits with high-speed digital circuits on the same chip. The first mm-wave dual-band frequency synthesizer and transceiver, operating in the 24-GHz and 77-GHz bands, are demonstrated. All circuits except the oscillators are shared between the two bands. A multi-functional injection-locked circuit is used after the oscillators to reconfigure the division ratio inside the phase-locked loop. The synthesizer is suitable for integration in automotive radar transceivers and heterodyne receivers for 94-GHz imaging applications. The transceiver chip includes a dual-band low noise amplifier, a shared downconversion chain, dual-band pulse formers, power amplifiers, a dual-band frequency synthesizer and a high-speed programmable baseband pulse generator. Radar functionality is demonstrated using loopback measurements.

  2. Biocompatibility assessment of Si-based nano- and micro-particles.

    PubMed

    Jaganathan, Hamsa; Godin, Biana

    2012-12-01

    Silicon is one of the most abundant chemical elements found on the Earth. Due to its unique chemical and physical properties, silicon based materials and their oxides (e.g. silica) have been used in several industries such as building and construction, electronics, food industry, consumer products and biomedical engineering/medicine. This review summarizes studies on effects of silicon and silica nano- and micro-particles on cells and organs following four main exposure routes, namely, intravenous, pulmonary, dermal and oral. Further, possible genotoxic effects of silica based nanoparticles are discussed. The review concludes with an outlook on improving and standardizing biocompatibility assessment for nano- and micro-particles. PMID:22634160

  3. A high efficient micro-proton exchange membrane fuel cell by integrating micro-nano synergical structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hsien-Chih; Wang, Chung-Nan; Yeh, Tsung-Kuang; Su, Yu-Chuan; Pan, Chin; Tseng, Fan-Gang

    2013-03-01

    A silicon-based micro-proton exchange membrane fuel cell (?-PEMFC) which carries out an outstanding cell performance and high efficient catalyst utilization ratio is proposed in this paper by the employment of three micro-nano synergical techniques. Firstly, a novel design incorporating multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs) on radial shaped micro-channel walls to form micro/nano reaction chambers which significantly enhance the reaction surface areas for the performance improvement. In the second, the dispensing of ionomer onto the three-phase zones in the reaction chambers is controlled by different rotation speed and the optimized distribution can therefore be achieved for the improvement of catalyst utilization. In the third, the cell interfacial strength is greatly enhanced by the employment of micro-interlocks for maintaining excellent interface between Nafion membrane and reaction chambers while minimizing the system size. A ?-PEMFC is successfully fabricated by integrating aforementioned synergical micro/nano structures altogether. The best cell efficiency is 26 mW cm-2 which corresponds to a catalyst utilization ratio of 38.2 W g-pt-1, and can be considered among the best performed micro-fuel cells.

  4. A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro-reformer and functional micro-fluidic carrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherrer, Barbara; Evans, Anna; Santis-Alvarez, Alejandro J.; Jiang, Bo; Martynczuk, Julia; Galinski, Henning; Nabavi, Majid; Prestat, Michel; Tölke, René; Bieberle-Hütter, Anja; Poulikakos, Dimos; Muralt, Paul; Niedermann, Philippe; Dommann, Alex; Maeder, Thomas; Heeb, Peter; Straessle, Valentin; Muller, Claude; Gauckler, Ludwig J.

    2014-07-01

    Low temperature micro-solid oxide fuel cell (micro-SOFC) systems are an attractive alternative power source for small-size portable electronic devices due to their high energy efficiency and density. Here, we report on a thermally self-sustainable reformer-micro-SOFC assembly. The device consists of a micro-reformer bonded to a silicon chip containing 30 micro-SOFC membranes and a functional glass carrier with gas channels and screen-printed heaters for start-up. Thermal independence of the device from the externally powered heater is achieved by exothermic reforming reactions above 470 °C. The reforming reaction and the fuel gas flow rate of the n-butane/air gas mixture controls the operation temperature and gas composition on the micro-SOFC membrane. In the temperature range between 505 °C and 570 °C, the gas composition after the micro-reformer consists of 12 vol.% to 28 vol.% H2. An open-circuit voltage of 1.0 V and maximum power density of 47 mW cm-2 at 565 °C is achieved with the on-chip produced hydrogen at the micro-SOFC membranes.

  5. Structural and Oxidative Changes in the Kidney of Crucian Carp Induced by Silicon-Based Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Petrache, Sorina Nicoleta; Stanca, Loredana; Serban, Andreea Iren; Sima, Cornelia; Staicu, Andreia Cristina; Munteanu, Maria Cristina; Costache, Marieta; Burlacu, Radu; Zarnescu, Otilia; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2012-01-01

    Silicon-based quantum dots were intraperitoneally injected in Carassius auratus gibelio specimens and, over one week, the effects on renal tissue were investigated by following their distribution and histological effects, as well as antioxidative system modifications. After three and seven days, detached epithelial cells from the basal lamina, dilated tubules and debris in the lumen of tubules were observed. At day 7, nephrogenesis was noticed. The reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration decreased in the first three days and started to rise later on. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity increased only after one week, whereas catalase (CAT) was up-regulated in a time-dependent manner. The activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidise (GPX) decreased dramatically by approximately 50% compared to control, whereas the glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) increased significantly after 3 and 7 days of treatment. Oxidative modifications of proteins and the time-dependent increase of Hsp70 expression were also registered. Our data suggest that silicon-based quantum dots induced oxidative stress followed by structural damages. However, renal tissue is capable of restoring its integrity by nephron development. PMID:22949855

  6. Silicon Based Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Chip for Portable Consumer Electronics -- Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Ludwiszewski

    2009-06-29

    LSI’s fuel cell uses efficient Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (“SOFC”) technology, is manufactured using Micro Electrical Mechanical System (“MEMS”) fabrication methods, and runs on high energy fuels, such as butane and ethanol. The company’s Fuel Cell on a Chip™ technology enables a form-factor battery replacement for portable electronic devices that has the potential to provide an order-of-magnitude run-time improvement over current batteries. Further, the technology is clean and environmentally-friendly. This Department of Energy funded project focused on accelerating the commercialization and market introduction of this technology through improvements in fuel cell chip power output, lifetime, and manufacturability.

  7. The structure of methane gas hydrate bearing sediments from the Krishna–Godavari Basin as seen from Micro-CT scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily V. L. Rees; Jeffery A. Priest; Chris R. I. Clayton

    2011-01-01

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 1, of 2006, cored through several methane gas hydrate deposits on the continental shelf around the coast of India. The pressure coring techniques utilized during the expedition (HYACINTH and PCS) enabled recovery of gas hydrate bearing, fine-grained, sediment cores to the surface. After initial characterization core sections were rapidly depressurized and submerged

  8. High volume methane gas hydrate deposits in fine grained sediments from the Krishna-Godavari Basin: Analysis from Micro CT scanning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. V. Rees; C. Clayton; J. Priest; P. J. Schultheiss

    2009-01-01

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 1, of 2006, investigated several methane gas hydrate deposits on the continental shelf around the coast of India. Using pressure coring techniques (HYACINTH and PCS), intact gas-hydrate bearing, fine-grained sediment cores were recovered during the expedition. Once recovered, these cores were rapidly depressurized and submerged in liquid nitrogen, therefore preserving the structure

  9. Characterization and application of electrodeposited Pt, Pt\\/Pd, and Pd catalyst structures for direct formic acid micro fuel cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Jayashree; J. S. Spendelow; J. Yeom; C. Rastogi; M. A. Shannon; P. J. A. Kenis

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we study the preparation, structural characterization, and electrocatalytic analysis of robust Pt and Pd-containing catalyst structures for silicon-based formic acid micro fuel cells. The catalyst structures studied were prepared and incorporated into the silicon fuel cells by a post CMOS-compatible process of electrodeposition, as opposed to the more common introduction of nanoparticle-based catalyst by ink painting. Robust,

  10. Broiler Survivors of Intravenous MicroParticle Injections: Evaluation of Growth, Livability, Meat Quality, and Arterial Blood Gas Values During a Cyclic Heat Challenge1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Wideman; M. E. Chapman; C. M. Owens; M. K. Devabhaktuni; L. C. Cavitt; W. Wang; G. F. Erf

    Whenbroilers areexposedto highambient temperatures, their cardiac output can increase by 20 to 50%. Previously, we developed an intravenous micro- particle injection technique to select broilers having a cardiopulmonary capacity capable of accommodating in- creases in cardiac output associated with fast growth and cool temperatures. In the present study, male broilers were injected at 18 to 20 d of age with

  11. Author's personal copy Current status and outlook for silicon-based optical biosensors

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Sharon

    photonic devices extends beyond passive structures for light guiding and light emission. Nano.82.Àm 87.85.fk Keywords: Silicon Optical Sensor Waveguide a b s t r a c t The importance of silicon- and microstructured silicon photonic devices have emerged as viable gas, chemical, and biological sensors

  12. Focused ion beam high resolution grayscale lithography for silicon-based nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmanis, M., E-mail: mikhail.erdmanis@aalto.fi; Tittonen, I. [Department of Micro- and Nanosciences, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13500, FI-00076 Aalto (Finland)

    2014-02-17

    Nanofabrication techniques providing a fine control over the profile of silicon structures are of great importance for nanophotonics, plasmonics, sensing, micro- and nano fluidics, and biomedical applications. We report on the applicability of focused ion beam for the fine grayscale lithography, which yields surface profiles that are customized at nanoscale. The approach is based on a correlation between the ion beam irradiation dose of inorganic resist and the mask etching rate in the reactive ion etching. An exceptional property of this method is the number of gray tones that are not limited by the resist characteristics. We apply the process to fabricate unique periodic nanostructures with a slope angle varying across the structure and a period as small as 200?nm.

  13. Silicon-based tunable optical delay lines and switches for next generation optical telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Linjie; Xie, Jingya; Lu, Liangjun; Li, Zuxiang; Chen, Jianping

    2015-02-01

    We report our recent progress on reconfigurable optical true time delay lines (RTTDL) and optical switches. The RTTDL is composed of 8 stages of MZIs connected by 7 waveguide pairs with an incremental length difference. Variable optical attenuators are inserted in the delay waveguides to suppress crosstalk caused by the residual signals from noise paths. Transmission of a 25 Gbps PRBS signal confirms the signal fidelity after a maximum of 1.27 ns delay. The optical switch is based on a Benes architecture with Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZI) as the switching elements. Both p-i-n diodes and silicon resistive micro-heaters are integrated in the MZI arms for electrical tuning and phase correction, respectively. The measured on-chip insertion loss of the 4×4 switch is < 8 dB. Transmission of a 50 Gb/s quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) optical signal verifies its switching functionality.

  14. Study of acoustic wave behavior in silicon-based one-dimensional phononic-crystal plates using harmony response analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuefeng; Xu, Tao; Liu, Shengchun; Cheng, Jianchun

    2009-11-01

    We promote an efficient method named harmony response analysis (HRA) as a comparison with transient response analysis and supercell plane wave expansion (supercell PWE) to study the behavior of Lamb wave in silicon-based one-dimensional composite plates. To implement HRA for dealing with Lamb waves in phononic-crystal plates, the viscous-spring artificial boundaries are employed to eliminate the boundary reflection in maximum. With the calculation of displacement field, the propagations of elastic waves under different frequency loads (inside/outside the completed band gap) are investigated in details. The method is then applied in plates both with and without substrate. We further study the plates with quasiperiodicity (generalized Fibonacci systems and double-period system) and investigate the change in band gaps induced by the quasiperiodicity.

  15. InGaAlAsPN: A Materials System for Silicon Based Optoelectronics and Heterostructure Device Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broekaert, T. P. E.; Tang, S.; Wallace, R. M.; Beam, E. A., III; Duncan, W. M.; Kao, Y. -C.; Liu, H. -Y.

    1995-01-01

    A new material system is proposed for silicon based opto-electronic and heterostructure devices; the silicon lattice matched compositions of the (In,Ga,Al)-(As,P)N 3-5 compounds. In this nitride alloy material system, the bandgap is expected to be direct at the silicon lattice matched compositions with a bandgap range most likely to be in the infrared to visible. At lattice constants ranging between those of silicon carbide and silicon, a wider bandgap range is expected to be available and the high quality material obtained through lattice matching could enable applications such as monolithic color displays, high efficiency multi-junction solar cells, opto-electronic integrated circuits for fiber communications, and the transfer of existing 3-5 technology to silicon.

  16. High temperature electrical conductivity and thermal decomposition of phenolic- and silicon-based dielectrics for fireset housings

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.T. Jr.; Biefeld, R.M.

    1981-08-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and thermal decomposition characteristics of several phenolic- and silicone-based materials of interest for fireset case housings have been measured to 600 to 700/sup 0/C. The materials are phenolic or silicone resins reinforced with glass chopped fabric or cloth. The conductivity temperature dependence was measured during decomposition in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of approx. 10/sup 0/C/minute. Applied electric fields were from 4 x 10/sup 2/ to 4 x 10/sup 3/ volts/cm. Thermal decomposition characteristics were investigated by mass spectroscopy in vacuum and thermal gravimetric analysis in nitrogen and air. Nearly ohmic voltage-current characteristics were obtained, except where decomposition and/or outgassing was pronounced.

  17. Development of dielectric and amorphous-silicon-based thin film coatings for room- and cryogenic temperature applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poirier, Michel; Ilias, Samir; Thibault, Simon; Topart, Patrice; Jerominek, Hubert

    2004-02-01

    This paper reports on the development of dielectric and amorphous silicon-based thin film stacks for applications at room and liquid nitrogen (LN) cryogenic temperatures. The deposition process was performed using assisted energetic evaporation processes such as Reactive Low Voltage Ion Plating (RLVIP) and Ion Assisted Deposition (IAD). Dielectric coatings produced by RLVIP exhibited fairly good stability at LN temperature. Indeed, as compared to room temperature, a spectral shift of ??0.5 = -2.9 nm at half maximum was obtained for a 3-cavity bandpass filter centered at 1570 nm. Amorphous silicon and silicon dioxide stacks deposited by IAD processes were tested for optical applications. Amorphous silicon thin films showed good mechanical stability at LN temperature. The influence of deposition parameters and operating temperature on the electrical, mechanical and optical properties of amorphous Si films was investigated.

  18. A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro-reformer and functional

    E-print Network

    Daraio, Chiara

    is successfully demonstrated. The micro-power plant consists of micro-SOFCs, a micro-reactor and a gas carrier yield of 60 at.%. An OCV of 1.0 V and a maximum power density of 47 mW cmÀ2 at 565 C were achieved fuel cell (micro-SOFC) systems are an attractive alternative power source for small-size portable

  19. Generation of 200-microJ, sub-25-fs deep-UV pulses using a noble-gas-filled hollow fiber.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Tamas; Simon, Peter

    2009-08-01

    High-energy 110-fs pulses of a KrF excimer laser system were spectrally broadened by self-phase modulation in a neon-filled hollow fiber and subsequently compressed by a grating pair. In this way, 25-fs pulses with energies as high as 200 microJ were generated at 248 nm. The pulses were characterized by an all-reflective single-shot transient grating frequency-resolved optical gating. PMID:19649077

  20. Development of a liquid-fueled micro-combustor

    E-print Network

    Peck, Jhongwoo, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Advances in Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have made possible the development of shirtbutton-sized gas turbine engines for use as portable power sources. As part of an effort to develop a microscale gas turbine ...

  1. Local Heating of Discrete Droplets Using Magnetic Porous Silicon-Based Photonic Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Ho; Derfus, Austin M.; Segal, Ester; Vecchio, Kenneth S.; Bhatia, Sangeeta N.; Sailor, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a method for local heating of discrete micro-liter scale liquid droplets. The droplets are covered with magnetic porous Si microparticles, and heating is achieved by application of an external alternating electromagnetic field. The magnetic porous Si microparticles consist of two layers: the top layer contains a photonic code and it is hydrophobic, with surface-grafted dodecyl moieties. The bottom layer consists of a hydrophilic Si oxide host layer that is infused with Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The amphiphilic microparticles spontaneously align at the interface of a water droplet immersed in mineral oil, allowing manipulation of the droplets by application of a magnetic field. Application of an oscillating magnetic field (338 kHz, 18A RMS current in a coil surrounding the experiment) generates heat in the superparamagnetic particles that can raise the temperature of the enclosed water droplet to >80 °C within 5 min. A simple microfluidics application is demonstrated: combining complementary DNA strands contained in separate droplets and then thermally inducing dehybridization of the conjugate. The complementary oligonucleotides were conjugated with the cyanine dye fluorophores Cy3 and Cy5 to quantify the melting/re-binding reaction by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The magnetic porous Si microparticles were prepared as photonic crystals, containing spectral codes that allowed the identification of the droplets by reflectivity spectroscopy. The technique demonstrates the feasibility of tagging, manipulating, and heating small volumes of liquids without the use of conventional microfluidic channel and heating systems. PMID:16771508

  2. Pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (P-PECVD) of silicon based materials with a low-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (DBD)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Oldham; Matthew R. King; C. Richard Guarnieri; Jerome J. Cuomo

    2008-01-01

    This work studied a P-PECVD process for the deposition of silicon based materials. In the process, the RF power is applied in specific ``on'' and ``off'' cycles. The process is operated in a DBD configuration at atmospheric pressure. In this pressure range, vapor phase growth typically dominates conventional processes, rather than the desired film growth. Our work has found by

  3. In situ deposition of oxide layer using fuel additive and its effect on the oxidation of SM 45C blades for micro-gas turbines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. T. Kim; D. S. Kim; O. Y. Oh

    2009-01-01

    In situ deposition of a silica-based oxide layer on carbon steel (SM45C) turbine blades was tried during the operation of a 13 kgf-class gas turbine engine using fuel additive, and its effect on the durability and the static oxidation at 700°C of the blade was studied. The gas turbine was actuated by burning kerosene as fuel, for one turbine wheel

  4. Thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) and its thermal contact resistance with fuel cell gas diffusion layers: Effect of compression, PTFE, micro porous layer (MPL), BPP out-of-flatness and cyclic load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghifar, Hamidreza; Djilali, Ned; Bahrami, Majid

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on measurements of thermal conductivity of a graphite bipolar plate (BPP) as a function of temperature and its thermal contact resistance (TCR) with treated and untreated gas diffusion layers (GDLs). The thermal conductivity of the BPP decreases with temperature and its thermal contact resistance with GDLs, which has been overlooked in the literature, is found to be dominant over a relatively wide range of compression. The effects of PTFE loading, micro porous layer (MPL), compression, and BPP out-of-flatness are also investigated experimentally. It is found that high PTFE loadings, MPL and even small BPP out-of-flatness increase the BPP-GDL thermal contact resistance dramatically. The paper also presents the effect of cyclic load on the total resistance of a GDL-BPP assembly, which sheds light on the behavior of these materials under operating conditions in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  5. High volume methane gas hydrate deposits in fine grained sediments from the Krishna-Godavari Basin: Analysis from Micro CT scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, E. V.; Clayton, C.; Priest, J.; Schultheiss, P. J.

    2009-12-01

    The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 1, of 2006, investigated several methane gas hydrate deposits on the continental shelf around the coast of India. Using pressure coring techniques (HYACINTH and PCS), intact gas-hydrate bearing, fine-grained sediment cores were recovered during the expedition. Once recovered, these cores were rapidly depressurized and submerged in liquid nitrogen, therefore preserving the structure and form of the hydrate within the host sediment. High resolution X-Ray CT scanning was later employed to image the internal structure of the gas hydrate, analyze the trends in vein orientation, and collect volumetric data. A scanning resolution of 0.08mm allowed for a detailed view of the three-dimensional distribution of the hydrate within the sediment from which detailed analysis of vein orientation could be made. Two distinct directions of vein growth were identified in each core section studied, which suggested the presence of a specific stress regime in the Krishna-Godavari basin during hydrate formation. In addition, image segmentation of gas hydrate from the sediment allowed for volumetric analysis of the hydrate content within each core section. Results from this analysis showed that high volumes of gas hydrate, up to approximately 70% of the pore space, were present. This high volume of methane gas hydrate can have a significant impact on the stability of the host sediment if dissociation of the hydrate were to occur in-situ, through the development of excess pore pressure, increase in water content and change in salinity of the host sediment.

  6. Connecting the Micro-dynamics to the Emergent Macro-variables: Self-Organized Criticality and Absorbing Phase Transitions in the Deterministic Lattice Gas

    E-print Network

    Giometto, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We reinvestigate the Deterministic Lattice Gas introduced as a paradigmatic model of the 1/f spectra (Phys. Rev. Lett. V26, 3103 (1990)) arising according to the Self-Organized Criticality scenario. We demonstrate that the density fluctuations exhibit an unexpected dependence on systems size and relate the finding to effective Langevin equations. The low density behavior is controlled by the critical properties of the gas at the absorbing state phase transition. We also show that the Deterministic Lattice Gas is in the Manna universality class of absorbing state phase transitions. This is in contrast to expectations in the literature which suggested that the entirely deterministic nature of the dynamics would put the model in a different universality class. To our knowledge this is the first fully deterministic member of the Manna universality class.

  7. An Integrated Silicon Based Wall Pressure-Shear Stress Sensor for Measurements in Turbulent Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfdahl, L.; Kälvesten, E.; Hadzianagnostakis, T.; Stemme, G.

    1996-11-01

    An integrated silicon pressure-shear stress sensor has been designed, fabricated and tested in turbulent wall-boundary layers. The piezoresistive pressure sensor is based on polysilicon diaphragm technology and the thermal shear stress sensor on the gas cooling of a polyimide insulated heated chip. The pressure sensor diaphragm area is 100×100 ?m, the top-area of the shear stress sensor hot chip is 300×60 ?m and the edge-to-edge distance between the two areas is 100 ?m. The measured steady-state power dissipation of the shear stress sensor in a turbulent wall-boundary layer at an over-temperature of 100^oC was P=42 + 1.1 ?_0^0.50 mW where ?0 is the time-average wall shear stress. The new integrated sensor has been applied for the simultaneous measurement of fluctuating pressure and shear stress in a flat plate boundary layer at 4.9×10^3 < Re_? < 1.0×10^4. This has produced pressure-shear stress correlation coefficients between 0.40 and 0.50 for the parallel, and between 0.20 and 0.25 for the perpendicular configuration to the mean flow.

  8. Micro-fluidic target chamber machined by proton beam writing for the in situ analysis of gas absorption in synthetic crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Feder; Frank Menzel; Tilman Butz

    2011-01-01

    Many synthetic crystals used for chemical and industrial applications have special internal structures, e.g. nano-pores, which allow separating different gases and fluids. Ion beam analytical methods can be used to study the gas diffusion and absorption in these materials in situ and to visualize their inner surfaces which affect these processes. For this purpose, a small target chamber was constructed

  9. Production of short-chain fatty acids and gas from various oligosaccharides by gut microbes of carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in micro-scale batch culture.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Minoru; Sakata, Takashi

    2002-06-01

    We studied the metabolism of various oligosaccharides by carp (Cyprinus carpio) hindgut microbes by measuring gas productivity and organic acid production in gut contents using a 50-microl-scale batch culture system. Carp hindgut contents were incubated with 500 microg each of raffinose, lactosucrose, kestose, lactulose, gentiobiose, 4'-galactosyllactose and 6'-galactosyllactose and soybean-, xylo-, and isomalto-oligosaccharides or none (blank culture) at 25 degrees C for 6 h. The time-course of gas release from the culture (Y microl/culture) was expressed as an exponential function of incubation time (t) [Y=A+Bx(1-e(-kt))]; A, B and k are constants). Potential production of gas (A+B) from soybean-oligosaccharide and raffinose was larger than for the other saccharides except for kestose, and blank culture. The rate constant of gas (k) for lactosucrose was larger than that for isomalto- and xylo-oligosaccharide, lactulose, kestose or blank culture. Net production of total SCFA (sum of acetic, propionic and n-butyric acid weights) from cultures with soybean- and isomalto-oligosaccharides, raffinose, gentiobiose and lactosucrose was greater than that from blank culture. These results suggested that soybean-oligosaccharide and raffinose were potentially highly fermentable oligosaccharides for carp hindgut microbes. Chemical structures of oligosaccharides seem to play an important role in the fermentability. It is also likely that oligosaccharide utilization differs between mammals and teleosts. PMID:12020649

  10. An automated method for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing micro-extraction coupled on-line to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with in-liner derivatisation.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sonja; Kaal, Erwin; Horsting, Iwan; Janssen, Hans-Gerd

    2012-02-24

    A new method is presented for the analysis of phenolic acids in plasma based on ion-pairing 'Micro-extraction in packed sorbent' (MEPS) coupled on-line to in-liner derivatisation-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The ion-pairing reagent served a dual purpose. It was used both to improve extraction yields of the more polar analytes and as the methyl donor in the automated in-liner derivatisation method. In this way, a fully automated procedure for the extraction, derivatisation and injection of a wide range of phenolic acids in plasma samples has been obtained. An extensive optimisation of the extraction and derivatisation procedure has been performed. The entire method showed excellent repeatabilities of under 10% and linearities of 0.99 or better for all phenolic acids. The limits of detection of the optimised method for the majority of phenolic acids were 10ng/mL or lower with three phenolic acids having less-favourable detection limits of around 100 ng/mL. Finally, the newly developed method has been applied in a human intervention trial in which the bioavailability of polyphenols from wine and tea was studied. Forty plasma samples could be analysed within 24h in a fully automated method including sample extraction, derivatisation and gas chromatographic analysis. PMID:22099223

  11. Critical evaluation of ex vivo restoration of carious equine maxillary cheek teeth infundibulae following high-pressure gas and micro-particle abrasion.

