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Sample records for silver nanoparticles synthesized

  1. Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Biologically Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vanaja, M.; Paulkumar, K.; Baburaja, M.; Rajeshkumar, S.; Gnanajobitha, G.; Malarkodi, C.; Sivakavinesan, M.; Annadurai, G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has great interest and achievement due to its eco-benign and low time consuming properties. In this study silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized by using Morinda tinctoria leaf extract under different pH. The aqueous leaf extract was added to silver nitrate solution; the color of the reaction medium was changed from pale yellow to brown and that indicates reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Thus synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Dispersity and morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM); crystalline nature and purity of synthesized silver nanoparticles were revealed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). FTIR spectrum was examined to identify the effective functional molecules responsible for the reduction and stabilization of silver nanoparticles synthesized by leaf extract. The photocatalytic activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined by degradation of methylene blue under sunlight irradiation. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles were effectively degrading the dye nearly 95% at 72 h of exposure time. PMID:24772055

  2. Antibacterial and catalytic activities of green synthesized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aqueous beetroot extract was used as reducing agent for silver nanoparticles synthesis. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface plasmon resonance peak of synthesized nanoparticles was observed at 438 nm. As the concentration of beetroot extract increases, absorption spectra shows blue shift with decreasing particle size. The prepared silver nanoparticles were well dispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 15 nm. The prepared silver nanoparticles are effective in inhibiting the growth of both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The prepared silver nanoparticles reveal faster catalytic activity. This natural method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles offers a valuable contribution in the area of green synthesis and nanotechnology avoiding the presence of hazardous and toxic solvents and waste.

  3. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized by marine Ochrobactrum sp.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Roshmi; Janardhanan, Anju; Varghese, Rintu T; Soniya, E V; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm - 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25763025

  4. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized by marine Ochrobactrum sp

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Roshmi; Janardhanan, Anju; Varghese, Rintu T.; Soniya, E.V.; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E.K.

    2014-01-01

    Metal nanoparticle synthesis is an interesting area in nanotechnology due to their remarkable optical, magnetic, electrical, catalytic and biomedical properties, but there needs to develop clean, non-toxic and environmental friendly methods for the synthesis and assembly of nanoparticles. Biological agents in the form of microbes have emerged up as efficient candidates for nanoparticle synthesis due to their extreme versatility to synthesize diverse nanoparticles with varying size and shape. In the present study, an eco favorable method for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine bacterial isolate has been attempted. Very interestingly, molecular identification proved it as a strain of Ochrobactrum anhtropi. In addition, the isolate was found to have the potential to form silver nanoparticles intracellularly at room temperature within 24 h. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanoparticles showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. The SEM and TEM micrographs revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a size range from 38 nm 85 nm. The silver nanoparticles synthesized by the isolate were also used to explore its antibacterial potential against pathogens like Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Paratyphi, Vibrio cholerae and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25763025

  5. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil.

    PubMed

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-11

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone--12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone--14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays. PMID:24956490

  6. Catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles synthesized using essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilas, Vidya; Philip, Daizy; Mathew, Joseph

    2014-11-01

    There are numerous reports on phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and various phytochemicals are involved in the reduction and stabilization. Pure explicit phytosynthetic protocol for catalytically and biologically active silver nanoparticles is of importance as it is an environmentally benign green method. This paper reports the use of essential oil of Myristica fragrans enriched in terpenes and phenyl propenes in the reduction and stabilization. FTIR spectra of the essential oil and the synthesized biogenic silver nanoparticles are in accordance with the GC-MS spectral analysis reports. Nanosilver is initially characterized by an intense SPR band around 420 nm, followed by XRD and TEM analysis revealing the formation of 12-26 nm sized, highly pure, crystalline silver nanoparticles. Excellent catalytic and bioactive potential of the silver nanoparticles is due to the surface modification. The chemocatalytic potential of nanosilver is exhibited by the rapid reduction of the organic pollutant, para nitro phenol and by the degradation of the thiazine dye, methylene blue. Significant antibacterial activity of the silver colloid against Gram positive, Staphylococcus aureus (inhibition zone - 12 mm) and Gram negative, Escherichia coli (inhibition zone - 14 mm) is demonstrated by Agar-well diffusion method. Strong antioxidant activity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles is depicted through NO scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, reducing power, DPPH and total antioxidant activity assays.

  7. Characterization and Biocompatibility of ``Green'' Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Michael; Kunzelman, Samantha; Braydich-Stolle, Laura; Nadagouda, M.; Varma, R.; Hussain, Saber

    2008-10-01

    With ever increasing emphasis on nanotechnology, silver nanoparticle are being considered for many antimicrobial needs ranging from catheter coatings, to burn wound bandages. Current synthesis methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. As a culture intent on reducing our carbon footprint on the earth, societies' focus has turned to ``green'' production capabilities. Therefore, if nanotechnology is to continue to grow at its current rate it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality. Furthermore, with the current and near-future applications of silver nanoparticles in biological systems it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epinephrine of varying concentrations spherical silver nanoparticle are formed. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) and membrane integrity (LDH) in alveolar rat macrophages and human keratinocytes showed that these ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles were nontoxic.

  8. Chemical phase analysis of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharti, Amardeep; Singh, Suman; Singla, M. L.; Goyal, Navdeep

    2015-08-01

    Noble-metal nanoparticles are of great interest because of its broad applications almost in every stream (i.e. biology, chemistry and engineering) due to their unique size/shape dependant properties. In this paper, chemical phase of seed mediated synthesized anisotropic silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) has been investigated via fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These nanaoparticles were synthesized by seed-growth method controlled by urea and dextrose results to highly stable 12-20 nm particle size revealed by zeta potential and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  9. Synthesis and standardization of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Swarup; Das, Tapan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The biological silver nanoparticle was synthesized extracellularly by using a fungi Aspergillus foetidus. The live cell filtrate of fungi has been used as reducing agent in the process of nanoparticles synthesis. In 50 ml cell filtrate a volume of AgNO3 stock solution was added to make finally the concentration as 1 mM of AgNO3 and allowed to shake in an incubator for several hrs in dark. The changed color was considered as the primary indication of nanoparticles formation and studies of UV-VIS, DLS, FTIR, AFM, TEM, EDS, Zeta pot. and nitrate reductase assay confirmed the same. It was indicated that stable & 20-40 nm roughly spherical shaped silver nanoparticles was formed. To standardize the nanoparticles biosynthesis different physical parameters like Substrate cone. (0-8 mM), PH-(5-12), Temp.-(5-50°C), incubation time (0-120) hrs and salinity (0.1-1.0 %) were investigated and it was observed that 4 mM AgNO3 conc., PH-9, Temp. -30°C, incubation time 72h and 0.2 % salinity were found to be optimum for the synthesis & stability of the silver nanoparticles.

  10. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized on titanium dioxide fine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niño-Martínez, N.; Martínez-Castañón, G. A.; Aragón-Piña, A.; Martínez-Gutierrez, F.; Martínez-Mendoza, J. R.; Ruiz, Facundo

    2008-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were synthesized over the surface of two different commercial TiO2 particles using a simple aqueous reduction method. The reducing agent used was NaBH4; different molar ratios TiO2:Ag were also used. The nanocomposites thus prepared were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy; the antibacterial activity was assessed using the standard microdilution method, determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. From the microscopy studies (TEM and STEM) we observed that the silver nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed over the surface of TiO2 particles and that the TiO2:Ag molar ratio plays an important role. We used three different TiO2Ag molar ratios and the size of the silver nanoparticles is 10, 20 and 80 nm, respectively. It was found that the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites increases considerably comparing with separated silver nanoparticles and TiO2 particles.

  11. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized on titanium dioxide fine particles.

    PubMed

    Nio-Martnez, N; Martnez-Castan, G A; Aragn-Pia, A; Martnez-Gutierrez, F; Martnez-Mendoza, J R; Ruiz, Facundo

    2008-02-13

    Silver nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution were synthesized over the surface of two different commercial TiO(2) particles using a simple aqueous reduction method. The reducing agent used was NaBH(4); different molar ratios TiO(2):Ag were also used. The nanocomposites thus prepared were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy; the antibacterial activity was assessed using the standard microdilution method, determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) according to the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. From the microscopy studies (TEM and STEM) we observed that the silver nanoparticles are homogeneously distributed over the surface of TiO(2) particles and that the TiO(2):Ag molar ratio plays an important role. We used three different TiO(2)Ag molar ratios and the size of the silver nanoparticles is 10, 20 and 80nm, respectively. It was found that the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites increases considerably comparing with separated silver nanoparticles and TiO(2) particles. PMID:21730717

  12. Evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles against parasites.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2011-06-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Mimosa pudica Gaertn (Mimosaceae) against the larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi, filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini (Acari: Ixodidae). Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of M. pudica and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of M. pudica and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 6 h. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the larvae of A. subpictus, C. quinquefasciatus, and R. microplus (LC(50)?= 13.90, 11.73, and 8.98 mg/L, r (2)?= 0.411, 0.286, and 0.479), respectively. This is the first report on antiparasitic activity of the plant extract and synthesized AgNPs. PMID:21181192

  13. Evaluation of antiplasmodial activity of green synthesized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhijeet; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sardar, Meryam; Sahal, Dinkar

    2013-11-01

    In the present study silver nanoparticles (silver(np)) were synthesized from AgNO3 through simple green routes using either purified Alpha Amylase or aqueous leaf extracts of Ashoka and Neem respectively. The use of plant extract/enzyme for synthesis of nanoparticles is a single-step, cost effective and eco-friendly process. The silver(np) obtained by these three different ways were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, DLS, TEM, XRD and FTIR. These nanoparticles were found to be antiplasmodial with IC50 (μg/ml) 3.75 (Amylase(np)), 8 (Ashoka(np)) and 30 (Neem(np)) whereas plant extracts or amylase alone did not show any activity up to 40 μg/ml. Although AgNO3 was also found to have intrinsic antiplasmodial activity (IC50 0.5 μg/ml), the hemolytic tendencies appeared to be higher for AgNO3 (MHC10: 10 μg/ml) against the nanoparticulate preparations (MHC10: >40 μg/ml). PMID:23916962

  14. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications. PMID:25706249

  15. Characterization and Biocompatibility of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are currently ~1,000 commercially available products which contain some form of silver nanotechnology, ranging from topological creams and cosmetics, to anti-microbial socks and household cleansers. Previous studies have indicated that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) have a ...

  16. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from serine.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, N; Judith Vijaya, J; John Kennedy, L; Priadharsini, K; Palani, P

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by a simple microwave irradiation method using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) as a capping agent and serine as a reducing agent. UV-Visible spectra were used to confirm the formation of Ag NPs by observing the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 443nm. The emission spectrum of Ag NPs showed an emission band at 484nm. In the presence of microwave radiation, serine acts as a reducing agent, which was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared (FT-IR) spectrum. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HR-SEM) were used to investigate the morphology of the synthesized sample. These images showed the sphere-like morphology. The elemental composition of the sample was determined by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) was used to find the crystalline nature of the Ag NPs. The electrochemical behavior of the synthesized Ag NPs was analyzed by the cyclic voltammetry (CV). Antibacterial experiments showed that the prepared Ag NPs showed relatively similar antibacterial activities, when compared with AgNO3 against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:25686955

  17. Transformation of aromatic dyes using green synthesized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2014-08-01

    Nowadays, increasing use of nanoproducts in area of human and environmental applications raises concern about safety aspects of nanoparticles synthesized using traditional physicochemical methods. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis at ambient parameters using latex of medicinally important plant Jatropha gossypifolia (J. gossypifolia) is reported in the present study. Potential of AgNPs in degradation of methylene blue and eosin B was also evaluated. Rapid formation of stable AgNPs was analyzed by visual color change from colorless to yellow-red after addition of latex in AgNO3 solution and by characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 430 nm in UV-Vis spectroscopy. FT-IR analysis, protein coagulation test showed capping of proteins, flavonoids, terpenoids and polyphenols of latex on surface of AgNPs. FE-SEM, HR-TEM analysis revealed spherical shape of AgNPs. Narrow size range of AgNPs (5-40 nm) observed in HR-TEM analysis. EDS analysis confirms the presence of elemental silver while XRD revealed crystalline nature of AgNPs. Zeta potential of -21.4 mV indicates high stability of AgNPs. Effects of different parameters (pH, temperature, incubation time) on nanosynthesis were studied in the present study. Dye reduction studies were performed using UV-Vis spectroscopy, TLC, FT-IR and HPLC analysis showing decreased absorbance maxima of both dyes with respect to time, change in R f values, changes in wave number, transmittance, and retention time of dyes after AgNPs addition. The rate constant for methylene blue and eosin B reduction by AgNPs was found to be 0.062 and 0.022 min(-1). PMID:24525834

  18. Biocatalytic and antibacterial visualization of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Hemidesmus indicus.

    PubMed

    Latha, M; Sumathi, M; Manikandan, R; Arumugam, A; Prabhu, N M

    2015-05-01

    In the present investigation, we described the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using plant leaf extract of Hemidesmus indicus. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM images proved that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 25.24 nm. To evaluate antibacterial efficacy, bacteria was isolated from poultry gut and subjected to 16S rRNA characterization and confirmed as Shigella sonnei. The in vitro antibacterial efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles was studied by agar bioassay, well diffusion and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) assay. The H. indicus mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles shows rapid synthesis and higher inhibitory activity (34 ± 0.2 mm) against isolated bacteria S. sonnei at 40 μg/ml. PMID:25797527

  19. Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaydarov, R. R.; Khaydarov, R. A.; Estrin, Y.; Evgrafova, S.; Scheper, T.; Endres, C.; Cho, S. Y.

    The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles obtained by a novel electrochemical method on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium phoeniceum cultures has been studied. The tests conducted have demonstrated that synthesized silver nanoparticles — when added to water paints or cotton fabrics — show a pronounced antibacterial/antifungal effect. It was shown that smaller silver nanoparticles have a greater antibacterial/antifungal efficacy. The paper also provides a review of scientific literature with regard to recent developments in the field of toxicity of silver nanoparticles and its effect on environment and human health.

  20. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate. The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:25242904

  1. Oxidative stress mediated cytotoxicity of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jae Woong; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kwon, Deug-Nam; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2014-09-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the toxicity of biologically prepared small size of silver nanoparticles in human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cells A549. Herein, we describe a facile method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by treating the supernatant from a culture of Escherichia coli with silver nitrate . The formation of silver nanoparticles was characterized using various analytical techniques. The results from UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis show a characteristic strong resonance centered at 420 nm and a single crystalline nature, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the possible bio-molecules responsible for the reduction of silver from silver nitrate into nanoparticles. The particle size analyzer and transmission electron microscopy results suggest that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with an average diameter of 15 nm. The results derived from in vitro studies showed a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability when A549 cells were exposed to silver nanoparticles. This decrease in cell viability corresponded to increased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), increased intracellular reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP). Furthermore, uptake and intracellular localization of silver nanoparticles were observed and were accompanied by accumulation of autophagosomes and autolysosomes in A549 cells. The results indicate that silver nanoparticles play a significant role in apoptosis. Interestingly, biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles showed more potent cytotoxicity at the concentrations tested compared to that shown by chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles. Therefore, our results demonstrated that human lung epithelial A549 cells could provide a valuable model to assess the cytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles.

  2. Excimer laser-assisted annealing of silicate glass with ion-synthesized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A. L.; Valeev, V. F.; Nuzhdin, V. I.; Bazarov, V. V.; Faĭzrakhmanov, I. A.

    2009-10-01

    The effect of KrF excimer laser radiation on a composite layer consisting of sodium-potassium silicate glass with silver nanoparticles is studied as a function of the number of laser nanosecond pulses. The silver nanoparticles are synthesized by ion implantation. The measured optical absorption of the composite layer demonstrates that the silver nanoparticle size decreases monotonically as the number of laser pulses increases. Rutherford backscattering shows that laser annealing is accompanied by silver diffusion into the bulk of the glass and partial metal evaporation from the sample surface. The detected decrease in the silver nanoparticle size is discussed in terms of simultaneous melting of silver nanoparticles and the glass matrix due to the absorption of laser radiation.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Nigella sativa leaf extract in comparison with chemical silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Amooaghaie, Rayhaneh; Saeri, Mohammad Reza; Azizi, Morteza

    2015-10-01

    Despite the development potential in the field of nanotechnology, there is a concern about possible effects of nanoparticles on the environment and human health. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by 'green' and 'chemical' methods. In the wet-chemistry method, sodium borohydrate, sodium citrate and silver nitrate were used as raw materials. Leaf extract of Nigella sativa was used as reducing as well as capping agent to reduce silver nitrate in the green synthesis method. In addition, toxic responses of both synthesized AgNPs were monitored on bone-building stem cells of mice as well as seed germination and seedling growth of six different plants (Lolium, wheat, bean and common vetch, lettuce and canola). In both synthesis methods, the colorless reaction mixtures turned brown and UV-visible spectra confirmed the presence of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations revealed the predominance of silver nanosized crystallites and fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the role of different functional groups in the synthetic process. MTT assay showed cell viability of bone-building stem cells of mice was further in the green AgNPs synthesized using black cumin extract than chemical AgNPs. IC50 (inhibitory concentrations) values for seed germination, root and shoot length for 6 plants in green AgNPs exposures were higher than the chemical AgNPs. These results suggest that cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of the green synthesized AgNPs were significantly less than wet-chemistry synthesized ones. This study indicated an economical, simple and efficient ecofriendly technique using leaves of N. sativa for synthesis of AgNPs and confirmed that green AgNPs are safer than chemically-synthesized AgNPs. PMID:26122733

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of green synthesized silver nanoparticles by Piper longum fruit.

    PubMed

    Reddy, N Jayachandra; Nagoor Vali, D; Rani, M; Rani, S Sudha

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles synthesized through bio-green method has been reported to have biomedical applications to control pathogenic microbes as it is cost effective compared to commonly used physical and chemical methods. In present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using aqueous Piper longum fruit extract (PLFE) and confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 46nm as determined by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) particle size analyzer respectively. FT-IR spectrum revealed the capping of the phytoconstituents, probably polyphenols from P. longum fruit extract and stabilizing the nanoparticles. Further the ferric ion reducing test, confirmed that the capping agents were condensed tannins. The aqueous P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) and the green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) showed powerful antioxidant properties in in vitro antioxidant assays. The results from the antimicrobial assays suggested that green synthesized silver nanoparticles (PLAgNPs) were more potent against pathogenic bacteria than the P. longum fruit extract (PLFE) alone. The nanoparticles also showed potent cytotoxic effect against MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines with an IC 50 value of 67μg/ml/24h by the MTT assay. These results support the advantages of using bio-green method for synthesizing silver nanoparticles with antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities those are simple and cost effective as well. PMID:24268240

  5. Spectroscopic analysis of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles under clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagtap, Sagar; Vidyasagar, Pandit; Ghemud, Vipul; Dixit, Jyotsana

    Nanoparticles are one of the hot topics of research due to their size dependent optical, electrical and magnetic properties & their anti-bacterial and anti-fungal nature. Synthesis of nano particles can be done by various physical and chemical methods. However, Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is environment friendly, can take place around room temperature, and require little intervention or input of energy. In the present study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using bacteria and the effect of clinorotation on rate of synthesis is discussed. The freshly grown bacterial isolate was inoculated in to 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask containing 50 ml sterile nutrient broth (LB). The cultured flasks were incubated in a shaker at 120 rpm for 24 h at 370C. Culture was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant was used for carrying extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by mixing it with 5mM AgNO3 solution. The above solution was clinorotated at 2 rpm for 24 h. The synthesis was carried out at 60oC. Visual observation was conducted periodically to check for the nanoparticles formation in normal gravity as well as under clinorotation. UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed that rate of synthesis was faster in case of clinorotated sample than control. Further, the results of FTIR and XRD characterization will be discussed.

  6. Biomedical potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from calli cells of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasingly common application is the use of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial coatings, wound dressings, and biomedical devices. In this present investigation, we report, biomedical potential of silver nanopaticles synthesized from calli extract of Citrullus colocynthis on Human epidermoid larynx carcinoma (HEp -2) cell line. Methods The callus extract react with silver nitrate solution confirmed silver nanoparticles synthesis through the steady change of greenish colour to reddish brown and characterized by using FT-IR, AFM. Toxicity on HEp 2 cell line assessed using MTT assay, caspase -3 assay, Lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay and DNA fragmentation assay. Results The synthesized silver nanoparticles were generally found to be spherical in shape with size 31 nm by AFM. The molar concentration of the silver nanoparticles solution in our present study is 1100 nM/10 mL. The results exhibit that silver nanoparticles mediate a dose-dependent toxicity for the cell tested, and the silver nanoparticles at 500 nM decreased the viability of HEp 2 cells to 50% of the initial level. LDH activities found to be significantly elevated after 48 h of exposure in the medium containing silver nanoparticles when compared to the control and Caspase 3 activation suggested that silver nanoparticles caused cell death through apoptosis, which was further supported by cellular DNA fragmentation, showed that the silver nanoparticles treated HEp2 cells exhibited extensive double strand breaks, thereby yielding a ladder appearance (Lane 2), while the DNA of control HEp2 cells supplemented with 10% serum exhibited minimum breakage (Lane 1). This study revealed completely would eliminate the use of expensive drug for cancer treatment. PMID:21943321

  7. Plasma-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles on Electrospun Chitosan Nanofiber Surfaces for Antibacterial Applications.

    PubMed

    Annur, Dhyah; Wang, Zhi-Kai; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Kuo, Changshu

    2015-10-12

    Chitosan nanofibers have been electrospun with poly(ethylene oxide) and silver nitrate, as a coelectrospinning polymer and silver nanoparticle precursor, respectively. The average diameter of the as-spun chitosan nanofibers with up to 2 wt % silver nitrate loading was approximately 130 nm, and there was no evidence of bead formation or polymer agglomeration. Argon plasma was then applied for surface etching and synthesis of silver nanoparticles via precursor decomposition. Plasma surface bombardment induced nanoparticle formation primarily on the chitosan nanofiber surfaces, and the moderate surface plasma etching further encouraged maximum exposure of silver nanoparticles. UV-vis spectra showed the surface plasmon resonance signature of silver nanoparticles. The surface-immobilized nanoparticles were visualized by TEM and were found to have average particle diameters as small as 1.5 nm. Surface analysis by infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the interactions between the silver nanoparticles and chitosan molecules, as well as the effect of plasma treatment on the nanofiber surfaces. Finally, a bacteria inhibition study revealed that the antibacterial activity of the electrospun chitosan nanofibers correspondingly increased with the plasma-synthesized silver nanoparticles. PMID:26366749

  8. An extracellular enzyme synthesizes narrow-sized silver nanoparticles in both water and methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Tripti; Panda, Debashis

    2015-03-01

    Cellulase reduces silver ions in both aqueous and methanolic media yielding stable narrow-sized silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) at room temperature. The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by various spectroscopic, microscopic methods. The redox potentials of tyrosine residues and protein backbone play an instrumental role to reduce the metal ions. The average size of nanoparticles formed in aqueous medium is of 5.04 ± 3.50 nm. Post-synthesis of Ag-NP secondary structure of enzyme is completely lost whereas upon incubation with chemically synthesized Ag-NP a significant gain in secondary structure is observed. Cellulase as a capping ligand stabilizes the silver nanoparticles even in methanol.

  9. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we have reported a fast and eco-benign procedure to synthesis silver nanoparticle at room temperature using potato (Solanum tuberosum) infusion along with the study of its photocatalytic activity on methyl orange dye. After addition of potato infusion to silver nitrate solution, the color of the mixture changed indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. Time dependent UV-Vis spectra were obtained to study the rate of nanoparticle formation with time. Purity and crystallinity of the biogenic silver nanoparticles were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Average size and morphology of the nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to detect functional bio-molecules responsible that contribute to the reduction and capping of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Further, these synthesized nanoparticles were used to investigate their ability to degrade methyl orange dye under sunlight irradiation and the results showed effective photocatalytic property of these biogenic silver nanoparticles.

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Using Vasaka (Justicia adhatoda L.) Leaf Extract.

    PubMed

    Bose, Debadin; Chatterjee, Someswar

    2015-06-01

    There is an increasing demand for silver nanoparticles due to its wide applicability in various area of biological science such as in field of antimicrobial and therapeutics, biosensing, drug delivery etc. To use in bioprocess the silver nanoparticles should be biocompatible and free from toxic chemicals. In the present study we report a cost effective and environment friendly route for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Vasaka (Justicia adhatoda L.) leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. This plant has been opted for the present study for its known medicinal properties and it is easily available. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TEM analysis. It is observed the nanoparticles are well shaped and the average particle size is 20 nm in the range of 5-50 nm. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 has been measured by disc diffusion method, agar cup assay and serial dilution turbidity measurement assay. The results show green synthesized silver nanoparticles, using Vasaka leaf extract, have a potential to inhibit the growth of bacteria. PMID:25805902

  11. Size-Controlled and Optical Properties of Monodispersed Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized by the Radiolytic Reduction Method

    PubMed Central

    Saion, Elias; Gharibshahi, Elham; Naghavi, Kazem

    2013-01-01

    Size-controlled and monodispersed silver nanoparticles were synthesized from an aqueous solution containing silver nitrate as a metal precursor, polyvinyl alcohol as a capping agent, isopropyl alcohol as hydrogen and hydroxyl radical scavengers, and deionized water as a solvent with a simple radiolytic method. The average particle size decreased with an increase in dose due to the domination of nucleation over ion association in the formation of the nanoparticles by gamma reduction. The silver nanoparticles exhibit a very sharp and strong absorption spectrum with the absorption maximum λmax blue shifting with an increased dose, owing to a decrease in particle size. The absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles of various particle sizes were also calculated using a quantum physics treatment and an agreement was obtained with the experimental absorption data. The results suggest that the absorption spectrum of silver nanoparticles possibly derived from the intra-band excitations of conduction electrons from the lowest energy state (n = 5, l = 0) to higher energy states (n ≥ 6; Δl = 0, ±1; Δs = 0, ±1), allowed by the quantum numbers principle. This demonstrates that the absorption phenomenon of metal nanoparticles based on a quantum physics description could be exploited to be added into the fundamentals of metal nanoparticles and the related fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology. PMID:23579953

  12. Phycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye using silver (Ag) nanoparticles synthesized from Hypnea musciformis (Wulfen) J.V. Lamouroux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapathy Selvam, G.; Sivakumar, K.

    2015-06-01

    In the present investigation, simple and eco-friendly chemical reaction for the synthesis reported on biological synthesis of nano-sized silver and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Hypnea musciformis at room temperature along with photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange dye. The nanoparticles of silver were formed by the reduction of silver nitrate to aqueous silver metal ions during exposure to the extract of red alga H. musciformis. The optical properties of the obtained silver nanoparticles were characterized by applying UV-visible absorption and room temperature photoluminescence. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were in the cubic phase. The existence of functional groups was identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology and size of the synthesized particles were studied with atomic force microscope measurements. Photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under visible light illumination. The results revealed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using H. musciformis was found to be impressive in degrading methyl orange.

  13. A comparative study on biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles induced Heat Shock Proteins on fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Girilal, M; Krishnakumar, V; Poornima, Paramasivan; Mohammed Fayaz, A; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2015-11-01

    The wide applicability of silver nanoparticles in medicine and pharmaceutical industries leads to its over exploitation and thus contaminating our environment. Majority of these nanoscale dimension particles finally accumulates in fresh water and marine ecosystem. As the nanoparticles behave entirely different from its corresponding bulk material, a better understanding of their environmental impacts in aquatic ecosystems is inevitable. The study was focused on a comparative stress physiology analysis of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles and biogenic silver nanoparticles. Half maximal inhibitory concentration of biologically synthesized and chemically synthesized nanoparticles was found out (30μg/mL and 20μg/mL respectively). The Heat Shock Protein (HSP70) secretion was analysed in the fresh water fish Oreochromis niloticus after exposing to different concentrations of biologically and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles along with the silver in its ionic form. The intense immune-histochemical staining of fish tissues (muscle, kidney and liver) analyzed proportionately reflected the stress created. The colour intensity was directly proportional to the stress created or the stress protein released. High level of HSP70 expression was observed in all of the fish tissues exposed to silver ions and chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles, when compared to that of biologically synthesized. The results revealed the significance of comparatively safe and less toxic biogenic nanoparticles compared to the chemically synthesized. PMID:26291676

  14. Analysis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles synthesized by coastal strains of Escherichia coli and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Alikunhi, Nabeel M; Pathmanaban, SriMahibala; Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Kandasamy, Saravanakumar

    2010-12-01

    The present study investigated the extracellular biosynthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by Escherichia coli AUCAS 112 and Aspergillus niger AUCAS 237 derived from coastal mangrove sediment of southeast India. Both microbial species were able to produce silver nanoparticles, as confirmed by X-ray diffraction spectrum. The nanoparticles synthesized were mostly spherical, ranging in size from 5 to 20 nm for E. coli and from 5 to 35 nm for A. niger, as evident by transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform spectroscopy revealed prominent peaks corresponding to amides I and II, indicating the presence of a protein for stabilizing the nanoparticles. Electrophoretic analysis revealed the presence of a prominent protein band with a molecular mass of 45 kDa for E. coli and 70 kDa for A. niger. The silver nanoparticles inhibited certain clinical pathogens, with antibacterial activity being more distinct than antifungal activity. The antimicrobial activity of E. coli was more pronounced than that of A. niger and was enhanced with the addition of polyvinyl alcohol as a stabilizing agent. This work highlighted the possibility of using microbes of coastal origin for synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles. PMID:21164575

  15. Potential Theranostics Application of Bio-Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles (4-in-1 System)

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kotcherlakota, Rajesh; Patra, Sujata; B, Vinothkumar; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Sreedhar, Bojja; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we have designed a simple and efficient green chemistry approach for the synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (b-AgNPs) that is formed by the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution using Olax scandens leaf extract. The colloidal b-AgNPs, characterized by various physico-chemical techniques exhibit multifunctional biological activities (4-in-1 system). Firstly, bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles (b-AgNPs) shows enhanced antibacterial activity compared to chemically synthesize silver nanoparticles (c-AgNPs). Secondly, b-AgNPs show anti-cancer activities to different cancer cells (A549: human lung cancer cell lines, B16: mouse melanoma cell line & MCF7: human breast cancer cells) (anti-cancer). Thirdly, these nanoparticles are biocompatible to rat cardiomyoblast normal cell line (H9C2), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO) which indicates the future application of b-AgNPs as drug delivery vehicle. Finally, the bio-synthesized AgNPs show bright red fluorescence inside the cells that could be utilized to detect the localization of drug molecules inside the cancer cells (a diagnostic approach). All results together demonstrate the multifunctional biological activities of bio-synthesized AgNPs (4-in-1 system) that could be applied as (i) anti-bacterial & (ii) anti-cancer agent, (iii) drug delivery vehicle, and (iv) imaging facilitator. To the best of our knowledge, there is not a single report of biosynthesized AgNPs that demonstrates the versatile applications (4-in-1 system) towards various biomedical applications. Additionally, a plausible mechanistic approach has been explored for the synthesis of b-AgNPs and its anti-bacterial as well as anti-cancer activity. We strongly believe that bio-synthesized AgNPs will open a new direction towards various biomedical applications in near future. PMID:24505239

  16. Impact of As-Synthesized Ligands and Low-Oxygen Conditions on Silver Nanoparticle Surface Functionalization.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Kathryn A; Smith, Ashley M; Marbella, Lauren E; Millstone, Jill E

    2016-04-26

    Here, we compare the ligand exchange behaviors of silver nanoparticles synthesized in the presence of two different surface capping agents: poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (MW = 10 or 40 kDa) or trisodium citrate, and under either ambient or low-oxygen conditions. In all cases, we find that the polymer capping agent exhibits features of a weakly bound ligand, producing better ligand exchange efficiencies with an incoming thiolated ligand compared to citrate. The polymer capping agent also generates nanoparticles that are more susceptible to reactions with oxygen during both synthesis and ligand exchange. The influence of the original ligand on the outcome of ligand exchange reactions with an incoming thiolated ligand highlights important aspects of silver nanoparticle surface chemistry, crucial for applications ranging from photocatalysis to antimicrobials. PMID:27077550

  17. Bactericidal effect of poly(acrylamide/itaconic acid)-silver nanoparticles synthesized by gamma irradiation against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Eid, M; Araby, E

    2013-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles is gaining importance due its broad spectrum of targets in cell compared to conventional antimicrobial agents. In this context, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by gamma irradiation-induced reduction method of acrylamide and itaconic acid with irradiation dose up to 70 kGy. Silver nanoparticles were examined by Fourier-transform infrared, scanning electron microscopic images (SEM), and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. The particle size was determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering. The antibacterial effect was studied by disk diffusion method against some bacterial pathogenic strains. Silver nanoparticles showed promising activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and slightly active against Escherichia coli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumonia. The bactericidal effect of silver nanoparticles was tested against P. aeruginosa. The killing rate of P. aeruginosa was found to be 90 % of viability at (100 μl/ml) of silver nanoparticles. Exposure of P. aeruginosa cells to silver nanoparticles caused fast loss of 260 nm absorbing materials and release of potassium ions. The TEM and SEM observation showed that silver nanoparticles may destroy the structure of bacterial cell membrane in order to enter the bacterial cell resulting in the leakage of the cytoplasmic component and the eventual death. PMID:23857355

  18. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Nelumbonucifera root extract for efficient protein binding, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities.

