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1

Cyclic undrained behavior of silty sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory cyclic triaxial tests were performed to investigate the effect of fine content on the pore pressure generation in sand. Strain-controlled, consolidated undrained tests have been performed with a cyclic shear strain range of 0·015-1·5%. These tests were carried to 1000 cycles or to initial liquefaction, which ever occurred first. Triaxial tests were performed on pure sand silt specimens and

D. Erten; M. H. Maher

1995-01-01

2

Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Footing Resting on Confined Loose Silty Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study on the influence of cell confinement on the bearing capacity and settlement of circular footing on silty sand was carried out. Laboratory experiments on clean sand and sand containing silt up to 25% were performed. Model cells with different diameters and heights have been used to confine the silty sand. The effect of the cell diameter, cell

Rajeev Gupta; Ashutosh Trivedi

3

Liquefaction Potential Assessment Of Silty And Silty-Sand Deposits: A Case Study  

SciTech Connect

The paper shows a case study concerning the liquefaction potential assessment of deposits which mainly consist of non plastic silts and sands (FC>35 %,I{sub p}<10%, CF negligible). The site under study has been characterized by means of in situ tests (CPTU, SPT and DPSH), boreholes and laboratory tests on undisturbed and remolded samples. More specifically, classification tests, cyclic undrained stress-controlled triaxial tests and resonant column tests have been performed. Liquefaction susceptibility has been evaluated by means of several procedures prescribed by codes or available in technical literature. The evaluation of liquefaction potential has been carried out by means of three different procedure based on in situ and laboratory tests.

Lo Presti, Diego C. F.; Squeglia, Nunziante [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Pisa, via Diotisalvi 2--56126 Pisa (Italy)

2008-07-08

4

Food-chain relationships in subtidal silty sand marine sediments and the role of meiofauna in stimulating bacterial productivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

From bibliographic data the biomass correlations (organic dry weight) are constructed for the subsurface layer of a hypothetical 30 m deep silty sand station: 200 µg\\/ml macrofauna (including 120 µg\\/ml subsurface deposit feeders), 50 µg\\/ml meiofauna, 20 µg\\/ml Foraminifera, 1 µg\\/ml Ciliata and Flagellata, and 100 µg\\/ml bacteria. ATP-biomass is discussed.

Sebastian A. Gerlach

1978-01-01

5

Centrifuge modeling of surface structure on normally consolidated silty sand deposited in layers under water and subjected to seismic excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of strong earthquake shaking on small earth embankments on water saturated loose silty sand deposits---such the existing 5 to 6 meters high dykes along Lake Maracaibo in Venezuela---using centrifuge modeling and simplified but realistic representation of both layered sandy soil and earth structure. The effects studied included the liquefaction of the sandy soil and the permanent settlement of the crest of the dyke due to the earthquake shaking. Fourteen centrifuge tests were conducted with the soils from Lake Maracaibo and a model of foundation on top of the soil. A soil deposit about 9 meters thick was modeled. Parameters studied included shaking acceleration, frequency and duration, sand type, sand fabric, and soil permeability. A curve of vertical displacement of the top of foundation or dyke versus number of cycles of shaking is proposed, which can be used to calibrate computer codes for more general numerical evaluations.

Gutierrez, Aurelio Manuel

1998-09-01

6

Tensile Strength Characteristics of Unsaturated Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile strength characteristics of unsaturated sands are examined through a combined theoretical and experimental study. The characteristics of tensile strength in all three water retention regimes of pendular, funicular, and capillary are examined. A simple direct tensile strength apparatus is employed to determine tensile strength for sands with a broad range of particle sizes from silty sand to fine sand

Ning Lu; Bailin Wu

2007-01-01

7

Atrazine Persistence in a Valentine Loamy Fine Sand Profile.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The persistence data indicate that atrazine dissipation in irrigated Valentine loamy fine sand occurs at a rate greatly exceeding that expected for this soil texture. Atrazine is rapidly degraded in the top 6 inches of soil and mobility data show that the...

R. H. Hammons

1977-01-01

8

Effects of Non-Plastic Silts on Liquefaction Potential of Solani Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loose saturated cohesionless soils are most susceptible to liquefaction, however there are strong historical evidence suggesting\\u000a that soils containing fines such as silty sands are also prone to liquefaction during earthquakes. The liquefaction of silty\\u000a sands has been observed in a number of recent case studies. This paper presents the effects of fine silts on liquefaction\\u000a potential of sandy soil.

B. K. Maheshwari; Akhilesh K. Patel

2010-01-01

9

Nature and fate of oil sands fine tailings  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and physical properties of clay suspensions produced during oil production front oil sands are described. With a composition of approximately 70 wt% water (with some unrecovered bitumen) and 30 wt% solids (>90% less than 44 {mu}m in size), these clay suspensions consolidate very slowly. Clay aggregate or floc morphology has been shown to be a function of the water chemistry and can be manipulated to produce a tailings suspension that is easier to consolidate and dewater. Commercial oil sands processing has been going on in northeastern Alberta since 1967, and in that time approximately 250 million m of this difficult to dewater clay suspension has been produced. The reclamation options for this material (mature fine tailings) on a commercial scale are also outlined. 84 refs., 36 figs., 3 tabs.

Mikula, R.J.; Kasperski, K.L. [Western Research Centre, Devon, Alberta (Canada); Burns, R.D. [Suncor Oil Sands Group, Alberta (Canada); MacKinnon, M.D. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-12-31

10

Impact Craters: Source of Sand-Sized Fines on Venus?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Magellan mission detected the presence of wind streaks and dune fields on Venus (Greeley, et al., 1992, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 13,319). However, these aeolian deposits are not abundant, suggesting that the fine-grained materials of which they are composed do not occur in great quantities on Venus. The source of this material is unclear; weathering in the terrestrial sense does not occur on Venus, so the release of resistant mineral grains by differential weathering is probably unimportant. Impact cratering, which produces large quantities of small (< 1 cm diameter) ejecta particles, may be the dominant source of sand-sized fines on Venus. The volume of such material produced by impact cratering on Venus may be estimated by using the results of fitting a model of the formation of the parabolic deposits that occur around approximately 50 Venusian craters (Vervack and Melosh, 1992, Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 525). The results yield a relation for the mean particle diameter of impact ejecta as a function of the crater rim radius and range from the crater center (Schaller and Melosh, 1994, LPSC XXV, 1199). Integration of this function over (a) range and (b) the total crater distribution on Venus (approximately Ncum = 9.1 x 10(-5) rc({-) 2} for rc > 15 km [Schaber, et al., 1992, J. Geophys. Res. 97, 13,257]), yields a relation for the total volume of ejecta between the size d and sqrt {2}d: V({d,sqrt {2}d}) = 1.7 x 10({) -4} d(0.377) , where d is in cm and V is in km(3) . For particles in the sand-size range (60 to 2000 mu m), we estimate a total volume produced by impact cratering of 3.5 x 10(4) km(3) . The largest observed dune field on Venus, Fortuna-Meshkenet, covers 17,000 km(2) . Assuming the average dune height is 200 m, Fortuna-Meshkenet has a volume of 3.4 x 10(3) km(3) , a factor of 10 smaller. It thus appears that impact cratering may dominate the production of sand-sized material on Venus.

Schaller, C. J.

1996-09-01

11

Assessing the engineering properties of concrete made with fine dune sands: an experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sand dunes cover an area of 16.6% of the total area of Egypt. This paper presents the results of an extensive laboratory testing\\u000a that was carried out to determine the engineering properties of concrete. The concrete fine aggregate is fine dune sands obtained\\u000a from three sites in the Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. All samples were classified as poorly graded

El-Sayed Sedek Abu Seif; Abu Seif

12

Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning. Final report  

SciTech Connect

It is known that ultra-fine coals are prerequisite for the deep cleaning of most US coal seams if environmental pollution arising from the use of such coals is to be minimized. Therefore, the production of finely liberated coal particles in conjunction with reduced heavy metal contaminants at low costs is desirable, if not mandatory. The liberation of intimately disseminated impurities from the coal matrix therefore, demands that the material be ground to a high degree of fineness. Similarily, some technologies for coal utilization require superfine particles (i.e., sizes less than ten microns). This implies additional costs for coal preparation plants due to the high energy and media costs associated with fine grinding operations. Besides, there are problems such as severe product contaminations due to media wear and impairment of the quality of coal. Hence, proper choice of grinding media type is important from the viewpoints of cost reduction and product quality. The use of natural quartz sand as grinding media in the comminution of industrial minerals in stirred ball mills has been indicated. The advantages of natural sand compared to steel media include low specific energy inputs, elimination of heavy metal contaminants and low media costs. In this work, the effect of rotor speed, solids concentration and feed-size are studied on four coals in conjunction with silica sand and steel shot. The results obtained are used to evaluate the suitability of silica sands as an alternative grinding media. for coal. Coal-sand and coal-steel systems are compared in terms of specific energy consumption, product fineness, media/wear contaminationanalysis and calorific values, liberation spectrum and particle shape characteristics. In general cleaner flotation concentrate was obtained from coals when they were ground with sand media. The zeta potential of coals was found to be different and lower when they ground with sand.

Mehta, R.K.; Zhu, Qinsheng

1993-08-01

13

Biwetted ultrafine solids and structure formation in oil sands fine tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high water holding capacity of oil sands fine tailing has been attributed to the presence of ultrafine (<0.2 ?m) clay fractions. On the basis of hydrophobic character two major types of ultrafines are recognized: biwetted, associated with a significant coverage or organic matter and preferentially hydrophilic solids. The effect of biwetted solids on the colloidal stability of ultrafine clays

Luba S. Kotlyar; Bryan D. Sparks; John Woods; C. Edward Capes; Robert Schutte

1995-01-01

14

Recolonization of defaunated sediments: Fine versus gross sand and dredging versus experimental trays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A field study using experimental trays and small-scale dredging was carried out to: (1) estimate the short-term recovery time of defaunated sediment, (2) evaluate the sediment grain size influence (fine versus gross sand) in the recolonization processes and (3) compare the recolonization in experimental dredged areas and experimental trays. A total of 48 trays (20 × 25 × 7 cm3) with defaunated fine and gross sand were used and six squares of 1 m2 were dredged. Spatial and temporal changes of macrobenthic communities in defaunated sediments and dredged areas were analysed using univariate and multivariate statistics, and compared with those in undisturbed natural sediment at the same site. Recolonization of macrobenthos occurred extremely fast indicating the importance of the bedload transport of juveniles and adults, otherwise necessary for many taxa which presented direct development. This quick recolonization of defaunated sediments could have important environmental implications since natural and anthropogenic perturbations may cause partial or total defaunation of marine sediments. Most of the species were able to recolonize both substrates (fine and gross sand) but some species showed clear preferences for one of the sediment types, and the gross sand supported a higher number of species and individuals than fine sand during the short-term recolonization. Multivariate analysis showed that dredged areas (1 m2) were recolonized in approximately 15 days, recovering similar biotic and abiotic characteristics to the control area (restoration). But in the case of experimental trays, although recovery of abundance and number of species was also quick (30 days), the community structure differed from the control and dredged area, mainly due to the massive recolonization of peracaridean crustaceans in the trays; newly available sediment in the experimental trays acted like patches and allowed more species to colonize than sediment pre-occupied by an established community.

Guerra-García, J. M.; García-Gómez, J. C.

2006-06-01

15

Coal-sand attrition system and its' importance in fine coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The product size depicted by the median size and d{sub 90} as well as the corresponding specific energy for the series of tests with silica sand and steel shot respectively are given in Table 3. It is obvious from these results that the products from both systems have a similar degree of fineness. but the silica sand system uses a relatively lower specific energy than the steel shot system. Depending on the experimental conditions, the energy input ratio of the steel and sand media systems varies between 1.3 to 5. Such a difference in energy input is expected due to the difference in the specific gravity of the two media particularly where equal volume of the media is used and no dramatic changes in the slurry rheology occurs during the grinding operation. The energy consumption for both the silica sand and steel shot systems increase with increasing stirring speed as well as decreasing slurry density. Since the corresponding influence on the product fineness is minimal, it is more economical to employ relatively low stirring speeds and high pulp densities. The feed particle size seems to have only a small influence on the product size in the range studies.

Not Available

1992-01-01

16

Absence of shape sorting of fine sand by the braided William-River, northern Saskatchewan  

SciTech Connect

Sorting of sedimentary particles on the basis of shape is one of many mechanisms by which the characteristics of sediment samples may change along a transport path. The question of the importance of shape sorting of fine sand in fluvial systems is unresolved, due mainly to the difficulty of adequately measuring shape of small particles with irregular morphology, and eliminating other shape influencing processes primarily multiple sources. The study area and analytical techniques were chosen to eliminate these two problems. The William River, a braided river in northern Saskatchewan, is constructing a delta into Lake Athabasca. The 5 km supradeltaic portion of the stream receives no sediment other than from the single fluvial source. 400-500 quartz particles within the fine sand fraction (180-250 microns) of 15 stream samples were analyzed via Fourier techniques. Results indicate that braided river transport processes do not selectively transport fine sand particles on the basis of shape, either at gross scale (elongation) or smaller scale surface roughness. Littoral drift processes, in contrast, have been shown to select on the basis of both elongation and surface roughness. The differences in shape selectivity may be due to transport by traction versus suspension. Analysis should, however, be extended to other grain sizes.

Kennedy, S.K.

1985-01-01

17

Bauxite residue fines as an amendment to residue sands to enhance plant growth potential—a glasshouse study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  This glasshouse study was conducted to determine if amending bauxite residue sand with residue fines would improve its suitability\\u000a as a growth medium. Alcoa’s West Australian operations mechanically separate residue into two size fractions: residue fines\\u000a (which are dominated by particles 150 ?m). Residue sand represents the primary material used\\u000a as a growth medium for rehabilitation, and prior to amendments, it

Jonathan D. Anderson; Richard W. Bell; Ian R. Phillips

18

Behavior of large post-liquefaction deformation in saturated Nanjing fine sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory tests on the large post-liquefaction deformation of saturated Nanjing fine sand were performed by using a hollow cylinder apparatus. The stress-strain responses and the characteristics of excess pore water pressure after liquefaction were studied. It was found that the relationship between deviatoric stress and axial strain presented a sigmoid curve, and there was a good linearity relationship between normalized pore water pressure and deviatoric stress. On this basis, a constitutive model of stress-strain responses and a dissipation model of excess pore water pressure were established. It was found that the results predicted by the two models were in good agreement with the experimental data. The influence of relative densities and confining pressure on the characteristics of liquefied soil were studied. The results showed the relative densities and initial effective confining pressure all had an important influence on the stress-strain responses of liquefied saturated Nanjing fine sand. However, the dissipation model of excess pore water pressure after liquefaction was only affected by the confining pressure.

Pan, Hua; Chen, Guoxing; Liu, Hanlong; Wang, Binghui

2011-06-01

19

Mature fine tailings from oil sands processing harbour diverse methanogenic communities.  

PubMed

Processing oil sands to extract bitumen produces large volumes of a tailings slurry comprising water, silt, clays, unrecovered bitumen, and residual solvent used in the extraction process. Tailings are deposited into large settling basins, where the solids settle by gravity to become denser mature fine tailings (MFT). A substantial flux of methane, currently estimated at ~40 million L/day, is being emitted from the Mildred Lake Settling Basin. To better understand the biogenesis of this greenhouse gas, the methanogenic consortia in MFT samples from depth profiles in 2 tailings deposits (Mildred Lake Settling Basin and West In-Pit) were analyzed by constructing clone libraries of amplified archaeal and bacterial 16S rRNA genes. The archaeal sequences, whose closest matches were almost exclusively cultivated methanogens, were comparable within and between basins and were predominantly (87% of clones) affiliated with acetoclastic Methanosaeta spp. In contrast, bacterial clone libraries were unexpectedly diverse, with the majority (~55%) of sequences related to Proteobacteria, including some presumptive nitrate-, iron-, or sulfate-reducing, hydrocarbon-degrading genera (e.g., Thauera, Rhodoferax, and Desulfatibacillum). Thus, MFT harbour a diverse community of prokaryotes presumptively responsible for producing methane from substrates indigenous to the MFT. These findings contribute to our understanding of biogenic methane production and densification of MFT in oil sands tailings deposits. PMID:20657616

Penner, Tara J; Foght, Julia M

2010-06-01

20

Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an introduction to sand, a size fraction of what is commonly known as sediment (along with gravel, silt, and clay). An introductory section discusses the sedimentary aspects (grain size, rounding, and sorting), composition, and texture of sand. There is a virtual collection of sand specimens, sorted by location, region, or color. Each photo can be zoomed in or out and is accompanied by a brief description of the specimen. There is also a geographical index of specimens from the virtual collection which uses an interactive map to display them. An exercise is provided which uses specimens from the virtual collection to help students develop a connection between certain characteristics of sands and their environment of formation, information which can be applied to inferring the depositional environments of ancient sandstones. Other materials include a sand discovery kit, created to help teachers use sand in their classrooms, a 'Sands of the World' poster, and links to related websites. Some of these items must be purchased.

21

Field studies on factors affecting very fine and ultra fine particulate organic matter deposition in low-gradient sand-bed streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The knowledge on particle deposition in streams is mainly based on investigations in mountain streams. No data exist from low-gradient sand-bed streams that largely differ in the morphological and hydraulic factors proposed to affect deposition. To identify physical control on particle deposition in low-gradient streams, we assessed deposition of very fine and ultra fine organic particulate matter in 18 sand-bed stream reaches. We added particles derived from lake sediment and assessed the mean transport distance SP and the deposition velocity vdep. Additionally, reach hydraulics were estimated by injections of a conservative solute tracer (NaCl). Among the low-gradient streams, particle deposition kinetics were variable but similar to deposition in mountain streams. SP was solely related to the flow velocity. This relation was confirmed when comprising published data on deposition of fine organic particles. An association between particle deposition and transient storage factors was insignificant. We found significance of the transient storage to SP only for repeated measures within a single reach, when flow velocity and benthic conditions were nearly constant. Measured vdep/vfall ratios were much larger than unity in most reaches. Evidence from this relation suggests that the vertical transport of very fine and ultra fine organic particulate matter through the water column was caused mainly by vertical mixing. Copyright

Hünken, Andreas; Mutz, Michael

2007-02-01

22

Coal-sand attrition system and its` importance in fine coal cleaning. Quarterly report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The product size depicted by the median size and d{sub 90} as well as the corresponding specific energy for the series of tests with silica sand and steel shot respectively are given in Table 3. It is obvious from these results that the products from both systems have a similar degree of fineness. but the silica sand system uses a relatively lower specific energy than the steel shot system. Depending on the experimental conditions, the energy input ratio of the steel and sand media systems varies between 1.3 to 5. Such a difference in energy input is expected due to the difference in the specific gravity of the two media particularly where equal volume of the media is used and no dramatic changes in the slurry rheology occurs during the grinding operation. The energy consumption for both the silica sand and steel shot systems increase with increasing stirring speed as well as decreasing slurry density. Since the corresponding influence on the product fineness is minimal, it is more economical to employ relatively low stirring speeds and high pulp densities. The feed particle size seems to have only a small influence on the product size in the range studies.

Not Available

1992-09-01

23

Petrographic, stratigraphic, and structural study of the Smackover gray sand (Jurassic) in north Louisiana  

SciTech Connect

The gas-producing gray sand, a dark gray to black, very fine-grained sand, occurs as 3 sand tongues in the lower member of the Smackover Formation in the subsurface of Bossier, Webster, Claiborne, and Lincoln parishes, Louisiana. A Flaser-bedded silty shale facies indicates deposition on a mid-tidal flat environment. Smackover deposition during the Jurassic in the study area was located on the gently dipping slope between a broad coastal shelf to the north and a basin to the south. The gray sand was deposited over the Norphlet formation and Louann salt before flowage and swelling of the Louann salt began. Uplift and swelling of the Louann salt later in the Jurassic created growing anticlines; sediment slumped off the structural highs of the growing salt anticlines into basinal muds and silts. The Smackover gray sand continues to challenge exploration geologists because of the lateral pinch out of its sand tongues. 11 references.

Miciotto, S.A.

1980-01-01

24

Effect of Salt on the Flocculation Behavior of Nano Particles in Oil Sands Fine Tailings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently, two commercial plants, operating in the Athabasca region of Alberta, produce approximately 20 percent of Canada's petroleum requirements from oil sands. Surface mined oil sand is treated in a water based separation process that yields large volumes of clay tailings with poor settling and compaction characteristics. Clay particles, suspended in the pond water, interact with salts, dissolved from the

L. S. Kotylar; B. D. SPARKS; R. SCHUTFE

1996-01-01

25

Chemical compositions and sources of organic matter in fine particles of soils and sands from the vicinity of Kuwait city.  

PubMed

Fine particles in the atmosphere from soil and sand resuspension contain a variety of organic compounds from natural biogenic and anthropogenic matter. Soil and sand samples from various sites near Kuwait city were collected, sieved to retain the fine particles, and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol. The extracts were derivatized and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the chemical compositions and sources of the organic components. The major inputs of organic compounds were from both natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources in these samples. Vegetation was the major natural source of organic compounds and included n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanes, sterols and triterpenoids. Saccharides had high concentrations (31-43%) in the sand dune and seafront samples, indicating sources from decomposed vegation materials and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi. Vehicular emission products, leakage of lubricating oils, discarded plastics and emissions from cooking operations were the major anthropogenic inputs in the samples from the urban areas. This input was mainly UCM, n-alkanes, hopanes, plasticizers and cholesterol, respectively. PMID:16758289

Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Zarban, Sheikha; Simoneit, Bernd R T

2006-06-07

26

Anomalous sand deposit associated with evidence of late Holocene uplift near Bremerton, Washington  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origins of a puzzling sand unit at the head of Sinclair Inlet likely include a Puget Sound tsunami and its return flow but may also include sand volcanoes, debris flows, or both.. The inlet, a branch of Puget Sound 22 km west of Seattle, contains at its head an intertidal mudflat that is fringed by partly urbanized tidal marshes and alder swamps. Cores and pits in these remnant wetlands reveal an abrupt upward change from tidal flats to freshwater forest that probably resulted from uplift during the Seattle fault earthquake of A.D. 900-930 or during slip of similar age on the Tacoma fault. The puzzling sand unit formed at or about the time of this uplift. The unit consists of silty fine sand commonly 1 m in thickess. It has a sharp contact with shelly mudflat deposits below and a sharp to gradational contact with overlying peat. The lower part of this peat contains the growth-position roots of western red cedar (Thuja placata), and the upper part forms the soil of modern salt marshes. We found the sand unit, 1.1 m thick in areas, along 0.5 km of the upper inlet's shoreline, beneath modern tidal marshes and alder swamps. The unit contains at least three parts: a basal subunit that fines upward from medium and coarse sand to fine sand and silt; a thin (less than 1 cm thick) clay bed, commonly with flame structures; and a capping subunit up to 50 cm thick that is dominated by silty fine to medium sand but which also contains pebbles derived from rock and glacial outwash. Preliminary diatom analysis shows the unit contains diatoms from a brackish environment. A possibly related sand unit lies 0.8 km inland, up the valley of Gorst Creek. Its thickness is in the range 0.2-1.0 m as observed thus far in creek banks and in pits at a nearby park. Unlike the sand that borders the inlet, it contains trough cross-bedding. We are investigating the relationship between this deposit and the silty sand deposit in the tide flats. Preliminary diatom analysis did not find any diatoms in this deposit.

Martin, M. E.; Maxcia, C.; Gerardi, F.; Bourgeois, J.

2007-12-01

27

Sources of organic compounds in fine soil and sand particles during winter in the metropolitan area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

Major advances have been made in molecular marker analysis to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic organic matter inputs to the atmosphere. Resuspension of soil and sand by wind is one of the major mechanisms that produces particle dusts in the atmosphere. Soil and sand samples from the Riyadh area were collected in winter 2002, sieved to remove coarse particles and extracted with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (3:1, v:v). The total extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to characterize the contents and identify the potential sources of the organic components. The major organic compounds of these extracts were derived from natural biogenic and anthropogenic sources. Organic compounds from natural sources, mainly vegetation, were major in samples from outside the city of Riyadh and included n-alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n- alkanols, methyl alkanoates, and sterols. Anthropogenic inputs were significant in the fine particles of soil and sand samples collected from populated areas of the city. They consisted mainly of n-alkanes, hopanes, UCM (from vehicular emissions), and plasticizers (from discarded plastics, e.g., shopping bags). Carbohydrates had high concentrations in all samples and indicate sources from decomposed cellulose fibers and/or the presence of viable microbiota such as bacteria and fungi. PMID:16205991

Rushdi, Ahmed I; Al-Mutlaq, Khalid; Simoneit, Bernd R T

2005-09-30

28

The Influence of Natural Sand Fine Aggregate on Some of the Properties of Hardened Concrete Mortar.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes a laboratory study of twenty-five natural sands and the effect that variations in their characteristics have on the freeze-thaw durability, drying shrinkage and water requirement of concrete mortar. It was shown that except for the p...

W. P. Chamberlin

1965-01-01

29

Estimation of LNAPL saturation in fine sand using time-domain reflectometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, substantial progress has been made in detection and observation of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) in the subsurface using different experimental techniques. However, there is still a lack of appropriate direct methods to measure the saturation of NAPL (?NAPL). This paper provides a guide for estimating ?NAPL and water content (?w) in unsaturated and saturated sand based on direct measurements

SAHAR AHMED HARIDY; MAGNUS PERSSON

2005-01-01

30

Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is geared toward the substitution of steel media by fracturing silica sand as a grinding media for ultrafine coal grinding. The experimental silica is as follows: (1) design and fabrication of attrition cell; (2) sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; (3) batch grinding tests; (4) continuous grinding test; and (5) fracture mechanics.

Mehta, R.K.

1991-12-02

31

Coking contaminated oil shale or tar sand oil on retorted solid fines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy oil fraction of pyrolysis oil vapors containing concentrated contaminants is coked on retorted fine solids contained in a coking zone separate from a retorting vessel characterized by the presence of an inert stripping gas of a rate sufficient to lower the dew point of the pyrolysis oil.

B. G. Spars; R. J. Klett; P. H. Wallman

1985-01-01

32

Coking contaminated oil shale or tar sand oil on retorted solid fines  

SciTech Connect

Heavy oil fraction of pyrolysis oil vapors containing concentrated contaminants is coked on retorted fine solids contained in a coking zone separate from a retorting vessel characterized by the presence of an inert stripping gas of a rate sufficient to lower the dew point of the pyrolysis oil.

Spars, B.G.; Klett, R.J.; Wallman, P.H.

1985-03-26

33

Influence of spatial scales of observation on temporal change in diversity and trophic structure of fine-sand communities from the English Channel and the southern North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Along the coast of France in the English Channel, muddy fine-sand communities are restricted to bays and estuaries, but in the southern North Sea they stretch out to larger areas (mesoscale continuum). We studied three regions containing these communities, each subject to different hydrological conditions and contrasting trophic structures of the water column. The Bay of Morlaix was strongly affected

Konstantinos Ghertsos; Christophe Luczak; Jean-Marie Dewarumez; Jean-Claude Dauvin

2000-01-01

34

Coal-sand attrition system and its' importance in fine coal cleaning  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is geared toward the substitution of steel media by fracturing silica sand as a grinding media for ultraline coal grinding. The project has been divided into four subgroups for bookkeeping purposes and possible ease of execution. Some of the tasks would be executed simultaneously as overlapping is inevitable. The grouping is as follows: (1) sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; (2) batch grinding tests; (3) continuous grinding tests; and, (4) fracture mechanics. The hardgrove indices for the four coals employed in this work have finally been determined by the personnel at the R and D Center of Drummond Coal Company using 14 [times] 28 mesh feed size materials. The values obtained for the respective coals are given in Table 1.

Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

1992-01-01

35

Effects of wetting agents on water infiltration into poorly wettable sand, dry sod and wettable soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six commercial wetting agents (three nonionic and three anionic compounds) were tested for their effects on water infiltration into poorly wettable sand, a layer of dry bermudagrass sod, and two wettable soils. The poorly wettable sand and the sod of dormant bermudagrass were obtained from an old lawn area, and the wettable soils (silty clay, and saline sodic silty clay

S. Miyamoto

1985-01-01

36

Measurements of diffusivity near the sediment-water interface with a fine-scale resistivity probe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine scale profiles of the sedimentary formation factor, F, were obtained from measurements of resistivity at millimetre intervals in marine sediments. These profiles demonstrated that rapid decreases in diffusivity occurred in the upper few centimeters of both compact intertidal sands and fine silty muds. In the compact sands, a 70% decrease in the formation factor was observed within 2 cm of the interface. Close correlations were found between the formation factor and sediment porosity for both sediment types. Profiles of 1/F predicted from these correlations and porosity profiles were very similar to those obtained from measurements of resistivity. These correlations also suggested that ?-3 is a better approximation of the formation factor in fine muds than the Archie relation ?-2. In both sediments, the interfacial value of the diffusion coefficient was estimated to be between ~74 and ~87% of its value in free solution, a value much higher than is normally assumed.

Andrews, Daniel; Bennett, Andrew

1981-11-01

37

Temporal changes in dry aggregate size and stability: tillage and crop effects on a silty loam Mollisol in Illinois  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil aggregation is one of the main factors controlling the chemical, physical, and biological processes that contribute to soil productivity and agricultural sustainability. Little is known about the relationship between dry-sieved aggregate size and aggregate stability. Temporal changes in the size and stability of dry-sieved aggregates were studied in a Thorp silt loam (US Taxonomy: fine-silty, mixed, mesic Argiaquic Argialboll;

Xue-Ming Yang; Michelle M. Wander

1998-01-01

38

Sedimentary characteristics of silty clay facies in the South Yellow Sea shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grain size analysis, X-ray diffraction analysis and biostratigraphy analysis of the structure, composition and formation conditions of the neritic silty clay facies sediments extensively distributed in the central part of the South Yellow Sea showed that the sediments were composed of more than 70% clay, less than 30% silt, had very little or no sand, and were characterized by homogenous texture, soapy feeling, high plasticity, light green gray color and elliptical distribution being about 3 m thick in the center, being thinner towards the margin and finally thinning out. These shelf cyclonic eddy environment sediments formed a sedimentary facies different from that of the sediments in the neighbouring area and revealed the particular sediment dynamic pattern in the environment.

Shen, Shun-Xi; Shi, Xue-Fa; Li, Chang-Zhen; Jiang, Xue-Jun

2000-09-01

39

Sand resistance of sunscreens.  

PubMed

Like water resistance in sunscreens, sand resistance in sunscreens is the ability of the sunscreen to retain its effectiveness while undergoing sand treatment. The influence of the type of sand on the sand resistance of sunscreens has not been described. The sand resistance of a control standard sunscreen, P2, and data on three grades of Quickrete commercial grade sand, #1961, #1962, and #1152, are described. These sands represent a fine sand, a medium sand, and an all-purpose sand. Using the methodology described in the 2007 proposed amendment of the Final Monograph (1) with one exception, we obtained an SPF of 16.5 (1.6) for the control standard, compared to the expected SPF of 16.3 (3.4). After a five-minute treatment of sand #1961, #1962, or #1151, the SPF of the control standard was 18.3 (1.6), 18.4 (2.0), and 17.5 (2.2), respectively. Thus, all three sands exhibited a similar sand-resistance response. Thus, there was no significant difference in the average SPF with and without sand. The medium grade sand, Quickrete commercial grade #1962, was preferred for sand-resistance testing because the fine sand was difficult to remove from the subject's backs and the coarse sand was unpleasant to the subjects. PMID:23193889

Caswell, Michael; Wood, Caryl; Martinez, Alexa

40

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF INFILTRATION THROUGH UNSATURATED LAYERED SOIL COLUMN  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of changing permeability at the interface for common residual soils, namely Silty Sand, Fine Sand and Gravelly Sand was investigated by conducting numerical simulations of vertical infiltration tests on two layered soil columns of Silty Sand over Fine Sand, and Silty Sand over Gravelly Sand. The results show that water movement across interface between the two layered soils

Azman Kassim; Nurly Gofar; Lee Min Lee

2008-01-01

41

Silt and fine sand fractions dominate K fixation in soils derived from granitic alluvium of the San Joaquin Valley, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of the previous work on potassium (K) fixation by soils and pure minerals has focused on K fixation and release by the clay size fraction. However, in soils containing considerable amounts of silt- and sand-size K-fixing minerals, such as vermiculite and hydrobiotite, K fixation capacity may be substantial in the coarser size fractions. We measured the contribution of clay,

M. A. Murashkina; R. J. Southard; G. S. Pettygrove

2007-01-01

42

Using an Integrated, Remote-Sensing Methodology to Evaluate the Effects of Dam Operations on Fine-Grained Sediment Storage and Sand Bar Restoration in Marble Canyon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eddy sand bars and other sandy deposits in and along the Colorado River in Grand Canyon National Park (GCNP) were an integral part of the pre-dam riverscape, and are still important for habitat, protection of archeological sites, and recreation. These deposits began eroding following the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam that reduced the supply of sand at the upstream boundary of GCNP by about 94 % and are still eroding today. In the 1990s, resource managers and scientists began a long series of experiments and monitoring aimed at answering one primary science question. Given existing sand inputs to the ecosystem, can any set of dam operations actually restore and maintain sand bars within the Canyon? In order to test this question, a reach-based approach was developed to examine temporal and longitudinal trends in sediment storage and composition in six, 3 to 6-km reaches of the channel in Eastern GCNP. The reach-based approach integrates various remote-sensing technologies to supplement historical survey techniques. These include: LiDAR and multi-beam sonar for measuring the elevations of subaerial and subaqueous surfaces; an underwater microscope (the flying eyeball) and its subaerial sister, the beachball, for measuring the composition of sediment surfaces; and traditional surveys to provide fine-level control. Between 2000-2005, 7 distinct measurements were made for all reaches. These bracketed two high-flow experiments (controlled floods) and intermediate periods characterized by normal Dam operations. Sediment-surface changes will allow scientists to quantify system responses to specific Dam operations in attempting to address the primary science question.

Breedlove, M. J.; Hazel, J. E.; Kaplinski, M. A.; Schmidt, J. C.; Topping, D. J.; Rubin, D. M.; Fuller, A. E.; Tusso, R.; Gonzales, F. M.

2005-12-01

43

Kemik sandstone: inner shelf sand from northeast Alaska  

SciTech Connect

The upper Neocomian Kemik Sandstone crops out in and around Ignek Valley in northeast Alaska. It lies unconformably on the Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous Kingak Shale, and is overlain by the Hauterivian to Barremian Pebble shale. It is a fine-grained, glauconitic quartzose sandstone, up to 120 ft thick. Four lithofacies are recognized: (1) a basal, moderately well-sorted pebble conglomerate; (2) fine to very fine-grained, laminated and bioturbated sandstones; (3) a poorly sorted conglomerate; and (4) low-angle to hummocky cross-stratified fine-grained sandstones. Facies relationships suggest that the basal conglomerate represents a transgressive lag deposit. It is overlain by a sequence comprising laminated and bioturbated sandstones with interbedded, poorly sorted conglomerates. The sandstones exhibit a mixed assemblage of ichnofossils, including Gyrochorte, Muensteria, Ophiomorpha, Planolites, and Skolithos, and (.)Conichnus. In places, they grade upward from low-angle laminations to symmetrical ripple forms to silty laminated deposits. Their upper parts are bioturbated, but to varying extent. these sandstones and the conglomerates were deposited abruptly but sporadically below storm wave base by storm-generated currents. The sandstones were subsequently modified by strong but waning oscillating storm waves. The hummocky cross-stratified sediment comprises an upper sequence that was probably deposited under the influence of storm-induced conditions between fair-weather and storm wave base. The Kemik Sandstone represents a storm-deposited inner shelf sand with regressive characteristics, deposited within an overall transgressive setting.

Melvin, J.

1986-05-01

44

Coal-sand attrition system and its` importance in fine coal cleaning. Quarterly report, May 31, 1991--August 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is geared toward the substitution of steel media by fracturing silica sand as a grinding media for ultraline coal grinding. The project has been divided into four subgroups for bookkeeping purposes and possible ease of execution. Some of the tasks would be executed simultaneously as overlapping is inevitable. The grouping is as follows: (1) sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; (2) batch grinding tests; (3) continuous grinding tests; and, (4) fracture mechanics. The hardgrove indices for the four coals employed in this work have finally been determined by the personnel at the R and D Center of Drummond Coal Company using 14 {times} 28 mesh feed size materials. The values obtained for the respective coals are given in Table 1.

Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

1992-12-01

45

Copper effects on bacterial activity of estuarine silty sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bacteria of silty estuarine sediments were spiked with copper to 200 ?g Cu g -1 dry weight sediment in order to assess the impact of copper on bacterial degradation of organic matter and on bacterial biomass production. Bacterial density was determined by direct counting under epifluorescence microscopy and bacterial production by the incorporation of 3H-Leucine. Leucine turnover rate was evaluated by 14C-leucine incorporation and ectoenzymatic activities were estimated as the hydrolysis rate of model substrates for ?-glucosidase and leucine-aminopeptidase. The presence of added copper in the microcosms elicited, after 21 days of incubation, generalised anoxia and a decrease in organic matter content. The non-eroded surface of the copper-spiked sediment showed, when compared to the control, a decrease in bacterial abundance and significant lower levels of bacterial production and of leucine turnover rate. Bacterial production and leucine turnover rate decreased to 1.4% and 13% of the control values, respectively. Ectoenzymatic activities were also negatively affected but by smaller factors. After erosion by the water current in laboratory flume conditions, the eroded surface of the control sediment showed a generalised decline in all bacterial activities. The erosion of the copper-spiked sediment showed, however, two types of responses with respect to bacterial activities at the exposed surface: positive responses of bacterial production and leucine turnover rate contrasting with slight negative responses of ectoenzymatic activities. The effects of experimental erosion in the suspended cells were also different in the control and in the copper-spiked sediment. Bacterial cells in the control microcosm exhibited, when compared to the non-eroded sediment cells, decreases in all activities after the 6-h suspension. The response of the average suspended copper-spiked sediment cell differed from the control by a less sharp decrease in ectoenzymatic activities and, mainly, by the great intensification of bacterial biomass production and leucine turnover rate. We conclude that the bacterial community of silty estuarine sediments seems to withstand considerable concentrations of copper at the cost of reduced bacterial organic matter degradation and of the almost halting of bacterial production. The toxic effects elicited by copper on protein and carbohydrate degradation were not rapidly repaired by erosion and oxygenation of the sediment cells but, in contrast, bacterial biomass production and leucine turnover were rapidly and efficiently reactivated.

Almeida, Adelaide; Cunha, Ângela; Fernandes, Sandra; Sobral, Paula; Alcântara, Fernanda

2007-07-01

46

Research on the Quaternary Fine-fraction Lithofacies and Sedimentation Model in Tainan Area, Qaidam Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quaternary Sebei formation is a type of lacustrine deposit developed in the center of depressed lake basin with low-dipping dome-shaped inherited geomorphological environment in Tainan area, Qaidam Basin. The sedimentary strata are composed of weakly consolidated silty to fine-grained sandstone and mudstone. In this article, data obtained from the special coring analysis under sealing high-pressure nitrogen method were used to study the lithofacies. It is proved that seven types of lithofacies and five types of facies association could be classified in the Quaternary Sebei Formation in the Tainan Area. Accordingly, three types of microfacies (sometimes called energy units) could be acquired, including sandbars, beach sands, and mud flats. These three types of microfacies are orderly distributed. The sandbars are concentrated on the higher portion of the dome and close to the low water level of the lake. The beach sands are concentrated on the flanks of the dome and below the low water level of the lake. The sandbars are always intercalated with the beach sands. The mud flats are concentrated in the synclinal part and could extend to the entire area when the level of the lake water moved relatively upwards. The physical property of the sandbars is better than that of the beach sands, and the homogeneity of the sandbars are better than that of the beach sands. The mud flat acts not only as the source of the biogenic gas but also as the infiltrating barrier of the natural gas.

XIE, Zongkui

47

Stone columns as liquefaction countermeasure in non-plastic silty soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many cases densification with vibro-stone columns cannot be obtained in non-plastic silty soils. Shear stress re-distribution concepts [1] have been previously proposed as means to assess stone columns as a liquefaction countermeasure in such non-plastic silty soils. In this study, centrifuge testing is conducted to assess the performance of this liquefaction countermeasure. Attention is focused on exploring the overall

K Adalier; A Elgamal; J Meneses; J. I Baez

2003-01-01

48

Petrophysical and textural characteristics of thin-bedded turbidite sands, Miocene Mt. Messenger formation, Taranaki Peninsula, New Zealand  

SciTech Connect

The Mt. Messenger Formation exposed along the Taranaki coastline (North Island) and in nearby producing oil fields is 600 meters thick and consists of a turbidite sequence deposited in a foredeep trough adjacent to a relatively narrow shelf in lower to upper bathyal water depths. Gamma-ray values of {open_quote}Thick-bedded{close_quote} sands greater than 15 cm thick on the outcrop are less than 175 counts per second (cps). These sandstones have the highest permeability values (100-800 mD). {open_quote}Thin-bedded{close_quotes} sands (5-15 cm) have values greater than 175 cps and range from 200-600 mD. {open_quote}Very Thin-bedded{close_quote} sands (less than 5 cm) range from 10-200 mD; gamma-ray values are impossible to resolve on the outcrop. Gamma-ray values in claystones exceed 250 cps. Lower very fine to silty sands (upper part of sequence) have significantly lower permeabilities because of sorting and the presence of mica and clay. A typical cored section through a pay interval consists of an upper 10-meter interval with average pay thickness of 17.5 cm (44% of the beds are greater than 20 cm thick and permeabilities average 144 mD) and a lower 20 m thick interval containing thinner pay sands (average 12.5 cm and only 22% of the beds are greater than 20 cm thick). Permeabilities average 130 mD. Thirty-seven percent of the interval contains pay sand and the remainder is claystones or non-pay sand. Interbedded thin-bedded water and oil-bearing sands have similar permeabilities and capillary properties. Clean, wet sands have less clay or feldspar and a lower gamma ray count than sands containing oil. The cause for wet sands interbedded with oil sands in the subsurface appears to be isolation and early sealing (microcompartmentalization) of sands by claystones. These features are observed in the coastal exposures.

Douglas, J.W. [ARCO International Oil and Gas Company, Plano, TX (United States); King, P.R.; Browne, G.H. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

1995-08-01

49

Microbial community structure in a silty clay loam soil after fumigation with three broad spectrum fungicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-term effect of three broad spectrum fungicides on microbial activity, microbial biomass, soil ergosterol content, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles was studied. A silty clay loam soil was treated separately with captan, chlorothalonil and carbendazim at three different dosages of each fungicide. Chlorothalonil and carbendazim significantly altered soil microbial activity. However, changes in soil microbial biomass were only

N. S. Podio; C. A. Guzmán; J. M. Meriles

2008-01-01

50

Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning. First quarterly report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991  

SciTech Connect

The primary objective of this project is geared toward the substitution of steel media by fracturing silica sand as a grinding media for ultrafine coal grinding. The experimental silica is as follows: (1) design and fabrication of attrition cell; (2) sample procurement, preparation, and characterization; (3) batch grinding tests; (4) continuous grinding test; and (5) fracture mechanics.

Mehta, R.K.

1991-12-02

51

Mystery Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play with surprising sand that doesnât get wet! Learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "magic sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "magic sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

Sciencenter

2012-01-01

52

Fines characterization through the methylene blue and sand equivalent test: comparison with other experimental techniques and application of criteria to the aggregate quality assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In road construction the general term fines is used to describe particles passing the 0.063, 0.074 or 0.08 mm sieve. Some\\u000a types of fines are considered to be relatively inert and have almost no effect on pavement performance, whilst the presence\\u000a of even small amounts of others can significantly affect the stiffness and freezing–thawing behaviour of unbound and hydraulically\\u000a bound layers.

Ana Petkovšek; Matej Ma?ek; Primož Pavši?; Feri Bohar

2010-01-01

53

Coal-sand attrition system and its` importance in fine coal cleaning. Eighth quarterly report, June 1, 1992--August 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The research efforts on the importance of a coal-sand attrition continued with work in four categories: Continuous grinding tests using steel media; fracture tests on coal samples compacted at different pressure; SEM-Image analysis of feed and ground product coal samples; zeta potential measurements of coal samples ground by different media, and flotation test of coal samples ground by different media. Results are described.

Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

1993-08-26

54

Induced liquefaction experiment in relatively dense, clay-rich sand deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report results from a controlled blast-induced liquefaction experiment at the field scale. The physical and mechanical properties of the materials at the subsurface are characterized by a suite of in situ and laboratory tests, including the Standard Penetration Test (SPT); downhole and cross-hole seismic velocity tests; density, porosity, and gradation tests; and direct shear tests. Since the blast experiment was performed above groundwater table, the subsurface was saturated by a sequence of controlled infiltration tests. A 50-kg TNT charge was detonated at a depth of 10 m, and seismic ground motions were recorded in a vertical geophone array positioned at a horizontal distance of 30 m from the blast borehole. Obtained liquefaction features include a water fountain that erupted from the blast borehole, prolonged bubbling of the water surface inside the infiltration trench (a process equivalent to "sand boils" typically observed at sites which have experienced liquefaction), lateral spreading, and surface settlement. We argue that in contrast to conventional predictions, liquefaction may be induced in relatively dense silty and clayey sands (shear wave velocity >300 m s-1; relative density = 63-89%) relatively rich in clays (fines content >30%) and that the driving mechanism should not necessarily be restricted to cyclic shear stress loading.