    PubMed

    Dixon, P M; Savill, D; Horbyl, A; Reardon, R J M; Liuti, T

    2014-06-01

    Infundibular caries of the equine maxillary cheek teeth is an important disorder that can lead to dental fracture or apical infection. Treatment by removing food debris and carious dental tissue from affected infundibulae using high-pressure abrasion with aluminium hydroxide micro-particles, followed by filling the cleaned defect with endodontic restorative materials is a recommended treatment. However, although anecdotally considered a successful treatment option, there is currently no objective evidence to support this claim. Forty maxillary cheek teeth (CT) that contained 55 infundibulae with caries (mainly grade 2) were extracted post-mortem from 21 adult horses. Five of the CT were sectioned prior to treatment to facilitate visual examination of the carious infundibulae. The remaining carious infundibulae were cleaned using high-pressure abrasion with aluminium hydroxide particles and five CT were sectioned to assess the efficacy of this cleaning process. The remaining 30 CT containing 39 carious infundibulae were then filled with a composite restorative material. The efficacy of this restoration was assessed by computed tomography imaging followed by direct visual examination after sectioning the teeth. Only 46% (18/39) of restored infundibulae, all with shallow (mean 9.6?mm deep) defects, were fully cleaned of food debris and carious material, and filled with restorative material to their full depth. Of these 18, 11 had peripheral defects around the restoration, leaving just 18% (7/39) of restorations without any gross defects. The remaining 54% (21/39) of infundibulae (mean depth of infundibular caries defect, 18.3?mm) still contained food debris and/or carious material in more apical locations, with infundibulae with the deepest caries defects being the least effectively cleaned. The findings of this study indicate that high-pressure micro-particle abrasion is only effective in cleaning food debris from shallow, carious CT infundibulae and consequently, the majority of subsequent infundibular restorations are imperfect. PMID:24792205

  12. Design and development of wafer-level short wave infrared micro-camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, Ashok K.; Richwine, Robert A.; Pethuraja, Gopal; Puri, Yash R.; Lee, Je-Ung; Haldar, Pradeep; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2013-06-01

    Low cost IR Sensors are needed for a variety of Defense and Commercial Applications as low cost imagers for various Army and Marine missions. SiGe based IR Focal Planes offers a low cost alternative for developing wafer-level shortwave infrared micro-camera that will not require any cooling and can operate in the Visible-NIR band. The attractive features of SiGe based IRFPA's will take advantage of Silicon based technology, that promises small feature size and compatibility with the low power silicon CMOS circuits for signal processing. SiGe technology offers a low cost alternative for developing Visible-NIR sensors that will not require any cooling and can operate from 0.4- 1.7 microns. The attractive features of SiGe based IRFPA's will take advantage of Silicon based technology that can be processed on 12-inch silicon substrates, that can promise small feature size and compatibility with the Silicon CMOS circuit for signal processing. In this paper, we will discuss the design and development of Wafer-Level Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) Micro-Camera. We will discuss manufacturing approaches and sensor configurations for short wave infrared (SWIR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) that significantly reduce the cost of SWIR FPA packaging, optics and integration into micro-systems.

  13. Numerical simulation of millisecond laser-induced damage in silicon-based positive-intrinsic-negative photodiode.

    PubMed

    Li, Zewen; Wang, Xi; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2012-05-10

    An axisymmetric mathematical model was established for millisecond-pulsed Nd:YAG laser heating of silicon-based positive-intrinsic-negative photodiode. The transient temperature fields were obtained by using the finite element method. The temperature dependences of the material parameters and the absorption coefficient were taken into account in the calculation. The results indicate that the optical absorption coefficient and the thermal conductivity are the two key factors for the temperature evolution. The diffusion of boron in the liquid phase and the introduction of deep-level defects in the depletion region of the photodiode were the two reasons for the millisecond laser-induced electrical degradation of the photodiode. The morphological damage threshold and electrical degradation threshold of the photodiode were obtained numerically. Meanwhile, the influence of the antireflection coating, the doping concentration, and the junction depth were also considered. The results show that the morphological damage threshold decreases with adding an antireflection coating, the increase of the doping concentration, and junction depth. The electrical degradation threshold increases only with the junction depth. PMID:22614501

  14. Titanium dioxide/silicon hole-blocking selective contact to enable double-heterojunction crystalline silicon-based solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagamatsu, Ken A.; Avasthi, Sushobhan; Sahasrabudhe, Girija; Man, Gabriel; Jhaveri, Janam; Berg, Alexander H.; Schwartz, Jeffrey; Kahn, Antoine; Wagner, Sigurd; Sturm, James C.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we use an electron-selective titanium dioxide (TiO2) heterojunction contact to silicon to block minority carrier holes in the silicon from recombining at the cathode contact of a silicon-based photovoltaic device. We present four pieces of evidence demonstrating the beneficial effect of adding the TiO2 hole-blocking layer: reduced dark current, increased open circuit voltage (VOC), increased quantum efficiency at longer wavelengths, and increased stored minority carrier charge under forward bias. The importance of a low rate of recombination of minority carriers at the Si/TiO2 interface for effective blocking of minority carriers is quantitatively described. The anode is made of a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) heterojunction to silicon which forms a hole selective contact, so that the entire device is made at a maximum temperature of 100 °C, with no doping gradients or junctions in the silicon. A low rate of recombination of minority carriers at the Si/TiO2 interface is crucial for effective blocking of minority carriers. Such a pair of complementary carrier-selective heterojunctions offers a path towards high-efficiency silicon solar cells using relatively simple and near-room temperature fabrication techniques.

  15. Application of floating silicon-based linear multielectrode arrays for acute recording of single neuron activity in awake behaving monkeys.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Luca; Maranesi, Monica; Livi, Alessandro; Bruni, Stefania; Fogassi, Leonardo; Holzhammer, Tobias; Paul, Oliver; Ruther, Patrick

    2014-08-01

    One of the fundamental challenges in behavioral neurophysiology in awake animals is the steady recording of action potentials of many single neurons for as long as possible. Here, we present single neuron data obtained during acute recordings mainly from premotor cortices of three macaque monkeys using a silicon-based linear multielectrode array. The most important aspect of these probes, compared with similar models commercially available, is that, once inserted into the brain using a dedicated insertion device providing an intermediate probe fixation by means of vacuum, they can be released and left floating in the brain. On the basis of our data, these features appear to provide (i) optimal physiological conditions for extracellular recordings, (ii) good or even excellent signal-to-noise ratio depending on the recorded brain area and cortical layer, and (iii) extreme stability of the signal over relatively long periods. The quality of the recorded signal did not change significantly after several penetrations into the same restricted cortical sector, suggesting limited tissue damage due to probe insertion. These results indicate that these probes offer several advantages for acute neurophysiological experiments in awake monkeys, and suggest the possibility to employ them for semichronic or even chronic studies. PMID:24434299

  16. Progress in triple-junction amorphous silicon-based alloy solar cells and modules using hydrogen dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Banerjee, A.; Glatfelter, T.; Hoffman, K.; Xu, X.; Guha, S. [United Solar Systems Corp., Troy, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The authors have achieved a stable module efficiency of 10.2% using amorphous silicon-based alloy in a triple-junction structure. This record performance has been accomplished by improving the component cells, the tunnel junction between the component cells, the back reflector, the uniformity over one-square-foot area, and the module design. Further advances have been made in the initial performance of the component cells by using high hydrogen dilution. The top cell, having Jsc > 8 mA/cm{sup 2}, exhibits Voc = 1.014 V and FF = 0.78. The middle cell, showing Voc = 0.757 V and FF = 0.719, exhibits Jsc = 9.5 mA/cm{sup 2} under AM 1.5 illumination with a 530 nm cut-on filter. A record initial power output of 4.43 mW/cm{sup 2} for the bottom cell has been obtained under AM 1.5 with a 630 nm cut-on filter. Light soaking experiments for the improved component cells also show higher stabilized values than previously reported ones.

  17. Response of silicon-based linear energy transfer spectrometers: implication for radiation risk assessment in space flights.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; O'Neill, P M

    2001-07-11

    There is considerable interest in developing silicon-based telescopes because of their compactness and low power requirements. Three such telescopes have been flown on board the Space Shuttle to measure the linear energy transfer spectra of trapped, galactic cosmic ray, and solar energetic particles. Dosimeters based on single silicon detectors have also been flown on the Mir orbital station. A comparison of the absorbed dose and radiation quality factors calculated from these telescopes with that estimated from measurements made with a tissue equivalent proportional counter show differences which need to be fully understood if these telescopes are to be used for astronaut radiation risk assessments. Instrument performance is complicated by a variety of factors. A Monte Carlo-based technique was developed to model the behavior of both single element detectors in a proton beam, and the performance of a two-element, wide-angle telescope, in the trapped belt proton field inside the Space Shuttle. The technique is based on: (1) radiation transport intranuclear-evaporation model that takes into account the charge and angular distribution of target fragments, (2) Landau-Vavilov distribution of energy deposition allowing for electron escape, (3) true detector geometry of the telescope, (4) coincidence and discriminator settings, (5) spacecraft shielding geometry, and (6) the external space radiation environment, including albedo protons. The value of such detailed modeling and its implications in astronaut risk assessment is addressed. PMID:11858255

  18. Response of Silicon-Based Linear Energy Transfer Spectrometers: Implication for Radiation Risk Assessment in Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; O'Neill, P. M.

    2001-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing silicon-based telescopes because of their compactness and low power requirements. Three such telescopes have been flown on board the Space Shuttle to measure the linear energy transfer spectra of trapped, galactic cosmic ray, and solar energetic particles. Dosimeters based on single silicon detectors have also been flown on the Mir orbital station. A comparison of the absorbed dose and radiation quality factors calculated from these telescopes with that estimated from measurements made with a tissue equivalent proportional counter show differences which need to be fully understood if these telescopes are to be used for astronaut radiation risk assessments. Instrument performance is complicated by a variety of factors. A Monte Carlo-based technique was developed to model the behavior of both single element detectors in a proton beam, and the performance of a two-element, wide-angle telescope, in the trapped belt proton field inside the Space Shuttle. The technique is based on: (1) radiation transport intranuclear-evaporation model that takes into account the charge and angular distribution of target fragments, (2) Landau-Vavilov distribution of energy deposition allowing for electron escape, (3) true detector geometry of the telescope, (4) coincidence and discriminator settings, (5) spacecraft shielding geometry, and (6) the external space radiation environment, including albedo protons. The value of such detailed modeling and its implications in astronaut risk assessment is addressed. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental study of sensitivity dependences on waveguide position and diaphragm thickness in silicon-based guided-wave optical accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Natsumi; Miura, Yusuke; Oshima, Takuya; Ohkawa, Masashi; Sato, Takashi

    2013-02-01

    Our group has developed a silicon-based guided-wave optical accelerometer, consisting of a proof mass centered on a diaphragm and a waveguide across the diaphragm. The sensor operates based on phase retardation induced by the elasto-optic effect. Designing the sensor is considerably complicated since it is strongly suggested that sensitivity is related to many parameters, such as waveguide position, diaphragm dimensions, and size and weight of proof mass. Hence, these relations should be clearly identified to establish a design guideline. In this study, sensitivity dependences on waveguide position and diaphragm thickness were experimentally examined. Regarding sensitivity dependence on waveguide position, phase sensitivity was highest for the waveguide at the diaphragm edge and was also relatively high for the waveguide at the edge of proof mass, whereas the sensitivity was quite low around the midposition between the edges of the diaphragm and proof mass. Regarding diaphragm thickness, phase sensitivity was found to be inversely proportional to the square of the diaphragm thickness.

  20. Protein structure determination by MicroED.

    PubMed

    Nannenga, Brent L; Gonen, Tamir

    2014-08-01

    In this review we discuss the current advances relating to structure determination from protein microcrystals with special emphasis on the newly developed method called MicroED. This method uses a transmission electron cryo-microscope to collect electron diffraction data from extremely small 3-dimensional (3D) crystals. MicroED has been used to solve the 3D structure of the model protein lysozyme to 2.9? resolution. As the method further matures, MicroED promises to offer a unique and widely applicable approach to protein crystallography using nanocrystals. PMID:24709395

  1. Diamond single micro-crystals and graphitic micro-balls’ formation in plasmoids under atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pothiraja, Ramasamy; Kartaschew, Konstantin; Bibinov, Nikita; Havenith, Martina; Awakowicz, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Plasmoids are produced in the argon filamentary discharge. By going through hydrocarbon gas, the plasmoids collect carbon material. These plasmoids produce diamond single micro-crystals upon contact on the inner surface of cavity in air atmosphere. When the plasmoid’s contact point on the substrate is in inert atmosphere, they deposit their material as micro-balls with a graphite core. The dimension and nature of the micro-materials deposited by the plasmoids are analysed using scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. The compressive residual stress in the deposited micro-diamonds varies in the range ?7 to ?21?GPa.

  2. Efforts towards micro fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chang

    Fuel cells have been raising substantial interests these days. In this thesis work, we have explored different aspects concerning fuel cell chemistry and materials. In the first part, a mechanistic investigation has been carried out to explore the origin of the CO tolerance on a Pt/Ru anode. Ruthenium is known to improve the CO tolerance of platinum based fuel cell catalysts, but the mechanism is unclear. In this study, we have used mainly Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) to measure the magnitude of the effects of Ru on Pt in terms of CO tolerance. We find the surface Pt(110)/Ru(0.25 ML) only adsorbs about half as much CO, H2 and H2O compared to clean Pt(110). The binding energy of CO experiences a decrease of 2 kcal/mol. The exchange of 180 into H216O is substantially enhanced showing that the activation barrier for OH recombination is reduced by 3--5 kcal/mol. Quantification of the data shows that two major effects are responsible for the CO tolerance. Ruthenium slightly weakens the CO binding, which creates a 40 meV decrease in the CO removal potential. OH activation by Ru plays a more important role, which is responsible for 120˜200 meV decrease. In the second part of this work, we developed a new class of proton conductors based on nanoporous silicon. Proton conducting electrolytes are crucial components in fuel cells. However, the implementation of prevalent polymer electrolyte membranes leads to difficulties in manufacturing the fuel cell structure at the micron scale. Here we show that nanoporous silicon membranes with a thickness around 30˜50 microns exhibit comparable proton conductivities as polymer electrolyte membranes. A non-optimized prototype micro fuel cell made of a nanoporous silicon membrane (37 microns thick) shows very promising performance. While running on formic acid and oxygen, the highest open circuit voltage is 0.79 V and the current density is 13.3 mA/cm2. These initial results show that nanoporous silicon membranes are very promising materials for electrolyte applications especially in silicon-based micro fuel cells. The technique can also be useful for other applications involving proton conduction.

  3. Development, validation and application of a method to analyze phenols in water samples by solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography-flame ionization detector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernando M. Lanças; Igor R. B. Olivares; Priscila M. Alves

    2007-01-01

    In this work the development, validation and application of method using Solid Phase Microexctration (SPME) for the analyses of five pollutants (phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chloro, 3-methyl phenol) in supplying water, using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) is described. The optimal conditions obtained for SPME were: fiber type: Poliacrylate (PA); extraction time: 40 minutes; extraction temperature:

  4. Microstructure of amorphous-silicon-based solar cell materials by small-angle x-ray scattering. Annual subcontract report, 6 April 1994--5 April 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, D.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The general objective of this research is to provide detailed microstructural information on the amorphous-silicon-based, thin-film materials under development for improved multijunction solar cells. The experimental technique used is small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) providing microstructural data on microvoid fractions, sizes, shapes, and their preferred orientations. Other microstructural features such as alloy segregation, hydrogen-rich clusters and alloy short-range order are probed.

  5. Rapid detection and identification of biological and chemical agents by immunoassay, gene probe assay and enzyme inhibition using a silicon-based biosensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E Lee; H. Gail Thompson; John G Hall; Douglas E Bader

    2000-01-01

    A rapid biosensor assay procedure that utilizes biotin–streptavidin mediated filtration capture onto nitrocellulose membrane, in conjunction with a silicon-based light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) was developed for detection and identification of biological and chemical threat agents. Sandwich immunoassays, nucleic acid hybridization assays and enzyme inhibition assays are described. For immunoassays, the lower limits of detection (LOD) per 100-?l sample were approximately

  6. A method to detect diphenylamine contamination of apple fruit and storages using headspace solid phase micro-extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; Jordan, Michael A

    2014-10-01

    Analysis of headspace concentrations of diphenylamine using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) was examined for its suitability to detect DPA contamination and off-gassing in apple (Malus domestica) fruit, storage rooms and storage materials. Four SPME fibre coatings including polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, 100 ?m), PDMS/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB), Polyacrylate (PA) and PDMS 7 ?m were evaluated. The average limits of detection and of quantification for head space DPA ranged from 0.13 to 0.72 ?g L(-1) and 0.42 to 2.35 ?g L(-1), respectively. Polyacrylate was identified to be the most suitable and compatible fibre for DPA analysis in apple samples, because of its high sensitivity to DPA and low fruit volatile interferences. SPME techniques were further applied to study contamination of DPA in apples, storage rooms and packaging materials. DPA was found in the air of storage rooms containing apples that were not treated with DPA. Wood and plastic bin material, bin liners, and foam insulation all adsorbed and off-gassed DPA and could be potential sources of contamination of untreated apples. PMID:24799236

  7. Process development of silicon-silicon carbide hybrid structures for micro-engines (January 2002)

    E-print Network

    Choi, D.

    MEMS-based gas turbine engines are currently under development at MIT for use as a button-sized portable power generator or micro-aircraft propulsion sources. Power densities expected for the micro-engines require very ...

  8. Design of micro-ring optical sensors and circuits for integration on optical printed circuit boards (O-PCBs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, El-Hang; Lee, Hyun S.; Lee, S. G.; O, B. H.; Park, S. G.; Kim, K. H.

    2007-05-01

    We report on the design of micro-ring resonator optical sensors for integration on what we call optical printed circuit boards (O-PCBs). The objective is to realize application-specific O-PCBs, either on hard board or on flexible board, by integrating micro/nano-scale optical sensors for compact, light-weight, low-energy, high-speed, intelligent, and environmentally friendly processing of information. The O-PCBs consist of two-dimensional planar arrays of micro/nano-scale optical wires, circuits and devices that are interconnected and integrated to perform the functions of sensing and then storing, transporting, processing, switching, routing and distributing optical signals that have been collected by means of sensors. For fabrication, the polymer and organic optical wires and waveguides are first fabricated on a board and are used to interconnect and integrate sensors and other micro/ nano-scale photonic devices. Here, in our study, we focus on the sensors based on the micro-ring structures. We designed bio-sensors using silicon based micro-ring resonator. We investigate the characteristics such as sensitivity and selectivity (or quality factor) of micro-ring resonator for their use in bio-sensing application. We performed simulation studies on the quality factor of micro-ring resonators by varying the radius of the ring resonators and the separation between adjacent waveguides. We introduce the effective coupling coefficient as a realistic value to describe the strength of the coupling in micro-ring resonators.

  9. Fluid flow in micro-channels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Hetsroni; A. Mosyak; E. Pogrebnyak; L. P. Yarin

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of liquid and gas flow in micro-channels under conditions of a small Knudsen and Mach numbers, that correspond to continuum model. Data from the literature on pressure drop in circular, rectangle, triangular and trapezoidal micro-channels with hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 1.01?m to 4010?m are analyzed. The Reynolds number at transition from laminar to turbulent flow is

  10. Design and prototyping of micro centrifugal compressor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimpei Mizuki; Gaku Minorikawa; Toshiyuki Hirano; Yuichiro Asaga; Naoki Yamaguchi; Yutaka Ohta; Eisuke Outa

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish the design methodology of ultra micro centrifugal compressor, which is the most important component\\u000a of ultra micro gas turbine unit, a 10 times of the final target size model was designed, prototyped and tested. The problems\\u000a to be solved for downsizing were examined and 2-dimensional impeller was chosen as the first model due to its productivity.

  11. Micro-physics simulations of columnar recombination along nuclear recoil tracks in high-pressure Xe gas for directional dark matter searches

    E-print Network

    Y. Nakajima; A. Goldschmidt; M. Long; D. Nygren; C. Oliveira; J. Renner

    2015-05-14

    Directional sensitivity is one of the most important aspects of WIMP dark matter searches. Yet, making the direction of nuclear recoil visible with large target masses is a challenge. To achieve this, we are exploring a new method of detecting directions of short nuclear recoil tracks in high-pressure Xe gas, down to a few micron long, by utilizing columnar recombination. Columnar recombination changes the scintillation and ionization yields depending on the angle between a track and the electric field direction. In order to realize this, efficient cooling of electrons is essential. Trimethylamine(TMA) is one of the candidate additives to gaseous Xe in order to enhance the effect, not only by efficiently cooling the electrons, but also by increasing the amount of columnar recombination by Penning transfer. We performed a detailed simulation of ionization electrons transport created by nuclear recoils in a Xe + TMA gas mixture, and evaluated the size of the columnar recombination signal. The results show that the directionality signal can be obtained for a track longer than a few micrometers in some ideal cases. Although more studies with realistic assumptions are still needed in order to assess feasibility of this technique, this potentially opens a new possibility for dark matter searches.

  12. Prospects of low-dimensional and nanostructured silicon-based thermoelectric materials: findings from theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neophytou, Neophytos

    2015-04-01

    Silicon based low-dimensional materials receive significant attention as new generation thermoelectric materials after they have demonstrated record low thermal conductivities. Very few works to-date, however, report significant advances with regards to the power factor. In this review we examine possibilities of power factor enhancement in: (i) low-dimensional Si channels and (ii) nanocrystalline Si materials. For low-dimensional channels we use atomistic simulations and consider ultra-narrow Si nanowires and ultra-thin Si layers of feature sizes below 15 nm. Room temperature is exclusively considered. We show that, in general, low-dimensionality does not offer possibilities for power factor improvement, because although the Seebeck coefficient could slightly increase, the conductivity inevitably degrades at a much larger extend. The power factor in these channels, however, can be optimized by proper choice of geometrical parameters such as the transport orientation, confinement orientation, and confinement length scale. Our simulations show that in the case where room temperature thermal conductivities as low as ? l = 2 W/mK are achieved, the ZT figure of merit of an optimized Si low-dimensional channel could reach values around unity. For the second case of materials, we show that by making effective use of energy filtering, and taking advantage of the inhomogeneity within the nanocrystalline geometry, the underlying potential profile and dopant distribution large improvements in the thermoelectric power factor can be achieved. The paper is intended to be a review of the main findings with regards to the thermoelectric performance of nanoscale Si through our simulation work as well as through recent experimental observations.

  13. Micro-machined thermo-conductivity detector

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad (Antioch, CA)

    2003-01-01

    A micro-machined thermal conductivity detector for a portable gas chromatograph. The detector is highly sensitive and has fast response time to enable detection of the small size gas samples in a portable gas chromatograph which are in the order of nanoliters. The high sensitivity and fast response time are achieved through micro-machined devices composed of a nickel wire, for example, on a silicon nitride window formed in a silicon member and about a millimeter square in size. In addition to operating as a thermal conductivity detector, the silicon nitride window with a micro-machined wire therein of the device can be utilized for a fast response heater for PCR applications.

  14. Optimization of a sensitive method for the determination of nitro musk fragrances in waters by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection using factorial experimental design.

    PubMed

    Polo, Maria; Garcia-Jares, Carmen; Llompart, Maria; Cela, Rafael

    2007-08-01

    A solid-phase microextraction method (SPME) followed by gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection for determining trace levels of nitro musk fragrances in residual waters was optimized. Four nitro musks, musk xylene, musk moskene, musk tibetene and musk ketone, were selected for the optimization of the method. Factors affecting the extraction process were studied using a multivariate approach. Two extraction modes (direct SPME and headspace SPME) were tried at different extraction temperatures using two fiber coatings [Carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB)] selected among five commercial tested fibers. Sample agitation and the salting-out effect were also factors studied. The main effects and interactions between the factors were studied for all the target compounds. An extraction temperature of 100 degrees C and sampling the headspace over the sample, using either CAR/PDMS or PDMS/DVB as fiber coatings, were found to be the experimental conditions that led to a more effective extraction. High sensitivity, with detection limits in the low nanogram per liter range, and good linearity and repeatability were achieved for all nitro musks. Since the method proposed performed well for real samples, it was applied to different water samples, including wastewater and sewage, in which some of the target compounds (musk xylene and musk ketone) were detected and quantified. PMID:17565486

  15. Silicon-based optoelectronics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Soref

    1993-01-01

    The decade of the 1990's is an opportune time for scientists and engineers to create cost-effective silicon “superchips” that merge silicon photonics with advanced silicon electronics on a silicon substrate. We can expect significant electrooptical devices from Column IV materials (Si, Ge, C and Sn) for a host of applications. The best devices will use strained-layer epitaxy, doped heterostructures, and

  16. Study of the Influence of Construction Materials on the Ageing Properties of High Rate Gas Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abuhoza, Alhussain; Biswas, S.; Frankenfeld, U.; Hehner, J.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schmidt, H. R.

    An infrastructure has been set up at the GSI detector laboratory to study the in?uence of construction materials on the ageing properties of gas ?lled detectors such as multi wire proportional chambers (MWPC), gas electron multipliers (GEM) etc. As a ?rst step an ageing test of silicone-based glue (RTV-3145)(Dow Corning) has been performed. In this article details of the experimental set-up and the ?rst result on (RTV3145) will be presented.

  17. Hot-filament chemical vapor deposition chamber and process with multiple gas inlets

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Xunming; Povolny, Henry S.

    2004-06-29

    A thin film deposition method uses a vacuum confinement cup that employs a dense hot filament and multiple gas inlets. At least one reactant gas is introduced into the confinement cup both near and spaced apart from the heated filament. An electrode inside the confinement cup is used to generate plasma for film deposition. The method is used to deposit advanced thin films (such as silicon based thin films) at a high quality and at a high deposition rate.