    PubMed

    Sreekanth, T V M; Ravikumar, Sambandam; Eom, In-Yong

    2014-12-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with a mean particle size of ∼ 16.7 nm were synthesized using an eco-friendly reducing material, aqueous Nelumbo nucifera root extract. Rapid reduction resulted in the formation of polydispersed nanoparticles. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by surface plasmon resonance, which was determined by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy (band at 412 nm), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The interaction of the green synthesized AgNPs with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) at various temperatures was investigated. Fluorescence quenching, synchronous and resonance light scattering spectroscopy along with UV-Vis absorption studies revealed the efficient binding between BSA and the AgNPs. In addition, the AgNPs exhibited moderate antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities against HeLa cell lines. PMID:25463656

  19. Antimicrobial activity of hemocompatible silver doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized by modified sol-gel technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadalannagari, Sushma; Deshmukh, Ketaki; Ramanan, Sutapa Roy; Kowshik, Meenal

    2013-02-01

    Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag x Ca100-x (PO4)6 (OH)2) nanorods were synthesized using a modified sol gel method at a low temperature of 100 °C. Silver concentration was varied as x = 1, 3 and 5. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the synthesized silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag-HAp) was fully crystalline with hexagonal structure and an average crystallite size of 25 nm. At all the doping concentrations, the nanoparticles were rod shaped with an average length of 110-180 nm and diameter of 20-25 nm as determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies. These compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activities against E. coli (MTCC 2345) and S. aureus (MTCC 737). Antimicrobial activity was observed for all the three silver doping concentrations with the highest activity for x = 3, in terms of the zone of inhibition and the percentage reduction in the number of colonies. Hemolysis ratios for x = 1 and 3 Ag-HAp samples were below 2 %, indicating that they are highly hemocompatible and can be a promising biomaterial for tissue engineering applications in orthopedics.

  20. Photoscopic characterization of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Trichosanthes tricuspidata and its antibacterial potential.

    PubMed

    Yuvarajan, Ragunathan; Natarajan, Devarajan; Ragavendran, Chinnasamy; Jayavel, Ramasamy

    2015-08-01

    The present study focused on the finding of reducing agents for the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from the plant, Trichosanthes tricuspidata. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy, particle size analyzer (PSA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The UV-Visible spectrum resulted a sharp peak (at 430nm) represents the strong plasmon resonance of silver. The average size distributions of AgNPs were found to be 78.49nm, through (PSA), and the silver ion with its crystalline nature was confirmed using intensity (2θ) peak value of 38.22°, 44.66°, 64.61°, and 77.49°. The SEM micrograph revealed that the synthesized AgNPs have a spherical morphology with the size ranges from 20 to 28nm. AFM showed the presence of polydispersed AgNPs with its size (20 to 60nm in height). The gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) study analyzed the responsible compounds present in the methanolic extracts for the bio-reduction of AgNPs and their antibacterial effect was studied. AgNPs exhibited preponderant activity than the methanolic extracts on clinical pathogens. Thus, the synthesized AgNPs might act as an effective antibacterial agent. Further studies are required to isolate the specific compound responsible for the reduction capability and its their inhibitory mechanisms for target bacterial strains. PMID:26044176

  1. SERS active silver nanoparticles synthesized by inkjet printing on mesoporous silicon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Inkjet printing technique is exploited for the synthesis of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) patterned on electrochemically etched silicon-based substrates. The nanostructure morphology, here analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, is dictated by the ink composition and the printing parameters. Under suitable excitation conditions, resonant surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) performed on such metal-dielectric nanostructures can approach single-molecule detection as recently demonstrated on silvered porous silicon synthesized by immersion plating. PACS 78.67.Bf; 78.30.-j PMID:25288917

  2. Nano-biocomposite films with modified cellulose nanocrystals and synthesized silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fortunati, E; Rinaldi, S; Peltzer, M; Bloise, N; Visai, L; Armentano, I; Jiménez, A; Latterini, L; Kenny, J M

    2014-01-30

    Ternary nano-biocomposite films based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with modified cellulose nanocrystals (s-CNC) and synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag) have been prepared and characterized. The functionalization of the CNC surface with an acid phosphate ester of ethoxylated nonylphenol favoured its dispersion in the PLA matrix. The positive effects of the addition of cellulose and silver on the PLA barrier properties were confirmed by reductions in the water permeability (WVP) and oxygen transmission rate (OTR) of the films tested. The migration level of all nano-biocomposites in contact with food simulants were below the permitted limits in both non-polar and polar simulants. PLA nano-biocomposites showed a significant antibacterial activity influenced by the Ag content, while composting tests showed that the materials were visibly disintegrated after 15 days with the ternary systems showing the highest rate of disintegration under composting conditions. PMID:24299883

  3. Antibacterial and cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using latex of Calotropis gigantea L.

    PubMed

    Rajkuberan, Chandrasekaran; Sudha, Kannaiah; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to synthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a greener route using aqueous latex extract of Calotropis gigantea L. toward biomedical applications. Initially, synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed through UV-Vis spectroscopy which shows the surface plasmonic resonance peak (SPR) at 420 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provides clear evidence that protein fractions present in the latex extract act as reducing and stabilizing bio agents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy confirms the presence of silver as a major constituent element. X-ray diffractograms displays that the synthesized AgNPs were biphasic crystalline nature. Electron microscopic studies such as Field emission scanning electron microscopic (Fe-SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveals that synthesized AgNPs are spherical in shape with the size range between 5 and 30 nm. Further, crude latex aqueous extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against different bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus cereus, Enterococci sp, Shigella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compared to the crude latex aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNPs exhibits a remarkable antimicrobial activity. Likewise in vitro anticancer study manifests the cytotoxicity value of synthesized AgNPs against tested HeLa cells. The output of this study clearly suggesting that biosynthesized AgNPs using latex of C. gigantea can be used as promising nanomaterial for therapeutic application in context with nanodrug formulation. PMID:25459618

  4. Antibacterial and cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using latex of Calotropis gigantea L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkuberan, Chandrasekaran; Sudha, Kannaiah; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivaramakrishnan, Sivaperumal

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to synthesis silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a greener route using aqueous latex extract of Calotropis gigantea L. toward biomedical applications. Initially, synthesis of AgNPs was confirmed through UV-Vis spectroscopy which shows the surface plasmonic resonance peak (SPR) at 420 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis provides clear evidence that protein fractions present in the latex extract act as reducing and stabilizing bio agents. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) spectroscopy confirms the presence of silver as a major constituent element. X-ray diffractograms displays that the synthesized AgNPs were biphasic crystalline nature. Electron microscopic studies such as Field emission scanning electron microscopic (Fe-SEM) and Transmission electron microscope (TEM) reveals that synthesized AgNPs are spherical in shape with the size range between 5 and 30 nm. Further, crude latex aqueous extract and synthesized AgNPs were evaluated against different bacterial pathogens such as Bacillus cereus, Enterococci sp, Shigella sp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Compared to the crude latex aqueous extract, biosynthesized AgNPs exhibits a remarkable antimicrobial activity. Likewise invitro anticancer study manifests the cytotoxicity value of synthesized AgNPs against tested HeLa cells. The output of this study clearly suggesting that biosynthesized AgNPs using latex of C. gigantea can be used as promising nanomaterial for therapeutic application in context with nanodrug formulation.

  5. In Vivo toxicological assessment of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Chandran; Harper, Stacey L; Yun, Soon-Il

    2016-01-15

    The present study examines the deleterious effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in adult zebrafish. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) used in the study were synthesized by treating AgNO3 with aqueous leaves extract of Malva crispa Linn., a medicinal herb as source of reductants. LC50 concentration of AgNPs at 96 h was observed as 142.2 μg/l. In order to explore the underlying toxicity mechanisms of AgNPs, half of the LC50 concentration (71.1 μg/l) was exposed to adult zebrafish for 14 days. Cytological changes and intrahepatic localization of AgNPs were observed in gills and liver tissues respectively, and the results concluded a possible sign for oxidative stress. In addition to oxidative stress the genotoxic effect was observed in peripheral blood cells like presence of micronuclei, nuclear abnormalities and also loss in cell contact with irregular shape was observed in liver parenchyma cells. Hence to confirm the oxidative stress and genotoxic effects the mRNA expression of stress related (MTF-1, HSP70) and immune response related (TLR4, NFKB, IL1B, CEBP, TRF, TLR22) genes were analyzed in liver tissues and the results clearly concluded that the plant extract mediated synthesis of AgNPs leads to oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in adult zebrafish. PMID:26414925

  6. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

  7. Acaricidal activity of aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles from Manilkara zapota against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, G; Abdul Rahuman, A

    2012-08-01

    Traditional parasite control is primarily based on the use of chemical acaricides, which unfortunately have many negative side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of plant synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Manilkara zapota to control Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared and X-ray diffraction. The UV-vis spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver nanostructures showed a peak at 421 nm corresponding to the surface plasmon resonance band of AgNPs. SEM supports the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs with spherical and oval in shape and size of 70-140 nm. Acaricidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of M. zapota and synthesized AgNPs were carried out against R. (B.) microplus and the results showed the LC(50) values of 16.72 and 3.44 mg/L; r(2)=0.856 and 0.783), respectively. PMID:21906765

  8. Photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of gold and silver nanoparticles synthesized using biomass of Parkia roxburghii leaf.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bappi; Bhuyan, Bishal; Purkayastha, Debraj Dhar; Dhar, Siddhartha Sankar

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports a green approach for synthesis of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) using dried biomass of Parkia roxburghii leaf. The biomass of the leaf acts as both reductant as well as stabilizer. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by time-dependent UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses. The UV-visible spectra of synthesized Au and Ag NPs showed surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 555 and 440nm after 12h. Powder XRD studies revealed formation of face-centered cubic structure for both Au and Ag NPs with average crystallite size of 8.4 and 14.74nm, respectively. The TEM image showed the Au NPs to be monodispersed, spherical in shape with sizes in the range of 5-25nm. On the other hand, Ag NPs were polydispersed, quasi-spherical in shape with sizes in the range of 5-25nm. Investigation of photocatalytic activities of Au and Ag NPs under solar light illumination reveals that both these particles have pronounced effect on degradation of dyes viz., methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine b (RhB). Antibacterial activity of the synthesized NPs was studied on Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli. Both Au and Ag NPs showed slightly higher activity on S. aureus than on E. coli. PMID:26590801

  9. Microalgae associated Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 as the nano particle synthesizing unit to produce antimicrobial silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajamanickam, Karthic; Sudha, S. S.; Francis, Mebin; Sowmya, T.; Rengaramanujam, J.; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy

    2013-09-01

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antimicrobial property was studied using bacteria isolated from Spirulina products. Isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp. MSK 1 (JX495945), Staphylococcus sp. MSK 2 (JX495946), Bacillus sp. MSK 3 (JX495947) and Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 (JX495948). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using bacterial culture filtrate with AgNO3. The initial syntheses of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer (by measuring the color change to intense brown). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed evidence that proteins are possible reducing agents and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) study showing the metal silver as major signal. The structure of AgNPs was determined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Synthesized Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 40-65 nm have antimicrobial property against human pathogens like Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Streptococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Among the isolates Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 alone showed good activity in both synthesis of AgNPs and antimicrobial activity. This work demonstrates the possible use of biological synthesized silver nanoparticles to combat the drug resistant problem.

  10. Microalgae associated Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 as the nano particle synthesizing unit to produce antimicrobial silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rajamanickam, Karthic; Sudha, S S; Francis, Mebin; Sowmya, T; Rengaramanujam, J; Sivalingam, Periyasamy; Prabakar, Kandasamy

    2013-09-01

    The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antimicrobial property was studied using bacteria isolated from Spirulina products. Isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp. MSK 1 (JX495945), Staphylococcus sp. MSK 2 (JX495946), Bacillus sp. MSK 3 (JX495947) and Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 (JX495948). Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using bacterial culture filtrate with AgNO3. The initial syntheses of Ag nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometer (by measuring the color change to intense brown). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed evidence that proteins are possible reducing agents and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) study showing the metal silver as major signal. The structure of AgNPs was determined by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Synthesized Ag nanoparticles with an average size of 40-65 nm have antimicrobial property against human pathogens like Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Streptococcus sp., Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Among the isolates Brevundimonas sp. MSK 4 alone showed good activity in both synthesis of AgNPs and antimicrobial activity. This work demonstrates the possible use of biological synthesized silver nanoparticles to combat the drug resistant problem. PMID:23711394

  11. Catalytic and biological activities of green silver nanoparticles synthesized from Plumeria alba (frangipani) flower extract.

    PubMed

    Mata, Rani; Reddy Nakkala, Jayachandra; Rani Sadras, Sudha

    2015-06-01

    Herein, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Plumeria alba (frangipani) flower extract (FFE) and their biological applications. The formation of frangipani silver nanoparticles (FSNPs) was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and characterized by DLS particle size analyzer, SEM/EDAX, FTIR, TGA/DSC and XRD. The synthesized spherical FSNPs were found to be 36.19nm in size as determined by DLS particle size analyzer. EDAX data and XRD pattern of FSNPs confirmed the presence and face-centered cubic (fcc) phase structure of silver. The bioactive groups C-C and C-N present in FFE were involved in the formation of FSNPs as identified by FTIR analysis. FSNPs exhibited powerful catalytic activity by reducing 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol within 8min and the other organic dyes namely methylene blue and ethidium bromide were moderately degraded. Biological activities of FSNPs are evaluated by means of antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxic effect. Antioxidant potential of FSNPs was assessed by various in vitro assays in which they exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. The antibacterial effect of FSNPs was tested in two different pathogenic bacterial strains and their bacteriostatic effect was confirmed by growth kinetic study in Escherichia coli. The cytotoxic effect of FSNPs in COLO 205 was analyzed by MTT assay and the IC50 concentration was found at 5.5 and 4μg/ml respectively after 24 and 48h of incubation. Cytotoxic effect of FSNPs in COLO 205 cells was associated with the loss of membrane integrity and chromatin condensation which might have played a crucial role in the induction of apoptosis as evidenced in AO/EB staining. PMID:25842128

  12. A novel PLED architecture containing biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles and ultra thin silver layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pıravadılı Mucur, Selin; Tekin, Emine; San, Sait Eren; Duygulu, Özgür; Öztürk, Hasan Ümit; Utkan, Güldem; Denizci, Aziz Akın

    2015-09-01

    The influences of biologically synthesized gold nanoparticles (bio-GNPs) and ultra thin silver layer (UTSL) on the polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs) are investigated for the first time. The performance of the fabricated PLEDs is enhanced by embedding of bio-GNPs into the hole transport layer (HTL). Furthermore, the tailored device architecture containing UTSL increases the electron transport through lightning rod effect. Bio-GNPs are successfully produced as spherical shape with size of circa 10.4 nm. Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) and [poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly (styrenesulfonate); (PEDOT:PSS)/bio-GNPs blends are used as an active layer and HTL, respectively. Novel PLEDs fabricated with 0.125 wt% bio-GNPs/PEDOT:PSS and 0.5 nm UTSL exhibit nearly 2.5-fold enhancement in the device efficiency.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of ``green'' synthesized silver nanoparticles using tea polyphenols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulton, Michael C.; Braydich-Stolle, Laura K.; NadagoudaPresent Address: Pegasus Technical Services, 46 E. Hollister Street, Cincinnati, 45219, Ohio, Usa., Mallikarjuna N.; Kunzelman, Samantha; Hussain, Saber M.; Varma, Rajender S.

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, people have taken advantage of the antimicrobial effects of colloidal silver particles. Aside from the medical prospects, silver nanoparticles are found in a wide range of commercially available consumer products ranging from cosmetics to household cleansers. Current synthetic methods for creating silver nanoparticles typically call for potentially hazardous chemicals, extreme heat, and produce environmentally dangerous byproducts. Therefore, it is essential that novel ``green'' synthesis of nanoparticles becomes a reality, and it is imperative to fully analyze the potential toxic effects of these nanoparticles. In this study, we have shown that by reducing silver nitrate in solutions of tea extract or epicatechin of varying concentrations, spherical silver nanoparticles were formed that had controllable size distributions depending on the concentration of tea extract or epicatechin in the samples. Our ultra-resolution microscopy demonstrated that the nanoparticles were in fact interacting with the keratinocytes. Furthermore, evaluation of mitochondrial function (MTS) to assess cell viability and membrane integrity (LDH) in human keratinocytes showed that the silver nanoparticles were nontoxic. These results demonstrated that these nanoparicles are potentially biocompatible and warrant further evaluation in other biological systems.

  14. Green Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles Exhibit Reduced Toxicity to Mammalian Cells and Retain Antimicrobial Activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interest in silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanomaterial stems from their antimicrobial properties. AgNPs are being added to clothing, paint, refrigerators, washing machines and a variety of other commercially available items. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies, howe...

  15. Biological activities of green silver nanoparticles synthesized with Acorous calamus rhizome extract.

    PubMed

    Nakkala, Jayachandra Reddy; Mata, Rani; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Sadras, Sudha Rani

    2014-10-01

    Nanomedicine utilize biocompatible nanomaterials for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. This study reports the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous rhizome extract of Acorus calamus (ACRE) and evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial as well as anticancer effects of synthesized A. calamus silver nanoparticles (ACAgNPs). The formation of ACAgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy and their average size was found to be 31.83nm by DLS particle size analyzer. Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed spherical shape of ACAgNPs and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) data showed the presence of metallic silver. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the presence of phenol/alcohol, aromatic amine and carbonyl groups in ACRE that were involved in reduction and capping of nanoparticles. ACRE and ACAgNPs exhibited substantial free radical quenching ability in various invitro antioxidant assays performed in this study. ACAgNPs also displayed appreciable antibacterial activity against three different pathogenic bacteria and the growth kinetic study with Escherichia coli designated the inhibition of bacterial growth at the log phase. The cytotoxic effect of ACAgNPs was assessed by MTT assay in HeLa and A549 cells. The IC50 value of ACAgNPs respectively after 24 and 48h was found to be 92.48 and 69.44?g/ml in HeLa cells and in A549 cells it was 53.2 and 32.1?g/ml. Apoptotic cell death in ACAgNPs treated cells was indicated by acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) and annexinV-Cy3 staining techniques. Staining with propidium iodide (PI) and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dihydrochloride (DAPI) also confirmed nuclear changes such as condensation and fragmentation. Further, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay showed distribution of ACAgNPs treated cells in the late apoptotic stage. These findings emphasize that such biocompatible green nanoparticles with multifaceted biological activities may find their applications in the field of nanomedicine. PMID:25147142

  16. Study on antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by gamma irradiation method using different stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Van Phu, Dang; Quoc, Le Anh; Duy, Nguyen Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Thi Kim; Du, Bui Duy; Luan, Le Quang; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation using different stabilizers, namely polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), alginate, and sericin. The particle size measured from TEM images was 4.3, 6.1, 7.6, and 10.2 nm for AgNPs/PVP, AgNPs/PVA, AgNPs/alginate, and AgNPs/sericin, respectively. The influence of different stabilizers on the antibacterial activity of AgNPs was investigated. Results showed that AgNPs/alginate exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) among the as-synthesized AgNPs. Handwash solution has been prepared using Na lauryl sulfate as surfactant, hydroxyethyl cellulose as binder, and 15 mg/L of AgNPs/alginate as antimicrobial agent. The obtained results on the antibacterial test of handwash for the dilution to 3 mg AgNPs/L showed that the antibacterial efficiency against E. coli was of 74.6%, 89.8%, and 99.0% for the contacted time of 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Thus, due to the biocompatibility of alginate extracted from seaweed and highly antimicrobial activity of AgNPs synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation, AgNPs/alginate is promising to use as an antimicrobial agent in biomedicine, cosmetic, and in other fields. PMID:24708872

  17. Study on antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by gamma irradiation method using different stabilizers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation using different stabilizers, namely polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), alginate, and sericin. The particle size measured from TEM images was 4.3, 6.1, 7.6, and 10.2 nm for AgNPs/PVP, AgNPs/PVA, AgNPs/alginate, and AgNPs/sericin, respectively. The influence of different stabilizers on the antibacterial activity of AgNPs was investigated. Results showed that AgNPs/alginate exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) among the as-synthesized AgNPs. Handwash solution has been prepared using Na lauryl sulfate as surfactant, hydroxyethyl cellulose as binder, and 15 mg/L of AgNPs/alginate as antimicrobial agent. The obtained results on the antibacterial test of handwash for the dilution to 3 mg AgNPs/L showed that the antibacterial efficiency against E. coli was of 74.6%, 89.8%, and 99.0% for the contacted time of 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Thus, due to the biocompatibility of alginate extracted from seaweed and highly antimicrobial activity of AgNPs synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation, AgNPs/alginate is promising to use as an antimicrobial agent in biomedicine, cosmetic, and in other fields. PMID:24708872

  18. Study on antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized by gamma irradiation method using different stabilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Phu, Dang; Quoc, Le Anh; Duy, Nguyen Ngoc; Lan, Nguyen Thi Kim; Du, Bui Duy; Luan, Le Quang; Hien, Nguyen Quoc

    2014-04-01

    Colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation using different stabilizers, namely polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), alginate, and sericin. The particle size measured from TEM images was 4.3, 6.1, 7.6, and 10.2 nm for AgNPs/PVP, AgNPs/PVA, AgNPs/alginate, and AgNPs/sericin, respectively. The influence of different stabilizers on the antibacterial activity of AgNPs was investigated. Results showed that AgNPs/alginate exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli ( E. coli) among the as-synthesized AgNPs. Handwash solution has been prepared using Na lauryl sulfate as surfactant, hydroxyethyl cellulose as binder, and 15 mg/L of AgNPs/alginate as antimicrobial agent. The obtained results on the antibacterial test of handwash for the dilution to 3 mg AgNPs/L showed that the antibacterial efficiency against E. coli was of 74.6%, 89.8%, and 99.0% for the contacted time of 1, 3, and 5 min, respectively. Thus, due to the biocompatibility of alginate extracted from seaweed and highly antimicrobial activity of AgNPs synthesized by gamma Co-60 irradiation, AgNPs/alginate is promising to use as an antimicrobial agent in biomedicine, cosmetic, and in other fields.

  19. Efficacy of plant-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles against hematophagous parasites.

    PubMed

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Rao, Kokati Venkata Bhaskara; Karthik, Loganathan; Raveendran, Sankariah

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the acaricidal and larvicidal activity against the larvae of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann (Acarina: Ixodidae) and larvae of hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae) and against the fourth-instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae) of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract from Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae). The color of the extract changed to light brown within an hour, and later it changed to dark brown during the 30-min incubation period. AgNPs results were recorded from UV-vis spectrum at 426 nm; Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of Ag(+) ions to silver nanoparticles are due to the reduction by capping material of plant extract, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns clearly illustrates that the nanoparticles formed in the present synthesis are crystalline in nature and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs with rod in shape and size of 60-150 nm. After reaction, the XRD pattern of AgNPs showed diffraction peaks at 2??=?34.37, 38.01, 44.17, 66.34 and 77.29 assigned to the (100), (111), (102), (110) and (120) planes, respectively, of a faced centre cubic (fcc) lattice of silver were obtained. For electron microscopic studies, a 25 ?l sample was sputter-coated on copper stub, and the images of nanoparticles were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The spot EDX analysis showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. The parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. In the present study, the percent mortality of aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca were 82, 71, 46, 29, 11 and 78, 66, 38, 31and 16 observed in the concentrations of 50, 40, 30, 20, 10 mg/l for 24 h against the larvae of H. bispinosa and Hip. maculata, respectively. The maximum efficacy was observed in the aqueous extract of M. paradisiaca against the H. bispinosa, Hip. maculata, and the larvae of A. stephensi, C. tritaeniorhynchus with LC(50) values of 28.96, 31.02, 26.32, and 20.10 mg/lm, respectively (r (2)?=?0.990, 0.968, 0.974, and 0.979, respectively). The synthesized AgNPs of M. paradisiaca showed the LC(50) and r (2) values against H. bispinosa, (1.87 mg/l; 0.963), Hip. maculata (2.02 mg/l; 0.976), and larvae of A. stephensi (1.39; 0.900 mg/l), against C. tritaeniorhynchus (1.63 mg/l; 0.951), respectively. The ? (2) values were significant at p?

  20. Antibiofilm properties of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles found against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine is now being introduced as a recent trend in the field of medicine. It has been documented that metal nanoparticles have antimicrobial effects for bacteria, fungi and viruses. Recent advances in technology has revived the use of silver nanoparticles in the medical field; treatment, diagnosis, monitoring and control of disease. It has been used since ancient times for treating wide range of illnesses. Bacterial cells adheres to surfaces and develop structures known as biofilms. These structures are natural survival strategy of the bacteria to invade the host. They are more tolerant to commonly used antimicrobial agents, thus being more difficult to be controlled. This leads to increase in severity of infection. In this study, we have investigated the effect of silver nanoparticles in the formation of biofilm in multidrug resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Observation showed that biofilm formation occurred at bacterial concentration of 106 cfu/ml for the sensitive strain of P. aeruginosa while in the resistant strain, the biofilm was evident at bacterial concentration of about 103 cfu/ml. The biofilm were then tested against various concentrations of silver nanoparticles to determine the inhibitory effect of the silver nanoparticles. In the sensitive strain, 20 μg/ml of silver nanoparticles inhibited the growth optimally at bacterial concentration of 104 cfu/ml with an inhibition rate of 67%. Similarly, silver nanoparticles inhibited the formation of biofilm in the resistant strain at an optimal bacterial concentration of 105 cfu/ml with an inhibition rate of 56%. Thus, silver nanoparticles could be used as a potential alternative therapy to reduce severity of disease due to P. aeruginosa infections. PMID:24422704

  1. Evaluation of plant-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles against vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L

    2014-12-01

    Diseases transmitted by blood-feeding mosquitoes, such as dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, Japanese encephalitis, malaria, and filariasis, are increasing in prevalence, particularly in tropical and subtropical zones. To control mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases, which have worldwide health and economic impacts, synthetic insecticide-based interventions are still necessary, particularly in situations of epidemic outbreak and sudden increases of adult mosquitoes. Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and eco-friendly reducing and capping agents. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Heliotropium indicum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. Adult mosquitoes were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous extract of H. indicum and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. AgNPs were rapidly synthesized using the leaf extract of H. indicum, and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 6 h. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy support the biosynthesis and characterization of AgNPs. The maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs against the adult of A. stephensi (lethal dose (LD)???=?26.712 ?g/mL; LD???=?49.061 ?g/mL), A. aegypti (LD???=?29.626 ?g/mL; LD???=?54.269 ?g/mL), and C. quinquefasciatus (LD???=?32.077 ?g/mL; LD???=?58.426 ?g/mL), respectively. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H.indicum and green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the adulticidal activity of the plant extracts and AgNPs. PMID:25300419

  2. Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leucas aspera leaf extracts against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Suganya, Ganesan; Karthi, Sengodan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2014-03-01

    Vector-borne diseases caused by mosquitoes are one of the major economic and health problems in many countries. Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several diseases in humans like yellow fever and dengue. Vector control methods involving use of chemical insecticides are becoming less effective due to the development of insecticides resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and nontarget organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. The present study investigates the larvicidal potential of solvent leaf extracts of Leucas aspera and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and were used to characterize and support the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of the synthesized AgNPs from the XRD spectrum compared with Bragg reflections can be indexed to the (111) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,447.77, 2,923.30, and 1,618.66 cm(-1). The spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 1,618.66 cm(-1) assigned to the stretching vibration of (NH) C═O group. The band 1,383 developed for C═C and C═N stretching, respectively, and was commonly found in the proteins. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated and having the size of 25-80 nm. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. In larvicidal activity, the results showed that the maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNP from leaf extracts against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti with LC₅₀ values of 8.5632, 10.0361, 14.4689, 13.4579, 17.4108, and 27.4936 mg/l and LC₉₀ values of 21.5685, 93.03928, 39.6485, 42.2029, 31.3009, and 53.2576 mg/l respectively. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNP from leaf extracts have a higher larvicidal potential as compared to crude solvent extracts thus making them an effective combination for controlling A. aegypti. PMID:24337613

  3. Larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leucas aspera leaf extracts against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Suganya, Ganesan; Karthi, Sengodan; Shivakumar, Muthugounder S

    2014-05-01

    Vector-borne diseases caused by mosquitoes are one of the major economic and health problems in many countries. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is a vector of several diseases in humans like yellow fever and dengue. Vector control methods involving the use of chemical insecticides are becoming less effective due to development of insecticides resistance, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse effects on environmental quality and non-target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has wide-ranging application vector control programs. The present study investigates the larvicidal potential of solvent leaf extracts of Leucas aspera and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectra, x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and were used to characterize and support the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. The formation of the AgNPs synthesized from the XRD spectrum compared with Bragg reflections can be indexed to the (111) orientations, respectively, confirmed the presence of AgNPs. The FT-IR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,447.77; 2,923.30; and 1,618.66 cm(-1). The spectra showed sharp and strong absorption band at 1,618.66 cm(-1) assigned to the stretching vibration of (NH) C═O group. The band 1,383 developed for C═C and C═N stretching, respectively, and was commonly found in the proteins. SEM analysis of the synthesized AgNPs clearly showed the clustered and irregular shapes, mostly aggregated, and having the size of 25-80 nm. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. In larvicidal activity, the results showed that the maximum efficacy was observed in synthesized AgNPs leaf extracts against the fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC50 values of 8.5632, 10.0361, 14.4689, 13.4579, 17.4108, and 27.4936 mg/l) and (LC90 values of 21.5685, 93.03928, 39.6485, 42.2029, 31.3009, and 53.2576 mg/l), respectively. These results suggest that the synthesized AgNPs leaf extracts have a higher larvicidal potential as compared to crude solvent extracts thus making them an effective combination for controlling A. aegypti. PMID:24553980

  4. Physicochemical characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesize using Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuponiyi, Abiola; Kassama, Lamin; Kukhtareva, Tatiana

    2014-08-01

    Production of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using different biological methods is gaining recognition due to their multiple applications. Although, several physical and chemical methods have been used for the synthesis and stabilizing of AgNPs, yet, a green chemistry method is preferable because it is cost effective and environmentally friendly. The synthesis was done using Aloe Vera (AV) extract because it has chemical compounds such as "Antrokinon" that are known for its antibacterial, antivirus and anticancer properties. We hypothesize that AV extract can produce a stable nanoparticles within the 100 nm range and be biologically active. The biological compounds were extracted from AV skin with water and ethanol which was used as the reduction agent for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The biological extract and AgNO3 were blended and heated to synthesize AgNPs. The reaction process was monitored using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Fourier Transfer Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used for the characterization of biological compounds and their substituent groups before and after the reaction process. Dynamic Light scattering (DLS) method was used to characterize particle size of AgNPs and their biomolecular stability. Results showed that biological compounds such as aliphatic amines, alkenes (=C-H), alkanes (C-H), alcohol (O-H) and unsaturated esters(C-O), which has an average particle size of 109 and 215.8 nm and polydispersity index of 0.451 and 0.375 for ethanol and water extract, respectively. According to TEM measurements the size of AgNPs are in the range 5-20 nm The results suggested that ethanol derived AgNPs contained higher yield of organic compounds, thus has better solubility power than water. Ag NPs can be used to control salmonella in poultry industry.

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles green-synthesized using pineapple leaf (Ananas comosus).

    PubMed

    Emeka, Elemike Elias; Ojiefoh, Oseghale Charles; Aleruchi, Chuku; Hassan, Labulo Ayomide; Christiana, Owoseni Mojisola; Rebecca, Mfon; Dare, Enock Olugbenga; Temitope, Adesuji Elijah

    2014-02-01

    Pineapple leaf was used in this study for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles based on the search for sustainable synthetic means. Indeed, this offered an economical and sustainable synthetic route relative to expensive and toxic chemical methods. The leaf extract was used and the corresponding nanoparticles obtained were subjected to UV-vis analysis at different times. The UV-vis was used to monitor the silver nanoparticle formation through sampling at time intervals. The formation of silver nanoparticles was apparently displayed within 2 min with evidence of surface plasmon bands (SPB) between 440 and 460 nm. The crystals was equally characterized using FTIR, X-ray diffraction methods and TEM. The different results obtained suggested the appearance of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) as determined by the process parameters with a particle size of 12.4 nm. The sample was further screened against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli using Gentamicin as control. From the results, there is evidence of inhibition towards bacteria growth. It can now be inferred from the studies that biosynthesis of nanoparticles could be a gateway to our numerous health issues. PMID:24268599

  6. Characterization and antibacterial properties of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles synthesized through surfactant assisted microwave process

    SciTech Connect

    Iqbal, Nida; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Nik Malek, Nik Ahmad Nazim; Mahmood, Nasrul Humaimi Bin; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kamarul, T.

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: • Stable nano sized silver substitute hydroxyapatite is prepared under surfactant assisted microwave process at 600 W power for 7 min. • The nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. • Increase in silver concentration resulted in better dielectric properties. • Good antibacterial activity and silver release. - Abstract: The present study reports a relatively simple method for the synthesis of stable silver substituted hydroxyapatite nanoparticles with controlled morphology and particle size. In order to achieve this, CTAB is included as a surfactant in the microwave refluxing process (600 W for 7 min). The nanoparticles produced with different silver ion concentrations (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 wt%) were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. XRD and FTIR analyses reveal that the Ag-HA nanoparticles were phase pure at 1000 °C. FESEM images showed that the produced nanoparticles are in the size range of 58–72 nm and exert uniform elongated spheroid morphology. The dielectric properties suggest that the increase in dielectric constant (ε′) and dissipation factor (D) values with increasing Ag concentrations. Antibacterial performance of the Ag-HA samples elucidated using disk diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) demonstrates anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. This effect was dose dependent and was more pronounced against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive organisms.

  7. pH effect on the aggregation of silver nanoparticles synthesized by chemical reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alqadi, M. K.; Abo Noqtah, O. A.; Alzoubi, F. Y.; Alzouby, J.; Aljarrah, K.

    2014-01-01

    Silver colloidal nanoparticles were prepared according to the chemical reduction method in which the ascorbic acid was used as a reducing agent and sodium citrate as a stabilizing agent. The absorption spectra of all prepared samples obtained using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer showed a surface plasmon peak at a wavelength of about 420 nm. The size of the silver nanoparticles was controlled by changing the pH values of the reaction system. At high pH, smaller size silver nanoparticles were obtained compared to low pH values. This difference can be attributed to the difference in the reduction rate of the precursor. In addition to the inverse proportionality between the size and the pH value it is clear that increasing the pH value enables us to obtain spherical nanoparticles while at low pH, rods and triangular particle shapes were formed. Poor balance between nucleation and growth processes could be the cause of this result.