Hatzor, Yossef H.; Gvirtzman, Haim; Wainshtein, Ilia; Orian, Itay

2009-02-01

55

Transport and transformation of sulfadiazine in soil columns packed with a silty loam and a loamy sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concerning the transport of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ) little is known about its possible degradation during transport. Also its sorption behaviour is not yet completely understood. We investigated the transport of SDZ in soil columns with a special emphasis on the detection of transformation products in the outflow of the soil columns and on modelling of the concentration distribution

M. Unold; R. Kasteel; J. Groeneweg; H. Vereecken

2009-01-01

56

The characterization and composition of bacterial communities in soils blended with spent foundry sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to characterize the structure and composition of bacterial communities in sandy loam and\\u000a silty clay soils amended with 30% spent sand from iron, aluminum, and steel foundries. All spent foundry sand (SFS) blends\\u000a were grown with or without perennial ryegrass and samples were collected at 4 weeks and 6 months. Regions of the 16S

Robert S. Dungan; Jong-Shik Kim; Hang-Yeon Weon; April B. Leytem

2009-01-01

57

Influence of Agricultural Land Use and Management on the Contents of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Selected Silty Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was the influence of various methods of long-term soil utilisation on the content of polycyclic\\u000a aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in selected silty soils. Four soils were selected for the present studies, i.e.: Eutric Fluvisol originating from silty formations, Haplic Phaeozem developed from loess, Haplic Luvisol (non-uniform) developed from silt, Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Five

Patryk Oleszczuk; Jacek Pranagal

2007-01-01

58

Laboratory and Field Evaluation of an Underwater Sand Height Gage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An underwater sand height gage was investigated. This instrument consisted of two transducers, one screened and one unscreened. Laboratory experimentation included static and dynamic tests with three test sands--fine, medium, and coarse. Field tests were ...

D. G. Mcgrath D. J. Swift

1972-01-01

59

Elevated gas hydrate saturation within silt and silty clay sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas hydrate saturations were estimated using five different methods in silt and silty clay foraminiferous sediments from drill hole SH2 in the South China Sea. Gas hydrate saturations derived from observed pore water chloride values in core samples range from 10 to 45% of the pore space at 190-221 m below seafloor (mbsf). Gas hydrate saturations estimated from resistivity (Rt) using wireline logging results are similar and range from 10 to 40.5% in the pore space. Gas hydrate saturations were also estimated by P wave velocity obtained during wireline logging by using a simplified three-phase equation (STPE) and effective medium theory (EMT) models. Gas hydrate saturations obtained from the STPE velocity model (41.0% maximum) are slightly higher than those calculated with the EMT velocity model (38.5% maximum). Methane analysis from a 69 cm long depressurized core from the hydrate-bearing sediment zone indicates that gas hydrate saturation is about 27.08% of the pore space at 197.5 mbsf. Results from the five methods show similar values and nearly identical trends in gas hydrate saturations above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone at depths of 190 to 221 mbsf. Gas hydrate occurs within units of clayey slit and silt containing abundant calcareous nannofossils and foraminifer, which increase the porosities of the fine-grained sediments and provide space for enhanced gas hydrate formation. In addition, gas chimneys, faults, and fractures identified from three-dimensional (3-D) and high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) seismic data provide pathways for fluids migrating into the gas hydrate stability zone which transport methane for the formation of gas hydrate. Sedimentation and local canyon migration may contribute to higher gas hydrate saturations near the base of the stability zone.

Wang, Xiujuan; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Wu, Shiguo; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun

2011-05-01

60

Elevated gas hydrate saturation within silt and silty clay sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gas hydrate saturations were estimated using five different methods in silt and silty clay foraminiferous sediments from drill hole SH2 in the South China Sea. Gas hydrate saturations derived from observed pore water chloride values in core samples range from 10 to 45% of the pore space at 190-221 m below seafloor (mbsf). Gas hydrate saturations estimated from resistivity (Rt) using wireline logging results are similar and range from 10 to 40.5% in the pore space. Gas hydrate saturations were also estimated by P wave velocity obtained during wireline logging by using a simplified three-phase equation (STPE) and effective medium theory (EMT) models. Gas hydrate saturations obtained from the STPE velocity model (41.0% maximum) are slightly higher than those calculated with the EMT velocity model (38.5% maximum). Methane analysis from a 69 cm long depressurized core from the hydrate-bearing sediment zone indicates that gas hydrate saturation is about 27.08% of the pore space at 197.5 mbsf. Results from the five methods show similar values and nearly identical trends in gas hydrate saturations above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone at depths of 190 to 221 mbsf. Gas hydrate occurs within units of clayey slit and silt containing abundant calcareous nannofossils and foraminifer, which increase the porosities of the fine-grained sediments and provide space for enhanced gas hydrate formation. In addition, gas chimneys, faults, and fractures identified from three-dimensional (3-D) and high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) seismic data provide pathways for fluids migrating into the gas hydrate stability zone which transport methane for the formation of gas hydrate. Sedimentation and local canyon migration may contribute to higher gas hydrate saturations near the base of the stability zone. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Wang, X.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Wu, S.; Yang, S.; Guo, Y.

2011-01-01

61

Aging of Athabasca oil sand  

SciTech Connect

Samples of Athabasca oil sand collected by mining are frequently stored for long periods to ensure that research projects have available oil sand of consistent properties. This strategy is not entirely satisfactory because oil sands age after even limited exposure to oxygen. The results of a three-year aging study carried out at the Alberta Research Council are presented in this paper. During aging, the level of water soluble salts in the oil sand increased and hot water processing characteristics deteriorated. Through the DLVO and Ionizable Surface Group theories, it is demonstrated that the increase in soluble salts was sufficient to cause the fine solids particles to coagulate in the conditioning stage of the hot water process which results in poorer processibility characteristics. Based on this scenario, relative rates of aging for different grades of oil sand are estimated.

Wallace, D.; Henry, D.; Takamura, K.

1988-06-01

62

Sand Dunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most will agree that nothing is more relaxing that lying or walking on a beach. While unwinding, have you ever wondered what caused those big mounds of sand that you crossed to get there? This topic in depth addresses this issue, featuring Web sites that discuss sand dune processes and formations. Some of the Web sites also discuss research, mining, and protection activities taking place in areas with sand dune.The Environment Bay of Plenty in New Zealand has an online brochure (1) dealing with the coastal processes that form sand dunes and beaches. From this site, users can obtain a general understanding of how dunes change with time. Ted Brambleby developed the second site (2) for the Marine Education Society of Australasia, Inc. This site gives a great overview of the functions and formations of dunes as well as describing their unique beauty and strategies on how to care for the dunes. Produced by Nova Scotia Museum of Natural History, the third site (3) is an online pamphlet discussing the physical features and locations of sand dunes in Nova Scotia. Visitors can also read about the ecosystem supported by these dynamic features. The forth site (4), created by John Mangimeli for the National Park Service, is a review of the scientific research completed throughout the years dealing with the geology of sand dunes. Visitors will find a more in-depth discussion about sand movement, sand accumulation, and sand dune features. The fifth site is a scientific paper (5 ) written by R.L. Van Dam, et al. Studying the long term evolution of the Parengarenga Sandspit, these researchers used ground penetrating radar (GPR) "to (1) explore the possibilities for mapping lateral continuity of the coffee rock, (2) study the sedimentary architecture and stratigraphy of the solitary dunes, and (3) reconstruct the wind regime on the sandspit." The next two sites discuss the threats to sand dunes and activities taking place to protect them. The Lake Michigan Federation addresses the issues of mining (6). Visitors can learn about alternatives to mining dune sand and the ecological values of dunes. The Department of Environmental Quality in Michigan created a site (7) that provides users with statistical information dealing with the amount of sand harvested, the regulations of mining, and maps of critical dune areas. After learning about the formation, processes, threats, and protections efforts; the last site (8), created by Eva Hornecker with the University of Bremen, will allow users to get a real sense of the beauty of the sand dunes. The site features a collage of spectacular images of the Great Sand Dunes in the San Luis Valley.

Enright, Rachel

63

Coal-sand attrition system and its` importance in fine coal cleaning. Seventh quarterly report, March 1, 1993--May 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

For the four coals employed in this work, it was not possible to effectively grind the minus 50 mesh feed even at the lowest solids concentration range tried. The reason for this is the low feed rate which makes it impossible to obtain a uniform flow as the coarse particles in the feed tend to settle down and form sediment in either the tubing system or the grinding chamber. Besides, only moderate levels of solids concentration could be employed as high solids concentration are also fraught with sedimentation problem. Attempts to increase the flow rate resulted in the grinding media being taken out of the mill together with the slurry. As a result of these limitations posed by the instrument, further tests were restricted to using minus 100 mesh feed size and moderate levels of feed rate and Pulp density. Some of the results obtained are given in Tables I - 4 for the different coals used. It can be seen from the tables that the softest coal (Pocahontas No. 3 in this case) requires about 2 or 3 passes in order to obtain very fine product while the harder coals would require 4 or more passes. The number of passes required for the harder coals can be reduced either by increasing the residence time of the slurry in the mill by decreasing the feed rate or preferably by increasing the stirring speed. Both of these actions will inevitably lead to a slight increase in the media wear. The media wear observed in grinding Pocahontas No. 3 in three cycles was 1.3% while the corresponding values for grinding both Illinois No. 6 and Black Creek coals in four cycles were 0.5% and 1.5% respectively.

Mehta, R.K.; Schultz, C.W.

1993-06-29

64

Sand Stabilization with Hydroxy Aluminum Solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many oil-producing reservoirs, sand and other fine-grained rock materials migrate into wells. This influx may decrease oil production by plugging gravel packs, eroding well equipment or completely sanding up wells. A procedure is described for treating such formations with hydroxy-aluminum to stabilize clay minerals and thereby prevent sand and silt production. Hydroxy-aluminum is a relatively inexpensive and commercially available

M. G. Reed; Claude Coppel

1972-01-01

65

Booming Sands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment, adapted from NOVA scienceNOW, presents basic concepts of physics behind booming sand dunes. See how surface tension affects potential and kinetic energy and how it all works together to create sound.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-04-19

66

The fracture characteristics of crushed limestone sand concrete  

SciTech Connect

The use of crushed sand as a fine aggregate has rapidly increased due to a shortage of river sand. Accordingly, research on crushed sand concrete is required. In this research, the fracture characteristics of crushed limestone sand concrete were experimentally investigated through a wedge splitting test, and the results were compared with those of crushed granite sand concrete and river sand concrete. The strength of crushed limestone sand concrete was also investigated. It was shown that the fracture energy of concrete was little influenced by the type of fine aggregate. In addition, the fracture energy of crushed sand concrete was slightly higher than that of river sand concrete. This seems to be due to very fine sand (VFS) included in crushed sand, which tends to improve the cohesion between cement paste and aggregate. Also, the fracture energy was not proportionally increased with an increase of concrete strength. The characteristic length of crushed limestone sand concrete was almost the same as that of river sand concrete or crushed granite sand concrete. The characteristic length greatly decreased as the strength of concrete increased.

Kim, J.K.; Lee, C.S.; Park, C.K. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Eo, S.H. [Changwon National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering

1997-11-01

67

Impact on Soft Sand: Void Collapse and Jet Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very fine sand is prepared in a well-defined and fully decompactified state by letting gas bubble through it. After turning off the gas stream, a steel ball is dropped on the sand. On impact of the ball, sand is blown away in all directions (``splash'') and an impact crater forms. When this cavity collapses, a granular jet emerges and is

Detlef Lohse; Raymond Bergmann; René Mikkelsen; Christiaan Zeilstra; Devaraj van der Meer; Michel Versluis; Ko van der Weele; Martin van der Hoef; Hans Kuipers

2004-01-01

68

Fourier grain shape analysis as a tool for indicating batch recoveries of bitumen from Athabasca tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of weight percent fines have been considered in the past as important factors in controlling the recoveries of bitumen from tar sands using batch extractors. However, in the marine sands of the Athabasca deposit, fines break down as a predictor of batch recovery; in some places even low fines tar sands do not yield acceptable batch bitumen recoveries. It

M. M. Smith; R. Ehrlich; A. Hardin

1983-01-01

69

Infiltration capacity and macroporosity of a silty-loamy soil under different tillage systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For soils under both agricultural and forest use, management and tillage practice have significant influence on different hydraulic properties. Under agricultural land use, the properties of the macropore system are, amongst others, a function of the applied management and tillage system (i.e. conventional vs. conservation tillage). Macropores are crucial to rapid infiltration of surface water and aeration of the soil. Low macroporosity will give rise to higher surface flow rates especially on sloping areas, thus enhancing the risk for higher erosion. Investigations were carried out near the town of Adenstedt (52^o00', 9^o56'), app. 50 km S of Hannover in Lower Saxony. The predominant soil in the study area is an eroded orthic Luvisol from glacial deposits with a predominant silty-loamy texture. The experimental site with two crop rotations has been run with two different tillage systems (e.g. conventional and conservative tillage) since 1990. In this study, the minimum radius of a macropore is set to r = 0.5 cm. Dye tracer experiments were performed with methylene blue that was sprayed on a confined irrigation plot. Staining patterns were recorded two hours later at defined depth increments and results of stained and unstained areas were manually digitized and processed with an appropriate GIS-software. Tension infiltrometer experiments were performed simultaneously with the dye tracer experiments using a tension infiltrometer (hood infiltrometer) at different hydraulic supply potentials and soils depths. Dye tracer experiments with methylene blue indicate a penetration depth of 120 cm on the reduced tilled plot as compared to the conventionally tilled plot (60 cm). Both tillage systems exhibit the highest density of macropores in the topsoil, ranging between 100 and 1.000 macropores per square meter. The conventionally tilled plot exhibits a higher number of macropores in the upper 20 cm than the reduced tilled plot while at greater soil depth, this holds true for the reduced tiled plot. Macroporosity derived from tension infiltrometer experiments yield results about one order of magnitude lower than those obtained by visual inventarization. The results indicate a greater continuity of vertically oriented macropores for soils with reduced tillage systems. Thus, in the context of a more effective prevention of flooding events in watersheds, tillage practices with reduced soil disturbance offer a means to decrease surface runoff by enhancing vertical drainage in agricultural areas with silty soils. However, the effect of this local-scale soil hydraulic property on the hydrological behavior on the scale of whole watersheds on the mesoscale (100--500 km^2) needs yet to be tested by simulations with physically based hydrological models.

Wahl, N. A.; Buczko, U.; Bens, O.; Hüttl, R. F.

2003-04-01

70

Coupled changes in sand grain size and sand transport driven by changes in the upstream supply of sand in the Colorado River: Relative importance of changes in bed-sand grain size and bed-sand area  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sand transport in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons was naturally limited by the upstream supply of sand. Prior to the 1963 closure of Glen Canyon Dam, the river exhibited the following four effects of sand supply limitation: (1) hysteresis in sediment concentration, (2) hysteresis in sediment grain size coupled to the hysteresis in sediment concentration, (3) production of inversely graded flood deposits, and (4) development or modification of a lag between the time of a flood peak and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. Construction and operation of the dam has enhanced the degree to which the first two of these four effects are evident, and has not affected the degree to which the last two effects of sand supply limitation are evident in the Colorado River in Marble and Grand canyons. The first three of the effects involve coupled changes in suspended-sand concentration and grain size that are controlled by changes in the upstream supply of sand. During tributary floods, sand on the bed of the Colorado River fines; this causes the suspended sand to fine and the suspended-sand concentration to increase, even when the discharge of water remains constant. Subsequently, the bed is winnowed of finer sand, the suspended sand coarsens, and the suspended-sand concentration decreases independently of discharge. Also associated with these changes in sand supply are changes in the fraction of the bed that is covered by sand. Thus, suspended-sand concentration in the Colorado River is likely regulated by both changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area. A physically based flow and suspended-sediment transport model is developed, tested, and applied to data from the Colorado River to evaluate the relative importance of changes in the bed-sand grain size and changes in the bed-sand area in regulating suspended-sand concentration. Although the model was developed using approximations for steady, uniform flow, and other simplifications that are not met in the Colorado River, the results nevertheless support the idea that changes in bed-sand grain size are much more important than changes in bed-sand area in regulating the concentration of suspended sand.

Topping, D. J.; Rubin, D. M.; Melis, T. S.

2007-01-01

71

Lithostratigraphic analysis of sand and silt facies from NGHP 01 gas hydrate accumulations in the Krishna-Godavari Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 2006, an international effort led by the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) and the U.S. Geological Survey conducted the first large-scale exploration of gas hydrate accumulations. Seven sites were drilled within the Krishna-Godavari (KG) basin, a large syn-tectonic rift basin off the eastern shore of India, with the deepest hole penetrating ~300 mbsf. The sedimentary section in the KG basin includes up to 7 kilometers of Late Carboniferous to Holocene sediments from which commercial oil and natural gas production has been established. Detailed lithologic descriptions and physical properties measurements obtained from cores were combined with electrical log data to characterize the sedimentology and stratigraphy at each site. Our analyses indicate that sediments within the Gas Hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) in the KG basin record a Quaternary (<2MYA) history of deposition dominated by dark grey to black colored nannofossil bearing to rich clay and silty clay sourced from the nearby Krishna and Godavari Rivers. Relatively minor amounts of silt to fine sand beds and lamina (1-5 cm thick) were also observed as well as visible terrestrial organic material. The most pervasive mode of gas hydrate occurrence observed during NGHP-01 in the KG basin sites were disseminated hydrates in low-permeability silt-clay facies. Secondary gas hydrate accumulations were recovered in fracture fill, nodular and lens-like occurrences, or as pore-filling cement in the more permeable sand-silt beds and lamina. Thin sand beds and lamina were recovered at 6 of the 7 sites in the KG basin. ~330 sand beds were reported for all 6 sites with a typical bed thickness of ~3 cm. Net sand to gross sediment ratios ranged from 0.026 to 0.405. No major sand beds (>1 m thick) were recovered at any of the sites. Underlying the GHSZ in the KG basin are Pliocene and Pleistocene age sediments deposited during low-stand conditions. However, rising sea-level from the late Pleistocene to the present resulted in a gradual decrease in the volume of coarse grained material transported across the shelf, and slope related deposition during the Holocene has largely been controlled by episodic failure of shelf-edge deltaic deposits via turbidity flows in slope channels. At two KG sites, significantly greater net sand to gross sediment ratios were observed, perhaps indicating a closer proximity of those sites to turbidite channel-levee systems. While the channels may contain sand facies, given the slope dominant location of the NGHP well locations, it is likely that transported sand bypassed the well sites and was deposited in base-of-slope fans in deeper water to the east. Therefore, exploration for gas hydrate-bearing sands in the KG region should focus on the identification and location of the slope levee sand deposits or toe of slope sand rich fans within the GHSZ. gas/FutureSupply/MethaneHydrates/projects/DOEProjects/NETL-

Rose, K. K.; Boswell, R. M.; Johnson, J.; Nghp 01, S.

2008-12-01

72

Tar sand  

SciTech Connect

Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

1990-01-01

73

Sand Diver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A few years ago, I was preparing to teach a summer enrichment program for middle school students at the University of Wisconsin-Stout. With swimming on the minds of most kids during the summer, I thought buoyancy would be a fun topic to discuss. An interesting way to introduce this concept is by discussing the beer-drinking balloonist who, in a lawn chair, floated to 11,000 feet above Los Angeles in 1997. However, I needed a hands-on project and was not about to go purchase some lawn chairs to duplicate this experiment. A simple submersible called the ``Sand Diver'' was designed and is now used as a hands-on activity for my introductory physics course.

Scott, Alan J.

2005-01-01

74

Downstream fining processes in sandy lowland rivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Downstream fining of river bed sediments is well known for gravel-bed rivers, but also occurs in sand-bed rivers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of selective transport processes, dune sorting, overbank deposition, channel migration and river bifurcations on downstream fining in sandy lowland rivers subject to relative sea level rise, tidal water level variations and increasing

Roy M. Frings; Willem Ottevanger; Kees Sloff

2011-01-01

75

Effects of fluvial abrasion on shapes of quartz sand grains  

SciTech Connect

The effects of abrasion on the shapes of medium and fine quartz sand grains that are transported through a 300-mi (500-km) stretch of the Mississippi River were determined by Fourier grain-shape measurement and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate that the abrasion of medium and fine quartz sand grains in the low-gradient stream does not significantly affect their source-inherited shapes.

Peterson, M.; Mazzullo, J.

1987-09-01

76

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

77

The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands  

SciTech Connect

Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1990-07-01

78

Oil sands tailings sludge solidification and bitumen recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada is a forerunner in the development of oil sands mining and processing technology. At present two commercial plants, both of them surface mining operations are producing approximately 200,000 of syncrude per day. At both of these plants a hot water separation process is used.The vast amounts of tailings, consisting of bitumen, sand, fines and water, generated from the hot

B. D. Prasad Head

1988-01-01

79

Wind tunnel measurements of adobe abrasion by blown sand: profile characteristics in relation to wind velocity and sand flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Blown sand causes various damages, such as extensive abrasion to crops, structural wear of facilities and buildings, and abrasion of soil clods and clayey materials generating fine particulate matter. In this study, experiments conducted in a straight-line blowing wind tunnel confirmed field observations and provided useful information for understanding abrasion profiles created by sand drift. Abrasion rates of 20 adobe

Liu Lian-You; Gao Shang-Yu; Shi Pei-Jun; Li Xiao-Yan; Dong Zhi-Bao

2003-01-01

80

Hydrocarbon cyclones in hydrophilic oil sand environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrocarbon cyclone is capable of achieving a ternary split in a range of froth treatment processes in oil sand mining and extraction. A ternary split is the maximization of water and fines rejection, while producing a high hydrocarbon recovery to the overflow and a coarse rejection to underflow that approaches 100%. The hydrocarbon cyclone takes advantage of the water-wet

D. N. Madge; J. Romero; W. L. Strand

2004-01-01

81

Wetting front instability in unsaturated porous media: A three-dimensional study in initially dry sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-dimensional fingers caused by gravity driven, wetting front instability in unsaturated porous media were explored through laboratory experimentation. Two sets of experiments were conducted using initially dry sand in large 30 cm diameter columns to guide analytical development for finger velocity and diameter. The first set consisted of ponding water on a two-layer sand system with a fine sand overlying

Robert J. Glass; Steve Cann; Jeff King; Nathan Baily; J-Yves Parlange; Tammo S. Steenhuis

1990-01-01

82

The effects of oil sands wetlands on wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of crude oil from oil sand produces solid (sand) and liquid (water with suspended fine particles) tailings materials, called oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM). These waste materials are stored on the mine site due to a “zero discharge” policy and must be reclaimed when operations end. The liquid tailings materials are known to contain naphthenic acids and polycyclic aromatic

Blair D. Hersikorn; Jan J. C. Ciborowski; Judit E. G. Smits

2010-01-01

83

Index test for the degradation potential of carbonate sands during hydraulic transportation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonate sands undergo degradation when transported hydraulically from a dredging vessel to the reclamation site. Risks involved in the production of fines during hydraulic transport are a deterioration of the mechanical properties of the fill in certain areas of the reclamation area where these fines concentrate. In order to assess sand degradation in the concrete and road construction industry, the

Dominique Ngan-Tillard; Johan Haan; David Laughton; Arno Mulder; Art Nooy van der Kolff

2009-01-01

84

Mineral Sands Down Under  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource describes what mineral sands are, and discusses the heavy, dark-colored minerals that they contain (rutile, ilmenite, zircon, monazite). A map shows locations of mineral sands deposits in Australia.

85

Holocene dune-sourced alluvial fans in the Nebraska Sand Hills  

Microsoft Academic Search

The large, stabilized dunes of the Nebraska Sand Hills are in a phase of degradation. The deposition of small-scale alluvial fans composed of well-sorted, fine- to medium-grained sand occurs when sand is transported via gullies on the lee side of large barchanoid-ridge dunes during infrequent, intense summer rain storms (>5 cm\\/h). The hydraulic conductivity of the dune sand itself is

Mark R. Sweeney; David B. Loope

2001-01-01

86

STUDY OF SAND BOILING CHARACTERISTICS ALONG TOKYO BAY DURING THE 2011 TOHOKU-PACIFIC OCEAN EARTHQUAKE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefaction occurred in a wide range of reclaimed land in Tokyo Bay. Features of the damage which occurred a large amount of sand boiling. In this report, the boiled sand grain characteristics, Permeability characteristics. We conducted experimental model to measure the amount of sand boiling. Test results, Urayasu-sand(Fc=36%), soil and water erupted along. Toyoura-sand(Fc=0%) is the only water erupted. As a result, fine-grained soil is found to be a large amount of sand boiling.

Ishikawa, Keisuke; Yasuda, Susumu

87

Exploring Products: Nano Sand  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how water behaves differently when it comes in contact with "nano sand" and regular sand. Learners learn about the hydrophobic properties of "nano sand." Use this activity to talk about how many materials behave differently at the nanoscale.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Sciencenter

2010-01-01

88

Latest Pleistocene gusty intensified winds forced Sinai/Negev sand abrasion into finer grains: An example of active ergs as mega grinders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our research results from the edge of the Sinai-Negev erg indicate that ergs are mega-grinders of sand into very fine sand and silt under gusty and windy late Quaternary climates and in ancient aeolian deserts environments. In the carbonate terrain of the northern Sinai-Negev desert, only sand abrasion in an active erg could have produced the large quantities of quartzo-feldspathic silts constituting the late Quaternary northwestern Negev loess. In the continuum of source to sink, i.e. from sand of dunes (mostly medium sand with minor amounts of fine sand) to the silts in loess, the very fine sand is, yet, unaccounted for in the record. In the current research we focus on and demonstrate that as predicted by experiments, abrasion by fast advancing dunes generated large quantities of very fine sand (60-110 ?m) deposited within the dune field and in close proximity downwind. This very fine sand is usually absent from the particle size distribution of either the dunes or downwind loess and must have been generated under gusty winds 13-11 ka. These intensified frequent winds generated sand/dust storms during the Younger Dryas in the southeastern Mediterranean. These very fine sands, the products of dune sand abrasion, filled small basins that were formed by the same advancing dunes under these same winds. Elsewhere, outside these sampling basins, it is difficult to identify these sands as a distinct product that point to a very windy episode.

Enzel, Y.; Amit, R.; Crouvi, O.; Porat, N.

2010-12-01

89

Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt to substitute in concrete the 5% by weight of fine aggregate (natural sand) with an equal weight of PET aggregates manufactured from the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET), is presented. The WPET particles possessed a granulometry similar to that of the substituted sand. Specimens with different cement content and water\\/cement ratio were manufactured. Rheological characterization on fresh concrete

Mariaenrica Frigione; Mariaenrica

2010-01-01

90

Grain segregation mechanism in aeolian sand ripples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many sedimentary rocks are formed by migration of sand ripples. Thin layers of coarse and fine sand are present in these rocks, and understanding how layers in sandstone are created has been a longstanding question. Here, we propose a mechanism for the origin of the most common layered sedimentary structures such as inverse graded climbing ripple lamination and cross-stratification patterns. The mechanism involves a competition between three segregation processes: (i) size-segregation and (ii) shape-segregation during transport and rolling, and (iii) size segregation due to different hopping lengths of the small and large grains. We develop a discrete model of grain dynamics which incorporates the coupling between moving grains and the static sand surface, as well as the different properties of grains, such as size and roughness, in order to test the plausibility of this physical mechanism.

Makse, H. A.

2000-02-01

91

Cyclic stress-strain and liquefaction characteristics of sands  

SciTech Connect

Liquefaction of saturated sand and silty sand deposits has been recognized as a major cause of damage during earthquakes. However, in spite of many research studies during the past two decades, there are still conflicting opinions on critical aspects of the phenomenon of soil liquefaction, including the definition of the term liquefaction. For these reasons, a research program on the behavior of cohesionless soils under cyclic loading was initiated at Purdue University. An important effort was devoted to delineate and understand the physical factors controlling the response of cohesionless soils to cyclic loading and consequently, the factors involved in the different phenomena that have been described with the term liquefaction such as steady-state flow, a condition of zero effective stress, or cumulative residual strains due to cyclic loading. A new hybrid resonant column/torsional shear apparatus was designed and built as a part of this research program. The new apparatus permits the determination of dynamic soil properties on a single solid or hollow cylinder specimen over the entire range of shear strain amplitudes of engineering interest, i.e. from 10/sup -5/ to 10%. Torsional shear test were performed with the new apparatus on reconstituted specimens of Ottawa 20-30 sand. Results are presented briefly.

Alarcon-Guzman, A.

1986-01-01

92

Failure Caused by Breaching in Subaqueous Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breaching can generate sustained turbidity flows in submarine canyon heads or delta mouths; it is caused by shear dilation. We conduct flume experiments and analyze pore pressure changes due to shear dilation during breaching. We deposit and consolidate fine-grained sand 9cm deep and 6cm long at one end of a 29cm long water-filled tank placed on flat surface. Breaching is

Y. You; P. B. Flemings; D. C. Mohrig

2009-01-01

93

Treatment of turkey processing wastewater with sand filtration.  

PubMed

This research investigated the feasibility of coarse/fine sand filtration for removing organic materials from turkey processing wastewater. Sand filtration was tested with three organic and hydraulic loadings. Six two-layer sand bioreactors were in three groups, each with 5 cm layer of pea gravel at the bottom to support layers of fine sand (46 cm) and coarse sand (15 cm) to a height of 66 cm. The bioreactors were inoculated with a mixture of 20% (vol/vol) of wastewater lagoon sludge, 40% (vol/vol) of turkey processing wastewater, and 40% (vol/vol) of BOD(5) dilution water before starting the column operation with turkey processing wastewater. The wastewater contained 1270+/-730 mg COD/L and was applied to each sand bioreactor at hydraulic loading rates of 94% during 80 days of column operation at low and medium hydraulic loading rates (132 L/m(2)/day). The removal at the highest hydraulic loading rate (264 L/m(2)/day) declined after the appearance of a black zone in the top layer of fine sand on day 30 for one reactor and day 50 for the other. The sand filtration in this study represents a feasible treatment for turkey processing wastewater and its efficiency and the life span of the process are associated with the extent of hydraulic loading of the sand bioreactors. PMID:17092706

Kang, Young W; Mancl, Karen M; Tuovinen, Olli H

2006-11-07

94

Fine Travel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FineTravel Magazine, produced by Louis Bignami and Big-Ray Publications, is a webzine aimed "at the traveler, not the tourist." It contains first person account feature articles about interesting nooks and crannies of various travel destinations in the US and around the world. Updated weekly, it features a searchable and browsable archive of past FineTravel articles, as well as pointers to airline information, books and videos, and resorts. It is an informative and entertaining site for the Internaut interested in travel.

1995-01-01

95

"Sand Boil" on Bay Bridge  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

"Sand boil" or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction). Vented sand contains-marine shell f...

2009-01-26

96

The Use of Stable Isotopes (C\\/C and N\\/N) to Trace Exposure to Oil Sands Processed Material in the Alberta Oil Sands Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various oil sands reclamation strategies incorporate oil sands processed material (OSPM) such as mature fine tailings (MFT), engineered tailings (consolidated tailings, CT), and tailings pond water (TPW) into reclamation components that need to develop into viable aquatic ecosystems. The OSPM will contain elevated salinity and organics such as naphthenic acids (NA) and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) that can be chronically

A. J. Farwell; V. Nero; K. Ganshorn; C. Leonhardt; J. Ciborowski; M. MacKinnon; D. G. Dixon

2009-01-01

97

Sand pack-aided formation sand consolidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In treating a cased and perforated well to prevent sand inflow, a resin solution from which self-curing epoxy resin is subsequently precipitated is injected into the reservoir and the perforated interval of the casing is filled with grains suspended in and permeated with the resin solution. The resin is allowed to precipitate and cure in the casing and reservoir and

Pramann

1973-01-01

98

Paleoenvironment and depositional environment of Miocene Olcese Sand, Bakersfield, California  

SciTech Connect

The Olcese Sand near Bakersfield, California, contains evidence of a range of paleoenvironments including nonmarine, estuarine, and outer shelf depositional settings. Foraminifera from surface and subsurface samples place the Olcese in the Saucesian and Relizian of the California benthic stages. A pumice bed in the Olcese has been dated by fission track methods at 15.5 Ma. The Olcese Sand interfingers with the underlying Freeman Silt and the overlying Round Mountain Silt. In the type area, in Round Mountain oil field, the Olcese is 300-360 m thick. The Olcese is subdivided into three environmental facies. In the Knob Hill Quadrangle, the lower Olcese consists of (1) thinly bedded to blocky white tuffaceous silt and sand, or (2) planar cross-bedded fine to coarse-grained sand with pumice pebbles lining the bedding surfaces. Fossil mollusks and skate teeth indicate a shallow marine environment for the lower Olcese. Although the Olcese is predominantly a marine unit, the middle Olcese is nonmarine, with lenses of marine deposition. The middle Olcese is well exposed in the Knob Hill, Oil Center, and Rio Bravo Ranch Quadrangles, and is characterized by fine to coarse sand with occasional gravel lenses, strong cross-bedding, and a blue-gray color. The upper Olcese is a very fine to medium-grained, marine sand that fines upward into a sandy siltstone southward toward the Kern River. Foraminifera and mollusks from outcrops in the Rio Bravo Ranch Quadrangle indicate outer shelf to estuarine environments for the upper Olcese. The varying environments in the Olcese Sand reflect slight but frequent fluctuations in water depth and can be used to interpret the basin-margin history.

Olson, H.C.

1986-04-01

99

Sand dunes on the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Inconspicuous ancient sand dunes are present in parts of the central Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware. Many dunes are roughly V-shaped, built by northwest winds, especially on the east sides of some of the large rivers. On the uplands, the form and spacing of the dunes are variable. A surficial blanket composed mainly of medium and fine-grained sand-the Parsonsburg Sand-forms both the ancient dunes and the broad plains between the dunes. The sand that forms the dunes is massive and intensely burrowed in the upper part; traces of horizontal or slightly inclined bedding appear near the base. Quartz is the dominant mineral constituent of the sand. Microline is abundant in the very fine to fine sand fraction. The heavy-mineral assemblages (high zircon, tourmaline, rutile) are more mature than in most of the possible source rocks. The most abundant minerals in the clay-sized fraction are dioctahedral vermiculite, kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and gibbsite. The first four minerals are common in deposits of late Wisconsin and Holocene age. The gibbsite may be detrital, coming from weathered rocks of Tertiary age. The soil profile in the dune sand is weakly to moderately developed. At or near the base of the Parsonsburg Sand are peaty beds that range in age from about 30,000 to about 13,000 radiocarbon years B.P. Microfloral assemblages in the peaty beds suggest that the dunes on the uplands formed in a spruce parkland during the late Wisconsin glacial maximum. The river dunes may also be of late Wisconsin age, but could be Holocene.

Denny, Charles Storrow; Owens, James Patrick

1979-01-01

100

Basaltic island sand provenance  

SciTech Connect

The Hawaiian Islands are an ideal location to study basaltic sand provenance in that they are a series of progressively older basaltic shield volcanoes with arid to humid microclimates. Sixty-two sand samples were collected from beaches on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, Oahu and Kauai and petrographically analyzed. The major sand components are calcareous bioclasts, volcanic lithic fragments, and monomineralic grains of dense minerals and plagioclase. Proportions of these components vary from island to island, with bioclastic end members being more prevalent on older islands exhibiting well-developed fringing reef systems and volcanic end members more prevalent on younger, volcanically active islands. Climatic variations across the island of Hawaii are reflected in the percentage of weathered detritus, which is greater on the wetter, northern side of the island. The groundmass of glassy, basaltic lithics is predominantly black tachylite, with lesser brown sideromelane; microlitic and lathwork textures are more common than holohyaline vitric textures. Other common basaltic volcanic lithic fragments are holocrystalline aggregates of silt-sized pyroxene or olivine, opaque minerals and plagioclase. Sands derived from alkalic lavas are texturally and compositionally indistinguishable from sands derived from tholeiitic lavas. Although Hawaiian basaltic sands overlap in composition with magmatic arc-derived sands in terms of their relative QFL, QmPK and LmLvLs percentages, they are dissimilar in that they lack felsic components and are more enriched in lathwork volcanic lithic fragments, holocrystalline volcanic lithic fragments, and dense minerals.

Marsaglia, K.M. (Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

1992-01-01

101

High-speed x-ray tomographic imaging of a ball impacting on sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

When a ball is dropped in fine, very loose sand, a cavity is formed inside the sand bed which collapses, creating a jet and entraining an air bubble. At a fixed depth below the surface, the shape and dynamics of a horizontal cross section of the cavity are studied by means of high-speed x-ray tomography system. Repeating the procedure at

Tess A. M. Homan; Evert C. Wagner; Rob F. Mudde; Detlef Lohse; Devaraj van der Meer

2010-01-01

102

SOLID-LIQUID SEPARATION OF SWINE MANURE WITH POLYMER TREATMENT AND SAND FILTRATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small particles typical of liquid swine manure often clog sand filter beds and fine filters. We evaluated the effec- tiveness of polymer flocculants to improve drainage and filtration performance of sand filter beds by increasing the particle size of manure. A pilot separation unit was evaluated at the Swine Unit of the NCSU Lake Wheeler Road Laboratory in Ra- leigh,

M. B. Vanotti; J. M. Rice; A. Q. Ellison; P. G. Hunt; F. J. Humenik; C. L. Baird

103

Mechanical and Durability Properties of Concrete with Ground Waste Glass Sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the possibility of using finely ground waste glass as partial natural sand replacement in concrete. The reduction of waste glass particle size was accomplished in the laboratory by crushing and grinding the waste glass in a jar mill. The compressive strength at 7, 28 and 90 days, was determined for different ground waste glass sand percentage replacement

L. A. Pereira de Oliveira; J. P. Castro-Gomes; P. Santos

104

Suitability of Quarry Dust as Partial Replacement Material for Sand in Concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction in the sources of natural sand and the requirement for reduction in the cost of concrete production has resulted in the increased need to identify substitute material to sand as fine aggregates in the production of concretes. Quarry dust, a by-product from the crushing process during quarrying activities is one of the materials being studied. This paper reports

S. N. Raman; M. F. M. Zain; H. B. Mahmud

105

Sand, Plants and Pants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore how the application of nano-sized particles or coatings can change a bigger materialâs properties. Learners investigate the hydrophobic properties of plants, nano-fabric pants and magic sand.

Network, Nanoscale I.; Houston, Children'S M.

2012-06-26

106

Sand boils without earthquakes  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Sedimentary deformation caused by liquefaction has become a popular means for inferring prehistoric strong earthquakes. This report describes a new mechanism for generating such features in the absence of earthquakes. Sand boils and a 180-m-long sand dike formed in Fremont Valley, California, when sediment-laden surface runoff was intercepted along the upslope part of a 500-m-long preexisting ground crack, flowed subhorizonally in the crack, and then flowed upward in the downslope part of the crack where it discharged as sand boils on the land surface. If the sand boils and their feeder dike were stratigraphically preserved, they could be misinterpreted as evidence for earthquake-induced liquefaction. -Authors

Holzer, T. L.; Clark, M. M.

1993-01-01

107

Magic Sand Movie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This document from the Midwest Regional Center for Nanotechnology Education (NANO-LINK) is intended to be used with the other materials in the "magic sand" series of classroom lessons, which are available here. This resource is a 4 minute video demonstrating the magic sand experiment. In this experiment, students "will explore how the properties of a substance at the molecular level affects the way that it reacts and behaves."

2013-07-03

108

Patch dynamics in sand grasslands: connecting primary and secondary succession  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short term (5-10-20 years) consequences of climate, and land use changes often appear at fine spatial scales. To understand plant community dynamics at these finer scales, patterns of sand vegetation were monitored at six localities representing various habitat types in the Kiskunság. Repeated vegetation maps within 40 ? 100 m areas with a 5 ? 5 m resolution were made

Sándor Bartha; Zsolt Molnár; Gábor Fekete

109

Sand control in wells with gas generator and resin  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of treating a wellbore having formation perforations for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises positioning a quantity of fluid resin material in alignment with the formation perforations of the wellbore; positioning a gas generator in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to increase wellbore pressure in a substantially instantaneous manner to a pressure substantially in excess of well pressure to force the fluid resin material from the wellbore into the formation perforations; and subsequently polymerizing the resin material to form a consolidated, porous, permeable matrix which retains the sand and other fine materials while permitting the flow of production fluid into the wellbore. This paper also describes a method of treating a wellbore having formation perforations for controlling sand and other fine materials. It comprises positioning a coiled tubing, having a valve and gas generator attached thereto, so that the valve is positioned in a predetermined location relative to the bottom formation perforation; injecting a predetermined amount of fluid resin material through the coiled tubing and valve into the wellbore; raising the gas generator to a position across the formation perforations and in proximity with the fluid resin material; actuating the gas generator to force the fluid resin material into the formation perforations; and thereafter polymerizing the previously fluid resin material to form a consolidated, porous, permeable matrix which retains the sand and other fine materials while permitting the flow of production fluid into the wellbore.

Dees, J.M.

1992-04-07

110

City-swallowing Sand Dunes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this Science at NASA site, you'll learn about the physics of sand movement and the research done to understand mechanisms of dune migration. The physics and the landforms are interesting because granular materials like sand show properties of both solids and fluids, including saltation, sheet flow, and avalanches. This site provides a summary of the physics involved along with photographs of sand dunes on Mars, close-ups of sand particles, and a sand dune advancing on a town.

Bell, Trudy E.

2007-06-19

111

Water and Solute Transport in Lakeland Fine Sand.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective was to investigate effects of three water supply rates--2,4 and 8 cm/hr--and three initial soil water contents--1,2, 10.9, and 20.2% by volume--upon the simultaneous transport of water and solutes--2,4-D herbicide and chloride--in vertical c...

A. A. Elzeftawy

1974-01-01

112

High-speed x-ray tomographic imaging of a ball impacting on sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a ball is dropped in fine, very loose sand, a cavity is formed inside the sand bed which collapses, creating a jet and entraining an air bubble. At a fixed depth below the surface, the shape and dynamics of a horizontal cross section of the cavity are studied by means of high-speed x-ray tomography system. Repeating the procedure at different depths provides a full time-resolved reconstruction of the cavity within the sand bed. Using this reconstruction we test several hypotheses on the process of sand jet formation.

Homan, Tess A. M.; Wagner, Evert C.; Mudde, Rob F.; Lohse, Detlef; van der Meer, Devaraj

2010-11-01

113

Monitoring pool-tail fines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine sediment < 2 and < 6 mm deposited in pool-tail areas of mountain streams is often measured to monitor changes in the supply of fines (e.g., by dam removal, bank erosion, or watershed effects including fires and road building) or to assess the status and trend of aquatic ecosystems. Grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric bedmaterial samples are typically used to quantify pool-tail fines. Grid-count results exhibit a high degree of variability not only among streams and among operators, but also among crews performing a nearly identical procedure (Roper et al. 2010). Variability is even larger when diverse methods are employed, each of which quantifies fines in a different way: grid counts visually count surface fines on small patches within the pool-tail area, pebble counts pick up and tally surface particles along (riffle) transects, and volumetric samples sieve out fines from small-scale bulk samples; and even when delimited to pool-tail areas, individual methods focus on different sampling locales. Two main questions were analyzed: 1) Do pool-tail fines exhibit patterns of spatial variability and are some grid count schemes more likely to provide accurate results than others. 2) How and why does the percentage of fines vary among grid counts, pebble counts, and volumetric samples. In a field study, grids were placed at 7 locales in two rows across the wetted width of 10 pool tails in a 14-m wide 3rd order coarse gravel-bed mountain stream with <4% sand and <8% < 6 mm. Several pebble count transects were placed across each pool-tail area, and three volumetric samples were collected in each of three pool tails. Pebble and grid counts both indicated a fining trend towards one or both banks, sometimes interrupted by a secondary peak of fines within the central half of the wetted width. Among the five sampling schemes tested, grid counts covering the wetted width with 7 locales produced the highest accuracy and the least variability among the pools of the reach. Pebble counts between the two waterlines indicated 2-3 times more fines than grid counts, likely because grid counts did not extend exactly up to the waterline. However, when confined to the central 50% of the wetted width, grid counts indicated 1.2 and 1.6 times more fines < 2 and < 6 mm than pebble counts, likely because the plexiglass viewer used with grid counts improved the visibility of the bed. Volumetric armor layer samples (particles > 90 mm removed) indicated 1.4 and 1.2 times more fines < 2 and < 6 mm than grid counts at the same locales, while subarmor samples had 8-9 times more fines. In conclusion, methodological differences and the specific sampling locales selected by a method affect comparability of sampling results. Grid count accuracy and precision may be improved by extending both the width coverage and the sample size within a pool tail.

Bunte, K.; Potyondy, J. P.; Abt, S. R.; Swingle, K. W.

2010-12-01

114

Process of organic material extraction from bituminous sands or oil bearing sands  

SciTech Connect

A cold water diluent process for recovering oil from bituminous or conventional oil sands thereafter referred to as oil sands is described including the steps of: (a) conditioning the optionally crushed oil sand, by diluent slurrying in a rotating drum; (b) introducing the slurry into the lower part of one or successively two helical, classifier type, separators, to be scrubbed in counter-current with diluent, fed into the upper part of the separator(s) by spraying; (c) withdrawing from the lower part of the first helical separator a rich oil-diluent product; (d) refining by a conventional method, this low viscosity oil-diluent product; (e) feeding the sand, withdrawn in the upper part of the second helical separator, into a separation column to settle; (f) introducing, into the column, diluent, under the diluent-water media interface and a mixture of slightly alkaline, not dispersing clay, recycle and fresh water, and process control additives; (g) withdrawing from the column: a diluent stream with little oil in the upper part; an aqueous impurified middling, in the opposite part of diluent and water inlets and between them; a sand settled in the bottom; (h) recycling the diluent with little oil to the first scrubbing stage; (i) treating the aqueous medium by conventional method to obtain: remanent oil and diluent, if any; clarified water to recycling; a fine waste; (j) disposing, or, if necessary, finally cleaning the sand by scrubbing in a helical, classifier type, separator, in counter-current with water and with process control additives.

Stoian, A.; Panaitescu, N.; Tuliu, M.

1987-10-27

115

Sand and sandstone  

SciTech Connect

Here is a new, second edition of a classical textbook in sedimentology, petrology, and petrography of sand and sandstones. It has been extensively revised and updated, including: new techniques and their utility; new literature; new illustrations; new, explicitly stated problems for the student; and a wider scope.