  18. Determination of malondialdehyde in human blood by headspace-solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after derivatization with 2,2,2-trifluoroethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ho-Sang

    2009-11-01

    Malondialdehyde (MDA) has been proposed as a useful biomarker of lipoperoxidation in biological samples, and more developed analytical methods are necessary. A simple and sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) was described for the determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) in blood. Acetone-d(6) was used as internal standard. MDA and acetone d6 in blood reacted for 40 min at 50 degrees C with 2,2,2-trifluoroethylhydrazine in headspace vial and simultaneously the formed TFEH derivatives were vaporized and adsorbed on polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB). The compounds were desorbed for 1 min at 240 degrees C and injected in GC-MS. The reaction solution showed good recoveries at pH 4.0. In the established condition, the method detection limit (MDL) was 0.4 microg/L in 0.1 mL blood sample and the relative standard deviation was less than 8% at the concentration of 25.0 and 50.0 microg/L. The mean concentrations of MDA in normal human blood (n=20) were measured to be 187.9 microg/L (2.61 micromol/L). PMID:19800854

  19. Microstructure, oxidation behavior and mechanical behavior of lens deposited niobium-titanium-silicon and niobium-titanium-silicon based alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehoff, Ryan Richard

    With current high temperature structural materials such as nickel based superalloys being pushed to the limits of suitable operating conditions, there comes a need for replacement materials with even higher temperature capabilities. Niobium silicon based systems have been shown to have superior density normalized strength at elevated temperatures when compared to currently used alloys. The drawbacks associated with the niobium silicon system are due to catastrophic oxidation behavior at elevated temperatures. Alloying addition have been shown to increase the oxidation resistance near suitable levels, but also decrease the high temperature strength and increases creep rates when compared to the binary alloy system. The microstructure of the material is similar to metal matrix composites in which high melting temperature silicides are dispersed in a niobium based matrix phase. The silicides produce high temperature strength while the niobium based matrix increases the room temperature properties such as fracture toughness. The bulk of the research has been conducted on directionally solidified material which has a coarse microstructure due to the slow cooling rates associated with the processing condition. The current research uses a powder metallurgy process termed Laser Engineered Net Shaping, or LENS, to produce material with a significantly refined microstructure due to fast cooling rates associated with the laser process. Several compositions of alloys were examined and the ideal processing parameters were determined for each alloy. The resulting microstructures show a refinement of the microstructure as expected with a fine scale distribution of Nb5Si3 and Nb3Si dispersed in a niobium based matrix phase. The high temperature oxidation behavior of the LENS deposited alloys was comparable to alloys produced using other techniques. A non protective oxide scale formed on samples exposed for only 0.5 hours but was not protective and showed large amounts of spallation at extended exposure times. The increase in grain boundaries and interfaces did not significantly increase the internal oxidation rate despite increased oxidation rates along these defects. The high temperature compression behavior was comparable to other alloys and processing techniques despite having a lower silicon content and therefore a smaller volume fraction of strengthening phase present. Dissolved oxygen levels in the LENS deposits appeared to be responsible for the increased strength at elevated temperatures. The oxygen levels in LENS processed alloys were higher than material produced by other processing techniques. The current work illustrates that the LENS processing techniques is a viable processing method for niobium silicide based materials and potentially increases the strength of the material.

  20. Invited Article: A materials investigation of a phase-change micro-valve for greenhouse gas collection and other potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Moorman, Matthew W.; Rejent, Jerome A.; Vianco, Paul T.; Grazier, Mark J.; Wroblewski, Brian D.; Mowry, Curtis D.; Achyuthan, Komandoor E.

    2012-03-01

    The deleterious consequences of climate change are well documented. Future climate treaties might mandate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions measurement from signatories in order to verify compliance. The acquisition of atmospheric chemistry would benefit from low cost, small size/weight/power of microsystems. In this paper, we investigated several key materials science aspects of a phase-change microvalve (PC?V) technology with low power/size/weight/cost for ubiquitous GHG sampling. The novel design, based on phase-change material low-melting-point eutectic metal alloys (indium-bismuth, InBi and tin-lead, SnPb), could be actuated at temperatures as low as 72 °C. Valve manufacturing was based on standard thick and thin-film processes and solder technologies that are commonly used in industry, enabling low-cost, high-volume fabrication. Aging studies showed that it was feasible to batch fabricate the PC?Vs and store them for future use, especially in the case of SnPb alloys. Hermetic sealing of the valve prototypes was demonstrated through helium leak testing, and Mil spec leak rates less than 1 × 10-9 atm cm3/s were achieved. This confirms that the sample capture and analysis interval can be greatly expanded, easing the logistical burdens of ubiquitous GHG monitoring. Highly conservative and hypothetical CO2 bias due to valve actuation at altitude in 1 cm3 microsamplers would be significantly below 1.0 and 2.2 ppmv for heat-treated InBi and SnPb solders, respectively. The CO2 bias from the PC?V scales well, as a doubling of sampler volume halved the bias. We estimated the shelf life of the SnPb PC?Vs to be at least 2.8 years. These efforts will enable the development of low cost, low dead volume, small size/weight microsystems for monitoring GHGs and volatile organic compounds.

  1. Process for the deposition of high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coatings on silicon-based substrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1991-01-01

    A process is disclosed for depositing a high temperature stress and oxidation resistant coating on a silicon nitride- or silicon carbide-based substrate body. A gas mixture is passed over the substrate at about 900--1500 C and about 1 torr to about ambient pressure. The gas mixture includes one or more halide vapors with other suitable reactant gases. The partial pressure

  2. Novel applications for micro-SOFCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tompsett, G. A.; Finnerty, C.; Kendall, K.; Alston, T.; Sammes, N. M.

    The application of micro-solid oxide fuels cells in small systems is discussed. Two types of application are examined, namely, leisure CHP systems and micro-hybrid vehicles. A unique triple layer catalyst-SOFC-catalyst system has been designed utilising propane/butane fuel. The system consists of a co-generating gas burner with a pre-reforming catalyst, a micro-SOFC stack and an oxidation catalyst. The pre-reforming catalyst comprising of Ru metal on Saffil® ceramic wool, was used to partially reform the propane/butane gas prior to entering the fuel cell, preventing carbon formation. The micro-SOFCs were YSZ tubes (Adelan, UK) with nickel/YSZ cermet anodes on the outside and strontium-doped lanthanum manganite cathodes on the inside. Final oxidation was provided by a cordierite honeycomb coated with platinum combustion catalyst producing most of the heat for the fuel cell operation. Initial performance results were obtained and it was shown that a co-generating system could be achieved using a propane/butane fuel supply, piezoelectric ignition system and air supply for the triple catalyst system. The application of this micro-SOFC system for leisure and micro-hybrid vehicles, such as golf trolleys and power-assisted bicycles, is described.

  3. Design and fabrication of a cross flow micro heat exchanger

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chad Harris; Mircea Despa; Kevin Kelly

    2000-01-01

    A cross flow micro heat exchanger was designed to maximize heat transfer from a liquid (water-glycol) to a gas (air) for a given frontal area while holding pressure drop across the heat exchanger of each fluid to values characteristic of conventional scale heat exchangers. The predicted performance for these plastic, ceramic, and aluminum micro heat exchangers are compared with each

  4. Response to simulated typical daily outdoor irradiation conditions of thin-film silicon-based triple-band-gap, triple-junction solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Krishnan; J. W. A. Schüttauf; B. Houshyani Hassanzadeh; W. G. J. H. M. van Sark; R. E. I. Schropp

    2009-01-01

    We studied the response to various realistic outdoor conditions of thin-film silicon-based triple-band-gap, triple-junction cells that were made in house. The triple-junction cells consist of a stack of proto-Si:H\\/proto-SiGe:H\\/nanocrystalline (nc)-Si:H cells in an n–i–p configuration, fabricated using hot-wire chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Current matching was determined for modeled spectra of four different days of the year that are typical for

  5. Micro-grooved heat transfer combustor wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, Steven D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A gas turbine engine hot section combustor liner is provided a non-film cooled portion of a heat transfer wall having a hot surface and a plurality of longitudinally extending micro-grooves disposed in the portion of the wall along the hot surface in a direction parallel to the direction of the hot gas flow. The depth of the micro-grooves is very small and on the order of magnitude of a predetermined laminar sublayer of a turbulent boundary layer. The micro-grooves are sized so as to inhibit heat transfer from the hot gas flow to the hot surface of the wall while reducing NOx emissions of the combustor relative to an otherwise similar combustor having a liner wall portion including film cooling apertures. In one embodiment the micro-grooves are about 0.001 inches deep and have a preferred depth range of from about 0.001 inches to 0.005 inches and which are square, rectangular, or triangular in cross-section and the micro-grooves are spaced about one width apart.

  6. A micro-machined resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Godshall, N.A.; Koehler, D.R.; Liang, A.Y.; Smith, B.K.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of a micro-machined resonator, typically quartz, with upper and lower micromachinable support members, or covers, having etched wells which may be lined with conductive electrode material, between the support members is a quartz resonator having an energy trapping quartz mesa capacitively coupled to the electrodes through a diaphragm; the quartz resonator is supported by either micro-machined cantilever springs or by thin layers extending over the surfaces of the support. If the diaphragm is rigid, clock applications are available, and if the diaphragm is resilient, then transducer applications can be achieved. Either the thin support layers or the conductive electrode material can be integral with the diaphragm. In any event, the covers are bonded to form a hermetic seal and the interior volume may be filled with a gas or may be evacuated. In addition, one or both of the covers may include oscillator and interface circuitry for the resonator.

  7. Fabrication of a Flexible Micro CO Sensor for Micro Reformer Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man

    2010-01-01

    Integration of a reformer and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is problematic due to the presence in the gas from the reforming process of a slight amount of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide poisons the catalyst of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell subsequently degrading the fuel cell performance, and necessitating the sublimation of the reaction gas before supplying to fuel cells. Based on the use of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to manufacture flexible micro CO sensors, this study elucidates the relation between a micro CO sensor and different SnO2 thin film thicknesses. Experimental results indicate that the sensitivity increases at temperatures ranging from 100–300 °C. Additionally, the best sensitivity is obtained at a specific temperature. For instance, the best sensitivity of SnO2 thin film thickness of 100 nm at 300 °C is 59.3%. Moreover, a flexible micro CO sensor is embedded into a micro reformer to determine the CO concentration in each part of a micro reformer in the future, demonstrating the inner reaction of a micro reformer in depth and immediate detection. PMID:22163494

  8. Fabrication of a flexible micro CO sensor for micro reformer applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man

    2010-01-01

    Integration of a reformer and a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is problematic due to the presence in the gas from the reforming process of a slight amount of carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide poisons the catalyst of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell subsequently degrading the fuel cell performance, and necessitating the sublimation of the reaction gas before supplying to fuel cells. Based on the use of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to manufacture flexible micro CO sensors, this study elucidates the relation between a micro CO sensor and different SnO2 thin film thicknesses. Experimental results indicate that the sensitivity increases at temperatures ranging from 100-300 °C. Additionally, the best sensitivity is obtained at a specific temperature. For instance, the best sensitivity of SnO2 thin film thickness of 100 nm at 300 °C is 59.3%. Moreover, a flexible micro CO sensor is embedded into a micro reformer to determine the CO concentration in each part of a micro reformer in the future, demonstrating the inner reaction of a micro reformer in depth and immediate detection. PMID:22163494

  9. Graphene oxide-based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction for separation and preconcentration of nicotine from biological and environmental water samples followed by gas chromatography-flame ionization detection.

    PubMed

    Mahpishanian, Shokouh; Sereshti, Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) has showed great potential to use as an adsorbent in sample preparation procedures. In this research, GO was used as an effective adsorbent in a simple GO-based dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (GO-D-µ-SPE) method for isolation and preconcentration of nicotine prior to gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID). The prepared GO was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy techniques. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction recovery, including the amount of GO, extraction time, pH of the sample solution, salt concentration, and desorption conditions were investigated and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, a linear response was obtained in the concentration range of 5-2000 ng mL(-1) with a determination coefficient of 0.9987. The limit of detection (LOD) of the method at a signal to noise ratio of 3 was 1.5 ng mL(-1). The linearity was in the concentration range of 5-2000 ng mL(-1) with a determination coefficient of 0.9987. Intraday and inter-day precisions were obtained equal to 2.7% and 5.2%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the nicotine analysis in biological and water samples with the recoveries in the range of 88.7-109.7%. PMID:25159381

  10. Development, validation and application of a methodology based on solid-phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) for the determination of pesticide residues in mangoes.

    PubMed

    Menezes Filho, Adalberto; dos Santos, Fábio Neves; Pereira, Pedro Afonso de Paula

    2010-04-15

    A method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 14 pesticide residues (clofentezine, carbofuran, diazinon, methyl parathion, malathion, fenthion, thiabendazole, imazalil, bifenthrin, permethrin, prochloraz, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole and azoxystrobin) in mango fruit, based on solid-phase micro extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Different parameters of the method were evaluated, such as fiber type, extraction mode (direct immersion and headspace), temperature, extraction and desorption times, stirring velocities and ionic strength. The best results were obtained using polyacrylate fiber and direct immersion mode at 50 degrees C for 30 min, along with stirring at 250 rpm and desorption for 5 min at 280 degrees C. The method was validated using mango samples spiked with pesticides at concentration levels ranging from 33.3 to 333.3 microg kg(-1). The average recoveries (n=3) for the lowest concentration level ranged from 71.6 to 117.5%, with relative standard deviations between 3.1 and 12.3%, respectively. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 1.0 to 3.3 microg kg(-1) and from 3.33 to 33.33 microg kg(-1), respectively. The optimized method was then applied to 16 locally purchased mango samples, all of them containing the pesticides bifenthrin and azoxystrobin in concentrations of 18.3-57.4 and 12.7-55.8 microg kg(-1), respectively, although these values were below the MRL established by Brazilian legislation. The method proved to be selective, sensitive, and with good precision and recovery rates, presenting LOQ below the MRL admitted by Brazilian legislation. PMID:20188930

  11. Novel Micro Free-Piston Swing Engine and Its Feasibility Validation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimin Zhang; Jinsong Wang; Zhiping Guo

    2005-01-01

    To develop high energy-density micro power generation systems, a novel two-stroke cycle micro free-piston swing engine (MFPSE), inspired by the concept of the micro internal combustion swing engine, is proposed to supply mechanical power for a micro power generation system. The working principle, gas exchange and ignition timing control cycles, and structure and operation advantages of the MFPSE are discussed

  12. Design and prototyping of micro centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuki, Shimpei; Minorikawa, Gaku; Hirano, Toshiyuki; Asaga, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Naoki; Ohta, Yutaka; Outa, Eisuke

    2003-02-01

    In order to establish the design methodology of ultra micro centrifugal compressor, which is the most important component of ultra micro gas turbine unit, a 10 times of the final target size model was designed, prototyped and tested. The problems to be solved for downsizing were examined and 2-dimensional impeller was chosen as the first model due to its productivity. The conventional 1D prediction method, CFD and the inverse design were attempted. The prototyped compressor was driven by using a turbocharger and the performance characteristics were measured.

  13. Integrated Micro Nano Systems Integrated Micro Nano Systems

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 2 #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 3 Val Jones (Ed.) Symposium on Integrated Micro Nano Systems: Convergence of bio and nanotechnologies, Enschede, The Netherlands, June 2006 Micro Nano Systems 4 #12;Integrated Micro Nano Systems 5 Preface In order to explore the convergence

  14. The Nano-Micro Interface Bridging the Micro

    E-print Network

    Cao, Guozhong

    The Nano-Micro Interface Bridging the Micro and Nano Worlds. Edited by Hans-Jörg Fecht and Matthias- tion among researchers. The book The Nano-Micro Interface: Bridging the Micro and Nano Worlds fills one of these gaps. More specifically, this book, as its subtitle indicates, bridges the micro and nano worlds

  15. Micro-laser

    DOEpatents

    Hutchinson, Donald P.; Richards, Roger K.

    2003-07-22

    A micro-laser is disclosed which includes a waveguide, a first and a second subwavelength resonant grating in the waveguide, and at least one photonic band gap resonant structure (PBG) in the waveguide and at least one amplifying medium in the waveguide. PBG features are positioned between the first and second subwavelength resonant gratings and allow introduction of amplifying mediums into the highly resonant guided micro-laser microcavity. The micro-laser may be positioned on a die of a bulk substrate material with one or more electronic and optical devices and may be communicably connected to the same. A method for fabricating a micro-laser is disclosed. A method for tuning the micro-laser is also disclosed. The micro-laser may be used as an optical regenerator, or a light source for data transfer or for optical computing.

  16. Microstructure of amorphous-silicon-based solar cell materials by small-angle x-ray scattering. Annual technical report, April 6, 1995--April 5, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, D.L. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project is to provide detailed microstructural information on the amorphous silicon based thin film materials under development for improved multijunction solar cells. Correlation of microstructure with opto-electrical properties and device performance is an integral part of the research. During this second phase of our three-year program we have obtained information on the microstructure of materials relevant to the Low-, Mid-, and High-bandgap Teams and the results are appropriately divided into these three types of material as presented below. The experimental methods, data analysis, and interpretation procedures are the same as those described in detail in the phase-one report and in the review paper published last year.

  17. Electrical and luminescence properties of silicon-based tunnel transit-time light-emitting diodes p{sup +}/n{sup +}/n-Si:Er

    SciTech Connect

    Shmagin, V. B., E-mail: shm@ipm.sci-nnov.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Kuznetsov, V. P. [Lobachevsky State University, Physicotechnical Research Institute (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, K. E. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation); Obolensky, S. V. [Lobachevsky State University (Russian Federation); Kozlov, V. A.; Krasil'nik, Z. F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Physics of Microstructures (Russian Federation)

    2010-11-15

    The electrical and luminescence properties of silicon-based tunnel transit-time light-emitting diodes (LEDs) p{sup +}/n{sup +}/n-Si:Er, emitting under reverse bias on the p{sup +}/n{sup +} junction in the breakdown regime, have been investigated. The room-temperature emission power at the wavelength {lambda} {approx} 1.5 {mu}m ({approx}5 {mu}W), external quantum efficiency ({approx}10{sup -5}), and excitation efficiency of erbium ions ({approx}2 x 10{sup -20} cm{sup 2} s) have been determined. At the same excitation efficiency, tunnel transit-time LEDs exhibit higher emission power in comparison with p{sup +}/n-Si:Er diode structures. The experimental results are compared with the model predictions for these structures. The factors limiting the electroluminescence intensity and impact excitation efficiency for erbium ions in tunnel transit-time LEDs are discussed.

  18. Research on high-efficiency, multiple-gap, multi-junction amorphous silicon-based alloy thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guha, S. (Energy Conversion Devices, Inc., Troy, MI (USA))

    1990-07-01

    This research program is directed toward the advancement of understanding of amorphous silicon-based alloys and their use in small area multi-junction solar cells. The program is divided into subtasks on materials research, single-junction solar cell research, and multi-junction solar cell research. In this report we discuss progress made during the period from March through August 1989. A major focus of the program was to achieve improvement in the performance of the back reflector and the antireflection coating to optimize cell performance. Computer simulation work was also carried out to analyze performance trade-offs between triple and tandem a-Si alloy solar cells. 10 refs., 27 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. MicroSight Optics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-05-28

    MicroSight is an innovative gunsight technology that allows a marksman's eye to focus on both the front gunsight and the intended target. The MicroSight improves both firearm safety and performance by imaging two objects at different focal distances. The MicroSight was developed at Idaho National Laboratory, and has been licensed by Apollo Optical Systems. You can learn more about INL's research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  20. Simulation of micro-magnet stray-field dynamics for spin qubit manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R.; Schreiber, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    High-fidelity control and unprecedented long dephasing times in silicon-based single spin qubits have recently confirmed the prospects of solid-state quantum computation. We investigate the feasibility of using a micro-magnet stray field for all-electrical, addressable spin qubit control in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot. For a micro-magnet geometry optimized for high Rabi-frequency, addressability, and robustness to fabrication misalignment as previously demonstrated by Yoneda et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 267601 (2014)], we simulate the qubit decoherence due to magnetic stray-field fluctuations, which may dominate in nuclear spin-free systems, e.g., quantum dots in Si/SiGe, Si-MOS structures and (bilayer) graphene. With calculated Rabi-frequencies of 15 MHz, a qubit addressability error below 10-3 is achievable. Magnetic fluctuations from a micro-magnet limits the spin relaxation time to T1 ? 3 s, while pure spin dephasing is negligible. Our results show that micro-magnets are a promising tool for spin qubit computation in nuclear spin-free systems.

  1. Application of Micro Discharge for Air Purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Kazuo; Sugiyama, Takeki; L. S., Manisha Nishamani; Kanamori, Masaki

    Micro discharge is investigated which is occurred with a pair of electrodes covered with dielectric barrier. The discharge gap is set at an order of micro meters by changing a spacer from 0 to 100?m. Paschen's law states the minimum sparking voltage of various gases for respective discharge gaps in atmospheric pressure. In this paper, characteristics of micro discharges, such as discharge voltages, discharge currents, discharge power, which is obtained with the help of Lissajous figures, and the relationships between these characteristics are presented. Characteristics of ozone generation and treatment of high concentration NOx, which is contained in exhaust gas of automobiles, are investigated. Byproducts are confirmed by FT-IR and GC-MS.

  2. Microcrystalline silicon germanium: An attractive bottom-cell material for thin-film silicon-based tandem-solar-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Gautam; Ikeda, Toru; Kajiwara, Kei; Matduda, Akihisa

    1997-07-01

    The authors have prepared hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon germanium by plasma enhanced CVD of a mixture of silane and germane gas diluted with hydrogen. The growth conditions have been systematically controlled to obtain large ({approximately}400{angstrom}) crystallites of silicon-germanium as observed using Raman scattering and x-ray diffraction. The dangling bond (germanium) density has been reduced to <5 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup {minus}3} at low substrate temperatures ({approximately}150 C). The optical absorption spectra of the 50% Ge containing material is red-shifted compared to microcrystalline silicon, consistent with a reduction of the indirect optical gap to 0.9 eV. Schottky type cells fabricated using Au on an n{sup +} crystalline silicon substrate confirm that the long wavelength response is remarkably enhanced in this material.

  3. High-speed thin-film transistors on single-crystalline, unstrained- and strained-silicon-based nanomembranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hao-Chih

    This research focuses on developing high-performance single-crystal Si-based nanomembranes and high-frequency thin-film transistors (TFTs) using these nanomembranes on flexible plastic substrates. Unstrained Si or SiGe nanomembranes with thickness of several tens to a couple of hundred nanometers are derived from silicon-on-insulator (SOI) or silicon-germanium-on-insulator (SGOI) and are subsequently transferred and integrated with flexible plastic host substrates via a one-step dry printing technique. Biaxial tensile-strained Si membranes that utilize elastic strain-sharing between Si and additionally grown SiGe thin films are also successfully integrated with plastic host substrates and exhibit predicted strain status and negligible density of dislocations. Biaxial tensile strain enhances electron mobility and lowers Schottky contact resistance. As a result, flexible TFTs built on the strained Si-membranes demonstrate much higher electron effective mobility and higher drive current than the unstrained counterpart. The dependence of drive current and transconductance on uniaxial tensile strain introducing by mechanical bending is also discussed. A novel combined "hot-and-cold" TFT fabrication process is developed specifically for realizing a wide spectrum of micro-electronics that can exhibit RF performance and can be integrated on low-temperature plastic substrate. The "hot" process that consists of ion implant and high-temperature annealing for desired doping type, profile, and concentration is realized on the bulk SOI/SGOI substrates followed by the "cold" process that includes room-temperature silicon-monoxide (SiO) deposition as gate dielectric layer to ensure the process compatibility with low-temperature, low-cost plastics. With these developments flexible Si-membrane n-type RF TFTs for analog applications and complementary TFTs for digital applications are demonstrated for the first time. RF TFTs with 1.5-mum channel length have demonstrated record-high f T and fmax values of 2.04 and 7.8 GHz, respectively. A small-signal equivalent circuit model study on the RF TFTs reveals the physics of how device layout affects fT and f max, which paves the way for further performance optimization and realization of integrated circuit on flexible substrate in the future.

  4. A monolithic fabrication process for a micro-flow heat transfer channel suspended over an air layer with arrays of micro-sensors and heaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. R. Chen; C. Gau; B. T. Dai; M. S. Tsai

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a surface micro-machining process that can be used to fabricate a heated micro-channel integrated with an array of both the pressure and the temperature sensors along the channel. With an air layer made underneath the channel for the purpose of insulation, this micro-channel can provide gas flow with measurement of both the

  5. Microplasmas and micro-jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaroni, C.; Aubert, X.; Marinov, D.; Guaitella, O.; Stancu, G.; Welzel, S.; Pipa, A.; Ropcke, J.; Sadeghi, N.; Rousseau, A.

    2008-07-01

    Microplasmas are now widely investigated, one of their advantages being to generate a plasma at relatively high pressure close to the Paschen minimum (Schoenbach et al. 1997). Here, the microplasma is generated in a microhollow cathode type configuration made of a hole drilled through a metal/dielectric/metal sandwich (Schoenbach et al. 1997). One of the electrodes acts as the cathode (K) and the other as the anode (A1). The hole diameter ranges from 100 to 400 mu m and the pressure ranges from 50 to 500 Torr. When a second electrode (A2) is added, a large volume of plasma plume may be generated between A1 and A2, at a low electric field (1-20Td depending upon the gas) (Stark et al. 1999). A microhollow cathode type discharge operates in three different regimes depending on the plasma current: abnormal, self-pulsing and normal regime. The self-pulsing regime is achieved in the range of 1-100 kHz, in argon, helium, nitrogen and oxygen. The self-pulsing frequency is controlled by the microplasma device capacitance, the gas breakdown voltage, and the average discharge current (Rousseau et al. 2006, Aubert et al. 2007). i) First, in pure argon, the radial dependence of atoms excitation mechanisms and of the electronic density is studied inside the micro-hole. Imaging of the emission from the microplasma is performed with a spatial resolution of few mu m. The electron density is estimated from the Stark broadening of the H beta-line. The radial distribution of the emission intensities of an Ar atomic line and an Ar^+ ionic line are used for the excitation study. Ar and Ar^+ lines are excited in the cathode sheath edge by beam electrons accelerated within the sheath. These two excitations show the decay of the energy of electrons in negative glow. The Ar line presents also production of excited atoms by recombination of argon ions with electrons at the center of the micro-hole.Work is in progress to evaluate the contribution of the static electric field on the strak broadening ii) Second, in oxygen containing mixture, a flowing micro-jet is generated: the reactor used is separated in 2 rooms by the MHC. Thus, the gas is constrained to flow only through the microhole and the quantity of treated gas is well known. The gas flow is supersonic in most operating conditions at the exit of the microhole; despite a very large injected power density (typically 10^4 W cm^-), the gas heating does not exceed few hundreds of degrees, so that the plasma is non equilibrium. Different measurements are realized on the plume in pure O_2 and in Air. O_3 concentration has been measured by UV absorption spectroscopy; NO and NO_2 have been measured by tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) in the infrared region (Ropcke et al. 2006). The production of NO and NO_2 in air mixture scales as universal function of the injected power, independently of the working regime (continuous or self-pulsing).