  8. Catalytic and synergistic antibacterial potential of green synthesized silver nanoparticles: Their ecotoxicological evaluation on Poecillia reticulata.

    PubMed

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Patil, Satish V

    2013-12-12

    In the present study, stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were fabricated at a rapid rate from leaf extract of medicinally important plant Alstonia macrophylla. Biosynthesized AgNPs are of spherical shape and narrow size (70nm), exhibiting a surface plasmon resonance peak at 435nm, and a zeta potential of -30.8 mV and have a crystalline nature. A diverse biochemical consortium of protein, terpenoids, phenolics, and flavonoids in leaf extract of A. macrophylla was found to be responsible for AgNP synthesis as evidenced from qualitative-quantitative chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies. Nitroaromatic compounds are anthropogenic pollutants with long-lasting environmental persistence and are needed to transform into less toxic derivatives. 4-Nitrophenol and p-nitroaniline were reduced to less hazardous and commercially useful 4-aminophenol and p-phenylenediamine by phytosynthesized AgNPs. Rate constants of 0.052 and 0.040Min(-1) were calculated for 4-nitrophenol and p-nitroaniline reduction, respectively. Thin-layer chromatography also confirms the reduction of these nitroaromatic compounds. Combinational studies could be one of the strategies to overcome microbial resistance to antibiotics. In synergistic antibacterial assay, the highest increase in a fold area of 3.84 was reported against Staphylococcus aureus using a combination of AgNPs with penicillin. Biosynthesized AgNPs were found to be less toxic (LC50 = 9.13 ppm) than chemically synthesized AgNPs having a LC50 value of 2.86 ppm against nontarget fish Poecillia reticulata. Our green nanosynthesis method offers a faster rate of formation of stable AgNPs having antibacterial and catalytic potential with lower environmental toxicity. PMID:24329901

  9. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a green bioreductant

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of nanoparticles (NPs) can be significantly enhanced by increasing the wettability or solubility of NPs in aqueous medium. In this study, we investigated the effects of the stabilizing agent on the solubility of silver NPs and its subsequent effect on their antimicrobial activities. Silver NPs were prepared using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as bioreductant. The solution also acts as a capping ligand. During this study, the antimicrobial activities of silver NPs, as well as the plant extract alone, were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus. Silver NPs were prepared with various concentrations of the plant extract to study its effect on antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, various concentrations of P. glutinosa extract did not show any effect on the growth of tested bacteria; however, a significant effect on the antimicrobial property of plant extract capped silver NPs (Ag-NPs-PE) was observed. For instance, the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were found to decrease (from 4% to 21%) with the increasing concentrations of plant extract used for the synthesis of Ag-NPs-PE. These results clearly indicate that the addition of P. glutinosa extracts enhances the solubility of Ag-NPs-PE and, hence, increases their toxicity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:25114525

  10. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a green bioreductant.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of nanoparticles (NPs) can be significantly enhanced by increasing the wettability or solubility of NPs in aqueous medium. In this study, we investigated the effects of the stabilizing agent on the solubility of silver NPs and its subsequent effect on their antimicrobial activities. Silver NPs were prepared using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as bioreductant. The solution also acts as a capping ligand. During this study, the antimicrobial activities of silver NPs, as well as the plant extract alone, were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus. Silver NPs were prepared with various concentrations of the plant extract to study its effect on antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, various concentrations of P. glutinosa extract did not show any effect on the growth of tested bacteria; however, a significant effect on the antimicrobial property of plant extract capped silver NPs (Ag-NPs-PE) was observed. For instance, the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were found to decrease (from 4% to 21%) with the increasing concentrations of plant extract used for the synthesis of Ag-NPs-PE. These results clearly indicate that the addition of P. glutinosa extracts enhances the solubility of Ag-NPs-PE and, hence, increases their toxicity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:25114525

  11. Characterization, antioxidant and cytotoxicity evaluation of green synthesized silver nanoparticles using Cleistanthus collinus extract as surface modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ramesh, Ramar; Subramanian, Periyasamy

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The figure is the TEM image of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from Cleistanthus collinus. In this investigation we have used the poisonous plant as a reducing and capping agent. This is a first time data to synthesis the metal nanoparticles using poisonous plant. - Highlights: • A hitherto unreported venomous plant mediated AgNPs synthesis. • The particle size is observed in the range of 20–40 nm. • Surface morphology of the well-dispersed silver nanoparticles is studied using SEM and TEM. • Crystalline nature of AgNPs is confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. • Antioxidant activities of green synthesized AgNPs are tested in vitro. - Abstract: We report, here a simple green method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the plant extract of Cleistanthus collinus as potential phyto reducer. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV–vis spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained results confirmed that the AgNPs were crystalline in nature and the morphological studies reveal the spherical shape of AgNPs with size ranging from 20 to 40 nm. The in vitro antioxidant activity of AgNPs showed a significant effect on scavenging of free radicals. The cytotoxicity study exhibited a dose-dependent effect against human lung cancer cells (A549) and normal cells (HBL-100), the inhibitory concentration (IC{sub 50}) were found to be 30 μg/mL and 60 μg/mL respectively. The in vivo histopathology of mouse organs proved that AgNPs does not possess toxic effect and can be extensively applied in biomedical sciences.

  12. Antibacterial and cytotoxic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous root extract of Erythrina indica lam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi Sre, P. R.; Reka, M.; Poovazhagi, R.; Arul Kumar, M.; Murugesan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Simple, yet an effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using root extract of Erythrina indica and its in vitro antibacterial activity was tried against human pathogenic bacteria and its cytotoxic effect in breast and lung cancer cell lines has been demonstrated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized Ag NPs viz. UV-Vis (Ultra violet), FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), DLS (Dynamic light scattering), HR TEM (High-resolution transmission electron microscopy), EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy). Surface plasmon spectra for Ag NPs are centered nearly at 438 nm with dark brown color. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of terpenes, phenol, flavonols and tannin act as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs were found to be spherical in shape with size in the range of 20-118 nm. Moreover, the synthesized Ag NPs showed potent antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were also proved to exhibit excellent cytotoxic effect on breast and lung cancer cell lines.

  13. Silver Nanoparticles in Dental Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Juliana Mattos; Mori, Matsuyoshi; Sanches, Heloísa Lajas; da Cruz, Adriana Dibo; Poiate, Isis Andréa Venturini Pola

    2015-01-01

    Silver has been used in medicine for centuries because of its antimicrobial properties. More recently, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized and incorporated into several biomaterials, since their small size provides great antimicrobial effect, at low filler level. Hence, these nanoparticles have been applied in dentistry, in order to prevent or reduce biofilm formation over dental materials surfaces. This review aims to discuss the current progress in this field, highlighting aspects regarding silver nanoparticles incorporation, such as antimicrobial potential, mechanical properties, cytotoxicity, and long-term effectiveness. We also emphasize the need for more studies to determine the optimal concentration of silver nanoparticle and its release over time. PMID:25667594

  14. Shape effect on the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized via a microwave-assisted method.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xuesen; Wen, Junjie; Xiong, Xuhua; Hu, Yongyou

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used as sustained-release bactericidal agents for water treatment. Among the physicochemical characteristics of AgNPs, shape is an important parameter relevant to the antibacterial activity. Three typically shaped AgNPs, nanocubes, nanospheres, and nanowires, were prepared via a microwave-assisted method and characterized by TEM, UV-vis, and XRD. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs was determined by OD growth curves tests, MIC tests, and cell viability assay against Escherichia coli. The interaction between AgNPs and bacterial cells was observed by TEM. The results showed that the three differently shaped AgNPs were nanoscale, 55 ± 10 nm in edge length for nanocubes, 60 ± 15 nm in diameter for nanospheres, 60 ± 10 nm in diameter and 2-4 μm in length for nanowires. At the bacterial concentration of 10(4) CFU/mL, the MIC of nanocubes, nanospheres, and nanowires were 37.5, 75, and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Due to the worst contact with bacteria, silver nanowires exhibited the weakest antibacterial activity compared with silver nanocubes and silver nanospheres. Besides, silver nanocubes mainly covered by {100} facets showed stronger antibacterial activity than silver nanospheres covered by {111} facets. It suggests that the shape effect on the antibacterial activity of AgNPs is attributed to the specific surface areas and facets reactivity; AgNPs with larger effective contact areas and higher reactive facets exhibit stronger antibacterial activity. PMID:26511259

  15. Evaluation of leaf aqueous extract and synthesized silver nanoparticles using Nerium oleander against Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou

    2013-03-01

    Green nanoparticle synthesis has been achieved using environmentally acceptable plant extract and ecofriendly reducing and capping agents. The present study was carried out to establish the larvicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using leaf extract of Nerium oleander (Apocynaceae) against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by the aqueous extract of the plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized using leaf extract of N. oleander was evaluated through a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in a wavelength range of 200 to 700nm. This revealed a peak at 440nm in N. oleander leaf extracts, indicating the production of AgNPs. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 509.12cm(-1) (C-H bend alkenes), 1,077.05cm(-1) (C-O stretch alcohols), 1,600.63cm(-1) (N-H bend amines), 2,736.49 and 2,479.04cm(-1) (O-H stretch carboxylic acids), and 3,415.31cm(-1) (N-H stretching due to amines group). An SEM micrograph showed 20-35-nm-size aggregates of spherical- and cubic-shaped nanoparticles. EDX showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized nanoparticles of silver. Larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract of N. oleander and synthesized AgNPs was carried out against Anopheles stephensi, and the results showed that the highest larval mortality was found in the synthesized AgNPs against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi with the following values: LC(50) of instar larvae 20.60, 24.90, 28.22, and 33.99ppm; LC(90) of instar larvae 41.62, 50.33, 57.78, and 68.41ppm; and LC(50) and LC(90) of pupae 39.55 and 79.10ppm, respectively. The aqueous leaf extract exhibited larval toxicity against the first to fourth instar larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi with the following values: LC(50) of instar larvae 232.90, 273.71, 318.94, and 369.96ppm; LC(90) of instar larvae 455.95, 563.10, 639.86, and 730.30ppm; and LC(50) and LC(90) of pupae 426.01 and 805.13ppm, respectively. The chi-square value was significant at p?nanoparticles through a membrane. The results could suggest that the use of plant N. oleander to synthesize silver nanoparticles is a rapid, environmentally safer, and greener approach for mosquito control. This could lead us to a new possibility in vector-control strategy. PMID:23239092

  16. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26952426

  17. Combined efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles and different antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, Syed Zeeshan Haider; Kiran, Urooj; Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Jamal, Asif; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia; Ali, Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is a growing innovative approach that is relatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly than current physicochemical processes. Among various microorganisms, fungi have been found to be comparatively more efficient in the synthesis of nanomaterials. In this research work, extracellular mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was probed by reacting the precursor salt of silver nitrate (AgNO3) with culture filtrate of Aspergillus flavus. Initially, the mycosynthesis was regularly monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which showed AgNP peaks of around 400-470 nm. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed peaks of different intensities with respect to angle of diffractions (2θ) corresponding to varying configurations of AgNPs. Transmission electron micrographs further confirmed the formation of AgNPs in size ranging from 5-30 nm. Combined and individual antibacterial activities of the five conventional antibiotics and AgNPs were investigated against eight different multidrug-resistant bacterial species using the Kirby-Bauer disk-diffusion method. The decreasing order of antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition in mm) of antibiotics, AgNPs, and their conjugates against bacterial group (average) was; ciprofloxacin + AgNPs (23) . imipenem + AgNPs (21) > gentamycin + AgNPs (19) > vancomycin + AgNPs (16) > AgNPs (15) . imipenem (14) > trimethoprim + AgNPs (14) > ciprofloxacin (13) > gentamycin (11) > vancomycin (4) > trimethoprim (0). Overall, the synergistic effect of antibiotics and nanoparticles resulted in a 0.2-7.0 (average, 2.8) fold-area increase in antibacterial activity, which clearly revealed that nanoparticles can be effectively used in combination with antibiotics in order to improve their efficacy against various pathogenic microbes. PMID:23986635

  18. Combined efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles and different antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Syed Zeeshan Haider; Kiran, Urooj; Ali, Muhammad Ishtiaq; Jamal, Asif; Hameed, Abdul; Ahmed, Safia; Ali, Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Biological synthesis of nanoparticles is a growing innovative approach that is relatively cheaper and more environmentally friendly than current physicochemical processes. Among various microorganisms, fungi have been found to be comparatively more efficient in the synthesis of nanomaterials. In this research work, extracellular mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was probed by reacting the precursor salt of silver nitrate (AgNO3) with culture filtrate of Aspergillus flavus. Initially, the mycosynthesis was regularly monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which showed AgNP peaks of around 400–470 nm. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed peaks of different intensities with respect to angle of diffractions (2θ) corresponding to varying configurations of AgNPs. Transmission electron micrographs further confirmed the formation of AgNPs in size ranging from 5–30 nm. Combined and individual antibacterial activities of the five conventional antibiotics and AgNPs were investigated against eight different multidrug-resistant bacterial species using the Kirby–Bauer disk-diffusion method. The decreasing order of antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition in mm) of antibiotics, AgNPs, and their conjugates against bacterial group (average) was; ciprofloxacin + AgNPs (23) . imipenem + AgNPs (21) > gentamycin + AgNPs (19) > vancomycin + AgNPs (16) > AgNPs (15) . imipenem (14) > trimethoprim + AgNPs (14) > ciprofloxacin (13) > gentamycin (11) > vancomycin (4) > trimethoprim (0). Overall, the synergistic effect of antibiotics and nanoparticles resulted in a 0.2–7.0 (average, 2.8) fold-area increase in antibacterial activity, which clearly revealed that nanoparticles can be effectively used in combination with antibiotics in order to improve their efficacy against various pathogenic microbes. PMID:23986635

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of green synthesized drug blended silver nanoparticles against dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, R; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming; Chelladurai, K; Padmavathy, S; Saravanan, M; Prakash, P; Ajmal Ali, M; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2015-11-01

    Development of biologically inspired green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nano-biotechnology. In the present investigation, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing the leaf extract of Justicia glauca. Water-soluble organics present in the leaf extract are mainly responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) solution to AgNPs. The AgNPs are 10-20nm in dimensions as determined by TEM images. The antimicrobial activities of green synthesized AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs have been evaluated against the dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms such as Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The AgNPs and drug blended AgNPs show a significant antibacterial and antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of AgNPs determined against the selected dental caries and periodontal disease causing microorganisms are noticeable between the range of 25-75μg/mL. PMID:26249603

  20. Biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliszewska, I.; Szewczyk, K.; Waszak, K.

    2009-01-01

    Fungus-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles is reported. The nanosilver was formed in contact with the cell-free filtrate of Penicillium strain studied. The nanoparticles were characterized by means of the UV-Vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized nanosilver showed a absorbed maximum at 425 nm in the visible region. The SEM characterization of the fungus cells treated with silver nitrite indicated that the protein might be responsible for the reduction of silver ions. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrograph showed formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 10-100 nm.

  1. Spectroscopy investigation on chemo-catalytic, free radical scavenging and bactericidal properties of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Salicornia brachiata aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Seralathan, Janani; Stevenson, Priscilla; Subramaniam, Shankar; Raghavan, Rachana; Pemaiah, Brindha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-01-24

    Nanosized silver have been widely used in many applications, such as catalysis, photonics, sensors, medicine etc. Thus, there is an increasing need to develop high-yield, low cost, non-toxic and eco-friendly procedures for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Herein, we report an efficient, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles utilizing the aqueous extract of Salicornia brachiata, a tropical plant of the Chenopodiaceae family. Silver nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphology of the particles formed consists of highly diversified shapes like spherical, rod-like, prism, triangular, pentagonal and hexagonal pattern. However, addition of sodium hydroxide to the extract produces mostly spherical particles. The stable nanoparticles obtained using this green method show remarkable catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol. The reduction catalyzed by silver nanoparticles followed the first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of, 0.6×10(-2) s(-1). The bactericidal activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles against the pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus E, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, was also explored using REMA. The obtained results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration required to induce bactericidal effect is lower than the control antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. In addition to these, the biogenic synthesized nanoparticles also exhibited excellent free radical scavenging activity. PMID:24056313

  2. Spectroscopy investigation on chemo-catalytic, free radical scavenging and bactericidal properties of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Salicornia brachiata aqueous extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seralathan, Janani; Stevenson, Priscilla; Subramaniam, Shankar; Raghavan, Rachana; Pemaiah, Brindha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-01-01

    Nanosized silver have been widely used in many applications, such as catalysis, photonics, sensors, medicine etc. Thus, there is an increasing need to develop high-yield, low cost, non-toxic and eco-friendly procedures for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Herein, we report an efficient, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles utilizing the aqueous extract of Salicornia brachiata, a tropical plant of the Chenopodiaceae family. Silver nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphology of the particles formed consists of highly diversified shapes like spherical, rod-like, prism, triangular, pentagonal and hexagonal pattern. However, addition of sodium hydroxide to the extract produces mostly spherical particles. The stable nanoparticles obtained using this green method show remarkable catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol. The reduction catalyzed by silver nanoparticles followed the first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of, 0.6 × 10-2 s-1. The bactericidal activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles against the pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus E, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, was also explored using REMA. The obtained results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration required to induce bactericidal effect is lower than the control antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. In addition to these, the biogenic synthesized nanoparticles also exhibited excellent free radical scavenging activity.

  3. New procedure to synthesize silver nanoparticles and their interaction with local anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Mocanu, Aurora; Pasca, Roxana Diana; Tomoaia, Gheorghe; Garbo, Corina; Frangopol, Petre T; Horovitz, Ossi; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were prepared in aqueous colloid dispersions by the reduction of Ag+ with glucose in alkaline medium. Tetraethyl orthosilicate and L-asparagine were added as stabilizers of NPs. The AgNPs were characterized, and their interaction with three local anesthetics (procaine, dibucaine, or tetracaine) was investigated. Optical spectra show the characteristic absorption band of AgNPs, due to surface plasmon resonance. Modifications in the position and shape of this band reflect the self-assembly of metal NPs mediated by anesthetic molecules and the progress in time of the aggregation process. Zeta-potential measuring was applied in order to characterize the electrostatic stability of the NPs. The size and shape of the AgNPs, as well as the features of the assemblies formed by their association in the presence of anesthetics, were evidenced by transmission electron microscopy images. Atomic force microscopy images showed the characteristics of the films of AgNPs deposited on glass support. The effect of the anesthetics could be described in terms of electrostatic forces between the negatively charged AgNPs and the anesthetic molecules, existing also in their cationic form at the working pH. But also hydrophobic and hydrogen bonding interactions between the coated nanoparticles and anesthetics molecular species should be considered. PMID:24143090

  4. Inhibition of Phytophthora parasitica and P. capsici by Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Aqueous Extract of Artemisia absinthium.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Kim, Bosung; Belfield, Kevin D; Norman, David; Brennan, Mary; Ali, Gul Shad

    2015-09-01

    Application of nanoparticles for controlling plant pathogens is a rapidly emerging area in plant disease management, and nanoparticles synthesis methods that are economical and ecofriendly are extensively investigated. In this project, we investigated the potential of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized with aqueous extract of Artemisia absinthium against several Phytophthora spp., which cause many economically important crop diseases. In in vitro dose-response tests conducted in microtiter plates, 10 µg ml⁻¹ of AgNPs inhibited mycelial growth of P. parasitica, P. infestans, P. palmivora, P. cinnamomi, P. tropicalis, P. capsici, and P. katsurae. Detailed in vitro dose-response analyses conducted with P. parasitica and P. capsici revealed that AgNPs synthesized with A. absinthium extract were highly potent (IC50: 2.1 to 8.3 µg ml⁻¹) and efficacious (100%) in inhibiting mycelial growth, zoospore germination, germ tube elongation, and zoospore production. Interestingly, AgNP treatment accelerated encystment of zoospores. Consistent with in vitro results, in planta experiments conducted in a greenhouse revealed that AgNP treatments prevented Phytophthora infection and improved plant survival. Moreover, AgNP in in planta experiments did not produce any adverse effects on plant growth. These investigations provide a simple and economical method for controlling Phytophthora with AgNP without affecting normal plant physiology. PMID:25871856

  5. Silver sulfide nanoparticles sensitized titanium dioxide nanotube arrays synthesized by in situ sulfurization for photocatalytic hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Zhongqing; Lu, Jinlin; Wu, Xuelian; Chu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube arrays (TNAs) sensitized with silver sulfide (Ag2S) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via facile in situ sulfurization. Metallic silver NPs were first loaded on TNAs through a simple electrodeposition process. The as-prepared Ag/TNAs composites were further treated with a solution of acetonitrile containing sulfur (S8) and dried in vacuum to obtain a new nanocomposite material comprising of TNAs sensitized with Ag2S NPs. In these composite nanostructures, ultrafine Ag2S NPs were well-dispersed and assembled on the exterior and interior walls of the TNAs. Owing to sensitizing with a narrow bandgap material like Ag2S and the homogeneous distribution of the Ag2S NP heterojunction structures over the surface of the TNAs, the synthesized nanocomposite samples exhibited remarkable capability to absorb visible light and showed a significant enhancement in the photocatalytic efficiency of hydrogen generation. Under visible light illumination (100mW/cm(2)), a maximum photoconversion efficiency of 1.21% and the highest hydrogen production rate of 1.13mL/cm(2)h were obtained from the TNA electrodes sensitized with Ag2S NPs. PMID:24183425

  6. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized In-situ by solution spraying onto cellulose.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jinhua; Abdelgawad, Abdelrahman M; El-Naggar, Mehrez E; Rojas, Orlando J

    2016-08-20

    Spray technique was used for the adsorption of in-situ silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto and inside the surface of nano- and micro- fibrillar cellulose (NFC and MFC) as well as filter paper. The abundance of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups located in NFC and MFC are used to stabilize Ag ions (Ag(+)) which were then in-situ reduced to (AgNPs) by chemical or UV reduction. The surface characteristic features, elemental analysis, particle size as well as size distribution of the obtained MFC, NFC and filter paper loaded with AgNPs were characterized via field emission scanning electron microscopy connected to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (FESEM- EDX) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The associated chemical changes after growth of AgNPs onto the cellulose substrates were assessed by fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) while the thermal stability of such systems were investigated by thermogravimetrical analyses (TGA). The antibacterial properties of AgNPs loaded NFC, MFC and filter paper as well was investigated against Escherichia Coli. The resulted data indicate that the particle size was found to be 11 and 26nm for AgNPs nucleated on NFC and MFC-based papers respectively. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs loaded MFC exhibited higher antibacterial activity than that of AgNPs loaded NFC. Overall, the present research demonstrates facile and fast method for in-situ antibacterial AgNPs loading on cellulose substrates. PMID:27178957

  7. Lousicidal activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Lawsonia inermis leaf aqueous extract against Pediculus humanus capitis and Bovicola ovis.

    PubMed

    Marimuthu, Sampath; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Velayutham, Kanayairam

    2012-11-01

    In the present work, we describe inexpensive, nontoxic, unreported and simple procedure for synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Lawsonia inermis as eco-friendly reducing and capping agent. The aim of the present study was to assess the lousicidal activity of synthesized Ag NPs against human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), and sheep body louse, Bovicola ovis Schrank (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae). Direct contact method was conducted to determine the potential of pediculocidal activity and impregnated method was used with slight modifications to improve practicality and efficiency of tested materials of synthesized Ag NPs against B. ovis. The synthesized Ag NPs characterized with the UV showing peak at 426 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra clearly shows that the diffraction peaks in the pattern indexed as the silver with lattice constants. XRD analysis showed intense peaks at 2? values of 38.34, 44.59, 65.04, and 77.77 corresponding to (111), (200), (220), and (311) Bragg's reflection based on the fcc structure of Ag NPs. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra of Ag NPs exhibited prominent peaks at 3,422.13, 2,924.12, 2,851.76, 1,631.41, 1,381.60, 1,087.11, and 789.55 cm(-1). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrograph showed mean size of 59.52 nm and aggregates of spherical shape Ag NPs. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) showed the complete chemical composition of the synthesized Ag NPs. In pediculocidal activity, the results showed that the optimal times for measuring percent mortality effects of synthesized Ag NPs were 26, 61, 84, and 100 at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively. The average percent mortality for synthesized Ag NPs was 33, 84, 91, and 100 at 10, 15, 20, and 35 min, respectively against B. ovis. The maximum activity was observed in the aqueous leaf extract of L. inermis, 1 mM AgNO(3) solution, and synthesized Ag NPs against P. humanus capitis with LC(50) values of 18.26, 7.77, and 1.33 mg l(-1) and r (2) values of 0.863, 0.900, and 0.803 and against B. ovis showed with LC(50) values of 21.19, 8.49, and 1.41 mg l(-1) and r (2) values of 0.920, 0.938 and 0.870, respectively. The findings revealed that synthesized Ag NPs possess excellent anti-lousicidal activity. PMID:21993881

  8. Comparison of 20 nm silver nanoparticles synthesized with and without a gold core: Structure, dissolution in cell culture media, and biological impact on macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Wang, Chongmin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Baer, Donald R.; Smith, Jordan N.; Liu, Chongxuan; Kodali, Vamsi; Thrall, Brian D.; Chen, Shu; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.

    2015-01-01

    Widespread use of silver nanoparticles raises questions of environmental and biological impact. Many synthesis approaches are used to produce pure silver and silver-shell gold-core particles optimized for specific applications. Since both nanoparticles and silver dissolved from the particles may impact the biological response, it is important to understand the physicochemical characteristics along with the biological impact of nanoparticles produced by different processes. The authors have examined the structure, dissolution, and impact of particle exposure to macrophage cells of two 20 nm silver particles synthesized in different ways, which have different internal structures. The structures were examined by electron microscopy and dissolution measured in Rosewell Park Memorial Institute media with 10% fetal bovine serum. Cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were used to measure biological impact on RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The particles were polycrystalline, but 20 nm particles grown on gold seed particles had smaller crystallite size with many high-energy grain boundaries and defects, and an apparent higher solubility than 20 nm pure silver particles. Greater oxidative stress and cytotoxicity were observed for 20 nm particles containing the Au core than for 20 nm pure silver particles. A simple dissolution model described the time variation of particle size and dissolved silver for particle loadings larger than 9 μg/ml for the 24-h period characteristic of many in-vitro studies. PMID:26178265

  9. Datura metel-synthesized silver nanoparticles magnify predation of dragonfly nymphs against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Prabhu Jenil; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. The employ of synthetic insecticides to control Anopheles populations leads to high operational costs, non-target effects, and induced resistance. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for efficient and rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, their impact against predators of mosquito larvae has been poorly studied. In this study, we synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the Datura metel leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of AgNPs, with a mean size of 40-60 nm. The presence of silver was determined by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may be acting as AgNP capping agents. In laboratory, LC50 of D. metel extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 34.693 ppm (I instar larvae) to 81.500 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP ranged from 2.969 ppm (I instar larvae) to 6.755 ppm (pupae). Under standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of Anax immaculifrons nymphs after 24 h was 75.5 % (II instar larvae) and 53.5 % (III instar larvae). In AgNP-contaminated environment, predation rates were boosted to 95.5 and 78 %, respectively. Our results documented that D. metel-synthesized AgNP might be employed at rather low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria vectors, without detrimental effects on behavioral traits of young instars of the dragonfly Anax immaculifrons. PMID:26337272

  10. Mosquitocidal and antibacterial activity of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles from Aloe vera extracts: towards an effective tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Devakumar; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Nicoletti, Marcello; Jiang, Wei; Benelli, Giovanni; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Mosquitoes represent an important threat for lives of millions of people worldwide, acting as vectors for devastating pathogens, such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and West Nile. In addition, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. Here, we investigated the mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Aloe vera leaf extract and silver nanoparticles synthesized using A. vera extract. Mosquitocidal properties were assessed in laboratory against larvae (I-IV instar) and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were tested against An. stephensi also in field conditions. Antibacterial properties of nanoparticles were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In laboratory conditions, the A. vera extract was toxic against An. stephensi larvae and pupae, even at low dosages. LC50 were 48.79 ppm (I instar), 59.09 ppm (II instar), 70.88 ppm (III instar), 83.58 ppm (IV instar), and 152.55 ppm (pupae). Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were highly toxic against An. stephensi. LC50 were 3.825 ppm (I instar), 4.119 ppm (II instar), 4.982 ppm (III instar), 5.711 ppm (IV instar), and 6.113 ppm (pupae). In field conditions, the application of A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles (10 × LC50) leads to An. stephensi larval reduction of 74.5, 86.6, and 97.7%, after 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Nanoparticles also showed antibacterial properties, and the maximum concentration tested (150 mg/L) evoked an inhibition zone wider than 80 mm in all tested bacterium species. This study adds knowledge about the use of green synthesis of nanoparticles in medical entomology and parasitology, allowing us to propose A. vera-synthesized silver nanoparticles as effective candidates to develop newer and safer mosquitocidal control tools. PMID:25653031

  11. Comparison of 20 nm silver nanoparticles synthesized with and without a gold core. Structure, dissolution in cell culture media, and biological impact on macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Wang, Chongmin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Baer, Donald R.; Smith, Jordan N.; Liu, Chongxuan; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Thrall, Brian D.; Chen, Shu; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary P.

    2015-07-15

    Widespread use of silver nanoparticles raises questions of environmental impact and toxicity. Both silver particles and silver ions formed by particle dissolution may impact biological systems. Therefore it is important to understand the characteristics of silver nanoparticles and their stability in relevant media. The synthesis route can impact physical and chemical characteristics of the particles and we report the characterization and solution stability of three types of silver nanoparticles (20 nm particles with and without gold cores and 110 nm particles with gold cores) in cell culture media with serum proteins: FBS10%/RPMI. These nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution and characterized using both in situ and ex situ analysis methods. Dissolution studies were carried at particle concentrations from 1 µg/ml to 50 µg/ml. Particles with gold cores had smaller crystallite size and higher apparent solubility than pure silver particles. A dissolution model was found to describe the time variation of particle size and amount of dissolved silver for particle loadings above 9 µg/ml. An effective solubility product obtained from fitting the data was higher for the 20 nm gold core particles in comparison to the pure silver or 110 nm particles. Dissolution of the nanoparticles was enhanced by presence of serum proteins contained in fetal bovine serum. In addition, the protocol of the dispersion in the medium was found to influence particle agglomeration and dissolution. Results show that particle structure can impact the concentration of dissolved silver and the dose to which cells would be exposed during in vitro studies.

  12. Comparison of 20 nm silver nanoparticles synthesized with and without a gold core. Structure, dissolution in cell culture media, and biological impact on macrophages

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Munusamy, Prabhakaran; Wang, Chongmin; Engelhard, Mark H.; Baer, Donald R.; Smith, Jordan N.; Liu, Chongxuan; Kodali, Vamsi K.; Thrall, Brian D.; Chen, Shu; Porter, Alexandra E.; et al

    2015-07-15

    Widespread use of silver nanoparticles raises questions of environmental impact and toxicity. Both silver particles and silver ions formed by particle dissolution may impact biological systems. Therefore it is important to understand the characteristics of silver nanoparticles and their stability in relevant media. The synthesis route can impact physical and chemical characteristics of the particles and we report the characterization and solution stability of three types of silver nanoparticles (20 nm particles with and without gold cores and 110 nm particles with gold cores) in cell culture media with serum proteins: FBS10%/RPMI. These nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution andmore » characterized using both in situ and ex situ analysis methods. Dissolution studies were carried at particle concentrations from 1 µg/ml to 50 µg/ml. Particles with gold cores had smaller crystallite size and higher apparent solubility than pure silver particles. A dissolution model was found to describe the time variation of particle size and amount of dissolved silver for particle loadings above 9 µg/ml. An effective solubility product obtained from fitting the data was higher for the 20 nm gold core particles in comparison to the pure silver or 110 nm particles. Dissolution of the nanoparticles was enhanced by presence of serum proteins contained in fetal bovine serum. In addition, the protocol of the dispersion in the medium was found to influence particle agglomeration and dissolution. Results show that particle structure can impact the concentration of dissolved silver and the dose to which cells would be exposed during in vitro studies.« less

  13. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial studies of green synthesized silver nanoparticles from fruit extract of Syzygium alternifolium (Wt.) Walp. an endemic, endangered medicinal tree taxon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yugandhar, P.; Savithramma, N.

    2016-02-01

    In nanotechnology, the plant mediated synthesis of nanoparticles has terrific application in biomedicine due to its novel properties and its eco-friendly nature. The present study deals with the biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles (SNPs) from aqueous fruit extract of S. alternifolium an endemic medicinal plant to Eastern Ghats. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by UV-VIS spectroscopy, FTIR, XRD, AFM, SEM with EDAX and TEM. Colour change from brown to grey indicates the formation of nanoparticles and UV-VIS surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy observed at 442 nm further confirms the synthesized nanoparticles are SNPs. FTIR studies reveal that the phenols and primary amines of proteins are main responsible for reduction, stabilization and capping agents towards these SNPs. The XRD data show crystalline nature of nanoparticles and EDAX measurements reveal the (12.74 %) percentage presence of Ag metal. AFM, SEM and TEM microscopic analyses revealed that the size of synthesized SNPs ranging from 5 to 68 nm has spherical shape and they are in polydispersed condition. Further, the antimicrobial studies of synthesized SNPs show high toxicity towards different bacterial and fungal isolates. This is the first report on fruit mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles from S. alternifolium.