Pettijohn, F.J.; Potter, P.E.; Siever, R.

1987-01-01

116

Sand Penetration Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In an experimental program, steel bullets and short cylinders, and tungsten alloy rods were shot into dry silica sand at 600 to 1100 m/s. The rods included finsets that were designed for aerodynamic stabilization. The fins also apparently provided trajectory stabilization within the sand as well. Time-of-arrival screens allowed measurement of velocity. Analysis of those data indicated that drag coefficients increased as projectiles slowed down. Comparison with previous data indicates there was a slight increase in drag coefficient of rods over expected values for unfinned rods; however, the net result was penetration normalized by length was as high as 40, depending on nose shape. It was found that when the velocity exceeded about 80 m/s (which is close to the speed of sound in sand) sand particles were broken down into their constituent grains, resulting in a decrease in size by about 1000. Normalized penetration is expected to scale as kinetic energy per unit area, and it was significantly higher for the rods than for the other projectiles. This is attributed to stabilization from interaction of the fins with the cavity wall.

Bless, Stephan; Berry, Don; Lawhorn, William

2009-06-01

117

Experimental investigation on failure mode of fine-grain rainfall-induced debris flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The failure mode of fine-grain debris flow is investigated by using self-designed flume model device. Artificial rainfall is applied onto grain slopes in a flume model. Full-field displacement contour of fine-grain rainfallinduced debris flow during failure process is analyzed by using Digital Photogrammetry Deformation Measurement (GEODOG). The studies indicate that the particle movement of fine grains' experimental results respectively concentrated on the anterior and rear of sand slope of debris flow. The pore water pressure test results show that in the fine grain sample it is higher than it in coarse sand.

Cheng, Zhao; Jian, Zhou; Yexun, Li; Jiashen, Tian

2013-06-01

118

Effects of Non-plastic Fines on Liquefaction Resistance of Sandy Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The effects of non-plastic fines on the liquefaction resistance of sandy soils are examined using results from laboratory\\u000a studies and re-interpretation of well-known SPT-based criteria. Given that fines significantly affect both the density of\\u000a sand-fines mixes and penetration resistance of sandy soils, one of the key problems in the evaluation of the influence of\\u000a fines on sand behaviour is establishing

Misko Cubrinovski; Sean Rees; Elisabeth Bowman

119

Sound-Producing Sand Avalanches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sound-producing sand grains constitute one of nature's more puzzling and least understood physical phenomena. They occur naturally in two distinct types: booming and squeaking sands. Although both varieties of sand produce unexpectedly pure acoustic emissions when sheared, they diΠer in their frequency range and duration of emission, as well as the environment in which they tend to be found.

Paul Sholtz; Michael Bretz; Franco Nori

1996-01-01

120

Waste green sands as reactive media for the removal of zinc from water.  

PubMed

Waste green sands are industrial byproducts of the gray iron foundry industry. These green sands are composed of fine silica sand, clay binder, organic carbon, and residual iron particles. Because of their potential sorptive and reactive properties, tests were performed to determine the feasibility of using green sands as a low cost reactive medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). Serial batch kinetic tests and conventional batch sorption tests were conducted to determine the removal characteristics for zinc in aqueous solutions. Removal characteristics for zinc in the presence of green sands are comparable to those of Peerless iron, a common reactive medium used in PRBs. High removal capacities for zinc of green sands are attributed to clay, organic carbon, and residual iron particles, which are known sorptive media for heavy metals. Furthermore, high pH values in the presence of clay and residual iron particles enhanced sorption and precipitation of zinc. PMID:15212900

Lee, Taeyoon; Park, Jae-woo; Lee, Jae-Ho

2004-08-01

121

A Novel Energy Efficient Process for UltraFine Coal Grinding  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of an experimental study undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility of using silica sand as a grinding media in stirred ball mills for ultra-fine coal grinding. Laboratory butch as well as bench scale continuous tests indicate that when fracturing silica sand is substituted for steel media, then superior energy savings on the order of 50% and

R. K. MEHTA; C. W. SCHULTZ

1992-01-01

122

PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND  

DOEpatents

A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

1957-12-01

123

White Sands Test Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is an overview of the White Sands Test Facility's role in ensuring the safety and reliability of materials and hardware slated for launch aboard the Space Shuttle. Engine firings, orbital flights debris impact tests, and propulsion tests are featured as well as illustrating how they provide flight safety testing for the Johnson Space Center, other NASA centers, and various government agencies. It also contains a historical perspective and highlights of major programs that have been participated in as part of NASA.

124

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains reports on nine of these projects, references, and a bibliography. 351 refs., 192 figs., 65 tabs.

Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1997-11-26

125

The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands: Volume 1. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program is composed of 20 projects, of which 17 are laboratory bench or laboratory pilot scale processes or computer process simulations that are performed in existing facilities on the University of Utah campus in north-east Salt Lake City. These tasks are: (1) coupled fluidized-bed bitumen recovery and coked sand combustion; (2) water-based recovery of bitumen; (3) oil sand pyrolysis in a continuous rotary kiln reactor; (4) oil sand pyrolysis in a large diameter fluidized bed reactor; (5) oil sand pyrolysis in a small diameter fluidized bed reactor; (6) combustion of spent sand in a transport reactor; (7) recovery and upgrading of oil sand bitumen using solvent extraction methods; (8) fixed-bed hydrotreating of Uinta Basin bitumens and bitumen-derived hydrocarbon liquids; (9) ebullieted bed hydrotreating of bitumen and bitumen derived liquids; (10) bitumen upgrading by hydropyrolysis; (11) evaluation of Utah`s major oil sand deposits for the production of asphalt, high-energy jet fuels and other specialty products; (12) characterization of the bitumens and reservoir rocks from the Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (13) bitumen upgrading pilot plant recommendations; (14) liquid-solid separation and fine tailings thickening; (15) in-situ production of heavy oil from Uinta Basin oil sand deposits; (16) oil sand research and development group analytical facility; and (17) process economics. This volume contains an executive summary and reports for five of these projects. 137 figs., 49 tabs.

Oblad, A.G.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

1997-11-26

126

Assessment of the KE Basin Sand Filter Inventory In Support of Hazard Categorization  

SciTech Connect

In 1978, the water cleaning system for the KE Basin was upgraded by adding a sand filter and ion exchange columns. Basin water containing finely divided solids is collected by three surface skimmers and pumped to the sand filter. Filtrate from the sand filter is further treated in the ion exchange modules. The suspended solids accumulate in the sand until the pressure drop across the filter reaches established operating limits, at which time the sand filter is backwashed. The backwash is collected in the NLOP, where the solids are allowed to settle as sludge. Figure 2-1 shows a basic piping and instrumentation diagram depicting the relationship among the basin skimmers, sand filter, and NLOP. During the course of deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of the K-Basins, the sand filter and its media will need to be dispositioned. The isotopic distribution of the sludge in the sand filter has been estimated in KE Basin Sand Filter Monolith DQO (KBC-24705). This document estimates the sand filter contribution to the KE hazard categorization using the data from the DQO.

Ross, Steven B.; Young, Jonathan

2005-09-28

127

Booming Sand Dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local cementation of sand grains within the discrete layers that explains the increase in velocity and decrease in porosity. The subsurface layering may influence the speed of dune migration and therefore have important consequences on desertification. The positive qualitative and quantitative correlation between the subsurface layering in the dune and the manifestation of the booming sound implies a close relation between environmental factors and the booming emission. In this thesis, the frequency of booming is correlated with the depth of the waveguide and the seismic velocities. The variability on location and season suggests that the waveguide theory successfully unravels the phenomenon of booming sand dunes.

Vriend, Nathalie

128

Siliciclastic slope deposits from the Cretaceous Abeokuta Group, Dahomey (Benin) Basin, southwestern Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcrops in the Cretaceous Abeokuta Group of the Dahomey (Benin) Basin in southwestern Nigeria are described. Based on detailed sedimentological logging, 13 lithofacies were delineated. They are: massive and loose sand; cross-bedded loose sand; normally graded sandstone (upward fining sandstone); laminated silt; clay; laminated sandstone; clay with sandstone injections and clasts (sandstone boulders); clayey sand with sandstone boulders; silty clay

Solomon O. Olabode

2006-01-01

129

Impact on Soft Sand: Void Collapse and Jet Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Very fine sand is prepared in a well-defined and fully decompactified state by letting gas bubble through it. After turning off the gas stream, a steel ball is dropped on the sand. On impact of the ball, sand is blown away in all directions (“splash”) and an impact crater forms. When this cavity collapses, a granular jet emerges and is driven straight into the air. A second jet goes downwards into the air bubble entrained during the process, thus pushing surface material deep into the ground. The air bubble rises slowly towards the surface, causing a granular eruption. In addition to the experiments and the discrete particle simulations we present a simple continuum theory to account for the void collapse leading to the formation of the upward and downward jets.

Lohse, Detlef; Bergmann, Raymond; Mikkelsen, René; Zeilstra, Christiaan; van der Meer, Devaraj; Versluis, Michel; van der Weele, Ko; van der Hoef, Martin; Kuipers, Hans

2004-11-01

130

Hydraulic fracturing method employing special sand control technique  

SciTech Connect

A subsurface oil or gas reservoir is hydraulically fractured by injecting a fracturing fluid through perforations in the casing of a well penetrating into such subsurface reservoir. The fracturing fluid contains a clay stabilizing agent for stabilizing clay particles or fines along the face of the resulting formation fracture. A proppant comprising a gravel packing sand is injected into the fracture. Oil or gas is then produced from the reservoir through the fracture into the well.

Stowe, L. R.; Strubbar, M. K.

1985-10-29

131

Sand dollar sites orogenesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

Amos, Dee

2013-04-01

132

Deceleration of projectiles in sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Penetration of projectiles was measured for hemispherical and conical nose shapes penetrating granular media. Targets were beds of Ottawa sand and Eglin sand. Projectiles were rigid metals. Experimental parameters that were varied included velocity (from 300 to 600 m/s), nose shape, sand density, and scale (from 5 mm to 20 mm). Strong evidence for scale effects is found: 5 mm diameter projectiles are less effective penetrators than 12.5, 15, or 20 mm diameter penetrators.

Bless, Stephan; Cooper, William; Watanabe, Keiko; Peden, Robert

2012-03-01

133

Beach Sands Along the California Coast are Diffuse Sources of Fecal Bacteria to Coastal Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are nearly ubiquitous in California (CA) beach sands. Sands were collected from 55 beaches along the CA coast. Ninety-one percent of the beaches had detectable enterococci (ENT) while 62% had detectable E. coli (EC) in their sands. The presence of a putative bacterial source (such as a river), the degree of wave shelter, and surrounding land use explained a significant (p<0.05) fraction of the variation in both ENT and EC densities between beaches. Sand characteristics including moisture content, organic carbon, and percent fines, significantly (p<0.05) influenced only EC densities in beach sand. We assayed 34 of 163 sand samples for salmonellae, but did not detect this bacterial pathogen. The potential for FIB to be transported from the sand to sea was investigated at a single wave-sheltered beach with high densities of ENT in beach sand: Lovers Point, CA (LP). We collected samples of exposed and submerged sands as well as water over a 24 h period in order to compare the disappearance or appearance of ENT in sand and the water column. Exposed sands had significantly higher densities of ENT than submerged sands with the highest densities located near the high tide line. Water column ENT densities began low, increased sharply during the first flood tide and slowly decreased over the remainder of the study. During the first flood tide, the number of ENT that entered the water column was nearly equivalent to the number of ENT lost from exposed sands when they were submerged by seawater. The decrease in nearshore ENT concentrations after the initial influx can be explained by ENT die-off and dilution with clean ocean water. A source tracking study at LP indicated that ENT were likely of human origin because they were positive for the esp gene.

Boehm, A. B.; Yamahara, K.; Layton, B.

2007-05-01

134

Impact Resistance of Concrete with Partial Replacements of Sand and Cement by Waste Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of partial replacements of sand by waste crumb rubber and fine rubber, and cement by powder rubber, on the performance of concrete under low velocity impact loading were investigated. Specimens were prepared for 5%, 10% and 20% replacements by volume for both sand and cement. For each case, six beams of 100 mm × 100 mm × 500 mm were subjected to 5.15 kg hammer from 900 mm

Mustafa Maher Al-Tayeb; B. H. Abu Bakar; Hanafi Ismail

2012-01-01

135

Well sand packing prevention method  

SciTech Connect

A method is described of preventing sand packing in a producing well completed in a zone adjacent a hydrocarbon-bearing subterranean formation, comprising the steps of: producing fluid from the hydrocarbon-bearing formation, the fluid comprising an aqueous phase and a hydrocarbon phase; and, simultaneously with the fluid production, injecting a sand control agent into the well adjacent the production zone at a rate to obtain a wellhead concentration of the sand control agent in the aqueous phase of the fluid of from about 10 to about 1000 ppm active. The sand control agent is a quaternized acylated condensed alkanolamine.

Chakrabarty, T.; Thomas, R.

1986-11-18

136

Identification and delineation of low resistivity, low permeability reservoirs using qualitative sidewall sample log k * S[sub O] relationships in the western shallow oil zone, Elk Hills Field, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over 500 wells, including wells producing from the deeper Miocene Stevens sands, penetrate the Western Shallow Oil Zone (Pliocene Etchegoin Formation) at the Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve in California. The Western Shallow Oil Zone Gusher and Calitroleum sands are very fine grained, silty and pyritic and are interbedded with silty shales. Electric logs generally show 1[1\\/2]-2[1\\/2] ohm-meters of deep

E. K. Beacom; I. S. Kornreich

1996-01-01

137

Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete.  

PubMed

An attempt to substitute in concrete the 5% by weight of fine aggregate (natural sand) with an equal weight of PET aggregates manufactured from the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET), is presented. The WPET particles possessed a granulometry similar to that of the substituted sand. Specimens with different cement content and water/cement ratio were manufactured. Rheological characterization on fresh concrete and mechanical tests at the ages of 28 and 365days were performed on the WPET/concretes as well as on reference concretes containing only natural fine aggregate in order to investigate the influence of the substitution of WPET to the fine aggregate in concrete. It was found that the WPET concretes display similar workability characteristics, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength slightly lower that the reference concrete and a moderately higher ductility. PMID:20176466

Frigione, Mariaenrica

2010-02-21

138

Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete  

SciTech Connect

An attempt to substitute in concrete the 5% by weight of fine aggregate (natural sand) with an equal weight of PET aggregates manufactured from the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET), is presented. The WPET particles possessed a granulometry similar to that of the substituted sand. Specimens with different cement content and water/cement ratio were manufactured. Rheological characterization on fresh concrete and mechanical tests at the ages of 28 and 365 days were performed on the WPET/concretes as well as on reference concretes containing only natural fine aggregate in order to investigate the influence of the substitution of WPET to the fine aggregate in concrete. It was found that the WPET concretes display similar workability characteristics, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength slightly lower that the reference concrete and a moderately higher ductility.

Frigione, Mariaenrica, E-mail: mariaenrica.frigione@unisalento.i [Department of Engineering for Innovation, University of Salento, Via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)

2010-06-15

139

Multiple dust sources in the Sahara Desert: The importance of sand dunes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We determine the current sources of dust in the Sahara Desert using quantitative correlation between the number of days with dust storms (NDS), derived from remote-sensing data of high temporal resolution, with the distribution of the soil types and geomorphic units. During 2006-8 the source of over 90% of the NDS was found to be sand dunes, leptosols, calcisols, arenosols, and rock debris. In contrast to previous studies, only few dust storms originated from playas and dry lake beds. Land erodibility was estimated by regressing the NDS to the number of days with high-speed wind events, and was found to be high for sand dunes. Clay and fine-silt grains and aggregates are scarce in sand dunes, which most likely produce dust particles through aeolian abrasion of sand grains. Thus, saltating sand grains impacting clay aggregates on playa surfaces cannot be the sole process for generating dust in the Sahara.

Crouvi, Onn; Schepanski, Kerstin; Amit, Rivka; Gillespie, Alan R.; Enzel, Yehouda

2012-07-01

140

Macroinvertebrate Communities and Benthic Organic Matter in Sand Habitats of 15 Northern Michigan Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Relationships between benthic organic matter (BOM) and macroinvertebrates have been well studied in streams with coarse substrates, but such relationships have been little studied in sand habitats, despite the abundance of sand in many streams. These relationships were investigated in sand habitats of 15 streams in three watersheds of the Ottawa National Forest, Michigan. Sand habitats in the 15 streams varied widely in mean total BOM quantity (112 to 1814 g AFDM·m-2) and size composition [very fine BOM (VFBOM, 0.45-250 ?m), 0-58%; fine BOM (FBOM, 250 ?m-1 mm), 11-27%; coarse BOM (CBOM, >1 mm), 27-81%] but differences were still detected among watersheds (VFBOM, ANOVA, F2,11 = 8.69, p = 0.005; CBOM, F2,11 = 11.15, p = 0.002). Sand-dwelling invertebrates were dominated by gathering-collectors, primarily Chironomidae (relative abundance = 73.6±15.4%; mean±SE; n = 15). Invertebrate biomass and mean body size differed among watersheds (biomass, F2,12 = 3.89, p = 0.050; body size, F2,12 = 6.12, p = 0.015). However, at this broad spatial scale, BOM quantity and quality had little effect on invertebrate community metrics in sand habitats. BOM content of sand habitats likely represents one factor, among many components of this dynamic habitat, which shapes overall macroinvertebrate communities.

Yamamuro, A. M.; Miesbauer, J. M.; Lamberti, G. A.

2005-05-01

141

Apparatus for processing bituminous sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus for processing bituminous sands to recover petroleum is provided. The apparatus is preferably a multicell structure, principal cells of which include bottom stirrer zones and upper quiet zones separated from the stirrer zones by baffles. Continuous through-plant feed is provided for the plant structure by partially processed sands being urged into subsequent cells for continued processing. An oil

Brimhall

1971-01-01

142

Gravel-Sand Transition in a Large, Lowland Alluvial Channel.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The beds of alluvial river channels become finer grained moving downstream and often exhibit an abrupt transition from gravel to sand-bedded conditions. Most previous work documenting this phenomenon have focused on small upland streams where sediment supply to the channel is strongly connected to sediment delivery from hillslopes. Fewer studies have focused on the gravel-sand transition in large alluvial channels and none have documented the spatial variability through reaches where transitions occur. The downstream fining pattern observed in the Fraser River is widely cited as a classic example of an abrupt gravel-sand transition in a large alluvial channel. However, important questions regarding the exact current location of the transition, its morphology, and what controls its location remain unanswered. Here, we present detailed observations of bed material grain-size and river bed topography through the reach where the transition is widely thought to occur in the Fraser River. Bed topography was measured using a multibeam echo- sounding system (Reson 8101 Seabat) at high flow (11,000 m3s-1) when all fractions of the bed material were mobile. Some limited bed material sampling was done at high flow with more detailed sampling at low flows (~1000 m3s-1). These observations indicate that there is little gravel material on the active channel bed downstream of Yaalstrick Bar, the last bar along the river dominated by gravel (> 75% of the bar material > 2 mm). However, sorting patterns caused by the superior mobility of gravel over sand have lead to gravel patches on the upstream sides and surfaces of sand bars. There are also gravel patches along the thalweg through the apex of some river bends, but whether this is topographically induced sorting or a lag deposit exposed by high flow is not clear. Bedforms associated with sand-gravel mixtures appear on the river bed immediately downstream of Yaalstrick Bar in a sequence (sand ribbons, barchans, dunes) suggesting sand deposition from suspension. There is also a dramatic increase in bar amplitude downstream of Yaalstrick Bar, suggesting greater sand composition. Our observations suggest the gravel- sand transition in the Fraser River is somewhat more diffuse than is observed in smaller scale channels. Yet, for all practical purposes, Yaalstrick Bar is the end of the gravel-bedded reach of the Fraser River.

Venditti, J. G.; Humphies, R. P.; Allison, M. A.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Church, M.

2008-12-01

143

Atlas of Dutch drift sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger occurrences associated with push moraines show that drift sand occurs in elongated cells that are parallel to the prevailing SW wind. Their internal structure reflects the characteristic sequence of geomorphological processes: deflation dominant in the south-west, transport and accumulation towards the north east. Literature • Jungerius, P.D., Riksen, M.J.P.M., 2010. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt. Baltica 23, 1: 59-70. • Koster EA. 2005. Aeolian environments. In The physical Geography of Western Europe, Koster EA (ed). Oxford Regional Environments, Oxford University Press;139-160.

Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter

2013-04-01

144

Clay minerals in nonaqueous extraction of bitumen from Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-aqueous bitumen extraction process was studied where only toluene and heptane, with no water additions, were used to extract bitumen from two Alberta oil sands ore samples. One sample had a high bitumen (13.5wt.%) and low fine (5.3wt.%<45?m) contents, while the other sample had an intermediate bitumen (10.5wt.%) and high fine (23.3wt.%) contents. Bitumen recovery and product quality were

Ali Hooshiar; Peter Uhlik; Qi Liu; Thomas H. Etsell; Douglas G. Ivey

145

Hardfacing fights wear in oil sands operation  

SciTech Connect

Wear attack is responsible for high production losses and over $40 million per year in equipment repairs and replacement costs at Syncrude`s synthetic crude oil plant near Fort McMurray in Northern Alberta. Most of this damage is caused by the fine quartz particle constituents which predominate in oil sands. It occurs in a multiplicity of forms which can be classified into three primary mechanisms: Sliding abrasive wear and sporadic impact, which affects mainly mining equipment; Slurry abrasion and erosion, which occur in bitumen extraction, separation plants, and in tailings lines; and High-temperature erosion, which is often augmented by corrosion in bitumen upgrading operations. Process streams in this area also contain fine coke particles and catalyst debris. The paper gives an overview of Syncrude`s operations in mining, extraction, and upgrading, then describes the following: wear materials and protection systems, surface engineering systems, weld deposited hardfacing, benefits, surface modification system experience, thermal spray coating experience, disk centrifuge bowls, investigation of plasma arc spraying, and combating pump erosion.

Llewellyn, R.; Tuite, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1995-03-01

146

IOCC monograph series: tar sands  

SciTech Connect

This is a collection of important papers published on tar sand resources and technologies. It includes nineteen previously published significant technical reports which describe tar sand resources and related technologies. The reports are primarily descriptions of the United States resource and efforts to develop that resource; however, several reports describing Canadian tar sand activities are included because they are the only available publications dealing with the respective technology areas. The republished reports represent the following categories: World Resource Overview; US Resource Overview (Utah, California, Kentucky, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma); Extraction Technologies (including in-situ and mining-and-plant-extraction); Field Trials and Commercialization; and Environmental Assessment. (DP)

Ball, D.; Marchant, L.C.; Goldburg, A. (eds.)

1982-01-01

147

Process to separate bituminous material from sand (tar sands)  

SciTech Connect

Bituminous sand such as oil sand or tar sand is mixed with a halogenated organic solvent which has a density greater than that of water at the same temperature. The slurry is continuously transferred to a conveyor system which is at least partially submerged in water, with the slurry being fed onto the portion of the conveyor which is submerged. As the sands move through the water on the conveyor, the organic solvent containing the bituminous material separates from the sand and forms a separate phase beneath the water. The sands ultimately move upwardly on the conveyor through the surface of the water. The organic phase is removed from beneath the water surface and the halogenated solvent is flashed therefrom in a flash evaporator chamber. Solvent vapors are withdrawn from the evaporator chamber by a compressor, and the compressed vapors are introduced into a condenser chamber. A heat exchange medium is continuously circulated between the condenser and evaporator chambers, with heat being transferred from the heat exchange medium in the evaporator and back to the heat exchange medium in the condenser. Bituminous organic material is withdrawn from the evaporator chamber and condensed solvent is recovered from the condenser. Preferably, the heat exchange means comprises a plurality of heat pipes, with mutually respective end portions of the heat pipes extending into the condenser chamber and the other end portions extending into the evaporator chamber.

Gagon, H.W.

1982-08-03

148

Sedimentology and stratigraphy of tidal sand ridges southwest Florida inner shelf  

SciTech Connect

Detailed investigation of linear shelf sand ridges located off the southwest coast of Florida shows them to be tide-dominated sand bodies. These ridges are remarkably similar to the large sand ridges of the North Sea, and they have abundant apparent analogs in the stratigraphic record, many of which are important petroleum producers. The Florida ridges are asymmetric in profile, about 10 km long, 1 km wide, with relief of 3-4 m with the adjacent sea bed. Extensive tidal current monitoring, sediment distribution patterns and side scan sonar surveys permit characterizing their morphodynamics. Tidal currents show distinct bidirectional patterns with speeds up to 70 cm/s. There is slight flood-dominance, and currents show much higher velocities in the troughs as compared to the crests of the ridges. Megaripples and sand waves are widespread and migrate obliquely across the ridges at opposite directions on the gentle and steep side of the ridge. Shallow, high-resolution seismic data and 39 vibracores din the area of the ridges show a consistent sequence characterized by three ascending Holocene lithofacies: (1) muddy quartz sand with limestone clasts; (2) bioturbated muddy shelly quartz sand; and (3) well-sorted, cross-stratified quartz sand that characterizes the sand ridges themselves. Each of the tidal sand ridges displays a coarsening-upward sequence of fine, well-sorted sand. Small-scale, multidirectional, cross stratification dominates the stratigraphy of the cores in this facies, but megaripple cross stratification is also present. All data indicate that these tidal ridges are good modern analogs for many of the shelf sand bodies in the ancient record, especially the Mesozoic of the mid-continent area.

Davis, R.A. Jr.; Klay, J.; Jewell, P. (Univ. of South Florida, Tampa (United States))

1993-01-01

149

Experimental investigation of deformation mechanisms during shear-enhanced compaction in poorly lithified sandstone and sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear-enhanced compaction in shallow sandstone reservoirs has been investigated in laboratory experiments using high-pressure triaxial testing of poorly lithified sandstone and sand. We have studied the deformation mechanism involved during shear-enhanced compaction and controlling parameters for yield stress at varying confining pressures for sandstone/sand with different grain sizes, porosities, and packing. Experimental testing provides insights into the deformation mechanism during hydrostatic and axial compression of coarse- and fine-grained sands with different packing including (1) natural coarse-grained sandstone, (2) densely packed fine-grained sand, and (3) loosely packed fine-grained sand. Monitoring of deformation and ultrasonic velocity during deformation indicates porosity loss, compaction, and strain hardening for most of the samples. Visualization of deformation using pretest and posttest X-ray imaging and thin sections demonstrates localized deformation fabrics and grain damage. The results show grain rearrangement as the controlling deformation mechanism for material at low stress and high porosity, whereas for lower porosity and higher stress, grain fracturing controlled the deformation. The most pronounced localization of deformation was observed for the coarse-grained, low-porosity material. A Cam-Clay cap model was used to describe the porosity loss during compaction and shear-enhanced compaction, demonstrating large inelastic compaction with increasing confining pressure. Yield stress and end caps for poorly lithified sandstone are observed for various porosities and stress conditions and found to be lower than predicted using empirical relationships for sandstone.

Skurtveit, Elin; Torabi, Anita; Gabrielsen, Roy H.; Zoback, Mark D.

2013-08-01

150

Deceleration of Projectiles in Sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deceleration of projectiles has been measured for hemispherical and conical nose shapes penetrating granular media. Targets were beds of Ottawa sand and Eglin sand. The velocity range extended up to 600 m/s. Projectiles were rigid metals. Deceleration was measured by conventional time-of-arrival screens plus several innovative techniques: embedded EM coils, embedded optical fibers, and a photonic Doppler velocimeter (PDV), which observed the rear surface of the penetrator. Experimental parameters that were varied included velocity (from 300 to 600 m/s), sand density, and scale (from 5 mm to 25 mm). In this paper we will compare these various measurement techniques and we will show how the cavity geometry (cavitation and crushed veins of sand) and retarding stress (MdV/dt)/Avary with velocity, scale, and density.

Bless, Stephan; Cooper, William; Stone, Zach; Watanabe, Keiko; Peden, Robert

2011-06-01

151

Studies of Phlebotomine Sand Flies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary key to the phlebotomine sand flies of Kenya was prepared as an aid to identification. The need for fresh material readily apparent. Further progress was made on illustrating important features of New World species, necessary for inclusion in...

D. G. Young

1980-01-01

152

METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND  

DOEpatents

A method is given for the pretreatment of monazite sand with sodium hydroxide. When momazite sand is reacted with sodium hydroxide, the thorium, uranium, and rare earths are converted to water-insoluble hydrous oxides; but in the case of uranium, the precipitate compound may at least partly consist of a slightly soluble uranate. According to the patent, monazite sand is treated with an excess of aqueous sodium hydroxide solution, and the insoluble compounds of thorium, uranium, and the rare earths are separated from the aqueous solution. This solution is then concentrated causing sodium phosphate to crystallize out. The crystals are removed from the remaining solution, and the solution is recycled for reaction with a mew supply of momazite sand.

Calkins, G.D.

1957-10-29

153

Modern Graywacke-Type Sands.  

PubMed

A preliminary study of more than 100 deep-sea cores from abyssal plains has revealed two examples of recent muddy sands of the graywacke type which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution sands have a well-sorted framework of quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution that is also typical of ancient graywackes. The matrix is considered to be primary. PMID:17775982

Hollister, C D; Heezen, B C

1964-12-18

154

Aeolian sand transport: a wind tunnel model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wind sand transport is an important geological process on earth and some other planets. Formulating the wind sand transport model has been of continuing significance. Majority of the existing models relate sand transport rate to the wind shear velocity based on dynamic analysis. However, the wind shear velocity readapted to blown sand is difficult to determine from the measured wind

Zhibao Dong; Xiaoping Liu; Hongtao Wang; Xunming Wang

2003-01-01

155

Alberta's oil sands in-situ pilots  

SciTech Connect

A brief description is given of the Alberta Oil Sands deposits and the current active pilots which are testing various recovery processes. The role of the Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (AOSTRA) in these oil sands pilots is discussed, and details of six AOSTRA funded pilots in the major oil sands and heavy oil areas of Alberta are presented.

Phillips, R.S.

1981-01-01

156

Sedimentology of Upper Cretaceous Coffee sands in north-central Mississippi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Upper Cretaceous Coffee Group within the Desha basin of Mississippi is composed of two major lithologies, a light to dark marlstone and a series of white, fine to medium-grained siltstones and sandstones. The two source areas for the sands are the Sharkey platform to the south and the southern Appalachians. The presence of hydrocarbons has been described at the

Webb

1984-01-01

157

Experimental Investigation of Surfactant Partition in Heavy Oil\\/Water\\/Sand Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant adsorption on reservoir rocks or sands is one of the major factors that may significantly reduce the effectiveness of an alkaline\\/surfactant flood for oil recovery. It is difficult to determine the surfactant adsorption by measuring the difference between surfactant concentrations before and after adsorption when the water phase contains fine oil drops. In this study, an extraction method was

W. Zhou; M. Dong; Q. Liu; H. Xiao

2008-01-01

158

Soil microbial metabolic profiles in two geomorphological units in a semistable sand-dune ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The playas and microbiotic crust-covered interdunes are two geomorphological units in the Hallamish sand-dune field, Israel. As a depositional unit, a lack of vegetation and microbiotic crusts, as well as high contents of fine particles and salinity, may lead to low microbial activity and functional diversity at the playa. The present study was initiated in order to illuminate the spatiotemporal

Jun Yu; Yosef Steinberger

159

Characterization of Fine Powders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine powders are used in many applications and across many industries such as powdered paints and pigments, ceramics, petrochemicals, plastics, pharmaceuticals, and bulk and fine chemicals, to name a few. In addition, fine powders must often be handled as a waste by-product, such as ash generated in combustion and gasification processes. In order to correctly design a process and process equipment for application and handling of powders, especially fine powders, it is essential to understand how the powder would behave. Many characterization techniques are available for determining the flow properties of powders; however, care must be taken in selecting the most appropriate technique(s).

Krantz, Matthew; Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Jesse

160

Physical characteristics of sand injectites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Almost two hundred years of research is reviewed that focuses on the physical characteristics of sandstone intrusions. It is concerned with mechanisms of sand injection, particularly with fluid-grain transport and sedimentation processes during the remobilization, injection and extrusion of sand. Outcrop and subsurface studies in combination with laboratory experimental data are drawn on to present the state-of-the-art of sand injection. The text covers 1) geometry, internal structure, and microtexture of deformed parent units, injected and extruded sandstones, 2) host-strata and their seal characteristics that contribute to basin-wide overpressure generation, 3) common trigger mechanisms for sand injection such as high magnitude seismicity and the rapid injection of large volumes of fluids, 4) fluid types that drive sand into fractures, 5) hydrofracture mechanisms that induce regional-scale seal failure, 6) liquefaction and fluidization processes that transport sand into fractures, 7) sedimentation processes in fractures, 8) the flow regime of fluidized sand during injection, 9) post-sand-injection fluid flow and diagenesis, 10) porosity and permeability characteristics of injected sandstones and 11) post-sand-injection fluid-flow over geological timescales. Processes of sand remobilization, injection, and extrusion are complex and depend on many interrelated factors including: fluid(s) properties (e.g. pressure, volume, composition), parent unit and host-strata characteristics (e.g. depositional architecture, grain size and distribution, clay-size fraction, thickness, permeability) and burial depth at the time of injection. Many studies report erosional contacts between host strata and injected sands and these record high-velocity, erosive flow during injection. The flow regime is poorly constrained and similar features are interpreted as records of laminar and turbulent flow, or both, during injection. Internal structures are common in sandstone intrusions and can be accounted for by a variety of processes. The interpretational limits largely result from a lack of laboratory experiments that focus on developing analogues for sand injection. The relationship between grain fabric developed during injection and its control on permeability in sandstone intrusions is poorly understood and failure to advance this field of research will hinder the quantitative characterization of sandstone intrusions as fluid-flow conduits during basin evolution. We conclude that future research should focus on: 1) quantification of sediment transport modes under different flow conditions in different fracture dimensions with laboratory data relevant to sand injection; 2) estimation of the effect of injection on the bulk permeability of otherwise low-permeability seals (host strata) so that their effect on fluid flow can be assessed at all scales; and 3) incorporation of sand injection into quantitative basin models. Although an enormous amount of data have arisen from existing studies there remains a need to advance many fields of research related to sand injection so that the significance of these important structures can be fully appreciated in the geological record.

Hurst, Andrew; Scott, Anthony; Vigorito, Mario

2011-06-01

161

A modified probability distribution of ejection state of sand grains in equilibrium aeolian sand transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium sand transport is simulated by stochastic Lagrange particle tracking method combined with probability distribution of initial ejection state of sand grains. Comparing the simulated vertical profile of horizontal sand mass flux and the experimental profiles, a modified exponential distribution is suggested to describe ejection speed and angle of sand grains in equilibrium sand transport. This modified exponential distribution is

Mao Xing; Liejin Guo

2004-01-01

162

Hydraulic fracturing with a refractory proppant for sand control  

SciTech Connect

A sand control and heat transfer method is described for use in a borehole having an unconsolidated or loosely consolidated oil or gas reservoir which is otherwise likely to introduce substantial amounts of sand into the borehole, comprising: (a) providing a borehole casing through the reservoir; (b) perforating the casing at preselected intervals therealong to form at least one of longitudinal, in-line perforations; (c) hydraulically fracturing the reservoir by injecting a fracturing fluid containing a fine grain fused refractory material which comprises substantially silicon carbide or silicon nitride, and a clay stabilizing agent; (d) injecting a proppant comprising a gravel packing fused refractory material comprised substantially of silicon carbide or silicon nitride into the fracture, whereby a first layer of fine grain fused refractory material is held in place along the entire face of the fracture by a second layer of gravel packing fused refractory material also extending along the entire length of the fracture thereby excluding fines; and (e) producing oil or gas from the reservoir through the fracture into the borehole casing via a thermal oil recovery method which proppant and layers provide for increased heat transfer into the formation.

Jennings, A.R. Jr.; Stowe, L.R.

1989-04-04

163

Canyon dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible residues  

SciTech Connect

An alternative to the FB-Line scrap recovery dissolver was desired for the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS{ampersand}C) residues from the plutonium reduction process due to the potential generation of hydrogen gas concentrations above the lower flammability limit. To address this concern, a flowsheet was developed for the F-Canyon dissolvers. The dissolvers are continually purged with nominally 33 SCFM of air; therefore the generation of flammable gas concentrations should not be a concern. Following removal of crucible fragments, small batches of the remaining sand fines or slag chunks containing less than approximately 350 grams of plutonium can be dissolved using the center insert in each of the four annular dissolver ports to address nuclear criticality safety concerns. Complete dissolution of the sand fines and slag chunks was achieved in laboratory experiments by heating between 75 and 85 degrees Celsius in a 9.3M nitric acid/0.013M (hydrogen) fluoride solution. Under these conditions, the sand and slag samples dissolved between 1 and 3 hours. Complete dissolution of plutonium and calcium fluorides in the slag required adjusting the dissolver solution to 7.5 wt% aluminum nitrate nonahydrate (ANN). Once ANN was added to a dissolver solution, further dissolution of any plutonium oxide (PuO2) in successive charges was not practical due to complexation of the fluoride by aluminum. During the laboratory experiments, well mixed solutions were necessary to achieve rapid dissolution rates. When agitation was not provided, sand fines dissolved very slowly. Measurement of the hydrogen gas generation rate during dissolution of slag samples was used to estimate the amount of metal in the chunks. Depending upon the yield of the reduction, the values ranged between approximately 1 (good yield) and 20% (poor yield). Aging of the slag will reduce the potential for hydrogen generation as calcium metal oxidizes over time. The potential for excessive corrosion in the dissolvers was evaluated using experimental data reported in the literature. Corrosion data at the exact flowsheet conditions were not available; however, the corrosion rate for 304L stainless steel (wrought material) corrosion coupons in 10M nitric acid/0.01M hydrofluoric acid at 95 degrees Celsius was reported as 21 mils per year. If the fluoride in the dissolver is complexed with aluminum, the corrosion rate will decrease to approximately 5 mils per year.

Rudisill, T.S.; Gray, J.H.; Karraker, D.G.; Chandler, G.T.

1997-12-01

164

Colorado River sediment transport 2. Systematic bed-elevation and grain-size effects of sand supply limitation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Colorado River in Marble and Grand Canyons displays evidence of annual supply limitation with respect to sand both prior to [Topping et al., this issue] and after the closure of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Systematic changes in bed elevation and systematic coupled changes in suspended-sand concentration and grain size result from this supply limitation. During floods, sand supply limitation either causes or modifies a lag between the time of maximum discharge and the time of either maximum or minimum (depending on reach geometry) bed elevation. If, at a cross section where the bed aggrades with increasing flow, the maximum bed elevation is observed to lead the peak or the receding limb of a flood, then this observed response of the bed is due to sand supply limitation. Sand supply limitation also leads to the systematic evolution of sand grain size (both on the bed and in suspension) in the Colorado River. Sand input during a tributary flood travels down the Colorado River as an elongating sediment wave, with the finest sizes (because of their lower settling velocities) traveling the fastest. As the fine front of a sediment wave arrives at a given location, the bed fines and suspended-sand concentrations increase in response to the enhanced upstream supply of finer sand. Then, as the front of the sediment wave passes that location, the bed is winnowed and suspended-sand concentrations decrease in response to the depletion of the upstream supply of finer sand. The grain-size effects of depletion of the upstream sand supply are most obvious during periods of higher dam releases (e.g, the 1996 flood experiment and the 1997 test flow). Because of substantial changes in the grain-size distribution of the bed, stable relationships between the discharge of water and sand-transport rates (i.e., stable sand rating curves) are precluded. Sand budgets in a supply-limited river like the Colorado River can only be constructed through inclusion of the physical processes that couple changes in bed-sediment grain size to changes in sand-transport rates.

Topping, D. J.; Rubin, D. M.; Nelson, J. M.; Kinzel, III, P. J.; Corson, I. C.

2000-01-01

165

Nitrogen photoreduction on desert sands under sterile conditions  

PubMed Central

Sands from various geographic locations reduce N2 from the air to NH3 and traces of N2H4 on exposure to sunlight. This N2 photofixation occurs under sterile conditions on the surface of finely dispersed titanium minerals such as rutile, utilizing reducing equivalents generated through the photolysis of chemisorbed H2O. Abiological N2 photofixation is suggested to be part of the nitrogen cycle in arid and semiarid regions. It is estimated that about 10 × 105 tons of N2 is photoreduced on the total surface of the earth's deserts per year.

Schrauzer, Gerhard N.; Strampach, Norman; Hui, Liu Nan; Palmer, Miles R.; Salehi, Jahanshah

1983-01-01

166

Dynamics of sand and mud mixtures: A multiprocess-based modelling strategy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mixed sediments are constituted of cohesive and non-cohesive materials with distinct behaviours that numerical models traditionally manage separately. This paper first introduces a rapid state of the Art in sediment transport modelling in order to point out the specific requirements for process-based models applied to mixed sediments. Based on a preliminary study by Waeles et al. (2007), which showed the validity of the advection approach to compute fine sand transport, a complete modelling strategy is described: it is applied to the suspended transport of sand and mud mixtures, and accounts for consolidation of mixed sediments. Special care is paid to the realistic representation of the structure and density of sand and mud mixtures, and to the segregation in consolidating sediment layers. The model state variables are the different classes of particles, generally classified according to their size, and grouped into categories that are either transported as bedload or in suspension. The bed is described as thin layers characterised by a distribution of these classes. The erosion law for fine sands and for sand and mud mixtures is a function of the excess shear stress calibrated against measurements in a small flume. The transition between cohesive and non-cohesive behaviours is parameterised through a critical mud fraction that depends on the sand grain size: the coarser the sand, the higher the mud content before the sediment becomes cohesive. The consolidation module is based on Gibson equation formulated for each class, and modified to account for segregation. Constitutive relationships are calibrated by means of laboratory settling tests. In the deposition module, new deposits may be managed in different ways (creation of a new layer or integration into the existing surficial layer) depending on the mud fraction and its relative concentration. When deposited material is mixed with the surficial sediment, pores between coarser particles are first filled up with finer particles before increasing the layer thickness. The new modelling frame has first been used to simulate laboratory settling tests with mixed sediments. When the initial mixture density is low, sand particles can settle through the mud and form a dense sandy layer on the bottom. In a second application, the model is used to describe sorting processes when tidal currents re-suspend a sand and mud mixture. A sand layer is then likely to form within the sediment, while the surficial layers are muddier. A dynamic bed armouring process is shown: although sand is easily resuspended, eroded grains in the sand layer settle rapidly, reducing the erosion of underlying sediment. Resulting suspended sediment concentration is strongly reduced, as well as sediment fluxes. The application demonstrates the model ability to simulate layering processes and time-variations of sediment erodibility.

Le Hir, Pierre; Cayocca, Florence; Waeles, Benoît

167

Geology on a Sand Budget  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Earth science teaches know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, only to use the models for a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. Modeling geologic processes and features with sand is an effective way for teachers to promote student understanding of Earth science topics, quickly assess students' prior knowledge, and identify common misconceptions.

Kane, Jacqueline

2004-09-01

168

Sand fracturing vs frac acidizing  

SciTech Connect

Production histories of two wells were used to compare performances of fracture acidizing and sand fracturing treatments in a study that compared stimulation results of the Ratcliffe Formation in the Williston Basin. The study concluded that with a computer model and production history, fracture geometry may be calculated through curve matching. Use of this method may be helpful in the design of future stimulation jobs. Results of this study indicate greater well production rates and greater cumulative production from sand fracturing than equivalent cost fracture acidizing treatment.

Bailey, D.E.

1984-02-01

169

Analyses of fine paste ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Four chapters are included: history of Brookhaven fine paste ceramics project, chemical and mathematical procedures employed in Mayan fine paste ceramics project, and compositional and archaeological perspectives on the Mayan fine paste ceramics. (DLC)

Sabloff, J A [ed.

1980-01-01

170

Fine coal dewatering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The run-of-mine coals in the U.S. being fed to coal cleaning plants have become increasingly finer due to the adoption of modern, mechanized mining methods, and economics are dictating that finer fractions, as well as the coarser fractions, be cleaned. Traditional dewatering methods (vacuum disc filters and centrifuges) are proving inadequate for preparing fine refuse for disposal or fine coal

R. W. Row; J. R. Cavalet

1984-01-01

171

Growth of nestling Sand Martins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nestling Sand Martins are heaviest at 12 days old (on average), but then lose weight. Rapid early growth of the tarsi enables nestlings to move along the burrow towards incoming parents. The nestling period averages 22.3 days, and the young are dependent on their parents for a further 4–5 days after fledging.

A. K. Turner; D. M. Bryant

1979-01-01

172

Sand and Water Table Play  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

2010-01-01

173

Alberta Oil Sands Development Conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems approach to integrative adaptive management of brownfields on Alberta's oil sands development sites is presented. In particular, the Graph Model for Conflict Resolution (GMCR) is utilized to understand underlying development conflicts among stakeholders, which arise due to competing economic, environmental and societal objectives. The conflict model provides a formalized hypothesis-testing platform for determining responsible policies, which are those

Michele Heng; Keith W. Hipel; Liping Fang

2009-01-01

174

Geology on a Sand Budget  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Earth science teachers know how frustrating it can be to spend hundreds of dollars on three-dimensional (3-D) models of Earth's geologic features, to use the models for only a few class periods. To avoid emptying an already limited science budget, the author states that teachers can use a simple alternative to the expensive 3-D models--sand. She…

Kane, Jacqueline

2004-01-01

175

Loose sand habitat at the Mojave desert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Loose sand soil lacks moisture but contains adequate moisture and nutrients for drought tolerant plants. Loose sand soil is insufficient for animals to find or make shelter. Organisms find shade and shelter under the large shrubs.

Katie Hale (California State University, Fullerton;Student. Biological Sciences)

2007-01-06

176

Behavior of Plastic Sand Confinement Grids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of improving the load carrying ability of unbound aggregates, particularly sand, by lateral confinement has been investigated for some time. Extensive full-scale testing of the trafficability of confined beach sand pavement layers has been car...