  6. Micro injection molding of a micro-fluidic platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Sheng Chen; Shia-Chung Chen; Won-Hsion Liao; Rean-Der Chien; Su-Hsia Lin

    2010-01-01

    Micro fabrication of polymers is becoming increasingly important and is considered a low-cost alternative to silicon- or glass-based MEMS technologies. However, very little work has been done to study the influence of polymer resin on the replication accuracy of the micro features in micro injection molding. In this study, micro injection molding was applied to a micro-featured fluidic platform used

  7. Synthesis of silicon-based infrared semiconductors in the Ge-Sn system using molecular chemistry methods.

    PubMed

    Taraci, J; Zollner, S; McCartney, M R; Menendez, J; Santana-Aranda, M A; Smith, D J; Haaland, A; Tutukin, A V; Gundersen, G; Wolf, G; Kouvetakis, J

    2001-11-01

    Growth reactions based on a newly developed deuterium-stabilized Sn hydride [(Ph)SnD(3)] with Ge(2)H(6) produce a new family of Ge-Sn semiconductors with tunable band gaps and potential applications in high-speed, high-efficiency infrared optoelectronics. Metastable diamond-cubic films of Ge(1-x)Sn(x) alloys are created by chemical vapor deposition at 350 degrees C on Si(100). These exhibit unprecedented thermal stability and superior crystallinity despite the 17% lattice mismatch between the constituent materials. The composition, crystal structure, electronic structure, and optical properties of these materials are characterized by Rutherford backscattering, high-resolution electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction, as well as Raman, IR, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Electron diffraction reveals monocrystalline and perfectly epitaxial layers with lattice constants intermediate between those of Ge and alpha-Sn. X-ray diffraction in the theta-2theta mode shows well-defined peaks corresponding to random alloys, and in-plane rocking scans of the (004) reflection confirm a tightly aligned spread of the crystal mosaics. RBS ion-channeling including angular scans confirm that Sn occupies substitutional lattice sites and also provide evidence of local ordering of the elements with increasing Sn concentration. The Raman spectra show bands corresponding to Ge-Ge and Sn-Ge vibrations with frequencies consistent with random tetrahedral alloys. Resonance Raman and ellipsometry spectra indicate a band-gap reduction relative to Ge. The IR transmission spectra suggest that the band gap decreases monotonically with increasing Sn fraction. The synthesis, characterization, and gas-phase electron diffraction structure of (Ph)SnD(3) are also reported. PMID:11686702

  8. Development of a Silicon Based Electron Beam Transmission Window for Use in a KrF Excimer Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Gentile; H.M. Fan; J.W. Hartfield; R.J. Hawryluk; F. Hegeler; P.J. Heitzenroeder; C.H. Jun; L.P. Ku; P.H. LaMarche; M.C. Myers; J.J. Parker; R.F. Parsells; M. Payen; S. Raftopoulos; J.D. Sethian

    2002-11-21

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), is currently investigating various novel materials (single crystal silicon, <100>, <110> and <111>) for use as electron-beam transmission windows in a KrF excimer laser system. The primary function of the window is to isolate the active medium (excimer gas) from the excitation mechanism (field-emission diodes). Chosen window geometry must accommodate electron energy transfer greater than 80% (750 keV), while maintaining structural integrity during mechanical load (1.3 to 2.0 atm base pressure differential, approximate 0.5 atm cyclic pressure amplitude, 5 Hz repetition rate) and thermal load across the entire hibachi area (approximate 0.9 W {center_dot} cm superscript ''-2''). In addition, the window must be chemically resistant to attack by fluorine free-radicals (hydrofluoric acid, secondary). In accordance with these structural, functional, and operational parameters, a 22.4 mm square silicon prototype window, coated with 500 nm thin-film silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}), has been fabricated. The window consists of 81 square panes with a thickness of 0.019 mm {+-} 0.001 mm. Stiffened (orthogonal) sections are 0.065 mm in width and 0.500 mm thick (approximate). Appended drawing (Figure 1) depicts the window configuration. Assessment of silicon (and silicon nitride) material properties and CAD modeling and analysis of the window design suggest that silicon may be a viable solution to inherent parameters and constraints.

  9. Silicon oxynitride gas barrier coatings on poly(ether sulfone) by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juno Shim; Ho Gyu Yoon; Sang-Hyun Na; Insun Kim; Soonjong Kwak

    2008-01-01

    Thin silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) has been deposited for a gas barrier layer on the surface of poly(ether sulfone) film using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of a mixture of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and ammonia. The chemical structure of the deposited layer varied from organic to inorganic structures depending on RF plasma input power applied to the reaction system. A silicon-based undercoat

  10. MicroGrids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Lasseter

    2002-01-01

    The MicroGrid concept assumes a cluster of loads and microsources (<100 kW) operating as a single controllable system that provides both power and heat to its local area. This concept provides a new paradigm for defining the operation of distributed generation. To the utility the MicroGrid can be thought of as a controlled cell of the power system. For example

  11. Neutralization of space charge on high-current low-energy ion beam by low-energy electrons supplied from silicon based field emitter arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Gotoh, Yasuhito; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Shuhei; Ikeda, Keita; Kitagawa, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Junzo; Sakai, Shigeki [Dept. of Electron. Sci. Eng., Kyoto Univ. Kyotodaigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan); Dept. of Electron. Information Eng., Chubu Univ., 1200, Matsumoto-cho, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan); Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd., 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8502 (Japan)

    2012-11-06

    Neutralization of space charge on a high-current and low-energy ion beam was attempted to reduce the divergence with an aid of low-energy electrons supplied from silicon based field emitter arrays (Si-FEAs). An argon ion beam with the energy of 500 eV and the current of 0.25 mA was produced by a microwave ion source. The initial beam divergence and the emittance were measured at the entrance of the analysis chamber in order to estimate the intrinsic factors for beam divergence. The current density distribution of the beam after transport of 730 mm was measured by a movable Faraday cup, with and without electron supply from Si-FEAs. A similar experiment was performed with tungsten filaments as an electron source. The results indicated that the electron supply from FEA had almost the same effect as the thermionic filament, and it was confirmed that both electron sources can neutralize the ion beam.

  12. Micro-turbo-generator design and fabrication: A preliminary study

    SciTech Connect

    Wiegele, T.G. [Advanced Custom Technologies, Mesa, AZ (United States). Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector

    1996-12-31

    The size and weight of portable electronic products are often dictated by the physical characteristics of the power supply system. The design of energy storage systems is therefore critical to market competitiveness. An alternative to energy storage is proposed in this paper which relies on a very small power generation system which converts a pressure difference in a gas into electrical power: a micro-turbo-generator. The design of the micro-turbo-generator involved combining two very different machines, a micro-generator and a micro-turbine, into a single device which could be fabricated within the constraints of current microelectronic processing techniques. Research into power generation on the micro-scale has begun to take place in the form of electromagnetic micro-motor design and fabrication. These variable reluctance machines can be transformed into power generation devices by implementing accurate rotor position sensing, high-speed current switching and a means for inducing rotor motion. This leads to the implementation of a switched reluctance generator, which is well-understood on the macro-scale but has not been attempted on the micro-scale. The most significant hurdle facing researchers is the task of coupling a prime mover, such as a micro-turbine, to the rotor of a power generation device efficiently and effectively while maintaining relative simplicity in the fabrication procedures. The design presented here offers a potential solution to this problem.

  13. Continuous flowing micro-reactor for aqueous reaction at temperature higher than 100?°C

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Fei; Wang, Baojun; Wang, Wei; Dong, Tian; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong; Wu, Wengang; Li, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Some aqueous reactions in biological or chemical fields are accomplished at a high temperature. When the reaction temperature is higher than 100?°C, an autoclave reactor is usually required to elevate the boiling point of the water by creating a high-pressure environment in a closed system. This work presented an alternative continuous flowing microfluidic solution for aqueous reaction with a reaction temperature higher than 100?°C. The pressure regulating function was successfully fulfilled by a small microchannel based on a delicate hydrodynamic design. Combined with micro heater and temperature sensor that integrated in a single chip by utilizing silicon-based microfabrication techniques, this pressure regulating microchannel generated a high-pressure/high-temperature environment in the upstream reaction zone when the reagents continuously flow through the chip. As a preliminary demonstration, thermal digestion of aqueous total phosphorus sample was achieved in this continuous flowing micro-reactor at a working pressure of 990?kPa (under the working flow rate of 20 nl/s) along with a reaction temperature of 145?°C. This continuous flowing microfluidic solution for high-temperature reaction may find applications in various micro total analysis systems. PMID:24404024

  14. Continuous flowing micro-reactor for aqueous reaction at temperature higher than 100?°C.

    PubMed

    Xie, Fei; Wang, Baojun; Wang, Wei; Dong, Tian; Tong, Jianhua; Xia, Shanhong; Wu, Wengang; Li, Zhihong

    2013-01-01

    Some aqueous reactions in biological or chemical fields are accomplished at a high temperature. When the reaction temperature is higher than 100?°C, an autoclave reactor is usually required to elevate the boiling point of the water by creating a high-pressure environment in a closed system. This work presented an alternative continuous flowing microfluidic solution for aqueous reaction with a reaction temperature higher than 100?°C. The pressure regulating function was successfully fulfilled by a small microchannel based on a delicate hydrodynamic design. Combined with micro heater and temperature sensor that integrated in a single chip by utilizing silicon-based microfabrication techniques, this pressure regulating microchannel generated a high-pressure/high-temperature environment in the upstream reaction zone when the reagents continuously flow through the chip. As a preliminary demonstration, thermal digestion of aqueous total phosphorus sample was achieved in this continuous flowing micro-reactor at a working pressure of 990?kPa (under the working flow rate of 20 nl/s) along with a reaction temperature of 145?°C. This continuous flowing microfluidic solution for high-temperature reaction may find applications in various micro total analysis systems. PMID:24404024

  15. Barbed micro-spikes for micro-scale biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Sangwon; Lim, Jung-Min; Paik, Seung-Joon; Lee, Ahra; Koo, Kyo-in; Park, Sunkil; Park, Jaehong; Choi, Byoung-Doo; Seo, Jong Mo; Kim, Kyung-ah; Chung, Hum; Song, Si Young; Jeon, Doyoung; Cho, Dongil

    2005-06-01

    Single-crystal silicon planar micro-spikes with protruding barbs are developed for micro-scale biopsy and the feasibility of using the micro-spike as a micro-scale biopsy tool is evaluated for the first time. The fabrication process utilizes a deep silicon etch to define the micro-spike outline, resulting in protruding barbs of various shapes. Shanks of the fabricated micro-spikes are 3 mm long, 100 µm thick and 250 µm wide. Barbs protruding from micro-spike shanks facilitate the biopsy procedure by tearing off and retaining samples from target tissues. Micro-spikes with barbs successfully extracted tissue samples from the small intestines of the anesthetized pig, whereas micro-spikes without barbs failed to obtain a biopsy sample. Parylene coating can be applied to improve the biocompatibility of the micro-spike without deteriorating the biopsy function of the micro-spike. In addition, to show that the biopsy with the micro-spike can be applied to tissue analysis, samples obtained by micro-spikes were examined using immunofluorescent staining. Nuclei and F-actin of cells which are extracted by the micro-spike from a transwell were clearly visualized by immunofluorescent staining.

  16. Reproducibility study of TLD100 micro-cubes at radiotherapy dose level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luiz Antonio R. da Rosa; Dieter F. Regulla; Ute A. Fill

    1999-01-01

    The precision of the thermoluminescent response of Harshaw micro-cube dosimeters (TLD-100), evaluated in both Harshaw thermoluminescent readers 5500 and 3500, for 1Gy dose value, was investigated. The mean reproducibility for micro-cubes, pre-readout annealed at 100°C for 15min, evaluated with the manual planchet reader 3500, is 0.61% (1 standard deviation). When micro-cubes are evaluated with the automated hot-gas reader 5500, reproducibility

  17. Method of fabricating a micro machine

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-11-11

    A micro machine may be in or less than the micrometer domain. The micro machine may include a micro actuator and a micro shaft coupled to the micro actuator. The micro shaft is operable to be driven by the micro actuator. A tool is coupled to the micro shaft and is operable to perform work in response to at least motion of the micro shaft.

  18. Design, fabrication and characterization of an air-driven micro turbine device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, X. C.; Zhang, Qide; Sun, Yaofeng; Wang, Zhenfeng

    2006-04-01

    Micro turbine is one of the important components in a micro gas turbine engine. This paper reports on the development and investigations of a micro turbine device driven by compressed air, which consists of three layers of silicon wafers and two layers of acrylic plates. The rotor has an outer diameter of 8.4 mm with a thickness of 0.76 mm. The key challenges to develop a successful high-speed turbine device are geometry design and fabrication of micro blade profiles as well as air-bearings. The micro air bearings have been designed, and a deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process has been used for fabricating micro journal bearings with high aspect ratio. The micro turbine has reached a rotating speed of 9,000 rpm during test.

  19. Silicon micro-mold

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M. (Livermore, CA)

    2006-10-24

    The present invention describes a method for rapidly fabricating a robust 3-dimensional silicon-mold for use in preparing complex metal micro-components. The process begins by depositing a conductive metal layer onto one surface of a silicon wafer. A thin photoresist and a standard lithographic mask are then used to transfer a trace image pattern onto the opposite surface of the wafer by exposing and developing the resist. The exposed portion of the silicon substrate is anisotropically etched through the wafer thickness down to conductive metal layer to provide an etched pattern consisting of a series of rectilinear channels and recesses in the silicon which serve as the silicon micro-mold. Microcomponents are prepared with this mold by first filling the mold channels and recesses with a metal deposit, typically by electroplating, and then removing the silicon micro-mold by chemical etching.

  20. Micro-Organ Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonda, Steven R.; Leslie, Julia; Chang, Robert C.; Starly, Binil; Sun, Wei; Culbertson, Christopher; Holtorf, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Micro-organ devices (MODs) are being developed to satisfy an emerging need for small, lightweight, reproducible, biological-experimentati on apparatuses that are amenable to automated operation and that imp ose minimal demands for resources (principally, power and fluids). I n simplest terms, a MOD is a microfluidic device containing a variety of microstructures and assemblies of cells, all designed to mimic a complex in vivo microenvironment by replicating one or more in vivo micro-organ structures, the architectures and composition of the extr acellular matrices in the organs of interest, and the in vivo fluid flows. In addition to microscopic flow channels, a MOD contains one or more micro-organ wells containing cells residing in microscopic e xtracellular matrices and/or scaffolds, the shapes and compositions o f which enable replication of the corresponding in vivo cell assembl ies and flows.

  1. Gasliquid two-phase ow regimes in rectangular channels with mini/micro gaps

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Tianshou

    correlations. They also studied the sub-cooled boiling heat transfer in micro- channels. Yao and Chang (1983 (12 Â 260 mm) with narrow gaps of 0.3, 0.6±1.0 mm was investigated experimentally. Flow regimes were pushed by the gas phase. Flow regimes in these micro-gaps can be classi®ed into cap±bubbly ¯ow, slug

  2. 3D Patterning of Micro and Nanostructures by Ion Controlled Etching (ICE) process

    E-print Network

    Szmolyan, Peter

    3D Patterning of Micro and Nanostructures by Ion Controlled Etching (ICE) process Technology offer Superior height-control by automated adaption of etch gas composition Y Unlimited 3D design possibilities as process features fully adaptable slopes Y Applications: lenses, micro-fluidics, biomimetic surfaces and 3D

  3. Structure of catalase determined by MicroED

    PubMed Central

    Nannenga, Brent L; Shi, Dan; Hattne, Johan; Reyes, Francis E; Gonen, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    MicroED is a recently developed method that uses electron diffraction for structure determination from very small three-dimensional crystals of biological material. Previously we used a series of still diffraction patterns to determine the structure of lysozyme at 2.9 Å resolution with MicroED (Shi et al., 2013). Here we present the structure of bovine liver catalase determined from a single crystal at 3.2 Å resolution by MicroED. The data were collected by continuous rotation of the sample under constant exposure and were processed and refined using standard programs for X-ray crystallography. The ability of MicroED to determine the structure of bovine liver catalase, a protein that has long resisted atomic analysis by traditional electron crystallography, demonstrates the potential of this method for structure determination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03600.001 PMID:25303172

  4. Research on defects and transport in amorphous-silicon-based semiconductors. Final subcontract report, 20 February 1991--19 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, E.A.; Antoniadis, H.; Gu, Q.; Lee, J.K.; Wang, Q.; Zafar, S. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This report describes work on three individual tasks as follows. (1) Electron and hole drift measurements in a-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:H and a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}:H p-i-n solar cells. Multijunction solar cells incorporating modified band gap a-Si:H in a triple-junction structure are generally viewed as the most promising avenue for achieving an amorphous silicon-based solar call with 15% stabilized conversion efficiency. The specific objective of this task was to document the mobilities and deep-trapping mobility-lifetime products for electrons and holes in a-Si{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}:H and a-Si{sub 1-x}C{sub x}:H alloys materials. (2) Electroabsorption measurements and built-in potential (V{sub bi}) in solar cells. V{sub bi} in a p-i-n solar call may be limiting the open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) in wide-band-gap cells (E{sub g} > 1.8 eV) currently under investigation as the top cell for 15% triple junction devices. The research addressed four issues that need to be resolved before the method can yield an error less than 0.1 V for V{sub bi}. The details are presented in this report. (3) Defect relaxation and Shockley-Read kinetics in a-Si:H. Quantitative modeling of solar cells is usually based on Shockley-Read kinetics.`` An important assumption of this approach is that the rate of emission of a photocarrier trapped on a defect is independent of quasi-Fermi level location.

  5. Autonomous, agile micro-satellites and supporting technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Breitfeller, E; Dittman, M D; Gaughan, R J; Jones, M S; Kordas, J F; Ledebuhr, A G; Ng, L C; Whitehead, J C; Wilson, B

    1999-07-19

    This paper updates the on-going effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to develop autonomous, agile micro-satellites (MicroSats). The objective of this development effort is to develop MicroSats weighing only a few tens of kilograms, that are able to autonomously perform precision maneuvers and can be used telerobotically in a variety of mission modes. The required capabilities include satellite rendezvous, inspection, proximity-operations, docking, and servicing. The MicroSat carries an integrated proximity-operations sensor-suite incorporating advanced avionics. A new self-pressurizing propulsion system utilizing a miniaturized pump and non-toxic mono-propellant hydrogen peroxide was successfully tested. This system can provide a nominal 25 kg MicroSat with 200-300 m/s delta-v including a warm-gas attitude control system. The avionics is based on the latest PowerPC processor using a CompactPCI bus architecture, which is modular, high-performance and processor-independent. This leverages commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies and minimizes the effects of future changes in processors. The MicroSat software development environment uses the Vx-Works real-time operating system (RTOS) that provides a rapid development environment for integration of new software modules, allowing early integration and test. We will summarize results of recent integrated ground flight testing of our latest non-toxic pumped propulsion MicroSat testbed vehicle operated on our unique dynamic air-rail.

  6. Expanders for micro-CHP systems with organic Rankine cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guoquan Qiu; Hao Liu; Saffa Riffat

    2011-01-01

    The continual increases in global energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions call for more and more utilisation of sustainable energy sources, such as solar energy, biomass energy, and waste heat. Solar thermal energy, the heat of biomass combustion and waste heat may be used to drive a combined heat and power (CHP) system. In recent years, several micro-CHP systems with

  7. Micro Chemical Vapor Deposition System: Design and Verification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Q. Zhou; L. Lin

    2009-01-01

    The conventional chemical vapor deposition system has been miniaturized to the micro scale, leading to several potential advantages for the synthesis of nanostructures. First, minute heat capacity leads to fast temperature stabilization. Second, tiny chamber volume helps for rapid gas species exchanges. Third, small Reynolds number ensures laminar flow for better control of deposition sources. Forth, small diffusion length near

  8. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  9. Micro-PROUST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. Lewis; Soloway, Elliot

    This detailed description of a microcomputer version of PROUST (Program Understander for Students), a knowledge-based system that finds nonsyntactic bugs in Pascal programs written by novice programmers, presents the inner workings of Micro-PROUST, which was written in Golden LISP for the IBM-PC (512K). The contents include: (1) a reprint of an…

  10. The Micro-Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Barbara

    1992-01-01

    To reduce teacher isolation and encourage sharing of expertise, schools should consider brief workshops or 15-minute "micro-shops" on various topics ranging from making electrical circuit boards to setting up a salt-water aquarium. This article and accompanying sidebar discuss benefits and set-up strategies. (MLH)

  11. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2012-04-23

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  12. Breakthrough: micro-electronic photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin

    2014-06-23

    Sandia developed tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic (PV) cells that could revolutionize solar energy collection. The crystalline silicon micro-PV cells will be cheaper and have greater efficiencies than current PV collectors. Micro-PV cells require relatively little material to form well-controlled, highly efficient devices. Cell fabrication uses common microelectric and micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) techniques.

  13. Microsystmes Micro et Nano technologies

    E-print Network

    Ingrand, François

    Microsystèmes Micro et Nano technologies Automatique Réseaux Sûreté informatique Robotique et IA Interactions avec le vivant Intelligence ambiante #12;PÔLE MICRO ET NANO SYSTÈMES MICRO ET NANO SYSTÈMES MINAS nano systèmes notamment pour les télécommunications, les systèmes embarqués, la gestion de l

  14. Design and fabrication of a micro parallel mechanism system using MEMS technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Chi-Te

    A parallel mechanism is seen as an attractive method of fabricating a multi-degree of freedom micro-stage on a chip. The research team at Arizona State University has experience with several potential parallel mechanisms that would be scaled down to micron dimensions and fabricated by using the silicon process. The researcher developed a micro parallel mechanism that allows for planar motion having two translational motions and one rotational motion (e.g., x, y, theta). The mask design shown in Appendix B is an example of a planar parallel mechanism, however, this design would only have a few discrete positions given the nature of the fully extended or fully retracted electrostatic motor. The researcher proposes using a rotary motor (comb-drive actuator with gear chain system) coupled to a rack and pinion for finer increments of linear motion. The rotary motor can behave as a stepper motor by counting drive pulses, which is the basis for a simple open loop control system. This system was manufactured at the Central Regional MEMS Research Center (CMEMS), National Tsing-Hua University, and supported by the National Science Council, Taiwan. After the microstructures had been generated, the proceeding devices were released and an experiment study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed micro-stage devices. In this dissertation, the micro electromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication technologies were introduced. The development of this parallel mechanism system will initially focus on development of a planar micro-stage. The design of the micro-stage will build on the parallel mechanism technology, which has been developed for manufacturing, assembly, and flight simulator applications. Parallel mechanism will give the maximum operating envelope with a minimum number of silicon levels. The ideally proposed mechanism should comprise of a user interface, a micro-stage and a non-silicon tool, which is difficult to accomplish by current MEMS technology limitations. Therefore, this research is focusing on silicon-based technology and expects to achieve the design, fabrication and eventually control purpose. The micro-stage mechanism was designed and generated based on the special designed three-layer polysilicon surface micromachining techniques. Afterwards, the proceeding structures were released and an experiment study was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed devices. In addition, the fabrication challenges, prototyping results, improvement methodology and future work were recommended.

  15. Methods and systems for micro transmissions

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L

    2014-12-23

    Methods and systems for micro transmissions for a micro machine may comprise an input shaft assembly coupled to a micro actuator, an output shaft assembly coupled to a micro shaft, and one or more power conversion elements operable to convert a first type of movement from the micro actuator into a second, disparate type of movement for the micro shaft.

  16. Methods and systems for micro bearings

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L.

    2012-10-09

    A micro drive assembly may comprise a substrate, a micro shall oriented in-plane with the substrate and at least one micro bearing to support rotation of the micro shaft. The micro shaft and micro bearing may be in or less than the micrometer domain.

  17. Research on high-band-gap materials and amorphous-silicon-based solar cells. Annual subcontract report, May 15, 1994--May 14, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Schiff, E.A.; Gu, Q.; Jiang, L.; Wang, Q. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    We have conducted a survey of thin BP:H and BPC:H films prepared by plasma deposition using phosphine, diborane, tri-methylboron, and hydrogen as precursor gases. The objective of this research is to find out whether such films might offer a superior window layer film for application to wide bandgap a-Si solar cells. The research has shown good optical properties in a-BP:H films, but electrical properties acceptable for use in window layers have not been demonstrated yet. We have also found an interesting, conductive and transparent BPC:H film in a remote deposition region of the reactor, but have been unable to transfer deposition of this film to the standard interelectrode region. We have developed our capability to deposit nip sequence amorphous silicon based solar cells, and have demonstrated an open circuit voltage greater than 0.7 V. We have continued our studies of built-in potentials in a-Si based solar cells using the electroabsorption technique, extending our measurements to include cells with wider bandgap intrinsic layers and Schottky barrier test structures. We have made the first time-of-flight drift mobility measurements on a-Si:H prepared by hot wire (HW) deposition. Initial work has shown that light-soaked HW material can have much better ambipolar diffusion lengths than the plasma-deposited material following extended light soaking. We have performed some theoretical work which addresses a difficulty in understanding photocarrier recombination in a-Si:H first identified by Marvin Silver. In particular, electron-hole recombination is much slower than expected from the well-known {open_quotes}diffusion-controlled{close_quotes} models for Onsager (geminate) recombination and Langevin recombination. This slowness is essential to the success of a-Si in solar cells, but is unexplained. We have done work on high field electron drift mobilities in a-Si:H and on the validity of the Einstein relation connecting the diffusion and drift of holes in a-Si:H.