  14. Feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles using Manilkara zapota leaf extract against the house fly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Velayutham, Kanayairam; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi

    2012-12-01

    With a greater awareness of the hazards associated with the use of synthetic organic insecticides, there has been an urgent need to explore suitable alternative products for pest control. Musca domestica is ubiquitous insect that has the potential to spread a variety of pathogens to humans and livestock. They are mechanical carriers of more than hundred human and animal intestinal diseases and are responsible for protozoan, bacterial, helminthic, and viral infections. The present work aimed to investigate the feeding deterrent activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using leaf aqueous extract of Manilkara zapota against M. domestica. The synthesized Ag NPs were recorded from UV-vis spectrum at 421 nm and scanning electron microscopy confirm the biosynthesis and characterization of Ag NPs with spherical and oval in shape and size of 70-140 nm. The FTIR analysis of the purified nanoparticles showed the presence of bands 1,079, 1,383, 1,627, 2,353, and 2,648 cm(-1), which were complete synthesis of AgNPs; the XRD pattern of AgNPs showed diffraction peaks at 2θ values of 38.06°, 44.37°, 64.51°, and 77.31° sets of lattice planes were observed (111), (200), (220), and (311) facts of silver, respectively. Adult flies were exposed to different concentrations of the aqueous extract of synthesized Ag NPs, 1 mM silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) solution and aqueous extract of M. zapota for 1, 2, and 3 h; however, AgNPs showed 72% mortality in 1 h, 89% mortality was found in 2 h, and 100% mortality was found in 3 h exposure at the concentration of 10 mg/mL and the leaf aqueous extract showed 32% mortality in 1 h, 48% mortality was found in 2 h, and 83% mortality was found in 3 h exposure at concentration of 50 mg/mL. The most efficient activity was observed in synthesized Ag NPs against M. domestica (LD(50) = 3.64 mg/mL; LD(90) = 7.74 mg/mL), the moderate activity reported in the aqueous extract of M. zapota (LD(50) = 28.35 mg/mL; LD(90) = 89.19 mg/mL) and nil activity were observed in AgNO(3) solution at 3 h exposure time at 10 mg/mL. Dimethyl 2, 2-dichlorovinyl phosphate (DDVP) was used as a positive control and showed the LD(50) value of 3.38 mL/L. These results suggest that the synthesized Ag NPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the adult of M. domestica. This method is considered as a new approach to control sanitary pest. Therefore, this study provides first report on the feeding deterrent activity of synthesized Ag NPs against housefly. PMID:22033735

  15. Toxicity of seaweed-synthesized silver nanoparticles against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and its impact on predation efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Benelli, Giovanni; Ayyappan, Suganya; Dinesh, Devakumar; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Suresh, Udaiyan

    2015-06-01

    Nearly 1.4 billion people in 73 countries worldwide are threatened by lymphatic filariasis, a parasitic infection that leads to a disease commonly known as elephantiasis. Filariasis is vectored by mosquitoes, with special reference to the genus Culex. The main control tool against mosquito larvae is represented by treatments with organophosphates and insect growth regulators, with negative effects on human health and the environment. Recently, green-synthesized nanoparticles have been proposed as highly effective larvicidals against mosquito vectors. In this research, we attempted a reply to the following question: do green-synthesized nanoparticles affect predation rates of copepods against mosquito larvae? We proposed a novel method of seaweed-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the frond extract of Caulerpa scalpelliformis. The toxicity of the seaweed extract and silver nanoparticles was assessed against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Then, we evaluated the predatory efficiency of the cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus against larval instars of C. quinquefasciatus in a nanoparticle-contaminated water environment. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In mosquitocidal assays, the LC₅₀ values of the C. scalpelliformis extract against C. quinquefasciatus were 31.38 ppm (I), 46.49 ppm (II), 75.79 ppm (III), 102.26 ppm (IV), and 138.89 ppm (pupa), while LC₅₀ of silver nanoparticles were 3.08 ppm, (I), 3.49 ppm (II), 4.64 ppm (III), 5.86 ppm (IV), and 7.33 ppm (pupa). The predatory efficiency of the copepod M. longisetus in the control treatment was 78 and 59% against I and II instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. In a nanoparticle-contaminated environment, predation efficiency was 84 and 63%, respectively. Predation was higher against first instar larvae over other instars. Overall, our study showed that seaweed-synthesized silver nanoparticles can be proposed in synergy with biological control agents against Culex larvae, since their use leads to little detrimental effects against aquatic predators, such as copepods. PMID:25782680

  16. Effects of green-synthesized silver nanoparticles on lung cancer cells in vitro and grown as xenograft tumors in vivo

    PubMed Central

    He, Yan; Du, Zhiyun; Ma, Shijing; Liu, Yue; Li, Dongli; Huang, Huarong; Jiang, Sen; Cheng, Shupeng; Wu, Wenjing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have now been recognized as promising therapeutic molecules and are extending their use in cancer diagnosis and therapy. This study demonstrates for the first time the antitumor activity of green-synthesized AgNPs against lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Cytotoxicity effect was explored on human lung cancer H1299 cells in vitro by MTT and trypan blue assays. Apoptosis was measured by morphological assessment, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcriptional activity was determined by a luciferase reporter gene assay. The expressions of phosphorylated stat3, bcl-2, survivin, and caspase-3 were examined by Western blot analysis. AgNPs showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity and stimulation of apoptosis in H1299 cells. The effects on H1299 cells correlated well with the inhibition of NF-κB activity, a decrease in bcl-2, and an increase in caspase-3 and survivin expression. AgNPs significantly suppressed the H1299 tumor growth in a xenograft severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse model. The results demonstrate the anticancer activities of AgNPs, suggesting that they may act as potential beneficial molecules in lung cancer chemoprevention and chemotherapy, especially for early-stage intervention. PMID:27217750

  17. Aristolochia indica green-synthesized silver nanoparticles: A sustainable control tool against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Labeeba, Mohammed Aamina; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wang, Lan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease caused by parasites transmitted to people and animals through the bites of infected mosquitoes. We biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using Aristolochia indica extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. In laboratory, LC50 of A. indica extract against Anopheles stephensi ranged from 262.66 (larvae I) to 565.02 ppm (pupae). LC50 of AgNP against A. stephensi ranged from 3.94 (larvae I) to 15.65 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of A. indica extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) leads to 100% larval reduction after 72 h. In laboratory, 24-h predation efficiency of Diplonychus indicus against A. stephensi larvae was 33% (larvae II) and 57% (larvae III). In AgNP-contaminated environment (1 ppm), it was 45.5% (larvae II) and 71.75% (larvae III). Overall, A. indica-synthesized AgNP may be considered as newer and safer control tools against Anopheles vectors. PMID:26412532

  18. Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Caesalpinia sappan Extract as Potential Novel Nanoantibiotics Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Jun, Sang Hui; Cha, Song-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Yoon, Minho; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2015-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been shown to be effective antibacterial agents against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this study, AgNPs were synthesized using Caesalpinia sappan extract as a reducing agent to convert Ag+ to AgNPs. Seven stabilizers (surfactants and polymers) were added during the reduction step to increase the colloidal stability and to enhance the antibacterial activity of the AgNPs. Spherical and amorphous particles were primarily observed, with estimated diameters ranging from 30.2 to 47.5 nm. X-ray diffraction confirmed the face centered cubic structures of the AgNPs. Among the employed stabilizers, the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against 19 strains of MRSA, followed by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, average molecular weight of 10,000). In contrast, the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (NaDDBS) did not exhibit any significant antibacterial activity, suggesting that the cationic surfactant head group contributed to the higher antibacterial activity of the AgNPs against MRSA. PMID:26369115

  19. Adulticidal properties of synthesized silver nanoparticles using leaf extracts of Feronia elephantum (Rutaceae) against filariasis, malaria, and dengue vector mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2014-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases with an economic impact create loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. Mosquito control is facing a threat because of the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Extracts from plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents because they constitute a rich source of bioactive compounds that are biodegradable into nontoxic products and potentially suitable for use to control mosquitoes. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In view of the recently increased interest in developing plant origin insecticides as an alternative to chemical insecticide, in the present study, the adulticidal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Feronia elephantum plant leaf extract against adults of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus was determined. The range of concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg mL(-1)) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg mL(-1)) were tested against the adults of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. Adults were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous crude extract and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of F. elephantum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The synthesized AgNPs from F. elephantum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract to three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following lethal dose (LD)₅₀ and LD₉₀ values: A. stephensi had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 18.041 and 32.575 μg mL(-1); A. aegypti had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 20.399 and 37.534 μg mL(-1); and C. quinquefasciatus had LD₅₀ and LD₉₀ values of 21.798 and 39.596 μg mL(-1). No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of F. elephantum and green synthesis of AgNPs have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the adulticidal activity of the plant extracts and AgNPs. PMID:25146645

  20. Silver nanoparticle synthesis in polymer matrices of various internal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsevol, Nataliya; Konko, Iuliia; Rawiso, Michel; Bezugla, Tetiana

    2012-07-01

    The Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in water-soluble polymer matrices Dextran, linear Polyacrylamide, branched copolymers Dextran-graft-Polyacrylamide and DNA. The silver nanoparticles size depends on the matrix nature and internal structure of macromolecules in solution.

  1. S argassum muticum-synthesized silver nanoparticles: an effective control tool against mosquito vectors and bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Kumar, Arjunan Naresh; Nataraj, Thiyagarajan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Higuchi, Akon; Munusamy, Murugan A; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this research, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesized using the aqueous extract of the seaweed Sargassum muticum. The production of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometry. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and mean size was 43-79 nm. Toxicity of AgNP was assessed against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. In laboratory, AgNP were highly toxic against larvae and pupae of the three mosquito species. Maximum efficacy was observed against A. stephensi larvae, with LC50 ranging from 16.156 ppm (larva I) to 28.881 ppm (pupa). In the field, a single treatment with AgNP (10 × LC50) in water storage reservoirs was effective against the three mosquito vectors, allowing complete elimination of larval populations after 72 h. In ovicidal experiments, egg hatchability was reduced by 100% after treatment with 30 ppm of AgNP. Ovideterrence assays highlighted that 10 ppm of AgNP reduced oviposition rates of more than 70% in A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus (OAI = -0.61, -0.63, and -0.58, respectively). Antibacterial properties of AgNP were evaluated against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. AgNP tested at 50 ppm evoked growth inhibition zones larger than 5 mm in all tested bacteria. Overall, the chance to use S. muticum-synthesized AgNP for control of mosquito vectors seems promising since they are effective at low doses and may constitute an advantageous alternative to build newer and safer mosquito control tools. This is the first report about ovicidal activity of metal nanoparticles against mosquito vectors. PMID:26281786

  2. Impact of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles on the growth and physiological responses in Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis.

    PubMed

    Baskar, Venkidasamy; Venkatesh, Jelli; Park, Se Won

    2015-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were extensively used in various fields, particularly in medicine as an antimicrobial agent. The unavoidable and extensive usage of AgNPs in turn accumulates in the environment. Plants are the essential base of ecosystem and are ready to disturb by environmental pollutants. Therefore, in the present study, we have planned to evaluate the impact of biologically synthesized AgNPs on the essential food crop Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis). The effects of AgNP-induced plant morphological and physiological changes were investigated in different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 mg/L). The results of morphological features showed that AgNPs at lower concentrations (100 mg/L) exhibit growth-stimulating activity, whereas at higher concentrations (250 and 500 mg/L), particularly, 500 mg/L exhibited growth-suppressing activities which are in terms of reduced root, shoot growth, and fresh biomass. The increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde production, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and decreased chlorophyll content were also more obviously present at higher concentrations of AgNPs. The concentration-dependent DNA damage was observed in the AgNP-treated plants. The molecular responses of AgNPs indicate that most of the genes related to secondary metabolism (glucosinolates, anthocyanin) and antioxidant activities were induced at higher concentrations of AgNP treatment. The dose-dependent phytotoxicity effects of AgNPs were also observed. Taken together, the highest concentration of AgNPs (500 mg/L) could induce growth-suppressing activities via the induction of ROS generation and other molecular changes in B. rapa seedlings. PMID:26154034

  3. Polysaccharide-based silver nanoparticles synthesized by Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 cause DNA fragmentation in E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Franco; Daniele, Salvatore; Gallo, Michele; Paganelli, Stefano; Battistel, Dario; Piccolo, Oreste; Faleri, Claudia; Puglia, Anna Maria; Gallo, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), embedded into a specific exopolysaccharide (EPS), were produced by Klebsiella oxytoca DSM 29614 by adding AgNO3 to the cultures during exponential growth phase. In particular, under aerobic or anaerobic conditions, two types of silver nanoparticles, named AgNPs-EPS(aer) and the AgNPs-EPS(anaer), were produced respectively. The effects on bacterial cells was demonstrated by using Escherichia coli K12 and Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341 (ex Micrococcus luteus) as Gram-negative and Gram-positive tester strains, respectively. The best antimicrobial activity was observed for AgNPs-EPS(aer), in terms of minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Observations by transmission electron microscopy showed that the cell morphology of both tester strains changed during the exposition to AgNPs-EPS(aer). In particular, an electron-dense wrapped filament was observed in E. coli cytoplasm after 3 h of AgNPs-EPS(aer) exposition, apparently due to silver accumulation in DNA, and both E. coli and K. rhizophila cells were lysed after 18 h of exposure to AgNPs-EPS(aer). The DNA breakage in E. coli cells was confirmed by the comparison of 3-D fluorescence spectra fingerprints of DNA. Finally the accumulation of silver on DNA of E. coli was confirmed directly by a significant Ag(+) release from DNA, using the scanning electrochemical microscopy and the voltammetric determinations. PMID:26886276

  4. The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumara Swamy, M.; Sudipta, K. M.; Jayanta, K.; Balasubramanya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag Nps) was carried out using methanol leaves extract of L. reticulata. Ag Nps were characterized based on the observations of UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These Ag Nps were tested for antimicrobial activity by agar well diffusion method against different pathogenic microorganisms and antioxidant activity was performed using DPPH assay. Further, the in vitro cytotoxic effects of Ag Nps were screened against HCT15 cancer cell line and viability of tumor cells was confirmed using MTT ((3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, a yellow tetrazole)) assay. The nuclear condensation was studied using the propidium iodide-staining method. The color change from green to dark brown and the absorbance peak at about 420 nm indicated the formation of nanoparticles. XRD pattern showed characteristic peaks indexed to the crystalline planes (111), (200) and (220) of face-centered cubic silver. The nanoparticles were of spherical shape with varying sizes ranging from 50 to 70 nm. Biosynthesized Ag Nps showed potent antibacterial activity and effective radical scavenging activity. MTT assay revealed a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability. Microscopic observations showed distinct cellular morphological changes indicating unhealthy cells, whereas the control appeared normal. Increase in the number of propidium iodide positive cells were observed in maximum concentration. Methanolic leaf extract of L. reticulata acts as an excellent capping agent for the formation of silver nanoparticles and demonstrates immense biological activities. Hence, these Ag NPs can be used as antibacterial, antioxidant as well as cytotoxic agent in treating many medical complications.

  5. Green in-situ synthesized silver nanoparticles embedded in bacterial cellulose nanopaper as a bionanocomposite plasmonic sensor.

    PubMed

    Pourreza, Nahid; Golmohammadi, Hamed; Naghdi, Tina; Yousefi, Hossein

    2015-12-15

    Herein, we introduce a new strategy for green, in-situ generation of silver nanoparticles using flexible and transparent bacterial cellulose nanopapers. In this method, adsorbed silver ions on bacterial cellulose nanopaper are reduced by the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanofibers, acting as the reducing agent producing a bionanocomposite "embedded silver nanoparticles in transparent nanopaper" (ESNPs). The fabricated ESNPs were investigated and characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The important parameters affecting the ESNPs were optimized during the fabrication of specimens. The resulting ESNPs were used as a novel and sensitive probe for the optical sensing of cyanide ion (CN(-)) and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) in water samples with satisfactory results. The change in surface plasmon resonance absorption intensity of ESNPs was linearly proportional to the concentration in the range of 0.2-2.5 µg mL(-1) and 2-110 µg mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.012 µg mL(-1) and 1.37 µg mL(-1) for CN(-) and MBT, respectively. PMID:26159156

  6. Preparation of silver nanoparticles at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Mini; Chauhan, Pratima

    2016-04-01

    Silver from ancient time is used as antimicrobial agent in the bulk form but now with the advancement in nanotechnology silver in the form of nanoparticles shown potential effect against microbes which make us easy to fight with many diseases plants and animals. In this work silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical routes using sodium borohydride as reducing agent at low temperature. The particles were characterized through UV-Visible spectroscopy as well as X-Ray Diffraction. The UV-visible spectra of silver nanoparticles exhibited absorption at 425 cm; the crystallite size of the particles is between 19nm to 39nm. EDAX graph shows two peaks of silver and oxygen. Water absorbed by silver nanoparticles was removed by the calcinations.

  7. Influence of catalytic gold and silver metal nanoparticles on structural, optical, and vibrational properties of silicon nanowires synthesized by metal-assisted chemical etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawood, M. K.; Tripathy, S.; Dolmanan, S. B.; Ng, T. H.; Tan, H.; Lam, J.

    2012-10-01

    We report on the structural and vibrational characterization of silicon (Si) nanowire arrays synthesized by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) of Si deposited with metal nanoparticles. Gold (Au) and silver (Ag) metal nanoparticles were synthesized by glancing angle deposition, and MACE was performed in a mixture of H2O2 and HF solution. We studied the structural differences between Au and Ag-etched Si nanowires. The morphology of the synthesized nanowires was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The optical and vibrational properties of the Si nanostructures were studied by photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy using three different excitation sources (UV, visible, and near-infrared) and are correlated to their microstructures. The structural differences between Au-etched and Ag-etched nanowires are due to the higher degree of hole injection by the Au nanoparticle and diffusion into the Si nanowires, causing enhanced Si etching by HF on the nanowire surface. Au-etched nanowires were observed to be mesoporous throughout the nanowire while Ag-etched nanowires consisted of a thin porous layer around the crystalline core. In addition, the surface-enhanced resonant Raman scattering observed is attributed to the presence of the sunken metal nanoparticles. Such Si nanostructures may be useful for a wide range of applications such as photovoltaic and biological and chemical sensing.

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle and its application.

    PubMed

    Pandian, A Muthu Kumara; Karthikeyan, C; Rajasimman, M; Dinesh, M G

    2015-11-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by wet chemical technique, green synthesis and microbial methods. Silver nitrate (10(-3)M) was used with aqueous extract to produce silver nanoparticles. From the results it was observed that the yield of nanoparticles was high in green synthesis. The size of the silver nanoparticles was determined from Scanning Electron Microscope analysis (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to determine the presence of biomolecules in them. Its cytotoxic effect was studied in cancerous cell line and normal cell line. MTT assay was done to test its optimal concentration and efficacy which gives valuable information for the use of silver nanoparticles for future cancer therapy. PMID:25866204

  9. Mosquito larvicidal properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae) against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Veerakumar, Kaliyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Muthukumaran, Udaiyan

    2014-06-01

    Mosquitoes transmit dreadful diseases to human beings wherein biological control of these vectors using plant-derived molecules would be an alternative to reduce mosquito population. In the present study activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using Helitropium indicum plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from H. indicum were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and histogram. The synthesized AgNPs showed larvicidal effects after 24 h of exposure. Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of H. indicum for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of H. indicum aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against A. stephensi (LC50, 68.73 μg/mL; LC90, 121.07 μg/mL) followed by A. aegypti (LC50, 72.72 μg/mL; LC90, 126.86 μg/mL) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 78.74 μg/mL; LC90, 134.39 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: A. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 18.40 and 32.45 μg/mL, A. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.10 and 35.97 μg/mL, and C. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 21.84 and 38.10 μg/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of H. indicum and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles. PMID:24770671

  10. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles bearing antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Azmath, Pasha; Baker, Syed; Rakshith, Devaraju; Satish, Sreedharamurthy

    2015-01-01

    Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles was achieved by endophytic Colletotrichum sp. ALF2-6 inhabiting Andrographis paniculata. Well dispersed nanoparticles were characterized using UV–Visible spectrometry with maximum absorption conferring at 420 nm. FTIR analysis revealed possible biomolecules reducing the metal salt and stabilization of nanoparticles. XRD analysis depicted the diffraction intensities exhibiting between 20 and 80 °C at 2theta angle thus conferring the crystalline nature of nanoparticles. Morphological characteristic using TEM revealed the polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 20 to 50 nm. Synthesized nanoparticles exhibited bactericidal activity against selected human pathogens. Nanoparticles mode of action was carried out to reveal DNA damage activity. Thus the present investigation reports facile fabrication of silver nanoparticles from endophytic fungi. PMID:27013906

  11. Toward revealing the controversy of bacterial biosynthesis versus bactericidal properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs): bacteria and other microorganisms do not per se viably synthesize AgNPs.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Fatthy Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    In the last two decades, a large number of literature had focused on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver ions by bacteria and other microorganisms. This study infers that bacteria and other microorganisms do not per se synthesize AgNPs. All tested auto- and heterotrophic microorganisms in this study were killed by silver ions and could not as viable cells produce AgNPs. Microbial cell viability represented in colony-forming units and metabolic viability represented in aerobic respiration in all investigated microorganisms as well as photosynthesis in photoautotrophic microorganisms ceased by silver ions too early before AgNPs formation. The time required for AgNPs synthesis inversely related to the incubation temperature of the investigated microorganisms with silver ions where it requires only few minutes for nanoparticles formation at high temperature or autoclaving. The minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentrations of silver ions were significantly lower than AgNPs, indicating that silver ions are more efficient antimicrobial. The results presented in this study indicate that formation of AgNPs by eubacteria, cyanobacteria and fungi is not a vitally regulated cellular metabolic process and the mechanism occurs via bioreduction of silver ions to nanoparticles by organics released from the dead cells. PMID:25724923

  12. Biosynthesis, mosquitocidal and antibacterial properties of Toddalia asiatica-synthesized silver nanoparticles: do they impact predation of guppy Poecilia reticulata against the filariasis mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Venus, Joseph Selvaraj Eugine; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Bedini, Stefano; Conti, Barbara; Nicoletti, Marcello; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. Furthermore, pathogens and parasites polluting water also constitute a severe plague for populations of developing countries. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgN) were biosynthesized a cheap aqueous extract of T. asiatica leaves as reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by surface Plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgN were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. AgN were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 25-30 nm. T. asiatica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgN showed excellent larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the filariasis vector Culex quinqufasciatus, both in laboratory and field experiments. AgN LC50 ranged from 16.48 (I instar larvae) to 31.83 ppm (pupae). T. asiatica-synthesized were also highly effective in inhibiting growth of Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Salmonella typhi using the agar disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration protocol. Lastly, we evaluated if sublethal doses of nanoparticles affect predation rates of fishes, Poecilia reticulata, against C. quinquefasciatus. In AgN-contaminated environment, predation of guppies against mosquito larvae was slightly higher over normal laboratory conditions. Overall, this study highlighted that T. asiatica-synthesized AgN are easy to produce, stable over time, and may be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of filariasis vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies. PMID:26122577

  13. Biogenic synthesized nanoparticles and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Abhijeet; Sharma, Madan Mohan

    2016-05-01

    In the present scenario, there are growing concerns over the potential impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles in the health sector. However, our understanding of how bioengineered nanoparticles may affect organisms within natural ecosystems, lags far behind our rapidly increasing ability to engineer novel nanoparticles. To date, research on the biological impacts of bioengineered nanoparticles has primarily consisted of controlled lab studies of model organisms with single species in culture media. Here, we described a cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from 1 mM AgNO3 via a green synthesis process using leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. Nanoparticles were characterized with the help of UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and TEM analysis which revealed the size of nanoparticles of 30-40 nm size. Further the nanoparticles synthesized by green route are found highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria and plant pathogenic fungi viz. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas syringae and Sclerotiniasclerotiorum. The most important outcome of this work will be the development of value-added products and protection of human health from pathogens viz., bacteria, virus, fungi etc.

  14. An Evidence-Based Environmental Perspective Of Manufactured Silver Nanoparticle In Syntheses And Applications: A Systematic Review And Critical Appraisal Of Peer-Reviewed Scientific Papers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most recently, renewed interest has arisen in manufactured silver nanoparticles because of their unusually enhanced physiochemical properties and biological activities compared to the bulk parent materials. A wide range of applications has emerged in consumer products ranging fr...

  15. High-value utilization of egg shell to synthesize Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles and their application for the degradation of hazardous dyes from aqueous phase-A green approach.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Tanur; Ahmaruzzaman, M

    2015-09-01

    The common household material, egg shell of Anas platyrhynchos is utilized for the synthesis of Silver and Gold-Silver core shell nanoparticles using greener, environment friendly and economic way. The egg shell extracts were acting as a stabilizing and reducing agents. This method avoids the use of external reducing and stabilizing agents, templates and solvents. The effects of various reaction parameters, such as reaction temperature, concentration in the formation of nanoparticles have also been investigated. The compositional abundance of gelatin may be envisaged for the effective reductive as well as stabilizing potency. The mechanisms for the formation of NPs have also been presented. The synthesized Ag NPs formed were predominantly spherical in nature with an average size of particles in the range of 6-26 nm. While, Au-Ag core shell nanoparticles formed were spherical and oval shaped, within a narrow size spectrum of 9-18 nm. Both the Ag NPs Au-and Ag core shell nanoparticles showed characteristic Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure and surface plasmon resonance at 430 nm and 365 nm, respectively. The NPs were utilized for the removal of toxic and hazardous dyes, such as Rose Bengal, Methyl Violet 6 B and Methylene Blue from aqueous phase. Approximately 98.2%, 98.4% and 97% degradations of Rose Bengal, Methyl Violet 6 B, and Methylene Blue were observed with Ag NPs, while the percentage degradation of these dyes was 97.3%, 97.6% and 96% with Au-Ag NPs, respectively. Therefore, the present study has opened up an innovative way for synthesizing Ag NPs and Au-Ag bimetallic nanostructures of different morphologies and sizes involving the utilization of egg shell extract. The high efficiency of the NPs as photocatalysts has opened a promising application for the removal of hazardous dyes from the industrial effluents. PMID:25978558

  16. Step-reduced synthesis of starch-silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Gownolla Malegowd; Jung, Jeyoung; Kim, Dowan; Seo, Jongchul

    2016-05-01

    In the present process, silver nanoparticles were directly synthesized in a single step by microwave irradiation of a mixture of starch, silver nitrate, and deionized water. This is different from the commonly adopted procedure for starch-silver nanoparticle synthesis in which silver nanoparticles are synthesized by preparing a starch solution as a reaction medium first. Thus, the additional step associated with the preparation of the starch solution was eliminated. In addition, no additional reducing agent was utilized. The adopted method was facile and straight forward, affording spherical silver nanoparticles with diameter below 10nm that exhibited good antibacterial activity. Further, influence of starch on the size of the silver nanoparticles was noticed. PMID:26802247

  17. Silver nanoparticles synthesized from Adenium obesum leaf extract induced DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy via generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Farah, Mohammad Abul; Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Chen, Shen-Ming; Li, Ying; Al-Hemaid, Fahad Mohammad; Abou-Tarboush, Faisal Mohammad; Al-Anazi, Khalid Mashay; Lee, Joongku

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial used for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. Adenium obesum is a plant of the family Apocynaceae that is rich in toxic cardiac glycosides; however, there is scarce information on the anticancer potential of its AgNPs. We herein report the novel biosynthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of A. obesum (AOAgNPs). The synthesis of AOAgNPs was monitored by color change and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (425nm). It was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR spectra for the AOAgNPs indicated the presence of terpenoids, long chain fatty acids, secondary amide derivatives and proteins that could be responsible for the reduction and capping of the formed AOAgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The TEM images revealed mostly spherical particles in the size range of 10-30nm. The biological properties of novel AOAgNPs were investigated on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, induction of apoptosis and autophagy were assessed. A dose-dependent decrease in the cell viability was observed. The IC50 value was calculated as 217μg/ml. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation confirmed about a 2.5 fold increase in the generation of ROS at the highest concentration of 150μg/ml. A significant (p<0.05) increase in the DNA damage evaluated by comet assay was evident. Flow cytometry revealed an increase in the apoptotic cells (24%) in the AOAgNPs treated group compared to the control. Acridine orange staining of acidic vesicles in exposed cells confirmed the induction of autophagy. These findings suggest that AOAgNPs increased the level of ROS resulting in heightened the DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy in MCF-7 cells. PMID:26852099

  18. An investigation on the cytotoxicity and caspase-mediated apoptotic effect of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles using Podophyllum hexandrum on human cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jeyaraj, Murugaraj; Rajesh, Manoharan; Arun, Renganathan; MubarakAli, Davoodbasha; Sathishkumar, Gnanasekar; Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Dev, Gnanajothi Kapil; Manickavasagam, Markandan; Premkumar, Kumpati; Thajuddin, Nooruddin; Ganapathi, Andy

    2013-02-01

    Now-a-days synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through biological entity is quite interesting to employ AgNPs for various biomedical applications in general and treatment of cancer in particular. This paper presents the green synthesis of AgNPs using leaf extract of Podophyllum hexandrum Royle and optimized with various parameters such as pH, temperature, reaction time, volume of extract and metal ion concentration for synthesis of AgNPs. TEM, XRD and FTIR were adopted for characterization. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be spherical shaped with average size of 14 nm. Effects of AgNPs were analyzed against human cervical carcinoma cells by MTT Assay, quantification of ROS, RT-PCR and western blotting techniques. The overall result indicates that AgNPs can selectively inhibit the cellular mechanism of HeLa by DNA damage and caspase mediated cell death. This biological procedure for synthesis of AgNPs and selective inhibition of cancerous cells gives an alternative avenue to treat human cancer effectively. PMID:23117153

  19. Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles impregnated wound dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinde, V. V.; Jadhav, P. R.; Patil, P. S.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by simple wet chemical reduction method. The silver nitrate was reduced by Sodium borohydride used as reducing agent and Poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as stabilizing agent. The formation of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by UV-visible spectroscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Absorption spectrum consist two plasmon peaks at 410 and 668 nm revels the formation of anisotropic nanoparticles confirmed by TEM. The formation of silver nanoparticles was also evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS) study. DLS showed polydisperse silver nanoparticles with hydrodynamic size 32 nm. Protecting mechanism of PVP was manifested by FT-Raman study. Silver nanoparticles were impregnated into wound dressing by sonochemical method. The Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods were used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The antimicrobial activity of the samples has been tested against gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Characterization and biotoxicity of Hypnea musciformis-synthesized silver nanoparticles as potential eco-friendly control tool against Aedes aegypti and Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Roni, Mathath; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Nicoletti, Marcello; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Khater, Hanem F; Wei, Hui; Canale, Angelo; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Higuchi, Akon; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Two of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century comprise food production and disease control. Eco-friendly control tools against mosquito vectors and agricultural pests are urgently needed. Insecticidal products of marine origin have a huge potential to control these pests. In this research, we reported a single-step method to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of the seaweed Hypnea musciformis, a cheap, nontoxic and eco-friendly material, that worked as reducing and stabilizing agent during the biosynthesis. The formation of AgNP was confirmed by surface plasmon resonance band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. AgNP were characterized by FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD analyses. AgNP were mostly spherical in shape, crystalline in nature, with face-centered cubic geometry, and their mean size was 40-65nm. Low doses of H. musciformis aqueous extract and seaweed-synthesized AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the cabbage pest Plutella xylostella. The LC50 value of AgNP ranged from 18.14 to 38.23ppm for 1st instar larvae (L1) and pupae of A. aegypti, and from 24.5 to 38.23ppm for L1 and pupae of P. xylostella. Both H. musciformis extract and AgNP strongly reduced longevity and fecundity of A. aegypti and P. xylostella adults. This study adds knowledge on the toxicity of seaweed borne insecticides and green-synthesized AgNP against arthropods of medical and agricultural importance, allowing us to propose the tested products as effective candidates to develop newer and cheap pest control tools. PMID:26184431

  1. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future.

  2. Multidimensional effects of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Jeong, Jae-Kyo; Han, Jae Woong; Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are prominent group of nanomaterials and are recognized for their diverse applications in various health sectors. This study aimed to synthesize the AgNPs using the leaf extract of Artemisia princeps as a bio-reductant. Furthermore, we evaluated the multidimensional effect of the biologically synthesized AgNPs in Helicobacter pylori, Helicobacter felis, and human lung (L132) and lung carcinoma (A549) cells. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) indicated that the AgNPs are specifically indexed to a crystal structure. The results from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicate that biomolecules are involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) studies showed the average size distribution of the particle between 10 and 40 nm, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) confirmed that the AgNPs were significantly well separated and spherical with an average size of 20 nm. AgNPs caused dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and biofilm formation and increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA fragmentation in H. pylori and H. felis. Furthermore, AgNPs induced mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in A549 cells; conversely, AgNPs had no significant effects on L132 cells. The results from this study suggest that AgNPs could cause cell-specific apoptosis in mammalian cells. Our findings demonstrate that this environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of AgNPs and that the prepared AgNPs have multidimensional effects such as anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm activity against H. pylori and H. felis and also cytotoxic effects against human cancer cells. This report describes comprehensively the effects of AgNPs on bacteria and mammalian cells. We believe that biologically synthesized AgNPs will open a new avenue towards various biotechnological and biomedical applications in the near future. PMID:25852332

  3. Silver nanoparticles incorporated onto ordered mesoporous silica from Tollen's reagent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zienkiewicz-Strzałka, M.; Pasieczna-Patkowska, S.; Kozak, M.; Pikus, S.