1986-01-01

177

Mean age of carbon in fine roots from temperate forests and grasslands with different management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine roots are the most dynamic portion of a plant's root system and a major source of soil organic matter. By altering plant species diversity and composition, soil conditions and nutrient availability, and consequently belowground allocations and dynamics of root carbon (C) inputs, land-use and management changes may influence organic C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In three German regions we measured fine root radiocarbon (14C) content to estimate the mean time since C in root tissues was fixed from the atmosphere in 54 grassland and forest plots with different management and soil conditions. The mean age of C in fine roots in forest environments averaged 11.3±1.8 years (mean ± SE, n=27) and was significantly older and more variable compared to grassland environments (1.7±0.4 years, n=27). We further found that management affects the mean age of fine root C in temperate grasslands mediated by changes in plant species diversity and composition. Fine root mean C age is positively correlated to plant diversity (r=0.65) and to the number of perennial species (r=0.77). In temperate grasslands the mean age of fine root C is also influenced by the study region mainly due to differences in soil characteristics and climate, with averages of 0.7±0.1 years (n=9) on mostly organic sandy soils and of 1.8±0.3 years (n=9) and 2.6±0.3 (n=9) in more silty and clayey soils respectively. Our results indicate an internal redistribution of C in perennial species and suggest linkages between fine root C age and management in grasslands. These findings improve our ability to predict and model belowground C fluxes across broader spatial scales.

Solly, Emily; Schrumpf, Marion; Schöning, Ingo; Boch, Steffen; Trumbore, Susan

2013-04-01

178

Regeneration of sand waves after dredging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sand waves are large bed waves on the seabed, being a few metres high and lying hundreds of metres apart. In some cases, these sand waves occur in navigation channels. If these sand waves reduce the water depth to an unacceptable level and hinder navigation, they need to be dredged. It has been observed in the Bisanseto Channel in Japan

M. A. F. Knaapen; S. J. M. H. Hulscher

2002-01-01

179

Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found

Canan Varlikli; Vlasoula Bekiari; Mahmut Kus; Numan Boduroglu; Ilker Oner; Panagiotis Lianos; Gerasimos Lyberatos; Siddik Icli

2009-01-01

180

Erosion of mud\\/sand mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prediction of sediment erosion is an important issue in coastal engineering projects. There are methods for predicting the erosion of cohesive sediment (mud) and non-cohesive sediment (sand), but there are presently no relationships for mixed sediments. However, natural sediments rarely consist of only mud or sand and the erosional properties of combined mud and sand sediments are required so

Helen Mitchener; Hilde Torfs

1996-01-01

181

Fluidized bed retorting of tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raw tar sand is treated in a fluidized bed reactor means wherein the raw tar sands are fed into an area below the top of the bed. The bitumen is converted in the process in a reducing atmosphere including steam to produce hot coked sand and hot off-gases. Off-gases from the reactor means pass through a heat exchanger means to

P. H. II

1978-01-01

182

Sand reinforced with shredded waste tires  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using shredded waste tires to reinforce sand. Direct shear tests were conducted on mixtures of dry sand and shredded waste tires. The following factors were studied to evaluate their influence on shear strength: normal stress, sand matrix unit weight, shred content, shred length, and shred orientation. From results of

Gary J. Foose; Craig H. Benson; Peter J. Bosscher

1996-01-01

183

Vertical profiles of aeolian sand mass flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vertical profiles of the horizontal mass flux of blown sand are investigated experimentally using a passive vertical array in a wind tunnel. Considering lower sampling efficiency of the sand trap in the near-bed region, this investigation is complemented by the measurements of the longitudinal profiles of mass flux made using a horizontal sand trap. The experiments were conducted with two

J. R Ni; Z. S Li; C Mendoza

2003-01-01

184

The Valuation of the Alberta Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Alberta oil sands reserves represent a very valuable energy resource for Canadians. In 2007, Statistics Canada valued the oil sands at $342.1 billion, or 5 per cent Canada's total tangible wealth of $6.9 trillion. Given the oil sands' importance, it is essential to value them appropriately. In this report, we critically review the methods used by Statistics Canada in

Andrew Sharpe; Jean-François Arsenault; Alexander Murray; Sharon Qiao

2008-01-01

185

Sand and Water Table Buying Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of sand and water play for young children. Provides a partial list of materials and equipment used to provide sensory experiences at sand and water tables. Offers a buying guide listing manufacturers of sand and water tables, product descriptions, and ordering information. (DR)

Morris, Susan

1990-01-01

186

Sand dunes as migrating strings.  

PubMed

We develop a reduced complexity model for three-dimensional sand dunes, based on a simplified description of the longitudinal and lateral sand transport. The spatiotemporal evolution of a dune migrating over a nonerodible bed under unidirectional wind is reduced to the dynamics of its crest line, providing a simple framework for the investigation of three-dimensional dunes, such as barchan and transverse dunes. Within this model, we derive analytical solutions for barchan dunes and investigate the stability of a rectilinear transverse dune against lateral fluctuations. We show, in particular, that the latter is unstable only if the lateral transport on the dune slip face prevails over that on the upwind face. We also predict the wavelength and the characteristic time that control the subsequent evolution of an unstable transverse dune into a wavy ridge and the ultimate fragmentation into barchan dunes. PMID:23767529

Guignier, L; Niiya, H; Nishimori, H; Lague, D; Valance, A

2013-05-24

187

Spatial Variation of Fine Sediment Infiltration in a Gravel-Bedded River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fine sediment infiltration occurs when sand and silt are deposited into void spaces between gravel at the riverbed. Pulses of fine sediment in gravel-bedded rivers can cause extensive fine sediment infiltration, potentially altering river morphodynamics and aquatic ecosystems. The 2008 removal of Milltown Dam from the Clark Fork River near Missoula, Montana and the resulting pulse of fine sediment released from Milltown Reservoir provide a unique opportunity to investigate controls on and the spatial distribution of fine sediment infiltration. Metal contaminants trapped in the reservoir from mining operations upstream provide a geochemical tracer for the fine sediment transported downstream after the dam was removed. From the dam site to 25 km downstream, where a large tributary enters, substantial infiltration of fine sediment has been observed, but infiltration (as well as deposition in side channels, bars, and on the floodplain) has been greatest in a multi-thread reach starting 16 km downstream of the dam, where we focused our data collection. To characterize the volume, stratigraphy, and residence time of infiltrated fine sediments, we collected 16 bulk samples and ten freeze cores and installed and recovered 16 infiltration bags during the 2010 water year. Preliminary analyses suggest greater infiltration of fines in side channels and backwater eddies, as well as persistence of high fines content in the bed material two-and-a-half years after dam removal. Metals analysis of freeze cores at 10-cm intervals is being used to identify whether infiltrated fines originate from contaminated portions of Milltown Reservoir.

Evans, E. G.; Wilcox, A. C.

2010-12-01

188

Hydrogeochemical and isotopic characterisation of groundwater in a sand-dune phreatic aquifer on the northeastern coast of the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina.  

PubMed

This contribution presents the hydrochemical and isotopic characterisation of the phreatic aquifer located in the Partido de la Costa, province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. In the sand-dune barrier geomorphological environment, groundwater is mainly a low-salinity Ca-HCO3 and Na-HCO3-type, being in general suitable for drinking, whereas in the continental plain (silty clay sediments), groundwater is a Na-Cl type with high salinity and unsuitable for human consumption. The general isotopic composition of the area ranges from-6.8 to-4.3 ‰ for ?(18)O and from-39 to-21 ‰ for ?(2)H, showing that rainwater rapidly infiltrates into the sandy substrate and reaches the water table almost without significant modification in its isotopic composition. These analyses, combined with other chemical parameters, made it possible to corroborate that in the eastern area of the phreatic aquifer, there is no contamination from marine salt water. PMID:23713885

Carretero, Silvina C; Dapeña, Cristina; Kruse, Eduardo E

2013-05-29

189

Use of profile shape for remotely differentiating between sand ripples, megaripples, and sand dunes on Earth and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Processes of emplacement vary considerably between typical sand ripples (associated with saltation of medium to fine sand), megaripples (large ripples with a surface coating of coarse grains moved by impact creep, over a predominantly sand interior), and certain types of sand dunes (specifically, transverse dunes and reversing dunes, both of which can include avalanche deposits associated with slip face development). The features all have roughly similar-appearing planforms even though they represent drastically different emplacement mechanisms. Cross-sectional profiles were measured for the three types of feature using multiple techniques of surveying in order to obtain comparable precisions for features whose horizontal scale ranges over more than three orders of magnitude. When the measured profiles are scaled by the width of the feature, defined here to be the distance between the basal break in slope on both sides of the crest, the scaled profiles can be separated according to their process. When detailed topographic information can be obtained from images of various aeolian features on Mars, such as photoclinometric derivation of shape from shading, the width-scaled terrestrial data provide a method for remotely evaluating the probable mechanism of origin for the Martian features. Application of this technique to planetary settings is limited primarily by the precision of topography that can be obtained remotely for planetary surfaces, but at least for Mars, the diverse data sets available from multiple spacecraft platforms are providing data that can be compared favorably to the measured terrestrial data sets. This work was supported by a grant from the Mars Data Analysis program of NASA (NNX08AK90G) and funds from the Smithsonian Endowments.

Zimbelman, J. R.; Shockey, K. M.

2011-12-01

190

Sand transport beneath waves: The role of progressive wave streaming and other free surface effects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent large-scale wave flume experiments on sheet-flow sediment transport beneath Stokes waves show more onshore-directed sediment transport than earlier sheet-flow experiments in oscillating flow tunnels. For fine sand, this extends to a reversal from offshore- (tunnels) to onshore (flumes)-directed transport. A remarkable hydrodynamic mechanism present in flumes (with free water surface), but not in tunnels (rigid lid), is the generation of progressive wave streaming, an onshore wave boundary layer current. This article investigates whether this streaming is the full explanation of the observed differences in transport. In this article, we present a numerical model of wave-induced sand transport that includes the effects of the free surface on the bottom boundary layer. With these effects and turbulence damping by sediment included, our model yields good reproductions of the vertical profile of the horizontal (mean) velocities, as well as transport rates of both fine and medium sized sediment. Similar to the measurements, the model reveals the reversal of transport direction by free surface effects for fine sand. A numerical investigation of the relative importance of the various free surface effects shows that progressive wave streaming indeed contributes substantially to increased onshore transport rates. However, especially for fine sands, horizontal gradients in sediment advection in the horizontally nonuniform flow field also are found to contribute significantly. We therefore conclude that not only streaming, but also inhomogeneous sediment advection should be considered in formulas of wave-induced sediment transport applied in morphodynamic modeling. We propose a variable time-scale parameter to account for these effects.

Kranenburg, Wouter M.; Ribberink, Jan S.; Schretlen, Jolanthe J. L. M.; Uittenbogaard, Rob E.

2013-03-01

191

Wind initiation thresholds of the moistened sands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The widely accepted Bagnold-type function for calculating threshold wind velocity or shear velocity was developed for dry sands, but surface moisture is an extremely important variable controlling the entrainment process of sands by wind because the tensile force between the water molecules and sand grains produces cohesion. Here we report detailed wind tunnel experimental results on the threshold shear velocity of moistened sand of different sizes. The results show that relative threshold shear velocity, which is the ratio of threshold shear velocity of sand in the moistened state to that in the dry state, is better related to moisture content than threshold shear velocity itself. Function, modified after the Bagnold equation has been developed to estimate the threshold shear velocities of moistened sands. For a given grain size, the threshold shear velocity is proportional to (1 + KM)1/2, where, M is the moisture content, and K is a coefficient depending on grain size.

Dong, Zhibao; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xunming

2002-06-01

192

Sand banks of finite amplitude  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process which leads to the appearance of sand banks in shallow seas is investigated by studying the growth of small-amplitude perturbations of the sea bottom, forced by oscillatory tidal currents. Since the analysis of field data carried out by Dyer and Huntley (1999) suggests that sand banks are likely to occur where the tidal ellipse is circular or characterized by a low ellipticity, attention is focused on small values of ?, where e is the ratio between minor and major axes of the tidal ellipse. The linear analysis, which considers perturbations of small (strictly infinitesimal) amplitude, shows the existence of a critical value rC of the Keulegan-Carpenter number r of the tide (r = U0*/(h0*?*), U0* and ?* being the amplitude and angular frequency of the velocity oscillations induced by the tide propagation and h0* being the averaged water depth) such that for r smaller than rC the flat bottom configuration is stable, while for r larger than rC the sand banks start to appear. Close to the critical condition, the wavelength of the most unstable mode turns out to be finite. Then a weakly nonlinear analysis is developed which allows the evaluation of the equilibrium amplitude of the bottom forms when the parameter r is close to its critical value. The configuration of the sea bottom, when the bottom forms attain their equilibrium, is characterized by the presence of long ridges, almost parallel to the main axis of the tidal ellipse, with crest-to-crest distances similar to those observed during field surveys. The crests of the bottom forms turn out to be flat, and the extensive shallow waters at the crests are compensated by deep troughs between the ridges.

Tambroni, N.; Blondeaux, P.

2008-10-01

193

Episodic dynamics of a sand wave field  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphodynamics of a sand wave field in a flood-dominant channel inside Moriches Inlet was monitored for eight weeks during the summer of 2005. Bathymetric data show sand waves on average are 15 m long and 39 cm high with shallow slip faces. The sand waves remained stationary over the eight-week study. The maximum peak current speeds recorded during this study only

Shelley J. Whitmeyer; Duncan M. FitzGerald

2008-01-01

194

NICMOS Fine Optical Alignment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

# The purpose of this activity is to perform a series of iterative adjustments of the NICMOS pupil alignment mechanism to establish the initial optical alignment in focus and tilt for all three cameras. This proposal has been broken down into 4 sub-proposals to make implementation easier. The four phases of the NICMOS Focus/Alignment activity are: # 1} Pre-Alignment Check-out {prop 7134} 2} Coarse Optical Alignment {Initial Focus Sweep} {prop 7041} 3} Intermediate Focus/Alignment {prop 7135} 4} Fine Optical Alignment {prop 7042} # This is proposal 7042; Fine Optical Alignment -------------------------- Objectives: a} Establish PAM focus and X/Y tilt for each camera b} Check performance over various filters {filter parfocality check} #

Calzetti, Daniela

1997-12-01

195

CHARACTERIZATION OF FINE PARTICULATE MATTER  

EPA Science Inventory

Size distribution data processing and fitting Ultrafine, very fine and fine PM were collected nearly continuously from December 2000 through March 2003 at a Washington State Department of Ecology site on Beacon Hill in Seattle. Particle size distributio...

196

Pyrolysis of Arroyo Grande tar sand and tar sand/oil mixtures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pyrolysis experiments have been performed on Arroyo Grande tar sand and on mixtures of tar sand and SAE 50 oil. Isothermal and nonisothermal tests were performed on a Du Pont model 950 thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA), and larger scale isothermal experime...

T. F. Turner B. E. Thomas L. G. Nickerson

1989-01-01

197

[Model experiments on breathing under sand].  

PubMed

Remarkable autopsy findings in persons who had suffocated as a result of closure of the mouth and nose by sand (without the body being buried) induced us to investigate some aspects of this situation by means of a simple experiment. A barrel (diameter 36.7 cm) with a mouthpiece in the bottom was filled with sand to a depth of 15, 30, 60, or 90 cm. The subject tried to breathe as long as possible through the sand, while the amount of sand inspired was measured. Pressure and volume of the breath, as well as the O2 and CO2 content were also measured. A respiratory volume of up to 31 was possible, even when the depth was 90 cm. After about 1 min in all trials, the subject's shortness of breath forced us to stop the experiment. Measurement of O2 and CO2 concentrations proved that respiratory volume in and out of the sand shifts to atmospheric air without gas exchange, even when the sand depth is 15 cm. Sand aspiration depended on the moisture of the material: when the sand was dry, it was impossible to avoid aspiration. However, even a water content of only 5% prevented aspiration, although the sand seemed to be nearly dry. PMID:3927604

Maxeiner, H; Haenel, F

1985-01-01

198

Minerals yearbook, 1988: Industrial sand and gravel  

SciTech Connect

Production of industrial sand and gravel in 1988 increased to 28.5 million short tons, about a 2% increase over that of 1987, but remained 15% below the record-high production level of 1979. The production increase was due in part to the addition of new operations in California and Tennessee. Imports of industrial sand and gravel decreased about 59% in quantity, but the associated value increased 79%. Exports of industrial sand and gravel increased about 40% in quantity with a slight increase in average value per ton. Domestic apparent consumption of industrial sand and gravel in 1988 was 27.5 million tons.

Bolen, W.P.

1988-01-01

199

The Effect of Preferential Flow on Colloidal Transport in Unsaturated Heterogeneous Sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport of colloids may be greatly enhanced by the presence of preferential flow pathways (PF). The impact of PF on the overall colloid transport was investigated in unsaturated heterogeneous sand under steady-state flow conditions. The experiments were conducted in a 30 cm column, with 11.5 cm internal diameter. Two types of acid-cleaned sand were used to pack the column: coarse (d50 = 1.2 mm) and fine (d50 = 0.36 mm). Heterogeneity created by three continuous bodies of fine sand (within a column of coarse sand) comprised 3.7% of the total sand volume. Water content and pressure head in the coarse sand were monitored with three pairs of TDR probes and tensiometers, respectively, evenly spaced along the column length. Experiments were performed under three different flow rates applied at the top of the column using a rain simulator. Negative pressure (-8, -6, and -5.5 cm corresponding to flow rates of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 cm/min, respectively) was maintained at the bottom of the column to produce a constant water content profile (11, 12 and 14% by volume, respectively) in coarse sand. Numerical simulations that were carried out using a double porosity, double permeability model and the Hydrus-2D model, showed higher water content, hydraulic conductivity and, as a result, greater flux in fine sand compared with the bulk of coarse sand. Three sizes of fluorescent latex microspheres were used: 1, 0.2 and 0.02 ?m in a mixture with conservative tracers (LiBr). A pulse injection of one water column volume (corresponding to a prescribed water content) of solution was followed by flushing with artificial rainwater. The main features of the breakthrough curves (BTCs) obtained from the heterogeneously packed column were earlier arrival of tracer concentration front (as early as 0.25 water column volume) and tailing. Colloid arrival occurred at effectively the same time as that of conservative tracers, with the exception of the smallest colloids (0.02 ?m), which arrived with some delay. The BTCs of colloids also exhibited considerable tailing. A decrease in flow rate from 0.2 to 0.1 cm/min caused a decrease of 44, 40 and 58% in mass recovery for particles of 1, 0.2 and 0.02 ?m, respectively. Comparable experiments carried out in the homogeneously packed column showed a two/three-fold increase in arrival time, and no tailing was observed in the fine sand column. Early arrival as well as small-particle retention observed in experiments with heterogeneous sand may indicate high mass exchange between the bulk and the preferential paths. Numerical analysis with the double porosity, double permeability model revealed a high influence of the mass exchange coefficient on arrival time and shape of BTCs.

Mishurov, M.; Yakirevich, A.; Weisbrod, N.; Kuznetsov, M.

2006-12-01

200

X-ray computed-tomography observations of water flow through anisotropic methane hydrate-bearing sand  

SciTech Connect

We used X-ray computed tomography (CT) to image and quantify the effect of a heterogeneous sand grain-size distribution on the formation and dissociation of methane hydrate, as well as the effect on water flow through the heterogeneous hydrate-bearing sand. A 28 cm long sand column was packed with several segments having vertical and horizontal layers with sands of different grain-size distributions. During the hydrate formation, water redistribution occurred. Observations of water flow through the hydrate-bearing sands showed that water was imbibed more readily into the fine sand, and that higher hydrate saturation increased water imbibition in the coarse sand due to increased capillary strength. Hydrate dissociation induced by depressurization resulted in different flow patterns with the different grain sizes and hydrate saturations, but the relationships between dissociation rates and the grain sizes could not be identified using the CT images. The formation, presence, and dissociation of hydrate in the pore space dramatically impact water saturation and flow in the system.

Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

2009-06-01

201

Numerical analysis of geosynthetic reinforced retaining wall constructed on a layered soil foundation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical examination of the behaviour of an 8m high geosynthetic reinforced soil wall constructed on a layered foundation stratum is described. The foundation consists of a 0.8m hard crust, underlain by 2.95m of soft loam (sandy\\/silty) and then 1.3m of stiff clay. Below the clay is 1.75m of fine sand underlain by a layer of clayey\\/fine sand extending to

R. Kerry Rowe; Graeme D. Skinner

2001-01-01

202

Lizard locomotion on weak sand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial animal locomotion in the natural world can involve complex foot-ground interaction; for example, running on sand probes the solid and fluid behaviors of the medium. We study locomotion of desert-dwelling lizard Callisaurus draconoides (length 16 cm, mass=20 g) during rapid running on sand. To explore the role of foot-ground interaction on locomotion, we study the impact of flat disks ( 2 cm diameter, 10 grams) into a deep (800 particle diameters) bed of 250 ?m glass spheres of fixed volume fraction ? 0.59, and use a vertical flow of air (a fluidized bed) to change the material properties of the medium. A constant flow Q below the onset of bed fluidization weakens the solid: at fixed ? the penetration depth and time of a disk increases with increasing Q. We measure the average speed, foot impact depth, and foot contact time as a function of material strength. The animal maintains constant penetration time (30 msec) and high speed (1.4 m/sec) even when foot penetration depth varies as we manipulate material strength. The animals compensate for decreasing propulsion by increasing stride frequency.

Goldman, Daniel

2005-03-01

203

The settling dynamics of flocculating mud and sand mixtures: part 2—numerical modelling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine and coastal sediment transport is characterised by the transport of both sand-sized particles (of diameter greater than 63 ?m) and muddy fine-grained sediments (silt, diameter less than 63 ?m; clay, diameter less than 2 ?m). These fractions are traditionally considered as non-cohesive and cohesive, respectively, because of the negligible physico-chemical attraction that occurs between sand grains. However, the flocculation of sediment particles is not only caused by physico-chemical attraction. Cohesivity of sediment is also caused by biology, in particular the sticky extra-cellular polymeric substances secreted by diatoms, and the effect of biology in binding sediment particles can be much larger than that of physico-chemical attraction. As demonstrated by Manning (2008) and further expanded in part 1 of this paper (Manning et al., submitted), the greater binding effect of biology allows sand particles to flocculate with mud. In many estuaries, both the sand and fine sediment fractions are transported in significant quantities. Many of the more common sediment transport modelling suites now have the capability to combine mud and sand transport. However, in all of these modelling approaches, the modelling of mixed sediment transport has still essentially separated the modelling of sand and mud fractions assuming that these different fractions do not interact except at the bed. However, the use of in situ video techniques has greatly enhanced the accuracy and reliability of settling velocity measurements and has led to a re-appraisal of this widely held assumption. Measurements of settling velocity in mixed sands presented by Manning et al. (2009) have shown strong evidence for the flocculation of mixed sediments, whilst the greater understanding of the role of biology in flocculation has identified mechanisms by which this mud-sand flocculation can occur. In the first part of this paper (Manning et al., submitted), the development of an empirical flocculation model is described which represents the interaction between sand and mud particles in the flocculation process. Measurements of the settling velocity of varying mud-sand mixtures are described, and empirical algorithms governing the variation of settling velocity with turbulence, suspended sediment concentration and mud-sand content are derived. The second part of this paper continues the theme of examination of the effects of mud-sand interaction on flocculation. A 1DV mixed transport model is developed and used to reproduce the vertical transport of mixed sediment fractions. The 1DV model is used to reproduce the measured settling velocities in the laboratory experiments described in the part 1 paper and also to reproduce measurements of concentration of mixed sediments in the Outer Thames. In both modelling exercises, the model is run using the algorithms developed in part 1 and repeated using an assumption of no interaction between mud and sand in the flocculation process. The results of the modelling show a significant improvement in the ability of the 1DV to reproduce the observed sediment behaviour when the empirical equations are used. This represents further strong evidence of the interaction between sand and mud in the flocculation process.

Spearman, Jeremy R.; Manning, Andrew J.; Whitehouse, Richard J. S.

2011-03-01

204

Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beach-goers  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. METHODS: In 2007, visitors at 2 recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days...

205

[Spatial distribution patterns of dry sand layer on windward slope of dunes in Horqin Sand Land].  

PubMed

An observation was conducted on the thickness of dry sand layer on the windward slope of mobile and fixed dunes in west Horqin Sand Land, with the spatial distribution of the dry sand layer analyzed. Most of the dry sand layer had a thickness of 5-15 cm, and 92.0% and 98.6% of the mobile and fixed dunes had the dry sand layer with this thickness, respectively. Sand-fixing plants affected the thickness and the spatial distribution of the dry sand layer. There was an obvious spatial difference in the thickness of the dry sand layer on mobile dunes, being much thicker in the upper west areas while much thinner in the lower east areas. The thickness of the dry sand layer varied from 0 to 40 cm, with an average of 9.58 +/- 3.95 cm, and the CV was 41%. The variogram of the spatial distribution of dry sand layer on mobile dunes was expressed as spherical model, with a moderate spatial correlation. In contrast, the thickness of dry sand layer on fixed dunes showed obvious homogeneity, and had less spatial difference. The thickness of the dry sand layer ranged from 0 to 20 cm, with an average of 10.91 +/- 1.70 cm, and the CV was only 16%. PMID:22803448

Zong, Qin; Lamusa, A; Luo, Yong-Ming; Niu, Cun-Yang; Chen, Xue-Feng; Wang, Hai-Yang

2012-04-01

206

The microstructure and internal architecture of shear bands in sand-clay sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructures of cm-scale displacement faults offsetting unlithified sequences of finely interbedded sands, silts and clays from outcrops in Denmark have been examined. A variety of shear band types are recognised based on their grain-scale deformation mechanism and internal structure. Shear bands in a Jurassic sequence exposed along the coastline of Bornholm are characterised by intense cataclasis of both sand and clay layers. This deformation mechanism is accompanied by extensive grain scale mixing along discrete shear bands to give a fault rock composition that reflects the relative amount of sand and clay within the faulted sequence. In contrast, shear bands at Nr. Lyngby and Jensgaard, both on the Jutland coast, are characterised by granular flow within the sand units. Grain scale mixing is subdued at these locations so that layers maintain their integrity across the shear band to form a layered internal structure of sand, silt and clay smears. In some instances, particularly at Nr. Lyngby, clays have deformed in a brittle manner so that they do not contribute material to the shear band, which is then comprised exclusively of coarser-grained components. The different deformation mechanisms and internal structures of shear bands are thought to be controlled by burial depth at the time of faulting.

Kristensen, M. B.; Childs, C.; Olesen, N. Ø.; Korstgård, J. A.

2013-01-01

207

Reevaluation of Stevens sand potential - Maricopa depocenter, southern San Joaquin basin, California  

SciTech Connect

During the upper Miocene in the Southern San Joaquin basin surrounding highlands contributed coarse material to a deep marine basin dominated by fine grained silicious bioclastic deposition. these coarse deposits became reservoirs isolated within the silicious Antelope Shale Member of the Monterey Formation. In the southern Maricopa depocenter these Stevens sands are productive at Yowlumne, Landslide, Aqueduct, Rio Viejo, San Emidio Nose, Paloma, and Midway-Sunset fields, and are major exploration targets in surrounding areas. In the ARCO Fee lands area of the southern Maricopa depocenter, Stevens sands occur as rapidly thickening lens-shaped bodies that formed as channel, levee, and lobe deposits of deep-marine fan systems. These fans were fed from a southerly source, with apparent transport in a north-northwesterly direction. Sands deflect gently around present-day structural highs indicating that growth of structures influenced depositional patterns. Correlations reveal two major fan depositional intervals bounded by regional N, O, and P chert markers. Each interval contains numerous individual fan deposits, with many lobes and channels recognizable on three-dimensional seismic data. In addition to these basinal sand plays presently being evaluated, ARCO is pursuing a relatively new trend on Fee lands along the southern basin margin, where correlation to mountain data reveals Stevens sands trend into the steeply dipping beds of the mountain front. This area, the upturned Stevens,' has large reserve potential and producing analogies at Metson, Leutholtz, Los Lobos, and Pleito Ranch fields.

Kolb, M.M.; Parks, S.L. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Bakersfield, CA (United States))

1991-02-01

208

Water Use for Cultivation Management of Watermelon in Upland Field on Sand Dune  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Early-maturing cultivation of watermelon in a plastic tunnel was invetigated in upland field on sand dune on the coast of the Japan Sea to find water use to control blowing sand and to transplant seedlings. This region has low precipitation, low humidity, and strong wind in March and April, when sand is readily blown in the field. Water is used to control blowing sand on days with precipitation below 5 mm, minimum humidity below the meteorological average in April, and maximum wind velocity above the meteorological average in April. For the rooting and growth of watermelon seedlings, soil temperature needs to be raised because it is low in April. Ridges are mulched with transparent, porous polyethylene films 10 or more days before transplanting the seedlings and irrigated with sprinklers on fine days for the thermal storage of solar energy. The stored heat steams the mulched ridges to raise soil temperature to 15°C or higher on the day of transplanting the seedlings. The total amount of irrigation water used for watermelon cultivation was 432.7 mm, of which 23.6 mm was for blowing sand control and 26.6 mm was for transplanting the seedlings. The combined amount, 50.2 mm, is 11.6% of the total amount of water used for cultivation management.

Hashimoto, Iwao; Senge, Masateru; Itou, Kengo; Maruyama, Toshisuke

209

Experiments on the Evolution of Sand Bed Forms for Varying Degrees of Supply Limitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advanced age and impending decommissioning of many dams have brought increased attention to the fate of sediments stored in reservoirs. In many cases, fine sediments are reintroduced to coarse substrates that have large volumes of pore space available for storage after having sediments removed by years of sediment-starved flow. Recent research has found that the fine sediment elevation relative to the coarse substrate significantly alters bed surface roughness, turbulence characteristics, the mobility of the fine sediment, and consequently sediment transport rates and sediment bed forms that move over and through these coarse substrates. The roughness of the bed surface is an important parameter for the prediction of bulk flow and sediment transport rates. In order to calculate sediment transport rates, bed shear stresses are typically adjusted for drag exerted by the flow on macro roughness elements, which are related here to the protrusion of coarse substrate particles and sediment bed forms. Also, the partial mobility (or supply limitation) of sediment yields bed forms that differ from those observed for uniform bed material. Hence, a proper understanding of the interactions between near-bed flow structure, sediment transport rates, and bed surface elevation is needed to adequately determine the downstream impact of fine sediment releases from reservoirs. Recent experiments at the USDA-ARS-National Sedimentation Laboratory in a sediment-recirculating flume (15 m long, 0.36 m wide, and 0.45 m deep) were carried out to elucidate turbulence and sand transport over and through coarse gravel substrates. The median diameter of the sand was 0.3 mm, and that of the gravel was 35 mm. This paper presents results on the change in bed form types with increasing sand elevation relative to the coarse gravel substrate and for Froude numbers ranging from about 0.1 to 0.6. The mean sand elevation was varied between 5 cm below the top of the gravel and the top of the gravel. The bed level was measured using both an acoustic sensor and stereo photogrammetry. The acoustic sensor provided bed elevation transects along the channel centerline, whereas digital elevation models with a horizontal grid size of 0.25x0.25 mm were derived from the stereo images. At low mean sand elevations an individual, low-relief dune-like bed form initially developed for larger Froude numbers. Groups of increasingly numerous low-relief bed forms developed when increasing mean sand elevation. The tops of the bed forms were located at an elevation similar to those of the higher gravel tops.

Langendoen, E. J.; Wren, D. G.; Kuhnle, R. A.

2011-12-01

210

Gasification of oil sand coke: Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled. The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter,

Edward Furimsky

1998-01-01

211

Hydrodynamic analysis of feeding in sand dollars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subtidal sand dollars, Dendraster excentricus, assume an inclined posture under conditions of moderate water flow (10 cm s-1 to 2 m s-1). In this posture, when the test is in the usual position parallel to the water flow, the test acts as a lifting body. Analysis of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the sand dollar test was accomplished by slender body

Patricia L. O'Neill

1978-01-01

212

Systems for producing bitumen from tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for producing bitumen from unconsolidated tar sands in an open well includes a screen positioned in the well large enough to pass a majority of the formation sand and small enough to retain a gravel packing material, a pair of high pressure fluid lateral nozzles fracturably fastened in the bottom of the screen, a wash pipe extending down

Payton

1978-01-01

213

Introduction to Exploring Sand and Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What happens when children pour water through a funnel? They begin to understand science and math concepts such as flow, force, gravity, and volume. What happens when children mold sand to create a tunnel? They develop skills in areas such as problem solving and predicting. They also gain knowledge about absorption and the properties of sand and…

Early Childhood Today, 2006

2006-01-01

214

Explorations with the Sand and Water Table.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents sand and water activities for young children as examples of sensory explorations, science activities, and comforting play. Includes information on health and safety precautions, adaptations for children with physical disabilities, the use of other materials, and sand and water toys made from one-liter plastic bottles. (KB)|

Texas Child Care, 2001

2001-01-01

215

Syncrude-oil from Alberta's tar sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic crude oil can be produced from bitumen contained in oil sands such as those located in Alberta, Canada. The most recent plant to come on stream, that of Syncrude Canada Ltd., mines the oil sand by open pit methods, recovers the bitumen using the hot water flotation process, and produces synthetic crude from bitumen by coking and hydrotreating. The

1980-01-01

216

New production techniques for Alberta oil sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by

M. A. CARRIGY

1986-01-01

217

New Production Techniques for Alberta Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by

Maurice A. Carrigy

1986-01-01

218

Adding Value to Alberta's Oil Sands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapidly expanding oil sands industry and a dwindling supply of feedstock for Alberta's ethane-based petrochemical industry have stimulated interest in evaluating bitumen for producing a broad slate of refined products, including petrochemicals. Two industry\\/government studies evaluated different process schemes for integrating oil sands, refining, and petrochemical operations and convert heavy gas oils into both refined products and petro- chemicals.

S. Laureshen; P. D. CLARK; M. P. DU PLESSIS

2006-01-01

219

Sand dams: Africa's answer to climate change?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In semi-arid regions of Africa, sand dam technology can make a significant contribution to mitigating the impacts of climate change by providing a low-cost solution to the problem of water conservation. Despite clear benefits, sand dams are used relatively little as they are very labour intensive, meaning a lack of effective community engagement can endanger project implementation and sustainability. Excellent

Simon Maddrell; Sophie Bown

220

Use of Foundry Sands in Transportation Applications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The primary objective of this project was to verify the availability and suitability of Texas-generated foundry sand (FS) for TxDOT and to develop specifications for use of these sands in TxDOT construction and maintenance applications. Extensive literatu...

C. Vipulanandan S. Cho S. Wang

2005-01-01

221

Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort  

Microsoft Academic Search

A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into

Thomas

1982-01-01

222

RADIUM REMOVAL USING SORPTION TO FILTER SAND  

EPA Science Inventory

The study evaluated the use of a novel sand filtration process that exploits the natural capacity of filter sand to sorb radium through the use of a periodic dilute acid rinse to maintain its sorptive capacity. Batch studies were conducted to determine distribution coefficients s...

223

Sand reinforced with shredded waste tires  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using shredded waste tires to reinforce sand. Direct shear tests were conducted on mixtures of dry sand and shredded waste tires. The following factors were studied to evaluate their influence on shear strength: normal stress, sand matrix unit weight, shred content, shred length, and shred orientation. From results of the tests, three significant factors affecting shear strength were identified: normal stress, shred content, and sand matrix unit weight. A model for estimating the strength of reinforced soils was also evaluated to determine its applicability to mixtures of sand and tire shreds. When the model is calibrated using results from one shred content, it may be useful for estimating the friction angle for other shred contents. In all cases, adding shredded tires increased the shear strength of sand, with an apparent friction angle ({phi}{prime}) as large as 67{degree} being obtained. Shred content and sand matrix unit weight were the most significant characteristics of the mixes influencing shear strength. Increasing either of these variables resulted in an increase in {phi}{prime}. Tests were also conducted on specimens consisting of only shredded tires (no sand), and the friction angle obtained was 30{degree}.

Foose, G.J.; Benson, C.H.; Bosscher, P.J. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1996-09-01

224

Estimating Sand–Shale Formation Pore Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a comprehensive evaluation method of estimating sand–shale formation pore pressure by using sonic velocity and other logging data. The method takes the influence of porosity, density, shale content, effective stress, and some other physical properties of sand–shale formation on sonic velocity into account. The influence and related logging data are combined to estimate the effective stress, and

F. Honghai; Y. Zhi; J. Rongyi

2011-01-01

225

NEARSHORE SAND SOURCES FOR AMERICAN SAMOA: AN ALTERNATIVE TO USING BEACH SAND.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Using a combination of geophysical techniques, in situ observations, and sampling by scuba divers, we investigated along the south shore of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, for nearshore sand deposits. To minimize the impact of future sand dredging on the island's littoral sediments, the search took place in a narrow zone between the outside of the fringing reef and the 30-m bathymetric contour. Because the sand will be used by the Samoans in a variety of ways, an area high in siliciclastic sand - Nua-Se'etaga Bay - and two areas containing only carbonate sand - Faga'itua Bay and Nafanua Bank - were inspected in detail. Results of the exploration program are discussed.

Dingler, John, R.; Reiss, Thomas, E.

1987-01-01

226

Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens  

SciTech Connect

Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1990-11-28

227

Fine needle aspiration cytology.  

PubMed Central

Fine needle aspiration cytology is an inexpensive, atraumatic technique for the diagnosis of disease sites. This paper describes the technique and illustrates how it may be applied to the management of tumours throughout the body. The limitations of the method, the dangers of false positive reports, and the inevitability of false negative diagnoses are emphasised. In a clinical context the method has much to offer by saving patients from inappropriate operations and investigations and allowing surgeons to plan quickly and more rationally. It is an economically valuable technique and deserves greater recognition. Images

Lever, J V; Trott, P A; Webb, A J

1985-01-01

228

Earth-like sand fluxes on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong and sustained winds on Mars have been considered rare, on the basis of surface meteorology measurements and global circulation models, raising the question of whether the abundant dunes and evidence for wind erosion seen on the planet are a current process. Recent studies showed sand activity, but could not determine whether entire dunes were moving--implying large sand fluxes--or whether more localized and surficial changes had occurred. Here we present measurements of the migration rate of sand ripples and dune lee fronts at the Nili Patera dune field. We show that the dunes are near steady state, with their entire volumes composed of mobile sand. The dunes have unexpectedly high sand fluxes, similar, for example, to those in Victoria Valley, Antarctica, implying that rates of landscape modification on Mars and Earth are similar.

Bridges, N. T.; Ayoub, F.; Avouac, J.-P.; Leprince, S.; Lucas, A.; Mattson, S.

2012-05-01

229

Ecological release in White Sands lizards  

PubMed Central

Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems.

Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

2011-01-01

230

Earth-like sand fluxes on Mars.  

PubMed

Strong and sustained winds on Mars have been considered rare, on the basis of surface meteorology measurements and global circulation models, raising the question of whether the abundant dunes and evidence for wind erosion seen on the planet are a current process. Recent studies showed sand activity, but could not determine whether entire dunes were moving--implying large sand fluxes--or whether more localized and surficial changes had occurred. Here we present measurements of the migration rate of sand ripples and dune lee fronts at the Nili Patera dune field. We show that the dunes are near steady state, with their entire volumes composed of mobile sand. The dunes have unexpectedly high sand fluxes, similar, for example, to those in Victoria Valley, Antarctica, implying that rates of landscape modification on Mars and Earth are similar. PMID:22596156

Bridges, N T; Ayoub, F; Avouac, J-P; Leprince, S; Lucas, A; Mattson, S

2012-05-09

231

Preserving inland drift sands in the Netherlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inland drift sands in the Netherlands are an important landscape type within the Dutch nature. They represent an important pioneer habitat which has become rare in European nature. Under current climate and environmental conditions (i.e. high N-deposition) these inland drift sands tend to be rapid colonialized by vegetation and therefor lose their aeolian activity. To maintain the area bare sand, managers regularly remove the vegetation. Lack of proper knowledge about the geomorphological processes and even more important on the geomorphological structure of these drift sands, could lead to the loss of characteristic dune structure. In an interdisciplinary research project a new management strategy was developed in which the geomorphological processes and structure form the base for the planning process. To improve the awareness of these aspects among nature managers we developed a management tool "PROMME". Several activities were taken to communicate this with the people involved in the management of drift sands like a brochure and field workshops.

Riksen, M.; Sparrius, L.; Nijssen, M.; Keestra, S.

2012-04-01

232

Influence of fly ash fineness and shape on the porosity and permeability of blended cement pastes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of the fineness and shape of fly ash on the porosity and air permeability of cement pastes were investigated. Pulverized coal combustion (PCC) fly ash and fluidized bed coal combustion (FBC) fly ash classified into three different finenesses were used. River sand with particle size distribution similar to that of fly ash was also used for comparison. Portland cement was replaced with fly ash and ground sand at the dosages of 0, 20wt%, and 40wt%. A water-to-binder ratio (w/b) of 0.35 was used throughout the experiment. The results show that the porosity and air permeability of the pastes are influenced by the shape, fineness, and replacement level of fly ash. The porosity and air permeability of FBC fly ash pastes are higher than those of PCC fly ash pastes. This is due to the higher irregular shape and surface of FBC fly ash compared to the spherical shape and relatively smooth surface of PCC fly ash. The porosity increases with the increase in fly ash replacement level and decreases with the increase in its fineness. The permeability of PCC fly ash pastes decreases with the increase in replacement level and fineness, while for FBC fly ash, the permeability increases with the increase in replacement level. Decreases in porosity and permeability are due to a combined effect of the packing of fine particles and the reaction of fly ash.

Sinsiri, Theerawat; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Jaturapitakkul, Chai

2010-12-01

233

Imaging of sand production in a horizontal sand pack by X-ray computed tomography  

SciTech Connect

A laboratory experiment was performed to better understand how sand production can increase heavy oil recovery. A horizontal sand pack with an orifice at one end modeled the production of oil and sand into a perforation in a vertical well. The sand pack was scanned using X-ray computed tomography (CT). The CT images revealed that a high-porosity channel (wormhole) formed in the pack while sand was produced. The wormhole followed regions within the pack where the porosity was higher, and, consequently, the unconfined compressive strength of the sand was lower. This experiment suggests that wormholes will form within the weaker sands of a formation. The development of these high-permeability channels increases the drainage of the reservoir, which leads to higher oil recovery.

Tremblay, B.; Sedgwick, G.; Forshner, K. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1996-06-01

234

Morris. E. Fine symposium  

SciTech Connect

Professor Morris E. Fine is a pioneer in teaching the unifying concepts underlying all classes of materials: metals, ceramics, polymers, and electronic materials. He is a founder and the guiding genius of the first materials science department in the world. His research career at Northwestern University has spanned a broad range of topics, from physical chemistry to mechanical behavior, and includes studies on metals and alloys, ceramics, and composite materials. A symposium to recognize the many outstanding contributions by Professor Fine to the development of materials science as a discipline was organized on behalf of the TMS-ASM Committees of Mechanical Metallurgy, Flow and Fracture, and Structural Materials. This symposium was held in Detroit, Michigan, on 8-11 October in conjunction with the 1990 TMS Fall Meeting and Materials Week. Academic, government, and industrial speakers from around the globe gathered to present the latest concepts and experimental results on topics ranging from advanced materials to fundamental principles governing materials behavior. The papers were divided into seven sessions: Physical Metallurgy, Ferrous Structural Materials, Metal Matrix Composites, Microstructural Evolution, Engineering Materials, Fatigue and Fracture, and Flow and Fracture in Non-Ferrous Materials.

Liaw, P.K. (Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (US)); Marcus, H.L. (Univ. of Texas at Austin, Materials Science and Engineering Programs, Austin, TX (US)); Weertman, J.R. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (US)); Santer, J.S. (Packer Engineering, Naperville, IL (US))

1990-01-01

235

Sedimentation and petrology of Fanshawe sand, Red Oak field, Arkoma basin, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect

The Fanshawe sand, a very fine to fine-grained lithic sandstone, probably formed in moderate to deep water downslope from a delta system to the east. Sediment-laden discharge flowed from east to west as channelized, bottom-hugging density currents. Deposition of the Fanshawe sand seems to have been restricted to a west-southwest-trending zone approximately 2 mi wide on the north side of Red Oak field. The sand is a composite of a series of narrow, shifting, meandering submarine channels that often are stacked. Stratigraphic cross sections show extreme variability, even along depositional strike, and individual channels typically are narrower than the distance between development wells. Reservoir quality is enhanced where these narrow channels coalesce horizontally and vertically. Net sand thickness ranges from 36 to 180 ft with associated reserves of up to 14 bcf/well. Completion rates can reach 8 mmcf/day with decline rates averaging 6%. Preliminary results of an increased density drilling program further substantiate the narrow, sinuous nature of these fan channels. Air drilling causes severe hole washouts, making net pay determinations questionable. But by mapping overall net sand trends, it is possible to high-grade drilling prospects. Prediction of porosity development, however, remains difficult. Porosity in the Fanshawe is due to (1) precipitation of pore-lining chlorite, which retarded quartz cementation by blocking potential nucleation sites on detrital quartz grains and preserved primary porosity, and (2) dissolution of feldspars and lithic fragments. The better reservoir rock has both porosity types. Where pore-lining chlorite was absent, thin, or discontinuous, quartz overgrowths developed and intergranular porosity decreased. This created a pore geometry consisting of poorly interconnected, disseminated, intragranular/moldic, dissolution pores and low permeability.