  18. Improved fatty acid detection in micro-algae and aquatic meiofauna species using a direct thermal desorption interface combined with comprehensive gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence Akoto; Frans Stellaard; Hubertus Irth; René J. J. Vreuls; Roel Pel

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) with time-of-flight mass spectrometry detection is used to profile the fatty acid composition of whole\\/intact aquatic microorganisms such as the common fresh water green algae Scenedesmus acutus and the filamentous cyanobacterium Limnothrix sp. strain MRI without any sample preparation steps. It is shown that the technique can be useful in the identification of lipid markers

  19. Sagnac loop mirror and micro-ring based laser cavity for silicon-on-insulator.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Yang, Shuyu; Guan, Hang; Lim, Andy Eu-Jin; Lo, Guo-Qiang; Magill, Peter; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael

    2014-07-28

    An integrated laser is a key component in silicon based photonic integrated circuits. Beyond incorporating the gain medium, on-chip cavity design is critical to device performance and yield. Typical recent results involve cavities utilizing distributed Bragg gratings that require ultra-fine feature sizes. We propose to build laser cavity on silicon using a Sagnac loop mirror and a micro-ring wavelength filter for the first time. The Sagnac loop mirror provides broadband reflection, which is simple to fabricate, has an accurately-controlled reflectivity, and negligible excess loss. Single-mode operation is achieved with the intra-cavity micro-ring filter and, using a 248 nm stepper, the laser wavelength can be lithographically controlled within a standard deviation of 3.6 nm. We demonstrate a proof-of-concept device lasing at 1551.7 nm, with 44 dB SMSR, 1.2 MHz linewidth and 4.8 mW on-chip output power. PMID:25089407

  20. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    DOEpatents

    Oliver, W.C.; Blau, P.J.

    1994-11-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch. 2 figs.

  1. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  2. QUBiC4plus: a cost-effective BiCMOS manufacturing technology with elite passive enhancements optimized for 'silicon-based' RF-system-in-package environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Deixler; T. Letavic; T. Mahatdejkul; Y. Bouttement; R. Brock; P. C. Tan; V. Saikumar; A. Rodriguez; R. Colclaser; P. Kellowan; H. Sun; N. Bell; D. Bower; A. Yao; R. van Langevelde; T. Vanhoucke; W. D. van Noort; G. A. M. Hurkx; D. Crespo; C. Biard; S. Bardy; J. W. Slotboom

    2005-01-01

    QUBiC4plus is a RF-BiCMOS production technology tailored for 'silicon-based' RF-SiP. The device menu includes 3 varactor styles, 7 resistor types, novel complimentary 24 V PMU devices, hi-k MIM capacitors, RC-triggered ESD protection and a choice between all-silicon, SiGe and SiGe:C bipolar transistors. Buried-p+ guardrings, DTI and very-high resistivity substrates ensure excellent circuit-block isolation and high-quality inductors. The advanced design flow

  3. An Experimental Study on the Fabrication of Glass-based Acceleration Sensor Body Using Micro Powder Blasting Method

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong-Sam; Yun, Dae-Jin; Cho, Myeong-Woo; Shin, Bong-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of the micro powder blasting technique for the micro fabrication of sensor structures using the Pyrex glass to replace the existing silicon-based acceleration sensor fabrication processes. As the preliminary experiments, the effects of the blasting pressure, the mass flow rate of abrasive and the number of nozzle scanning times on erosion depth of the Pyrex and the soda lime glasses were examined. From the experimental results, optimal blasting conditions were selected for the Pyrex glass machining. The dimensions of the designed glass sensor was 1.7×1.7×0.6mm for the vibrating mass, and 2.9×0.7×0.2mm for the cantilever beam. The machining results showed that the dimensional errors of the machined glass sensor ranged from 3 ?m in minimum to 20 ?m in maximum. These results imply that the micro powder blasting method can be applied for the micromachining of glass-based acceleration sensors to replace the exiting method.

  4. Advanced Micro Turbine System (AMTS) -C200 Micro Turbine -Ultra-Low Emissions Micro Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Capstone Turbine Corporation

    2007-12-31

    In September 2000 Capstone Turbine Corporation commenced work on a US Department of Energy contract to develop and improve advanced microturbines for power generation with high electrical efficiency and reduced pollutants. The Advanced MicroTurbine System (AMTS) program focused on: (1) The development and implementation of technology for a 200 kWe scale high efficiency microturbine system (2) The development and implementation of a 65 kWe microturbine which meets California Air Resources Board (CARB) emissions standards effective in 2007. Both of these objectives were achieved in the course of the AMTS program. At its conclusion prototype C200 Microturbines had been designed, assembled and successfully completed field demonstration. C65 Microturbines operating on natural, digester and landfill gas were also developed and successfully tested to demonstrate compliance with CARB 2007 Fossil Fuel Emissions Standards for NOx, CO and VOC emissions. The C65 Microturbine subsequently received approval from CARB under Executive Order DG-018 and was approved for sale in California. The United Technologies Research Center worked in parallel to successfully execute a RD&D program to demonstrate the viability of a low emissions AMS which integrated a high-performing microturbine with Organic Rankine Cycle systems. These results are documented in AMS Final Report DOE/CH/11060-1 dated March 26, 2007.

  5. Gas temperature effects in micrometre-scale dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitaraman, H.; Raja, L. L.

    2011-07-01

    A numerical modelling study of micrometre-length-scale (gap distances of ~50-100 µm) dielectric barrier discharges (micro-DBDs) is reported. A comparison of micro-DBDs with classical large-scale DBDs (gap distances of ~ mm) reveals the principal effect of downscaling DBD gap dimensions on the gas heating in these discharges. A one-dimensional, self-consistent, multi-species, multi-temperature continuum model is used in the simulations. For a constant pd (pressure × discharge gap distance) and applied voltage waveform (500 V, 10 MHz), a larger cycle-averaged gas temperature rise is seen in the micro-DBDs ~hundreds of kelvin compared with much smaller rise ~tens of kelvin in the classic DBDs. The gas temperature increase in micro-DBDs is mainly due to the rapid increase in the power densities as the gap dimensions are decreased compared with the increase in the wall loss with decreasing gap distances. For conditions studied in this work, the power densities in micro-DBDs are about four orders of magnitude larger than classic DBDs. Operation at higher frequencies, with other conditions remaining constant, is observed to favour larger gas temperatures in micro-DBDs. Micro-DBDs are therefore excellent device candidates to provide controllable gas heating in a variety of micro-electro mechanical systems; small spacecraft electrothermal micropropulsion devices being an example.

  6. Array servo scanning micro EDM of 3D micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Yi, Futing

    2011-05-01

    Micro electro discharge machining (Micro EDM) is a non-traditional processing technology with the special advantages of low set-up cost and few cutting force in machining any conductive materials regardless of their hardness. As well known, die-sinking EDM is unsuitable for machining the complex 3D micro cavity less than 1mm due to the high-priced fabrication of 3D microelectrode itself and its serous wear during EDM process. In our former study, a servo scanning 3D micro-EDM (3D SSMEDM) method was put forward, and our experiments showed it was available to fabricate complex 3D micro-cavities. In this study, in order to improve machining efficiency and consistency accuracy for array 3D micro-cavities, an array-servo-scanning 3D micro EDM (3D ASSMEDM) method is presented considering the complementary advantages of the 3D SSMEDM and the array micro electrodes with simple cross-section. During 3D ASSMEDM process, the array cavities designed by CAD / CAM system can be batch-manufactured by servo scanning layer by layer using array-rod-like micro tool electrodes, and the axial wear of the array electrodes is compensated in real time by keeping discharge gap. To verify the effectiveness of the 3D ASSMEDM, the array-triangle-micro cavities (side length 630 ?m) are batch-manufactured on P-doped silicon by applying the array-micro-electrodes with square-cross-section fabricated by LIGA process. Our exploratory experiment shows that the 3D ASSMEDM provides a feasible approach for the batch-manufacture of 3D array-micro-cavities of conductive materials.

  7. Array servo scanning micro EDM of 3D micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Hao; Li, Yong; Yi, Futing

    2010-12-01

    Micro electro discharge machining (Micro EDM) is a non-traditional processing technology with the special advantages of low set-up cost and few cutting force in machining any conductive materials regardless of their hardness. As well known, die-sinking EDM is unsuitable for machining the complex 3D micro cavity less than 1mm due to the high-priced fabrication of 3D microelectrode itself and its serous wear during EDM process. In our former study, a servo scanning 3D micro-EDM (3D SSMEDM) method was put forward, and our experiments showed it was available to fabricate complex 3D micro-cavities. In this study, in order to improve machining efficiency and consistency accuracy for array 3D micro-cavities, an array-servo-scanning 3D micro EDM (3D ASSMEDM) method is presented considering the complementary advantages of the 3D SSMEDM and the array micro electrodes with simple cross-section. During 3D ASSMEDM process, the array cavities designed by CAD / CAM system can be batch-manufactured by servo scanning layer by layer using array-rod-like micro tool electrodes, and the axial wear of the array electrodes is compensated in real time by keeping discharge gap. To verify the effectiveness of the 3D ASSMEDM, the array-triangle-micro cavities (side length 630 ?m) are batch-manufactured on P-doped silicon by applying the array-micro-electrodes with square-cross-section fabricated by LIGA process. Our exploratory experiment shows that the 3D ASSMEDM provides a feasible approach for the batch-manufacture of 3D array-micro-cavities of conductive materials.

  8. Research on a novel magnetic fluid micro-pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Li, Decai

    2015-07-01

    The article presents a novel micro-pressure sensor based on magnetic fluid. Some characteristics of the sensor are determined by theoretical predictions based on the state equation of ideal gas. The variation of external pressure will lead to the compression of a chamber between the body and mobile part, and a corresponding signal occurs. A comparison between inductance detection mode and magnetic field detection mode is performed by means of the transfer characteristics. The proposed device might be used as a micro-pressure sensing device with the advantages of low cost, simple structure, and convenient replacement.

  9. Micro-mechanics of micro-composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, Richard P.

    1995-01-01

    The Structural Dynamics branch at NASA LaRC is working on developing an active passive mount system for vibration control. Toward this end a system utilizing piezoelectric actuators is currently being utilized. There are limitations to the current system related to space applications under which it is desired to eliminate deformations in the actuators associated with thermal effects. In addition, a material that is readily formable into complex shapes and whose mechanical properties can be optimized with regards to vibration control would be highly desirable. Microcomposite material are currently under study to service these needs. Microcomposite materials are essentially materials in which particles on the scale of microns are bound together with a polyimide (LaRC Si) that has been developed at LaRC. In particular a micro-composite consisting of LaRC Si binder and piezoelectric ceramic particles shows promise in satisfying the needs of the active passive mount project. The LaRC/ Si microcomposite has a unique combination of piezoelectric properties combined with a near zero coefficient of thermal expansion and easy machinability. The goal of this ASEE project is to develop techniques to analytically determine important material properties necessary to characterize the dynamic properties of actuators and mounts made from the LaRC Si / ceramic microcomposite. In particular, a generalized method of cells micromechanics originally developed at NASA Lewis is employed to analyze the microstructural geometry of the microcomposites and predict the overall mechanical properties of the material. A testing program has been established to evaluate and refine the GMC approach to these materials. In addition, a theory of mixtures analysis is being developed that utilizes the GMC micromechanics information to analyze complex behavior of the microcomposite material which has a near zero CTE.

  10. Space project IONOSAT- MICRO - goals and realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korepanov, Valery; Lizunov, Georgii; Fedorov, Oleg

    2013-04-01

    The IONOSAT-MICRO project is a first stage of IONOSAT program devoted to the multi-point global monitoring of dynamic processes in the ionosphere. The IONOSAT program is planned to be realized in 2015-2020 with the help of three satellites at coordinated low Earth orbits (LEO). IONOSAT-MICRO is the forerunner project scheduled for launch in 2014 at sun-synchronous orbit with the aim to test the IONOSAT mission scientific postulates and preliminary collection of related space data. The main goal of the IONOSAT-MICRO project is the systematic study of the dynamic response of the ionosphere to the influence "from above" (sun, geomagnetic activity) and "from below" (powerful meteorological, seismic and anthropogenic impacts). More in details, the study of following formations in the ionosphere is foreseen: - Space-temporal structure and global distribution of inhomogeneities in neutral atmosphere and ionosphere; - Global structure and dynamics of quasi-stationary electric currents, electric and magnetic fields; - Wave structures and turbulences at different spatial and temporal scales. To realize such a research, the scientific payload of the MICROSAT spacecraft will provide the measurements of following parameters: - Neutral gas and plasma parameters - concentration, temperature; - DC-ELF-VLF electromagnetic field vectors and ELF-VLF plasma current fluctuations; - Total electron content (TEC); - Spectral content of plasma oscillations. Synchronous experiments with ground support facilities - both active and passive ones - are also foreseen. The IONOSAT-MICRO project will be realized onboard of MICROSAT microsatellite platform, manufactured by Yuzhnoye Design Office with new experimental models of ammonia propulsion system, battery, solar arrays and panels with thermal control coating, the in-flight tests of which are also planned in frames of the project. The composition of the scientific equipment developed by the international team of participants and sensors positioning at the platform will be reported. These works are supported by STCU project No 5567 and SSAU contract No 1-16/12.

  11. Micro-/nanofluidics based cell electroporation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengnian; Lee, L. James

    2013-01-01

    Non-viral gene delivery has been extensively explored as the replacement for viral systems. Among various non-viral approaches, electroporation has gained increasing attention because of its easy operation and no restrictions on probe or cell type. Several effective systems are now available on the market with reasonably good gene delivery performance. To facilitate broader biological and medical applications, micro-/nanofluidics based technologies were introduced in cell electroporation during the past two decades and their advances are summarized in this perspective. Compared to the commercially available bulk electroporation systems, they offer several advantages, namely, (1) sufficiently high pulse strength generated by a very low potential difference, (2) conveniently concentrating, trapping, and regulating the position and concentration of cells and probes, (3) real-time monitoring the intracellular trafficking at single cell level, and (4) flexibility on cells to be transfected (from single cell to large scale cell population). Some of the micro-devices focus on cell lysis or fusion as well as the analysis of cellular properties or intracellular contents, while others are designed for gene transfection. The uptake of small molecules (e.g., dyes), DNA plasmids, interfering RNAs, and nanoparticles has been broadly examined on different types of mammalian cells, yeast, and bacteria. A great deal of progress has been made with a variety of new micro-/nanofluidic designs to address challenges such as electrochemical reactions including water electrolysis, gas bubble formation, waste of expensive reagents, poor cell viability, low transfection efficacy, higher throughput, and control of transfection dosage and uniformity. Future research needs required to advance micro-/nanofluidics based cell electroporation for broad life science and medical applications are discussed. PMID:23405056

  12. Hybrid gas bearings with controlled supply pressure to eliminate rotor vibrations while crossing system critical speeds 

    E-print Network

    Ryu, Keun

    2009-05-15

    Micro-turbomachinery (MTM) implements gas bearings in compact units of enhanced mechanical reliability. Gas bearings, however, have little damping and are prone to wear during frequent rotor start-up and shut down conditions. Externally pressurized...

  13. Calorimetric gas sensor

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, A.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Smith, J.H.; Moreno, D.J.; Manginell, R.P.; Senturia, S.D.; Huber, R.J.

    1998-11-10

    A combustible gas sensor is described that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. The filaments tested to date are 2 {micro}m thick {times} 10{micro}m wide {times} 100, 250, 500, or 1000 {micro}m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 {micro}m-thick protective CVD Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} layer. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac){sub 2} onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500 C; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. Using a constant-resistance-mode feedback circuit, Pt-coated filaments operating at ca. 300 C (35 mW input power) respond linearly, in terms of the change in supply current required to maintain constant resistance (temperature), to H{sub 2} concentrations between 100 ppm and 1% in an 80/20 N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixture. Other catalytic materials can also be used. 11 figs.

  14. FUEL CELL/MICRO-TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Larry J. Chaney; Mike R. Tharp; Tom W. Wolf; Tim A. Fuller; Joe J. Hartvigson

    1999-12-01

    A wide variety of conceptual design studies have been conducted that describe ultra-high efficiency fossil power plant cycles. The most promising of these ultra-high efficiency cycles incorporate high temperature fuel cells with a gas turbine. Combining fuel cells with a gas turbine increases overall cycle efficiency while reducing per kilowatt emissions. This study has demonstrated that the unique approach taken to combining a fuel cell and gas turbine has both technical and economic merit. The approach used in this study eliminates most of the gas turbine integration problems associated with hybrid fuel cell turbine systems. By using a micro-turbine, and a non-pressurized fuel cell the total system size (kW) and complexity has been reduced substantially from those presented in other studies, while maintaining over 70% efficiency. The reduced system size can be particularly attractive in the deregulated electrical generation/distribution environment where the market may not demand multi-megawatt central stations systems. The small size also opens up the niche markets to this high efficiency, low emission electrical generation option.

  15. Modeling Micro-Damage Healing Mechanism at Micro-Scale 

    E-print Network

    Arastoo, Mahsa

    2013-08-06

    This thesis demonstrates the effect of micro-damage healing on stress and displacement fields in the vicinity of a crack tip in the material that tend to self-heal. The micro-damage healing model is modeled by incorporating time-dependent traction...

  16. The NanoMicro Interface: Bridging Micro and Nano

    E-print Network

    Odom, Teri W.

    applications (e.g., transis- tors, light-emitting diodes, sensors) based on nanostructures, in whichThe Nano­Micro Interface: Bridging Micro and Nano Worlds Edited by Hans-Jçrg Fecht and Matthias Werner. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim 2004. 351 pp., hard- cover E 99.00.--ISBN 3527309780 By its very title, Nano

  17. Energy and CO 2 emissions performance assessment of residential micro-cogeneration systems with dynamic whole-building simulation programs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viktor Dorer; Andreas Weber

    2009-01-01

    Micro-cogeneration, also termed micro combined heat and power (MCHP) or residential cogeneration, is an emerging technology with the potential to provide energy efficiency and environmental benefits by reducing primary energy consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions. The distributed generation nature of the technology also has the potential to reduce losses due to electrical transmission and distribution inefficiencies and to alleviate

  18. NMR planar micro coils for micro spectroscopy: design and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Baxan, N; Rengle, A; Châteaux, J-F; Briguet, A; Pasquet, G; Morin, P; Fakri-Bouchet, L

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the concentration sensitivity and the limit of detection of a SNMR receiver planar micro coil with ellipsoidal geometry 1000x500 microm, fabricated using an electroplating technique and used as SNMR receiver coil at 200 MHz. The maximum signal intensity on the NMR images and simulation of RF field distribution allows defining an active volume of 0.8 microL. The localised spectroscopy based on a PRESS sequence shows that the concentration sensitivity is closed to S(C)=2.33 M(-1) and the limit of detection LOD=0.8 M. This micro-system offers the possibility of new investigation techniques based on implantable micro coils used for in vivo study of local cerebral metabolites occupying a small volume (microL to nL order). PMID:17945835

  19. Identification of surface contaminants using infrared micro-profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, D.S.; Ward, K.J.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared micro-profiling is the combination of infrared microspectroscopy with precise microscope stage movements. It can provide molecular and spatial information for a variety of samples as small as 10 {mu}m in diameter. To illustrate the technique different contaminant materials, including a cellulose acetate fiber, oils deposited in a fingerprint, and a thin film of solder flux residue, were infrared micro-profiled. An integrated absorbance data reduction technique commonly used in gas chromatography/FT-IR applications was applied to the micro-profiling data. This technique organizes the vast amount of data generated, enabling the user to plot the results in 3-dimensional projections, allowing extraction of relevant spatial information. A method of coadding spectra from different pixel elements, providing higher quality spectra without increasing data acquisition time, is presented. This procedure improves spectral signal-to-noise which aids in the identification of unknown contaminants. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  20. A Micro-Ultrastable Oscillator (micro-US0) for Micro/Nano Sciencecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Syntonics LLC developed a prototype micro-Ultra Stable Oscillator (micro-USO) under a Space Base Technology Grant (NAGS-10395). Syntonics conducted the micro-USO Program in two phases. In Phase I, we developed a set of verified analytical models (including thermal, electrical, and control models) for a baseline USO, conducted a series of six technology studies, and built three approx.9OOg prototype units. These prototypes provided a tool for evaluating competing design topologies. In Phase II we prepared the conceptual design of a approx.100-15Og micro-USO.

  1. A Reinnervating MicroRNA

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Brown (University of Massachusetts Medical School; )

    2009-12-11

    Over the past 15 years, critical roles for microRNA have been established in regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and development, and death. Williams et al. define a role for a microRNA (miR-206) in reinnervating the neuromuscular junction after injury and improving survival in a mouse model of the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

  2. Fluid inclusion volatile analysis by gas chromatography with photoionization/micro-thermal conductivity detectors: Applications to magmatic MoS sub 2 and other H sub 2 O-CO sub 2 and H sub 2 O-CH sub 4 fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, C.J.; Spooner, E.T.C. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    Eighteen fluid inclusion volatile peaks have been detected and identified from 1-2 g samples (quartz) by gas chromatography using heated on-line crushing, helium carrier gas, a single porous polymer column, two temperature programmed conditions for separate sample aliquots, micro-thermal conductivity (TCD) and photoionization detectors (PID), and off-line digital peak processing. In order of retention time these volatile peaks are: N{sub 2}, Ar, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, COS, C{sub 3}H{sub 6}, C{sub 3}H{sub 8}, C{sub 3}H{sub 4} (propyne), H{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2} {plus minus} iso-C{sub 4}H{sub 10} {plus minus} C{sub 4}H{sub 8} (1-butene) {plus minus} CH{sub 3}SH, C{sub 4}H{sub 8} (iso-butylene), ( ) C{sub 4}H{sub 6} (1,3 butadiene), and {plus minus} n-C{sub 4}H{sub 10} {plus minus}C{sub 4}H{sub 8} (trans-2-butene). H{sub 2}O is analyzed directly. O{sub 2} can be analyzed cryogenically between N{sub 2} and Ar, but has not been detected in natural samples to date in this study. Initial inclusion volatile analyses of fluids of interpreted magmatic origin from the Cretaceous Boss Mtn. monzogranite stock-related MoS{sub 2} deposit, central British Columbia of 97 mol% H{sub 2}O, 3% CO{sub 2}, 140-150 ppm N{sub 2}, and 16-39 ppm CH{sub 4} are reasonable in comparison with high temperature volcanic gas analyses from four, active calc-alkaline volcanoes, e.g., the H{sub 2}O contents of volcanic gases from the White Island (New Zealand), Mount St. Helens (Washington, USA), Merapi (Bali, Indonesia), and Momotombo (Nicaragua) volcanoes are 88-95%, > 90%, 88-95% and 93%, respectively; CO{sub 2} contents are 3-10%, 1-10%, 3-8%, and 3.5%. It appears that low, but significant concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes have been detected in magmatically derived fluids.

  3. Cytomegalovirus microRNAs.

    PubMed

    Hook, Lauren; Hancock, Meaghan; Landais, Igor; Grabski, Robert; Britt, William; Nelson, Jay A

    2014-08-01

    The discovery that animals, plants and DNA viruses encode microRNAs (miRNAs) has transformed our understanding of the regulation of gene expression. miRNAs are ubiquitous small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, generally by binding to sites within the 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts. To date, over 250 viral miRNAs have been identified primarily in members of the herpesvirus family. These viral miRNAs target both viral and cellular genes in order to regulate viral replication, the establishment and maintenance of viral latency, cell survival, and innate and adaptive immunity. This review will focus on our current knowledge of the targets and functions of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) miRNAs and their functional equivalents in other herpesviruses. PMID:24769092

  4. Micro-UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-12-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  5. Micro UV detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabalo, Jerry B.; Sickenberger, Richard; Underwood, William J.; Sickenberger, David W.

    2004-09-01

    A lightweight, tactical biological agent detection network offers the potential for a detect-to-warn capability against biological aerosol attacks. Ideally, this capability can be achieved by deploying the sensors upwind from the protected assets. The further the distance upwind, the greater the warning time. The technological challenge to this concept is the biological detection technology. Here, cost, size and power are major factors in selecting acceptable technologies. This is in part due to the increased field densities needed to cover the upwind area and the fact that the sensors, when deployed forward, must operate autonomously for long periods of time with little or no long-term logistical support. The Defense Advanced Research Project Agency"s (DARPA) Solid-state Ultraviolet Optical Source (SUVOS) program offers an enabling technology to achieving a detector compatible with this mission. As an optical source, these devices emit excitation wavelengths known to be useful in the detection of biological aerosols. The wavelength band is absorbed by the biological aerosol and results in visible fluorescence. Detection of a biological aerosol is based on the observed intensity of this fluorescence signal compared to a background reference. Historically this has been accomplished with emission sources that are outside the boundaries for low cost, low power sensors. The SUVOS technology, on the other hand, provides the same basic wavelengths needed for the detection process in a small, low power package. ECBC has initiated an effort to develop a network array based on micro UV detectors that utilize the SUVOS technology. This paper presents an overview of the micro UV detector and some of the findings to date. This includes the overall design philosophy, fluid flow calculations to maximize presentation of aerosol particles to the sources, and the fluorescence measurements.

  6. Development of Micromachine Gas Turbine for Portable Power Generation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kousuke Isomura; Shuji Tanaka; Shinichi Togo; Hideki Kanebako; Motohide Murayama; Nobuyoshi Saji; Fumihiro Sato; Masayoshi Esashi

    2004-01-01

    Micromachine gas turbine with centrifugal impellers of 10mm diameter fabricated by 5-axis micro-milling is under development at Tohoku University, in conjunction with Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI), Tohoku-Gakuin University, and Sankyo Seiki Mfg. Co., Ltd. The development is currently at the stage of proving the feasibility of the gas turbine cycle by component tests. Micro-combustors have been developed for

  7. A new prototype of self-pressurizing fuel tank for micro and nano-satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, J. W.; Xu, J. L.