    2013-02-01

    Noble metal nanostructures supported on mesoporous silica are bridge between traditional silica adsorbents and modern catalysts. In this work the Ag/SBA-15 mesoporous materials were synthesized and characterized. Various forms of nanosilver supported on ordered mesoporous template have been successfully obtained via proposed procedures. In all synthesized materials, Tollen's reagent (diammine silver complex [Ag(NH3)2]+) was used as a silver source. Silver nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of ammoniacal silver complex by formaldehyde in the solution of stabilizer. After reduction, Ag nanoparticles could be deposited on SBA-15, or added during traditional synthesis of SBA-15 giving silver or silver chloride nanoparticles in the combination with porous silica. Silver nanostructures as nanoparticles or nanowires were also embedded onto the SBA-15 by incipient wetness impregnation of silver ions. Absorbed silver ions were next reduced under hydrogen at high temperature. There are many advantages of utilized ammoniacal silver complex as a silver source. Proposed method is capable to synthesis of various metal nanostructures with controlled composition and morphology. The silver ammonia complex is composed of two ions surrounding and protecting the central silver ion, so it is possible to obtain very small nanoparticles using simple approach without any functionalization of external and internal surface of SBA-15. This approach allows obtaining greatly small silver nanoparticles on SBA-15 (4 nm) or nanowires depending on the metal loading amount. Moreover, the colloidal silver solution prepared from Tollen's reagent, in the presence of triblock copolymer, remains stable for a long time. Reduction of Tollen's reagent to silver colloidal solution seems to be efficient, fast and interesting approach for the preparation of supported silver nanostructures Obtained samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms and photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS).

  4. Mosquito larvicidal potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Chomelia asiatica (Rubiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Muthukumaran, Udaiyan; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-03-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Mosquito control is to enhance the health and quality of life of county residents and visitors through the reduction of mosquito populations. Mosquito control is a serious concern in developing countries like India due to the lack of general awareness, development of resistance, and socioeconomic reasons. Today, nanotechnology is a promising research domain which has a wide ranging application in vector control programs. These are nontoxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable, and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In the present study, larvicidal activity of aqueous leaf extract and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using C. asiatica plant leaves against late third instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The range of varying concentrations of synthesized AgNPs (8, 16, 24, 32, and 40 μg/mL) and aqueous leaf extract (40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 μg/mL) were tested against the larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The synthesized AgNPs from C. asiatica were highly toxic than crude leaf aqueous extract in three important vector mosquito species. The results were recorded from UV-Vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis (EDX). Considerable mortality was evident after the treatment of C. asiatica for all three important vector mosquitoes. The LC50 and LC90 values of C. asiatica aqueous leaf extract appeared to be effective against An. stephensi (LC50, 90.17 μg/mL; LC90, 165.18 μg/mL) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50, 96.59 μg/mL; LC90, 173.83 μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50, 103.08 μg/mL; LC90, 183.16 μg/mL). Synthesized AgNPs against the vector mosquitoes of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus had the following LC50 and LC90 values: An. stephensi had LC50 and LC90 values of 17.95 and 33.03 μg/mL; Ae. aegypti had LC50 and LC90 values of 19.32 and 34.87 μg/mL; and Cx. quinquefasciatus had LC50 and LC90 values of 20.92 and 37.41 μg/mL. No mortality was observed in the control. These results suggest that the leaf aqueous extracts of C. asiatica and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and Cx. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized AgNPs. PMID:25544703

  5. Sonochemical Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Starch: A Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Smita, Kumari; Cumbal, Luis; Debut, Alexis; Pathak, Ravinandan Nath

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach was applied to synthesize silver nanoparticles using starch under sonication. Colloidal silver nanoparticles solution exhibited an increase of absorption from 420 to 440 nm with increase starch quantity. Transmission electron microscopy followed by selected area electron diffraction pattern analysis indicated the formation of spherical, polydispersed, amorphous, silver nanoparticles of diameter ranging from 23 to 97 nm with mean particle size of 45.6 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) confirmed partial crystalline and amorphous nature of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized in this manner can be used for synthesis of 2-aryl substituted benzimidazoles which have numerous biomedical applications. The optimized reaction conditions include 10 ml of 1 mM AgNO3, 25 mg starch, 11 pH range, and sonication for 20 min at room temperature. PMID:24587771

  6. Acaricidal efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum against Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and Hyalomma marginatum isaaci (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

    2012-09-01

    The use of acaricides had limited efficacy in reducing tick infestations and is often accompanied by serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide resistant ticks, contamination of environment, and milk and meat products with drug residues. The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) utilizing aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum canum Sims (Labiatae) against the larvae of Hyalomma anatolicum (a.) anatolicum Koch, 1844 and Hyalomma marginatum (m.) isaaci Sharif, 1928 (Acari: Ixodidae). The synthesized AgNPs results were recorded from UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The production of the AgNPs synthesized from the leaf extract of O. canum was evaluated through UV-visible spectrophotometer in a range of wavelength from 300 to 600 nm. This revealed a peak at 426 nm in leaf extracts of O. canum, indicating the production of AgNPs. The XRD spectrum compared with the standard confirmed spectrum of silver particles formed in the present experiments were in the form of nanocrystals, as evidenced by the peaks at 2θ values of 27.71°, 32.16°, 38.08°, 46.15°, 54.70° and 57.35°. The FTIR spectra of AgNPs exhibited prominent peaks at 818, 1,045, 1,381 and 1,616 in the region 500-3,000 cm(-1). The peaks correspond to the presence of a C-H vibration of the aromatic ring, stretch vibration of C-O, carbonyl groups and flavanones. SEM analyses of the synthesized AgNPs were clearly distinguishable, which measured 25-110 nm in size. It is clear that the rod and cylindrical structures have an average size of 95 nm. The EDX spectra showed the purity of the material and the complete chemical composition of the synthesized AgNPs. Parasite larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of O. canum and synthesized AgNPs for 24 h. The acaricidal activities of aqueous crude leaf extracts of O. canum against the larvae of H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci have LC(50) and LC(90) values of 15.31 and 13.85 mg/L, and 62.41 and 48.86 mg/L, respectively. The efficacies of 1 mM AgNO(3) solution against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci were LC(50) = 12.25 and 12.17 mg/L, LC(90) = 49.17 and 46.52 mg/L, respectively, and the maximum efficacy was observed in the synthesized AgNPs against H. a. anatolicum and H. m. isaaci with LC(50) and LC(90) values of 0.78 and 1.00 mg/L, and 1.51 and 1.68 mg/L, respectively. This method is considered as an innovative alternative approach to control parasites. PMID:21789583

  7. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antibacterial property of silk fabrics treated by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangyu; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xiaoliang; Chen, Yuyue

    2014-01-01

    A silver nanoparticle solution was prepared in one step by mixing AgNO3 and a multi-amino compound (RSD-NH2) solution under ambient condition. RSD-NH2 was in-house synthesized by methacrylate and polyethylene polyamine in methanol, which has abundant amino and imino groups. However, the characterization of silver nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate in solution. Therefore, an in situ synthesis method of silver nanoparticles on the silk fabrics was developed. The examined results confirmed that the in situ synthesized silver nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of fibers. The inhibition zone test and the antibacterial rate demonstrated that the finished fabrics have an excellent antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Moreover, the nanosilver-treated silk fabrics were laundered 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 times and still retained the exceptional antibacterial property. When the treated fabrics were washed 50 times, the antibacterial rate is more than 97.43% for S. aureus and 99.86% for E. coli. The excellent laundering durability may be attributed to the tight binding between silver nanoparticles and silk fibers through the in situ synthesis. This method provides an economic method to enhance the antibacterial capability of silk fabrics with good resistance to washings. PMID:24872803

  8. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antibacterial property of silk fabrics treated by silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangyu; Liu, Yan; Gao, Xiaoliang; Chen, Yuyue

    2014-05-01

    A silver nanoparticle solution was prepared in one step by mixing AgNO3 and a multi-amino compound (RSD-NH2) solution under ambient condition. RSD-NH2 was in-house synthesized by methacrylate and polyethylene polyamine in methanol, which has abundant amino and imino groups. However, the characterization of silver nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate in solution. Therefore, an in situ synthesis method of silver nanoparticles on the silk fabrics was developed. The examined results confirmed that the in situ synthesized silver nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of fibers. The inhibition zone test and the antibacterial rate demonstrated that the finished fabrics have an excellent antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Moreover, the nanosilver-treated silk fabrics were laundered 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 times and still retained the exceptional antibacterial property. When the treated fabrics were washed 50 times, the antibacterial rate is more than 97.43% for S. aureus and 99.86% for E. coli. The excellent laundering durability may be attributed to the tight binding between silver nanoparticles and silk fibers through the in situ synthesis. This method provides an economic method to enhance the antibacterial capability of silk fabrics with good resistance to washings.

  9. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and antibacterial property of silk fabrics treated by silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A silver nanoparticle solution was prepared in one step by mixing AgNO3 and a multi-amino compound (RSD-NH2) solution under ambient condition. RSD-NH2 was in-house synthesized by methacrylate and polyethylene polyamine in methanol, which has abundant amino and imino groups. However, the characterization of silver nanoparticles indicated that these nanoparticles are easy to agglomerate in solution. Therefore, an in situ synthesis method of silver nanoparticles on the silk fabrics was developed. The examined results confirmed that the in situ synthesized silver nanoparticles were evenly distributed on the surface of fibers. The inhibition zone test and the antibacterial rate demonstrated that the finished fabrics have an excellent antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Moreover, the nanosilver-treated silk fabrics were laundered 0, 5, 10, 20, and 50 times and still retained the exceptional antibacterial property. When the treated fabrics were washed 50 times, the antibacterial rate is more than 97.43% for S. aureus and 99.86% for E. coli. The excellent laundering durability may be attributed to the tight binding between silver nanoparticles and silk fibers through the in situ synthesis. This method provides an economic method to enhance the antibacterial capability of silk fabrics with good resistance to washings. PMID:24872803

  10. Verification of resistance to three mediated microbial strains and cancerous defense against MCF7 compared to HepG2 through microwave synthesized plant-mediated silver nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Fattah, W. I.; Eid, M. M.; Hanafy, M. F.; Hussein, M.; Abd El-Moez, Sh I.; El-Hallouty, S. M.; Mohamed, E.

    2015-09-01

    The antimicrobial and anticancer efficiencies of green synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) through biogenic extracts were assessed on three bacterial strains and two cancer cell lines. Bio-synthesized AgNPs were achieved through domestic microwave generator for obtaining extracts from Asian nuts and Egyptian blackberry fruits. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) ˜435 nm demonstrated AgNPs earlier formation by the fruit extract. Capping by triglycerides/almond and phenols/berry extracts were responsible for the reduction proved by FTIR. XRD calculated particle sizes were 18 and 42 nm while TEM sizes are 24.5 and 21.5 nm for AgNPs from almond nut and blackberry fruits extracts (Alm.N.Ext. and BB.F.Ext.), respectively. Ag 3d5/2 was recorded at 368.12 eV for both samples through XPS. The monodispersed AgNPs recorded 0.727 and 0.5 polydispersity indices (PdI) for almond/Ag and berry/Ag, respectively. Zeta potential ˜ -31 and -13.2 for the same sequence confirmed the higher stability of the former. Reaction kinetics confirmed the advantage of fruit extract consuming only six minutes compared to nuts, consuming twice. Bactericidal effect of the extracts seldomly presented remarkable inhibition compared to extracts/Ag against the three species. In addition, Alm.N.Ext. showed the highest inhibition against staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) at 4 mM. The anti-cancerous effect of Ag/berry against HepG2 is stronger than Ag/almond, and similarly for MCF7.

  11. Green-synthesized silver nanoparticles as a novel control tool against dengue virus (DEN-2) and its primary vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Sujitha, Vasu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Paulpandi, Manickam; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Suresh, Udaiyan; Roni, Mathath; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Barnard, Donald R; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral infection mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, its transmission has strongly increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depends on effective vector control measures. In this study, we proposed the green-synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) as a novel and effective tool against the dengue serotype DEN-2 and its major vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were synthesized using the Moringa oleifera seed extract as reducing and stabilizing agent. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods including UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and sorted for size categories. AgNP showed in vitro antiviral activity against DEN-2 infecting vero cells. Viral titer was 7 log10 TCID50/ml in control (AgNP-free), while it dropped to 3.2 log10 TCID50/ml after a single treatment with 20 μl/ml of AgNP. After 6 h, DEN-2 yield was 5.8 log10 PFU/ml in the control, while it was 1.4 log10 PFU/ml post-treatment with AgNP (20 μl/ml). AgNP were highly effective against the dengue vector A. aegypti, with LC50 values ranging from 10.24 ppm (I instar larvae) to 21.17 ppm (pupae). Overall, this research highlighted the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue and its primary vector A. aegypti. Further research on structure-activity relationships of AgNP against other dengue serotypes is urgently required. PMID:26063530

  12. Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Sathe, V.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized using Moringa oleifera flower extract as the reducing agent shows surface plasmon resonance peak at 439 nm. The size and shape of the nanoparticles controlled by varying the concentration of M. oleifera flower extract in the reaction medium. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles with the average size of 14 nm. The retinoic acid present in M. oleifera flower extract used as reducing agent and proteins was responsible for capping of the bioreduced silver nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticle shows size-dependent SERS activity. The SERS spectrum indicates that the pyridine adsorbed on the silver surface in a stand-on orientation via its nitrogen lone pair electrons.

  13. Effects of Surface Coating on Physical Properties of Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tariq, M.; Hasnain, S. M.

    2015-08-01

    Polymer-coated nanoparticles improve the stability of materials against aggregation and enhance the physical properties, thus making it possible to use different applications in vast fields of science. In this work, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by a chemical reduction method and were further coated with the polymers polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polystyrene (PS). The influence of the polymer coating on the optical and electrical properties of the silver nanoparticles were investigated and compared with that of as-prepared silver nanoparticles. The nature of the prepared silver nanoparticles in the face-centered cubic structure is confirmed by peaks in the x-ray diffraction pattern. The temperature dependence of resistivity of the silver nanoparticles exhibit semiconducting behavior in the temperature range 100-300 K.

  14. Seaweed-synthesized silver nanoparticles: an eco-friendly tool in the fight against Plasmodium falciparum and its vector Anopheles stephensi?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Samidoss, Christina Mary; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Higuchi, Akon; Roni, Mathath; Suresh, Udaiyan; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Dinesh, Devakumar; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Nicoletti, Marcello; Kumar, Suresh; Wei, Hui; Canale, Angelo; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Malaria, the most widespread mosquito-borne disease, affects 350-500 million people each year. Eco-friendly control tools against malaria vectors are urgently needed. This research proposed a novel method of plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap seaweed extract of Ulva lactuca, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The U. lactuca extract and the green-synthesized AgNP were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 values of U. lactuca extract against A. stephensi larvae and pupae were 18.365 ppm (I instar), 23.948 ppm (II), 29.701 ppm (III), 37.517 ppm (IV), and 43.012 ppm (pupae). LC50 values of AgNP against A. stephensi were 2.111 ppm (I), 3.090 ppm (II), 4.629 ppm (III), 5.261 ppm (IV), and 6.860 ppm (pupae). Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against mosquito adults showed that U. lactuca coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the permethrin-based positive control (66, 51, and 41%, respectively). Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of U. lactuca extract and U. lactuca-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of U. lactuca were 57.26 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 66.36 μg/ml (CQ-r); U. lactuca-synthesized AgNP IC50 values were 76.33 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 79.13 μg/ml (CQ-r). Overall, our results highlighted out that U. lactuca-synthesized AgNP may be employed to develop newer and safer agents for malaria control. PMID:26227141

  15. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Melia dubia leaf extract and their in vitro anticancer activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, V.; Ravi, S.; Ashokkumar, S.

    2014-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles have a significant role in the pharmaceutical science. Especially, silver nanoparticles synthesized by the plant extracts lead a significant role in biological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer. Keeping this in mind, the present work investigation has been taken up with the synthesized silver nanoparticles using the plant extract of Melia dubia and it characterizes by using UV-visible, XRD and SEM-EDS. The effect of the silver nanoparticles on human breast cancer (KB) cell line has been tested. Silver nanoparticles showed remarkable cytotoxicity activity against KB cell line with evidence of high therapeutic index value are the results are discussed.

  16. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles - nanoparticle or silver ion?

    PubMed

    Beer, Christiane; Foldbjerg, Rasmus; Hayashi, Yuya; Sutherland, Duncan S; Autrup, Herman

    2012-02-01

    The toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been shown in many publications. Here we investigated to which degree the silver ion fraction of AgNP suspensions, contribute to the toxicity of AgNPs in A549 lung cells. Cell viability assays revealed that AgNP suspensions were more toxic when the initial silver ion fraction was higher. At 1.5μg/ml total silver, A549 cells exposed to an AgNP suspension containing 39% silver ion fraction showed a cell viability of 92%, whereas cells exposed to an AgNP suspension containing 69% silver ion fraction had a cell viability of 54% as measured by the MTT assay. In addition, at initial silver ion fractions of 5.5% and above, AgNP-free supernatant had the same toxicity as AgNP suspensions. Flow-cytometric analyses of cell cycle and apoptosis confirmed that there is no significant difference between the treatment with AgNP suspension and AgNP supernatant. Only AgNP suspensions with silver ion fraction of 2.6% or less were significantly more toxic than their supernatant as measured by MTT assays. From our data we conclude that at high silver ion fractions (≥5.5%) the AgNPs did not add measurable additional toxicity to the AgNP suspension, whereas at low silver ion fractions (≤2.6%) AgNP suspensions are more toxic than their supernatant. PMID:22101214

  17. Thermal stability of PLD grown silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokeen, Poonam; Jain, Amit; Kapoor, Avinashi

    2016-05-01

    Present work discusses the stability of silver nanoparticles at different annealing temperatures. Air muffle furnace annealing is performed to study the thermal stability of pulsed laser deposited silver nanoparticles. Silver reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form silver oxide at annealing temperatures below 473K and thermal decomposition of silver oxide takes place at temperatures above 473K. Oxide formation results in core shrinkage of silver, which in turn affects the surface plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. With increase in annealing temperature, the surface plasmon effect of nanoparticles starts to fade. SEM, XRD and UV-vis spectroscopy have been performed to analysis various structural and optical properties.

  18. Functional Application of Noble Metal Nanoparticles In Situ Synthesized on Ramie Fibers.

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Yao, Ya; Li, Jingliang; Qin, Si; Zhu, Haijin; Kaur, Jasjeet; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2015-12-01

    Different functions were imparted to ramie fibers through treatment with noble metal nanoparticles including silver and gold nanoparticles. The in situ synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles was achieved by heating in the presence of ramie fibers in the corresponding solutions of precursors. The unique optical property of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles, i.e., localized surface plasmon resonance, endowed ramie fibers with bright colors. Color strength (K/S) of fibers increased with heating temperature. Silver nanoparticles were obtained in alkaline solution, while acidic condition was conducive to gold nanoparticles. The optical properties of treated ramie fibers were investigated using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the morphologies of silver and gold nanoparticles in situ synthesized on fibers. The ramie fibers treated with noble metal nanoparticles showed remarkable catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride. Moreover, the silver nanoparticle treatment showed significant antibacterial property on ramie fibers. PMID:26383541

  19. Functional Application of Noble Metal Nanoparticles In Situ Synthesized on Ramie Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bin; Yao, Ya; Li, Jingliang; Qin, Si; Zhu, Haijin; Kaur, Jasjeet; Chen, Wu; Sun, Lu; Wang, Xungai

    2015-09-01

    Different functions were imparted to ramie fibers through treatment with noble metal nanoparticles including silver and gold nanoparticles. The in situ synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles was achieved by heating in the presence of ramie fibers in the corresponding solutions of precursors. The unique optical property of synthesized noble metal nanoparticles, i.e., localized surface plasmon resonance, endowed ramie fibers with bright colors. Color strength (K/S) of fibers increased with heating temperature. Silver nanoparticles were obtained in alkaline solution, while acidic condition was conducive to gold nanoparticles. The optical properties of treated ramie fibers were investigated using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to observe the morphologies of silver and gold nanoparticles in situ synthesized on fibers. The ramie fibers treated with noble metal nanoparticles showed remarkable catalytic activity for reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) by sodium borohydride. Moreover, the silver nanoparticle treatment showed significant antibacterial property on ramie fibers.

  20. Synthesis of water soluble glycine capped silver nanoparticles and their surface selective interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Agasti, Nityananda; Singh, Vinay K.; Kaushik, N.K.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles at ambient reaction conditions. • Glycine as stabilizing agent for silver nanoparticles. • Surface selective interaction of glycine with silver nanoparticles. • Glycine concentration influences crystalinity and optical property of silver nanoparticles. - Abstract: Synthesis of biocompatible metal nanoparticles has been an area of significant interest because of their wide range of applications. In the present study, we have successfully synthesized water soluble silver nanoparticles assisted by small amino acid glycine. The method is primarily based on reduction of AgNO{sub 3} with NaBH{sub 4} in aqueous solution under atmospheric air in the presence of glycine. UV–vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X–ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) techniques used for characterization of resulting silver nanoparticles demonstrated that, glycine is an effective capping agent to stabilize silver nanoparticles. Surface selective interaction of glycine on (1 1 1) face of silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The optical property and crystalline behavior of silver nanoparticles were found to be sensitive to concentration of glycine. X–ray diffraction studies ascertained the phase specific interaction of glycine on silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were of diameter 60 nm. We thus demonstrated an efficient synthetic method for synthesis of water soluble silver nanoparticles capped by amino acid under mild reaction conditions with excellent reproducibility.

  1. Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in zebrafish models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asharani, P. V.; Lian Wu, Yi; Gong, Zhiyuan; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2008-06-01

    This study was initiated to enhance our insight on the health and environmental impact of silver nanoparticles (Ag-np). Using starch and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as capping agents, silver nanoparticles were synthesized to study their deleterious effects and distribution pattern in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). Toxicological endpoints like mortality, hatching, pericardial edema and heart rate were recorded. A concentration-dependent increase in mortality and hatching delay was observed in Ag-np treated embryos. Additionally, nanoparticle treatments resulted in concentration-dependent toxicity, typified by phenotypes that had abnormal body axes, twisted notochord, slow blood flow, pericardial edema and cardiac arrhythmia. Ag+ ions and stabilizing agents showed no significant defects in developing embryos. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the embryos demonstrated that nanoparticles were distributed in the brain, heart, yolk and blood of embryos as evident from the electron-dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS). Furthermore, the acridine orange staining showed an increased apoptosis in Ag-np treated embryos. These results suggest that silver nanoparticles induce a dose-dependent toxicity in embryos, which hinders normal development.

  2. Development of nanostructured silver vanadates decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtz, R. D.; Souza Filho, A. G.; Brocchi, M.; Martins, D.; Durán, N.; Alves, O. L.

    2010-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, characterization and application of silver vanadate nanowires decorated with silver nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial agent. These hybrid materials were synthesized by a precipitation reaction of ammonium vanadate and silver nitrate followed by hydrothermal treatment. The silver vanadate nanowires have lengths of the order of microns and diameters around 60 nm. The silver nanoparticles decorating the nanowires present a diameter distribution varying from 1 to 20 nm. The influence of the pH of the reaction medium on the chemical structure and morphology of silver vanadates was studied and we found that synthesis performed at pH 5.5-6.0 led to silver vanadate nanowires with a higher morphological yield. The antimicrobial activity of these materials was evaluated against three strains of Staphylococcus aureus and very promising results were found. The minimum growth inhibiting concentration value against a MRSA strain was found to be ten folds lower than for the antibiotic oxacillin.

  3. Method of synthesizing tungsten nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Thoma, Steven G; Anderson, Travis M

    2013-02-12

    A method to synthesize tungsten nanoparticles has been developed that enables synthesis of nanometer-scale, monodisperse particles that can be stabilized only by tetrahydrofuran. The method can be used at room temperature, is scalable, and the product concentrated by standard means. Since no additives or stabilizing surfactants are required, this method is particularly well suited for producing tungsten nanoparticles for dispersion in polymers. If complete dispersion is achieved due to the size of the nanoparticles, then the optical properties of the polymer can be largely maintained.

  4. Biopolymer capped silver nanoparticles with potential for multifaceted applications.

    PubMed

    Vanamudan, Ageetha; Sudhakar, P Padmaja

    2016-05-01

    A sustainable, green and low cost method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles at room temperature has been developed using guargum as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (GAg) were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, EDS, Raman, XRD and TEM. The interaction of the functional groups present in the biopolymer Guargum (G) with the silver nanoparticles (GAg) were responsible for the nanoparticle surface to function as active substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic (SERS) detection of cationic and anionic dyes. The catalytic degradation of a copper phthalocyanine based dye- Reactive blue - 21(RB-21), an azo dye- Reactive red 141(RR-141) and a xanthene dye- Rhodamine - 6G(Rh-6G) as well as binary mixtures of the three dyes was evaluated using the synthesized nanoparticles. The catalyst also caused a significant reduction in Total Organic Carbon (TOC) suggesting the formation of smaller degraded products. PMID:26800899

  5. Metal-metal bonding using silver/copper nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Y.; Maeda, T.; Yasuda, Y.; Morita, T.

    2015-08-01

    A method for producing nanoparticles composed of silver and copper and a metal-metal bonding technique using the silver/copper nanoparticles are proposed. The method consists of three steps. First, copper oxide nanoparticles are produced by mixing Cu(NO3)2 aqueous solution and NaOH aqueous solution. Second, copper metal nanoparticles are fabricated by reducing the copper oxide nanoparticles with hydrazine in the presence of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP). Third, silver/copper nanoparticles are synthesized by reducing Ag+ ions with hydrazine in the presence of the copper metal nanoparticles. Initial concentrations in the final silver/copper particle colloid, composed of 0.0075 M Cu2+, 0.0025 M Ag+, 1.0 g/L PVP, and 0.6 M hydrazine, produced silver/copper nanoparticles with an average size of 49 nm and a crystal size of 16.8 nm. Discs of copper metal were successfully bonded by the silver/copper nanoparticles under annealing at 400 °C and pressurizing at 1.2 MPa for 5 min in not only hydrogen gas but also nitrogen gas. The shear force required to separate the bonded discs was 22.3 MPa for the hydrogen gas annealing and 14.9 MPa for the nitrogen gas annealing (namely, 66.8 % of that for hydrogen gas annealing).

  6. Silver nanoparticles produced by green production method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Velea, Sanda; Ilie, Lucia; Fierascu, Radu-Claudiu; Dumitriu, Irina; Dinu, Angela; Troncea, Simona

    2010-11-01

    Nanomaterials as novel materials with nanometer sizes are involved in higher performance technology. On this context nanobiotechnology is able to create different nanostructures using living organisms.An attractive research area is the application of microorganisms to synthesize nanoparticles from different metals, one of which is silver, an antimicrobial agent. Green production methods have a considerable interest for environmental protection, often based on plant extracts, organic compounds or microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, algae). Marine plants were used as "real factors" for synthesis of nanoparticles of Au and Ag using different processes of biomineralization. This paper deals with a complete study about obtaining silver nanoparticles from AgNO3 using red algae (Porphyridium purpureum). The red algae contain the red pigment-phycobilins, responsible for red color and for the strong absorption in visible spectrum. The properties and structure of silver nanoparticles have been put into evidence by means of: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-FTIR, optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry-EDXRF.

  7. Silver-based biohybrids "green" synthesized from Chelidonium majus L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbinta-Patrascu, Marcela Elisabeta; Badea, Nicoleta; Ungureanu, Camelia; Constantin, Marioara; Pirvu, Cristian; Rau, Ileana

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes an original bio-design of organic/inorganic hybrid architectures containing biomimetic membranes and celandine-nanoAg for different bioapplications. A simple, time efficient, low-cost and ecofriendly bottom-up procedure was used to build for the first time, celandine/nanoAg-based hybrids. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine bio-inspired lipid bilayers were obtained by thin film hydration method. Chlorophyll a inserted into these liposomes was used as a spectral marker to detect the changes occurred in the artificial membranes. For the first time, silver nanoparticles were eco-synthesized using an aqueous extract of celandine (Chelidonium majus L.). The physical stability of the samples was evaluated in terms of zeta potential. Chlorophyll a photonic properties (based on UV-Vis absorption and emission spectra) were used to monitor the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and of bio-based hybrids. The size of samples was monitored by Dynamic Light Scattering measurements and the morphological aspects were provided by Atomic Force Microscopy analysis. The obtained silver-based biohybrids exhibited high antioxidant activity (98.48%) and strong antimicrobial properties against Escherichia coli ATCC 8738 (offering an inhibition zone of 51 mm diameter) and presented good physical stability (zeta potential reached the value of -30.7 mV) as compared to phyto-nanoAg alone.

  8. Synthesis, Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of IN-SITU Synthesized Polyaniline/silver Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Fahad; Ansari, Sajid Ali; Khan, Wasi; Ehtisham Khan, M.; Naqvi, A. H.

    2012-09-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) is recognized as one of the most important conducting polymers due to its high conductivity and good stability. In this paper, polyaniline/silver (PANI/Ag) nanocomposites were synthesized by in-situ polymerization of aniline using ammonium peroxydisulphate (APS) as oxidizing agent with varying concentration of Ag nanoparticles colloids (0 ml, 25 ml and 50 ml). Silver nanoparticles were synthesized separately in colloidal form from silver nitrate (Ag2NO3) with the help of reducing agent sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The PANI/Ag nanocomposites were characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM, UV-visible, temperature dependent resistivity and dielectric measurements. All samples show a single phase nature of the nanoparticles. The electrical resistivity as function of temperature was measured in the temperature range 298-383 K, which indicates a semiconducting to metallic transition at 373 K and 368 K for 25 ml and 50 ml silver colloid samples, respectively.

  9. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acalypha indica leaf extracts and its antibacterial activity against water borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, C; Jagan, E G; Rajasekar, S; Selvakumar, P; Kalaichelvan, P T; Mohan, N

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its activity on water borne bacterial pathogens were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized using leaf extract of Acalypha indica and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 30min. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. From high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) analysis, the size of the silver nanoparticles was measured 20-30nm. Further, the antibacterial activity of synthesized silver nanoparticles showed effective inhibitory activity against water borne pathogens Viz., Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Silver nanoparticles 10microg/ml were recorded as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against E. coli and V. cholerae. Alteration in membrane permeability and respiration of the silver nanoparticle treated bacterial cells were evident from the activity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:19896347

  10. Sulfidation of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, C.; Michel, F. M.; Brown, G. E.

    2010-12-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnologies that exploit the properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) raises questions concerning the impact of Ag on the environment. Ag-NPs are currently among the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry and the amount released into the environment is expected to increase along with production (1). When present in geochemical systems, Ag-NPs may undergo a variety of changes due to varying redox, pH, and chemical conditions. Expected changes range from surface modification (e.g., oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation etc.) to complete dissolution and re-precipitation. In this context, the focus of our work is on understanding the behavior of synthetic Ag-NPs with different particle sizes under varying conditions relevant to the environment. Sulfidation of Ag-NPs is of particular interest since it among the processes most likely to occur in aqueous systems, in particular under reducing conditions. Three sizes of Ag-NPs coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone were produced using the polyol process (2) (7 ±1; 20 ±4, and 40 ±9 nm). Batch solutions containing the different Ag-NPs were subsequently reacted with Na2S solutions of different concentrations. The sulfidation process was followed step-wise for 24 hours and the corrosion products formed were characterized by electron microscopy (TEM/SEM), diffraction (XRD), and photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). Surface charge (pHPZC) of the products formed during this process was also measured, as were changes in solubility and reactivity. Based on experimental observations we infer that the sulfidation process is the result of dissolution-precipitation and find that: (i) acanthite (Ag2S) is formed as a corrosion product; (ii) Ag-NPs aggregation increased with sulfidation rate; (iii) pHPZC increases with the rate of sulfidation; and (iv) the solubility of the corrosion products formed from sulfidation appears lower than that of non-sulfidated Ag-NPs. We observe size-dependent differences in the kinetics of sulfidation and in solubility behavior. The results of this type of fundamental study are important for predicting the behavior and fate of Ag-NPs in natural ecosystems. For example, aggregation caused by sulfidation may limit transport in porous media such as soils. Modification of surface charge during the sulfidation process may have an important impact on electrostatic interactions between Ag-NPs and charged phases such as natural organic matter. Finally, it is well known that Ag+ has a greater toxicity than metallic Ag (3) and the observed decrease in solubility of Ag-NPs after sulfidation may strongly impact the toxicity of silver in the environment. (1) www.nanotechproject.org (2) F. Fievet, J.P. Lagier, B. Blin, B. Beaudoin and M. Figlarz, Solid State Ionics 32/33, 198 (1989) (3) G.A. Sotiriou and S.E. Pratsinis, Environmental Science & Technology 14, 5649 (2010).

  11. Biosynthesis, characterization and antimicrobial action of silver nanoparticles from root bark extract of Berberislycium Royle.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Ansar; Murtaza, Ghulam; Bhatti, Tariq Mahmood; Kausar, Rehana; Ahmed, Muhammad Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Various biological methods are being recognized for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles, which are used in several fields. The phytosynthesis of nanoparticles came out as a cost effective and enviro-friendly approach. When root bark extract of Berberis lycium was treated with silver ions, they reduced to silver nanoparticles, which were spherical, crystalline, size ranged from 10-100nm and capped by biomolecules. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The plant mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles showed pronounced antimicrobial activities against both Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis). The plant mediated process proved to be non-toxic and low cost contender as reducing agent for synthesizing stable silver nanoparticles. PMID:26826826

  12. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of silver nanoparticles using Tribulus terrestris leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Kathiravan, V; Velmurugan, S

    2014-01-01

    Biomediated silver nanoparticles were synthesized with the aid of an eco-friendly biomaterial, namely, aqueous Tribulus terrestris extract. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a rapid, single step, and completely green biosynthetic method employing aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts as both the reducing and capping agent. Silver ions were rapidly reduced by aqueous T. terrestris leaf extracts, leading to the formation of highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. An attempt has been made and formation of the silver nanoparticles was verified by surface plasmon spectra using an UV-vis (Ultra violet), spectrophotometer. Morphology and crystalline structure of the prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) and XRD (X-ray Diffraction), techniques, respectively. FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), analysis suggests that the obtained silver nanoparticles might be stabilized through the interactions of carboxylic groups, carbonyl groups and the flavonoids present in the T. terrestris extract. PMID:24231743

  13. Bacteriagenic silver nanoparticles: synthesis, mechanism, and applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Richa; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha U; Wadhwani, Sweety A; Chopade, Balu A

    2015-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have received tremendous attention due to their significant antimicrobial properties. Large numbers of reports are available on the physical, chemical, and biological syntheses of colloidal AgNPs. Since there is a great need to develop ecofriendly and sustainable methods, biological systems like bacteria, fungi, and plants are being employed to synthesize these nanoparticles. The present review focuses specifically on bacteria-mediated synthesis of AgNPs, its mechanism, and applications. Bacterial synthesis of extra- and intracellular AgNPs has been reported using biomass, supernatant, cell-free extract, and derived components. The extracellular mode of synthesis is preferred over the intracellular mode owing to easy recovery of nanoparticles. Silver-resistant genes, c-type cytochromes, peptides, cellular enzymes like nitrate reductase, and reducing cofactors play significant roles in AgNP synthesis in bacteria. Organic materials released by bacteria act as natural capping and stabilizing agents for AgNPs, thereby preventing their aggregation and providing stability for a longer time. Regulation over reaction conditions has been suggested to control the morphology, dispersion, and yield of nanoparticles. Bacterial AgNPs have anticancer and antioxidant properties. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of AgNPs in combination with antibiotics signifies their importance in combating the multidrug-resistant pathogenic microorganisms. Multiple microbicidal mechanisms exhibited by AgNPs, depending upon their size and shape, make them very promising as novel nanoantibiotics. PMID:25952110

  14. The silver ions contribution into the cytotoxic activity of silver and silver halides nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, A. I.; Zherebin, P. M.; Gusev, A. A.; Kudrinskiy, A. A.; Krutyakov, Y. A.