Pittman, E.D.; Wray, L.L. (Amoco Production Co., Tulsa, OK (USA))

1989-08-01

236

BMM SHAKEOUT AND VIBRATING CONVEYOR TRANSPORT SAND AND CASTINGS TO ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

BMM SHAKEOUT AND VIBRATING CONVEYOR TRANSPORT SAND AND CASTINGS TO SEPARATIONS SCREENS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Shaking, Degating & Sand Systems, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

237

Compositional Variations of Rocknest Sand, Gale Crater, Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Curiosity rover spent over 40 sols at an aeolian deposit (termed Rocknest sand shadow deposit) that is several meters long (oriented north-south), 15-20 cm high (at crest) and about 50 cm wide. Material was scooped up from the subsurface to a depth of about 40 mm at five different locations on the deposit. Part of the sampled material was delivered to the analytical laboratories CheMin (x-ray diffraction) and SAM (pyrolysis, evolved gas analysis, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, tunable laser spectroscopy) in the rover body. Scoop troughs and walls were imaged extensively by cameras onboard the rover (Mastcam, Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI), Remote Microscopic Imager (RMI)) and probed by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) as provided by the ChemCam instrument. Images show that the top surface of the deposit is armored by a layer 1-3 grains thick of mm-sized, subrounded, dust-mantled grains. The bulk of the deposit is composed of particles smaller than 150 microns (fine and very fine sand and likely silt and dust). Furthermore, there are bright bands in the subsurface, a narrow one and a broad one at depths 2-4 mm and 20-30 mm, respectively. The images also provide evidence for crust formation and cementation as the scoop trough floors are littered by platy angular fragments and cemented clods. Many of the clods contain numerous sub-mm sized bright (sulfate rich?) inclusions. Chemical profiles (as provided by ChemCam data) do not clearly support the type of subsurface layering inferred from the images. However, chemical abundances (Li, Na, K, Mn, Fe, Ca, Mg, and Si) significantly deviating from average values are found at two different depths (respectively 15 and 25 mm). It is unclear when (and over which time scale) the Rocknest sand deposit in Gale Crater formed. In any case, mm-sized particles cannot be moved efficiently in the current aeolian regime. If the deposit has been immobile for an extended period of time, it is conceivable that Martian obliquity cycles (up to the near geologic past) caused ice deposition and partial melting of subsurface water ice which in turn may have sustained slow alteration of the uppermost part of the deposit (Arvidson et al., J. Geophys. Res., 115, E00F03, 2010); this hypothesis is consistent with the observed crust formation as well as the chemical variations in the near subsurface.

Goetz, Walter; Madsen, Morten B.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Clark, Benton C.; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Blaney, Diana L.; Bridges, Nathan; Fisk, Martin; Hviid, Stubbe F.; Kocurek, Gary; Lasue, Jeremie; Maurice, Sylvestre; Newsom, Horton; Renno, Nilton; Rubin, David M.; Sullivan, Robert; Wiens, Roger C.; MSL Science Team

2013-04-01

238

3D seismic, geochemical and biostratigraphical analysis of Paleogene remobilized sand in the Norwegian-Danish Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study describes remobilized Paleogene sand occurring on the hanging-wall segment north of the major D-1 normal fault in the Norwegian-Danish Basin, eastern North Sea. The remobilized sand is observed on 3D seismic data in fine-grained Eocene host-strata as cross-cutting reflections with a typical tabular, V-shaped or wing-like geometry in the seismic cross-sections and a pronounced jack-up of the overlying succession onto which onlap can be observed. In map view the remobilized sand in certain areas have a channel-like appearance. The seismic observations indicate that the sand has a remobilized origin which may be partly depositional. Particularly the observed wings and jack-up on the seismic cross-sections indicate remobilization which potentially could be generated by two different processes: a) remobilization of depositional channel sand resulting in the formation of injected wings along the sides of the channel, or b) injection of remobilized sand from the deeper Paleocene strata causing jack-up and typically V-shaped intrusions. Injection of Paleocene sand into Eocene host strata is a well-known phenomenon from the nearby Paleogene Siri Canyon located c. 15 km north of the study area. In order to acquire more information about the intrusions a geochemical study and a detailed biostratigraphical dating of cuttings and sidewall core samples from the Floki-1 well was carried out. The Floki-1 well penetrates the remobilized sand and was drilled to test an apparent 4-way closure on prospect Eocene sand which by then was interpreted to be 100 % depositional. The geochemical study of the samples from the sand identified the Floki-sandstone as a very fine grained sand and silt with a matrix of very angular silt grains. The sand does not contain clays. The matrix appears to have formed by crushing of the sand grains. Thus, heavy minerals appear to have disintegrated by crushing but still most parts of the mineral grain is found together. Glauconite grains are strongly smeared. The sorting pattern, and the angular shape of silt sized matrix grains, and the intense shearing and deformation of glauconite grains indicates that the sand may have been injected under high pressure, resulting in massive crushing of detrital grains. The age dating mainly includes dinocysts analysis from seven sidewall core samples and nine cutting samples above, within and below the sand. It is expected that the sand should either be of Eocene age probably revealing a depositional origin with subsequent remobilization to the sides (process a), or a Paleocene age revealing injection from the deeper strata (process b). In order to address all observations, a potential model of generation may include elements of depositional sand combined with up-, downward and/or lateral injection which could have been facilitated by intense activity in the nearby D-1 fault. The study highlights the importance of interdisciplinary approaches in the interpretation of complex geological features formed by several geological processes and mechanisms.

Andresen, Katrine Juul; Rønø Clausen, Ole; Heilmann-Clausen, Claus; Friis, Henrik

2013-04-01

239

Early diagenesis of eolian dune and interdune sands at White Sands, New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The degree of early diagenesis in eolian dune and interdune sands at White Sands, New Mexico, is largely a function of the relationship between sand location and the water table. Most active and vegetation-stabilized dune sands are in the vadose zone, whereas interdune sands are in the capillary fringe and phreatic zones. Crystallographically controlled dissolution of the framework gypsum grains results in elongate, prismatic etch pits on sand grains from the capillary fringe and phreatic zones, whereas dissolution of sand grains in the vadose zone is slight, causing minute irregularities on grain surfaces. Vadose water percolating through the sand is manifest as meniscus layers. Consequently, dune sands in the vadose zone are cemented mainly by meniscus-shaped gypsum at grain contacts. Pendant cements formed on the lower margins of some sand grains. Cementation in the capillary fringe and the phreatic zone is more extensive than the vadose regardless of strata type. Typically, well-developed gypsum overgrowths form along the entire edge of a grain, or may encompass the entire grain. Complex diagenetic histories are suggested by multiple overgrowths and several episodes of dissolution on single grains, attesting to changing saturation levels with respect to gypsum in the shallow ground water. These changes in saturation are possibly due to periods of dilution by meteoric recharge, alternating with periods of concentration of ions and the formation of cement due to evaporation through the capillary fringe. ?? 1988.

Schenk, C. J.; Fryberger, S. G.

1988-01-01

240

Influence of sand grain diameter and wind velocity on lift-off velocities of sand particles.  

PubMed

In this paper, the velocities of sand particles near the sand bed in the saltation cloud were measured in a wind tunnel through an improved experimental scheme of the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) system. The influences of the diameter of sand particles in the saltation cloud and wind velocity on the probability distribution function (PDF) of lift-off velocities of sand particles were investigated. Results demonstrate that for the sand particles saltating above the sand bed with the mean grain diameter (d m = 0.3 mm), smaller and larger ones have the same velocity distribution, and wind velocity has no obvious influence on the distribution shape of the lift-off velocities, i.e., the PDFs of the horizontal and vertical lift-off velocities both follow a lognormal distribution, but the diameter of sand particles in the saltation cloud and wind velocity have an influence on the parameters of the PDF of horizontal and vertical lift-off velocities. Eventually, we present formulas to describe the PDF of lift-off velocities of sand particles with regard to the influence of wind velocity and the diameter of sand particles in the saltation cloud above the sand bed with d m = 0.3 mm. PMID:23695368

Bo, Tian-Li; Zheng, Xiao-Jing; Duan, Shao-Zhen; Liang, Yi-Rui

2013-05-24

241

Fine Structure in Sunspots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Important physical processes on the Sun, and especially in sunspots, occur on spatial scales at or below the limiting resolution of current solar telescopes. Over the past decade, using a number of new techniques, high-resolution observations have begun to reveal the complex thermal and magnetic structure of a sunspot, along with associated flows and oscillations. During this time remarkable advances in computing power have allowed significant progress in our theoretical understanding of the dynamical processes, such as magnetoconvection, taking place within a sunspot. In this review we summarize the latest observational results and theoretical interpretations of the fine structure in sunspots. A number of projects underway to build new solar telescopes or upgrade existing ones, along with several promising new theoretical ideas, ensure that there will be significant advances in sunspot research over the coming decade.

Thomas, John H.; Weiss, Nigel O.

2004-09-01

242

Horizontal oil shale and tar sands retort  

SciTech Connect

A horizontal retorting apparatus and method are disclosed designed to pyrolyze tar sands and oil shale, which are often found together in naturally occurring deposits. The retort is based on a horizontal retorting tube defining a horizontal retort zone having an upstream and a downstream end. Inlet means are provided for introducing the combined tar sands and oil shale into the upstream end of the retort. A screw conveyor horizontally conveys tar sands and oil shale from the upstream end of the retort zone to the downstream end of the retort zone while simultaneously mixing the tar sands and oil shale to insure full release of product gases. A firebox defining a heating zone surrounds the horizontal retort is provided for heating the tar sands and oil shale to pyrolysis temperatures. Spent shale and tar sands residue are passed horizontally beneath the retort tube with any carbonaceous residue thereon being combusted to provide a portion of the heat necessary for pyrolysis. Hot waste solids resulting from combustion of spent shale and tar sands residue are also passed horizontally beneath the retort tube whereby residual heat is radiated upward to provide a portion of the pyrolysis heat. Hot gas inlet holes are provided in the retort tube so that a portion of the hot gases produced in the heating zone are passed into the retort zone for contacting and directly heating the tar sands and oil shale. Auxiliary heating means are provided to supplement the heat generated from spent shale and tar sands residue combustion in order to insure adequate pyrolysis of the raw materials with varying residual carbonaceous material.

Thomas, D.D.

1982-08-31

243

Pelletization of fine coals  

SciTech Connect

The present research project attempts to provide a basis to determine the pelletizability of fine coals, to ascertain the role of additives and binders and to establish a basis for binder selection. Currently, there are no established techniques for determining the quality of coal pellets. Our research is intended to develop a series of tests on coal pellets to measure their storage characteristics, transportability, ease of gasification and rate of combustion. Information developed from this research should be valuable for making knowledgeable decisions for on-time plant design, occasional binder selection and frequent process control during the pelletization of coal fines. During the last quarter, we continued the batch pelletization studies on Upper Freeport coal. The results as presented in that last quarterly report (April 1991) indicated that the surface conditions on the coal particle influenced the pelletizing growth rates. For example, a fresh (run of mine) sample of coal will display different pelletizing growth kinetics than a weathered sample of the same coal. Since coal is a heterogeneous material, the oxidized product of coal is equally variable. We found it to be logistically difficult to consistently produce large quantities of artificially oxidized coal for experimental purposes and as such we have used a naturally weathered coal. We have plans to oxidize coals under controlled oxidizing conditions and be able to establish their pelletizing behavior. The next phase of experiments were directed to study the effect of surface modification, introduced during the coal cleaning steps, on pelletizing kinetics. Accordingly, we initiated studies with two additives commonly used during the flotation of coal: dextrin (coal depressant) and dodecane (coal collector).

Sastry, K.V.S.

1991-09-01

244

Polishing acrylic lens materials after sand impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Commercial grade PMMA samples designed for CPV primary lens applications were subjected to sand impact in a wind tunnel. Defects caused by the impinging sand particles led to a decrease of direct transmittance and increase of haze. The observed changes increased with increasing mass and velocity of the sand deposited. Using a cotton buffing wheel it was possible to restore the PMMA surface almost back to its initial state and direct transmittance and haze back to their original values. Structural data from surface roughness measurements and SEM micrographs correlated well with the optical quantities.

Arndt, Thomas; Battenhausen, Peter; Kilian, Philipp; Sättler, Roland

2013-09-01

245

Genetic features of soils on marine sands and their windblown derivatives on the White Sea coast (the Kola Peninsula)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Quaternary deposits on the Tersk coast of the White Sea are represented by marine deposits (the Tersk sands) enriched in the sea-sorted eluvium of the red Tersk sandstone. These deposits and the soils developed from them are characterized by the predominance of the fine sand fraction and the absence of gravel and the coarser fractions. The sediments derived from the red Tersk sandstone have an impoverished chemical composition (the silica content reaches 75-80%). The iron-illuvial podzols developed from them are characterized by the slightly pronounced differentiation of the main oxides and by the eluvial-illuvial redistribution of the amorphous Al and Fe compounds. Sandy soils—psammozems—with undifferentiated soil profiles are developed from windblown sands subjected to afforestation and from coastal marine sands under a relatively thin natural plant cover. Iron-illuvial podzols buried under a thin sand layer preserve the Al-Fe-humus type of the profile differentiation. In the recently deposited sand layer, the eluvial-illuvial redistribution of the chemical elements is absent.

Pereverzev, V. N.; Kazakov, L. A.; Chamin, V. A.