    2009-02-01

    To increase effective load, light-weight micro-propulsion system is necessary for micro-satellites. Traditional propulsion systems including large and heavy high-pressure vessels are difficult to be scaled down to fulfill the demand of micro-satellites. In this article, a novel self-pressurizing fuel tank without high-pressure gas vessel is proposed. When some liquid propellant is consumed, pressure is compensated with CO 2 released by heating NH 4HCO 3 powder in the fuel tank. Comparing with other types of self-pressurizing liquid fuel tank, a gas generator with special and simple structure was designed to stop or continue the NH 4HCO 3 decomposition reaction easily, and consumed a small amount of energy to heat the powder effectively. Performance tests showed that this new prototype is very suitable for micro-thrusters.

  8. Aerothermal Optimization of Micro-gasturbine Compressor Including Heat Transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Van den Braembussche; A. A. I?lek; Z. Alsalihi

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and performance prediction of a two-dimensional compressor for a micro-gas-turbine application is described. Because of the uncommon geometry (2D with large relative clearance) and particular operating conditions (low Reynolds number with large heat transfer) one has first evaluated and calibrated the one-dimensional design and off-design performance prediction method by comparing predictions with those obtained from a three-dimensional

  9. Formation of titanium carbide coating with micro-porous structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Luo; Shirong Ge; Zhongmin Jin; John Fisher

    2010-01-01

    Micro-porous titanium carbide coating was successfully synthesized in a vacuum gas carburizing furnace by using a sequential\\u000a diffusion technology. The composition and structure of the as-synthesized TiC were examined by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron\\u000a spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All of the XRD, XPS\\u000a and GDMS analysis results indicate that carbon atoms

  10. Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser.

    PubMed

    van Brakel, Adriaan; Grivas, Christos; Petrovich, Marco N; Richardson, David J

    2007-07-01

    Micro-channels were fabricated in hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBGF) and suspended-core holey fiber (SC-HF) by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser irradiation. Gaseous access was demonstrated via these engineered ports to the core of HC-PBGF and the hollow cladding of SC-HF. Femtosecond laser micro-machining caused no additional transmission loss in HC-PBGFs. This allowed a novel gas cell to be produced, in which gaseous access was provided solely through two micro-channels. Acetylene diffusion was also confirmed through a micro-channel leading to a single cladding airhole in SC-HF. This further highlighted the fabrication technique's precision, selectivity, and potential for developing fiber-based micro-fluidic devices. PMID:19547208

  11. Microscopic Approaches to Decomposition and Burning Processes of a Micro Plastic Resin Particle under Abrupt Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohiwa, Norio; Ishino, Yojiro; Yamamoto, Atsunori; Yamakita, Ryuji

    To elucidate the possibility and availability of thermal recycling of waste plastic resin from a basic and microscopic viewpoint, a series of abrupt heating processes of a spherical micro plastic particle having a diameter of about 200 ?m is observed, when it is abruptly exposed to hot oxidizing combustion gas. Three ingenious devices are introduced and two typical plastic resins of polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene are used. In this paper the dependency of internal and external appearances of residual plastic embers on the heating time and the ingredients of plastic resins is optically analyzed, along with appearances of internal micro bubbling, multiple micro explosions and jets, and micro diffusion flames during abrupt heating. Based on temporal variations of the surface area of a micro plastic particle, the apparent burning rate constant is also evaluated and compared with those of well-known volatile liquid fuels.

  12. Analysis of long-time operation of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsch, Marek; ?aja, Alexander

    2015-05-01

    Micro-cogeneration is cogeneration with small performance, with maximal electric power up to 50 kWe. On the present, there are available small micro-cogeneration units with small electric performance, about 1 kWe, which are usable also in single family houses or flats. These micro-cogeneration units operate on principle of conventional combustion engine, Stirling engine, steam engine or fuel cell. Micro-cogeneration units with fuel cells are new progressive developing type of units for single family houses. Fuel cell is electrochemical device which by oxidation-reduction reaction turn directly chemical energy of fuel to electric power, secondary products are pure water and thermal energy. The aim of paper is measuring and evaluation of operation parameters of micro-cogeneration unit with fuel cell which uses natural gas as a fuel.

  13. Arsenic methylation by micro-organisms isolated from sheepskin bedding materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corinne R Lehr; Elena Polishchuk; Marie-Chantal Delisle; Catherine Franz; William R Cullen

    2003-01-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has been associated with the volatilization of arsenic, antimony or phosphorus compounds from infants' bedding material by micro-organisms, the so-called ‘toxic gas hypothesis’. The volatilization of arsenic by aerobic micro-organisms isolated from new sheepskin bedding material, as well as on material used by a healthy infant and by an infant who perished of SIDS, was

  14. Micro-channels machined in microstructured optical fibers by femtosecond laser

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriaan van Brakel; Christos Grivas; Marco N. Petrovich; David J. Richardson

    2007-01-01

    Micro-channels were fabricated in hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBGF) and suspended-core holey fiber (SC-HF) by femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser irradiation. Gaseous access was demonstrated via these engineered ports to the core of HC-PBGF and the hollow cladding of SC-HF. Femtosecond laser micro-machining caused no additional transmission loss in HC-PBGFs. This allowed a novel gas cell to be produced, in which gaseous

  15. Prototyping of ultra micro centrifugal compressor-influence of meridional configuration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshiyuki Hirano; Tadataka Muto; Hoshio Tsujita

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the design method for a micro centrifugal compressor, which is the most important component of an\\u000a ultra micro gas turbine, two types of centrifugal impeller with 2-dimensional blade were designed, manufactured and tested.\\u000a These impellers have different shapes of hub on the meridional plane with each other. Moreover, these types of impeller were\\u000a made for the

  16. Stability of Portland cement-based binders reinforced with natural wollastonite micro-fibers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. P. Low; J. J. Beaudoin

    1994-01-01

    The stability of Portland cement-based binders reinforced with natural wollastonite micro-fibers was investigated for hydration periods up to one year. The wollastonite micro-fibers imbedded in the hydrated cement paste were examined employing a scanning electron microscopy technique. Composite specimens were also periodically evaluated by flexural strength testing and microstructural characterization including mercury intrusion porosimetry, helium gas pycnometry, and isopropyl alcohol

  17. Microfabrication of high temperature micro-reactors for continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert J. TobiasJ; J. Thomas Brenna

    2010-01-01

    Robust, high temperature micro-reactors for on-line conversion of organic compounds were microfabricated in high purity fused\\u000a silica to enable stable isotopic compositional analysis of individual compounds in mixtures using advanced gas chromatography\\u000a (GC) separation techniques, such as fast GC and comprehensive 2D GC, coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). These\\u000a micro-reactors could also be manufactured at larger channel dimensions

  18. Micro Injection Moulding of Polymeric Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotta, G.; Surace, R.; Modica, F.; Spina, R.; Fassi, I.

    2011-01-01

    Micro components and micro devices are strongly used in several fields: IT components, biomedical and medical products, automotive industry, telecommunication area and aerospace. A micro component is characterized by small dimensions of the product itself or small dimensions of the functional features. The development of new micro parts is highly dependent on manufacturing systems that can reliably and economically produce micro components in large quantities. In this context, micro-electrical discharge machining (EDM) for mould production and micro-injection moulding of polymer materials are the key technologies for micro manufacturing. This paper will focus on the production and quality evaluation of polymeric micro components manufactured by micro injection moulding. In particular the authors want to investigate the process parameters on the overall quality of the product. The factors affecting micro flow behavior, components weights and dimension definition are experimentally studied basing on DoE approach and then discussed.

  19. Micro Eddy Current Testing by micro magnetic sensor array

    SciTech Connect

    Uesaka, Mitsuru; Nakanishi, Takahiro; Miya, Kenzo (Univ. of Tokyo, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.); Komatsu, Hidenobu; Aoki, Kazuhiko (Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan)); Kasai, Kazuo (Sumitomo Precision Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1995-01-01

    A micro Eddy Current Testing (ECT) system for planar thin specimens made of INCONEL 600 with flaws was proposed and developed. A micro ECT probe used here consists of a conventional pancake-type coil as an exciting coil and a micro magnetic sensor array as a set of pickup coils. Magnetic field perturbation due to a flaw was measured with high spatial resolution and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. The measured signals from the array were compared with numerical results obtained by a three-dimensional A-[phi] code. It was confirmed that the Micro ECT system has the potential to evaluate the length and depth of a flaw with better accuracy than that of a conventional pancake-type ECT in the stream generator tubings in a pressurized water nuclear reactor.

  20. Micro-sensors for space applications

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, M.A.; Frye-Mason, G.C.; Osbourn, G.C.

    1999-12-08

    Important factors in the application of sensing technology to space applications are low mass, small size, and low power. All of these attributes are enabled by the application of MEMS and micro-fabrication technology to microsensors. Two types of sensors are utilized in space applications: remotes sensing from orbit around the earth or another planetary body, and point sensing in the spacecraft or external to it. Several Sandia projects that apply microfabrication technologies to the development of new sensing capabilities having the potential for space applications will be briefly described. The Micro-Navigator is a project to develop a MEMS-based device to measure acceleration and rotation in all three axes for local area navigation. The Polychromator project is a joint project with Honeywell and MIT to develop an electrically programmable diffraction grating that can be programmed to synthesize the spectra of molecules. This grating will be used as the reference cell in a gas correlation radiometer to enable remote chemical detection of most chemical species. Another area of research where microfabrication is having a large impact is the development of a lab on a chip. Sandia's efforts to develop the {mu}ChemLab{trademark} will be described including the development of microfabricated pre-concentrators, chromatographic columns, and detectors. Smart sensors that allow the spacecraft independent decision making capabilities depend on pattern recognition. Sandia's development of a new pattern recognition methodology that can be used to interpret sensor response as well as for target recognition applications will be described.

  1. Knudsen torque on heated micro beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Liang, Tengfei; Ye, Wenjing

    2014-12-01

    Thermally induced mechanical loading has been shown to have significant effects on micro/nano objects immersed in a gas with a non-uniform temperature field. While the majority of existing studies and related applications focus on forces, we investigate the torque, and thus the rotational motion, produced by such a mechanism. Using the asymptotic analysis in the near continuum regime, the Knudsen torque acting on an asymmetrically located uniformly heated microbeam in a cold enclosure is investigated. The existence of a non-zero net torque is demonstrated. In addition, it has been found that by manipulating the system configuration, the rotational direction of the torque can be changed. Two types of rotational motion of the microbeam have been identified: the pendulum motion of a rectangular beam, and the unidirectional rotation of a cylindrical beam. A rotational frequency of 4 rpm can be achieved for the cylindrical beam with a diameter of 3?m at Kn = 0.005. Illustrated by the simulations using the direct simulation of Monte Carlo, the Knudsen torque can be much increased in the transition regime, demonstrating the potential of Knudsen torque serving as a rotation engine for micro/nano objects.

  2. Patterned graphene functionalization via mask-free scanning of micro-plasma jet under ambient condition

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Dong; Yu, Yao, E-mail: ensiyu@mail.hust.edu.cn; Liu, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China)] [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wu, Shu-Qun; Lu, Xin-Pei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wu, Yue [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    In this work, a mask-free method is introduced for patterned nitrogen doping of graphene using a micro-plasma jet under ambient condition. Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra indicate that nitrogen atoms are incorporated into the graphene lattice with the two-dimensional spatial distribution precisely controlled in the range of mm down to 10??m. Since the chemistry of the micro-plasma jet can be controlled by the choice of the gas mixture, this direct writing process with micro-plasma jet can be a versatile approach for patterned functionalization of graphene with high spatial resolution. This could have promising applications in graphene-based electronics.

  3. Levitated micro-accelerometer.

    SciTech Connect

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Schmidt, Carrie Frances; Peterson, Kenneth Allen; Kravitz, Stanley H.; Renn, Rosemarie A.; Peter, Frank J.; Kinney, Ragon D.; Gilkey, Jeffrey C.

    2004-06-01

    The objective is a significant advancement in the state-of-the-art of accelerometer design for tactical grade (or better) applications. The design goals are <1 milli-G bias stability across environments and $200 cost. This quantum leap in performance improvement and cost reduction can only be achieved by a radical new approach, not incremental improvements to existing concepts. This novel levitated closed-loop accelerometer is implemented as a hybrid micromachine. The hybrid approach frees the designer from the limitations of any given monolithic process and dramatically expands the available design space. The design can be tailored to the dynamic range, resolution, bandwidth, and environmental requirements of the application while still preserving all of the benefits of monolithic MEMS fabrication - extreme precision, small size, low cost, and low power. An accelerometer was designed and prototype hardware was built, driving the successful development and refinement of several 'never been done before' fabrication processes. Many of these process developments are commercially valuable and are key enablers for the realization of a wide variety of useful micro-devices. While controlled levitation of a proof mass has yet to be realized, the overall design concept remains sound. This was clearly demonstrated by the stable and reliable closed-loop control of a proof mass at the test structure level. Furthermore, the hybrid MEMS implementation is the most promising approach for achieving the ambitious cost and performance targets. It is strongly recommended that Sandia remain committed to the original goal.

  4. Development of Electrochemical Micro Machining 

    E-print Network

    Srinivas Sundarram, Sriharsha

    2008-10-10

    in demanding applications like aerospace and biomedical industries. Micro electrochemical machining (?ECM) removes material while holding micron tolerances and ?ECM can machine hard metals and alloys. This study aims at developing a novel ?ECM utilizing high...

  5. A micro controlled peripheral processor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. T. Barron; R. M. Glorioso

    1973-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and construction of a micro controlled mini-computer used as peripheral processor unit for the PDP-11\\/20 in the Electrical and Computer Engineering Laboratory at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst. The instruction set for this computer is determined by the micro code in a read only memory (ROM) and is therefore flexible: Changing the ROM results

  6. Development of Electrochemical Micro Machining

    E-print Network

    Srinivas Sundarram, Sriharsha

    2008-10-10

    DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL MICRO MACHINING A Thesis by SRIHARSHA SRINIVAS SUNDARRAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 2008 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTROCHEMICAL MICRO MACHINING A Thesis by SRIHARSHA SRINIVAS SUNDARRAM Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial...

  7. The feasibility study on a fabricated micro slit die using micro EDM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Cheng Wang; Biing Hwa Yan; You Xi Tang; Fuang Yuan Huang

    2005-01-01

    A micro slit die easily manufactured using a micro electrical discharge machining (MEDM) is proposed for micro heat sink fabrication. In the investigations described in this paper, processed concave and rectangular shaped copper foils were combined piece by piece to form an assembled electrode. This electrode was used to fabricate a micro slit die. This die included 15 micro fins

  8. Micro thrust and heat generator

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    The present invention relates generally to micromachines such as microengines or micromotors. More specifically, the invention is directed to a micro rocket which functions as a source of heat and thrust, and utilizes chemical energy to drive or power micromechanical apparatuses. The invention is adaptable to applications involving defense, bio-medical, manufacturing, consumer product, aviation, automotive, computer, inspection, and safety systems. A micro thrust and heat generator has a means for providing a combustion fuel source to an ignition chamber of the micro thrust and heat generator. The fuel is ignited by a ignition means within the micro thrust and heat generator`s ignition chamber where it burns and creates a pressure. A nozzle formed from the combustion chamber extends outward from the combustion chamber and tappers down to a narrow diameter and then opens into a wider diameter where the nozzle then terminates outside of said combustion chamber. The pressure created within the combustion chamber accelerates as it leaves the chamber through the nozzle resulting in pressure and heat escaping from the nozzle to the atmosphere outside the micro thrust and heat generator. The micro thrust and heat generator can be microfabricated from a variety of materials, e.g., of polysilicon, on one wafer using surface micromachining batch fabrication techniques or high aspect ratio micromachine techniques (LIGA).

  9. Acid loaded porous silicon as a proton exchange membrane for micro-fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Scott; Chu, Kuan-Lun; Lu, Chang; Shannon, Mark A.; Masel, Richard I.

    Silicon-based fuel cells are under active development to supply chip-scale electrical power supply. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of sulfuric acid loaded nanoporous silicon as a proton electrolytic membrane (PEM) material for micro-fuel cell applications. Sulfuric acid loaded nanoporous silicon membranes with thickness of 40-70 ?m have proton conductivities (0.0068-0.33 S/cm) comparable to, and in some cases better than, Nafion ® (0.05 S/cm), which is the most commonly used commercial PEM material. Additionally, the permeability of formic acid at room temperature through nanoporous silicon membranes was found to be similar to that of Nafion ® membranes, which increases with increasing anodization current density (4.3 × 10 -8 to 3.9 × 10 -7 mol/(s cm 2) for nanoporous silicon as compared to 1.23 × 10 -7 mol/(s cm 2) for Nafion ® 117). These results represent the discovery of a new class of protonic conductor that can be integrated into standard silicon microfabrication processes.

  10. Development of silicon optics for an integrated micro-optical system-on-a-chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, David C.; Kandasamy, Sasikaran; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2013-12-01

    Development of silicon-based passive optical components such as reflectors, waveguides, and beam splitters coupled with active elements such as light emitters and detectors enable miniaturisation of a low-cost system-on-a-chip sensing device. In this work, we investigate methods to fabricate passive silicon elements on a chip. We use a combination of wet and dry etching techniques to realise angled and vertical sidewalls normal to the surface of a silicon wafer, respectively. For wet etching, we used Triton-X, a surfactant, added to an alkaline solution TMAH as the etchant. This allows perfect 45° inclined sidewalls to be fabricated. Dry etching using DRIE is to be performed on the reverse-side of the same wafer to realize through-hole vias with straight vertical sidewalls. A final Au metal layer can then be coated onto the sidewalls to realize reflective surfaces. Photolithography masks used in the wet and dry etch processes were designed and fabricated. By careful alignment of these masks using a mask aligner, we can fabricate a combination of inclined and vertical sidewalls to build optical reflectors and beam splitters with complex geometries. When integrated with active Si-optical devices, a fully integrated micro-optical system-on-a-chip can be realised.

  11. Silicon Carbide-Based Hydrogen and Hydrocarbon Gas Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.R

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen and hydrocarbon detection in aeronautical applications is important for reasons of safety and emissions control. The use of silicon carbide as a semiconductor in a metal-semiconductor or metal-insulator-semiconductor structure opens opportunities to measure hydrogen and hydrocarbons in high temperature environments beyond the capabilities of silicon-based devices. The purpose of this paper is to explore the response and stability of Pd-SiC Schottky diodes as gas sensors in the temperature range from 100 to 400 C. The effect of heat treating on the diode properties as measured at 100 C is explored. Subsequent operation at 400 C demonstrates the diodes' sensitivity to hydrogen and hydrocarbons. It is concluded that the Pd-SiC Schottky diode has potential as a hydrogen and hydrocarbon sensor over a wide range of temperatures but further studies are necessary to determine the diodes' long term stability.

  12. Integrated micro-scanning tunneling microscope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Xu; N. C. MacDonald; S. A. Miller

    1995-01-01

    Two versions of micro-scanning tunneling microscopes (micro-STMs) have been fabricated. The integrated micro-STMs are fabricated from single crystal silicon using the high-aspect-ratio SCREAM process. Each micro-STM includes integrated xy comb drive actuators and a torsional z actuator with integrated cantilever and tip. One micro-STM measures approximately 200 ?m on-a-side and is an example of a STM element for a STM

  13. Natural gas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N/A N/A (None; )

    2003-07-27

    Natural gas is used as a means of power in households. Natural gas has no natural odor, so an odor is added to the gas. This is useful because gas leaks can be detected better and it also reduces the risk of accidents in homes.

  14. Gas analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, J.C.; Trainer, D.; Wright, H.R.C.

    1984-12-04

    A portable gas analyzer uses a pump to take a gas sample and pump it through a carbon monoxide sensing cell, an oxygen-sensing cell and a methane-sensing pellister. Concentrations of these gases are displayed continuously on LCD displays. The gas analyzer is particularly useful in underground coal mines and offers the possibility of replacing many different gas analyzers with a simple convenient apparatus which gives continuous readings of all the critical gas concentrations.

  15. GEM:the gas electron multiplier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio Sauli

    1997-01-01

    We describe the basic structure and operation of a new device, the Gas Electron Multiplier. Consisting in a polymer foil, metal-clad on both sides and perforated by a high density of holes, the GEM mesh allows to pre-amplify charges released in the gas with good uniformity and energy. Coupled to a micro-strip plate, the pre-amplification element allows to preserve high

  16. Elemental analyses of hypervelocity micro-particle impact sites on interplanetary dust experiment sensor surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Charles G.; Hunter, J. L.; Griffis, D. P.; Misra, V.; Ricks, D. R.; Wortman, Jim J.

    1992-01-01

    The Interplanetary Dust Experiment (IDE) had over 450 electrically active ultra-high purity metal-oxide-silicon impact detectors located on the six primary sides of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Hypervelocity micro-particles that struck the active sensors with enough energy to breakdown the 0.4 to 1.0 micron thick SiO2 insulator layer separating the silicon base (the negative electrode), and the 1000 A thick surface layer of aluminum (the positive electrode) caused electrical discharges that were recorded for the first year of orbit. These discharge features, which include 50 micron diameter areas where the aluminum top layer has been vaporized, facilitate the location of the impacts. The high purity Al-SiO2-Si substrates allow detection of trace (ppm) amounts of hypervelocity impactor residues. After sputtering through a layer of surface contamination, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to create two-dimensional elemental ion intensity maps of micro-particle impact sites on the IDE sensors. The element intensities in the central craters of the impacts are corrected for relative ion yields and instrumental conditions and then normalized to silicon. The results are used to classify the particles' origins as 'manmade', 'natural' or 'indeterminate'. The last classification results from the presence of too little impactor residue (a frequent occurrence on leading edge impacts), analytical interference from high background contamination, the lack of information on silicon residue, the limited usefulness of data on aluminum in the central craters, or a combination of these circumstances. Several analytical 'blank' discharges were induced on flight sensors by pressing down on the sensor surface with a pure silicon shard. Analyses of these blank discharges showed that the discharge energy blasts away the layer of surface contamination. Only Si and Al were detected inside the discharge zones, including the central craters, of these features. A total of 35 impacts on leading edge sensors and 22 impacts on trailing edge sensors were analyzed.

  17. High-resolution structure determination by continuous rotation data collection in MicroED

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Andrew G. W.; Gonen, Tamir

    2014-01-01

    MicroED uses very small three-dimensional protein crystals and electron diffraction for structure determination. An improved data collection protocol for MicroED called “continuous rotation” is presented. Here microcrystals are continuously rotated during data collection yielding improved data, and allowing data processing with MOSFLM resulting in improved resolution for the model protein lysozyme. These improvements pave the way for the implementation and application of MicroED with wide applicability in structural biology. PMID:25086503

  18. Feasibility study of the wave disk micro-engine operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piechna, Janusz R.

    2006-09-01

    The development of micro turbine engines has been strongly intensified in recent years. Since turbo-component efficiency has become very low due to the downsizing effect, the micro wave rotor is expected to be applied for the improvement of the performance of ultra-micro gas turbines, increasing the cycle pressure ratio. But wave rotors can also be used in another configuration. Here replacement of steady flow engine components by unsteady flow devices is proposed and analyzed. Applying a combustion chamber only and using oblique blades to form the rotor cells, net power can be taken from the rotor. In that way the use of an inefficient, micro-scale turbo unit can be omitted. Conventional construction of unsteady devices in the form of a wave rotor cannot be realized in MEMS technology. The new idea of a wave disk gives the possibility of an easy implementation of a wave engine in MEMS technology. In the proposed solution the wave disk plays the role of an active compression-decompression unit and torque generator. Appropriate port geometry with straight or oblique blades forming the disk channels generates torque. The engine disk rotates with a speed much lower than the conventional turbo unit and simplifies the bearing problem. Also the construction of an electric generator could be simpler. This paper presents the proposed flow schemes, thermodynamic cycle, exemplary engine construction and some preliminary results of simulation of the MEMS wave engine utilizing the wave disk geometry.

  19. The growth and harvesting of algae in a micro-gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiltberger, Nancy L.

    1987-01-01

    Algae growth in a micro-gravity environment is an important factor in supporting man's permanent presence in space. Algae can be used to produce food, oxygen, and pure water in a manned space station. A space station is one example of a situation where a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) is imperative. In setting up a CELSS with an engineering approach at the Aerospace department of the University of Colorado, questions concerning algae growth in micro-g have arisen. The Get Away Special (GAS) Fluids Management project is a means through which many questions about the effects of a micro-g environment on the adequacy of growth rates, the viability of micro-organisms, and separation of gases and solids for harvesting purposes can be answered. In order to be compatible with the GAS tests, the algae must satisfy the following criteria: (1) rapid growth rates, (2) sustain viability over long periods of non-growth storage, and (3) very brief latency from storage to rapid growth. Testing indicates that the overall growth characteristics of Anacystis Nidulans satisfy the specifications of GAS's design constraints. In addition, data acquisition and the method of growth instigation are two specific problems being examined, as they will be encountered in interfacing with the GAS project. Flight testing will be two-fold, measurement of algae growth in micro-g and separation of algae from growth medium in an artificial gravitation field. Post flight results will provide information on algae viability in a micro-g environment as reflected by algal growth rates in space. Other post flight results will provide a basis for evaluating techniques for harvesting algae. The results from the GAS project will greatly assist the continuing effort of developing the CELSS and its applications for space.

  20. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  1. Simple gas chromatographic system for analysis of microbial respiratory gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carle, G. C.

    1972-01-01

    Dual column ambient temperature system, consisting of pair of capillary columns, microbead thermistor detector and micro gas-sampling valve, is used in remote life-detection equipment for space experiments. Performance outweighs advantage gained by utilizing single-column systems to reduce weight, conserve carrier gas and operate at lower power levels.

  2. Micromedullary Thyroid Cancer: How Micro Is Truly Micro?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Venu G. Pillarisetty; Steven C. Katz; Ronald A. Ghossein; R. Michael Tuttle; Ashok R. Shaha

    2009-01-01

    Background  The aggressive nature of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is evidenced by its propensity to present early with lymph node (LN)\\u000a metastases. The clinical significance of sporadic MTC ?1 cm (micro-MTC) is not clearly defined.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We performed a retrospective review of the clinical, laboratory, and pathologic data for all patients treated or followed\\u000a at our institution for sporadic micro-MTC from 1987 through 2008.