    2015-11-01

    The biocidal action of silver nanoparticles capped with sodium citrate and silver halides nanoparticles capped with non-ionic surfactant polyoxyethylene(20)sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80®) against yeast cells Saccharomyces cerevisiae was compared to the effect produced by silver nitrate and studied through the measurement of cell loss and kinetics of K+ efflux from the cells. The cytotoxicity of the obtained colloids was strongly correlated with silver ion content in the dispersions. The results clearly indicated that silver and silver halides nanoparticles destroyed yeast cells through the intermediate producing of silver ions either by dissolving of salts or by oxidation of silver.

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles for the control of mosquito disease vectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biological method was used to synthesize stable silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were tested as larvicides against Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex quinquefasciatus. Annona squamosa leaf broth (5%) reduced aqueous AgNO3 to stable silver nanoparticles with average particle siz...

  16. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of silver nanoparticles through leaves of Abrus precatorius L.: an important medicinal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaddala, Bhumi; Nataru, Savithramma

    2015-01-01

    Biologically synthesized nanoparticles have been widely used in the field of medicine. The present study reports the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Abrus precatorius leaf extract with silver nitrate solution as reducing agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were analyzed through UV-Visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, atomic force microscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were disk shaped with an average size of 19 nm. These silver nanoparticles were evaluated for antibacterial activity. The diameter of inhibition zones around the disk of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are resistant to silver nanoparticles, whereas Escherichia coli and Bacillus thuringiensis are susceptible when compared with the other two species. The results were compared with the ciprofloxacin-positive control and silver nitrate. It is concluded that the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles is very fast, easy, cost-effective and eco-friendly and without any side effects.

  17. Coconut water assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Elumalai, Erusan Kuppan; Kayalvizhi, Karuppsamy; Silvan, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the Study: The synthesis, characterization and application of biologically synthesized nanomaterials are an important aspect in nanotechnology. Materials and Methods: The present study deals with the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using the coconut water (C. nucifera) as the reducing agent. The formation of Ag-NPs was characterized by UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), EDX, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and FTIR spectroscopy. Results: The synthesized Ag-NPs were predominately polydispersed. Crystalline nature of the nanoparticle in the face centered cubic (fcc) structure are confirmed by the peaks in the XRD pattern corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy analysis showed that the synthesized nanoparicles was capped with bimolecular compounds which are responsible for the reduction of silver ions. Conclusion: The approach of green synthesis appears to be cost efficient, ecofriendly and easy alternative to conventional methods of silver nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:25400406

  18. Photosensitized synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Withania somnifera leaf powder and silver nitrate.

    PubMed

    Raut, Rajesh Warluji; Mendhulkar, Vijay Damodhar; Kashid, Sahebrao Balaso

    2014-03-01

    The metal nanoparticle synthesis is highly explored field of nanotechnology. The biological methods seem to be more effective; however, due to slow reduction rate and polydispersity of the resulting products, they are less preferred. In the present study, we report rapid and facile synthesis of silver nanoparticles at room temperature. The exposure of reaction mixtures containing silver nitrate and dried leaf powder of Withania somnifera Linn to direct sunlight resulted in reduction of metal ions within five minutes whereas, the dark exposure took almost 12h. Further studies using different light filters reveal the role of blue light in reduction of silver ions. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis, Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Diffraction studies (XRD), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis (NTA), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). The Antibacterial and antifungal studies showed significant activity as compared to their respective standards. PMID:24602813

  19. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis, properties, and therapeutic applications

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Liuya; Lu, Jingran; Xu, Huizhong; Patel, Atish; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Chen, Guofang

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely used in biomedical fields because of their intrinsic therapeutic properties. Here, we introduce methods of synthesizing AgNPs and discuss their physicochemical, localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and toxicity properties. We also review the impact of AgNPs on human health and the environment along with the underlying mechanisms. More importantly, we highlight the newly emerging applications of AgNPs as antiviral agents, photosensitizers and/or radiosensitizers, and anticancer therapeutic agents in the treatment of leukemia, breast cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, lung cancer, and skin and/or oral carcinoma. PMID:25543008

  20. Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rajendran; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Chakroborty, Subhendu

    2012-05-01

    Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO3. Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4 h at room temperature (25 °C) and 60 °C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 35 ± 5 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation.

  1. Agricultural waste Annona squamosa peel extract: biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajendran; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Prabhakarn, Arunachalam; Khanna, Venkatesan Gopiesh; Chakroborty, Subhendu

    2012-05-01

    Development of reliable and eco-friendly process for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is an important step in the field of application of nanotechnology. We have developed modern method by using agriculture waste to synthesize silver nanoparticles by employing an aqueous peel extract of Annona squamosa in AgNO(3). Controlled growth of silver nanoparticles was formed in 4h at room temperature (25C) and 60C. AgNPs were irregular spherical in shape and the average particle size was about 355 nm and it is consistent with particle size obtained by XRD Scherer equation. PMID:22336049

  2. Targeted silver nanoparticles for ratiometric cell phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Willmore, Anne-Mari A; Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Toome, Kadri; Paiste, Päärn; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Mölder, Tarmo; Sugahara, Kazuki N; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Braun, Gary B; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-04-28

    Affinity targeting is used to deliver nanoparticles to cells and tissues. For efficient targeting, it is critical to consider the expression and accessibility of the relevant receptors in the target cells. Here, we describe isotopically barcoded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a tool for auditing affinity ligand receptors in cells. Tumor penetrating peptide RPARPAR (receptor: NRP-1) and tumor homing peptide GKRK (receptor: p32) were used as affinity ligands on the AgNPs. The binding and uptake of the peptide-functionalized AgNPs by cultured PPC-1 prostate cancer and M21 melanoma cells was dependent on the cell surface expression of the cognate peptide receptors. Barcoded peptide-functionalized AgNPs were synthesized from silver and palladium isotopes. The cells were incubated with a cocktail of the barcoded nanoparticles [RPARPAR (R), GKRK (K), and control], and cellular binding and internalization of each type of nanoparticle was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results of isotopic analysis were in agreement with data obtained using optical methods. Using ratiometric measurements, we were able to classify the PPC-1 cell line as mainly NRP-1-positive, with 75 ± 5% R-AgNP uptake, and the M21 cell line as only p32-positive, with 89 ± 9% K-AgNP uptake. The isotopically barcoded multiplexed AgNPs are useful as an in vitro ratiometric phenotyping tool and have potential uses in functional evaluation of the expression of accessible homing peptide receptors in vivo. PMID:26646247

  3. Development of antimicrobial water filtration hybrid material from bio source calcium carbonate and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apalangya, Vitus; Rangari, Vijaya; Tiimob, Boniface; Jeelani, Shaik; Samuel, Temesgen

    2014-03-01

    Biobased calcium carbonate and silver hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple mechanochemical milling technique. The XRD spectrum showed that the hybrid materials is composed of crystalline calcite and silver nanoparticles. The TEM results indicated that the silver nanoparticles are discrete, uncapped and well stabilized in the surface of the eggshell derived calcium carbonate particles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape and 5-20 nm in size. The SEM studies indicated that the eggshells are in micron size with the silver nanoparticle embedded in their surface. The hybrid eggshell/silver nanocomposite exhibited superior inhibition of E. coli growth using the Kirby-Bauer discs diffusion assay and comparing the zone of inhibition around the filter paper disc impregnated with the hybrid particles against pristine silver nanoparticles.

  4. Extraordinarily high conductivity of flexible adhesive films by hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, C Muhammed; Menamparambath, Mini Mol; Choi, Hyouk Ryeol; Baik, Seunghyun

    2016-06-01

    Highly conductive flexible adhesive (CFA) film was developed using micro-sized silver flakes (primary fillers), hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires (secondary fillers) and nitrile butadiene rubber. The hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires were synthesized by decorating silver nanowires with silver nanoparticle clusters using bifunctional cysteamine as a linker. The dispersion in ethanol was excellent for several months. Silver nanowires constructed electrical networks between the micro-scale silver flakes. The low-temperature surface sintering of silver nanoparticles enabled effective joining of silver nanowires to silver flakes. The hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires provided a greater maximum conductivity (54 390 S cm(-1)) than pure silver nanowires, pure multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles in nitrile butadiene rubber matrix. The resistance change was smallest upon bending when the hybrids of silver nanoparticle-nanowires were employed. The adhesion of the film on polyethylene terephthalate substrate was excellent. Light emitting diodes were successfully wired to the CFA circuit patterned by the screen printing method for application demonstration. PMID:27109551

  5. Antibacterial Activity of pH-Dependent Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles against Clinical Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Chitra, Kethirabalan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2014-01-01

    Simple, nontoxic, environmental friendly method is employed for the production of silver nanoparticles. In this study the synthesized nanoparticles UV absorption band occurred at 400 nm because of the surface Plasmon resonance of silver nanoparticles. The pH of the medium plays important role in the synthesis of control shaped and sized nanoparticles. The colour intensity of the aqueous solution varied with pH. In this study, at pH 9, the colour of the aqueous solution was dark brown, whereas in pH 5 the colour was yellowish brown; the colour difference in the aqueous solution occurred due to the higher production of silver nanoparticles. The antibacterial activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was carried out against E. coli. The silver nanoparticles synthesized at pH 9 showed maximum antibacterial activity at 50 μL. PMID:24967396

  6. Temperature-driven directional coalescence of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shi; Sun, Dongbai; Gong, Yu; Tan, Yuanyuan; Xing, Xueqing; Mo, Guang; Chen, Zhongjun; Cai, Quan; Li, Zhihong; Yu, Hongying; Wu, Zhonghua

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized with a chemical reduction method in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone as stabilizing agent. The thermal stability behavior of the silver nanoparticles was studied in the temperature range from 25 to 700°C. Thermal gravimetric analysis was used to measure the weight loss of the silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to observe the morphology and the change in shape of the silver nanoparticles. In situ temperature-dependent small-angle X-ray scattering was used to detect the increase in particle size with temperature. In situ temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction was used to characterize the increase in nanocrystal size and the thermal expansion coefficient. The results demonstrate that sequential slow and fast Ostward ripening are the main methods of nanoparticle growth at lower temperatures (<500°C), whereas successive random and directional coalescences are the main methods of nanoparticle growth at higher temperatures (>500°C). A four-stage model can be used to describe the whole sintering process. The thermal expansion coefficient (2.8 × 10(-5) K(-1)) of silver nanoparticles is about 30% larger than that of bulk silver. To our knowledge, the temperature-driven directional coalescence of silver nanocrystals is reported for the first time. Two possible mechanisms of directional coalescence have been proposed. This study is of importance not only in terms of its fundamental academic interest but also in terms of the thermal stability of silver nanoparticles. PMID:27140151

  7. Bioinspired synthesis of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles using Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Patil, Rupali S; Kokate, Mangesh R; Kolekar, Sanjay S

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. We herein reports bioinspired synthesis of silver nanoparticles with the aid of novel, non toxic ecofriendly biological material namely Ocimum tenuiflorum leaf extract. It acts as reducing as well as stabilizing agent. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ∼450 nm in the UV-visible spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded to study excitation and emission. TEM and PSD by dynamic light scattering studies showed that size of silver nanoparticles to be in range 25-40 nm. Face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles are confirmed by SAED pattern. The charge on synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by zeta potential. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit high antibacterial activity against three different strains of bacteria Escherichia coli (Gram negative), Corney bacterium (gram positive), Bacillus substilus (spore forming). PMID:22381796

  8. Titania-supported silver nanoparticles: An efficient and reusable catalyst for reduction of 4-nitrophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshmukh, S. P.; Dhokale, R. K.; Yadav, H. M.; Achary, S. N.; Delekar, S. D.

    2013-05-01

    Supported silver nanoparticles were synthesized via in situ sol-gel followed by reduction method with dextrose as reductant and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizer. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform Infra-Red spectroscopy and UV-visible measurements. The XRD peaks confirm the metallic face-centered cubic silver particles. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of surface plasmon absorption maxima at 412 nm; which shifted to the longer wavelengths after supported on titania host lattice. TEM showed the spherical nanoparticles with size in the range of 18-23 nm. An efficient and simple method was reported for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol using titania-supported silver nanoparticles at room temperature. The reaction was first order with respect to the concentration of 4-nitrophenol with higher efficiency. Titania supported silver nanoparticles are reusable and stable heterogeneous catalyst.

  9. Interaction of silver nanoparticles with HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Elechiguerra, Jose Luis; Burt, Justin L; Morones, Jose R; Camacho-Bragado, Alejandra; Gao, Xiaoxia; Lara, Humberto H; Yacaman, Miguel Jose

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of nanoparticles with biomolecules and microorganisms is an expanding field of research. Within this field, an area that has been largely unexplored is the interaction of metal nanoparticles with viruses. In this work, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles undergo a size-dependent interaction with HIV-1, with nanoparticles exclusively in the range of 1–10 nm attached to the virus. The regular spatial arrangement of the attached nanoparticles, the center-to-center distance between nanoparticles, and the fact that the exposed sulfur-bearing residues of the glycoprotein knobs would be attractive sites for nanoparticle interaction suggest that silver nanoparticles interact with the HIV-1 virus via preferential binding to the gp120 glycoprotein knobs. Due to this interaction, silver nanoparticles inhibit the virus from binding to host cells, as demonstrated in vitro. PMID:15987516

  10. Risk assessment of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipelin, V. A.; Gmoshinski, I. V.; Khotimchenko, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Nanoparticles of metallic silver (Ag) are among the most widely used products of nanotechnology. Nanosized colloidal silver (NCS) is presented in many kinds of production as solutions of particles with diameter less than 100 nm. NCS is used in a variety of fields, including food supplements, medicines, cosmetics, packaging materials, disinfectants, water filters, and many others. Problems of toxicity and related safety of NCS for humans and environmental systems are recently overestimated basing on data of numerous toxicological studies in vitro and in vivo. The article discusses the results of current studies in recent years and the data of author's own experiments on studying the safety of NCS, that allows to move on to risk assessment of this nanomaterial presented in consumer products and environmental samples.

  11. Bio-functionalized silver nanoparticles: a novel colorimetric probe for cysteine detection.

    PubMed

    Borase, Hemant P; Patil, Chandrashekhar D; Salunkhe, Rahul B; Suryawanshi, Rahul K; Kim, Beom S; Bapat, Vishwas A; Patil, Satish V

    2015-04-01

    Chemical interactions between nanoparticles and biomolecules are vital for applying nanoparticles in medicine and life science. Development of sensitive, rapid, low-cost, and eco-friendly sensors for the detection of molecules acting as disease indicator is need of an hour. In the present investigation, a green trend for silver nanoparticle synthesis was followed using leaf extract of Calotropis procera. Silver nanoparticles exhibited surface plasmon absorption peak at 421 nm, spherical shape with average size of 10 nm, and zeta potential of -22.4 mV. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles were used for selective and sensitive detection of cysteine. Cysteine induces aggregation in stable silver nanoparticles owing to selective and strong interaction of -SH group of cysteine with silver nanoparticle surface. Cysteine-induced silver nanoparticle aggregation can be observed visually by change in color of silver nanoparticles from yellow to pink. Cysteine concentration was estimated colorimetrically by measuring absorption at surface plasmon wavelength. Limit of detection for cysteine using silver nanoparticles is ultralow, i.e., 100 nM. The mechanistic insight into cysteine detection by silver nanoparticles was investigated using FT-IR, TEM, DLS, and TLC analysis. Proposed method can be applied for the detection of cysteine in blood plasma and may give rise to a new insight into development of eco-friendly fabricated nanodiagnostic device in future. PMID:25637511

  12. Synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Perilla frutescens--a biogenic approach.

    PubMed

    Basavegowda, Nagaraj; Lee, Yong Rok

    2014-06-01

    The present investigation demonstrates a rapid biogenic approach for the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using biologically active and medicinal important Perilla frutescens leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent under ambient conditions. Gold and silver nanoparticles were first synthesized from Perilla frutescens leaf extract which was used as a vegetable and in traditional medicines for a long time in Korea, Japan, and China. The nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface plasmon resonance spectra of gold and silver nanoparticles were obtained at 540 and 430 nm and triangular and spherical shape respectively. TEM studies showed that the particle sizes of gold and silver nanoparticles ranges -50 nm and -40 nm respectively. X-ray diffraction studies confirm that the biosynthesized nanoparticles were crystalline gold and silver. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy revealed that biomolecules were involved in the synthesis and capping of the nanoparticles produced. XRD and EDX confirmed the formation of gold and silver nanoparticles. This is a simple, efficient and rapid method to synthesize gold and silver nanoparticles at room temperature without use of toxic chemicals. Obtained gold and silver nanoparticles can be used in various biomedical and biotechnological applications. PMID:24738399

  13. Chemical synthesis and antibacterial activity of novel-shaped silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dong, Pham; Ha, Chu Hoang; Binh, Le Tran; Kasbohm, Jörn

    2012-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles are useful for medical applications due to their strong antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity can be tuned by controlling the size and shape of the prepared silver nanoparticles. In this work, silver nanoparticles with different sizes and shapes were synthesized by solution phase routes, and their interactions with Escherichia coli were studied. Triangular silver nanoprisms were prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate at room temperature in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone, sodium citrate, hydrogen peroxide and sodium borohydride. Spherical silver nanoparticles were also prepared using silver nitrate as metal precursor and sodium citrate as well as sodium borohydride as reducing agents. The morphologies and structures of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The results indicated that spherical silver nanoparticles were obtained with different average sizes of 4, 21 and 40 nm, respectively. The edged silver nanoprisms containing mainly {111} lattice planes were obtained in the range size of 25 to 400 nm. The antibacterial study revealed that the edged triangular silver nanoprisms with {111} lattice planes exhibited the strongest antibacterial property, compared with spherical nanoparticles. Our study demonstrated that triangular silver nanoprisms with sharp edges also display a good antibacterial activity in comparison to other shaped nanoparticles.

  14. Characterization and mosquitocidal potential of neem cake-synthesized silver nanoparticles: genotoxicity and impact on predation efficiency of mosquito natural enemies.

    PubMed

    Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Syuhei, Ban; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Wei, Hui; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) serve as important vectors for a wide number of parasites and pathogens of huge medical and veterinary importance. Aedes aegypti is a primary dengue vector in tropical and subtropical urban areas. There is an urgent need to develop eco-friendly mosquitocides. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were biosynthesized using neem cake, a by-product of the neem oil extraction from the seed kernels of Azadirachta indica. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, SEM, EDX, and XRD analyses. Furthermore, the neem cake extract and the biosynthesized AgNP were tested for acute toxicity against larvae and pupae of the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. LC50 values achieved by the neem cake extract ranged from 106.53 (larva I) to 235.36 ppm (pupa), while AgNP LC50 ranged from 3.969 (larva I) to 8.308 ppm (pupa). In standard laboratory conditions, the predation efficiency of a Carassius auratus per day was 7.9 (larva II) and 5.5 individuals (larva III). Post-treatment with sub-lethal doses of AgNP, the predation efficiency was boosted to 9.2 (larva II) and 8.1 individuals (larva III). The genotoxic effect of AgNP was studied on C. auratus using the comet assay and micronucleus frequency test. DNA damage was evaluated on peripheral erythrocytes sampled at different time intervals from the treatment; experiments showed no significant damages at doses below 12 ppm. Overall, this research pointed out that neem cake-fabricated AgNP are easy to produce, stable over time, and can be employed at low dosages to reduce populations of dengue vectors, with moderate detrimental effects on non-target mosquito natural enemies. PMID:26573518

  15. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles: Elucidation of prospective mechanism and therapeutic potential.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Amit Kumar; Bhaumik, Jayeeta; Kumar, Sanjay; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2014-02-01

    The synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was accomplished using Syzygium cumini fruit extract at room temperature. Various techniques were used to characterize the newly synthesized silver nanoparticles and their size was determined to be 10-15nm. Important findings of this study were the identification of biomolecules responsible for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and elucidate the mechanism of biosynthesis. Flavonoids present in S. cumini were mainly responsible for the reduction and the stabilization of nanoparticles. The antioxidant properties of AgNPs were evaluated using various assays. The nanoparticles were also found to destroy Dalton lymphoma cell lines under in vitro condition. Silver nanoparticles (100?g/mL) decreased the viability of Dalton lymphoma (DL) cell lines up to 50%. The studies describing the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by fruit extract followed by the investigation of synthesis mechanism and anti-cancer activities may be useful for nanobiotechnology research opening a new arena in this field. PMID:24267328

  16. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana Juss and its antimicrobial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oluwaniyi, Omolara O.; Adegoke, Haleemat I.; Adesuji, Elijah T.; Alabi, Aderemi B.; Bodede, Sunday O.; Labulo, Ayomide H.; Oseghale, Charles O.

    2015-10-01

    Biosynthesizing of silver nanoparticles using microorganisms or various plant parts have proven more environmental friendly, cost-effective, energy saving and reproducible when compared to chemical and physical methods. This investigation demonstrated the plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous leaf extract of Thevetia peruviana. UV-Visible spectrophotometer was used to measure the surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles at 460 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared showed that the glycosidic -OH and carbonyl functional group present in extract were responsible for the reduction and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. X ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and Selected Area Electron Diffraction analyses were used to confirm the nature, morphology and shape of the nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape with average size of 18.1 nm. The synthesized silver nanoparticles showed activity against fungal pathogens and bacteria. The zone of inhibition observed in the antimicrobial study ranged between 10 and 20 mm.

  17. Photocurrent enhancement in polythiophene doped with silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szeremeta, Janusz; Nyk, Marcin; Samoc, Marek

    2014-11-01

    We studied the spectral dependence of the influence of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) on the photoconductivity of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) thin films. 7 ± 2 nm silver nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of an organometallic silver salt in organic solvent. Optical properties of the mixture of P3HT and Ag NPs and thin films with various Ag content were investigated. Spectral dependences of the photocurrent were measured for the films cast on the top of interdigitated microelectrodes. Antibatic behavior of the photocurrent with respect to the absorption spectrum was observed. Results shows 40-150 times enhancement of the photocurrents, depending on the wavelength, in films doped with Ag NPs compared with the pristine films. The existing theories on the influence of metallic nanoparticles in the photoactive layer of organic solar cells are reviewed and discussed.

  18. Fern-synthesized nanoparticles in the fight against malaria: LC/MS analysis of Pteridium aquilinum leaf extract and biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles with high mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity.

    PubMed

    Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Roni, Mathath; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Dinesh, Devakumar; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Kumar, Suresh; Desneux, Nicolas; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem due to the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum strains resistant to chloroquine. There is an urgent need to investigate new and effective sources of antimalarial drugs. This research proposed a novel method of fern-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap plant extract of Pteridium aquilinum, acting as a reducing and capping agent. AgNP were characterized by UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Phytochemical analysis of P. aquilinum leaf extract revealed the presence of phenols, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, glycosides, steroids, and triterpenoids. LC/MS analysis identified at least 19 compounds, namely pterosin, hydroquinone, hydroxy-acetophenone, hydroxy-cinnamic acid, 5, 7-dihydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, trans-cinnamic acid, apiole, quercetin 3-glucoside, hydroxy-L-proline, hypaphorine, khellol glucoside, umbelliferose, violaxanthin, ergotamine tartrate, palmatine chloride, deacylgymnemic acid, methyl laurate, and palmitoyl acetate. In DPPH scavenging assays, the IC50 value of the P. aquilinum leaf extract was 10.04 μg/ml, while IC50 of BHT and rutin were 7.93 and 6.35 μg/ml. In mosquitocidal assays, LC50 of P. aquilinum leaf extract against Anopheles stephensi larvae and pupae were 220.44 ppm (larva I), 254.12 ppm (II), 302.32 ppm (III), 395.12 ppm (IV), and 502.20 ppm (pupa). LC50 of P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP were 7.48 ppm (I), 10.68 ppm (II), 13.77 ppm (III), 18.45 ppm (IV), and 31.51 ppm (pupa). In the field, the application of P. aquilinum extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. Both the P. aquilinum extract and AgNP reduced longevity and fecundity of An. stephensi adults. Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against An. stephensi adults showed that P. aquilinum leaf-, stem-, and root-based coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the permethrin-based positive control (57, 50, 41, and 49 %, respectively). Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of P. aquilinum leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against CQ-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of P. falciparum. IC50 of P. aquilinum were 62.04 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 71.16 μg/ml (CQ-r); P. aquilinum-synthesized AgNP achieved IC50 of 78.12 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 88.34 μg/ml (CQ-r). Overall, our results highlighted that fern-synthesized AgNP could be candidated as a new tool against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum and different developmental instars of its primary vector An. stephensi. Further research on nanosynthesis routed by the LC/MS-identified constituents is ongoing. PMID:26612497

  19. Targeted silver nanoparticles for ratiometric cell phenotyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmore, Anne-Mari A.; Simón-Gracia, Lorena; Toome, Kadri; Paiste, Päärn; Kotamraju, Venkata Ramana; Mölder, Tarmo; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Ruoslahti, Erkki; Braun, Gary B.; Teesalu, Tambet

    2016-04-01

    Affinity targeting is used to deliver nanoparticles to cells and tissues. For efficient targeting, it is critical to consider the expression and accessibility of the relevant receptors in the target cells. Here, we describe isotopically barcoded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a tool for auditing affinity ligand receptors in cells. Tumor penetrating peptide RPARPAR (receptor: NRP-1) and tumor homing peptide GKRK (receptor: p32) were used as affinity ligands on the AgNPs. The binding and uptake of the peptide-functionalized AgNPs by cultured PPC-1 prostate cancer and M21 melanoma cells was dependent on the cell surface expression of the cognate peptide receptors. Barcoded peptide-functionalized AgNPs were synthesized from silver and palladium isotopes. The cells were incubated with a cocktail of the barcoded nanoparticles [RPARPAR (R), GKRK (K), and control], and cellular binding and internalization of each type of nanoparticle was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results of isotopic analysis were in agreement with data obtained using optical methods. Using ratiometric measurements, we were able to classify the PPC-1 cell line as mainly NRP-1-positive, with 75 +/- 5% R-AgNP uptake, and the M21 cell line as only p32-positive, with 89 +/- 9% K-AgNP uptake. The isotopically barcoded multiplexed AgNPs are useful as an in vitro ratiometric phenotyping tool and have potential uses in functional evaluation of the expression of accessible homing peptide receptors in vivo.Affinity targeting is used to deliver nanoparticles to cells and tissues. For efficient targeting, it is critical to consider the expression and accessibility of the relevant receptors in the target cells. Here, we describe isotopically barcoded silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as a tool for auditing affinity ligand receptors in cells. Tumor penetrating peptide RPARPAR (receptor: NRP-1) and tumor homing peptide GKRK (receptor: p32) were used as affinity ligands on the AgNPs. The binding and uptake of the peptide-functionalized AgNPs by cultured PPC-1 prostate cancer and M21 melanoma cells was dependent on the cell surface expression of the cognate peptide receptors. Barcoded peptide-functionalized AgNPs were synthesized from silver and palladium isotopes. The cells were incubated with a cocktail of the barcoded nanoparticles [RPARPAR (R), GKRK (K), and control], and cellular binding and internalization of each type of nanoparticle was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The results of isotopic analysis were in agreement with data obtained using optical methods. Using ratiometric measurements, we were able to classify the PPC-1 cell line as mainly NRP-1-positive, with 75 +/- 5% R-AgNP uptake, and the M21 cell line as only p32-positive, with 89 +/- 9% K-AgNP uptake. The isotopically barcoded multiplexed AgNPs are useful as an in vitro ratiometric phenotyping tool and have potential uses in functional evaluation of the expression of accessible homing peptide receptors in vivo. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of isotopic AgNPs, cell antibody staining, coadministration ICP-MS data, and biotin control particle ICP-MS data. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR07928D

  20. Silver nanoparticles -- allies or adversaries?

    PubMed

    Bartłomiejczyk, Teresa; Lankoff, Anna; Kruszewski, Marcin; Szumiel, Irena

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NP) are structures with at least one dimension of less than 100 nanometers (nm) and unique properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNP), due to their bactericidal action, have found practical applications in medicine, cosmetics, textiles, electronics, and other fields. Nevertheless, their less advantageous properties which make AgNP potentially harmful to public health or the environment should also be taken into consideration. These nanoparticles are cyto- and genotoxic and accumulate in the environment, where their antibacterial properties may be disadvantageous for agriculture and waste management. The presented study reviews data concerning the biological effects of AgNP in mammalian cells in vitro: cellular uptake and excretion, localization in cellular compartments, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. The mechanism of nanoparticle action consists on induction of the oxidative stress resulting in a further ROS generation, DNA damage and activation of signaling leading to various, cell type-specific pathways to inflammation, apoptotic or necrotic death. In order to assure a safe application of AgNP, further detailed studies are needed on the mechanisms of the action of AgNP on mammalian cells at the molecular level. PMID:23540211

  1. Sonochemical coating of silver nanoparticles on textile fabrics (nylon, polyester and cotton) and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelshtein, Ilana; Applerot, Guy; Perkas, Nina; Guibert, Geoffrey; Mikhailov, Serguei; Gedanken, Aharon

    2008-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and deposited on different types of fabrics using ultrasound irradiation. The structure of silver-fabric composites was studied by physico-chemical methods. The mechanism of the strong adhesion of silver nanoparticles to the fibers is discussed. The excellent antibacterial activity of the Ag-fabric composite against Escherichia coli (gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) cultures was demonstrated.

  2. Preparation of silver nanoparticles using tryptophan and its formation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zaheer, Zoya; Malik, Maqsood Ahmad; Al-Nowaiser, F M; Khan, Zaheer

    2010-12-01

    A non-toxic route was used for the preparation of silver nanoparticles using tryptophan (Trp) as reducing/stabilizing agent in the presence of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). Role of water soluble neutral polymer poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) has been studied on the growth of yellow colour silver nanoparticle formation. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by observing the size and distribution of silver nanoparticles. As the reaction proceeded, particles grew up to about 10 and 20 nm in the presence and absence of PVP, respectively, as determined by TEM. The formed nanoparticles showed the highest absorption plasmon band at 425 nm. Rate of silver sol formation increases with the [Trp], [CTAB] and [PVP], reaching a limiting value and then decreases with the increase in concentrations of these reagents. It was observed that nanoparticles are spherical, aggregated and poly dispersed in the absence and presence of PVP, respectively. On the basis of kinetic data, a suitable mechanism is proposed and discussed for the silver sol formation. PMID:20801004

  3. Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial properties against some human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premanand, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Kannadasan, N.; Sathishkumar, K.; Viruthagiri, G.

    2015-04-01

    In the present report, bio-reduction of silver nitrate into silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of Nelumbo nucifera is explained. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited surface Plasmon resonance at 410 nm. The crystalline nature of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the X-ray diffraction pattern. The functional groups responsible for bio-reduction of silver nitrate into silver were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. Field emission transmission electron microscope micrographs showed the formation of well-separated silver nanoparticles of size in the range of 30-40 nm. The result of dynamic light scattering also confirms the mono-dispersed silver nanoparticles with average size of 35 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis.

  4. Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial properties against some human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premanand, G.; Shanmugam, N.; Kannadasan, N.; Sathishkumar, K.; Viruthagiri, G.

    2016-03-01

    In the present report, bio-reduction of silver nitrate into silver nanoparticles using the leaf extract of Nelumbo nucifera is explained. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited surface Plasmon resonance at 410 nm. The crystalline nature of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the X-ray diffraction pattern. The functional groups responsible for bio-reduction of silver nitrate into silver were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectrum. Field emission transmission electron microscope micrographs showed the formation of well-separated silver nanoparticles of size in the range of 30-40 nm. The result of dynamic light scattering also confirms the mono-dispersed silver nanoparticles with average size of 35 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against the Gram-positive bacteria B. subtilis.

  5. Influence of surfactant on the preparation of silver nanoparticles by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dung Dang, Thi My; Thu Tuyet Le, Thi; Fribourg-Blanc, Eric; Chien Dang, Mau

    2012-09-01

    In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized from silver nitrate via a polyol method in ambient atmosphere. In our synthesis route, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is used as both size controller and capping agent, ethylene glycol acts both as solvent and reducing agent. The obtained silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry which indicated the formation of nanoparticles. Investigation of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy clearly demonstrated the coordination between silver nanoparticles and PVP. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) contributed to the particle size analysis. The surface plasmon resonance peak in absorption spectra of silver colloidal solution showed absorption from 406 to 409 nm. The average size of the resulting silver nanoparticles was below 10 nm with a dependency on the PVP concentration.