2011-01-01

246

Short migration of methane into a gas hydrate-bearing sand layer at Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AbstractThe mechanisms governing distribution of natural gas hydrates in marine sediment systems are not well understood. We focus on a hole in the Gulf of Mexico, Walker Ridge Block 313 Hole H, where a 2.5-m-thick gas hydrate-bearing <span class="hlt">sand</span> occurs within a 152-m-thick <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained mud interval containing gas hydrate in fractures. The gas hydrate-bearing <span class="hlt">sand</span> is surrounded by two distinct hydrate-free zones (10-m-thick above and 3-m-thick below). We hypothesize that microbial methane generated within the hydrate-free zones diffused into the <span class="hlt">sand</span> and formed gas hydrate. We show that the amount of methane produced in the hydrate-free zones is likely enough to explain the gas hydrate content of the <span class="hlt">sand</span> layer. Additionally, we show that there is enough time for dissolved methane to diffuse from the hydrate-free zones into the <span class="hlt">sand</span>. We conclude that methane transport over significant distances via fluid flow is not required but that microbial methane could migrate short distances to form gas hydrate in the <span class="hlt">sand</span> layer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cook, Ann E.; Malinverno, Alberto</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998JGR...103.8997S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electrostatic force on saltating <span class="hlt">sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In blizzards and sandstorms, wind transport of particles is associated with separation of electrostatic charge. Moving particles develop charge of sign opposite the electrostatic charge on stationary surface particles. This electrification produces forces in addition to the gravitational and fluid friction forces that determine trajectories for particles being transported in saltation. Evaluating electrostatic forces requires the electric field strength very near the saltation surface and charge-to-mass ratios for the moving particles. In a low-level blowing <span class="hlt">sand</span> event we measured an average charge-to-mass ratio of +60 ?C kg-1 on the saltating particles at 5-cm height and a maximum electric field of +166 kV m-1 at 1.7-cm height, in wind gusts near 12 m s-1 at 1.5-m height. The electrostatic force estimated from these measurements was equal in magnitude to the gravitational force on the saltating particles. Including electrostatic forces in the equations of motion for saltating particles may help explain discrepancies between measurements and models of saltation transport.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schmidt, D. S.; Schmidt, R. A.; Dent, J. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23963409"> <span id="translatedtitle">The effect of limited availability of N or water on C allocation to <span class="hlt">fine</span> roots and annual <span class="hlt">fine</span> root turnover in Alnus incana and Salix viminalis.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The effect of limited nitrogen (N) or water availability on <span class="hlt">fine</span> root growth and turnover was examined in two deciduous species, Alnus incana L. and Salix viminalis L., grown under three different regimes: (i) supply of N and water in amounts which would not hamper growth, (ii) limited N supply and (iii) limited water supply. Plants were grown outdoors during three seasons in covered and buried lysimeters placed in a stand structure and filled with quartz <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Computer-controlled irrigation and fertilization were supplied through drip tubes. Production and turnover of <span class="hlt">fine</span> roots were estimated by combining minirhizotron observations and core sampling, or by sequential core sampling. Annual turnover rates of <span class="hlt">fine</span> roots <1 mm (5-6 year(-1)) and 1-2 mm (0.9-2.8 year(-1)) were not affected by changes in N or water availability. <span class="hlt">Fine</span> root production (<1 mm) differed between Alnus and Salix, and between treatments in Salix; i.e., absolute length and biomass production increased in the order: water limited < unlimited < N limited. Few treatment effects were detected for <span class="hlt">fine</span> roots 1-2 mm. Proportionally more C was allocated to <span class="hlt">fine</span> roots (?2 mm) in N or water-limited Salix; 2.7 and 2.3 times the allocation to <span class="hlt">fine</span> roots in the unlimited regime, respectively. Estimated input to soil organic carbon increased by ca. 20% at N limitation in Salix. However, future studies on <span class="hlt">fine</span> root decomposition under various environmental conditions are required. <span class="hlt">Fine</span> root growth responses to N or water limitation were less pronounced in Alnus, thus indicating species differences caused by N-fixing capacity and slower initial growth in Alnus, or higher <span class="hlt">fine</span> root plasticity in Salix. A similar seasonal growth pattern across species and treatments suggested the influence of outer stimuli, such as temperature and light. PMID:23963409</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rytter, Rose-Marie</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.deepseadrilling.org/64/volume/dsdp64pt2_07.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">7. PLIOCENE AND QUATERNARY MUD TURBIDITES IN THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA: SEDIMENTOLOGY, MASS PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND SIGNIFICANCE1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A large proportion of the Pliocene and Quaternary basin fill in the Gulf of California is composed of relatively <span class="hlt">fine</span>- grained mud turbidites which have sedimentary structures that are more subtle than those of sandy turbidites in flysch deposits. Basal contacts are sharp, sometimes accompanied by thin, laminated, muddy <span class="hlt">sands</span>; the <span class="hlt">silty</span> body commonly appears massive, and the tops consist</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerhard Einsele; Kerry Kelts</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60431489"> <span id="translatedtitle">The kinetics of the pyrolysis of tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> and of the combustion of coked <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The kinetic parameters for the pyrolysis of bitumen-impregnated sandstone (tar <span class="hlt">sand</span>) particles have been determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The tar <span class="hlt">sand</span> deposits investigated in this study, all of which are oil-wet <span class="hlt">sands</span> from the Uinta Basin the State of Utah, included PR Spring Rainbow I, Whiterocks, and Sunnyside. The isothermal experiments indicated that first-order kinetics fit most of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRF..118..257S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alluvial sediment or playas: What is the dominant source of <span class="hlt">sand</span> and silt in desert soil vesicular A horizons, southwest USA</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Vesicular A (Av) soil horizons form beneath desert pavements from the accretion of aeolian sediment (dust) commonly thought to be derived primarily from desiccating pluvial lakes and playas, with contributions from ephemeral washes and alluvial fans. Particle size distributions of Av horizons are typically bimodal with primary modes of very <span class="hlt">fine</span> silt and <span class="hlt">fine</span> <span class="hlt">sand</span>, suggesting that the horizon matrix is derived from multiple sources. Here we conduct detailed chemical and physical analysis of both Av horizon soil samples and potential sources of aeolian sediment to better constrain the relative contributions of dust associated with the development of Av horizons. Geochemical data from both <span class="hlt">sand</span> (125-250 µm) and silt (2-32 µm) fractions in Av horizons and potential dust sources in the eastern Mojave Desert and western Sonora Desert, USA, point to large contributions from nearby sources including distal alluvial fans and washes, and comparably lower contributions from regional sources such as playas. The silt mode is derived from suspension transport of dust, and the <span class="hlt">fine</span> <span class="hlt">sand</span> mode is derived from saltating <span class="hlt">sand</span>. The desiccation of pluvial lakes in the Mojave Desert is commonly believed to have driven episodes of aeolian activity, contributing to <span class="hlt">sand</span> dunes and Av horizon formation. We propose that alluvial fans and washes are underappreciated as desert dust sources and that pulses of dust from late Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial fans dwarfed pulses of dust from desiccating pluvial lakes in the eastern Mojave Desert.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sweeney, Mark R.; McDonald, Eric V.; Markley, Christopher E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE2007910461"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing of TMR <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Mantis Final Report.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Screening tests of <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Mantis candidate materials selected for erosion resistance have been completed. The results of this testing identified that over a relatively short period of operation (<1 hour), measurable erosion will occur in each of the candida...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. Krementz W. L. Daughtery</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD758740"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fate of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Beach <span class="hlt">Sand</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fate of the petroleum hydrocarbons from Chevron bunker fuel has been studied in natural beaches, <span class="hlt">sand</span>-containing lysimeters, and laboratory experiments. The importance of various physical, chemical and biological processes for the dispersal and degrad...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD786582"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fate of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Bleach <span class="hlt">Sand</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The fate of the petroleum hydrocarbons from Chevron bunker fuel has been studied in natural beaches, <span class="hlt">sand</span>-containing lysimeters, and laboratory experiments. The importance of various physical, chemical and biological processes for the dispersal and degrad...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. E. Guard A. Cobet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1972-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=HEDLTC1589"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">SAND</span>-II and FERRET.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, <span class="hlt">SAND</span>-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. Thi...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. W. Wootan F. Schmittroth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0704.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> Dunes: A Phenomenon Of Wind</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This webpage from Wayne's Word provides information about the origin of <span class="hlt">sand</span> dunes, forms of life present there, and the sounds produced by "booming" dunes. Numerous dunes in the United States are described and pictured.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-06-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD730737"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foundation Precompression with Vertical <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Drains.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The precompression technique combined with vertical <span class="hlt">sand</span> drains is often applicable where structure loads are reasonably uniform and do not include heavy concentrated loadings and where earth fills for highways do not exceed 40 to 50 ft, although this lim...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. J. Johnson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....10.5671S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mean age of carbon in <span class="hlt">fine</span> roots from temperate forests and grasslands with different management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Fine</span> roots are the most dynamic portion of a plant's root system and a major source of soil organic matter. By altering plant species diversity and composition, soil conditions and nutrient availability, and consequently belowground allocation and dynamics of root carbon (C) inputs, land-use and management changes may influence organic C storage in terrestrial ecosystems. In three German regions we measured <span class="hlt">fine</span> root radiocarbon (14C) content to estimate the mean time since C in root tissues was fixed from the atmosphere in 54 grassland and forest plots with different management and soil conditions. Although root biomass was on average greater in grasslands 5.1 ± 0.8 g (mean ± SE, n = 27) than in forests 3.1 ± 0.5 g (n = 27), the mean age of C in <span class="hlt">fine</span> roots in forests averaged 11.3 ± 1.8 yr and was significantly older and more variable compared to grasslands 1.7 ± 0.4 yr. We further found that management affects the mean age of <span class="hlt">fine</span> root C in temperate grasslands mediated by changes in plant species diversity and composition. <span class="hlt">Fine</span> root mean C age is positively correlated to plant diversity (r = 0.65) and to the number of perennial species (r = 0.77). In temperate grasslands the mean age of <span class="hlt">fine</span> root C is also influenced by the study region mainly driven by differences in soil characteristics and climate which reflect in plant composition variations, with averages of 0.7 ± 0.1 yr (n = 9) on mostly organic sandy soils in northern Germany and of 1.8 ± 0.3 yr (n = 9) and 2.6 ± 0.3 (n = 9) in more <span class="hlt">silty</span> and clayey soils respectively in central and southern Germany. Our results indicate an internal redistribution of C in perennial species and suggest linkages between <span class="hlt">fine</span> root C age and management in grasslands. These findings improve our ability to predict and model belowground C fluxes across broader spatial scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Solly, E.; Schöning, I.; Boch, S.; Müller, J.; Socher, S. A.; Trumbore, S. E.; Schrumpf, M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJNAM..22..351S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dimensionless and unbiased CPT interpretation in <span class="hlt">sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The cone penetration test (CPT) is widely used, and although initially developed as a stratigraphic logging tool its excellent repeatability and accuracy offers a benchmark quantitative test for <span class="hlt">sand</span> in particular. A continuing difficulty, however, is that the CPT does not measure any soil property directly, so that parameters of interest must be recovered from solution of an inverse boundary value problem, which is difficult. To date most CPT interpretations in <span class="hlt">sand</span> have been based on very limited calibration testing carried out in large chambers on a few <span class="hlt">sands</span> from which mappings are developed. But there are differences in the CPT response from one <span class="hlt">sand</span> to another leaving the interpretation imprecise (and arguably even speculative) because these differences remain poorly understood. In this paper we use the familiar spherical cavity expansion analogy to the CPT including large strains and a good, critical-state-based, soil model to develop a pattern of behaviour which we then compare to some of the reference chamber test data. We find that one of the issues of dispute in the empirical interpretation methods, the so-called stress-level effect, is caused by neglect of elasticity and that there are several additional parameters of first-order significance to cavity expansion in <span class="hlt">sands</span>. More generally, we show that the difference in CPT response between various chamber <span class="hlt">sands</span> in predicted. Our results are cast in dimensionless form and the inversion illustrates that extreme care is required in interpreting CPT data if the in situ <span class="hlt">sand</span> state is to be determined with precision approaching that suggested as achievable by the repeatability of the CPT data itself. Aspects requiring particular care in interpreting CPT data in <span class="hlt">sand</span> are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shuttle, Dawn; Jefferies, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002PhDT.......164C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developing Alberta's oil <span class="hlt">sands</span>, 1920--2002</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This dissertation examines the origins and development of the Alberta oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> industry over the last century from a scientific project to a commercial endeavor. Based on extensive use of primary sources, the manuscript integrates the developments in a number of fields (politics, international relations, business and economics, and changing oil-recovery technology) that have made it possible to "manufacture" oil from the Alberta tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> at less than $10 U.S. per barrel.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chastko, Paul Anthony</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> 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href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=39737"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">FINE</span> PARTICLE EMISSIONS INFORMATION SYSTEM</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The report is the second annual report on the <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Particle Emissions Information System (FPEIS), a computerized data base on primary <span class="hlt">fine</span> particle emissions from stationary sources. The report summarizes new data added to the FPEIS during 1979 and outlines objectives for 1980 in...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22728790"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phenolic removal processes in biological <span class="hlt">sand</span> filters, <span class="hlt">sand</span> columns and microcosms.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study evaluated the removal processes involved in the removal of the phenolic component of winery wastewater in biological <span class="hlt">sand</span> filters, <span class="hlt">sand</span> columns and <span class="hlt">sand</span> microcosms. It was found that at low influent phenolic concentrations, complete organic removal was accomplished, but at high concentrations, there was incomplete substrate removal and an accumulation of potentially toxic metabolites, including catechol. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> provided a suitable substrate for the treatment of phenolic-laden waste, and both biotic (48%) and abiotic (52%) removal mechanisms effected the removal of model phenolics. Prior acclimation of microbial communities increased the biodegradation rate of phenolic acids significantly. PMID:22728790</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Welz, P J; Ramond, J-B; Cowan, D A; Burton, S G</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-05-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AcMSn..29..158B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown <span class="hlt">sand</span> flux</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the research of windblown <span class="hlt">sand</span> movement, the lift-off and incident velocities of saltating <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles play a significant role in bridging the spatial and temporal scales from single <span class="hlt">sand</span> particle's motion to windblown <span class="hlt">sand</span> flux. In this paper, we achieved wind tunnel measurements of the movement of <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles near <span class="hlt">sand</span> bed through improving the wind tunnel experimental scheme of particle image velocimetry (PIV) and data processing method. And then the influence of observation height on the probability distributions of lift-off and incident velocities of <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles was analyzed. The results demonstrate that the observation height has no obvious influence on the distribution pattern of the lift-off and incident velocities of <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles, i.e., the probability distribution of horizontal and vertical velocities of lift-off and incident <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles follow a Gaussian distribution and a negative exponential distribution, respectively. However, it influences the center of the Gaussian distribution, the decay constant and the amplitude of the negative exponential distribution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bo, Tian-Li; Zheng, Xiao-Jing; Duan, Shao-Zhen; Liang, Yi-Rui</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41154730"> <span id="translatedtitle">Luminescence dating of <span class="hlt">sand</span> ramps in the Eastern Mojave Desert</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Until recently the timing of the movement of <span class="hlt">sand</span> and accumulation of <span class="hlt">sand</span> by aeolian processes in the Eastern Mojave Desert has remained the subject of speculation. The results of a luminescence dating program involving 78 samples of material from nine <span class="hlt">sand</span> ramp complexes have enabled recognition of regional and local patterns of <span class="hlt">sand</span> accumulation in the Eastern Mojave. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. M. Rendell; N. L. Sheffer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42009003"> <span id="translatedtitle">Electric field in windblown <span class="hlt">sand</span> flux with thermal diffusion</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A theoretical model considering thermal diffusion (TD) from a <span class="hlt">sand</span> bed is suggested in this paper to account for the effect of both TD and the electric field produced by charged <span class="hlt">sand</span> grains during the evolution of windblown <span class="hlt">sand</span> flux, where the coupled interaction among wind speeds in the vertical and the horizontal directions, <span class="hlt">sand</span> movement (saltation, suspension, and creep),</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gaowei Yue; Xiaojing Zheng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49235609"> <span id="translatedtitle">The saltations of different sized particles in aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wind tunnel experiments were performed in order to investigate the effect of mixing on the aeolian transport of <span class="hlt">sands</span> with different grain sizes. Two types of <span class="hlt">sand</span> with different grain size distributions and an equal-mass binary mixture of these <span class="hlt">sands</span> were used. Comparing the gradients of their measured mass flux profiles and some published profiles for mixed <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport with</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mao Xing; Chuanyu Wu; Michael J. Adams</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mssanz.org.au/modsim09/A5/huang_n.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Computational simulations of blown <span class="hlt">sand</span> flux over complex microtopography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Current research on <span class="hlt">sand</span> saltation concentrates on wind tunnel experiment, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">sand</span> saltation at ideal and controllable conditions, for example, time-invariant wind speed and flat <span class="hlt">sand</span> bed. However, these somehow idealized theoretical analyses and numerical simulations can not accurately predict <span class="hlt">sand</span> movements in field environments, which are generally composed of surface obstacles including dunes and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang Ning; Shi Feng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SedG..202..369A"> <span id="translatedtitle">The grain-size characterisation of coastal <span class="hlt">sand</span> from the Somme estuary to Belgium: Sediment sorting processes and mixing in a tide- and storm-dominated setting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span>-rich Holocene to modern clastic deposits in the eastern English Channel and the southern North Sea coasts of France and Belgium occur extensively as nearshore-<span class="hlt">sand</span> bank, estuarine-tidal flat, aeolian dune and beach sub-environments. <span class="hlt">Sand</span> samples (n = 665) collected from these deposits suggest the presence of three different populations: a largely dominant (83%) medium to <span class="hlt">fine</span> quartz <span class="hlt">sand</span> population (“b”), and finer- (14%) and coarser-grained (4%) populations (respectively “c” and “a”). The distribution of these populations among the four sub-environments reflects tide- and storm-dominated sorting and transport processes and a variable degree of mixing. These populations are derived from a mixture of very <span class="hlt">fine</span>- to very coarse-grained fluvial, outwash and paraglacial sediments deposited on the beds of the eastern English Channel and southern North Sea during the late Pleistocene lowstand. The nearshore-<span class="hlt">sand</span> bank environment, which also corresponds to the main offshore source area of the coastal deposits, exhibits population heterogeneity reflecting the variability of hydrodynamic conditions and sediment sorting in this zone. The nearshore topography of tidal ridges, banks and troughs in these tidal seas leads to variable bed and tide- and storm-induced shear stress conditions. These conditions only allow for the mobilisation and onshore transport of some of the finer fractions (populations “b” and “c”), leaving an offshore mixture of these finer populations with coarser, less mobilisable sediments (population “a”). Once in the coastal zone, these two finer populations undergo further hydrodynamic sorting and segregation. Variably sorted very <span class="hlt">fine</span> <span class="hlt">sands</span> to silts (population “c”) are trapped in the low-energy estuarine-tidal flat sub-environment, while the highly homogeneous population “b” is further sorted in aeolian dune and beach sub-environments. This sorting occurs via a coastal <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport pathway linking the Somme estuary mouth to the southern North Sea bight where tidal range and wave energy decrease relative to the English Channel. Since this <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport pathway enables longshore transport of hydrodynamically sorted medium to <span class="hlt">fine</span> <span class="hlt">sand</span> derived directly from the immediate nearshore zone, it has further contributed to a net flux of this <span class="hlt">sand</span> population from the eastern English Channel sea bed to the southern North Sea.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Anthony, Edward J.; Héquette, Arnaud</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6146006"> <span id="translatedtitle">Nature and causes of transgressive and regressive cycles in a lower Paleozoic quartzose sheet <span class="hlt">sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The stratigraphic section in the interior of North America contains a series of flower Paleozoic quartzose sheet sandstones, and their classic representative is the St. Peter Sandstone. The St. Peter was deposited during a middle Ordovician transgression, but it is far thicker than recent transgressive shelf <span class="hlt">sands</span>. Thus it has been hypothesized that the formation was deposited during repeated transgressions and regressions of the continental interior. A newly excavated section of the St. Peter Sandstone in the Twin Cities basin of Minnesota supports this hypothesis and bears evidence for the nature and causes of transgressions and regressions during its accumulation. The section exposes two intervals of <span class="hlt">fine</span> to very <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained, thick-bedded, massive, bioturbated sandstone which were deposited during transgression of shelf environments. They are separated by an interval of medium to <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained sandstone with multiple mutually truncating scours, tabular and trough cross-beds (including herringbones) with shale drapes on their foresets, wavy ripples, shale rip-up clasts, and minor bioturbation traces, which were deposited in a tide-dominated coastal <span class="hlt">sand</span>-flat environment which prograded onto the open shelf. This regressive deposit is laterally discontinuous over a distance of 4 km, which suggests that the transgressions and regressions in the Twin Cities basin were caused by variations in the rate of sediment supply.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mazzullo, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS53A1353C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Can in situ methanogenesis explain a 3 m-thick gas hydrate-filled <span class="hlt">sand</span> in Walker Ridge Block 313, Gulf of Mexico?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the spring of 2009, the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) Leg II drilled several holes in the Gulf of Mexico in the search for gas hydrate-filled reservoirs. In Walker Ridge Block 313, Hole H was drilled in a location where the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) extended over 800 meters below seafloor (mbsf). For this research, we will focus on gas hydrate found in Hole H in a thick accumulation in <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained sediments (180-320 mbsf) as well as in a 3 m <span class="hlt">sand</span> (292-295 mbsf). In the thick <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained accumulation, logging-while-drilling resistivity images show gas hydrate occurs predominately as fill in near-vertical fractures (dipping 77 degrees on average). Gas hydrates are likely to occupy 5 or 10% of the total pore volume in the fractured interval. No electrically conductive (water-filled fractures) were identified in the gas hydrate-filled fracture interval or elsewhere in Hole H. The fractures occur regularly throughout the 180-320 mbsf interval, except between 282-302 mbsf, where no fractures appear. A 3 m-thick gas hydrate-filled <span class="hlt">sand</span> occurs in the middle of the fracture hiatus, from 292-295 mbsf. The 3 m <span class="hlt">sand</span> has an approximate gas hydrate saturation of 70% of pore space, much higher than the fractures. Other JIP scientists have traced this 3 m-thick <span class="hlt">sand</span> on 3D seismic sections, and found that it intersects the base of the GHSZ approximately 3 km downdip. In addition, the intersection between the <span class="hlt">sand</span> and the gas hydrate stability zone has a reflection phase reversal, suggesting that the <span class="hlt">sand</span> may contain gas hydrate over 3 km. Could the gas that supplies the 3 m <span class="hlt">sand</span> have traveled updip through the GHSZ in the 3 m <span class="hlt">sand</span>? Alternatively, the gas that supplies the <span class="hlt">sand</span> and the fractures may be formed in place by in situ methanogenesis. Dissolved methane may diffuse from the surrounding <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained sediments into the <span class="hlt">sand</span>, increasing the concentration of gas hydrate in the <span class="hlt">sand</span>, while leaving surrounding <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained sediments devoid of gas hydrate. Similar situations - where gas hydrates form in coarse-grained layers but not in surrounding <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained sediments - are found in several locations worldwide. In this research, we are building a 1-dimensional diagenetic model that reproduces the conditions at Hole H. The model will test if enough biogenic methane is present to fill the 3 m-thick <span class="hlt">sand</span> to the observed gas hydrate saturation. Additionally, this model will determine if the hiatus in gas hydrate-bearing fractures surrounding the <span class="hlt">sand</span> can be explained by diffusion of methane from the <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained sediments into the <span class="hlt">sand</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cook, A.; Malinverno, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.minersoc.org/pages/Archive-CM/Volume_33/33-1-103.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of particle size on the flocculation behaviour of ultra-<span class="hlt">fine</span> clays in salt solutions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Athabasca oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> deposit in Alberta contains ~5 x 109 m 3 of bitumen accessible by surface mining. During bitumen separation from the mined ore, ultra-<span class="hlt">fine</span> (<300 rim) aluminosilicate clays only a few layers thick (U\\/F) are mobilized and become dispersed in the process water. In this water containing dissolved salts from natural deposits, U\\/F are capable of forming</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. S. Kotlyar; B. D. Sparks; Y. Lepage; J. R. Woods</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/42023863"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parameter estimation for determining hydraulic properties of a <span class="hlt">fine</span> <span class="hlt">sand</span> from transient flow measurements</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A cone penetrometer method for measuring hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils at depth is under development. Successful advancement of this method hinges on using parameter estimation to obtain hydraulic parameter values from pore water pressure and flow rate data. A finite element model is employed to predict flow responses, and objective functions describe differences between ``true'' and simulated responses. Contour</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Molly M. Gribb</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ESRv..120....1G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert <span class="hlt">sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi <span class="hlt">sands</span> from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> can be distinguished. Quartzose <span class="hlt">sands</span> with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic <span class="hlt">sands</span> with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled <span class="hlt">sand</span>, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune <span class="hlt">sands</span>, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al-Batin fossil alluvial fan or even from Mesozoic sandstones of the Arabian margin accreted to the Cenozoic Zagros orogen. Due to extensive recycling and the fact that zircon is so resistant to weathering and erosion, the U-Pb age signatures are much less powerful a tracer of sedimentary provenance than framework petrography and heavy minerals. Actualistic provenance studies of dune fields at subcontinental scale shed light on the generation and homogenization of aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span>, and allow us to trace complex pathways of multistep sediment transport, thus providing crucial independent information for accurate palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid A.; Al-Juboury, Ali I. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1285G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Provenance and recycling of Arabian desert <span class="hlt">sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study seeks to determine the ultimate origin of aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> in Arabian deserts by high-resolution petrographic and heavy-mineral techniques combined with zircon U-Pb geochronology. Point-counting is used here as the sole method by which unbiased volume percentages of heavy minerals can be obtained. A comprehensive analysis of river and wadi <span class="hlt">sands</span> from the Red Sea to the Bitlis-Zagros orogen allowed us to characterize all potential sediment sources, and thus to quantitatively constrain provenance of Arabian dune fields. Two main types of aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> can be distinguished. Quartzose <span class="hlt">sands</span> with very poor heavy-mineral suites including zircon occupy most of the region comprising the Great Nafud and Rub' al-Khali <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Seas, and are largely recycled from thick Lower Palaeozoic quartzarenites with very minor first-cycle contributions from Precambrian basement, Mesozoic carbonate rocks, or Neogene basalts. Instead, carbonaticlastic <span class="hlt">sands</span> with richer lithic and heavy-mineral populations characterize coastal dunes bordering the Arabian Gulf from the Jafurah <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Sea of Saudi Arabia to the United Arab Emirates. The similarity with detritus carried by the axial Tigris-Euphrates system and by transverse rivers draining carbonate rocks of the Zagros indicates that Arabian coastal dunes largely consist of far-travelled <span class="hlt">sand</span>, deposited on the exposed floor of the Gulf during Pleistocene lowstands and blown inland by dominant Shamal northerly winds. A dataset of detrital zircon U-Pb ages measured on twelve dune samples and two Lower Palaeozoic sandstones yielded fourteen identical age spectra. The age distributions all show a major Neoproterozoic peak corresponding to the Pan-African magmatic and tectonic events by which the Arabian Shield was assembled, with minor late Palaeoproterozoic and Neoarchean peaks. A similar U-Pb signature characterizes also Jafurah dune <span class="hlt">sands</span>, suggesting that zircons are dominantly derived from interior Arabia, possibly deflated from the Wadi al-Batin fossil alluvial fan or even from Mesozoic sandstones of the Arabian margin accreted to the Cenozoic Zagros orogen. Due to extensive recycling and the fact that zircon is so resistant to weathering and erosion, the U-Pb age signatures are much less powerful a tracer of sedimentary provenance than framework petrography and heavy minerals. Actualistic provenance studies of dune fields at subcontinental scale shed light on the generation and homogenization of aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span>, and allow us to trace complex pathways of multistep sediment transport, thus providing crucial independent information for accurate palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic reconstructions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Garzanti, Eduardo; Vermeesch, Pieter; Andò, Sergio; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Valagussa, Manuel; Allen, Kate; Kadi, Khalid; Al-Juboury, Ali</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11757608"> <span id="translatedtitle">Particle release and permeability reduction in a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) and <span class="hlt">sand</span> porous medium.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To evaluate clinoptilolite, a natural zeolite, as a candidate material for a permeable reactive barrier for removal of strontium from groundwater, we investigated particle release and permeability reduction in clinoptilolite and <span class="hlt">sand</span> porous media. In flow-through column experiments, we tested the effects of solution chemistry, grain size, and clinoptilolite pretreatment on particle release and hydraulic conductivity. Permeability reduction occurred not in the clinoptilolite itself but only in finer-grained <span class="hlt">sand</span> down-gradient of the clinoptilolite. Solutions of high ionic strength inhibited particle release and prevented clogging. Clinoptilolite of larger grain size produced slightly less particle release and clogging. Two pretreatments of the clinoptilolite, rinsing to remove <span class="hlt">fine</span> particles and calcining to improve strength, reduced particle release and clogging. Calcining, however, significantly reduced the strontium binding strength of the clinoptilolite. PMID:11757608</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Abadzic, S D; Ryan, J N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991CSR....11...67B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contemporary and relict titaniferous <span class="hlt">sand</span> facies on the western Canadian continental shelf</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Concentrations of titaniferous heavy minerals occur both as a surficial seabed deposit and as a thick (20m) laminated <span class="hlt">sand</span> facies on the northeastern flank of Cook Bank in Queen Charlotte Sound, western Canada. Heavy mineral-rich laminae formed in a mesotidal embayment south of the northeastern Cook Bank headland during a -100m low sea-level stand 10,500 years ago. Sediment was derived from Cook Bank glacial and coastal deposits by river drainage and coastal erosion. The deposit was drowned during the rapid early Holocene transgression, ending sometime after 9000 years BP. The surficial sediments continued to be sorted by extreme storm waves and tidal currents to form an ilmenite-rich heavy mineral lag with maximum concentration (20 28 wt%) in 120 140 m water depths where well-sorted <span class="hlt">fine</span> <span class="hlt">sands</span> occur.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barrie, J. Vaughn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.5171N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> and tailings <span class="hlt">sands</span> used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Athabasca region of northern Alberta, Canada, is home to deposits of oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> containing vast amounts (~ 173 billion barrels) of heavily biodegraded petroleum. Oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> are recovered by surface mining or by in situ steam injection. The extraction of bitumen from oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> by caustic hot water processing results in large volumes of fluid tailings, which are stored in on-site settling basins. There the tailings undergo a compaction and dewatering process, producing a slowly densifying suspension. The released water is recycled for extraction. The <span class="hlt">fine</span> tailings will be reclaimed as either dry or wet landscapes. [1] To produce 1 barrel of crude oil, 2 tons of oil <span class="hlt">sand</span> and 2 - 3 tons of water (including recycled water) are required. [2] Open pit mining and the extraction of the bitumen from the oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> create large and intense disturbances of different landscapes. The area currently disturbed by mining operations covers about 530 km2 and the area of tailing ponds surpasses 130 km2. An issue of increasing importance is the land remediation and reclamation of oil <span class="hlt">sand</span> areas in Canada and the reconstruction of these disturbed landscapes back to working ecosystems similar to those existing prior to mining operations. An important issue in this context is the identification of oil <span class="hlt">sand</span>-derived organic compounds in the tailings, their environmental behaviour and the resulting chances and limitations with respect to land reclamation. Furthermore the biodegradation processes that occur in the tailings and that could lead to a decrease in hazardous organic compounds are important challenges, which need to be investigated. This presentation will give a detailed overview of our compositional and quantitative characterisation of the organic matter in oil <span class="hlt">sand</span>, unprocessed and processed mature <span class="hlt">fine</span> tailings samples as well as in tailings <span class="hlt">sands</span> used as part of land reclamation. The analytical characterisation is based on the extraction of the soluble organic matter, its subsequent separation into asphaltenes, aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, neutral nitrogen, sulphur, oxygen (NSO) compounds and carboxylic acids. The asphaltene fractions are analysed using pyrolysis-GC, all other fractions are analysed by GC-MS. Additionally Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) is used to study the chemical composition of the samples on the molecular level using different ionisation methods.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noah, M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wilkes, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=51006"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">FINE</span> PORE (<span class="hlt">FINE</span> BUBBLE) AERATION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATERS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper summarizes the current information on <span class="hlt">fine</span> pore aeration systems. Types of media, types of diffusers, piping and layout, characteristics of diffusers, clear and process water performance, operation and maintenance, diffuser fouling and economic analyses are reviewed. Th...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14674548"> <span id="translatedtitle">Barley, a potential species for initial reclamation of saline composite tailings of oil <span class="hlt">sands</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> industry in Alberta (Canada) has developed the composite tailings (CT) process to reduce the fluid <span class="hlt">fine</span> tails resulting from the processing of oil <span class="hlt">sands</span>. This process uses a chemical coagulant (gypsum or alum) to produce aggregated <span class="hlt">fines</span> (clay), so they are retained with the coarse <span class="hlt">sand</span> fraction of the extraction tailings to form CT, from which <span class="hlt">fines</span>-free water is released relatively quickly compared with untreated tailings. The resulting CT and CT waters are saline-sodic, with Na+, SO4(2-), and Cl- being the dominant ions. When freshly deposited, the CT deposits are too soft for access by reclamation equipment, and the time required for these deposits to remove the water sufficiently to support traffic is uncertain. A greenhouse study was designed to determine the suitability of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for reclamation of fresh CT deposits and to evaluate benefits of peat amendments. This study assessed germination, early plant growth, chlorophyll content, and survival of barley growing in alum- and gypsum-treated CT, with and without peat amendment. Ion and trace metal accumulation in the root and shoot tissues of barley was determined. Amendment of CT with peat improved germination, survival, and growth of barley, but did not prevent leaf injury (probably due to Na and Cl- and possibly multiple nutrient deficiency). Field studies will be undertaken to validate our greenhouse results suggesting that barley could be used to improve dewatering of the freshly deposited substrates, reduce soil erosion, and facilitate leaching of ions by root penetration into the substrate. PMID:14674548</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Renault, Sylvie; MacKinnon, Mike; Qualizza, Clara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/432hg61772170048.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A wind tunnel study of aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport on a wetted <span class="hlt">sand</span> surface using <span class="hlt">sands</span> from tropical humid coastal southern China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article reported a wind tunnel test of sediment transport related to surface moisture content and wind velocity using\\u000a <span class="hlt">sands</span> from tropical humid coastal area. A 1 mm-thick portion of surface <span class="hlt">sand</span> was scraped using a self-made sediment sampler,\\u000a and the gravimetric moisture content was determined. <span class="hlt">Sand</span> transport was measured via a standard vertical <span class="hlt">sand</span> trap with a\\u000a 60 cm height. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Qingjie Han; Jianjun Qu; Kongtai Liao; Shujuan Zhu; Kecun Zhang; Ruiping Zu; Qinghe Niu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title34-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title34-vol3-sec668-84.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">34 CFR 668.84 - <span class="hlt">Fine</span> proceedings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL PROVISIONS <span class="hlt">Fine</span>...action; (ii) Specifies the proposed effective date of the <span class="hlt">fine</span>, which is at least...or servicer that the <span class="hlt">fine</span> will not be effective on the date specified in the...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title36-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title36-vol3-sec910-35.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">36 CFR 910.35 - <span class="hlt">Fine</span> arts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Fine</span> arts. 910.35 Section 910.35 Parks, Forests, and...Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 <span class="hlt">Fine</span> arts. <span class="hlt">Fine</span> arts, including sculpture, paintings, decorative...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title36-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title36-vol3-sec910-35.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">36 CFR 910.35 - <span class="hlt">Fine</span> arts.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">... 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Fine</span> arts. 910.35 Section 910.35 Parks, Forests, and...Applicable to the Development Area § 910.35 <span class="hlt">Fine</span> arts. <span class="hlt">Fine</span> arts, including sculpture, paintings, decorative...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BoLMe.135..333L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Activity of Wind-Blown <span class="hlt">Sand</span> and the Formation of Feathered <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Ridges in the Kumtagh Desert, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the activity of wind-blown <span class="hlt">sand</span> and its effects on the evolution of feathered <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges in the Kumtagh Desert, China, and attempt to reveal the formation process of feathered <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges using wind-tunnel experiments, remote sensing data, and detailed field observations from 2005 to 2008. The prevailing wind direction in the Kumtagh Desert is easterly in winter and north-easterly in other seasons. The average annual wind speed is 5.9 ms-1, and winds sufficiently strong to entrain <span class="hlt">sand</span> occur on 143 days per annum. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport rate within 0.4 m of the ground is strongly influenced by local landforms, and is related to wind speed by a power function. Wind erosion occurs on the crest, the windward slope of crescent <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges and inter-ridge <span class="hlt">sand</span> strips, where the blowing <span class="hlt">sand</span> cloud is in an unsaturated state; in contrast, <span class="hlt">sand</span> accumulation occurs on the leeward slope of the crescent <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges, where the blowing <span class="hlt">sand</span> cloud is in an over-saturated state. These results indicate that the development of feathered <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges in the Kumtagh Desert is mainly controlled by the local wind regime. The dominant winds (from the north, north-north-east and north-east) and additional winds (from the east-north-east, east and east-south-east) determine the development of crescent <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges, but winds that are approximately parallel to <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges form the secondary inter-ridge <span class="hlt">sand</span> strips.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liao, Kongtai; Qu, Jianjun; Tang, Jinnian; Ding, Feng; Liu, Hujun; Zhu, Shujuan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5422648"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of cementation on liquefaction of <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cementation can exist in a <span class="hlt">sand</span> naturally or it can be added artificially. In either case, it is known to increase the resistance of a <span class="hlt">sand</span> to liquefication, and can be a critical factor in engineering decisions about site response. This investigation involves testing of weakly cemented <span class="hlt">sands</span> which have a range of cementation levels and unit weights. Both triaxial and cubical cyclic shear devices are used in the testing. The cubical shear apparatus is used to allow assessment of possible stress concentration effects in the triaxial device, and to investigate loading under multiaxial stress conditions. The experimental results are used to separate the effects of unit weight and cementation, and to define the conditions where cementation begins to override the influence of unit weight.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Clough, G.W.; Kuppusamy, T. (Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering); Iwabuchi, J. (Central Res. Inst. for Constr. Tech., Tokyo (JP)); Rad, N.S. (Norwegian Geotech. Inst., Oslo (NO))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/G32373.1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Planet-wide <span class="hlt">sand</span> motion on mars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Prior to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data, images of Mars showed no direct evidence for dune and ripple motion. This was consistent with climate models and lander measurements indicating that winds of sufficient intensity to mobilize <span class="hlt">sand</span> were rare in the low-density atmosphere. We show that many <span class="hlt">sand</span> ripples and dunes across Mars exhibit movement of as much as a few meters per year, demonstrating that Martian <span class="hlt">sand</span> migrates under current conditions in diverse areas of the planet. Most motion is probably driven by wind gusts that are not resolved in global circulation models. A past climate with a thicker atmosphere is only required to move large ripples that contain coarse grains. ?? 2012 Geological Society of America.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bridges, N. T.; Bourke, M. C.; Geissler, P. E.; Banks, M. E.; Colon, C.; Diniega, S.; Golombek, M. P.; Hansen, C. J.; Mattson, S.; Mcewen, A. S.; Mellon, M. T.; Stantzos, N.; Thomson, B. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6516792"> <span id="translatedtitle">UV disinfection for onsite <span class="hlt">sand</span> filter effluent</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The technical and economic feasibility of using ultraviolet (uv) light as a viable alternative to chlorine as the required disinfectant for onsite <span class="hlt">sand</span> filter effluents discharged to surface waters in Maine was determined. To obtain a reliable cross section of performance for <span class="hlt">sand</span> filters in Maine, 74 filters were selected for an effluent characterization program. The effluent characterization study allowed general conclusions to be made with regard to the potential of uv disinfection. A simple suspended lamp uv disinfection unit was designed, constructed, and tested in the laboratory and in the field. The efficiency of the uv disinfection unit was determined through field testing at 10 of the 74 <span class="hlt">sand</span> filter sites used in the effluent characterization program.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lowery, J.D.; Romatzick, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6385266"> <span id="translatedtitle">High temperature stable <span class="hlt">sand</span> control method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This invention relates to a method for treating wells completed in subterranean formations to form a mechanically stable, permeable mass which permits flow of fluids therethrough into or from the well, while restricting the movement of unconsolidated earth formation particles such as <span class="hlt">sand</span> into the well. This method is especially suitable for treating producing wells in a subterranean formation being subjected to thermal oil recovery stimulation of viscous oil production such as by steam flooding, which causes rapid deterioration of consolidated <span class="hlt">sand</span> or gravel masses formed with plastic resins. The method comprises contacting <span class="hlt">sand</span> with an aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide, plus an effective amount of calcium salt having solubility greater than calcium hydroxide, such as calcium chloride, plus an alkalinity agent such as sodium hydroxide.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Park, J.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-11-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/l66313w81h7q2454.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Surface sediments of transboundary Lake Peipsi: composition, dynamics and role in matter cycling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To describe and analyse the role of sediments in the matter cycling in large shallow transboundary Lake Peipsi (L. Peipsi)\\u000a in north-eastern Europe, detailed surface-sediment mapping was conducted. On the basis of grain size the surface sediments\\u000a fall into three groups: coarse-grained sediments (prevailingly <span class="hlt">sands</span> in the lake’s southern part), <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained sediments\\u000a (mainly silts) and <span class="hlt">silty</span> <span class="hlt">sands</span>, both in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jaan-Mati Punning; Anto Raukas; Jaanus Terasmaa; Tiit Vaasma</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010OcDyn..60..237M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flocculation settling characteristics of mud: <span class="hlt">sand</span> mixtures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">When natural muds become mixed with sandy sediments in estuaries, it has a direct effect on the flocculation process and resultant sediment transport regime. Much research has been completed on the erosion and consolidation of mud/<span class="hlt">sand</span> mixtures, but very little is known quantitatively about how mixed sediments interact whilst in suspension, particularly in terms of flocculation. This paper presents the settling velocity findings from a recent laboratory study which examined the flocculation dynamics for three different mud/<span class="hlt">sand</span> mixtures at different concentrations (0.2-5 g.l-1) and turbulent shear stresses (0.06-0.9 Pa) in a mini-annular flume. The low intrusive video-based Laboratory Spectral Flocculation Characteristics instrument was used to determine floc/aggregate properties (e.g., size, settling velocity, density and mass) for each population. Settling data was assessed in terms of macrofloc (>160 ?m) and microfloc (<160 ?m) settling parameters: Wsmacro and Wsmicro, respectively. For pure muds, the macroflocs are regarded as the most dominant contributors to the total depositional flux. The parameterised settling data indicates that by adding more <span class="hlt">sand</span> to a mud/<span class="hlt">sand</span> mixture, the fall velocity of the macrofloc fraction slows and the settling velocity of microflocs quickens. Generally, a mainly sandy suspension comprising 25% mud and 75% <span class="hlt">sand</span> (25M:75S), will produce resultant Wsmacro which are slower than Wsmicro. The quickest Wsmicro appears to consistently occur at a higher level of turbulent shear stress (? ˜ 0.6 Pa) than both the macrofloc and microfloc fractions from suspensions of pure natural muds. Flocculation within a more cohesively dominant muddy-<span class="hlt">sand</span> suspension (i.e., 75M:25S) produced macroflocs which fell at similar speeds (±10%) to pure mud suspensions at both low (200 mg l-1) and intermediate (1 g l-1) concentrations at all shear stress increments. Also, low <span class="hlt">sand</span> content suspensions produced Wsmacro values that were faster than the Wsmicro rates. In summary, the experimental results of the macrofloc and microfloc settling velocities have demonstrated that flocculation is an extremely important factor with regards to the depositional behaviour of mud/<span class="hlt">sand</span> mixtures, and these factors must be considered when modelling mixed sediment transport in the estuarine or marine environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Manning, Andrew J.; Baugh, John V.; Spearman, Jeremy R.; Whitehouse, Richard J. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5878989"> <span id="translatedtitle">The lithostratigraphy of a marine kame delta-outwash fan complex at Pease AFB, Newington, NH</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The overburden stratigraphy at Pease AFB is based on over 1,200 wells, borings, piezometers, and test pits, and includes five lithologic units: Fill, Upper <span class="hlt">Sand</span> (US), Marine Clay and Silt (MCS), Lower <span class="hlt">Sand</span> (LS), and Till (GT). The US is a yellow brown, poorly sorted <span class="hlt">sand</span> to <span class="hlt">silty</span> <span class="hlt">sand</span> and is massive to laminated, and locally has hummocky bedding. The MCS (the Presumpscot Formation) is a dark gray, massive to laminated sandy to <span class="hlt">silty</span> clay, and is locally interbedded with <span class="hlt">silty</span> <span class="hlt">sand</span>. The MCS contains a trace of organic matter, primarily as <span class="hlt">fine</span> particles of peat. The LS is a gray to brown, poorly sorted, <span class="hlt">silty</span> <span class="hlt">sand</span> to gravelly <span class="hlt">sand</span> that is massive to planar bedded and locally grades down into GT and/or upward into MCS. The GT consists of a massive to crudely bedded dark gray to dark brown, very poorly sorted, sandy silt to gravelly, <span class="hlt">silty</span> <span class="hlt">sand</span>. The US, MCS, LS and upper part of the GT were deposited in a marine environment at or near the ice margin. Pease AFB is built on two large fans of gravelly <span class="hlt">sand</span> (LS plus US) that are bordered to the east by NW-SE till ridges (drumlins ). The northern-most fan is flat-topped with a surface elevation of 30 m ASL. The southern fan is more hummocky, with a surface elevation of 18.5 m ASL. Both fans coarsen towards the NW, and are interbedded with MCS towards the SE. The apices of the fans overlie deeply-scoured troughs in the rock surface. The fans are interpreted to be kame deltas or submarine outwash fans that are deposited along the retreating Wisconsinan ice margin by concentrated meltwater flow. Later, the US may have been deposited by marine shoreface erosion of the emergent fans as the ice front retreated and sea level fell.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dineen, R.J.; Manning, S.; McGeehan, K. (Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, PA (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD648853"> <span id="translatedtitle">Circular DNA from <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Dollar Sperm.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> dollar sperm DNA was exposed briefly to sonic vibrations, subjected to the heating and cooling procedure and analyzed by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. The tracing showed that 70% of the material was rendered single-stranded as a re...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. S. Rosenkranz G. A. Carden S. Rosenkranz</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1966-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pmmh.espci.fr/~claudin/papers/C7.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of stresses in cohesionless poured <span class="hlt">sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pressure distribution beneath a conical sandpile, created by pouring <span class="hlt">sand</span> from a point source onto a rough rigid support, shows a pronounced minimum below the apex ('the dip'). Recent work by the authors has attempted to explain this phe- nomenon by invoking local rules for stress propagation that depend on the local geometry, and hence on the construction history,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. E. Cates; J.-P. Bouchaud; James Clerk</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB85117356"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beach Cleaning Trials: Pendine <span class="hlt">Sands</span>, 1983.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Techniques for the removal of stranded water-in-oil emulsion were compared in a series of trials held on Pendine <span class="hlt">sands</span> during the period 7-11 November 1983. The report describes various techniques for scraping the beach to transfer the oily waste into tre...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. R. Morris B. W. J. Lynch J. F. Nightingale D. H. Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=whale&pg=3&id=EJ256859"> <span id="translatedtitle">Building Whales in <span class="hlt">Sand</span> and Mind.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|Describes two-week summer workshops on evolution, adaptation, and behavior of whales, conducted for children by Cold Spring Harbor Whaling Museum (New York), and culminating in creation of life-size <span class="hlt">sand</span> sculptures of whales. Provides selected list of periodicals, teaching materials, identification guides, records, and societies devoted to whales…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Warner, Carolyn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60373694"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conveyor belts for transporting tar <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for transporting tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> in an open pit mine utilizing flexible belt conveyors between a receiving area and a discharge area consists of providing a conveyor belt having an upper surface layer of an elastomeric material which is flexible at low temperatures. It is substantially resistant to excess swelling when exposed to petroleum liquids containing up to 30</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60395066"> <span id="translatedtitle">Clarification of tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> middlings water</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A process is described for treating tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> to cause flocculation or coagulation of the clays and other small solids particles present in middlings and tailings streams produced from the hot water process. The process involves the addition of an acid to the water to accelerate clarification of the water and reduce required sludge settling pond area. (1 claim)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schutte</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60228019"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental impact of Alberta oil <span class="hlt">sand</span> development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">According to Esso Resources Canada Ltd.'s Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for its Cold Lake, Alberta, oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> project, environmental control measures will include the clustering of wells to reduce land surface disturbances; a pipeline to the North Saskatchewan River, rather than to a recreational lake, for water supplies; the use of recycling technology to reduce total water requirements by one-half;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=284941"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> sagebrush rangeland utilization by cattle producers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1939, when the USDA purchased the Southern Plains Experimental Range (SPER), scientists of the USDA-Agricultural Research Service have been researching the appropriate uses of native mixed-grass prairie with an over story of <span class="hlt">sand</span> sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia Torr.). This range type inhabits...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60294624"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developments in tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> in 1981</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Activity in tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> projects during 1981 continued at a very significant pace. The bulk of activity was in Canada, where 38 pilot projects were active, 2 commercial plants continued operations, 1 commercial scheme was canceled, and another was put into the twilight zone. Activity in the United States was low, whereas Venezuelan efforts reflect a firm commitment toward commercial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wennekers; J. H. N</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39788917"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hydroponic <span class="hlt">sand</span> culture systems for mycorrhizal research</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Summary Tomato plants were inoculated withGlomus fasciculatus mycorrhizal fungi while growing in <span class="hlt">sand</span> through which recycled nutrient solution was automatically passed several times daily. Concentration of P and N in the solution were maintained at relatively low levels. Roots of inoculated plants became highly infected with mycorrhizal fungi, and yield parameters were significantly increased with inoculation over uninoculated control plants.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. C. Ojala; W. M. Jarrell</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6621206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alberta ERCB lists active oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> projects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Alberta Energy Resources Conservation Board listed all active commercial and experimental oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> projects as of December, 1986, as shown in the accompanying table. The recovery method and the name of the field and operator of the project are given for both commercial and experimental projects in the Athabasca, Cold Lake, and Peace River deposits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6902144"> <span id="translatedtitle">New production techniques for Alberta oil <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and up-grading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir. The history of oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> technology development, the new drilling technology, and synthetic crude oil conversion are briefly described. 17 references.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carrigy, M.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-12-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54125962"> <span id="translatedtitle">Developing Alberta's oil <span class="hlt">sands</span>, 1920--2002</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This dissertation examines the origins and development of the Alberta oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> industry over the last century from a scientific project to a commercial endeavor. Based on extensive use of primary sources, the manuscript integrates the developments in a number of fields (politics, international relations, business and economics, and changing oil-recovery technology) that have made it possible to \\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paul Anthony Chastko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60269365"> <span id="translatedtitle">Alberta Oil <span class="hlt">Sands</span> Environmental Research Program</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Alberta Oil <span class="hlt">Sands</span> Environmental Research Program of the Governments of Canada and Alberta aims to establish baseline data on aquatic and terrestrial fauna, meteorology, and air and water quality. Air research topics include plume dispersion, chemical constitution and transformation within plumes, and the deposition of pollutants. Land system research covers subjects such as the effects of airborne emissions, soil</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. R. Macdonald; H. S. Sandhu; J. W. Bottenheim; B. Munson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD862058"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> Ridge Migration Apalachicola River, Florida.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The migration rate of subaqueous <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges was measured in two reaches of the Apalachicola River, Florida, from 25 June to 31 July 1968. At Site One, 9 miles above the river's mouth, ridge movement was irregular and inconclusive because current velociti...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Tittle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1969-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23761311"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial diversity in Calamita ferromagnetic <span class="hlt">sand</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Calamita is a black ferromagnetic <span class="hlt">sand</span> from a marine iron ore on Elba Island (Italy). Its total iron content is approximately 80% and a major fraction (63% w/w) has magnetic properties. Desiccation, ultraviolet irradiation and the high temperature induced by the thermal conductivity of iron make Calamita <span class="hlt">sand</span> an extreme biotope. We report, for the first time, the geomicrobiological characterization of Calamita <span class="hlt">sand</span>, which showed a low bacterial biodiversity as determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. We retrieved sequences closely affiliated with uncultured bacteria inhabiting the harshest deserts on Earth. Radiation- and desiccation-tolerant bacteria from the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus dominated the community. Heavy metal-resistant organisms, for example Variovorax sp. were also abundant. Sequences of organisms with an inferred metabolism based on lithotrophic iron oxidation were detected. The <span class="hlt">sands</span> also contained thermophilic bacilli, which were cultivated at 60°C. These data provided important insights also into the biogeographical distribution of these organisms in the Mediterranean region. In summary, this study on Calamita helps to expand our knowledge of the biodiversity in extreme, iron-rich, environments. PMID:23761311</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perfumo, Amedea; Cockell, Charles; Elsaesser, Andreas; Marchant, Roger; Kminek, Gerhard</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-14</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26638867"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microtox™ characterization of foundry <span class="hlt">sand</span> residuals</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although foundry residuals, consisting mostly of waste <span class="hlt">sands</span>, represent a potentially attractive, high-volume resource for beneficial reuse applications (e.g. highway embankment construction), prospective end users are understandably concerned about unforeseen liabilities stemming from the use of these residuals. This paper, therefore, focuses on the innovative use of a microbial bioassay as a means of developing a characterization of environmental suitability</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. C Bastian; J. E Alleman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26892499"> <span id="translatedtitle">Triaxial Compression of <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Reinforced with Fibers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results from drained triaxial compression tests on specimens of fiber-reinforced <span class="hlt">sand</span> are reported. It is evident that the addition of a small amount of synthetic fibers increases the failure stress of the composite. This effect, however, is associated with a drop in initial stiffness and an increase in strain to failure. Steel fibers did not reduce initial stiffness of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Radoslaw L. Michalowski; Jan C?erma?k</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eng.uwo.ca/people/tnewson/papers/ge360107.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The strength and dilatancy of <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extensive data of the strength and dilatancy of 17 <span class="hlt">sands</span> in axisymmetric or plane strain at different densities and confining pressures are collated. The critical state angle of shearing resistance of soil which is shearing at con- stant volume is principally a function of mineralogy and can readily be determined experimentally within a margin of about l\\</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. D. Bolton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/54076177"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">sands</span> of time and tidal friction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ancient Babylonian clay tablets buried for centuries beneath the <span class="hlt">sands</span> of the desert are part of an extensive historical archive which contains vital information about the rotation of the Earth. Many are preserved, and using these seemingly crude ancient and medieval observations of eclipses, variations in the Earth's rotation can be traced back over the past 2500 years. The tidal</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leslie V. Morrison; F. Richard Stephenson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60351166"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pyrolysis of asphalt ridge tar <span class="hlt">sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Isothermal and nonisothermal pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on Asphalt Ridge tar <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Oil produced from the isothermal experiments has a molecular weight of approximately 250 and has a hydrogen to carbon ratio between 1.7 and 1.9. Product oil composition varies slightly with reaction time. Results of thin layer chromatographic separation of the residual bitumen show that the concentrations of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">T. F. Turner; L. G. Nickerson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1986-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60240305"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fracturing stimulation of Frio <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Trend</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The history of techniques, fluids, chemical additives and propping agents used in fracturing wells completed in the Upper Frio <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Trend are discussed in this paper. General reasons for fracturing a well and some requirements necessary to obtain a successful fracturing treatment are presented. How the techniques, fracturing fluid, fluid volumes, propping agent type and quantity, injection rates and chemical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. Chisholm; J. E. Coppinger; R. R. Blount; W. T. Malone</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/pa2715.photos.131668p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">1. GENERAL VIEW OF <span class="hlt">SAND</span> HOUSE, TANK AND CAR SHELTER ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. GENERAL VIEW OF <span class="hlt">SAND</span> HOUSE, TANK AND CAR SHELTER LOOKING NORTHWEST. MINE CARS IN FOREGROUND. - Eureka No. 40, <span class="hlt">Sand</span> House & Tank, East of State Route 56, North of Little Paint Creek, Scalp Level, Cambria County, PA</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60321121"> <span id="translatedtitle">Process of microbial extraction of hydrocarbons from oil <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A process is described for the separation of hydrocarbon residues from oil and tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> by microbiological activity. Hydrocarbon residues are released from the <span class="hlt">sands</span> by contacting with a suspension of oxidase-synthesizing, hydrocarbonmetabolizing microorganisms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">I. Rabinovitch; H. E. Worne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE86007927"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory Screening of Thermal Recovery Processes for Tar <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Triangle.