  3. Micro flame-based detector suite for universal gas sensing.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Thomas Warren; Washburn, Cody M.; Moorman, Matthew Wallace; Manley, Robert George; Lewis, Patrick Raymond; Miller, James Edward; Clem, Paul Gilbert; Shelmidine, Gregory J.; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Okandan, Murat

    2005-11-01

    A microflame-based detector suit has been developed for sensing of a broad range of chemical analytes. This detector combines calorimetry, flame ionization detection (FID), nitrogen-phosphorous detection (NPD) and flame photometric detection (FPD) modes into one convenient platform based on a microcombustor. The microcombustor consists in a micromachined microhotplate with a catalyst or low-work function material added to its surface. For the NPD mode a low work function material selectively ionizes chemical analytes; for all other modes a supported catalyst such as platinum/alumina is used. The microcombustor design permits rapid, efficient heating of the deposited film at low power. To perform calorimetric detection of analytes, the change in power required to maintain the resistive microhotplate heater at a constant temperature is measured. For FID and NPD modes, electrodes are placed around the microcombustor flame zone and an electrometer circuit measures the production of ions. For FPD, the flame zone is optically interrogated to search for light emission indicative of deexcitation of flame-produced analyte compounds. The calorimetric and FID modes respond generally to all hydrocarbons, while sulfur compounds only alarm in the calorimetric mode, providing speciation. The NPD mode provides 10,000:1 selectivity of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds over hydrocarbons. The FPD can distinguish between sulfur and phosphorous compounds. Importantly all detection modes can be established on one convenient microcombustor platform, in fact the calorimetric, FID and FPD modes can be achieved simultaneously on only one microcombustor. Therefore, it is possible to make a very universal chemical detector array with as little as two microcombustor elements. A demonstration of the performance of the microcombustor in each of the detection modes is provided herein.

  4. Large scale test of wedge shaped micro strip gas counters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Atz, S.; Aulchenko, V.; Bachmann, S.; Baiboussinov, B.; Barthe, S.; Beaumont, W.; Beckers, T.; Beißel, F.; Benhammou, Y.; Bergdolt, A. M.; Bernier, K.; Blüm, P.; Bondar, A.; Bouhali, O.; Boulogne, I.; Bozzo, M.; Brom, J. M.; Camps, C.; Chorowicz, V.; Coffin, J.; Commichau, V.; Contardo, D.; Croix, J.; De Troy, J.; Drouhin, F.; Eberlé, H.; Flügge, G.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Geist, W.; Goerlach, U.; Gundlfinger, K.; Hangarter, K.; Haroutunian, R.; Helleboid, J. M.; Henkes, Th.; Hoffer, M.; Hoffman, C.; Huss, D.; Ischebeck, R.; Jeanneau, F.; Juillot, P.; Junghans, S.; Kapp, M. R.; Kärcher, K.; Knoblauch, D.; Kräber, M.; Krauth, M.; Kremp, J.; Lounis, A.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Maazouzi, C.; Macke, D.; Metri, R.; Mirabito, L.; Müller, Th.; Nagaslaev, V.; Neuberger, D.; Nowack, A.; Pallares, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Petertill, M.; Pooth, O.; Racca, C.; Ripp, I.; Ruoff, E.; Sauer, A.; Schmitz, P.; Schulte, R.; von Dratzig, A. Schultz; Schunk, J. P.; Schuster, G.; Schwaller, B.; Shektman, L.; Siedling, R.; Sigward, M. H.; Simonis, H. J.; Smadja, G.; Stefanescu, J.; Szczesny, H.; Tatarinov, A.; Thümmel, W. H.; Tissot, S.; Titov, V.; Todorov, T.; Tonutti, M.; Udo, F.; Vander Velde, C.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Dyck, Ch.; Vanlaer, P.; Van Lancker, L.; Verdini, P. G.; Weseler, S.; Wittmer, B.; Wortmann, R.; Zghiche, A.; Zhukov, V.

    1999-11-01

    In order to check the system aspects of the forward-backward MSGC tracker designed for the future CMS experiment at LHC, 38 trapezoidal MSGC counters assembled in six multi-substrates detector modules were built and exposed to a muon beam at the CERN SPS. Results on the gain uniformity along the wedge-shaped strip pattern and across the detector modules are shown together with measurements of the detection efficiency and the spatial resolution.

  5. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-01-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability, minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility of developing a very simple, low mass and small volume, electric thruster for operation on hydrazine at less than 100 W of input power. The feasibility of developing such a MEP thruster was successfully demonstrated by EPL by the discovery of a novel plasma acceleration process. The sections in this report summarize the approach, test results and major accomplishments of this proof-of-concept program.

  6. Micro electric propulsion feasibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aston, Graeme; Aston, Martha

    1992-11-01

    Miniature, 50 kg class, strategic satellites intended for extended deployment in space require an on-board propulsion capability to perform needed attitude control adjustments and drag compensation maneuvers. Even on such very small spacecraft, these orbit maintenance functions can be significant and result in a substantial propellant mass requirement. Development of advanced propulsion technology could reduce this propellant mass significantly, and thereby maximize the payload capability of these spacecraft. In addition, spacecraft maneuverability could be enhanced and/or multi-year mission lifetimes realized. These benefits cut spacecraft replacement costs, and reduce services needed to maintain the launch vehicles. For SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, a miniaturized hydrazine propulsion system provides both boost and divert thrust control. This type of propulsion system is highly integrated and is capable of delivering large thrust levels for short time periods. However, orbit maintenance functions such as drag make-up require only very small velocity corrections. Using the boost and/or divert thrusters for these small corrections exposes this highly integrated propulsion system to continuous on/off cycling and thereby increases the risk of system failure. Furthermore, since drag compensation velocity corrections would be orders of magnitude less than these thrusters were designed to deliver, their effective specific impulse would be expected to be lower when operated at very short pulse lengths. The net result of these effects would be a significant depletion of the on-board hydrazine propellant supply throughout the mission, and a reduced propulsion system reliability, both of which would degrade the interceptors usefulness. In addition to SDIO brilliant pebble spacecraft, comparably small spacecraft can be anticipated for other future strategic defense applications such as surveillance and communication. For such spacecraft, high capability and reliability, minimal detectability and low cost are requirements. All these miniature spacecraft share a common characteristic: because of their on-board electronic equipment they have, by design, solar order 50-100 W. In a relative sense, such spacecraft are power rich when compared to other larger spacecraft. This power rich situation is offset by very tight mass budgets, which make reductions in propellant mass requirements a key issue in meeting overall spacecraft minimum mass goals. In principle, power rich and propellant poor brilliant pebbles class spacecraft can benefit from using high specific impulse electric propulsion to reduce chemical propellant mass requirements. However, at power levels of order 50 W, arcjets cannot be made to function, ion thrusters are too complex and heavy and resistojets have too low a specific impulse. Recognizing these capability limitations in existing electric propulsion technology, the SDIO/IST sponsored the Phase I SBIR Micro Electric Propulsion (MEP) thruster study described in this report.

  7. NMR Planar Micro coils for micro spectroscopy: Design and characterisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Baxan; A. Rengle; J.-F. Chateaux; A. Briguet; G. Pasquet; P. Morin; L. Fakri-Bouchet

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine the concentration sensitivity and the limit of detection of a SNMR receiver planar micro coil with ellipsoidal geometry 1000times500 mum, fabricated using an electroplating technique and used as SNMR receiver coil at 200 MHz. The maximum signal intensity on the NMR images and simulation of RF field distribution allows defining an active

  8. Low-band-gap, amorphous-silicon-based alloys by chemical vapor deposition: Annual subcontract report, 1 October 1985-31 January 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, B.N.; Jackson, S.C.

    1986-12-01

    This research was conducted to determine the potential of photochemical vapor deposition (photo-CVD) for producing high-quality, low-band-gap amorphous silicon germanium alloys for use in high-efficiency, multijunction, thin-film photovoltaic solar cells. A photo-CVD reactor for mercury-sensitized photolysis of silane-germane and disilane-germane mixtures was developed. Alloy thin films of undoped a-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/:H were deposited using mercury vapor mixed with SiH/sub 4/ or Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/, GeH/sub 4/, and diluent gas of Ar, He, or H/sub 2/. Materials properties were characterized by measurements of Ge content, optical transmission and reflection, and dark and photo-conductivity. Opto-electronic properties of photo-CVD a-Si/sub 1-x/Ge/sub x/:H were found to be comparable to glow discharge and sputtered materials. Moreover, p-i-n solar cells with low-band-gap i-layers were able to be fabricated by photo-CVD.

  9. Real Time Monitoring of Temperature of a Micro Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Hu, Yuh-Chung; Shih, Wen-Pin; Fan, Wei-Yuan; Chuang, Chih-Wei

    2009-01-01

    Silicon micro-hole arrays (Si-MHA) were fabricated as a gas diffusion layer (GDL) in a micro fuel cell using the micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) fabrication technique. The resistance temperature detector (RTD) sensor was integrated with the GDL on a bipolar plate to measure the temperature inside the fuel cell. Experimental results demonstrate that temperature was generally linearly related to resistance and that accuracy and sensitivity were within 0.5 °C and 1.68×10?3/°C, respectively. The best experimental performance was 9.37 mW/cm2 at an H2/O2 dry gas flow rate of 30/30 SCCM. Fuel cell temperature during operation was 27 °C, as measured using thermocouples in contact with the backside of the electrode. Fuel cell operating temperature measured in situ was 30.5 °C. PMID:22573963

  10. Numerical simulation of electrokinetically driven micro flows 

    E-print Network

    Hahm, Jungyoon

    2005-11-01

    Spectral element based numerical solvers are developed to simulate electrokinetically driven flows for micro-fluidic applications. Based on these numerical solvers, basic phenomena and devices for electrokinetic applications in micro and nano flows...

  11. Parallel Coupled Micro-Macro Actuators

    E-print Network

    Morrell, John Bryant

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a new actuator system consisting of a micro-actuator and a macro-actuator coupled in parallel via a compliant transmission. The system is called the Parallel Coupled Micro-Macro Actuator, or PaCMMA. ...

  12. Numerical simulation of electrokinetically driven micro flows

    E-print Network

    Hahm, Jungyoon

    2005-11-01

    Spectral element based numerical solvers are developed to simulate electrokinetically driven flows for micro-fluidic applications. Based on these numerical solvers, basic phenomena and devices for electrokinetic applications in micro and nano flows...

  13. REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    E-print Network

    Berning, Torsten

    anode compartment and the possibility to use high quality heat for cogeneration. In this work, different-processing technologies. The SOFC based micro-CHP unit will replace the gas heating boiler and will provide heat and hot water as usual and additionally will provides the majority of the home's electricity needs. In figure 1

  14. Micro-hollow cathode discharge arrays: high pressure, nonthermal plasma sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Schoenbach; Karl H

    1999-01-01

    Microhollow cathode discharges are gas discharges between a hollow cathode and a planar or hollow anode with electrode dimensions in the 100 mm range. The characteristics of the microhollow cathode discharges allow their utilization in flat panel excimer (UV and VUV) lamps, as micro for gaseous emission treatment, and as broad area electron and ion sources. The electrical and optical

  15. A ballistic study of micro-particle penetration to the oral mucosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J Mitchell; Mark AF Kendall; Brian J Bellhouse

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an investigation into the impact of model micro-particles to ex vivo buccal mucosa (the cheek) of pigs and beagle dogs. The work is aimed at optimizing a unique form of pharmaceutical delivery. The pharmaceutical is formulated into particle form and accelerated toward the target of skin or mucosa by using a gas jet. In

  16. Micro-reactors for characterization of nanostructure-based sensors.

    PubMed

    Savu, R; Silveira, J V; Flacker, A; Vaz, A R; Joanni, E; Pinto, A C; Gobbi, A L; Santos, T E A; Rotondaro, A L P; Moshkalev, S A

    2012-05-01

    Fabrication and testing of micro-reactors for the characterization of nanosensors is presented in this work. The reactors have a small volume (100 ?l) and are equipped with gas input/output channels. They were machined from a single piece of kovar in order to avoid leaks in the system due to additional welding. The contact pins were electrically insulated from the body of the reactor using a borosilicate sealing glass and the reactor was hermetically sealed using a lid and an elastomeric o-ring. One of the advantages of the reactor lies in its simple assembly and ease of use with any vacuum/gas system, allowing the connection of more than one device. Moreover, the lid can be modified in order to fit a window for in situ optical characterization. In order to prove its versatility, carbon nanotube-based sensors were tested using this micro-reactor. The devices were fabricated by depositing carbon nanotubes over 1 ?m thick gold electrodes patterned onto Si/SiO(2) substrates. The sensors were tested using oxygen and nitrogen atmospheres, in the pressure range between 10(-5) and 10(-1) mbar. The small chamber volume allowed the measurement of fast sensor characteristic times, with the sensors showing good sensitivity towards gas and pressure as well as high reproducibility. PMID:22667654

  17. Microfabricated thermal conductivity detector for the micro-ChemLab.

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jane P. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Cruz, Dolores Y. (University of California, Los Angeles, CA); Blain, Matthew Glenn; Manginell, Ronald Paul; Showalter, Steven Kedrick; Gelbard, Fred

    2005-08-01

    This work describes the design, computational prototyping, fabrication, and characterization of a microfabricated thermal conductivity detector ({mu}TCD) to analyze the effluent from a micro-gas chromatograph column ({mu}GC) and to complement the detection efficacy of a surface acoustic wave detector in the micro-ChemLab{trademark} system. To maximize the detection sensitivity, we designed a four-filament Wheatstone bridge circuit where the resistors are suspended by a thin silicon nitride membrane in pyramidal or trapezoidal shaped flow cells. The geometry optimization was carried out by simulation of the heat transfer in the devices, utilizing a boundary element algorithm. Within microfabrication constraints, we determined and fabricated nine sensitivity-optimized geometries of the {mu}TCD. The nine optimal geometries were tested with two different flow patterns. We demonstrated that the perpendicular flow, where the gas directly impinged upon the membrane, yielded a sensitivity that is three times greater than the parallel flow, where the gas passed over the membrane. The functionality of the {mu}TCD was validated with the theoretical prediction and showed a consistent linear response to effluent concentrations, with a detection sensitivity of 1 ppm, utilizing less than 1 W of power.

  18. Seed microRNA Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulatory molecules that play critical roles in gene expression. The biological functions of miRNAs are important for developmental processes in plants and animals. Little is known about the functions of miRNAs in seeds. To gain a better understand-ing of the regulation o...

  19. DIELECTROPHORESIS BASED MICRO FLOW CYTOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Vykoukal, Jody; Schwartz, Jon A.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.; Yu, Choongho; Shi, Li

    2010-01-01

    We report a simplified flow cytometer design that makes use of negative dielectrophoresis (DEP) for particle focusing and integrated optical and AC impedance detectors to enable an inexpensive, compact and robust system for cell and particle characterization. This straightforward, modular design could be applied as a standalone instrument or as a particle detector in an integrated micro total analysis system. PMID:23989303

  20. Micro-Encapsulation of Probiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiners, Jean-Antoine

    Micro-encapsulation is defined as the technology for packaging with the help of protective membranes particles of finely ground solids, droplets of liquids or gaseous materials in small capsules that release their contents at controlled rates over prolonged periods of time under the influences of specific conditions (Boh, 2007). The material encapsulating the core is referred to as coating or shell.

  1. EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems EE 337 Engineering micro and nano-systems A.F.J. Levi as an introduction to micro and nano-technology, methods to control and exploit the new degrees of freedom delivered by nano-science, and the integration of micro and nano-technology into systems. It is a hands

  2. Micro machining glass with polycrystalline diamond tools shaped by micro electro discharge machining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris J. Morgan; R. Ryan Vallance; Eric R. Marsh

    2004-01-01

    Brittle materials are difficult to mechanically micro machine due to damage resulting from material removal by brittle fracture, cutting force-induced tool deflection or breakage and tool wear. This paper demonstrates the feasibility of micro machining glass materials with polycrystalline diamond (PCD) micro tools that are prepared in a variety of shapes using non-contact micro electro discharge machining. The PCD tools

  3. ENERGY USE IN MICRO-IRRIGATION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micro-irrigation systems can operate with low pressure. Micro-irrigation emitters require only 7 - 20 psi. Cleaning and delivering the water to the emitters on flat fields typically requires an additional 15 psi. A survey of 312 California micro-irrigation systems showed that 60% of the systems e...

  4. Application of Micro Discharge for Air Purification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Shimizu; Takeki Sugiyama; Manisha Nishamani L. S; Masaki Kanamori

    2007-01-01

    Micro discharge is investigated which is occurred with a pair of electrodes covered with dielectric barrier. The discharge gap is set at an order of micro meters by changing a spacer from 0 to 100mum. Paschen's law states the minimum sparking voltage of various gases for respective discharge gaps in atmospheric pressure. In this paper, characteristics of micro discharges, such

  5. Micro Channel/Multibus-II Interface Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Heise, Nyles N.; Thornton, David N.

    1991-01-01

    Micro Channel/Multibus-II interface circuit provides electrical interconnections enabling communications between Micro Channels of IBM Personal System/2 computers and IEEE 1296 standard Multibus-II parallel system bus (iPSB). Made mostly of commercially available parts, interface enables independent Micro Channels to communicate over iPSB without modification.

  6. MEMS compatible illumination and imaging micro-optical systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bräuer; P. Dannberg; J. Duparré; B. Höfer; P. Schreiber; M. Scholles

    2007-01-01

    The development of new MOEMS demands for cooperation between researchers in micromechanics, optoelectronics and microoptics at a very early state. Additionally, microoptical technologies being compatible with structured silicon have to be developed. The microoptical technologies used for two silicon based microsystems are described in the paper. First, a very small scanning laser projector with a volume of less than 2

  7. Micro-actuators and flexure springs for micro-scanning tunneling microscope arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Xu

    2000-01-01

    Two versions of Micro-Scanning Tunneling Microscopes (Micro-STMs) have been fabricated. The Micro-STMs are fabricated from Single Crystal Silicon (SCS) using the high-aspect-ratio SCREAM process, integrated with high aspect ratio Single Crystal Silicon (SCS) tips. Each Micro-STM includes a SCS tip integrated with a cantilever, a torsion z actuator, and a XY comb drive actuators. One Micro-STM measures approximately 200 mum

  8. Fabrication of a lotus-like micro nanoscale binary structured surface and wettability modulation from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xufeng Wu; Gaoquan Shi

    2005-01-01

    We report a simple method for fabricating a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface of copper phosphate dihydrate. The copper phosphate dihydrate nanosheets were generated by galvanic cell corrosion of a copper foil with aqueous phosphorus acid solution drops and dried in an oxygen gas atmosphere, and they self-organized into a film with a lotus-like micro-nanoscale binary structured surface. The wettability

  9. Micro-hole and strip plate-based photosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, E. D. C.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Amaro, F. D.; Requicha Ferreira, L. F.; Maia, J. M.; dos Santos, J. M. F.

    2007-09-01

    The performance of a new VUV photosensor, based on an micro-hole and strip plate (MHSP) electron multiplier with a CsI photocathode deposited on its top electrode, is described. This photosensor presents gains above 10 4 when operating in an Ar-5%Xe gas mixture at 1 atm. Although the gain of a single MHSP is not sufficient for efficient detection of single photons, this simple UV photosensor may be useful for the detection of higher light levels, such as primary- and secondary scintillation in noble gases.

  10. Electromagnetic Micro Actuator using Micro Coils for Hard Disk Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naniwa, Irizo; Nakamura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazutaka; Arisaka, Toshihiro

    The dual-stage positioning system technology for hard disk drives is one of the most important technologies for the fast and precise positioning of the magnetic head and the wide servo bandwidth. This paper describes a prototype of the electromagnetic micro actuator for dual-stage positioning. It is composed of a movable part with a yoke supported by the cross-shaped spring and the four micro coils. The driving force of this actuator is the electromagnetic force generated by those coils. The displacement was 3.2 ?m at the frequency of 2 kHz with the applied voltage of 2.1 V. The linearity between the coil current and the displacement was fairly good by the differential current driving method. The first and second resonant frequency were 580 Hz and 20 kHz respectively.

  11. Modeling Micro-Damage Healing Mechanism at Micro-Scale

    E-print Network

    Arastoo, Mahsa

    2013-08-06

    Page Figure 1: Stress-strain hysteresis loops and typical trend of strain-controlled fatigue tests (Kim, 2003). ............................................................................................... 5 Figure 2: Normalized dynamic modulus... to capture the micro damage healing. As it is expected, an increase in dynamic modulus is achieved after each rest period which is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2: Normalized dynamic modulus versus number of loading cycles with and without rest periods...

  12. Corrosion Issues for Ceramics in Gas Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Fox, Dennis S.; Smialek, James L.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Tortorelli, Peter F.; More, Karren L.; Nickel, Klaus G.; Hirata, Takehiko; Yoshida, Makoto; Yuri, Isao

    2000-01-01

    The requirements for hot-gas-path materials in gas turbine engines are demanding. These materials must maintain high strength and creep resistance in a particularly aggressive environment. A typical gas turbine environment involves high temperatures, rapid gas flow rates, high pressures, and a complex mixture of aggressive gases. Figure 26.1 illustrates the requirements for components of an aircraft engine and critical issues [1]. Currently, heat engines are constructed of metal alloys, which meet these requirements within strict temperature limits. In order to extend these temperature limits, ceramic materials have been considered as potential engine materials, due to their high melting points and stability at high temperatures. These materials include oxides, carbides, borides, and nitrides. Interest in using these materials in engines appears to have begun in the 1940s with BeO-based porcelains [2]. During the 1950s, the efforts shifted to cermets. These were carbide-based materials intended to exploit the best properties of metals and ceramics. During the 1960s and 1970s, the silicon-based ceramics silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) were extensively developed. Although the desirable high-temperature properties of SiC and Si3N4 had long been known, consolidation of powders into component-sized bodies required the development of a series of specialized processing routes [3]. For SiC, the major consolidation routes are reaction bonding, hot-pressing, and sintering. The use of boron and carbon as additives which enable sintering was a particularly noteworthy advance [4]. For Si3N4 the major consolidation routes are reaction bonding and hot pressing [5]. Reaction-bonding involves nitridation of silicon powder. Hot pressing involves addition of various refractory oxides, such as magnesia (MgO), alumina (Al2O3), and yttria (y2O3). Variations on these processes include a number of routes including Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP), gas-pressure sintering, sinter-HIPing, and Encapsulation-HIPing. It is important to note that each process involves the addition of secondary elements, which later were shown to dramatically influence oxidation and corrosion behavior. As dense bodies of silicon-based ceramics became more readily available, their desirable high temperature properties were confirmed. These materials retained strength to very high temperatures (i.e. 1300-1400 C). Further, they were lightweight and made from abundant materials. SiC and Si3N4 therefore emerged as leading ceramic candidates for components in heat engines, designed to operate at higher temperatures for better performance and fuel efficiency. The first US programs for ceramics in heat engines have been reviewed [6]. Selected programs on ceramic engine parts are summarized here in regard to their contributions to understanding the corrosion behavior of a heat engine environment.

  13. Micro-Tubular Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Michael C.; Anderson, Everett B.; Jayne, Karen D.; Woodman, Alan S.

    2004-01-01

    Micro-tubular fuel cells that would operate at power levels on the order of hundreds of watts or less are under development as alternatives to batteries in numerous products - portable power tools, cellular telephones, laptop computers, portable television receivers, and small robotic vehicles, to name a few examples. Micro-tubular fuel cells exploit advances in the art of proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells. The main advantage of the micro-tubular fuel cells over the plate-and-frame fuel cells would be higher power densities: Whereas the mass and volume power densities of low-pressure hydrogen-and-oxygen-fuel plate-and-frame fuel cells designed to operate in the targeted power range are typically less than 0.1 W/g and 0.1 kW/L, micro-tubular fuel cells are expected to reach power densities much greater than 1 W/g and 1 kW/L. Because of their higher power densities, micro-tubular fuel cells would be better for powering portable equipment, and would be better suited to applications in which there are requirements for modularity to simplify maintenance or to facilitate scaling to higher power levels. The development of PEMFCs has conventionally focused on producing large stacks of cells that operate at typical power levels >5 kW. The usual approach taken to developing lower-power PEMFCs for applications like those listed above has been to simply shrink the basic plate-and-frame configuration to smaller dimensions. A conventional plate-and-frame fuel cell contains a membrane/electrode assembly in the form of a flat membrane with electrodes of the same active area bonded to both faces. In order to provide reactants to both electrodes, bipolar plates that contain flow passages are placed on both electrodes. The mass and volume overhead of the bipolar plates amounts to about 75 percent of the total mass and volume of a fuel-cell stack. Removing these bipolar plates in the micro-tubular fuel cell significantly increases the power density.