  6. Procedure optimization for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa.

    PubMed

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Makari, Vajihe; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2014-10-16

    The present study is dealing with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa as a green synthesis procedure without any catalyst, template or surfactant. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO3 with E. oleosa leaf extract at non-photomediated conditions. The significance of some synthesis conditions such as: silver nitrate concentration, concentration of the plant extract, time of synthesis reaction and temperature of plant extraction procedure on the particle size of synthesized silver particles was investigated and optimized. The participations of the studied factors in controlling the particle size of reduced silver were quantitatively evaluated via analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this investigation showed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by tuning significant parameters, while performing the synthesis procedure at optimum conditions leads to form silver nanoparticles with 21nm as averaged size. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the development of silver nanoparticles formation. Meanwhile, produced silver nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and FT-IR techniques. PMID:25456666

  7. Procedure optimization for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Taghdiri, Mehdi; Makari, Vajihe; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    The present study is dealing with the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the aqueous extract of Eucalyptus oleosa as a green synthesis procedure without any catalyst, template or surfactant. Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reacting aqueous AgNO3 with E. oleosa leaf extract at non-photomediated conditions. The significance of some synthesis conditions such as: silver nitrate concentration, concentration of the plant extract, time of synthesis reaction and temperature of plant extraction procedure on the particle size of synthesized silver particles was investigated and optimized. The participations of the studied factors in controlling the particle size of reduced silver were quantitatively evaluated via analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results of this investigation showed that silver nanoparticles could be synthesized by tuning significant parameters, while performing the synthesis procedure at optimum conditions leads to form silver nanoparticles with 21 nm as averaged size. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the development of silver nanoparticles formation. Meanwhile, produced silver nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and FT-IR techniques.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by a Bacillus sp. of marine origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janardhanan, A.; Roshmi, T.; Varghese, Rintu T.; Soniya, E. V.; Mathew, Jyothis; Radhakrishnan, E. K.

    2013-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the nanoparticle synthesizing properties of a silver resistant Bacillus sp. isolated from a marine water sample. The 16SrDNA sequence analysis of the isolate proved it as a Bacillus strain. Very interestingly, the isolate was found to have the ability to form intracellular silver nanoparticles at room temperature within 24 hours. This was confirmed by the UV-Vis absorption analysis which showed a peak at 430 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Further characterization of the nanoparticles was carried out by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The presence of silver nanoparticles with the size less than 100 nm was confirmed. These particles were found to be extremely stable as confirmed by the TEM analysis after three months of purification. So, the current study is the demonstration of an efficient synthesis of stable silver nanoparticles by a marine Bacillus strain.

  9. Nanosecond laser ablation of silver nanoparticle film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jaewon; Han, Sewoon; Lee, Daeho; Ahn, Sanghoon; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Moon, Jooho; Ko, Seung H.

    2013-02-01

    Nanosecond laser ablation of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) protected silver nanoparticle (20 nm diameter) film is studied using a frequency doubled Nd:YAG nanosecond laser (532 nm wavelength, 6 ns full width half maximum pulse width). In the sintered silver nanoparticle film, absorbed light energy conducts well through the sintered porous structure, resulting in ablation craters of a porous dome shape or crown shape depending on the irradiation fluence due to the sudden vaporization of the PVP. In the unsintered silver nanoparticle film, the ablation crater with a clean edge profile is formed and many coalesced nanoparticles of 50 to 100 nm in size are observed inside the ablation crater. These results and an order of magnitude analysis indicate that the absorbed thermal energy is confined within the nanoparticles, causing melting of nanoparticles and their coalescence to larger agglomerates, which are removed following melting and subsequent partial vaporization.

  10. Electrodeposited Silver Nanoparticles Patterned Hexagonally for SERS

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Geun Hoi; Lee, Sue Yeone; Suh, Jung Sang

    2010-08-06

    We have fabricated hexagonally patterned silver nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by electrodepositing silver on the surface of an aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide from anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Even after completely removing the oxide, well-ordered hexagonal patterns, similar to the shape of graphene, remained on the surface of the aluminum plate. The borders of the hexagonal pattern protruded up to form sorts of nano-mountains at both the sides and apexes of the hexagon, with the apexes protruding even more significantly than the sides. The aluminum plate prepared by completely removing the oxide has been used in the preparation of SERS substrates by sputter-coating of gold or silver on it. Instead of sputter-coating, here we have electro-deposited silver on the aluminum plate. When silver was electro-deposited on the plate, silver nanoparticles were made along the hexagonal margins.

  11. Substrate decomposition in galvanic displacement reaction: Contrast between gold and silver nanoparticle formation

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Tapas; Satpati, Biswarup

    2015-06-24

    We have investigated substrate decomposition during formation of silver and gold nanoparticles in galvanic displacement reaction on germanium surfaces. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized by electroless deposition on sputter coated germanium thin film (∼ 200 nm) grown initially on silicon substrate. The nanoparticles formation and the substrate corrosion were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy.

  12. Biocide silver nanoparticles in two different silica-based coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babapour, A.; Yang, B.; Bahang, S.; Cao, W.

    2012-09-01

    Silica-based coatings containing biocide silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using low temperature sol-gel method. Two different silane based matrices, phenyltriethoxysilane (PhTEOS) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), were selected as precursor to prepare silica-based film. The films were analyzed by using UV-visible spectrophotometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for their optical, surface morphological as well as structural properties. Optical properties of nanosilver in these two matrices showed that the peak absorption observed at different wavelength, which is due to the fact that optical absorption of nanoparticles is affected by the surrounding medium. It is also found that the silver absorption has higher intensity in PhTEOS than in TEOS matrix, indicating higher concentration of silver nanoparticles being loaded into the coating. To study silver release property, the films were immersed in water for 12 and 20 days. AFM and SEM analyzes present that higher concentration of silver nanoparticles and smaller particle sizes were synthesis in PhTEOS coating and consequently, more particles remains on the surfaces after 20 days which leads to longer antibacterial activity of PhTEOS coating.

  13. Eco-friendly control of malaria and arbovirus vectors using the mosquitofish Gambusia affinis and ultra-low dosages of Mimusops elengi-synthesized silver nanoparticles: towards an integrative approach?

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Jayapal; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Nicoletti, Marcello; Higuchi, Akon; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Kumar, Suresh; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Munusamy, Murugan A; Messing, Russell H; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. Their impact against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. We synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous leaf extract of Mimusops elengi as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The formation of AgNP was studied using different biophysical methods, including UV-vis spectrophotometry, TEM, XRD, EDX and FTIR. Low doses of AgNP showed larvicidal and pupicidal toxicity against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and the arbovirus vector Aedes albopictus. AgNP LC50 against A. stephensi ranged from 12.53 (I instar larvae) to 23.55 ppm (pupae); LC50 against A. albopictus ranged from 11.72 ppm (I) to 21.46 ppm (pupae). In the field, the application of M. elengi extract and AgNP (10 × LC50) led to 100 % larval reduction after 72 h. In adulticidal experiments, AgNP showed LC50 of 13.7 ppm for A. stephensi and 14.7 ppm for A. albopictus. The predation efficiency of Gambusia affinis against A. stephensi and A. albopictus III instar larvae was 86.2 and 81.7 %, respectively. In AgNP-contaminated environments, predation was 93.7 and 88.6 %, respectively. This research demonstrates that M. elengi-synthesized AgNP may be employed at ultra-low doses to reduce larval populations of malaria and arbovirus vectors, without detrimental effects on predation rates of mosquito natural enemies, such as larvivorous fishes. PMID:26300364

  14. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using tea leaf extract from Camellia Sinensis

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Yuet Ying; Chieng, Buong Woei; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2012-01-01

    The development of the biological synthesis of nanoparticles using microorganisms or plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology as it is environmentally friendly and does not involve any harmful chemicals. In this study, the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Chinese tea from Camellia sinensis is reported. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis shows that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are of face-centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with an approximate size of 4 nm were observed in the TEM image. The application of the green synthesized nanoparticles can be used in many fields such as cosmetics, foods, and medicine. PMID:22904632

  15. A novel green one-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles using chitosan: catalytic activity and antimicrobial studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatesham, Maragoni; Ayodhya, Dasari; Madhusudhan, Alle; Veera Babu, Nagati; Veerabhadram, Guttena

    2014-01-01

    Stable silver nanoparticles were synthesized using chitosan acting as both reducing and stabilizing agent without using any toxic chemicals. This reaction was carried out in an autoclave at a pressure of 15 psi and 120 °C temperature by varying the time. The influence of different parameters such as time, change of concentration of silver nitrate and concentration of chitosan on the formation of silver nanoparticles were studied. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results of catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol by sodium borohydride in the presence of green synthesized silver nanoparticles were presented. The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles was tested against Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus and was found to be possessing inhibiting property.

  16. Biological synthesis of very small silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia: The effects of visible-light irradiation and the liquid mixing process

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhtari, Narges; Daneshpajouh, Shahram; Seyedbagheri, Seyedali; Atashdehghan, Reza; Abdi, Khosro; Sarkar, Saeed; Minaian, Sara; Shahverdi, Hamid Reza; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2009-06-03

    This study has investigated different visible-light irradiation's effect on the formation of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate using the culture supernatant of Klebsiella pneumonia. Our study shows that visible-light emission can significantly prompt the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Also, the study experimentally investigated the liquid mixing process effect on silver nanoparticle synthesis by visible-light irradiation. This study successfully synthesized uniformly dispersed silver nanoparticles with a uniform size and shape in the range of 1-6 nm with an average size of 3 nm. Furthermore, the study investigated the mechanism of the reduction of silver ions by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia, and used X-ray diffraction to characterize silver chloride as an intermediate compound. Silver chloride was prepared synthetically and used as a substrate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by culture supernatant of K. pneumonia. The silver nanoparticles have been prepared from silver chloride during this investigation for the first time.

  17. Plant extract mediated synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial activity against clinically isolated pathogens.

    PubMed

    MubarakAli, D; Thajuddin, N; Jeganathan, K; Gunasekaran, M

    2011-07-01

    Biosynthesis of nanoparticles is under exploration is due to wide biomedical applications and research interest in nanotechnology. Bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO(3)) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles respectively with the plant extract, Mentha piperita (Lamiaceae). The plant extract is mixed with AgNO(3) and HAuCl(2), incubated and studied synthesis of nanoparticles using UV-Vis spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, SEM equipped with EDS. The silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical in shape with 90 nm, whereas the synthesized gold nanoparticles were found to be 150 nm. The results showed that the leaf extract of menthol is very good bioreductant for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and synthesized nanoparticles active against clinically isolated human pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. PMID:21466948

  18. Cytocompatible antifungal acrylic resin containing silver nanoparticles for dentures

    PubMed Central

    Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Mendieta, Irasema; Nuñez-Anita, Rosa Elvira; Cajero-Juárez, Marcos; Castaño, Víctor M

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhibition of Candida albicans on denture resins could play a significant role in preventing the development of denture stomatitis. The safety of a new dental material with antifungal properties was analyzed in this work. Methods Poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] discs and PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs were formulated, with the commercial acrylic resin, Nature-CrylTM, used as a control. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dispersive Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The antifungal effect was assessed using a luminescent microbial cell viability assay. Biocompatibility tests were carried out using NIH-3T3 mouse embryonic fibroblasts and a Jurkat human lymphocyte cell line. Cells were cultured for 24 or 72 hours in the presence or absence of the polymer formulations and analyzed using three different tests, ie, cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and cell proliferation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay BrdU, and genomic DNA damage (Comet assay). Finally, the samples were evaluated mechanically, and the polymer-bearing silver nanoparticles were analyzed microscopically to evaluate dispersion of the nanoparticles. Results The results show that PMMA-silver nanoparticle discs significantly reduce adherence of C. albicans and do not affect metabolism or proliferation. They also appear not to cause genotoxic damage to cells. Conclusion The present work has developed a new biocompatible antifungal PMMA denture base material. PMID:22969297

  19. Removal of Protein Capping Enhances the Antibacterial Efficiency of Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Navin; Bhargava, Arpit; Rathi, Mohit; Dilip, R. Venkataramana; Panwar, Jitendra

    2015-01-01

    The present study demonstrates an economical and environmental affable approach for the synthesis of “protein-capped” silver nanoparticles in aqueous solvent system. A variety of standard techniques viz. UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were employed to characterize the shape, size and composition of nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be homogenous, spherical, mono-dispersed and covered with multi-layered protein shell. In order to prepare bare silver nanoparticles, the protein shell was removed from biogenic nanoparticles as confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR and photoluminescence analysis. Subsequently, the antibacterial efficacy of protein-capped and bare silver nanoparticles was compared by bacterial growth rate and minimum inhibitory concentration assay. The results revealed that bare nanoparticles were more effective as compared to the protein-capped silver nanoparticles with varying antibacterial potential against the tested Gram positive and negative bacterial species. Mechanistic studies based on ROS generation and membrane damage suggested that protein-capped and bare silver nanoparticles demonstrate distinct mode of action. These findings were strengthened by the TEM imaging along with silver ion release measurements using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). In conclusion, our results illustrate that presence of protein shell on silver nanoparticles can decrease their bactericidal effects. These findings open new avenues for surface modifications of nanoparticles to modulate and enhance their functional properties. PMID:26226385

  20. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Catharanthus roseus root extract and its larvicidal effects.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Thangavel; Jemimah, Irudayaraj Anto Amal; Ponmanickam, Ponnirul; Ayyanar, Muniappan

    2015-11-01

    Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles has attracted considerable attention due to their biocompatibility, low toxicity, cost-effectiveness and being a novel method has an eco-friendly approach. Biological activity of root extracts as well as synthesized silver nanoparticles of Catharanthus roseus were evaluated against larvae of Aedes aegyptiand Culex quinquefasciatus. The structure and proportion of the synthesized nanoparticles was defined by exploitation ultraviolet spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy methods. Reduction of silver ions occurred when silver nitrate solution was treated with aqueous root extract at 60°C. Synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were confirmed by analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) using UV-vis spectrophotometer at 423 nm. FTIR showed aliphatic amines and alkanes corresponding peaks to be presence of responsible compounds to produced nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. Spherical shaped and crystalline nature of particles was recorded under XRD analysis. Presence of silver metal and 35-55nm sized particles were recorded using EDAX and SEM respectively. Larvicidal activitywas observed after24 hrs of exposure to root extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles. The highest larval mortality was observed in synthesized silver nanopartiucles against Aedes aegypti (LC50= 2.01 ± 0.34; LC90= 5.29 ± 0.07 at 5.0 mg(-1) concentration) and Culex quinquefasciatus (LC50= 1.18 ± 0.15; LC90= 2.55 ± 0.76 at 3.5 to 5.0 mgl(-1) concentration) respectively. The present study provides evidence that synthesized silver nanoparticles of Catharanthus roseus offer potential source for larvicidal activity againstthe larvae of both dengue and filariasis vectors. PMID:26688962

  1. Continuous synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using a homogeneous heating microwave reactor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Masateru; Miyakawa, Masato; Kataoka, Haruki; Koda, Hidekazu; Sato, Koichi; Suzuki, Toshishige M.

    2011-06-01

    Continuous synthesis of silver nanoparticles based on a polyol process was conducted using a microwave-assisted flow reactor installed in a cylindrical resonance cavity. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) and poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) dissolved in ethylene glycol were used respectively as a silver metal precursor and as a capping agent of nanoparticles. Ethylene glycol worked as the solvent and simultaneously as the reductant. Silver nanoparticles of narrow size distributions were synthesized steadily for 5 h, maintaining almost constant yield (>93%) and quality. The reaction was achieved within 2.8 s of residence time, although nanoparticles were not formed under this flow rate by conventional heating. A narrower particle size distribution was realized by the increased flow rate of the reaction solution. Nanoparticles of 9.8 nm average size with a standard deviation of 0.9 nm were synthesized at the rate of 100 ml h-l.

  2. Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Darroudi, Majid; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zamiri, Reza; Zak, AK; Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    The application of green chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work. PMID:21556342

  3. Heteroaggregation of Silver Nanoparticles with Clay Minerals in Aqueous System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J.; Burrow, E.; Hwang, Y.; Lenhart, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly being used in industrial processes and consumer products that exploit their beneficial properties and improve our daily lives. Nevertheless, they also attract attention when released into natural environment due to their potential for causing adverse effects. The fate and transport of nanoparticles in aqueous systems have been the focus of intense study. However, their interactions with other natural particles have received only limited attention. Clay minerals are ubiquitous in most aquatic systems and their variably charged surfaces can act as deposition sites that can alter the fate and transport of nanoparticles in natural aqueous environments. In this study, we investigated the homoaggregation of silver nanoparticles with different coating layers and their heteroaggregation behavior with clay minerals (illite, kaolinite, montmorillonite) in neutral pH solutions. Silver nanoparticles with a nominal diameter of 80 nm were synthesized with three different surface coating layers: uncoated, citrate-coated and Tween-coated. Illite (IMt-2), kaolinite (KGa-2), and montmorillonite (SWy-2) were purchased from the Clay Mineral Society (Indiana) and pretreated to obtain monocationic (Na-clay) and dicationic (Ca-clay) suspensions before the experiments. The change in hydrodynamic diameter as a function of time was monitored using dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurements in order to evaluate early stage aggregation as a function of electrolyte concentration in both the homo- and heteroaggregation scenarios. A shift in the critical coagulation concentration (CCC) values to lower electrolyte concentrations was observed in binary systems, compared to single silver nanoparticle and clay systems. The results also suggest more rapid aggregation in binary system during the early aggregation stage when compared to the single-particle systems. The behavior of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles was similar to that of the bare particles, while the Tween-coated silver nanoparticles showed high stability in both single and binary systems. There were no significant differences in early stage aggregation kinetics observed inthe Na-clay-nanoparticle or Ca-clay-nanoparticle systems, which suggested that the CCC values of the single Na- or Ca-clay suspensions depend only on the electrolyte concentration, not the original cations on the clay surface. These results provide a basic idea for understanding the heteroaggregation of different silver nanoparticles and clays, which can be utilized in further study of fate and transport of engineered nanoparticles in natural aqueous system.

  4. Optimization for rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles and its effect on phytopathogenic fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnaraj, C.; Ramachandran, R.; Mohan, K.; Kalaichelvan, P. T.

    In this present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized by green chemistry approach using Acalypha indica leaf extract as reducing agents. The reaction medium employed in the synthesis process was optimized to attain better yield, controlled size and stability. Further, the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were conformed through UV-vis spectrum, XRD and HR-TEM analyses. Different concentration of silver nanoparticles were tested to know the inhibitory effect of fungal plant pathogens namely Alternaria alternata, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Macrophomina phaseolina, Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea and Curvularia lunata. Interestingly, 15 mg concentration of silver nanoparticles showed excellent inhibitory activity against all the tested pathogens. Thus, the obtained results clearly suggest that silver nanoparticles may have important applications in controlling various plant diseases caused by fungi.

  5. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract and its antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Debadin; Chatterjee, Someswar

    2015-09-01

    Among the various inorganic nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have received substantial attention in the field of antimicrobial research. For safe and biocompatible use of silver nanoparticles in antimicrobial research, the different biogenic routes are developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles that do not use toxic chemicals. Among those, to synthesize silver nanoparticles, the use of plant part extract becomes an emerging field because plant part acts as reducing as well as capping agent. For large-scale production of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using plant part, the synthesis route should be very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly based on easy availability and non-toxic nature of plant, stability and antibacterial potential of biosynthesized nanoparticles. In the present study, we report a very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly route for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. This plant has been opted for the present study for its known medicinal properties, and it is easily available in all seasons and everywhere. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis and TEM analysis. The average particle size is 40 nm in the range of 10-90 nm. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 has been measured by disc diffusion method, agar cup assay and serial dilution turbidity measurement assay. The results show that green synthesized silver nanoparticles, using guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract, have a potential to inhibit the growth of bacteria.

  6. Geranium leaf assisted biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shankar, S Shiv; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

    2003-01-01

    Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) leaf extract in the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. On treating aqueous silver nitrate solution with geranium leaf extract, rapid reduction of the silver ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable, crystalline silver nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy analysis of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 16 to 40 nm and were assembled in solution into quasilinear superstructures. The rate of reduction of the silver ions by the geranium leaf extract is faster than that observed by us in an earlier study using a fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, thus highlighting the possibility that nanoparticle biosynthesis methodologies will achieve rates of synthesis comparable to those of chemical methods. This study also represents an important advance in the use of plants over microorganisms in the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles. PMID:14656132

  7. Synthesis and applications of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balantrapu, Krishna Chaitanya

    Due to their unique properties, silver nanoparticles are used in a wide range of applications, like electronics, optics, catalysis, biology, etc. The preferred route for their preparation has been, and still is, the reduction of silver salts in solutions. While dedicated reducing agents, solvents, and dispersants are typically used in this approach, in some cases, the same additive (ex: polyols) may play multiple roles. Such dual-function additives are particularly interesting alternatives as they offer the possibility of replacing the undesirable reductants often used in conventional precipitation methods. In the current research, an environmentally friendly route to prepare stable concentrated aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles is investigated experimentally. It was found that Arabic gum, a well known stabilizing agent, can also rapidly and completely reduce Ag 2O to metallic silver in alkaline solutions (pH >12.0) and elevated temperature (65 C). The average size of the silver nanoparticles could be tailored from 13 to 30 nm by varying the experimental conditions. To prepare stable metal colloids by chemical precipitation methods requires in most cases a high concentration of polymeric dispersants. Consequently, the particles are embedded in the organic matrix, which can not be removed without affecting the properties of the particles and/or the dispersion stability. This can have a negative effect in many applications. In this work, an enzymatic hydrolysis method for isolating the silver particles from dispersions containing high concentrations of polymer was identified. In addition, a chemical hydrolysis method yielding dispersed silver nanoparticles with low content of residual polymer for printable electronics applications is investigated. The low sintering temperature of silver nanoparticles and high electrical conductivity make them very attractive for the fabrication of conductive patterns especially for flexible electronic applications. In the final section of this thesis, the silver nanoparticles are deposited using inkjet printing technology with a Dimatix printer DMP -2831. Silver nanoparticles of 13 nm, 80 nm, and mixtures of the two sizes were used to evaluate the effect of particle size and size distribution on the electrical properties of sintered films. The silver layers deposited with a 'drop-on-demand' inkjet printer were heated at temperatures ranging from 125C to 200C. The small particles formed less resistive films at 125C, while the larger ones provided better electrical conductivity above 150C. The inks containing mixed small and large particles yielded the most conductive silver films over the entire investigated temperature range. A mechanism explaining these results is proposed based on the evolution of film microstructure with temperature.

  8. Singlet oxygen generation enhanced by silver-pectin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Luciana S A; Gomes, Anderson S L; Saska, Sybele; Nigoghossian, Karina; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J L; de Araujo, Renato E

    2012-11-01

    We demonstrate the potential application of silver-pectin nanoparticles on photodynamic therapy, on a solution-base platform. Photodynamic therapy is a medical technique which uses a combination of photosensitizing drugs and light to induce selective damage on the target tissue, by electronically excited and highly reactive singlet state of oxygen. Metal enhanced singlet oxygen generation in riboflavin water solution with silver-pectin nanoparticles was observed and quantified. Here 13 nm silver nanospheres enclosed by a pectin layer were synthesized and it interaction with riboflavin molecule was analyzed. Pectin, a complex carbohydrate found in plants primary cell walls, was used to increase the biocompatibility of the silver nanoparticles and to improve metal enhanced singlet oxygen generation (28.5 %) and metal-enhanced fluorescence (30.7 %) processes at room temperature. The singlet oxygen sensor fluorescent green reagent was used to quantify the enhancement of the riboflavin singlet oxygen production induced by the silver colloid. We report a 1.7-fold increase of riboflavin emission and a 1.8-fold enhancement of singlet oxygen production. PMID:22843254

  9. Exploitation of endophytic fungus, Guignardia mangiferae for extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their in vitro biological activities.

    PubMed

    Balakumaran, M D; Ramachandran, R; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize highly biocompatible and functionalized silver nanoparticles using endophytic fungi isolated from the leaves of medicinal plants. Among 13 fungi tested, the isolate, Guignardia mangiferae (Bios PTK 4) extracellularly synthesized well-dispersed and extremely stable silver nanoparticles under optimized reaction conditions within 12 h. These nanoparticles were characterized by HR-TEM, SAED, XRD and EDX analyses. G. mangiferae synthesized 5-30 nm sized, spherical shaped silver nanoparticles. Effect of pH on the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied using well diffusion assay; on the basis of particle stability and antibacterial activity, pH 7 was found to be optimum. The leakage of intracellular components has clearly demonstrated that silver nanoparticles damage the bacterial cells by formation of pores, which affect the membrane permeability and finally leads to cell death. In addition, silver nanoparticles exhibited excellent antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles showed IC50 values of 63.37, 27.54 and 23.84 μg/mL against normal African monkey kidney (Vero), HeLa (cervical) and MCF-7 (breast) cells, respectively, at 24 h incubation period. Thus, the obtained results convincingly suggest that silver nanoparticles synthesized from G. mangiferae are highly biocompatible and have wider applicability and they could be explored as promising candidates for a variety of biomedical/pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. PMID:26302842

  10. Synthesis of large uniform gold and core-shell gold-silver nanoparticles: Effect of temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiunov, I. A.; Gorbachevskyy, M. V.; Kopitsyn, D. S.; Kotelev, M. S.; Ivanov, E. V.; Vinokurov, V. A.; Novikov, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    The temperatures of nucleation and growth for gold and silver nanoparticles are quite close to each other in citrate-based seeded-growth synthesis. Hence, thorough temperature control during the synthesis of gold and gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles is expected to improve the yield of uniform non-aggregated nanoparticles suitable for selective contrasting of surface defects. Gold and gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles of size ranging from 20 to 160 nm were synthesized using various means of temperature control. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Model nanocracks were milled on pipeline steel specimen by focused ion beam (FIB). It was found that to produce large uniform core-shell nanoparticles, thorough temperature control is required during formation of the gold seeds and the silver shell. Moreover, the synthesized nanoparticles were used for selective contrasting of defects on metal surface.

  11. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from the marine seaweed Sargassum wightii and their antibacterial activity against some human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanmugam, N.; Rajkamal, P.; Cholan, S.; Kannadasan, N.; Sathishkumar, K.; Viruthagiri, G.; Sundaramanickam, A.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we have reported on biological synthesis of nano-sized silver and its antibacterial activity against human pathogens. The nanoparticles of silver were formed by the reduction of silver nitrate to aqueous silver metal ions during exposure to the extract of marine seaweed Sargassum wightii. The optical properties of the obtained silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible absorption and room temperature photoluminescence. The X-ray diffraction results reveal that the synthesized silver nanoparticles are in the cubic phase. The existence of functional groups was identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The morphology and size of the synthesized particles were studied with atomic force microscope and high-resolution transmission electron microscope measurements. The synthesized nanoparticles have an effective antibacterial activity against S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, and S. typhi.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine macroalga Chaetomorpha linum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, R. Ragupathi Raja; Arumugam, R.; Ramya, D.; Manivannan, K.; Anantharaman, P.

    2013-06-01

    The present investigation demonstrates the formation of silver nanoparticles by the reduction of the aqueous silver metal ions during exposure to the seaweed ( Chaetomorpha linum) extract . The silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by UV-visible spectrum, FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. The characteristic absorption peak at 422 nm in UV-vis spectrum confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. The colour intensity at 422 nm increased with duration of incubation. The size of nanoparticles synthesized varied from 3 to 44 nm with average of ~30 nm. The FTIR spectrum of C. linum extract showed peaks at 1,020, 1,112, 1,325, 1,512, 1,535, 1,610, 1,725, 1,862, 2,924, 3,330 cm-1. The vibrational bands corresponding to the bonds such as -C=C (ring), -C-O, -C-O-C and C=C (chain) are derived from water-soluble compounds such as amines, peptides, flavonoids and terpenoids present in C. linum extract. Hence, it may be inferred that these biomolecules are responsible for capping and efficient stabilization. Since no synthetic reagents were used in this investigation, it is environmentally safe and have potential for application in biomedicine and agriculture.

  13. Light-driven transformation processes of anisotropic silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, George P; Shi, Yichao; Lavoie, Ellen; Daeneke, Torben; Reineck, Philipp; Cappel, Ute B; Huang, David M; Bach, Udo

    2013-07-23

    The photoinduced formation of silver nanoprisms from smaller silver seed particles in the presence of citrate anions is a classic example of a photomorphic reaction. In this case, light is used as a convenient tool to dynamically manipulate the shape of metal nanoparticles. To date, very little is known about the prevailing reaction mechanism of this type of photoreaction. Here we provide a detailed study of the shape transformation dynamics as a function of a range of different process parameters, such as photon energy and photon flux. For the first time, we provide direct evidence that the photochemical synthesis of silver nanoprisms from spherical seed nanoparticles proceeds via a light-activated two-dimensional coalescence mechanism. On the other hand, we could show that Ostwald ripening becomes the dominant reaction mechanism when larger silver nanoprisms are grown from photochemically synthesized smaller nanoprisms. This two-step reaction proceeds significantly faster and yields more uniform, sharper nanoprisms than the classical one-step photodevelopment process from seeds. The ability to dynamically control nanoparticle shapes and properties with light opens up novel synthesis avenues but also, more importantly, allows one to conceive new applications that exploit the nonstatic character of these nanoparticles and the ability to control and adjust their properties at will in a highly dynamic fashion. PMID:23730850

  14. Silver nanoparticles: Large scale solvothermal synthesis and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wani, Irshad A.; Khatoon, Sarvari; Ganguly, Aparna; Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 ; Ahmed, Jahangeer; Ganguli, Ashok K.; Ahmad, Tokeer

    2010-08-15

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a simple and modified solvothermal method at large scale using ethanol as the refluxing solvent and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent. The nanopowder was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible and BET surface area studies. XRD studies reveal the monophasic nature of these highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopic studies show the monodisperse and highly uniform nanoparticles of silver of the particle size of 5 nm, however, the size is found to be 7 nm using dynamic light scattering which is in good agreement with the TEM and X-ray line broadening studies. The surface area was found to be 34.5 m{sup 2}/g. UV-visible studies show the absorption band at {approx}425 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. The percentage yield of silver nanoparticles was found to be as high as 98.5%.

  15. Photochromic silver nanoparticles fabricated by sputter deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Okumu, J.; Dahmen, C.; Sprafke, A.N.; Luysberg, M.; Plessen, G. von; Wuttig, M.

    2005-05-01

    In this study a simple route to preparing photochromic silver nanoparticles in a TiO{sub 2} matrix is presented, which is based upon sputtering and subsequent annealing. The formation of silver nanoparticles with sizes of some tens of nanometers is confirmed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The inhomogeneously broadened particle-plasmon resonance of the nanoparticle ensemble leads to a broad optical-absorption band, whose spectral profile can be tuned by varying the silver load and the annealing temperature. Multicolor photochromic behavior of this Ag-TiO{sub 2} system upon irradiation with laser light is demonstrated and discussed in terms of a particle-plasmon-assisted electron transfer from the silver nanoparticles to TiO{sub 2} and subsequent trapping by adsorbed molecular oxygen. The electron depletion in the nanoparticles reduces the light absorption at the wavelength of irradiation. A gradual recovery of the absorption band is observed after irradiation, which is explained with a slow thermal release of electrons from the oxygen trapping centers and subsequent capture into the nanoparticles. The recovery can be accelerated by ultraviolet irradiation; the explanation for this observation is that electrons photoexcited in the TiO{sub 2} are captured into the nanoparticles and restore the absorption band.

  16. Study of mechanism of enhanced antibacterial activity by green synthesis of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Upendra Kumar; Kumar, Vinod; Bera, Tanmay; Saxena, Preeti S.; Nath, Gopal; Srivastava, Sunil K.; Giri, Rajiv; Srivastava, Anchal

    2011-10-01

    The extensive use of silver nanoparticles needs a synthesis process that is greener without compromising their properties. The present study describes a novel green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract. In order to compare with the conventionally synthesized ones, we also prepared Ag-NPs by chemical reduction. Their optical and morphological characteristics were thoroughly investigated and tested for their antibacterial properties on Escherichia coli. The green synthesized silver nanoparticles showed better antibacterial properties than their chemical counterparts even though there was not much difference between their morphologies. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of the used extract and as-synthesized silver nanoparticles suggests the possible reduction of Ag + by the water-soluble ingredients of the guava leaf like tannins, eugenol and flavonoids. The possible reaction mechanism for the reduction of Ag + has been proposed and discussed. The time-dependent electron micrographs and the simulation studies indicated that a physical interaction between the silver nanoparticles and the bacterial cell membrane may be responsible for this effect. Based on the findings, it seems very reasonable to believe that this greener way of synthesizing silver nanoparticles is not just an environmentally viable technique but it also opens up scope to improve their antibacterial properties.