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Four thermal processes (steam displacement, not-gas pyrolysis, reverse and forward combustion) were evaluated to select the most effective oil recovery process for the in situ development of the tar <span class="hlt">sand</span> resource at Tar <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Triangle, Utah. Reverse combus...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">L. J. Romanowski K. P. Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB95190351"> <span id="translatedtitle">Population Dynamics of Large Walleye in Big <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Lake.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Walleye population parameters in Big <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Lake, Hubbard County were estimated from 3 years of tagging and creel surveys. Estimated walleye biomass and annual yield were midrange of other North American walleye lakes. Although growth of Big <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Lake walle...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. C. Jacobson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3260630"> <span id="translatedtitle">New Method for Estimation of Aeolian <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Transport Rate Using Ceramic <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Flux Sensor (UD-101)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, a new method for the estimation of aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport rate was developed; the method employs a ceramic <span class="hlt">sand</span> flux sensor (UD-101). UD-101 detects wind-blown <span class="hlt">sand</span> impacting on its surface. The method was devised by considering the results of wind tunnel experiments that were performed using a vertical sediment trap and the UD-101. Field measurements to evaluate the estimation accuracy during the prevalence of unsteady winds were performed on a flat backshore. The results showed that aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport rates estimated using the developed method were of the same order as those estimated using the existing method for high transport rates, i.e., for transport rates greater than 0.01 kg m?1 s?1.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Udo, Keiko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41167823"> <span id="translatedtitle">Deep-water massive <span class="hlt">sands</span>: nature, origin and hydrocarbon implications</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Deep-water massive <span class="hlt">sands</span> (DWMS) are here defined as very thick (>1 m) <span class="hlt">sand</span> beds or units that are devoid of primary sedimentary structures and that occur in association with other deep-water sediments — the massive <span class="hlt">sand</span> facies association. Following careful examination of some 70 examples of massive <span class="hlt">sands</span> drawn from deep-water successions of all ages and lithologies, we are confident that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dorrik A. V Stow; Melissa Johansson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/2848225wp81q256p.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span>–Attapulgite Clay Mixtures as a Landfill Liner</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Absrtract  This paper investigates the potential use of <span class="hlt">sand</span>–attapulgite (palygorskite) mixtures as a landfill liner. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> and attapulgite\\u000a clay used in this study were brought from Wahiba (eastern Oman) and Al-Shuwamiyah (southern Oman), respectively. Initially\\u000a the basic properties of the <span class="hlt">sand</span> and clay were determined. Then the attapulgite clay was added to the <span class="hlt">sand</span> at 5, 10, 20 and\\u000a 30%</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amer A. Al-Rawas; Yahia E. A. Mohamedzein; Abdulaziz S. Al-Shabibi; Salem Al-Katheiri</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003SPIE.5191....1D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging of acoustic waves in <span class="hlt">sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in <span class="hlt">sand</span> or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accommodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in <span class="hlt">sand</span> as well as in solid objects. Waves at frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through <span class="hlt">sand</span> toward partially buried objects. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deason, Vance A.; Telschow, Ken L.; Watson, Scott M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910711"> <span id="translatedtitle">Imaging of Acoustic Waves in <span class="hlt">Sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in <span class="hlt">sand</span> or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in <span class="hlt">sand</span> as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through <span class="hlt">sand</span> toward partially buried objects. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60216243"> <span id="translatedtitle">Great Canadian Oil <span class="hlt">Sands</span> experience in the commercial processing of Athabasca Tar <span class="hlt">Sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A brief review is given of the history of the Great Canadian Oil <span class="hlt">Sands</span> (G.C.O.S.) project to recover 45,000 bpd of synthetic crude oil from the Athabasca Tar <span class="hlt">Sands</span> by open pit mining, hot water extraction, coking, and hydrorefining. This paper then discusses the startup and initial operation of the G.C.O.S. plant. Emphasis is directed toward actual vs. design performance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. F. Andrews; H. M. Lewis; E. W. Dobson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1968-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6845141"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ultra-<span class="hlt">fine</span> coal characterization</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research continued on this program to relate beneficiation characteristics of ultra-<span class="hlt">fine</span> coals to the mineral-matter liberation and bulk properties of the coals. Washability tests are reported here which quantify mineral-matter liberation during ultra-<span class="hlt">fine</span> grinding of Pittsburgh, Pocahontas No. 3, Sunnyside, Anderson and Beulah-Zap coals. The first three are bituminous coals from Pennsylvania, West Virginia and Utah, respectively, and the last two are a subbituminous coal from the Powder River area of Wyoming and a lignite coal from North Dakota. 4 refs., 5 tabs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smit, F.J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-02-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17769829"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> dollar: a weight belt for the juvenile.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Juvenile <span class="hlt">sand</span> dollars (Dendraster excentricus) selectively ingest heavy <span class="hlt">sand</span> grains from the substrate and store them in an intestinal diverticulum which may function as a weight belt, assisting the young animal to remain in the shifting sandy environment. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> disappears from the diverticulum when the animal reaches the length of 30 millimeters. PMID:17769829</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chia, F S</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14993982"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> Dollar: A Weight Belt for the Juvenile</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Juvenile <span class="hlt">sand</span> dollars (Dendraster excentricus) selectively ingest heavy <span class="hlt">sand</span> grains from the substrate and store them in an intestinal diverticulum which may function as a weight belt, assisting the young animal to remain in the shifting sandy environment. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> disappears from the diverticulum when the animal reaches the length of 30 millimeters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fu-Shiang Chia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1973-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB80147655"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Shear Moduli and Damping Ratios for Dry <span class="hlt">Sands</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using the Torsional Simple Shear Device, the authors investigated the equivalent dynamic shear moduli G sub eq and the damping ratio lambda for Ottawa <span class="hlt">sand</span>, Del Monte <span class="hlt">sand</span>, Golden Gardens and Seward Park <span class="hlt">sands</span>. Based on their experimental findings the aut...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. A. Serif I. Ishibashi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24026396"> <span id="translatedtitle">Numerical simulation of wind <span class="hlt">sand</span> movement in straw checkerboard barriers.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Straw checkerboard barrier (SCB) is the most representative antidesertification measure and plays a significant role in antidesertification projects. Large-eddy simulation and discrete-particle tracing were used to numerically simulate the wind <span class="hlt">sand</span> movement inside the straw checkerboard barrier (SCB), study the movement characteristics of <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles, find the transverse velocities of <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles and flow field, and obtain the contour of the transverse velocity of coupled wind field within the SCB. The results showed that 1) compared with that at the inlet of the SCB, the <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport rate inside the SCB greatly decreases and the speed of <span class="hlt">sand</span> grain movement also evidently drops, indicating that the SCB has very good <span class="hlt">sand</span> movement preventing and fixing function; 2) within the SCB there exists a series of unevenly distributed eddies of wind <span class="hlt">sand</span> flow, their strength decreases gradually with increasing the transverse distance; 3) affected by eddies or reflux, <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles carried by the wind <span class="hlt">sand</span> flow have to drop forward and backward the two interior walls inside the SCB, respectively, forming a v-shaped <span class="hlt">sand</span> trough; 4) the <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport rate gradually decreases with increasing number of SCBs, which reveals that the capacity of the wind field to transport <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles decreases. This research is of significance in sandstorm and land desertification control. PMID:24026396</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Huang, Ning; Xia, Xianpan; Tong, Ding</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/4529428"> <span id="translatedtitle">A RELIC <span class="hlt">SAND</span> WAVE FIELD IN A TIDAL CHANNEL</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A <span class="hlt">sand</span> wave field in the eastern flood channel of Moriches Inlet was monitored for eight weeks during the summer of 2005. Bathymetric data show <span class="hlt">sand</span> waves which are 15 m long and 39 cm tall with shallow slip faces. These <span class="hlt">sand</span> waves remained stationary over the eight week study. Analysis based on work by van Rijn (1984) and Yalin</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shelley J. Whitmeyer; Duncan FitzGerald</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/50840893"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental Study of Novel Micro <span class="hlt">Sands</span> Flocculation Technology</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Novel micro <span class="hlt">sands</span> flocculation technology was developed, such as optimization of design, additive combination, hydrodynamic condition and participation velocity. The results showed that micro <span class="hlt">sands</span> flocculation technology can treat wastewater better than normal technology. Some optimum parameters in micro <span class="hlt">sands</span> flocculation technology were obtained to support its commercial application.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chen Wei; Liu Xi; Fan Yuehua; Zhang Shun</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=921310"> <span id="translatedtitle">Well completion process for formations with unconsolidated <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method for consolidating <span class="hlt">sand</span> around a well, involving injecting hot water or steam through well casing perforations in to create a cement-like area around the perforation of sufficient rigidity to prevent <span class="hlt">sand</span> from flowing into and obstructing the well. The cement area has several wormholes that provide fluid passageways between the well and the formation, while still inhibiting <span class="hlt">sand</span> inflow.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Davies, David K. (Kingwood, TX); Mondragon, III, Julius J. (Redondo Beach, CA); Hara, Philip Scott (Monterey Park, CA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-04-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.itia.ntua.gr/hsj/40/hysj_40_01_0001.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fingered preferential flow in unsaturated homogeneous coarse <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The occurrence of fingered preferential flow depends on both flow and porous media characteristics. The boundary condition of un­ saturated infiltration has been investigated to assess whether it produces unstable wetting in homogeneous coarse <span class="hlt">sands</span>. Laboratory tracer experi­ ments were conducted in two coarse <span class="hlt">sand</span> materials; for each <span class="hlt">sand</span> material two initial conditions of air dry and field capacity were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. S. BABEL; R. LOOF; A. DAS GUPTA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1183.photos.052019p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">BMM SEPARATION SCREEN PERMITS <span class="hlt">SAND</span> TO PASS TO BELT CONVEYORS ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BMM SEPARATION SCREEN PERMITS <span class="hlt">SAND</span> TO PASS TO BELT CONVEYORS BELOW THAT TRANSPORT THE <span class="hlt">SAND</span> BACK TO STORAGE AND RECONDITIONING BINS WHILE CASTINGS ARE TRANSPORTED ON ADDITIONAL VIBRATING CONVEYORS TO DEGATING AREAS. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Shaking, Degating & <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Systems, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41182764"> <span id="translatedtitle">The origin, classification and modelling of <span class="hlt">sand</span> banks and ridges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> banks and elongated <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges occur in many coastal and shelf seas where there is abundant <span class="hlt">sand</span> and where the currents are strong enough to move sediment, but they have a wide variety of forms. Their generation requires a source of mobile sediment, either from the local sea bed, or from coast erosion. Most appear to have been created</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keith R Dyer; David A Huntley</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=PB82153115"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trials with Artificial <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Products in Steel-Foundries.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Today molds for steel castings are mainly consisting of cold resins bonded quartz <span class="hlt">sand</span>, which may cause silicosis when the workmen inhale dust-laden air in the foundry. By using corundum <span class="hlt">sand</span> instead of quartz <span class="hlt">sand</span> the risk of silicoses can be avoided. Co...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. Heczko</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=216391"> <span id="translatedtitle">Erosion Potential of Various Golf Course Bunker <span class="hlt">Sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> bunkers are principal golf course features adding aesthetic beauty and challenge for golfers. Bunkers often require substantial resources for proper maintenance particularly where <span class="hlt">sand</span> is installed on severe slopes in humid climates subject to occasional heavy rainfall. Numerous <span class="hlt">sands</span> are comme...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60113965"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method and apparatus for utilizing tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> are then burned at 2000.degree. F. in a burner to remove residual char and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James D. Westhoff; Arnold E. Harak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61397768"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method and apparatus or utilizing tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> are then burned at 2000°F in a burner to remove residual char nd produce</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. D. Westhoff; A. E. Harak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60123242"> <span id="translatedtitle">Method and apparatus for hydrocarbon recovery from tar <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A method and apparatus for utilizing tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> having a broad range of bitumen content is disclosed. More particularly, tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> are pyrolyzed in a cyclone retort with high temperature gases recycled from the cyclone retort to produce oil and hydrocarbon products. The spent tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> are then burned at 2000\\/degree\\/F in a burner to remove residual char and produce</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. D. Westhoff; A. E. Harak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60483092"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pyrolysis of Utah tar <span class="hlt">sands</span>: products and kinetics</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The development of successful in-situ thermal recovery techniques for the Utah tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> requires a knowledge and consideration of the pyrolytic behavior of these bituminous materials. Tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> from four major Utah deposits, Northwest Asphalt Ridge, Tar <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Triangle, P.R. Spring, Sunnyside, and from one Canadian deposit, Athabasca, were subjected to pyrolysis, in an inert atmosphere, at temperatures ranging from</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. V. Barbour; S. M. Dorrence; T. L. Vollmer; J. D. Harris</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1976-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6510538"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tar <span class="hlt">sands</span>. (Latest citations from the COMPENDEX database). Published Search</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The bibliography contains citations concerning mining of tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> and the recovery of bitumen and other materials from tar <span class="hlt">sands</span>. The physical and chemical properties of tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> are discussed, and the economics of their use are considered. Processes include alkaline extraction, water cracking, catalytic cracking, and in situ combustion. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60746012"> <span id="translatedtitle">Reuse of waste cutting <span class="hlt">sand</span> at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) examined the waste stream from a water jet cutting operation, to evaluate the possible reuse of waste garnet <span class="hlt">sand</span>. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> is a cutting agent used to shape a variety of materials, including metals. Nearly 70,000 pounds of waste <span class="hlt">sand</span> is generated annually by the cutting operation. The Environmental Protection Department evaluated two potential reuses</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58826615"> <span id="translatedtitle">Unconsolidated <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Stabilization Through Wellbore Stress State Control</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two methods are presented for controlling wellbore stress state in order to stabilize unconsolidated <span class="hlt">sands</span>. One method is the application of elevated drilling fluid weight to prevent dilation and\\/or shear\\/crushing of <span class="hlt">sand</span> grains surrounding the wellbore. Instabilities resulting from such formation failure would be expected to increase the likelihood for <span class="hlt">sand</span> production. Means are provided for determining mud weight required</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">George Suman Jr; G. O. Jr</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1975-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.vetiver.org/KUW_WORKSHOP_papers/KUW_6TTV.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vetiver System for <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Dune Stabilization A Vietnamese Experience</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> dunes occupy more than 70,000 ha along the coast of Central Vietnam, being the sources of such natural disasters as <span class="hlt">sand</span> storm, <span class="hlt">sand</span> flow\\/flash flood etc., that eat either slowly or catastrophically villages and fields. This has been surveyed by a team of geologists from the Research Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources (RIGMR), who also looked for remedial</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26988766"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enhancing Oil Production by Helical Hydraulic <span class="hlt">Sand</span>-Blasting</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The helical hydraulic <span class="hlt">sand</span>-blasting slotting technology is a new development of the traditional hydraulic <span class="hlt">sand</span>-blasting slotting technology. The original nozzle gun movement control system was replaced with a helical slid rail, and thus the application was extended to directional and horizontal wells. Experiments were conducted to study the feasibility abrasive water jet slotting <span class="hlt">sand</span> prevention tubes. The effects of slotting</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Li; J. Song; J. Niu; R. Tang; Z. Huang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008HydJ...16..879P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experimental investigation of cephapirin adsorption to quartz filter <span class="hlt">sands</span> and dune <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Batch experiments were performed to investigate cephapirin (a widely used veterinary antibiotic) adsorption on various size <span class="hlt">sands</span> of low total organic carbon content (0.08-0.36 wt%). In the aqueous concentration range investigated (11-112 ?mol/L cephapirin), adsorption to nearly pure quartz filter <span class="hlt">sands</span> (0.50-3.35 mm diameter) is low. Isotherms are S-shaped and most display a region of minimum adsorption, where decreased adsorption occurs with increasing solution concentration, followed by increased adsorption at higher concentrations. Cephapirin adsorption to quartz-rich, feldspar-bearing dune <span class="hlt">sands</span> (0.06-0.35 mm diameter), and the smallest quartz filter <span class="hlt">sand</span> investigated (0.43-0.50 mm), can be described by linear sorption isotherms over the range of concentrations investigated. Distribution coefficients ( K d) range from 0.94 to 3.45 L/kg. No systematic relationship exists between grain size and amount of adsorption for any of the <span class="hlt">sands</span> investigated. Cephapirin adsorption is positively correlated to the feldspar ratio (K-feldspar/(albite + Ca-plagioclase). Feldspar-ratio normalization of distribution coefficients was more effective than organic carbon normalization at reducing variability of K d values in the dune <span class="hlt">sands</span> investigated.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peterson, Jonathan W.; O'Meara, Theresa A.; Seymour, Michael D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17438786"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metabolism of BTEX and naphtha compounds to methane in oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> tailings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Naphtha, comprising low molecular weight aliphatics and aromatics (C3-C14), is used as a diluent in processing of bitumen from oil <span class="hlt">sands</span>. A small fraction (<1%) is lost to tailings waste and incorporated into mature <span class="hlt">fine</span> tailings (MFT). BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) and whole naphtha were assessed for biodegradation under methanogenic conditions using MFT from an oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> tailings settling basin. MFT spiked with 0.05-0.1% w/v of BTEX compounds produced up to 2.1 (+/-0.1) mmol of methane during 36 weeks of incubation. Metabolism of 0.5-1.0% w/v naphtha in MFT yielded up to 5.7 (+/-0.2) mmol of methane during 46 weeks of incubation. Gas chromatographic analyses showed that BTEX degraded in the sequence: toluene > o-xylene > m- plus p-xylene > ethylbenzene > benzene. Only 15-23% of whole naphtha, mainly n-alkanes (in the sequence: nonane > octane > heptane) and some BTEX compounds (toluene > o-xylene > m-xylene), was metabolized. Other naphtha constituents, such as iso-paraffins and naphthenes, remained unchanged during this period. These results suggest that the microbial communities in the MFT can readily utilize certain fractions of unrecovered naphtha in oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> tailings and support methanogenesis in settling basins. Current study findings could influence extraction process, MFT management, and reclamation options. PMID:17438786</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Siddique, Tariq; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Foght, Julia M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/574528"> <span id="translatedtitle">Flowsheet modifications for dissolution of <span class="hlt">sand</span>, slag, and crucible residues in the F-canyon dissolvers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An initial flowsheet for the dissolution of <span class="hlt">sand</span>, slag, and crucible (SS{ampersand}C) was developed for the F- Canyon dissolvers as an alternative to dissolution in FB-Line. In that flowsheet, the <span class="hlt">sand</span> <span class="hlt">fines</span> were separated from the slag chunks and crucible fragments. Those two SS{ampersand}C streams were packaged separately in mild-steel cans for dissolution in the 6.4D dissolver. Nuclear safety constraints limited the dissolver charge to approximately 350 grams of plutonium in two of the three wells of the dissolver insert and required 0.23M (molar) boron as a soluble neutron poison in the 9.3M nitric acid/0.013M fluoride dissolver solution. During the first dissolution of SS{ampersand}C <span class="hlt">fines</span>, it became apparent that a significant amount of the plutonium charged to the 6.4D dissolver did not dissolve in the time predicted by previous laboratory experiments. The extended dissolution time was attributed to fluoride complexation by boron. An extensive research and development (R{ampersand}D) program was initiated to investigate the dissolution chemistry and the physical configuration of the dissolver insert to understand what flowsheet modifications were needed to achieve a viable dissolution process.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rudisill, T.S.; Karraker, D.G.; Graham, F.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/hmqr6fypbgtvkamu.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mycorrhizal inoculum potentials of pure reclamation materials and revegetated tailing <span class="hlt">sands</span> from the Canadian oil <span class="hlt">sand</span> industry</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent improvements in the management of oil <span class="hlt">sand</span> tailings used by the Canadian oil <span class="hlt">sand</span> industry have resulted in the production of composite tailing <span class="hlt">sands</span> (CT): a new challenging material for reclamation work. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), hybrid poplar (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh. ×Populus nigra L.) and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) plants were used in an 8-week</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. Bois; Y. Piché; M. Y. P. Fung; D. P. Khasa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40354820"> <span id="translatedtitle">Detecting oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> process-affected waters in the Alberta oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> region using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large volumes of oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> process-affected waters (OSPW) are produced during the extraction of bitumen from oil <span class="hlt">sand</span>. There are approximately 109m3 of OSPW currently being stored in settling basins on oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> mining sites in Northern Alberta. Developers plan to create artificial lakes with OSPW and it is expected that this water may eventually enter the environment. This study</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard J. Kavanagh; B. Kent Burnison; Richard A. Frank; Keith R. Solomon; Glen Van Der Kraak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP41B1770S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentological, Geochemical and Magnetic Properties of Colima Beach <span class="hlt">Sands</span>, Mexico - Influence of Climate and Coastal Processes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studies of sediments on beaches contribute to understanding of sedimentological processes and source, transport and dynamics of sandy coastlines. Results of a geological and geophysical study of sandy beaches on the coast of Colima, Mexico employing sedimentological, geochemical and magnetic methods are presented and used to investigate on climate and coastal processes. Colima is part of the active subduction margin in southern Mexico. We studied thirteen different beaches distributed along the coast. The coastal transect investigated crosses three river drainage basins of the Cihuatlan, Armeria and Coahuayana rivers. Along the coastline there are abundant medium to <span class="hlt">fine</span> <span class="hlt">sands</span> moderately sorted to well-sorted. Towards the southeast, sediments are <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained, darker colors and better classified compared with sediments at the northwest sector. Towards the southeast there is greater abundance of heavy minerals of volcanic origin with high-rank, higher values of natural remnant magnetization and high magnetic susceptibilities associated with the abundance of iron and titanium oxides. The magnetic hysteresis loops are characterized by saturation in low fields, suggesting titanomagnetites and magnetite as major minerals. In the plot of hysteresis ratio parameters, samples plot in the pseudo-single domain field, suggesting mixtures of single and multiple domain states. Silica is the main constituent and shows a trend to decrease towards the southeast. Results show that sediments are primarly derived from the volcanic and plutonic rocks in the margin. There is an attenuation of one order of magnitude in magnetic susceptibility in magnetic concentrates. It is inferred that there is more wave action on <span class="hlt">sands</span> of beaches at the southeastern sector generated primarily by waves, wind and tides in volcanic rocks that outcrop in the region. Backshore area in Santiago Bay is identified as an area of protected beach off the coast where the processes of weathering of the <span class="hlt">sands</span> seem to be limited by this natural barrier. Effects along the Pacific Ocean coast of ENSO events and ITCZ migration on precipitation and erosion are discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sanchez-Guillen, L.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.P51G1193R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Origin of Titan's dunes: noncohesive <span class="hlt">sand</span> in bidirectional winds or sticky <span class="hlt">sand</span> in unidirectional winds?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Eolian dunes occur on Earth, Venus, Mars, and Titan, distinguishing them as one of the more widespread landforms in the solar system. On Earth, unidirectional winds blowing over loose, noncohesive <span class="hlt">sand</span> produce crescentic-shaped dunes with crests oriented normal to the <span class="hlt">sand</span>-transport direction (transverse dunes), but roughly half of Earth's large deserts are covered with longer-crested dunes (linear dunes) that are commonly oriented parallel or oblique to the resultant <span class="hlt">sand</span>-transport vector (longitudinal dunes and oblique dunes, respectively). Such linear dunes form in at least two situations: (1) directionally bimodal winds blowing over loose <span class="hlt">sand</span>, and (2) unimodal winds blowing over sediment that is vegetated, cohesive, sheltered by upwind topography, or otherwise locally stabilized. This study documents an example (Qaidam Basin, China) where a downwind increase in sediment cohesiveness (due to salt and mud incorporated from the local land surface) causes dunes to change orientation from transverse to longitudinal, and the work presents a compilation of related situations where stabilization of dune sediment has been reported to produce linear dunes. This family of stabilized dunes functions dynamically as self-extending "<span class="hlt">sand</span>-shadow" or lee dunes. Loose sediment accumulates locally on these dunes, where it becomes stabilized, thereby allowing the dune itself to function as an obstacle that induces subsequent deposition farther downwind. Linear dunes on Titan previously have been interpreted as forming in the first situation listed above: bimodal winds blowing over loose <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Because Titan's <span class="hlt">sand</span> is believed to be composed of hydrocarbons or nitriles, however, the hypothesized loose, non-sticky nature of the <span class="hlt">sand</span> has surprised researchers. In addition, the previous hypothesis of bimodal winds requires that north-south tidal flow be stronger than west-east zonal flow, which also was unexpected. The new hypothesis presented here—that Titan's dunes formed by unidirectional winds blowing over cohesive or sticky <span class="hlt">sand</span>—resolves these two puzzles, cannot be ruled out with existing observations, and has grossly different implications regarding Titan's sediment properties, surface moisture, and wind regime. Satellite image of dunes in the Qaidam Basin, China. Change in sediment properties causes a change from transverse to longitudinal orientation of the dunes. Transverse dunes are higher in elevation than the longitudinal dunes and composed of noncohesive <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Longitudinal dunes are cemented with silt, clay, and salt acquired locally.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rubin, D. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60045536"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fine</span> bubble generator and method</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This patent describes a method of forming <span class="hlt">fine</span> gaseous bubbles in a liquid ambient. It comprises: forcing a gas through orifices located in the liquid ambient while simultaneously forcing a liquid through liquid orifices at a velocity sufficient to form jet streams of liquid, the liquid orifices being equal in number to the gas orifices and so oriented that each</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. M. Bhagat; R. M. Koros</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED537918.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fine</span> Arts Education. Research Brief</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|What are the benefits of a <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Arts education? With the advent of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2000, extreme pressure has been put on schools to concentrate the majority of their efforts and resources on reading, math and science skills. Yet, NCLB also states that every child should be well-versed in the arts. Some research has shown that…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walker, Karen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Hara%2c%22&pg=5&id=ED269296"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Fine</span> Arts in the Curriculum.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">|In this anthology the issues related to the <span class="hlt">fine</span> arts (music, theater, visual arts) in the elementary secondary curriculum are examined. The fifteen articles, ranging in length from one to seven pages, are followed by a biographical page briefly identifying the contributors. The articles are: "What's It All About?" (Frederick B. Tuttle, Jr.);…</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tuttle, Frederick B., Jr., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dev.papers.ierg.net/papers/Read_145.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">FINE</span> ART, IMAGINATION, AND LITERACY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Participation in various parallel forms of expression that integrate art, imagination, and language create a solid foundation for excellence in literacy. <span class="hlt">Fine</span> art is a language and a means of expression in itself, and many parallels exist between the developmental processes of creating art and writing. Participation in the arts can provide students with the opportunity to exercise and expand</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Catherine Read</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/60621146"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advanced <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Particulate Characterization Methods</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The characterization and control of emissions from combustion sources are of significant importance in improving local and regional air quality. Such emissions include <span class="hlt">fine</span> particulate matter, organic carbon compounds, and NO and SO gases, along with mercury and other toxic metals. This project involved four activities including Further Development of Analytical Techniques for PM and PM{sub 2.5} Characterization and Source</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Steven Benson; Lingbu Kong; Alexander Azenkeng; Jason Laumb; Robert Jensen; Edwin Olson; Jill MacKenzie; A. M. Rokanuzzaman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990hst..prop.3360S"> <span id="translatedtitle">FES <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Lock Guidance Test</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The current operational limit for <span class="hlt">fine</span> lock is 13.0 magnitude, rather than the planned 14.5 magnitude. This restriction is due to the OTA spherical aberration and internal FGS effects. The limitation severly restricts the availability of guide stars for observations which require <span class="hlt">fine</span> lock for guidance. The purpose of this test is to determine whether use of FES averaging time can allow the capture and guidance on stars fainter than 13.0, thus recovering the lost capability. This test will verify that <span class="hlt">fine</span> lock averaging with NULL-BYPASS can be used to support pointing control. The discussions with the flight software engineers suggests that the FGS can be run with <span class="hlt">fine</span> lock averaging as large as 100 milli-seconds without compromising the pointing control system. The probability of lock and the stability while in lock needs to be verified using the Spacecraft with an observation which is not scientifically critical before this method of guidance is used to support scientific observations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schiffer, Francis</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5763701"> <span id="translatedtitle">Earthquake-induced liquefaction of <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained soils - considerations from Japanese research. Final report, October 1986-September 1988</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Liquefaction potential of various types of soils has received a great deal of research attention in the geotechnical community over the previous two decades. Dramatic occurrences of liquefaction in saturated deposits of <span class="hlt">fine</span>, uniformly graded <span class="hlt">sands</span> in the Japanese city of Niigata and surrounding areas resulting from ground shaking during the 16 June 1964 earthquake spawned extensive studies to develop methodologies for assessing the potential for liquefaction of predominantly clean <span class="hlt">sands</span> throughout Japan and worldwide. Japanese researchers have recently performed laboratory and field studies to assess the influence of variations in grain-size distribution and soil-index properties of liquefaction potential of <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained soils. Several Corps of Engineers dams in seismically active areas are founded on <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained, low plasticity alluvial deposits. This report reviews current practices applied to study the phenomenon of <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained soil liquefaction, with emphasis on recent Japanese laboratory and in situ testing research. The findings will promote efficiency of effort in the conduct of subsequent laboratory-testing efforts toward the development of specific procedures for use by the Corps and others in assessing the potential for earthquake-induced liquefaction to occur in <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained soils.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Koester, J.P.; Tsuchida, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5165668"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fracturing yields oil from poorly consolidated <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The technique of fracturing poorly consolidated sandstone reservoirs and filling them with a thick multilayer of proppant has proven successful since sustained production has been obtained from zones previously not producible. Since there was no significant difference in results when fluids of varying polymer concentrations were used, the least expensive fluid was applied. The 70/140 mesh <span class="hlt">sand</span> used as a fluid loss additive apparently was effective and possibly less damaging than silica flour. Larger sized <span class="hlt">sand</span> pumped at the end of treatments did not have a discernible effect on production rate, but wells treated with Clay Acid apparently produced at higher rates than wells not treated. The stimulation method described for poorly consolidated, sandstone reservoirs may be expected to be effective in areas other than the Cook Inlet of Alaska, i.e., in areas where conventional fracturing in relatively soft formations has not been successful.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lambert, S.A.; Dolan, R.T.; Gallus, J.P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21466965"> <span id="translatedtitle">Determination of the <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Structure Constant Using Helium <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Structure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We measure 31 908 131.25(30) kHz for the 2{sup 3}P J=0 to 2 <span class="hlt">fine</span> structure interval in helium. The difference between this and theory to order m{alpha}{sup 7} (20 Hz numerical uncertainty) implies 0.22(30) kHz for uncalculated terms. The measurement is performed by using atomic beam and electro-optic laser techniques. Various checks include a {sup 3}He 2{sup 3}S hyperfine measurement. We can obtain an independent value for the <span class="hlt">fine</span> structure constant {alpha} with a 5 ppb experimental uncertainty. However, dominant m{alpha}{sup 8} terms (potentially 1.2 kHz) limit the overall uncertainty to a less competitive 20 ppb in {alpha}.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smiciklas, Marc; Shiner, David [Department of Physics, University of North Texas, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-09-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6703444"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">SAND</span>-II and FERRET</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A comparison was made of the advantages and disadvantages of two codes, <span class="hlt">SAND</span>-II and FERRET, for determining the neutron flux spectrum and uncertainty from experimental dosimeter measurements as anticipated in the FFTF Reactor Characterization Program. This comparison involved an examination of the methodology and the operational performance of each code. The merits of each code were identified with respect to theoretical basis, directness of method, solution uniqueness, subjective influences, and sensitivity to various input parameters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wootan, D.W.; Schmittroth, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/12222157"> <span id="translatedtitle">Development of Stresses in Cohesionless Poured <span class="hlt">Sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The pressure distribution beneath a conical sandpile, created by pouring <span class="hlt">sand</span>\\u000afrom a point source onto a rough rigid support, shows a pronounced minimum\\u000abelow the apex (`the dip'). Recent work of the authors has attempted to explain\\u000athis phenomenon by invoking local rules for stress propagation that depend on\\u000athe local geometry, and hence on the construction history, of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. E. Cates; J. P. Wittmer; J.-P. Bouchaud; P. Claudin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6303444"> <span id="translatedtitle">Solvent extraction of Southern US tar <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean <span class="hlt">sand</span> and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Penney, W.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5929102"> <span id="translatedtitle">A constitutive model for frozen <span class="hlt">sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model for frozen <span class="hlt">sand</span> is proposed based on the elasto-viscoplasticity theory incorporating the new time measure. The proposed model can describe a number of features of the mechanical behavior of the medium, such as rate sensitivity and strain softening under the triaxial compression test loading conditions. The effects of temperature, ambient pressure and the concentration of soil particles are also discussed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Adachi, T. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Oka, F. (Gifu Univ. (Japan)); Poorooshasb, H.B. (Concordia Univ., Loyola Campus, Montreal, PQ (Canada))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011Geomo.134..217X"> <span id="translatedtitle">The saltations of different sized particles in aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wind tunnel experiments were performed in order to investigate the effect of mixing on the aeolian transport of <span class="hlt">sands</span> with different grain sizes. Two types of <span class="hlt">sand</span> with different grain size distributions and an equal-mass binary mixture of these <span class="hlt">sands</span> were used. Comparing the gradients of their measured mass flux profiles and some published profiles for mixed <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport with those for nearly uniform <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport, it was found that for both of these types of <span class="hlt">sand</span> bed, the negative gradient of the mass flux profile on a log-linear plot varies with the mass averaged grain size of the <span class="hlt">sand</span> bed according to the same power law. Hence it can be deduced that, during the aeolian transport of mixed <span class="hlt">sand</span> beds, the mean vertical ejection speeds of different sized grains are nearly identical to that for the transport of monospecific-sized <span class="hlt">sand</span> with the same mass averaged grain size. Theoretical analysis was undertaken to explore the characteristics of ejections of different sized grains during the aeolian transport of <span class="hlt">sand</span> with mixed-size grains. It is proposed that the mean ejection angles and the mean ejection speeds for <span class="hlt">sand</span> grains of different sizes are nearly identical and are equivalent to that for monospecific-sized <span class="hlt">sand</span> with the same mass averaged grain size. It was also evident that the ratio between the transport rate of each grain size group expressed as the fraction in the whole transport rate and its mass fraction in the mixed-size <span class="hlt">sand</span> is a combined consequence of both the wind effect on the mean saltation distance of different sized grains and the effect of the mass fraction of each grain size group in the original mixture on its ejection potential responding to an impact of a saltating <span class="hlt">sand</span> grain.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Xing, Mao; Wu, Chuanyu; Adams, Michael J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15975632"> <span id="translatedtitle">Blending foundry <span class="hlt">sands</span> with soil: Effect on dehydrogenase activity.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Each year U.S. foundries landfill several million tons of <span class="hlt">sand</span> that can no longer be used to make metalcasting molds and cores. A possible use for these materials is as an ingredient in manufactured soils; however, potentially harmful metals and resin binders (used to make cores) may adversely impact the soil microbial community. In this study, the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) of soil amended with molding <span class="hlt">sand</span> (clay-coated <span class="hlt">sand</span> known as "green <span class="hlt">sand</span>") or core <span class="hlt">sands</span> at 10%, 30%, and 50% (dry wt.) was determined. The green <span class="hlt">sands</span> were obtained from iron, aluminum, and brass foundries; the core <span class="hlt">sands</span> were made with phenol-formaldehyde or furfuryl alcohol based resins. Overall, incremental additions of these <span class="hlt">sands</span> resulted in a decrease in the DHA which lasted throughout the 12-week experimental period. A brass green <span class="hlt">sand</span>, which contained high concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn, severely impacted the DHA. By week 12 no DHA was detected in the 30% and 50% treatments. In contrast, the DHA in soil amended with an aluminum green <span class="hlt">sand</span> was 2.1 times higher (all blending ratios), on average, at week 4 and 1.4 times greater (30% and 50% treatments only) than the controls by week 12. In core <span class="hlt">sand</span>-amended soil, the DHA results were similar to soils amended with aluminum and iron green <span class="hlt">sands</span>. Increased activity in some treatments may be a result of the soil microorganisms utilizing the core resins as a carbon source. The DHA assay is a sensitive indicator of environmental stress caused by foundry <span class="hlt">sand</span> constituents and may be useful to assess which foundry <span class="hlt">sands</span> are suitable for beneficial use in the environment. PMID:15975632</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dungan, Robert S; Kukier, Urzsula; Lee, Brad</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-06-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999APS..SES..ED06H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heaping Instabilities in Vertically Shaken <span class="hlt">Sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present experimental studies and PIV analysis of granular convection and the formation of heaps in vertically shaken <span class="hlt">sand</span>. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> is contained in a quasi two-dimensional, <A HREF=http://www.phy.duke.edu/ hartley/research/shaker.html>glass or Plexiglas rectangular cell</A> (25.4 cm x 20.3 cm x 1.5 cm lwh) vibrated sinusoidally with a mechanical shaker at frequencies ~ 10 Hz and amplitudes ~ 1 cm. Localized heaping develops as granular convection begins. While the dimensionless acceleration (? = a ?^2 /g) largely determines the time scale for the formation of the heap, the surface properties of the granular material has an enormous impact on the internal convection patterns and the magnitude of the local slope. Specifically, high-friction ``rough'' <span class="hlt">sand</span> forms a large heap -- approaching 30^o -- under moderate accelerations (? ~ 1.4) while the surface of the heap formed by low-friction glass beads remains nearly flat. The location of the top of the heap within the cell can be tracked over periods of several days and exhibits a ``random'' side-to-side motion resembling a random walker in a quartic potential.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hartley, R. R.; Behringer, R. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAESc..76...30G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental changes in Hunshandake (Otindag) sandy land revealed by optical dating and multi-proxy study of dune <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A stabilized <span class="hlt">sand</span> dune from the southern Hunshandake (Otindag) sandy land in northeastern China was studied for reconstructing past environmental changes by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating, magnetic susceptibility and particle size analysis. The OSL dating results indicate that the sandy deposits at the bottom of the section formed at ˜11.8 ka ago, corresponding to low magnetic susceptibility and low fractions of <span class="hlt">fine</span> particles (<63 ?m). The variations of the two climate proxies suggest that the region was mainly influenced by arid climate. Above the bottom <span class="hlt">sand</span> layer, there are loamy soils, which formed between ˜6.2 and ˜4.3 ka ago. The soils have relatively higher magnetic susceptibility and finer grain size than the bottom <span class="hlt">sands</span>. The climate of this period was relatively warm and humid, dominated by enhanced summer monsoon. During the late Holocene (from ˜4 ka to present), Hunshandake was dominated by semi-humid to arid climate, as indicated by the aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> beds and interbedded weak sandy soils.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gong, Zhijun; Li, Sheng-Hua; Sun, Jimin; Xue, Lei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5800745"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bagnold's log hyperbolic approach to <span class="hlt">sand</span> grain-size analysis as adapted to a large sedimentation tower</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent criticism of <span class="hlt">sand</span> grain-size analysis as a useful tool in sedimentary petrology is directed at popular techniques of data analysis that do not rest on a correct theoretical basis. Several decades ago, R.A. Bagnold pioneered a new approach that deserves attention before grain-size analysis is discarded for environmental discrimination. Bagnold wrote that transportational sorting and winnowing are independent processes involved in sediment deposition. As a result, grain-size distribution of <span class="hlt">sand</span> deposits follow log-hyperbolic and not log-normal distributions, and the coarse and <span class="hlt">fine</span> tails of grain distributions are independent. More recently, D. Love showed that grain-size studies assuming log normality are prone to specific errors, one of which is the false inference of two log-normal populations when a log hyperbolic-population is analyzed. A difficulty, up to now, in the practical application of Bagnold's approach has been the requirement that sieve-opening diameters be measured accurately. This problem can be eliminated by the use of sedimentation tower techniques. The authors are using a 2-m tall, 40-cm wide, water-filled sedimentation tower and a sensitive electronic balance coupled to a microprocessor to collect sediment-weight and settling-time data for <span class="hlt">sand</span> samples. Bagnold's log differential plots can be plotted directly from such data by the computer and offer the potential to interpret <span class="hlt">sand</span> grain-size distributions on a sound theoretical basis.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brakenridge, G.R.; Vuong, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1563M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The role of ionic strength and grain size on the transport of colloids in unsaturated <span class="hlt">sand</span> columns</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The main objective of this study was to better understand the combined effects of ionic strength, and <span class="hlt">sand</span> grain size on colloid fate and transport in unsaturated porous media. Spherical fluorescent polymer microspheres with three different sizes (0.075, 0.30 and 2.1 ?m), and laboratory columns packed with two size fractions of clean quartz <span class="hlt">sand</span> (0.513 and 0.181 mm) were used. The saturation level of the packed columns was set to 83-95% with solutions having a wide range of ionic strength (0.1-1000 mM). The electrophoretic mobility of colloids and <span class="hlt">sand</span> grains were evaluated for all the experimental conditions employed. The various experimental collision efficiencies were quanti?ed using the classical colloid ?ltration theory. The theoretical collision efficiencies were estimated with appropriate DLVO energies using a Maxwell model. The experimental results suggested that the retention of the bigger colloids (2.1 ?m) was slightly higher compared to the conservative tracer and smaller colloids (0.3 and 0.075 ?m) in deionized-distilled-water, indicating sorption at air-water interfaces or straining. Moreover, relatively smaller attachment was observed onto <span class="hlt">fine</span> than medium quartz <span class="hlt">sand</span>. The mass recovery of the 0.3 ?m microspheres in NaCl solution was shown to significantly decrease with increasing ionic strength. Both the experimental and theoretical collision efficiencies based on colloid interactions with solid-water interfaces, were increased with increasing ionic strength.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mitropoulou, Polyxeni N.; Syngouna, Vasiliki I.; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=862824"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wetter for <span class="hlt">fine</span> dry powder</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A system for wetting <span class="hlt">fine</span> dry powders such as bentonite clay with water or other liquids is described. The system includes a wetting tank for receiving water and a continuous flow of <span class="hlt">fine</span> powder feed. The wetting tank has a generally square horizontal cross section with a bottom end closure in the shape of an inverted pyramid. Positioned centrally within the wetting tank is a flow control cylinder which is supported from the walls of the wetting tank by means of radially extending inclined baffles. A variable speed motor drives a first larger propeller positioned immediately below the flow control cylinder in a direction which forces liquid filling the tank to flow downward through the flow control cylinder and a second smaller propeller positioned below the larger propeller having a reverse pitch to oppose the flow of liquid being driven downward by the larger propeller.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hall, James E. (131 Arkansas Ave., Oak Ridge, TN 37830); Williams, Everett H. (198 Hillside Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37830)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1977-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003JGRD..108.4322Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Laboratory measurement of electrification of wind-blown <span class="hlt">sands</span> and simulation of its effect on <span class="hlt">sand</span> saltation movement</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This article presents a measurement of electrification generated by wind-blown <span class="hlt">sands</span> in a field wind tunnel and a numerical methodology to simulate the effect of electrification on the <span class="hlt">sand</span> saltation movement after the mutual couple interaction between the <span class="hlt">sand</span> movement and the wind flow is taken into account. The measured data of electric charge on the "uniform" <span class="hlt">sands</span> in the wind-tunnel tests show that the sign of electric charge, either negative or positive, is mainly dependent on the diameter size of <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles, i.e., negative charge is gained when the diameter is smaller than 250 ?m and positive charge is obtained if the diameter is larger than 500 ?m, and that for both "uniform" and mixed <span class="hlt">sands</span>, the average charge-to-mass ratio decreases with increasing the wind velocity, and increases with height from <span class="hlt">sand</span> bed. Meanwhile, the measurement of electric field in wind-<span class="hlt">sand</span> cloud related to the electric charge displays that the magnitude of electric field increases generally as the wind velocity and the height increase, and the direction of the field is always upwardly vertical to the Earth's surface, which is opposite to that of the fair-weather field. In order to exhibit the effect of electrification on <span class="hlt">sand</span> saltation movement, a theoretical model by considering the mutual coupling interaction between wind flow and <span class="hlt">sand</span> movement is proposed after the electric force exerted on the moving <span class="hlt">sands</span> is considered. Through solving the nonlinear coupling dynamic equations by a proposed program, the effect of electrification on <span class="hlt">sand</span> saltation motion, e.g., trajectory, is discussed quantitatively. After that, its effect on wind-<span class="hlt">sand</span> transport flux, <span class="hlt">sand</span> ejecta flux, and wind profile is also displayed. The results show that the prediction for the Bagnold's kink is good agreement with the measurement in literature.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zheng, Xiao Jing; Huang, Ning; Zhou, You-He</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/23424143"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inerting of <span class="hlt">fine</span> metallic powders</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Minimum explosible concentration (MEC) tests were carried out on mixtures of 50:50 AI?Mg dust, AI dust, and 70:30 Mg?Ca dust. MgO dust was added to these mixtures as an inertant. The results indicate that between 70 and 75% <span class="hlt">fine</span> MgO dust is required to completely inert the 50:50 AI?Mg dust, which is in the same range as the levels of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. J. Mintz; M. J. Bray; D. J. Zuliani; P. R. Amyotte; M. J. Pegg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61375029"> <span id="translatedtitle">Removal of cracking catalyst <span class="hlt">fines</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cracking catalyst <span class="hlt">fines</span> that are separated from the cracked fluid leaving the cracking or separation zone of a catalytic cracker are not dropped back into the separation zone or cracker and thus are not left in the cracker-regenerator loop but rather are removed from this loop, e.g., by connecting the dip-leg of one or more of the cyclones in the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Washer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=867476"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dense, <span class="hlt">finely</span>, grained composite materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dense, <span class="hlt">finely</span> grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dunmead, Stephen D. (Davis, CA); Holt, Joseph B. (San Jose, CA); Kingman, Donald D. (Danville, CA); Munir, Zuhair A. (Davis, CA)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=5406459"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dense, <span class="hlt">finely</span> grained composite materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Dense, <span class="hlt">finely</span> grained composite materials comprising one or more ceramic phase or phase and one or more metallic and/or intermetallic phase or phases are produced by combustion synthesis. Spherical ceramic grains are homogeneously dispersed within the matrix. Methods are provided, which include the step of applying mechanical pressure during or immediately after ignition, by which the microstructures in the resulting composites can be controllably selected. 10 figs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dunmead, S.D.; Holt, J.B.; Kingman, D.D.; Munir, Z.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-10-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSM.B33E..05H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conditional Probability Approach for Assessing <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Sediment Impacts on Aquatic Insects</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examine the response of benthic macroinvertebrates to deposited <span class="hlt">fine</span> sediments using R/EMAP sites from the Southern Rockies Ecoregion of Colorado and data from a field experiment conducted in a gravel-bed mountain stream in Southern Wyoming in autumn 2004. A conditional probability approach based on selected benthic macroinvertebrate indices (EPT richness and others) is employed to express the likelihood of a reduced number of sensitive taxa given an exceedance of reach-scale percent <span class="hlt">sand</span> and <span class="hlt">fines</span> (less than or equal to 2mm), and deviation from regional mean levels of deposited <span class="hlt">fine</span> sediments by stream type. We address natural variability in <span class="hlt">fine</span> sediment resulting from differences in hydrogeomorphic context by stratifying R/EMAP sites according to relevant watershed-, valley-, and local-scale variables. This research demonstrates a transferable approach for 1) assessing the risk of impacts to stream biota associated with <span class="hlt">fine</span> sediment deposition in various regional contexts, and 2) improving interpretation of qualitative sediment deposition standards.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hurst, B. E.; Bledsoe, B. P.; Poff, N. L.; Albano, C. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20567896"> <span id="translatedtitle">Choice of <span class="hlt">fineness</span> of pulverized coal</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Various methods for choosing the <span class="hlt">fineness</span> of power plant coal dust are reviewed and analytical expressions for determining the <span class="hlt">fineness</span> are presented. It is shown that the use of the yield of combustibles as a parameter is not always suitable for evaluating the <span class="hlt">fineness</span> of pulverized coal. The suggested expression for computing the <span class="hlt">fineness</span> bears composite parameters that allow for the heat value of the volatiles and for the internal surface of the fuel particles.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">E.N. Tolchinskii; A.Yu. Lavrent'ev [All-Russian Thermal Engineering Institute (VTI), Moscow (Russian Federation)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-11-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5478063"> <span id="translatedtitle">Liquefaction susceptibility of <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained soils: preliminary study report. Final report, September 1985-March 1986</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil liquefaction, a hazardous ground failure induced by strong motion earthquakes, can cause catastrophic damage to structures such as dams, bridges, power plants, and water-front structures and may involve great losses of life. Examples of liquefaction and resulting damage were observed during the Alaska (1964), Niigata, Japan (1964), and Tangshan, China (1976), earthquakes. Ground failure due to earthquake-induced soil liquefaction may manifest itself as excessive settlement, loss of bearing capacity, <span class="hlt">sand</span> boiling, and flow slides. The liquefaction potential of clean <span class="hlt">sands</span> has been studied extensively for the last two decades. However, case histories revealed that liquefied <span class="hlt">sands</span> were seldom clean. They may contain various percentages of silt or clay or both. In fact, the Chinese observation in the Tansghan earthquake indicated that some cohesive soils may have liquefied. If this indeed had happened, then structures underlain by <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained soils, with a marginal safety factor based on the liquefaction criteria normally applied to <span class="hlt">sands</span>, may actually be unsafe. Thus there is an urgent need for establishing new criteria for the liquefaction susceptibility of soils to include those identified as <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained. The author, Professor N.Y. Chang of the University of Colorado at Denver, visited several Chinese agencies and and universities in and near Beijing, China, in the summer of 1985 in an attempt to investigate and verify reported data on the liquefaction of cohesive soils during the Tangshan earthquake of 1976 and to negotiate cooperative research into the problem. This report presents the result of supportive literature review and the findings of the China trip.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chang, N.Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGP43B0862Z"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial Variability in Magnetic Properties of <span class="hlt">Sands</span> on Cedar Beach, Western Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Variations in magnetic properties can be used to monitor <span class="hlt">sand</span> movement on beaches and shorelines. To investigate spatial variation in magnetic properties of <span class="hlt">sands</span> on Cedar Beach, western Lake Erie, Ontario, Canada, we conducted surficial magnetic susceptibility measurements, sieve analyses, mass-normalized susceptibility analysis, Curie-point determinations, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) acquisition, S-ratio and hysteresis measurements for a set of samples. Three representative cross-shore transects (West, Middle and East) were chosen to investigate variations in concentration and grain size of magnetic components, and distribution of physical grain sizes. The cross-shore beach was divided into three zones (Zone 1, 2 and 3) to represent a lower lakeward region close to the water line, the upper swash zone and the landward region beyond the upper swash zone, respectively. The West transect shows the highest magnetic concentration and finest physical particle size, in contrast with the East showing the lowest magnetic concentration and coarsest size, and lower magnetic concentration and coarser physical sizes were observed for the Middle. The <span class="hlt">fine</span> fractions (<180um) most contribute to magnetic concentration parameters. Zone 1 usually shows much lower magnetic concentration and contains much coarser <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles than Zone 2 and 3. Sieve analysis generally suggests Zone 1, 2 and 3 are dominated by <span class="hlt">sand</span> fractions of >300um, <250um and 180-500um, respectively. Finer fractions (<250um) most contribute to the magnetic concentration, showing the highest mass-normalized susceptibility (46.3kg-1) in the West transect. High temperature susceptibility curves are reversible in argon, showing Curie points (Tc) close to 580°C, suggesting magnetite is the dominant magnetic mineral. The Hopkinson-type peaks were observed between 500°C and 580°C for some samples in Zone 1, which can be explained by change in domain state or domain wall or creation of a new magnetic phase. Most step IRM acquisition spectra show 95% of the magnetization gained below 200 mT, and S-300 ratios are close to one, indicating the presence of fully saturated, coarse and <span class="hlt">fine</span> magnetite. S-60 and S-100 ratios show high values in Zone 2 and 3, while a drop in values occurs in Zone 1, suggesting <span class="hlt">sands</span> in Zone 1 contain more higher coercivity minerals (hematite or maghemite) than in Zone 2 and 3. IRM magnetic component analyses suggest that some larger fractions (>250um) contain a mixture of lower coercivity and higher coercivity minerals. This is consistent with Zone 1 with <span class="hlt">sand</span> fractions (>300um) has a higher probability of being wet and affected by oxidation than Zone 2 and 3 that have a higher probability of being dry. From east to west, different grain-size fractions in the East profile generally reveal higher coercivity values than in the West and Middle, indicating the coarser fractions contain more high coercivity minerals than the finer <span class="hlt">sand</span> fractions. All samples generally fall into the PSD to MD field on a Day diagram. This study is potential to identify transport paths of beach sediments and monitor shoreline changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, S.; Cioppa, M. T.; Zhang, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMEP23A0729W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> Transport and Turbulence over Immobile Gravel and Cobble Beds: Similarities and Differences Caused by Roughness Scale</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Characterizing the turbulence generated by flow over rough beds has become increasingly important in support of efforts to predict sediment transport downstream of dams. The advanced age and impending decommissioning of many dams have brought increased attention to the fate of sediments stored in reservoirs. In many cases, <span class="hlt">fine</span> sediments are reintroduced to coarse substrates that have large volumes of pore space available for storage after having sediments removed by years of sediment-starved flow. The roughness and porosity of the coarse substrate are both affected by the <span class="hlt">fine</span> sediment elevation relative to the coarse substrate; therefore, the turbulence characteristics and sediment transport over and through these beds are significantly altered after sediment is reintroduced. Experiments at the USDA-ARS-National Sedimentation Laboratory have focused on <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport and turbulence over two different rough, immobile, substrates: 35 mm gravel and 150 mm cobbles. Detailed acoustic Doppler-based measurements of turbulence structure over the gravel and cobble beds have allowed the influence of the scale of roughness on both the turbulence and <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport to be evaluated. It was found that the <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport in both the gravel and cobble beds showed a strong relationship with bed shear stress scaled by the value of the cumulative distribution of bed elevation at the level of <span class="hlt">sand</span> within the rough bed. Reynolds stresses near and just below the top of the cobble bed show a region of near constant value with depth, while, for the gravel bed there is a gradual decrease in Reynolds stress beginning just above the gravel and decreasing with increasing depth into the gravel. Dispersive stresses show a very similar patter with a peak at the top of the roughness elements decaying to zero with increasing distance above and below.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wren, D. G.; Langendoen, E. J.; Kuhnle, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22438041"> <span id="translatedtitle">Simulation of the electrification of wind-blown <span class="hlt">sand</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The triboelectric charging of collision particles is essential to understand <span class="hlt">sand</span> electrification in wind-blown <span class="hlt">sand</span> fluxes. The physical model of electron trapped in high-energy states has been proposed to explain the triboelectric charging between identical insulating granular materials. In this study we propose an improved triboelectric charging model which combines the soft sphere model and the trapped electron model to calculate the net charge transfer during particles' collisions. Based on our charging model, we investigate the <span class="hlt">sand</span> electrification of wind-blown <span class="hlt">sand</span>, such as the charge flux varying with height, the charge-to-mass ratio of wind-blown <span class="hlt">sand</span>, and the equilibrium time that the charge takes to approach a stable state. Numerical simulation results of the averaged charge-to-mass ratio in wind-blown <span class="hlt">sand</span> fluxes are in good agreement with the experimental data. PMID:22438041</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hu, Wenwen; Xie, Li; Zheng, Xiaojing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-03-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5377287"> <span id="translatedtitle">Oil shale, tar <span class="hlt">sands</span>, and related materials</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This sixteen-chapter book focuses on the many problems and the new methodology associated with the commercialization of the oil shale and tar <span class="hlt">sand</span> industry. Topics discussed include: an overview of the Department of Energy's oil shale R, D, and D program; computer simulation of explosive fracture of oil shale; fracturing of oil shale by treatment with liquid sulfur dioxide; chemistry of shale oil cracking; hydrogen sulfide evolution from Colorado oil shale; a possible mechanism of alkene/alkane production in oil shale retorting; oil shale retorting kinetics; kinetics of oil shale char gasification; a comparison of asphaltenes from naturally occurring shale bitumen and retorted shale oils: the influence of temperature on asphaltene structure; beneficiation of Green River oil shale by density methods; beneficiation of Green River oil shale pelletization; shell pellet heat exchange retorting: the SPHER energy-efficient process for retorting oil shale; retorted oil shale disposal research; an investigation into the potential economics of large-scale shale oil production; commercial scale refining of Paraho crude shale oil into military specification fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition; chemical characterization/physical properties of US Navy shale-II fuels; relation between fuel properties and chemical composition: stability of oil shale-derived jet fuel; pyrolysis of shale oil residual fractions; synfuel stability: degradation mechanisms and actual findings; the chemistry of shale oil and its refined products; the reactivity of Cold Lake asphaltenes; influence of thermal processing on the properties of Cold Lake asphaltenes: the effect of distillation; thermal recovery of oil from tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> by an energy-efficient process; and hydropyrolysis: the potential for primary upgrading of tar <span class="hlt">sand</span> bitumen.