  14. Active microuidic mixer and gas bubble lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$

    E-print Network

    Lin, Liwei

    Active micro¯uidic mixer and gas bubble ®lter driven by thermal bubble micropump$ Jr-Hung Tsaia-diffuser micropump is successfully demonstrated. The oscillatory ¯ow generated by the micropump can induce wavy B.V. Keywords: Micropump; Bubble; Micro¯uidics; Mixing; Filter 1. Introduction Liquid mixing

  15. Micro-optofluidic Lenses: A review

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2010-01-01

    This review presents a systematic perspective on the development of micro-optofluidic lenses. The progress on the development of micro-optofluidic lenses are illustrated by example from recent literature. The advantage of micro-optofluidic lenses over solid lens systems is their tunability without the use of large actuators such as servo motors. Depending on the relative orientation of light path and the substrate surface, micro-optofluidic lenses can be categorized as in-plane or out-of-plane lenses. However, this review will focus on the tunability of the lenses and categorizes them according to the concept of tunability. Micro-optofluidic lenses can be either tuned by the liquid in use or by the shape of the lens. Micro-optofluidic lenses with tunable shape are categorized according to the actuation schemes. Typical parameters of micro-optofluidic lenses reported recently are compared and discussed. Finally, perspectives are given for future works in this field. PMID:20714369

  16. Gas vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Walsby, A E

    1994-01-01

    The gas vesicle is a hollow structure made of protein. It usually has the form of a cylindrical tube closed by conical end caps. Gas vesicles occur in five phyla of the Bacteria and two groups of the Archaea, but they are mostly restricted to planktonic microorganisms, in which they provide buoyancy. By regulating their relative gas vesicle content aquatic microbes are able to perform vertical migrations. In slowly growing organisms such movements are made more efficiently than by swimming with flagella. The gas vesicle is impermeable to liquid water, but it is highly permeable to gases and is normally filled with air. It is a rigid structure of low compressibility, but it collapses flat under a certain critical pressure and buoyancy is then lost. Gas vesicles in different organisms vary in width, from 45 to > 200 nm; in accordance with engineering principles the narrower ones are stronger (have higher critical pressures) than wide ones, but they contain less gas space per wall volume and are therefore less efficient at providing buoyancy. A survey of gas-vacuolate cyanobacteria reveals that there has been natural selection for gas vesicles of the maximum width permitted by the pressure encountered in the natural environment, which is mainly determined by cell turgor pressure and water depth. Gas vesicle width is genetically determined, perhaps through the amino acid sequence of one of the constituent proteins. Up to 14 genes have been implicated in gas vesicle production, but so far the products of only two have been shown to be present in the gas vesicle: GvpA makes the ribs that form the structure, and GvpC binds to the outside of the ribs and stiffens the structure against collapse. The evolution of the gas vesicle is discussed in relation to the homologies of these proteins. Images PMID:8177173

  17. Micro/Nano Processing Technology

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ruff, Susan

    This course introduces the theory and technology of micro/nano fabrication. Lectures and laboratory sessions focus on basic processing techniques such as diffusion, oxidation, photolithography, chemical vapor deposition, and more. Through team lab assignments, students are expected to gain an understanding of these processing techniques, and how they are applied in concert to device fabrication. Students enrolled in this course have a unique opportunity to fashion and test micro/nano-devices, using modern techniques and technology.This course features detailed lecture slides in the lecture notes section, along with other lab materials used by students in the course in the labs section. In addition, problem sets with solutions are also provided in the assignments section.

  18. Impact micro-positioning actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuerden, Brian (Inventor); Angel, J. Roger P. (Inventor); Burge, James H. (Inventor); DeRigne, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An impact micro-positioning actuator. In one aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the nut is impacted by an impacting device, causing the nut first to rotate relative to the shaft by slipping as a result of shaft inertia and subsequently to stick to the shaft as a result of the frictional force therebetween. The nut is returned to its initial position by a return force provided by a return mechanism after impact. The micro-positioning actuator is further improved by controlling at least one and preferably all of the following: the friction, the impact provided by the impacting device, the return force provided by the return mechanism, and the inertia of the shaft. In another aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the shaft is impacted by an impacting device, causing the shaft to rotate relative to the nut.

  19. Micro Oscillation Monitored by Entanglement

    E-print Network

    Wong, Werner

    2012-01-01

    The entanglement of two two-level atoms coupling a single-mode polarized cavity field is studied, taken the oscillations of centers of atoms mass into accounted, in which the system has two different initial states. The factor of oscillation of center of mass is proposed to modify the entanglement of the two atoms states. When the micro oscillations frequencies of the centers of mass are very low, the factors depend on the relative oscillation displacements and the initial phases, rather than the absolute amplitudes and reduce the entanglement to three orders of magnitude. The fact that the entanglement increases with the increase of the initial phases suggests that micro oscillation can be monitored by entanglement. A possible scheme for gravitational wave detection based on the oscillation effect is discussed.

  20. A double-sided silicon micro-strip Super-Module for the ATLAS Inner Detector upgrade in the High-Luminosity LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Affolder, A. A.; Allport, P. P.; Anghinolfi, F.; Barbier, G.; Bates, R.; Beck, G.; Benitez, V.; Bernabeu, J.; Blanchot, G.; Bloch, I.; Blue, A.; Booker, P.; Brenner, R.; Buttar, C.; Cadoux, F.; Casse, G.; Carroll, J.; Church, I.; Civera, J. V.; Clark, A.; Dervan, P.; Díez, S.; Endo, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Farthouat, P.; Favre, Y.; Ferrere, D.; Friedrich, C.; French, R.; Gallop, B.; García, C.; Gibson, M.; Greenall, A.; Gregor, I.; Grillo, A.; Haber, C. H.; Hanagaki, K.; Hara, K.; Hauser, M.; Haywood, S.; Hessey, N.; Hill, J.; Hommels, L. B. A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ikegami, Y.; Jones, T.; Kaplon, J.; Kuehn, S.; Lacasta, C.; La Marra, D.; Lynn, D.; Mahboubin, K.; Marco, R.; Martí-García, S.; Martínez-McKinney, F.; Matheson, J.; McMahon, S.; Nelson, D.; Newcomer, F. M.; Parzefall, U.; Phillips, P. W.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Santoyo, D.; Seiden, A.; Soldevila, U.; Spencer, E.; Stanitzki, M.; Sutcliffe, P.; Takubo, Y.; Terada, S.; Tipton, P.; Tsurin, I.; Ullán, M.; Unno, Y.; Villani, E. G.; Warren, M.; Weber, M.; Wilmut, I.; Wonsak, S.; Witharm, R.; Wormald, M.

    2014-02-01

    The ATLAS experiment is a general purpose detector aiming to fully exploit the discovery potential of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It is foreseen that after several years of successful data-taking, the LHC physics programme will be extended in the so-called High-Luminosity LHC, where the instantaneous luminosity will be increased up to 5 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. For ATLAS, an upgrade scenario will imply the complete replacement of its internal tracker, as the existing detector will not provide the required performance due to the cumulated radiation damage and the increase in the detector occupancy. The current baseline layout for the new ATLAS tracker is an all-silicon-based detector, with pixel sensors in the inner layers and silicon micro-strip detectors at intermediate and outer radii. The super-module is an integration concept proposed for the strip region of the future ATLAS tracker, where double-sided stereo silicon micro-strip modules are assembled into a low-mass local support structure. An electrical super-module prototype for eight double-sided strip modules has been constructed. The aim is to exercise the multi-module readout chain and to investigate the noise performance of such a system. In this paper, the main components of the current super-module prototype are described and its electrical performance is presented in detail.

  1. Principles of laser micro sintering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Regenfuss; A. Streek; L. Hartwig; S. Klötzer; Th. Brabant; M. Horn; R. Ebert; H. Exner

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is the elucidation of certain mechanisms of laser material processing in general and laser micro sintering in particular. One major intention is to emphasize the synergism of the various effects of q-switched laser pulses upon metal and ceramic powder material and to point out the non-equilibrium character of reaction steps. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Recent

  2. Using micro to manipulate nano.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiangyu; Wu, Yuchen; Su, Bin; Xie, Renguo; Yang, Wensheng; Jiang, Lei

    2014-01-29

    A "Micro to nano" dewetting strategy is presented to generate multi-direction-controlled, precise-positioning 1D assemblies of conductive silver (Ag) NPs based on a superhydrophobicity-directed assembly strategy. Electrons can transport along linear NP assemblies and their behavior is sustained by coating a coaxial protecting layer outside the nanostructures. This new concept might open new routes for NP-based nanoelectronic circuit fabrication. PMID:23922285

  3. The Micro and Macro Worlds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This lesson, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, covers the general concepts of size and scale by discussing the micro and macro worlds. The activity focuses on using scale bars as this is "the most common feature when presenting nanoscale structures or naonoscale science." Students will also learn about different scales of measure which is fundamental to learning about nanotechnology. A Teacher Preparation Guide and PowerPoint slides are included.

  4. Micro-Kelvin cold molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Strecker, Kevin E.; Chandler, David W.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a novel experimental technique for direct production of cold molecules using a combination of techniques from atomic optical and molecular physics and physical chemistry. The ability to produce samples of cold molecules has application in a broad spectrum of technical fields high-resolution spectroscopy, remote sensing, quantum computing, materials simulation, and understanding fundamental chemical dynamics. Researchers around the world are currently exploring many techniques for producing samples of cold molecules, but to-date these attempts have offered only limited success achieving milli-Kelvin temperatures with low densities. This Laboratory Directed Research and Development project is to develops a new experimental technique for producing micro-Kelvin temperature molecules via collisions with laser cooled samples of trapped atoms. The technique relies on near mass degenerate collisions between the molecule of interest and a laser cooled (micro-Kelvin) atom. A subset of collisions will transfer all (nearly all) of the kinetic energy from the 'hot' molecule, cooling the molecule at the expense of heating the atom. Further collisions with the remaining laser cooled atoms will thermally equilibrate the molecules to the micro-Kelvin temperature of the laser-cooled atoms.

  5. Regulation of Cardiac microRNAs by Cardiac microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Matkovich, Scot J.; Hu, Yuanxin; Dorn, Gerald W.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale MicroRNAs modestly suppress their direct mRNA targets and these direct effects are amplified by modulation of gene transcription pathways. Consequently, indirect mRNA modulatory effects of microRNAs to increase or decrease mRNAs greatly outnumber direct target suppressions. Because microRNAs are products of transcription, the potential exists for microRNAs that regulate transcription to regulate other microRNAs. Objective Determine if cardiac-expressed microRNAs regulate expression of other cardiac microRNAs, and measure the impact of microRNA-mediated microRNA regulation on indirect regulation of non-target mRNAs. Methods and Results Transgenic expression of pre-microRNAs was used to generate mouse hearts expressing 6-16 fold normal levels of miR-143, miR-378, and miR-499. Genome-wide mRNA and microRNA signatures were established using deep sequencing; expression profiles provoked by each microRNA were defined. miR-143 suppressed its direct cardiac mRNA target hexokinase 2, but exhibited little indirect target regulation and did not regulate other cardiac microRNAs. Both miR-378 and miR-499 indirectly regulated hundreds of cardiac mRNAs and 15-30 cardiac microRNAs. MicroRNA overexpression did not alter normal processing of either transgenic or endogenous cardiac microRNAs, and microRNA-mediated regulation of other microRNAs encoded within parent genes occurred in tandem with parent mRNAs. MicroRNA regulation by miR-378 and miR-499 was stimulus-specific, and contributed to observed mRNA downregulation. Conclusions MicroRNAs that modulate cardiac transcription can indirectly regulate other microRNAs. Transcriptional modulation by microRNAs, and microRNA-mediated microRNA regulation, help explain how small direct effects of microRNAs are amplified to generate striking phenotypes. PMID:23625950

  6. Application of Flexible Micro Temperature Sensor in Oxidative Steam Reforming by a Methanol Micro Reformer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Lee, Shuo-Jen; Shen, Chia-Chieh; Yeh, Chuin-Tih; Chang, Chi-Chung; Lo, Yi-Man

    2011-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell applications reflect the ability of reformers to produce hydrogen. This work presents a flexible micro temperature sensor that is fabricated based on micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology and integrated into a flat micro methanol reformer to observe the conditions inside that reformer. The micro temperature sensor has higher accuracy and sensitivity than a conventionally adopted thermocouple. Despite various micro temperature sensor applications, integrated micro reformers are still relatively new. This work proposes a novel method for integrating micro methanol reformers and micro temperature sensors, subsequently increasing the methanol conversion rate and the hydrogen production rate by varying the fuel supply rate and the water/methanol ratio. Importantly, the proposed micro temperature sensor adequately controls the interior temperature during oxidative steam reforming of methanol (OSRM), with the relevant parameters optimized as well. PMID:22319407

  7. Temperature Modulation of a Catalytic Gas Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Brauns, Eike; Morsbach, Eva; Kunz, Sebastian; Baeumer, Marcus; Lang, Walter

    2014-01-01

    The use of catalytic gas sensors usually offers low selectivity, only based on their different sensitivities for various gases due to their different heats of reaction. Furthermore, the identification of the gas present is not possible, which leads to possible misinterpretation of the sensor signals. The use of micro-machined catalytic gas sensors offers great advantages regarding the response time, which allows advanced analysis of the sensor response. By using temperature modulation, additional information about the gas characteristics can be measured and drift effects caused by material shifting or environmental temperature changes can be avoided. In this work a miniaturized catalytic gas sensor which offers a very short response time (<150 ms) was developed. Operation with modulated temperature allows analysis of the signal spectrum with advanced information content, based on the Arrhenius approach. Therefore, a high-precise electronic device was developed, since theory shows that harmonics induced by the electronics must be avoided to generate a comprehensible signal. PMID:25356643

  8. Sonoluminescence, shock waves, and micro-thermonuclear fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.C.; Clarke, D.B.; White, J.W.; Young, D.A.

    1995-08-01

    We have performed numerical hydrodynamic simulations of the growth and collapse of a sonoluminescing bubble in a liquid. Our calculations show that spherically converging shock waves are generated during the collapse of the bubble. The combination of the shock waves and a realistic equation of state for the gas in the bubble provides an explanation for the measured picosecond optical pulse widths and indicates that the temperatures near the center of the bubble may exceed 3O eV. This leads naturally to speculation about obtaining micro-thermonuclear fusion in a bubble filled with deuterium (D{sub 2}) gas. Consequently, we performed numerical simulations of the collapse of a D{sub 2} bubble in D{sub 2}0. A pressure spike added to the periodic driving amplitude creates temperatures that may be sufficient to generate a very small, but measurable number of thermonuclear D-D fusion reactions in the bubble.

  9. Micro-cogen AMTEC systems for residential and transportation opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Mital, R.; Rasmussen, J.R.; Hunt, T.; Sievers, R.K.

    1998-07-01

    This paper describes the design and anticipated performance of high efficiency AMTEC systems suitable for natural gas fired micro-cogeneration for residential and transportation applications. AMTEC systems have a relatively flat efficiency curve from a few tens of watts to several kilowatts. This unique quality of AMTEC makes it well suited for micro-cogen as opposed to other technologies, such as internal combustion (IC) engines, which lose efficiency at low power levels. AMTEC also offers additional advantages of high efficiency, high reliability, low noise and low emissions. Combustion heated AMTEC cogeneration systems can also be used in trucks and trailers to keep the diesel engines and cabs warm, provide electrical power for charging the battery and maintain power to the electrical systems during stand down periods. A market study indicates that residential micro-cogen units should have a design generating capacity between 0.5--2 kW. AMTEC systems producing 500 W net electric power have been designed and are presently being built. A 350 W prototype unit is being manufactured for a European firm as a trial unit for central heat and power from a home furnace. Modular one kilowatt units are also being designed that will allow combination into multi-kilowatt systems. The results of feasibility studies focused on price/Watt, efficiency, noise, emission, vibrations, expected lifetime and maintenance cost are also presented in this paper.

  10. A multiscale method for modeling high-aspect-ratio micro/nano flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockerby, Duncan; Borg, Matthew; Reese, Jason

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present a new multiscale scheme for simulating micro/nano flows of high aspect ratio in the flow direction, e.g. within long ducts, tubes, or channels, of varying section. The scheme consists of applying a simple hydrodynamic description over the entire domain, and allocating micro sub-domains in very small ``slices'' of the channel. Every micro element is a molecular dynamics simulation (or other appropriate model, e.g., a direct simulation Monte Carlo method for micro-channel gas flows) over the local height of the channel/tube. The number of micro elements as well as their streamwise position is chosen to resolve the geometrical features of the macro channel. While there is no direct communication between individual micro elements, coupling occurs via an iterative imposition of mass and momentum-flux conservation on the macro scale. The greater the streamwise scale of the geometry, the more significant is the computational speed-up when compared to a full MD simulation. We test our new multiscale method on the case of a converging/diverging nanochannel conveying a simple Lennard-Jones liquid. We validate the results from our simulations by comparing them to a full MD simulation of the same test case. Supported by EPSRC Programme Grant, EP/I011927/1.

  11. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1997-01-15

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 {micro}m) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In this investigation a hybrid process--Micro-agglomerate flotation--which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation was studied. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles and to use froth flotation to separate these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units will be relatively large agglomerates (30--50 {micro}m in size) rather than fine coal particles (1--10 {micro}m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is demonstrated in this study that the process is very sensitive to fluctuations in operating parameters. It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases as well as the agitation conditions in order to promote selectivity. Both kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors play a critical role in determining overall system response.

  12. Gas lasers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Bloom

    1966-01-01

    A review is given of the present status of gas discharge lasers, with particular attention to developments reported in 1965 and early 1966. Following a brief history, gas lasers are classified by types--neutral atom, ion, and molecular--and a comparison is given of the properties of the various types. A short discussion is given of noise and coherence properties. Detailed descriptions

  13. Create Gas

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-03-22

    Learners mix vinegar and baking soda together in a bottle to create a chemical reaction. The reaction produces a gas, carbon dioxide, which inflates a balloon attached to the mouth of the bottle. This helps learners "see" the gas, which is otherwise invisible.

  14. Radiation detectors and sources enhanced with micro/nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, Chad Michael

    The ongoing threat of nuclear terrorism presents major challenges to maintaining national security. Currently, only a small percentage of the cargo containers that enter America are searched for fissionable bomb making materials. This work reports on a multi-channel radiation detection platform enabled with nanoparticles that is capable of detecting and discriminating all types of radiation emitted from fissionable bomb making materials. Typical Geiger counters are limited to detecting only beta and gamma radiation. The micro-Geiger counter reported here detects all species of radiation including beta particles, gamma/X-rays, alpha particles, and neutrons. The multi-species detecting micro-Geiger counter contains a hermetically sealed and electrically biased fill gas. Impinging radiation interacts with tailored nanoparticles to release secondary charged particles that ionize the fill gas. The ionized particles collect on respectively biased electrodes resulting in a characteristic electrical pulse. Pulse height spectroscopy and radiation energy binning techniques can then be used to analyze the pulses to determine the specific radiation isotope. The ideal voltage range of operation for energy discrimination was found to be in the proportional region at 1000VDC. In this region, specific pulse heights for different radiation species resulted. The amplification region strength which determines the device sensitivity to radiation energy can be tuned with the electrode separation distance. Considerable improvements in count rates were achieved by using the charge conversion nanoparticles with the highest cross sections for particular radiation species. The addition of tungsten nanoparticles to the microGeiger counter enabled the device to be four times more efficient at detecting low level beta particles with a dose rate of 3.2uR/hr (micro-Roentgen per hour) and just under three times more efficient than an off the shelf Geiger counter. The addition of lead nanoparticles enabled the gamma/X-ray microGeiger counter channel to be 28 times more efficient at detecting low level gamma rays with a dose rate of 10uR/hr when compared to a device without nanoparticles. The addition of 10B nanoparticles enabled the neutron microGeiger counter channel to be 17 times more efficient at detecting neutrons. The device achieved a neutron count rate of 9,866 counts per minute when compared to a BF3 tube which resulted in a count rate of 9,000 counts per minute. By using a novel micro-injection ceramic molding and low temperature (950°C) silver paste metallizing process, the batch fabrication of essentially disposable micro-devices can be achieved. This novel fabrication technique was then applied to a MEMS neutron gun and water spectroscopy device that also utilizes the high voltage/temperature insulating packaging.

  15. Micro-Electronic Nose System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zee, Frank C.

    2011-12-01

    The ability to "smell" various gas vapors and complex odors is important for many applications such as environmental monitoring for detecting toxic gases as well as quality control in the processing of food, cosmetics, and other chemical products for commercial industries. Mimicking the architecture of the biological nose, a miniature electronic nose system was designed and developed consisting of an array of sensor devices, signal-processing circuits, and software pattern-recognition algorithms. The array of sensors used polymer/carbon-black composite thin-films, which would swell or expand reversibly and reproducibly and cause a resistance change upon exposure to a wide variety of gases. Two types of sensor devices were fabricated using silicon micromachining techniques to form "wells" that confined the polymer/carbon-black to a small and specific area. The first type of sensor device formed the "well" by etching into the silicon substrate using bulk micromachining. The second type built a high-aspect-ratio "well" on the surface of a silicon wafer using SU-8 photoresist. Two sizes of "wells" were fabricated: 500 x 600 mum² and 250 x 250 mum². Custom signal-processing circuits were implemented on a printed circuit board and as an application-specific integrated-circuit (ASIC) chip. The circuits were not only able to measure and amplify the small resistance changes, which corresponded to small ppm (parts-per-million) changes in gas concentrations, but were also adaptable to accommodate the various characteristics of the different thin-films. Since the thin-films were not specific to any one particular gas vapor, an array of sensors each containing a different thin-film was used to produce a distributed response pattern when exposed to a gas vapor. Pattern recognition, including a clustering algorithm and two artificial neural network algorithms, was used to classify the response pattern and identify the gas vapor or odor. Two gas experiments were performed, one at low gas concentrations between 100 and 600 ppm for two gas vapors and the other at high gas concentrations between 2000 ppm and the saturated vapor pressure of three gas vapors. The array of sensors and circuits were able to uniquely detect and measure these gas vapors and showed a linear response to their concentration levels for both experiments. The results also demonstrated that a reduction in the sensor area by two orders of magnitude (from 4.32 mm² to 0.0625 mm²) did not affect the sensor response. By applying pattern-recognition algorithms, the electronic nose system was able to correctly identify the different gas vapors from the pattern responses of the sensor array.

  16. Micro-Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) operation in CF4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natal da Luz, H.; Mir, J. A.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Rhodes, N. J.; Schooneveld, E. M.

    2007-09-01

    The Micro-Hole and Strip Plate (MHSP) is a hybrid electron multiplier which combines the working principles of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) and a Micro-Strip Gas Counter (MSGC). The compact double stage electron multiplication processes found in the MHSP enables the realisation of higher gas gain than the lone GEM operation. Thermal neutron detection using gas detectors involves the use of He3 gas with another suitable stopping gas, operated at elevated pressure to confine the products of the neutron- He3 reaction. It is, however, well known that the gain of GEMs drops too sharply with increasing chamber pressure. We have pursued experimental work using the MHSP to infer the upper limits of thermal neutron position resolution. The stopping gas used during the present studies was Tetrafluoromethane (CF4) chosen due to its low X-ray and ?-ray efficiency, requiring only 2.6 bar to yield a position resolution of 1 mm. In the present studies, systematic measurements were taken to establish the gain versus CF4 pressure characteristics of the MHSP, in the 1 to 2.65 bar range. These studies demonstrated that it was possible to sustain gains above 104 and 300 with pressures of 1 and 2.65 bar, respectively. The advantage of having two multiplication stages in the MHSP separated by only few tens of microns, results in a less pronounced gain reduction with pressure, presenting higher gains than single or multiple GEMs. The energy resolution at 1 bar was 29% FWHM for the 5.9 keV Mn K? line from a Fe55 source, which is a typical value for micro-patterned gas detectors operating in CF4.

  17. Air damping of micro bridge resonator vibrating close to a surface with a moderate distance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Huacheng; Schwarz, Patrick; Feili, Dara; Wu, Xuezhong; Seidel, Helmut

    2015-05-01

    The vibration of micro resonators is strongly influenced by the hydrodynamics of the surrounding fluid in the vicinity of a rigid wall. While most prior efforts to model this hydrodynamic loading have focused on squeeze film damping with very narrow gaps, in many practical applications, the resonators vibrate close to a surface with a moderate distance. Two recently developed models which deal with this problem are reviewed. Experiments by using a micro bridge resonator with a big range of gaps are performed at controlled gas pressures, and are compared with predictions from these theoretical models. The unsteady Navier–Stokes model yields the best agreement with experiments.

  18. Micro-coil detection of nuclear magnetic resonance for nanofluidic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibahara, A.; Casey, A.; Lusher, C. P.; Saunders, J.; Aßmann, C.; Schurig, Th.; Drung, D.

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a novel dc SQUID system with a micro-coil input circuit to act as a local probe of quantum matter and nanosystems. The planar niobium micro-coil pickup loop is located remotely from the SQUID, coupled through a superconducting twisted pair. A high degree of coupling between the coil and the region of interest of similar dimensions (up to ˜ 100 microns) can be achieved. We report nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements to characterise the sensitivity of these coils to 3He in the gas phase at 4.2 K in a 30 mT magnetic field.

  19. Micro-coil detection of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance for nanofluidic samples

    E-print Network

    Shibahara, Aya; Lusher, Chris; Saunders, John; Aßmann, Cornelia; Schurig, Thomas; Drung, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a novel dc SQUID system with a micro-coil input circuit to act as a local probe of quantum matter and nanosystems. The planar niobium micro-coil pickup loop is located remotely from the SQUID, coupled through a superconducting twisted pair, enabling the sample to be at microkelvin temperatures. A high degree of coupling between the coil and the region of interest of similar dimensions (up to ~ 100 microns) can be achieved. We report nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements to characterise the sensitivity of these coils to 3He in the gas phase at 4.2 K in a 30 mT magnetic field.

  20. Experimental study of micro electrical discharge machining discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Braganca, I. M. F.; Rosa, P. A. R.; Martins, P. A. F. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)] [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, F. M.; Alves, L. L. [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)] [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-06-21

    Micro electrical discharge machining ({mu}EDM) is an atmospheric-pressure plasma-assisted technology that uses point-to-plane discharges in liquid dielectrics to remove microscopic quantities of electrically conductive materials. In this work, an innovative {mu}EDM prototype machine was specifically designed and fabricated to produce and control single spark discharges, thus, resolving the typical limitations of (multi-discharge) commercial machines. The work analyses the type of discharge and the micro-plasma electron-density values obtained for 0.5-38 {mu}m gap sizes, 3-10 000 {mu}s pulse durations, 75-250 V low breakdown voltages, and 1-20 A discharge currents, using different combinations of metallic electrodes in oil and in water. Results allow fitting, for micro-scale and low voltages, an empirical law between the maximum gap-size for breakdown, the breakdown voltage, and the effective stress-time. The electron density n{sub e} is obtained by optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of the H{sub {alpha}}-line Stark broadening (yielding n{sub e}{approx}10{sup 16}-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}, i.e., ionization degrees of {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}-10{sup -4}) and by a semi-empirical resistive plasma model. The model uses the experimental values of several electrical and geometrical quantities, and of the gas pressure estimated as {approx}60 bar-2 kbar from measurements of the plasma mechanical action, obtained using a force sensor. The quantitative information of this phenomenological study can assist the optimization of this micro-fabrication technique.