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stauffer, H.C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010WRR....46.2518C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Physically based model of downstream <span class="hlt">fining</span> in bedrock streams with lateral input</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bed load particles in bedrock streams receiving lateral input from hillslopes may or may not show a clear, monotonic pattern of size reduction in the downstream direction. Both abrasion and selective sorting may play important roles in generating downstream <span class="hlt">fining</span>. The objective of this study is to develop a physically based model of downstream <span class="hlt">fining</span> in bedrock streams with lateral input based on both processes. A surface-based gravel transport relation for the size mixture is employed to account for the effect of selective sorting (differential transport). While the model produces silt and <span class="hlt">sand</span> by abrasion, it is also assumed to loosely capture particle fracturing via a lumped abrasion coefficient embodied in Sternberg's law. The model is here tested against field data from Vieux Habitants River in Guadeloupe Island, which is located in the Caribbean Sea. The river shows clear downstream <span class="hlt">fining</span>, and this pattern is captured reasonably well by the model. The model results indicate that abrasion (including fracturing) is solely responsible for the downstream <span class="hlt">fining</span> pattern for most of the study reach of the Vieux Habitants River. Sensitivity analysis of the model has also been performed. The model results suggest that, in general, selective sorting by differential transport can play a role in downstream <span class="hlt">fining</span> only in cases of streams with relatively <span class="hlt">fine</span> gravel sizes and lower slopes. The results also indicate that abrasion (including fracturing) and selective sorting can be equally important for downstream <span class="hlt">fining</span> in bedrock rivers. The results also suggest that future work should explicitly consider fracturing (comminution) separately from abrasion (wear) rather than lumping them in a Sternberg-type coefficient.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chatanantavet, Phairot; Lajeunesse, Eric; Parker, Gary; Malverti, Luce; Meunier, Patrick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/doepatents/details.jsp?query_id=0&page=0&ostiID=1015188"> <span id="translatedtitle">Heating tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> formations while controlling pressure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Methods for treating a tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Beer, Gary Lee (Houston, TX); Zhang, Etuan (Houston, TX)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/mineralogy/activities/MinEx18XRayAnalysisSand.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">X-ray Analysis of <span class="hlt">Sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is an x-ray diffraction analysis of six <span class="hlt">sand</span> samples and comparison with hand specimens. Students look at each of the six samples under the binocular microscope and note such useful properties as number of minerals, cleavage/fracture, color, shape, grain size, roundness, and degree of sorting. Then they grind up small amounts of each sample and mount them on glass slides for X-ray. Students write all sample descriptions and X-ray analysis results in their lab notebook. Then they identify the minerals in each sample, determine where they are from, and write a report summarizing all results.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Perkins, Dexter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013PhRvE..87b0701K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biogenic crust dynamics on <span class="hlt">sand</span> dunes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in model studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power; and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a crossover between two different forms of desertification.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kinast, Shai; Meron, Ehud; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/218353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Advances benefit tight gas <span class="hlt">sands</span> development</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Advances in four key technologies have been important for more efficient development of tight gas <span class="hlt">sands</span>. The advances are: (1) expanded use of 3D seismic; (2) integrated approaches to natural fracture detection; (3) improved well completions and advanced stimulation technology; and (4) selected use of horizontal wells. In addition, advances in drill bits, downhole motors, and basic procedures have significantly reduced the costs of producing tight gas, as demonstrated by an impressive increase in rate of penetration and associated reduction in costs for new wells. This paper reviews each of these areas of new or improved technology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuuskraa, V.A.; Hoak, T.E.; Kuuskraa, J.A. [Advanced Resources International Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Hansen, J. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-04-08</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/tour/sanddune.cfm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tour of Park Geology: <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Dunes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Park Geology site provides links to tours of individual National Parks, Monuments, and Recreation Areas with <span class="hlt">sand</span> dunes. Where appropriate for each park, links are provided to maps, photographs, geologic research, related links, visitor information, and teacher features (resources for teaching geology with National Park examples). The list includes places such as Death Valley and Mojave National Preserve, along with less well-known areas such as the Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore in Michigan and the Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Carolina.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3228632"> <span id="translatedtitle">Relationships Between <span class="hlt">Sand</span> and Water Quality at Recreational Beaches</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Enterococci are used to assess the risk of negative human health impacts from recreational waters. Studies have shown sustained populations of enterococci within sediments of beaches but comprehensive surveys of multiple tidal zones on beaches in a regional area and their relationship to beach management decisions are limited. We sampled three tidal zones on eight South Florida beaches in Miami-Dade and Broward counties and found that enterococci were ubiquitous within South Florida beach <span class="hlt">sands</span> although their levels varied greatly both among the beaches and between the supratidal, intertidal and subtidal zones. The supratidal <span class="hlt">sands</span> consistently had significantly higher (p<0.003) levels of enterococci (average 40 CFU/g dry <span class="hlt">sand</span>) than the other two zones. Levels of enterococci within the subtidal <span class="hlt">sand</span> correlated with the average level of enterococci in the water (CFU/100mL) for the season during which samples were collected (rs= 0.73). The average <span class="hlt">sand</span> enterococci content over all the zones on each beach correlated with the average water enterococci levels of the year prior to <span class="hlt">sand</span> samplings (rs=0.64) as well as the average water enterococci levels for the month after <span class="hlt">sand</span> samplings (rs=0.54). Results indicate a connection between levels of enterococci in beach water and <span class="hlt">sands</span> throughout South Florida’s beaches and suggest that the <span class="hlt">sands</span> are one of the predominant reservoirs of enterococci impacting beach water quality. As a result, beaches with lower levels of enterococci in the <span class="hlt">sand</span> had fewer exceedences relative to beaches with higher levels of <span class="hlt">sand</span> enterococci. More research should focus on evaluating beach <span class="hlt">sand</span> quality as a means to predict and regulate marine recreational water quality.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Phillips, Matthew C.; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Piggot, Alan M.; Klaus, James S.; Zhang, Yifan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/47614206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Role of <span class="hlt">sand</span> capping in phosphorus release from sediment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> is the simplest capping material proposed to date to contain phosphorus in sediment in situ. This research was carried out to understand the role of <span class="hlt">sand</span> capping in the speciation and release of phosphorus from sediment.\\u000a Clean <span class="hlt">sand</span> was laid on sediment sampled at a eutrophicated lake in one dimensional columns with different capping thicknesses.\\u000a It could be understood</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Geonha Kim; Woohyeuk Jung</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58819325"> <span id="translatedtitle">Technical Problems in the Mining of Tar <span class="hlt">Sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Factors which affect the selection of equipment, mine layout, and sequence of operations are discussed as they relate to the open-pit mining of tar <span class="hlt">sands</span>. These factors include the overburden to-tar-<span class="hlt">sand</span> ratio, geological, and hydrological conditions and general limitations of open pit methods. Overburden removal is discussed from the standpoints of overburden properties, equipment selection, and field operations. Tar <span class="hlt">sand</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">KFM Gold</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/55201699"> <span id="translatedtitle">Have the northwest Negev dunefield <span class="hlt">sands</span> reddened since their deposition?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> grain coating redness has been extensively both in coastal and inland desert dunes. In Israel, <span class="hlt">sand</span> redness has been quantified by calculating a spectral redness index (RI) using single RGB bands (RI= R2\\/(B*G3)) from reflectance spectroscopy. The RI values have been correlated to ferric oxide mass that was dissolved from <span class="hlt">sand</span> grain coatings (Ben Dor et al., 2006; Tsoar</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joel Roskin; Haim Tsoar; Dan G. Blumberg; Naomi Porat; Ofer Rozensten</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107373"> <span id="translatedtitle">Final report on Thermally Modified <span class="hlt">Sand</span> demonstration project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The use of salt and salt/<span class="hlt">sand</span> mixtures on icy roadway surfaces has dramatically increased during the past 30 years. Despite extensive documentation on salt related damage to the roadway improvements, vehicles and the environment, road maintenance departments have continued to rely on this practice. Road maintenance departments in northern climate areas have long recognized the safety benefits for public mobility on icy roadways from the use of <span class="hlt">sand</span>. As an abrasive material, the <span class="hlt">sand</span> improves the surface traction that results in more drivable and less hazardous road conditions during the winter months. Stockpiles of pure <span class="hlt">sand</span> stored during the winter months oftentimes freeze into large unworkable, monolithic piles. To maintain a free-flowing condition, it has been found to be necessary to add salt to the <span class="hlt">sand</span>. The addition of salt in amounts ranging from 5 to 10 percent to that of <span class="hlt">sand</span>, is usually sufficient to provide relatively free-flowing abrasive material that could be stored in stockpiles and applied to icy road surfaces with conventional <span class="hlt">sand</span> spreading trucks. Another alternative for winter storage of pure <span class="hlt">sand</span> to maintain a free-flowing condition is in humidity-controlled, heated buildings. As would be expected, this method has high capital and operating costs. and not cost effective for general highway maintenance use. The invention demonstrated herein is a method of thermally modifying pure <span class="hlt">sand</span> that will remain in a free-flowing state throughout the winter season without the need for the salt additive. The thermally modified <span class="hlt">sand</span> provides an abrasive material that when applied to icy roads does not cause environmental and corrosive damage as done by the application of <span class="hlt">sand</span> with salt. By employing a very simple process of freezing screened <span class="hlt">sand</span> particles by forced air convection under subfreezing conditions, the invention creates a product that has significant value in terms of economic and environmental benefits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Not Available</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-09-23</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39710572"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling <span class="hlt">sand</span>–mud morphodynamics in the Friesche Zeegat</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The objective of the study presented in this paper is to investigate the predictive capabilities of a process-based <span class="hlt">sand</span>–mud model in a quantitative way. This recently developed <span class="hlt">sand</span>–mud model bridges the gap between noncohesive <span class="hlt">sand</span> models and cohesive mud models. It explicitly takes into account the interaction between these two sediment fractions and temporal and spatial bed composition changes in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mathijs van Ledden; Zheng-Bing Wang; Han Winterwerp; Huib de Vriend</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6288595"> <span id="translatedtitle">The morphodynamic modelling of tidal <span class="hlt">sand</span> waves on the shoreface</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An artificial <span class="hlt">sand</span> wave on the Dutch shoreface of the North Sea has been studied in conditions with relatively strong tidal currents in the range of 0.5 to 1 m\\/s and sediments in the medium <span class="hlt">sand</span> size range of 0.2 to 0.5 mm. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> wave is perpendicular to the tidal current and has a maximum height and length of the order</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. K. Tonnon; L. C. van Rijn; D. J. R. Walstra</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.2356K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of deposited fly-ash and <span class="hlt">fine</span> grained magnetite in sandy material of different porosity (column experiments)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several studies confirm that soil magnetometry can serve as proxy of industrial immisions as well as heavy-metal contamination. The important assumption for magnetic mapping of contaminated soils is that atmospherically deposited particulate matter, including the ferrimagnetic phase, accumulates in the top soil horizons and remains there over long period. Only if this is true, large areas can be reliably mapped using soil magnetometry, and, moreover, this method can be used also for long-term monitoring. However, in soil types such as sandy soils with different porosity or soils with substantial variability of water regime, translocation of the deposited anthropogenic particles may result in biased (underestimated) values of the measured topsoil magnetic susceptibility. From the physical point of view, this process may be considered as colloid transport through porous medium. In our column experiments in laboratory we used three technical <span class="hlt">sands</span> with different particle sizes (0,63 - 1.25mm, 0,315-0,80mm, 0,10-0,63mm). <span class="hlt">Sands</span> in cylinders were contaminated on the surface by fly-ashes from coal-burning power plant (mean grain size 10?m) and <span class="hlt">fine</span> grained Fe3O4 (grain size < 20 ?m). Soil moisture sensors were used to monitor water regime within the <span class="hlt">sand</span> columns after controlled rain simulation and temperature distribution in <span class="hlt">sand</span> column was measured as well. Vertical migration of ferrimagnetic particles-tracers presented in the fly-ash was measured by SM 400 Kappameter. By means of magnetic susceptibility distribution we studied two parameters: gradual shift of peak concentration of contaminants (relative to surface layer) and maximum penetration depth. Results indicated that after rain simulation (pulls infiltration of defined water volume) the positions of peak values moved downwards compared to the initial state and gradual decrease of susceptibility peak values were detected in all studied <span class="hlt">sand</span> formations. Fly-ash migrated more or less freely in coarse <span class="hlt">sand</span> material. In medium and <span class="hlt">fine</span> <span class="hlt">sand</span> the contaminants moved only to the depths of several cm due to the pore-space blocking and water flow decrease. <span class="hlt">Fine</span>-grained magnetite shows different behavior. Position of peaks value is more or less stable and maximum depth of penetration is only a few cm in all cases. Higher grain size value is probably reason for higher stability of magnetite. Moreover, magnetic interaction between grains increase "effective" grain size value and restricts transport in material with given porosity. This research is supported by the Grant Agency ASCR under grant IAA300120701</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kapicka, Ales; Kodesova, Radka; Petrovsky, Eduard; Grison, Hana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52779525"> <span id="translatedtitle">Testing Planetary Radiative Transfer Models via Remote Sensing of Gypsum <span class="hlt">Sands</span> in White <span class="hlt">Sands</span> National Monument</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Directional reflectance and emission spectra for particulate materials are governed by the mineralogy, grain size, packing, and topography of the sample observed. White <span class="hlt">Sands</span> National Monument, as the largest homogeneous gypsum dune field in the world, provides a unique in-situ environment in which to isolate the textural components of spectra and determine the ability of remote sensing models to retrieve</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. L. Siebach; R. E. Arvidson; J. Boettger; S. Bova; P. Murrey; M. Rudd; S. Spera; T. Stein; M. Witchger</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21959036"> <span id="translatedtitle">Parasite infection and <span class="hlt">sand</span> coarseness increase <span class="hlt">sand</span> crab (Emerita analoga) burrowing time.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Parasites with indirect life cycles require trophic transmission from intermediate hosts to definitive (vertebrate) hosts. Transmission may be facilitated if parasite infection alters the behavior of intermediate hosts such that they are more vulnerable to predation. Vulnerability to predation may also be influenced by abiotic factors; however, rarely are the effects of parasites and abiotic factors examined simultaneously. The swash zone of sandy beaches is a particularly harsh environment. <span class="hlt">Sand</span> crabs (Emerita analoga) burrow rapidly in the swash zone to avoid predators and dislodgment. We examined prevalence and abundance of the acanthocephalan parasite Profilicollis altmani in <span class="hlt">sand</span> crabs, and investigated the synergistic effects of <span class="hlt">sand</span> grain size (an important abiotic factor), parasite infection, body size and reproductive condition on burrowing speed in females, from three California sites. More heavily parasitized crabs burrowed more slowly, making them potentially more vulnerable to predation by marine bird definitive hosts. Ovigerous females harbored more parasites than non-ovigerous females, but burrowed more quickly. All crabs burrowed slowest in the coarsest <span class="hlt">sand</span>, and burrowing times increased with repeated testing, suggesting that it is energetically costly. Abiotic and biotic factors influence burrowing, and behavioral variation across sites may reflect the response to natural variation in these factors. PMID:21959036</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kolluru, Gita R; Green, Zachary S; Vredevoe, Larisa K; Kuzma, Matthew R; Ramadan, Sera N; Zosky, Marc R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-09-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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showDiv("page_22");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2565272"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Biopersistence Study following Exposure to Chrysotile Asbestos Alone or in Combination with <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In designing a study to evaluate the inhalation biopersistence of a chrysotile asbestos that was used as a component of a joint-compound, a feasibility study was initiated to evaluate the short-term biopersistence of the chrysotile alone and of the chrysotile in combination witht the <span class="hlt">sanded</span> reformulated joint-compound. Two groups of Wistar rats were exposed to either 7RF3 chrysotile (Group 2) or to 7RF3 chrysotile combined with aerosolized <span class="hlt">sanded</span> joint-compound (Group 3). In addition, a control group was exposed to flltered-air. The chrysotile used in the Ready Mix joint compound is rapidly removed from the lung. The chrysotile alone exposure group had a clearance half-time of fibers L > 20 ?m of 2.2 days; in the chrysotile plus <span class="hlt">sanded</span> exposure group the clearance half-time of fibers L > 20 ?m was 2.8 days. However, across all size ranges there was approximately an order of magnitude decrease in the mean number of fibers remaining in the lungs of Group 3 as compared to Group 2 despite similiar aerosol exposures. Histopathological examination showed that the chrysotile exposed lungs had the same appearance as the flltered-air controls. This study uniquely illustrates that additional concurrent exposure to an aerosol of the <span class="hlt">sanded</span> joint-compound, with large numbers of <span class="hlt">fine</span>-particles depositing in the lungs, accelerates the recruitment of macrophages, resulting in a tenfold decrease in the number of fibers remaining in the lung. The increased number of macrophages in the chrysotile/<span class="hlt">sanded</span> joint exposure group was confirmed histologically, with this being the only exposure-related histological finding reported.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bernstein, D. M.; Donaldson, K.; Decker, U.; Gaering, S.; Kunzendorf, P.; Chevalier, J.; Holm, S. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7575142"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hand transmitted vibrations caused by orbital hand <span class="hlt">sanding</span> machines.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper reports and analyses results of vibration measurement carried out on orbital hand <span class="hlt">sanding</span> machines. Vibrations were measured on the front and rear handles of the FESTO LRB-W1 and LRB-T1 orbital hand <span class="hlt">sanding</span> machines and at two points on the holding handle of the FESTO RTL-F1 hand <span class="hlt">sanding</span> machine. The measured levels of the weighted vibration accelerations were compared to the daily exposure limits according to ISO 5349, ISO/TC 108/SC4/14 and NF E90-402. Daily exposures for each type of <span class="hlt">sanding</span> machine were determined according to the same standards. PMID:7575142</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Goglia, V; Risovi?, S; Beljo, R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990hst..prop.1397T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hrs/fgs <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Alignment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This proposal defines the Phase III HRS/FGS <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Alignment Test. The goals of this test are: (1) to determine the coordinates of the LSA and SSA in V2/V3 coordinates with an accuracy of 0.02 arcsec, (2) to locate the SSA in V2/V3 coordinates, and (3) to refine the measurement of the plate scale and aperture orientation. This test is to be run once during OV/2, and 5 times during SV. Revised by S. Falgout at request of L. Nagel on 16-Oct-89 to match Imple- mentation Plan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Troeltzsch, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011APS..DFDM28007H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Three-link Swimming in <span class="hlt">Sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Many animals move within in granular media such as desert <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Recent biological experiments have revealed that the sandfish lizard uses an undulatory gait to swim within <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Models reveal that swimming occurs in a frictional fluid in which inertial effects are small and kinematics dominate. To understand the fundamental mechanics of swimming in granular media (GM), we examine a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids: the three-link swimmer. We create a physical model driven by two servo-motors, and a discrete element simulation of the swimmer. To predict optimal gaits we use a recent geometric mechanics theory combined with empirically determined resistive force laws for GM. We develop a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical predictions; thus geometric tools can be used to study locomotion in GM.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hatton, R. L.; Ding, Yang; Masse, Andrew; Choset, Howie; Goldman, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24080900"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soggy-<span class="hlt">sand</span> electrolytes: status and perspectives.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soggy-<span class="hlt">sand</span> electrolytes (solid-liquid composites, typically gel electrolytes, with synergistic electrical properties) are reviewed as far as status and perspectives are concerned. Major emphasis is put on the understanding of the local mechanism as well as the long-range transport along the filler network. The beneficial property spectrum includes enhanced conductivity of one ion type and decreased conductivity of the counter ion, but also the exciting mechanical properties of the solid-liquid composites. Inherent but not insurmountable problems lie in the reproducibility and stationarity of the composites microstructure and morphology. Owing to the huge parameter complexity and hence to the multitude of adjusting screws, there are various strategies for materials optimization. The technological relevance is enormous, in particular for battery electrolytes as here all the above-mentioned electrical and mechanical benefits are welcome. The soggy-<span class="hlt">sand</span> electrolytes combine high Li(+) conductivity, low anion conductivity and good wettability of electrode particles with the mechanical stability of semi-solids. PMID:24080900</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pfaffenhuber, C; Göbel, M; Popovic, J; Maier, J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/910461"> <span id="translatedtitle">TESTING OF TMR <span class="hlt">SAND</span> MANTIS FINAL REPORT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Screening tests of <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Mantis candidate materials selected for erosion resistance have been completed. The results of this testing identified that over a relatively short period of operation (<1 hour), measurable erosion will occur in each of the candidate zoom tube materials given equal operating exposure. Additionally, this testing has shown that erosion of the rubber discharge hose directly downstream of the vehicle could be expected to limit the service life of the discharge hose. On the basis of these test results, SRNL recommends the following; {lg_bullet} redesign of critical system components (e.g., zoom tube, discharge hose) should be conducted to improve system characteristics relative to erosion and capitalize on the results of this testing, {lg_bullet} continued efforts to deploy the <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Mantis should include testing to better define and optimize operating parameters, and gain an understanding of system dynamics, {lg_bullet} discontinue wear testing with the selected materials pending redesign of critical system components (1st recommendation) and inclusion of other candidate materials. The final selection of additional candidate materials should be made following design changes, but might include a Stellite alloy or zirconia.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Krementz, D; William Daugherty, W</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-06-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1423..379S"> <span id="translatedtitle">High natural radiation in Brazilian <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The present work investigated Brazilian beach <span class="hlt">sands</span> in order to analyze the total external natural radiation dose using a gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The activities from the radionuclides 40K and the elements from the series of 238U and 232Th were measured. The <span class="hlt">sand</span> samples from Morro Branco beach, Ceará, and Itacaré beach, Bahia, presented different colors and grain size than the beaches from Sa~o Paulo. A sample collected in Itacaré beach showed an effective dose of 2.5 (1) mSv/yr. This value is outside the annual typical range (0.3-0.6 mSv) indicated by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation. The high effective dose found in Itacaré beach is mainly due to the presence of a large amount of 232Th and 238U. All the other samples collected in Ceará and Sa~o Paulo States are inside the annual typical range. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis showed that this high external radiation is related to the presence of zircon and monazite, which commonly carry traces of uranium and thorium.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silveira, M. A. G.; Medina, N. H.; Pereira, B. R.; Aguiar, V. A. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1215235V"> <span id="translatedtitle">Aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport: Experiment and Theory</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experiments on aeolian <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport were carried out in a wind tunnel at the University of Aarhus in Denmark for a wide range of wind speeds. The saltating particles were analyzed using imaging techniques (PIV and PTV). Vertical profiles of particle concentration and velocity were extracted. The particle concentration was found to decrease exponentially with the height above the bed and the characteristic decay height was independent of the wind speed (Creyssels et al., 2009). In contrast with the logarithmic profile of the wind speed, the particle velocity was found to vary linearly with the height. In addition, the particle slip velocity is finite and invariant with the wind speed. These results are shown to be closely related to the features of the splash function that characterizes the impact of the saltating particles onto a <span class="hlt">sand</span> bed. A numerical simulation was developed that explicitly incorporates low velocity moments of the splash function in a calculation of the boundary conditions that apply at the bed (Creyssels et al., 2009). The overall features of the experimental measurements are well reproduced by the simulation. Reference: M. Creyssels, P. Dupont, A. Ould el Moctar, A. Valance, I. Cantat, J. T. Jenkins, J. M. Pasini and K. R. Rasmussen, J. Fluid Mech. 625, 47 (2009).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Valance, A.; Ould Eld Moctar, A.; Dupont, P.; Cantat, I.; Jenkins, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/0j7550h0ql84p77q.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Activity of Wind-Blown <span class="hlt">Sand</span> and the Formation of Feathered <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Ridges in the Kumtagh Desert, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We study the activity of wind-blown <span class="hlt">sand</span> and its effects on the evolution of feathered <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges in the Kumtagh Desert,\\u000a China, and attempt to reveal the formation process of feathered <span class="hlt">sand</span> ridges using wind-tunnel experiments, remote sensing\\u000a data, and detailed field observations from 2005 to 2008. The prevailing wind direction in the Kumtagh Desert is easterly in\\u000a winter and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kongtai Liao; Jianjun Qu; Jinnian Tang; Feng Ding; Hujun Liu; Shujuan Zhu</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/58826231"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variation of Skin Damage with Flow Rate Associated with <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Flow or Stability in Unconsolidated-<span class="hlt">Sand</span> Reservoirs</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A semi-cylindrical <span class="hlt">sand</span>-pack model of a cased-and-perforated completion was loaded with an overburden pressure and fluid flowed through the pack to simulate production. Flow rate was gradually increased in each test. <span class="hlt">Sand</span> arches formed to stabilize <span class="hlt">sand</span> movement. As reported previously by the same authors, arch size was a function of flow rate. Skin effect caused by arch formation, destruction,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. B. Tippie; C. A. Kohlhaas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1974-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=ADA311096"> <span id="translatedtitle">Composting of Nitrocellulose <span class="hlt">Fines</span> Regulatory and Logistical Feasibility BAAP Installation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The production of nitrocellulose for munitions purposes results in the production of nitrocellulose <span class="hlt">fines</span> (NC <span class="hlt">fines</span>). BAAP currently has stored approximately 500 tons of NC <span class="hlt">fines</span> (dry basis). Composting has been evaluated as a means of managing these <span class="hlt">fine</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. L. Lowe L. H. Myers J. M. Savage</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/928209"> <span id="translatedtitle">Southern <span class="hlt">Fine</span> Particulate Monitoring Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This final project report presents experimental details, results and analysis of continuous onsite ambient <span class="hlt">fine</span> particulate data at the North Birmingham sampling site during the October, 2001-September, 2002 study period.The host site for these measurement activities is the North Birmingham PM monitoring station by the Jefferson County Health Department in Birmingham, AL.The continuous data include PM{sub 2.5} mass concentrations measured by TEOM, particle sulfate using the R&P 8400S monitor, particle size distributions measured by SMPS and APS monitors, and PM{sub 2.5} light scattering extinction coefficient as measured by nephelometer. During the course of the project, measurement intercomparison data were developed for these instruments and several complementary measurements at the site. The report details the instrument set and operating procedures and describes the resulting data. Report subsections present an overview summary of the data, followed by detailed description of the systematic time behavior of PM{sub 2.5} and other specific particulate size fractions. Specific subsections are included for particle size distribution, light scattering, and particle sulfate data. The final subsection addresses application of the measurements to the practical questions of <span class="hlt">fine</span> PM generation and transport, source attribution, and PM{sub 2.5} management strategies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ashley Williamson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-05-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.iaeg.info/iaeg2006/papers/iaeg_038.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of quarry dust instead of river <span class="hlt">sand</span> for future constructions in Sri Lanka</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The construction industry of Sri Lanka expects a serious shortage of <span class="hlt">sand</span> in the near future due to over exploitation of river <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Then, the entire construction industry will be paralyzed if there are no alternative sources instead of river <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Near-shore marine <span class="hlt">sand</span>, dune <span class="hlt">sand</span> and quarry dust (crushed rocks) are the other alternative sources available for it in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">S. JAYAWARDENA</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/48921251"> <span id="translatedtitle">A wind tunnel experiment of <span class="hlt">sand</span> transport and its comparison with the Werner model</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We carried out a wind tunnel experiment on aeolian transport of <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Fluorescence-dyed grains of <span class="hlt">sand</span> were embedded in the <span class="hlt">sand</span> bed in a wind tunnel, and their dispersion was recorded by a video camera. Dispersion of colored <span class="hlt">sand</span> both downwind and in the crosswind direction are examined. The concentration of colored <span class="hlt">sand</span> decreases as an exponential function of the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. Hatano; Y. Kanda; K. Udo; S. Takewaka; R. Ueki; N. Hatano; H. Mouri; M. Chiba; K. Kurihara; H. Nishimura</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52588287"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> encroachment by wind in Al-Hasa of Saudi Arabia</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> drift and <span class="hlt">sand</span> dune movement rates in the study area are controlled by several major factors. These factors in descending order of importance are: wind characteristics (velocity, duration, and direction), mean <span class="hlt">sand</span> grain size, dune size, <span class="hlt">sand</span> volume available for transport, moisture content of the <span class="hlt">sand</span> and density of vegetal cover. The objective of this study was to determine</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Y. M. S. Abolkhair</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2810257"> <span id="translatedtitle">Faecal indicator bacteria enumeration in beach <span class="hlt">sand</span>: a comparison study of extraction methods in medium to coarse <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Aims The absence of standardized methods for quantifying faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in <span class="hlt">sand</span> hinders comparison of results across studies. The purpose of the study was to compare methods for extraction of faecal bacteria from <span class="hlt">sands</span> and recommend a standardized extraction technique. Methods and Results Twenty-two methods of extracting enterococci and Escherichia coli from <span class="hlt">sand</span> were evaluated, including multiple permutations of hand shaking, mechanical shaking, blending, sonication, number of rinses, settling time, eluant-to-<span class="hlt">sand</span> ratio, eluant composition, prefiltration and type of decantation. Tests were performed on <span class="hlt">sands</span> from California, Florida and Lake Michigan. Most extraction parameters did not significantly affect bacterial enumeration. anova revealed significant effects of eluant composition and blending; with both sodium metaphosphate buffer and blending producing reduced counts. Conclusions The simplest extraction method that produced the highest FIB recoveries consisted of 2 min of hand shaking in phosphate-buffered saline or deionized water, a 30-s settling time, one-rinse step and a 10 : 1 eluant volume to <span class="hlt">sand</span> weight ratio. This result was consistent across the <span class="hlt">sand</span> compositions tested in this study but could vary for other <span class="hlt">sand</span> types. Significance and Impact of the Study Method standardization will improve the understanding of how <span class="hlt">sands</span> affect surface water quality.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Boehm, A.B.; Griffith, J.; McGee, C.; Edge, T.A.; Solo-Gabriele, H.M.; Whitman, R.; Cao, Y.; Getrich, M.; Jay, J.A.; Ferguson, D.; Goodwin, K.D.; Lee, C.M.; Madison, M.; Weisberg, S.B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20400582"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution, chemical speciation, and mobility of lead and antimony originating from small arms ammunition in a coarse-grained unsaturated surface <span class="hlt">sand</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study quantified the heavy metal contamination caused by firing 500 high-velocity 7.62-mm jacketed Swedish military rounds. Contamination of solid and aqueous phases was studied, with Pb and Sb being the two contaminants of primary interest. The distribution of the Pb and Sb were measured in terms of depth of penetration in <span class="hlt">sand</span> and grain size distribution of the bullet particles. The Pb- and Sb-contaminated <span class="hlt">sand</span> was then used as a source material in two bench-scale unsaturated lysimeters to measure the transport of Pb and Sb through two coarse-grained <span class="hlt">sands</span>, which were taken from the berms on two Swedish military small arms ranges. The lysimeters were subjected to an infiltration cycle that reproduced spring snowmelt, which is the most significant infiltration event of the year in northern climates. The levels of mobile Pb and Sb were monitored in the effluent from the lysimeters. Extended X-ray absorption <span class="hlt">fine</span>-structure spectroscopy analysis was performed on the contaminated <span class="hlt">sands</span> to determine Pb speciation before and after leaching. Ninety-three percent of the mass of bullets was found in the top 30 cm of <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Lead oxide was the predominant species of Pb before and after leaching. Transport of Pb was small, with aqueous concentrations remaining stable at <2 microg L(-1). Antimony was far more mobile, with solute breakthrough occurring between 5 and 14 d and concentrations rising to over 125 microg L(-1) within 1 month. PMID:20400582</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lewis, Jeffrey; Sjöström, Jan; Skyllberg, Ulf; Hägglund, Lars</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-04-13</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19541858"> <span id="translatedtitle">Contact with beach <span class="hlt">sand</span> among beachgoers and risk of illness.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recent studies of beach <span class="hlt">sand</span> fecal contamination have triggered interest among scientists and in the media. Although evidence shows that beach <span class="hlt">sand</span> can harbor high concentrations of fecal indicator organisms, as well as fecal pathogens, illness risk associated with beach <span class="hlt">sand</span> contact is not well understood. Beach visitors at 7 US beaches were enrolled in the National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water (NEEAR) Study during 2003-2005 and 2007 and asked about <span class="hlt">sand</span> contact on the day of their visit to the beach (digging in the <span class="hlt">sand</span>, body buried in the <span class="hlt">sand</span>). Then, 10-12 days after their visit, participants were telephoned to answer questions about any health symptoms experienced since the visit. The authors completed 27,365 interviews. Digging in the <span class="hlt">sand</span> was positively associated with gastrointestinal illness (adjusted incidence proportion ratio (aIPR) = 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.25) and diarrhea (aIPR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36). The association was stronger between those buried in the <span class="hlt">sand</span> and gastrointestinal illness (aIPR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.43) and diarrhea (aIPR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.52). Nonenteric illnesses did not show a consistent association with <span class="hlt">sand</span> contact activities. <span class="hlt">Sand</span> contact activities were associated with enteric illness at beach sites. Variation in beach-specific results suggests that site-specific factors may be important in the risk of illness following <span class="hlt">sand</span> exposure. PMID:19541858</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Heaney, Christopher D; Sams, Elizabeth; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Steve; Brenner, Kristen; Dufour, Alfred P; Wade, Timothy J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-06-18</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24072928"> <span id="translatedtitle">Curiosity at Gale crater, Mars: characterization and analysis of the Rocknest <span class="hlt">sand</span> shadow.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Rocknest aeolian deposit is similar to aeolian features analyzed by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) Spirit and Opportunity. The fraction of <span class="hlt">sand</span> <150 micrometers in size contains ~55% crystalline material consistent with a basaltic heritage and ~45% x-ray amorphous material. The amorphous component of Rocknest is iron-rich and silicon-poor and is the host of the volatiles (water, oxygen, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, and chlorine) detected by the Sample Analysis at Mars instrument and of the <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained nanophase oxide component first described from basaltic soils analyzed by MERs. The similarity between soils and aeolian materials analyzed at Gusev Crater, Meridiani Planum, and Gale Crater implies locally sourced, globally similar basaltic materials or globally and regionally sourced basaltic components deposited locally at all three locations. PMID:24072928</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blake, D F; Morris, R V; Kocurek, G; Morrison, S M; Downs, R T; Bish, D; Ming, D W; Edgett, K S; Rubin, D; Goetz, W; Madsen, M B; Sullivan, R; Gellert, R; Campbell, I; Treiman, A H; McLennan, S M; Yen, A S; Grotzinger, J; Vaniman, D T; Chipera, S J; Achilles, C N; Rampe, E B; Sumner, D; Meslin, P-Y; Maurice, S; Forni, O; Gasnault, O; Fisk, M; Schmidt, M; Mahaffy, P; Leshin, L A; Glavin, D; Steele, A; Freissinet, C; Navarro-González, R; Yingst, R A; Kah, L C; Bridges, N; Lewis, K W; Bristow, T F; Farmer, J D; Crisp, J A; Stolper, E M; Des Marais, D J; Sarrazin, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-09-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012QSRv...50...55H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sources and transport routes of <span class="hlt">fine</span> detritus material to the Late Quaternary Dead Sea basin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The sources and routes of transport of <span class="hlt">fine</span> detritus material (FDM) to the lakes filling the late Quaternary Dead Sea basin were studied by petrographic, mineralogical, grain size, chemical and Sr-Nd isotope analyses on sediments of the late Quaternary lacustrine formations, including river flood material, dust, and loess from the lake watershed. The lacustrine formations comprise two sedimentary facies: one that consists of alternating laminae of primary aragonite and <span class="hlt">silty</span>-detritus material (aad facies), and another that consists mainly of laminated detritus particles and generally lacks aragonite (ld facies). The aad facies characterizes the glacial intervals (e.g. MIS2 and 4) when lake levels were high, while the ld facies characterizes interglacials (e.g. MIS1, 5) and warmer glacial intervals (e.g. MIS3), when lake levels were low. The detritus of both aad and ld facies show similar mineralogy: mainly quartz and calcite grains with minor feldspars and clays, but distinct grain-sizes (8-10 ?m and 50-60 ?m, respectively), and distinct 87Sr/86Sr and ?Nd (0.711-0.712 and ˜-7 to -8, versus 0.709-0.710 and ˜-5, respectively). The aad and ld FDM comprise desert dust of mixed granitic - basaltic composition that was blown from the Sahara desert and from the Nile delta to the northern Negev desert (e.g. the loess deposits) and the Judean Mountains bordering the Dead Sea basin, mainly during glacial intervals along with enhanced Mediterranean rain fronts. The aad FDM reflects an enhanced transport of Saharan granitic dust to the vicinity of the lake mainly during glacials. The ld FDM was recycled from the loess surface cover of the Negev desert mainly during interglacials and warm glacial intervals.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Haliva-Cohen, Amit; Stein, Mordechai; Goldstein, Steven L.; Sandler, Amir; Starinsky, Abraham</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QSRv...30.3481W"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> intraclasts as evidence of subglacial deformation of Middle Pleistocene permafrost, North Norfolk, UK</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> intraclasts are common within the Bacton Green Till Member, a glacitectonic mélange subjected to polyphase deformation during the Middle Pleistocene in North Norfolk, UK. The intraclasts range from a few tens of centimetres to >10 m in length and have sharp contacts with the surrounding till. <span class="hlt">Sand</span> within the intraclasts is unconsolidated and contains well-preserved primary stratification. The wrapping of glacitectonic foliation around the intraclasts and the development of folds relating to mechanical instabilities indicate that the intraclasts acted as competent masses within a more easily deformable <span class="hlt">fine</span>-grained till that accommodated the majority of the strain. Sharp contacts and distinctive heavy-mineral assemblages indicate little intermixing between the <span class="hlt">sand</span> and till.Five hypotheses about the entrainment and evolution of the intraclasts are tested against sedimentological, structural and mineralogical observations. The most reasonable hypothesis attributes the intraclasts to glacitectonic deformation of "warm" permafrost. Initial ice advance caused large-scale thrusting of proglacial permafrost that led to the stacking of pre-glacial and ice-marginal sediments that were subsequently deformed sub-marginally to generate the intraclasts. Preservation of primary stratification within the intraclasts is attributed to deformation at temperatures slightly below the pressure-melting point, when pore ice cemented the intraclasts as rigid bodies. At the same time deformation was concentrated into the surrounding finer-grained till because of its significant liquid water content and ductile rheology. It is concluded that the intraclasts provide a criterion to identify past glacier-permafrost interactions and a potential means of differentiating between subglacial deformation under unfrozen and partially-frozen conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Waller, Richard; Phillips, Emrys; Murton, Julian; Lee, Jonathan; Whiteman, Colin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002AGUFMOS71B0275W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geologic Development and <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Accumulation Within a Northeastern South Carolina Spit</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of the USGS-South Carolina Sea Grant Consortium Coastal Erosion Program, this continuing study examines the geologic development and evolution of the North Island spit, located seaward of Winyah Bay in northeastern South Carolina. This prominent Holocene spit, which is over 5 km in length and 1 km in width, has developed as a series of southward prograding, recurved shorelines located at the southern end of the 75 km long Grand Strand coastline. Measurements of sediment thickness and rate of shoreline progradation of this feature will not only allow for a better understanding of regional sediment transport along the Grand Strand system but also the geologic processes active in spit formation. To determine geologic architecture, ground-penetrating radar data were collected along the length of the spit and along three shore-normal transects. Fifteen vibracores and several newer deeper auger cores have been collected to ground truth the GPR data and to determine age control. Cores were split, photographed, visually described, and subsampled for textural and component analysis. To determine shoreline age, luminescence age estimates have now been obtained on basal or near basal dune <span class="hlt">sands</span> along the length of the spit. Except for a small paleo-channel at the northern end of the spit, GPR records indicate continuous spit progradation to the south. Uneven GPR reflectors, recorded in the upper 2-6 m, are composed of <span class="hlt">fine</span> <span class="hlt">sand</span>. This upper unit is interpreted as part of the spit platform. Underling this upper unit, southward steeply dipping reflectors extending beyond 10 m depth are composed of bedded shelly <span class="hlt">sands</span>. This lower unit is interpreted as channel infill. Major boundaries within the lower unit appear to be tied to geomorphic shorelines. The most prominent of these shorelines are dated at ~150, ~300 and > ~650 years ago. This study will allow for a better understanding of regional sedimentary transport and processes affecting the Grand Strand as well as other coastal systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wright, E.; Forman, S.; Kruse, S.; Harris, M. S.; Katuna, M.; Edgar, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/38587905"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> Tray and Group Therapy: Helping Parents Cope</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> tray with group therapy can be an effective treatment approach for parents coping with adolescent substance abuse and\\/or dependency. Excerpts of parent <span class="hlt">sand</span> trays are presented to demonstrate pretreatment tasks that decrease denial, reduce reactive anger, stop enabling behaviors, and build support systems. Parent-child relational issues, including developmental delays, painful feelings, and substance abuse, are examined through the parents'</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Linda James; Don Martin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/44965479"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of open hole logs in the Miocene Stevens <span class="hlt">Sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The analysis of open-hole logs in the Stevens <span class="hlt">Sands</span> is difficult because of the mineralogical composition of the <span class="hlt">sands</span> and the corresponding effects on the logging tools. Logging parameters presumed in other sandstone reservoirs may not be appropriate to the Stevens and may cause the log analysis to underestimate productive zones. Without the integration of full core data and knowledge</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/al1087.photos.046787p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS REACHING FOR THE <span class="hlt">SAND</span> ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">12. INTERIOR VIEW WITH JAMES WILLIAMS REACHING FOR THE <span class="hlt">SAND</span> RELEASE LEVER WHICH WILL OPEN THE OVERHEAD STORAGE BIN AND PERMIT A SET AMOUNT OF <span class="hlt">SAND</span> TO BE DEPOSITED INTO THE FLASK PRIOR TO COMPRESSION BY THE MOLDING MACHINE INSIDE GREY IRON UNIT NO. 1. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Grey Iron Foundry, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56203981"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bonding Strength by Methane Hydrate Formed among <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Particles</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The mechanical properties of methane hydrate-bearing <span class="hlt">sand</span> were investigated by low temperature and high confining pressure triaxial testing apparatus in the present study. The specimens were prepared by infiltrating the methane gas into partially saturated <span class="hlt">sand</span> specimen under the given temperature and stress condition which is compatible with the phase equilibrium condition for the stability of methane hydrate. The tests</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Hyodo; Y. Nakata; N. Yoshimoto; R. Orense; J. Yoneda</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=211445"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cotton seedling abrasion and recovery from wind blown <span class="hlt">sand</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Millions of hectares of crops are exposed to wind blown <span class="hlt">sand</span> abrasion each year and in many instances the damage is thought to be severe enough to require replanting. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of wind blown <span class="hlt">sand</span> abrasion duration on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr_26_4_15.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">Sand</span> in Growing Media on Selected Plant Species</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Minimal use of relatively expensive imported inorganic and organic materials to be utilized for growing media such as peat moss is necessary for more profitable production in protected agriculture. The utilization of <span class="hlt">sand</span> as an ingredient in a mixture in growing media s however limited in Kuwait, despite the fact that <span class="hlt">sand</span> is ubiquitous, inexpensive to harvest and sustainable. The</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">H. Abo-Rezq; M. Albaho; B. Thomas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40563467"> <span id="translatedtitle">Taphonomic comparison between Recent and fossil <span class="hlt">sand</span> dollars</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The taphonomy of a Recent and a fossil <span class="hlt">sand</span> dollar are compared. The recent Echinodiscus auritus originates from a shallow-water carbonate environment in the Red Sea. The fossil Parascutella höbarthi is found in micaceous <span class="hlt">sands</span> of the Lower Miocene Austrian Molasse Zone. Both species show strong similarities in constructional morphology including the flattened overall shape, details of the surface morphology</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">James Nebelsick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1978295"> <span id="translatedtitle">An outbreak of <span class="hlt">sand</span> impaction in postpartum dairy cows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Twenty-two cases of indigestion occurred in a 650-cow herd. Five cows had severe <span class="hlt">sand</span> abomasal impaction, diagnosed by laparotomy. The pH of prepartum cows’ urine was < 6.0 and of <span class="hlt">sand</span> 8.0. Feed showed a dietary cation-anion difference ? ?110 mEq/kg. After feeding management corrections, no more cases were diagnosed.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Melendez, Pedro; Krueger, Traci; Benzaquen, Mauricio; Risco, Carlos</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13992393"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sand</span> dune mobilization caused by regional warming in Otintag, China</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Remobilization of fixed or semi-fixed <span class="hlt">sand</span> dunes is the main process of desertification, which is sensitive to climate change. We analyzed 35-year temperature and precipitation data at three meteorological stations in Otintag Sandy Land, and calculated <span class="hlt">sand</span> dune mobility index by employing the method suggested by Lancaster. In the last 35 years, the regional temperature tended to increase, whereas precipitation,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baolin Zhang; Xiaoju Lu; Ruilin Luo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=231202"> <span id="translatedtitle">Beach <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Analysis for Indicators of Microbial Contamination</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Traditional beach monitoring has focused on water quality, with little attention paid to health risks associated with beach <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Recent research has reported that fecal indicator bacteria, as well as human pathogens can be found in beach <span class="hlt">sand</span> and may constitute a risk to human h...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">433</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=41559"> <span id="translatedtitle">SLOW <span class="hlt">SAND</span> FILTER MAINTENANCE COSTS AND EFFECTS ON WATER QUALITY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A study was conducted to determine how slow <span class="hlt">sand</span> filter effluent quality is affected by scraping and to quantify the labor required to operate and maintain a slow <span class="hlt">sand</span> filter. The data were obtained by monitoring scraping and other maintenance operations at six full-size slow san...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">434</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/az0356.photos.041672p/"> <span id="translatedtitle">BLAISDELL SLOW <span class="hlt">SAND</span> FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. PIPING ...</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p class="result-summary">BLAISDELL SLOW <span class="hlt">SAND</span> FILTER WASHING MACHINE. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST. PIPING IN FOREGROUND IS NOT RELATED TO THE MACHINE. THE NORTHEAST CORNER OF SETTLING RESERVOIR NO. 3 IS SEEN AT THE LOWER LEFT. - Yuma Main Street Water Treatment Plant, Blaisdell Slow <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Filter Washing Machine, Jones Street at foot of Main Street, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">435</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/13012248"> <span id="translatedtitle">Distribution of <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Dune Successional Species in Monterey Bay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Malkinson et al. (2003) state that the spatial patterns on <span class="hlt">sand</span> dunes of individual species changed from clustered to regular as succession progressed as the result of the change in relative importance of facilitation and competition. This theory was used to examine the distribution of <span class="hlt">sand</span> dune succession species in Monterey Bay. We used a quadrat-based approach on randomly selected</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Priestley; Kate Raine; Charlotte Robinson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">436</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/61288348"> <span id="translatedtitle">FY 80 Tar <span class="hlt">Sands</span> Program first quarterly report, January 1980</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Research and development efforts in support of the Tar <span class="hlt">Sands</span> program well completions and stimulation subactivity and new and novel concepts task have been initiated. The objectives of the well completion and stimulation efforts are to carry out research and development in areas with significant for long-range tar <span class="hlt">sand</span> extraction development as well as provide potential interaction and support of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. L. Fox; J. R. Wayland</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1980-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">437</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53022335"> <span id="translatedtitle">Extraction of vanadium from athabasca tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> fly ash</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The production of refinery grade oil from the Alberta tar <span class="hlt">sands</span> deposits as currently practiced by Suncor (formally Great Canadian Oil <span class="hlt">Sands</span> Ltd.---GCOS) generates a substantial amount of petroleum coke fly ash which contains appreciable amounts of valuable metals such as vanadium, nickel and titanium. Although the recovery of vanadium from petroleum ash is a well established commercial practice, it</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">C. O. Gomez-Bueno; D. R. Spink; G. L. Rempel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1981-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">438</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uofaweb.ualberta.ca/ccg/pdfs/2004%20309-Oilsands.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Geostatistical Modeling of McMurray Oil <span class="hlt">Sands</span> Deposits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The McMurray formation in the Athabasca oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> deposits of Northern Alberta is part of the world's second largest proven crude oil reserves. The formation is characterized by stratigraphic layers that correspond to three different depositional environments: Marine, Estuarine and Fluvial facies. Resource estimation for oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> has traditionally relied on polygonal and inverse distance schemes. These techniques are simple</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Oy Leuangthong; Emmanuel Schnetzler; Clayton V. Deutsch</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">439</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51703298"> <span id="translatedtitle">The AOSTRA role in developing energy from Alberta oil <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The paper discusses the role of the crown corporation AOSTRA (Alberta Oil <span class="hlt">Sands</span> Technology and Research Authority) in developing energy from the oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> located in the northern section of Alberta. The objective of the Authority is to develop economically and environmentally acceptable technology through collaborative action by industry, university and government. This major objective is then subdivided into two</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. D. Humphreys</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1979-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">440</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41155093"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microclimate control upon <span class="hlt">sand</span> microbiotic crusts, western Negev Desert, Israel</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Approximately 20% of the world's arid zones are covered by eolian <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Parts of the <span class="hlt">sand</span> are occupied by microbiotic crusts or have the potential of sustaining microbiotic crusts, which may have a great impact upon geomorphological processes and the ecology of the ecosystem. Any attempt to understand the distribution of microbiotic crusts inevitably necessitates knowledge concerning the microclimate within</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">G. J Kidron; E Barzilay; E Sachs</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return 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href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">441</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/56380053"> <span id="translatedtitle">Documenting the global impacts of beach <span class="hlt">sand</span> mining</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">For centuries, beach <span class="hlt">sand</span> has been mined for use as aggregate in concrete, for heavy minerals, and for construction fill. The global extent and impact of this phenomenon has gone relatively unnoticed by academics, NGOs, and major news sources. Most reports of <span class="hlt">sand</span> mining activities are found at the very local scale (if the mining is ever documented at all).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Young; A. Griffith</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">442</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/51894860"> <span id="translatedtitle">Black, magnetic spherules from Pleistocene and recent beach <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Magnetic spherules have been discovered in the natural concentrates of ilmenite and other heavy minerals that occur in beach <span class="hlt">sands</span> of both Pleistocene and recent age. The spherules range in size from 80 to 650 . Those in any given deposit match the grain size of the matrix <span class="hlt">sand</span>. The spherules consist mainly of magnetite (FeFe 2 O 4 ),</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Marco T. Einaudi; Ursula B. Marvin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">443</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6709296"> <span id="translatedtitle">Thermal reclaimer apparatus for a thermal <span class="hlt">sand</span> reclamation system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A thermal reclaimer apparatus is disclosed for thermally removing from the used foundry <span class="hlt">sand</span> the organic matter that is present therein. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus includes chamber means in which the used foundry <span class="hlt">sand</span> is heated to a predetermined temperature for a preestablished period in order to accomplish the burning away of the organic matter that the used foundry <span class="hlt">sand</span> contains. The chamber means includes inlet means provided at one end thereof and outlet means provided at the other end thereof. Feed means are cooperatively associated with the pipe means and thereby with the inlet means for feeding the used foundry <span class="hlt">sand</span> through the inlet means into the chamber means. The subject thermal reclaimer apparatus further includes rotating means operative for effecting the rotation of the chamber means as the used foundry <span class="hlt">sand</span> is being heated therein. The chamber means has cooperatively associated therewith burner means located at the same end thereof as the outlet means. The burner means is operative to effect the heating of the used foundry <span class="hlt">sand</span> to the desired temperature within the chamber means. Tumbling means are provided inside the chamber means to ensure that the used foundry <span class="hlt">sand</span> is constantly turned over, i.e., tumbled, and that the lumps therein are broken up as the chamber means rotates. Lastly, the used foundry <span class="hlt">sand</span> from which the organic matter has been removed leaves the chamber means through the outlet means.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Deve, V.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-02-07</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">444</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53779186"> <span id="translatedtitle">Which processes form the volcanic <span class="hlt">sands</span> on Mars?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Volcanic <span class="hlt">sands</span> are common at the surface of Mars. They are usually of basaltic composition. Occurrence of <span class="hlt">sands</span>, mostly recognized as dark dune fields include numerous impact craters in the southern hemisphere [1], several volcanic provinces such as Cerberus and Syrtis Major[2], several impact craters in the northern hemisphere, the large basins (Hellas and Argyre), Valles Marineris, and the poles</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Grégoire; D. Baratoux; N. Mangold; O. Arnalds; B. Platvoet; J. Bardinzeff; P. Pinet</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">445</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14350388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wastewater Renovation in Buried and Recirculating <span class="hlt">Sand</span> Filters</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A replicated, multiyear field study was conducted to assess the re- duction of N, P and microbial indicators by a recirculating <span class="hlt">sand</span> filter (RSF) and bu ried mu ltilayer sa nd filter patterned after the RU CK filter. The RSF's received 38 L m -~ d-1 of septic tank effluent, while the buried <span class="hlt">sand</span> filters were loaded at 76 L</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">A. J. Gold; B. E. Lamb; G. W. Loomis; J. R. Boyd; V. J. Cabelli; C. G. McKiel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">446</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40987929"> <span id="translatedtitle">Strength of sillimanite <span class="hlt">sand</span> reinforced porcelain subjected to thermal shock</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">An attempt has been made to eliminate quartz and gradually replace felspar by sillimanite <span class="hlt">sand</span> to improve the thermomechanical properties of porcelains. It has been observed that the quenching temperature difference (?T) required to initiate thermal stress fracture in the porcelain increased greatly, when compared to classical compositions, with gradual replacement of felspar by sillimanite <span class="hlt">sand</span>. Similar behaviour has also</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Soumen Maity; T. K. Mukhopadhyay; B. K. Sarkar</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">447</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/49072682"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coupled analysis of <span class="hlt">sand</span> stability in petroleum wellbores</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">There are several mechanisms that may be responsible for <span class="hlt">sand</span> destabilization in petroleum wellbores, including strength decrease by capillarity and chemical reactions and the variation of pore pressure because of oil\\/water relative permeability changes. A micromechanical model that quantitatively captures the changes in capillary strength with water saturation in unconsolidated or weakly consolidated <span class="hlt">sand</span> is proposed. The effect of chemical</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gang Han; Maurice B. Dusseault</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">448</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=AD816665"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wave-Propagation Studies in Laterally Confined Columns of <span class="hlt">Sand</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An experimental study of the relationship between pertinent wave-propagation parameters and the one-dimensional stress-strain behavior of two <span class="hlt">sands</span> was conducted. The stress-strain relation for the <span class="hlt">sands</span> was characterized by a nonlinear strain-hardening b...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">W. J. Baker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1967-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">449</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ntis.gov/search/product.aspx?ABBR=DE82014589"> <span id="translatedtitle">Western Tight Gas <span class="hlt">Sands</span> Advanced Logging Workshop Proceedings.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ntis.gov/search/index.aspx">National Technical Information Service (NTIS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight <span class="hlt">Sands</span> Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas <span class="hlt">sands</span> and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current lo...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. B. Jennings H. B. Carroll</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">450</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/26444353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Stress-strain transformations and liquefaction of <span class="hlt">sands</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Presented in this paper are the results of the laboratory tests of <span class="hlt">sands</span> performed for the purpose of defining the characteristics of the dynamic shear stress-shear strain relationships. For this purpose, the transformation of the initial stress-strain characteristics of undrained saturated <span class="hlt">sands</span> was investigated separately. These transformations take place under conditions of an increase in pore pressure under the effect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kosta V. Talaganov</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">451</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52805136"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modern <span class="hlt">sands</span> of South America: composition, provenance and global significance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Standard petrographic methods were used to study 604 modern <span class="hlt">sands</span> from South America, of which 351 came from rivers and 253 from beaches. In spite of the wide geomorphic contrasts, these <span class="hlt">sands</span> belong to only three great families: (1) an immature Andean family of lithic arenites rich in volcanic and metamorphic grains that covers about 30% of South America; (2)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. E. Potter</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">452</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRF..116.1018W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">sand</span> addition on turbulent flow over an immobile gravel bed</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The factors controlling the complex interaction of a coarse streambed with flow and sediment are difficult to measure. However, planning for reservoir flushing or dam removal requires knowledge of these interactions. In both cases, impounded sediments are introduced to channel beds that have had <span class="hlt">fine</span> sediment particles removed without replacement. The channel bed pore space interacts with the flow and provides storage for particles. In order to address the need for information on such systems, an adjustable-slope, recirculating laboratory flume was used to study the changes in flow and turbulence caused by <span class="hlt">sand</span> added to an immobile gravel bed. Detailed measurements were made using an acoustic Doppler velocimeter that collected three velocity components at a rate of 200 Hz. Because of the rough nature of the bed, individual velocity profiles varied significantly; therefore, in order to determine general trends, the data were spatially averaged over six 10 × 20 cm planes parallel to the bed with the lowest plane about 2 cm below the maximum gravel elevation. The increasing elevation of <span class="hlt">sand</span> relative to the gravel layer resulted in decreased bed shear stress, decreased Reynolds stress, increased relative turbulence intensity, and a near-bed shift toward sweep-dominated turbulence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wren, D. G.; Langendoen, E. J.; Kuhnle, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">453</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23669071"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coupling bioelectricity generation and oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> tailings treatment using microbial fuel cells.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this study, four dual-chambered microbial fuel cells (MFC1-4) were constructed and filled with different ratios of mature <span class="hlt">fine</span> tailings and oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> process-affected water to test the feasibility of MFCs to simultaneously generate electricity and treat oil <span class="hlt">sands</span> tailings. After 800 h of operation, the maximum voltage was observed in MFC4 at 0.726 V with 1.2k? external resistance loaded. The maximum power density reached 392 ± 15 mW/m(2) during the 1,700 h of MFC4 operation. With continuous electricity generation, MFC4 removed 27.8% of the total COD, 81.8% of the soluble COD and 32.9% o