  17. Antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites synthesized by chemical reduction route

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the functions of polymers and size of nanoparticles on the antibacterial activity of silver bionanocomposites (Ag BNCs). In this research, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were incorporated into biodegradable polymers that are chitosan, gelatin and both polymers via chemical reduction method in solvent in order to produce Ag BNCs. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were employed as a metal precursor and reducing agent respectively. On the other hand, chitosan and gelatin were added as a polymeric matrix and stabilizer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of silver nanoparticles was investigated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton Agar. Results The properties of Ag BNCs were studied as a function of the polymer weight ratio in relation to the use of chitosan and gelatin. The morphology of the Ag BNCs films and the distribution of the Ag NPs were also characterized. The diameters of the Ag NPs were measured and their size is less than 20 nm. The antibacterial trait of silver/chitosan/gelatin bionanocomposites was investigated. The silver ions released from the Ag BNCs and their antibacterial activities were scrutinized. The antibacterial activities of the Ag BNC films were examined against Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa) and Gram-positive (S. aureus and M. luteus) by diffusion method using Muller-Hinton agar. Conclusions The antibacterial activity of Ag NPs with size less than 20 nm was demonstrated and showed positive results against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The Ag NPs stabilized well in the polymers matrix. PMID:22967920

  18. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles and the optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ai-ling; Zhang, Zhen-zhen; Yang, Yun; Bao, Xi-chang; Yang, Ren-qiang

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) of 5-15 nm are synthesized with the reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) by formaldehyde (HCHO) and using polyethylenemine (PEI) as a stabilizer. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis shows the size of the Ag NPs increases with the increase of HCHO contents. The absorption and emission peaks of the original colloids are red shifted with increasing the size of Ag NPs. The absorption and emission peaks are at 344 nm, 349 nm, 357 nm, 362 nm, 364 nm and 444 nm, 458 nm, 519 nm, 534 nm, 550 nm, respectively. The fluorescence intensities of the silver colloids increase with increasing the NPs size (or the contents of HCHO). With the diluted fold increasing, the fluorescence intensity of the diluted silver colloids increases firstly then decreases. Compared with that of the original silver colloids, the emission peaks are blue shifted. For the diluted silver colloids, when the fluorescence intensity is maximum, the emission peaks are all near 444 nm. The 16-fold diluted silver colloid gets to the maximum emission intensity when the mole ratio of AgNO3 and HCHO is 1:6.

  19. Bacterial flagella as biotemplate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle impregnated bionanomaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinathan, Priya; Ashok, Anuradha M.; Selvakumar, R.

    2013-07-01

    The present study was carried out to synthesize one dimensional silver nanoparticle impregnated flagellar bionanomaterial. Flagella was isolated from Salmonella typhimurium and depolymerised into flagellin monomers. The flagellin monomers were repolymerised again into flagella using suitable technique. The molecular weight of native (NF) and polymerized flagella (PF) was determined using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The NF and PF were used as a template, over which silver nanoparticles were impregnated using in situ chemical reduction process. The synthesized flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials were characterized using UV-vis, FT-IR Raman and XRD spectroscopy, and High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The characterization studies confirmed the attachment of silver nanoparticles over flagella and repolymerised flagella. The size of the silver nanoparticles on the flagella and repolymerised flagella varied and was in the range of 3-11 nm. I-V characteristics of the bionanomaterials were analyzed using Kethley meter which indicated the increase of conductivity after impregnation of silver nanoparticles. The results indicated that flagellar-silver nanoparticle bionanomaterials can be used as a potential one dimensional bionanomaterials for various applications.

  20. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of biogenic silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R.; Feitosa, L. O.; Ballottin, D.; Marcato, P. D.; Tasic, L.; Durán, N.

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic silver nanoparticles with 40.3 ± 3.5 nm size and negative surface charge (- 40 mV) were prepared with Fusarium oxysporum. The cytotoxicity of 3T3 cell and human lymphocyte were studied by a TaliTM image-based cytometer and the genotoxicity through Allium cepa and comet assay. The results of BioAg-w (washed) and BioAg-nw (unwashed) biogenic silver nanoparticles showed cytotoxicity exceeding 50 μg/mL with no significant differences of response in 5 and 10 μg/mL regarding viability. Results of genotoxicity at concentrations 5.0 and 10.0 ug/mL show some response, but at concentrations 0.5 and 1.0 μg/mL the washed and unwashed silver nanoparticles did not present any effect. This in an important result since in tests with different bacteria species and strains, including resistant, MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) had good answers at concentrations less than 1.9 μg/mL. This work concludes that biogenic silver nanoparticles may be a promising option for antimicrobial use in the range where no cyto or genotoxic effect were observed. Furthermore, human cells were found to have a greater resistance to the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles in comparison with other cells.

  1. In vivo Genotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles after 90-day Silver Nanoparticle Inhalation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Sik; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kang, Chang Soo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles has resulted in their widespread use in many consumer products. Yet, despite their many advantages, it is also important to determine whether silver nanoparticles may represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Methods Thus, to evaluate the genotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles, in vivo genotoxicity testing (OECD 474, in vivo micronuclei test) was conducted after exposing male and female Sprague-Dawley rats to silver nanoparticles by inhalation for 90 days according to OECD test guideline 413 (Subchronic Inhalation Toxicity: 90 Day Study) with a good laboratory practice system. The rats were exposed to silver nanoparticles (18 nm diameter) at concentrations of 0.7 × 106 particles/cm3 (low dose), 1.4 × 106 particles/cm3 (middle dose), and 2.9 × 106 particles/cm3 (high dose) for 6 hr/day in an inhalation chamber for 90 days. The rats were killed 24 hr after the last administration, then the femurs were removed and the bone marrow collected and evaluated for micronucleus induction. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes or in the ratio of polychromatic erythrocytes among the total erythrocytes after silver nanoparticle exposure when compared with the control. Conclusion The present results suggest that exposure to silver nanoparticles by inhalation for 90 days does not induce genetic toxicity in male and female rat bone marrow in vivo. PMID:22953185

  2. Development and Antibacterial Activity of Cashew Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Quelemes, Patrick V.; Araruna, Felipe B.; de Faria, Bruna E. F.; Kuckelhaus, Selma A. S.; da Silva, Durcilene A.; Mendonça, Ronaldo Z.; Eiras, Carla; dos S. Soares, Maria José; Leite, José Roberto S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from Anacardium occidentale L. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out based on UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring about 4 nm in size with a uniform dispersal. AgNPs presented antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, in concentrations where no significant cytotoxicity was observed. PMID:23455467

  3. Facile size-regulated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using pectin.

    PubMed

    Zahran, M K; Ahmed, Hanan B; El-Rafie, M H

    2014-10-13

    Monodispersed silver nanoparticles capped by pectin were prepared by the reaction of silver nitrate with alkali hydrolyzed pectin at 70 °C for 30 min. Spherical and size-regulated silver nanoparticles were prepared using alkali hydrolyzed pectin as a reducing and particle-stabilizing agent. This approach is facile, effective, rapid, and convenient for the large scale preparation of silver nanoparticles. UV-visible spectral analysis confirmed that the nanoparticles consisted of metallic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to estimate particle size and size distribution of the produced silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy and size distribution analysis revealed the presence of spherical silver nanoparticles with a main diameter of 5-10nm and have a narrow size distribution. The concentration of reducing sugars was monitored by using dinitrosalicylic acid. A comprehensive schematic mechanism for the formation of silver nanoparticles using pectin is proposed. PMID:25037438

  4. Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Paulkumar, Kanniah; Gnanajobitha, Gnanadhas; Vanaja, Mahendran; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Pandian, Kannaiyan; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2014-01-01

    Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation of the peak at 460 nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50 nm and 9–30 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology. PMID:24558336

  5. Phytofabrication of bioinduced silver nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nabeel; Bhatnagar, Sharad; Ali, Syed Salman; Dutta, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of nanomaterials holds infinite possibilities as nanotechnology is revolutionizing the field of medicine by its myriad applications. Green synthesis of nanoparticles has become the need of the hour because of its eco-friendly, nontoxic, and economic nature. In this study, leaf extract of Rosa damascena was used as a bioreductant to reduce silver nitrate, leading to synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a single step, without the use of any additional reducing or capping agents. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by the use of UV-visible spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Time-dependent synthesis of AgNPs was studied spectrophotometrically. Synthesized AgNPs were found to possess flower-like spherical structure where individual nanoparticles were of 16 nm in diameter, whereas the agglomerated AgNPs were in the range of 60–80 nm. These biologically synthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacterial species but not against Gram-positive ones (Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus). Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities were studied on a Wistar rat model to gauge the impact of AgNPs for a probable role in these applications. AgNPs tested positive for both these activities, although the potency was less as compared to the standard drugs. PMID:26648715

  6. Lysozyme-coated silver nanoparticles for differentiating bacterial strains on the basis of antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles adopting various strategies. The synthesized particles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM to observe their morphology and surface chemistry. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against several bacterial species and various bacterial strains within the same species. The cationic silver nanoparticles were found to be more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 compared to other bacterial species/strains investigated. Some of the bacterial strains of the same species showed variable antibacterial activity. The difference in antimicrobial activity of these particles has led to the conclusion that antimicrobial products formed from silver nanoparticles may not be equally effective against all the bacteria. This difference in the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles for different bacterial strains from the same species may be due to the genome islands that are acquired through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). These genome islands are expected to possess some genes that may encode enzymes to resist the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles may thus also be used to differentiate some bacterial strains within the same species due to variable silver resistance of these variants, which may not possible by simple biochemical tests. PMID:25435831

  7. Lysozyme-coated silver nanoparticles for differentiating bacterial strains on the basis of antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sumaira; Chatha, Mariyam Asghar; Ejaz, Wardah; Janjua, Hussnain Ahmed; Hussain, Irshad

    2014-10-01

    Lysozyme, an antibacterial enzyme, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles adopting various strategies. The synthesized particles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM to observe their morphology and surface chemistry. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against several bacterial species and various bacterial strains within the same species. The cationic silver nanoparticles were found to be more effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa 3 compared to other bacterial species/strains investigated. Some of the bacterial strains of the same species showed variable antibacterial activity. The difference in antimicrobial activity of these particles has led to the conclusion that antimicrobial products formed from silver nanoparticles may not be equally effective against all the bacteria. This difference in the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles for different bacterial strains from the same species may be due to the genome islands that are acquired through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). These genome islands are expected to possess some genes that may encode enzymes to resist the antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles. These silver nanoparticles may thus also be used to differentiate some bacterial strains within the same species due to variable silver resistance of these variants, which may not possible by simple biochemical tests.

  8. Monitoring the coordination of amine ligands on silver nanoparticles using NMR and SERS.

    PubMed

    Cure, Jérémy; Coppel, Yannick; Dammak, Thameur; Fazzini, Pier Francesco; Mlayah, Adnen; Chaudret, Bruno; Fau, Pierre

    2015-02-01

    Low size dispersity silver nanoparticles (ca. 6 nm) have been synthesized by the hydrogenolysis of silver amidinate in the presence of hexadecylamine. Combining NMR techniques with SERS and DFT modeling, it is possible to observe an original stabilization mechanism. Amidine moiety is strongly coordinated to the Ag(0) nanoparticles surface whereas HDA ligand is necessary to prevent agglomeration, although it is only weakly interacting with the surface. PMID:25563697

  9. Substrate decomposition in galvanic displacement reaction: Contrast between gold and silver nanoparticle formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Tapas; Kabiraj, D.; Satpati, Biswarup

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated substrate decomposition during formation of silver and gold nanoparticles in galvanic displacement reaction on germanium surfaces. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized by electroless deposition on sputter coated germanium thin film ( 200 nm) grown initially on silicon substrate. The naoparticles formation and the substrate corrosion were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy.

  10. Silver nanoparticles and their orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Brennan, S A; Ní Fhoghlú, C; Devitt, B M; O'Mahony, F J; Brabazon, D; Walsh, A

    2015-05-01

    Implant-associated infection is a major source of morbidity in orthopaedic surgery. There has been extensive research into the development of materials that prevent biofilm formation, and hence, reduce the risk of infection. Silver nanoparticle technology is receiving much interest in the field of orthopaedics for its antimicrobial properties, and the results of studies to date are encouraging. Antimicrobial effects have been seen when silver nanoparticles are used in trauma implants, tumour prostheses, bone cement, and also when combined with hydroxyapatite coatings. Although there are promising results with in vitro and in vivo studies, the number of clinical studies remains small. Future studies will be required to explore further the possible side effects associated with silver nanoparticles, to ensure their use in an effective and biocompatible manner. Here we present a review of the current literature relating to the production of nanosilver for medical use, and its orthopaedic applications. PMID:25922449

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera dentata leaf extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deenadayalan Ashok; Palanichamy, V.; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2014-06-01

    A green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles AgNPs using Alternanthera dentata (A. dentata) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 430 nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by A. dentata extract was completed within 10 min. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy; Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The extracellular silver nanoparticles synthesis by aqueous leaf extract demonstrates rapid, simple and inexpensive method comparable to chemical and microbial methods. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and, Enterococcus faecalis.

  12. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Alternanthera dentata leaf extract at room temperature and their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deenadayalan Ashok; Palanichamy, V; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2014-06-01

    A green rapid biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles AgNPs using Alternanthera dentata (A. dentata) aqueous extract was demonstrated in this present study. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) at 430nm using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles by A. dentata extract was completed within 10min. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy; Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The extracellular silver nanoparticles synthesis by aqueous leaf extract demonstrates rapid, simple and inexpensive method comparable to chemical and microbial methods. The colloidal solution of silver nanoparticles were found to exhibit antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia and, Enterococcus faecalis. PMID:24632169

  13. Chitosan and silver nanoparticles: promising anti-toxoplasma agents.

    PubMed

    Gaafar, M R; Mady, R F; Diab, R G; Shalaby, Th I

    2014-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide infection caused by obligate intracellular protozoan parasite which is Toxoplasma gondii. Chitosan and silver nanoparticles were synthesized to be evaluated singly or combined for their anti-toxoplasma effects as prophylaxis and as treatment in the experimental animals. Results were assessed through studying the parasite density and the ultrastructural parasite changes, and estimation of serum gamma interferon. Weight of tissue silver was assessed in different organs. Results showed that silver nanoparticles used singly or combined with chitosan have promising anti-toxoplasma potentials. The animals that received these compounds showed statistically significant decrease in the mean number of the parasite count in the liver and the spleen, when compared to the corresponding control group. Light microscopic examination of the peritoneal exudates of animals receiving these compounds showed stoppage of movement and deformity in shape of the tachyzoites, whereas, by scanning electron microscope, the organisms were mutilated. Moreover, gamma interferon was increased in the serum of animals receiving these compounds. All values of silver detected in different tissues were within the safe range. Thus, these nanoparticles proved their effectiveness against the experimental Toxoplasma infection. PMID:24852215

  14. Growth mechanism of silver nanowires synthesized by polyvinylpyrrolidone-assisted polyol reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yan; Jiang, Peng; Song, Li; Liu, Lifeng; Yan, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Zhenping; Liu, Dongfang; Wang, Jianxiong; Yuan, Huajun; Zhang, Zengxing; Zhao, Xiaowei; Dou, Xinyuan; Zhou, Weiya; Wang, Gang; Xie, Sishen

    2005-04-01

    Silver (Ag) nanowires with a pentagonal cross section have been synthesized by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted polyol reduction in the presence of Pt nanoparticle seeds. The UV-visible absorption spectra and scanning electron microscopy have been used to trace the growth process of the Ag nanowires. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy investigation further shows that the PVP molecules are adsorbed on the surface of the Ag nanowires through Ag : O coordination. Comparing with the growth process of Ag nanoparticles, a possible growth mechanism of the Ag nanowires has been proposed. It is implied that the PVP molecules are used as both a protecting agent and a structure-directing agent for the growth of Ag nanowires. It is concluded that the five-fold twinning Ag nanoparticles are formed through heterogenous nucleation after the introduction of Pt nanoparticle seeds and then grow anisotropically along the lang110rang direction, while the growth along lang100rang is relatively depressed.

  15. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis, characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    PubMed Central

    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications. PMID:23861583

  16. Chrysopogon zizanioides aqueous extract mediated synthesis, characterization of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Kantha D; Annamalai, Sathesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The exploitation of various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is considered a green technology as it does not involve any harmful chemicals. The aim of this study was to develop a simple biological method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using Chrysopogon zizanioides. To exploit various plant materials for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles was considered a green technology. An aqueous leaf extract of C. zizanioides was used to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles by the bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) respectively. Water-soluble organics present in the plant materials were mainly responsible for reducing silver or gold ions to nanosized Ag or Au particles. The synthesized silver and gold nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The kinetics decline reactions of aqueous silver/gold ion with the C. zizanioides crude extract were determined by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to the extract were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20-50 nm. This eco-friendly approach for the synthesis of nanoparticles is simple, can be scaled up for large-scale production with powerful bioactivity as demonstrated by the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles can have clinical use as antibacterial, antioxidant, as well as cytotoxic agents and can be used for biomedical applications. PMID:23861583

  17. Bacterial inactivation using silver-coated magnetic nanoparticles as functional antimicrobial agents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingyan; Luo, Jin; Shan, Shiyao; Crew, Elizabeth; Yin, Jun; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Wallek, Brandi; Wong, Season

    2011-01-01

    The ability for silver nanoparticles to function as an antibacterial agent while being separable from the target fluids is important for bacterial inactivation in biological fluids. This report describes the analysis of the antimicrobial activities of silver-coated magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by wet chemical methods. The bacterial inactivation of several types of bacteria was analyzed, including Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, and Escherichia coli). The results have demonstrated the viability of the silver-coated magnetic nanoparticles for achieving effective bacterial inactivation efficiency comparable to and better than silver nanoparticles conventionally used. The bacteria inactivation efficiency of our MZF@Ag nanoparticles were also determined for blood platelets samples, demonstrating the potential of utilization in inactivating bacterial growth in platelets prior to transfusion to ensure blood product safety, which also has important implications for enabling the capability of effective separation, delivery and targeting of the antibacterial agents. PMID:21999710

  18. Fluorescence enhancement of Rhodamine B by monodispersed silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suslov, A.; Lama, P. T.; Dorsinville, R.

    2015-06-01

    A strong enhancement in fluorescence of Rhodamine B dye in the vicinity of silver monodisperse nanoparticles is presented. The fluorescence of the dye increased as much as by 23 times in the presence of monodispersed silver nanoparticles. The fluorescence enhancement due to monodispersed silver nanoparticles was about 2-3 times larger than in the presence of polydispersed silver nanoparticles. The additional enhancement is explained in terms of emergence of uniform and large local electromagnetic field induced by surface plasmon resonance around an ensemble of monodispersed silver nanoparticles.

  19. Glutathione promoted expeditious green synthesis of silver nanoparticles in water using microwaves

    EPA Science Inventory

    Silver nanoparticles with size range 5-10 nm has been synthesized under microwave irradiation conditions using gluathione, an absolutely benign antioxidant that serves as the reducing as well as capping agent in aqueous medium. This rapid protocol yields the nanoparticles within ...

  20. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Calotropis gigantea and their potential mosquito larvicidal property

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years the utilization of secondary metabolites from plant extract has emerged as a novel technology for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of plant synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Calotropis gigan...

  1. Extracellular synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by Sporosarcina koreensis DC4 and their biological applications.

    PubMed

    Singh, Priyanka; Singh, Hina; Kim, Yeon Ju; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; Wang, Chao; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    The present study highlights the microbial synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by Sporosarcina koreensis DC4 strain, in an efficient way. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which displayed maximum absorbance at 424nm and 531nm for silver and gold nanoparticles, respectively. The spherical shape of nanoparticles was characterized by field emission transmission electron microscopy. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and elemental mapping were displayed the purity and maximum elemental distribution of silver and gold elements in the respective nanoproducts. The X-ray diffraction spectroscopy results demonstrate the crystalline nature of synthesized nanoparticles. The particle size analysis demonstrate the nanoparticles distribution with respect to intensity, volume and number of nanoparticles. For biological applications, the silver nanoparticles have been explored in terms of MIC and MBC against pathogenic microorganisms such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, the silver nanoparticles in combination with commercial antibiotics, such as vancomycin, rifampicin, oleandomycin, penicillin G, novobiocin, and lincomycin have been explored for the enhancement of antibacterial activity and the obtained results showed that 3μg concentration of silver nanoparticles sufficiently enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of commercial antibiotics against pathogenic microorganism. Furthermore, the silver nanoparticles potential has been reconnoitered for the biofilm inhibition by S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli and the results revealed sufficient activity at 6μg concentration. In addition, gold nanoparticles have been applied for catalytic activity, for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol using sodium borohydride and positive results were attained. PMID:26992796

  2. Mycosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: Optimization, characterization and antimicrobial activity against human pathogens.

    PubMed

    Balakumaran, M D; Ramachandran, R; Balashanmugam, P; Mukeshkumar, D J; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2016-01-01

    This study was aimed to isolate soil fungi from Kolli and Yercaud Hills, South India with the ultimate objective of producing antimicrobial nanoparticles. Among 65 fungi tested, the isolate, Bios PTK 6 extracellularly synthesized both silver and gold nanoparticles with good monodispersity. Under optimized reaction conditions, the strain Bios PTK 6 identified as Aspergillus terreus has produced extremely stable nanoparticles within 12h. These nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis. spectrophotometer, HR-TEM, FTIR, XRD, EDX, SAED, ICP-AES and Zetasizer analyses. A. terreus synthesized 8-20nm sized, spherical shaped silver nanoparticles whereas gold nanoparticles showed many interesting morphologies with a size of 10-50nm. The presence and binding of proteins with nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR study. Interestingly, the myco derived silver nanoparticles exhibited superior antimicrobial activity than the standard antibiotic, streptomycin except against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The leakage of intracellular components such as protein and nucleic acid demonstrated that silver nanoparticles damage the bacterial cells by formation of pores, which affects membrane permeability and finally leads to cell death. Further, presence of nanoparticles in the bacterial membrane and the breakage of cell wall were also observed using SEM. Thus, the obtained results clearly reveal that these antimicrobial nanoparticles could be explored as promising candidates for a variety of biomedical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:26686609

  3. Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Zhou, Jian; Li, Biyuan

    2015-06-01

    Glass frits coated with silver nanoparticles were prepared by electroless plating. Gum Arabic (GA) was used as the activating agent of glass frits without the assistance of stannous chloride or palladium chloride. The silver-coated glass frits prepared with different GA dosages were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization results indicated that silver-coated glass frits had the structures of both glass and silver. Spherical silver nanoparticles were distributed on the glass frits evenly. The density and particle size of silver nanoparticles on the glass frits can be controlled by adjusting the GA dosage. The silver-coated glass frits were applied to silver pastes to act as both the densification promoter and silver crystallite formation aid in the silver electrodes. The prepared silver-coated glass frits can improve the photovoltaic performances of solar cells.

  4. Irradiation of silver and agar/silver nanoparticles with argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mahmoud M; Abdel-Wahab, Essam A; El-Maaref, A A; Rawway, Mohammed; Shaaban, Essam R

    2014-01-01

    The irradiation effect of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma, and mercury lamp on silver and agar/silver nanoparticle samples is studied. The irradiation time dependence of the synthesized silver and agar/silver nanoparticle absorption spectra and their antibacterial effect are studied and compared. In the agar/silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity and the full width at half maximum, FWHM, of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however a decrease of the peak intensity with oxygen glow plasma has been observed. In the silver nanoparticle sample, as the irradiation time of argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp increases, the peak intensity of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band is increased, however, there is no significant change in the FWHM of the surface plasmon resonance absorption band. The SEM results for both samples showed nanoparticle formation with mean size about 50 nm and 40 nm respectively. Throughout the irradiation time with the argon, oxygen glow discharge plasma or mercury lamp, the antibacterial activity of several kinds of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has been examined. PMID:25184109

  5. Biogenic silver nanoparticles associated with silver chloride nanoparticles (Ag@AgCl) produced by laccase from Trametes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Durán, Nelson; Cuevas, Raphael; Cordi, Livia; Rubilar, Olga; Diez, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, semi-purified laccase from Trametes versicolor was applied for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, and the properties of the produced nanoparticles were characterized. All of the analyses of the spectra indicated silver nanoparticle formation. A complete characterization of the silver nanoparticles showed that a complex of silver nanoparticles and silver ions was produced, with the majority of the particles having a Ag(2+) chemical structure. A hypothetical mechanistic scheme was proposed, suggesting that the main pathway that was used was the interaction of silver ions with the T1 site of laccase, producing silver nanoparticles with the concomitant inactivation of laccase activity and posterior complexing with silver ions. PMID:25485188

  6. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  7. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO(3) contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO(3) concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive. PMID:21803643

  8. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO 3 contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO 3 concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  9. Lantana camara leaf extract mediated silver nanoparticles: Antibacterial, green catalyst.

    PubMed

    Ajitha, B; Ashok Kumar Reddy, Y; Shameer, Syed; Rajesh, K M; Suneetha, Y; Sreedhara Reddy, P

    2015-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been synthesized by Lantana camara leaf extract through simple green route and evaluated their antibacterial and catalytic activities. The leaf extract (LE) itself acts as both reducing and stabilizing agent at once for desired nanoparticle synthesis. The colorless reaction mixture turns to yellowish brown attesting the AgNPs formation and displayed UV-Vis absorption spectra. Structural analysis confirms the crystalline nature and formation of fcc structured metallic silver with majority (111) facets. Morphological studies elicit the formation of almost spherical shaped nanoparticles and as AgNO3 concentration is increased, there is an increment in the particle size. The FTIR analysis evidences the presence of various functional groups of biomolecules of LE is responsible for stabilization of AgNPs. Zeta potential measurement attests the higher stability of synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activity when tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp. and Staphylococcus spp. using standard Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion assay. Furthermore, they showed good catalytic activity on the reduction of methylene blue by L. camara extract which is monitored and confirmed by the UV-Vis spectrophotometer. PMID:26057018

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Macrotyloma uniflorum.

    PubMed

    Vidhu, V K; Aromal, S Aswathy; Philip, Daizy

    2011-12-01

    Green synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles is a vast developing area of research. In this paper we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous seed extract of Macrotyloma uniflorum. The effect of experimental parameters such as amount of extract, temperature and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles was studied. The as prepared samples are characterized using XRD, TEM, UV-Visible and FTIR techniques. The formation of silver nanoparticles is evidenced by the appearance of signatory brown colour of the solution and UV-vis spectra. The XRD analysis shows that the silver nanoparticles are of face centered cubic structure. Well-dispersed silver nanoparticles with anisotropic morphology having size ∼12 nm are seen in TEM images. FTIR spectrum indicates the presence of different functional groups in capping the nanoparticles. The possible mechanism leading to the formation of silver nanoparticles is suggested. PMID:21920808

  11. Anaerobic Toxicity of Cationic Silver Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag+ under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged p...

  12. Fraxinus paxiana bark mediated photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their size modulation using swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Hemant; Vendamani, V. S.; Pathak, Anand P.; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis of silver nanoparticles is presented using bark extracts of Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterised by UV-Vis absorption, photoluminescence, powder X-ray diffraction and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the bark samples are irradiated with 100 MeV silver ions and the subsequent structural modifications are analyzed. The swift heavy ion irradiated Fraxinus paxiana var. sikkimensis bark is also used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It is illustrated that the irradiated bark assists in synthesizing smaller nanoparticles of homogenous size distribution as compared to when the pristine bark is used. The newly synthesized silver nanoparticles are also used to demonstrate the antimicrobial activities on Escherichia coli bacteria.

  13. Utilization of hydroxypropyl carboxymethyl cellulose in synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, E S; Alanazi, Humaid H; Al-Deyab, Salem S

    2015-04-01

    Hydroxypropyl carboxymethyl cellulose samples having varying degrees of substitution and varying degrees of polymerization were used to reduce silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. UV spectral analysis of silver nanoparticles colloidal solution reveal that increasing the pH of the reduction solution leads to improvement in the intensity of the absorption band for silver nanoparticles, to be maximum at pH 11. The absorption peak intensity also enhanced upon prolonging the reaction duration up to 60 min. The conversion of silver ions to metallic silver nanoparticles was found to be temperature-dependent and maximum transformation occurs at 60 °C. The reduction efficiency of hydroxypropyl carboxymethyl cellulose was found to be affected by its degree of polymerization. Colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles having concentration up to 1000 ppm can be prepared upon fixing the ratio between silver nitrate and hydroxypropyl carboxymethyl cellulose at 0.017-0.3g per each 100ml of the reduction solution. PMID:25697673

  14. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium semitectum

    SciTech Connect

    Basavaraja, S.; Balaji, S.D.; Lagashetty, Arunkumar; Rajasab, A.H.; Venkataraman, A.

    2008-05-06

    Development of environmental friendly procedures for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles through biological processes is evolving into an important branch of nanobiotechnology. In this paper, we report on the use of fungus 'Fusarium semitectum' for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solution (i.e. through the reduction of Ag{sup +} to Ag{sup 0}). Highly stable and crystalline silver nanoparticles are produced in solution by treating the filtrate of the fungus F. semitectum with the aqueous silver nitrate solution. The formations of nanoparticles are understood from the UV-vis and X-ray diffraction studies. Transmission electron microscopy of the silver particles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 60 nm and are mostly spherical in shape. Interestingly the colloidal suspensions of silver nanoparticles are stable for many weeks. Possible medicinal applications of these silver nanoparticles are envisaged.

  15. Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Elavazhagan, Tamizhamudu; Arunachalam, Kantha D

    2011-01-01

    We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with M. edule leaf extract, stable silver and gold nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The kinetics of reduction of aqueous silver and gold ions during reaction with the M. edule leaf broth were easily analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to M. edule leaf broth, were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20–50 nm. TEM analysis of gold nanoparticles showed formation of triangular, circular, and hexagonal shapes in the size range 10–45 nm. The resulting silver nanoparticles were predominantly square with uniform size range 50–90 nm. EDAX results confirmed the presence of triangular nanoparticles in the adsorption peak of 2.30 keV. Further FTIR analysis was also done to identify the functional groups in silver and gold nanoparticles. The characterized nanoparticles of M. edule have potential for various medical and industrial applications. Saponin presence in aqueous extract of M. edule is responsible for the mass production of silver and gold nanoparticles. PMID:21753878

  16. Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Elavazhagan, Tamizhamudu; Arunachalam, Kantha D

    2011-01-01

    We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and chloroauric acid with M. edule leaf extract, stable silver and gold nanoparticles were rapidly formed. The gold nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR). The kinetics of reduction of aqueous silver and gold ions during reaction with the M. edule leaf broth were easily analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. SEM analysis showed that aqueous gold ions, when exposed to M. edule leaf broth, were reduced and resulted in the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles in the size range 20-50 nm. TEM analysis of gold nanoparticles showed formation of triangular, circular, and hexagonal shapes in the size range 10-45 nm. The resulting silver nanoparticles were predominantly square with uniform size range 50-90 nm. EDAX results confirmed the presence of triangular nanoparticles in the adsorption peak of 2.30 keV. Further FTIR analysis was also done to identify the functional groups in silver and gold nanoparticles. The characterized nanoparticles of M. edule have potential for various medical and industrial applications. Saponin presence in aqueous extract of M. edule is responsible for the mass production of silver and gold nanoparticles. PMID:21753878

  17. Sunlight mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a novel actinobacterium (Sinomonas mesophila MPKL 26) and its antimicrobial activity against multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Manikprabhu, Deene; Cheng, Juan; Chen, Wei; Sunkara, Anil Kumar; Mane, Sunilkumar B; Kumar, Ram; das, Mousumi; N Hozzein, Wael; Duan, Yan-Qing; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-05-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using microorganism are many, but there are only scanty reports using actinobacteria. In the present study, the actinobacterium of the genus Sinomonas was reported to synthesis silver nanoparticles for the first time. A photo-irradiation based method was developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, which includes two day old cultural supernatant of novel species Sinomonas mesophila MPKL 26 and silver nitrate solution, exposed to sunlight. The preliminary synthesis of silver nanoparticles was noted by the color change of the solution from colorless to brown; the synthesis was further confirmed using UV-visible spectroscopy which shows a peak between 400 and 450nm. Spherical shape silver nanoparticles of size range 4-50nm were synthesized, which were characterized using transmission electron microscopy. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy result indicates that, the metabolite produced by the novel species S. mesophila MPKL 26 was the probable reducing/capping agent involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized silver nanoparticles maintained consistent shape with respect to different time periods. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were evaluated for the antimicrobial activity against multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus which show good antimicrobial activity. The method developed for synthesis is easy, requires less time (20min) and produces spherical shape nanoparticles of size as small as 4nm, having good antimicrobial activity. Hence, our study enlarges the scope of actinobacteria for the rapid biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and can be used in formulating remedies for multi drug resistant S. aureus. PMID:26982503

  18. Electrospun PCL membranes incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as antibacterial wound dressings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Robin; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Thomas, Sabu

    2016-03-01

    An open wound is highly prone to bacterial colonization and infection. Bacterial barrier property is an important factor that determines the success of a wound coverage material. Apart from the bacterial barrier property, presence of antibacterial agents can successfully eliminate the invasion and colonization of pathogen in the wound. Silver nanoparticles are well-known antimicrobial agents against a wide range of microorganisms. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are more acceptable for medical applications due to superior biocompatibility than chemically synthesized ones. Presence of biomolecules on biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhances its therapeutic efficiency. Polycaprolactone (PCL) is a well-known material for biomedical applications including wound dressings. Electrospinning is an excellent technique for the fabrication of thin membranes for wound coverage applications with barrier property against microbes. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of electrospun PCL membranes incorporated with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles for wound dressing applications.

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using reducing agents obtained from natural sources (Rumex hymenosepalus extracts).

    PubMed

    Rodrguez-Len, Ericka; Iiguez-Palomares, Ramn; Navarro, Rosa Elena; Herrera-Urbina, Ronaldo; Tnori, Judith; Iiguez-Palomares, Claudia; Maldonado, Amir

    2013-01-01

    We have synthesized silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solutions using extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus, a plant widely found in a large region in North America, as reducing agent. This plant is known to be rich in antioxidant molecules which we use as reducing agents. Silver nanoparticles grow in a single-step method, at room temperature, and with no addition of external energy. The nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, as a function of the ratio of silver ions to reducing agent molecules. The nanoparticle diameters are in the range of 2 to 40nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and fast Fourier transform analysis show that two kinds of crystal structures are obtained: face-centered cubic and hexagonal. PMID:23841946

  20. Facile Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Under {gamma}-Irradiation: Effect of Chitosan Concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, N. M.; Radiman, S.; Ahmad, A.; Idris, H.; Lim, H. N.; Khiew, P. S.; Chiu, W. S.; Tan, T. K.

    2009-06-01

    In the present study, a biopolymer, low molecular weight chitosan had been utilized as a 'green' stabilizing agent for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles under {gamma}-irradiation. The as-synthesized silver nanoparticles have particle diameters in the range of 5 nm-30 nm depending on the percentage of chitosan used (0.1 wt%, 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 2.0 wt%). It was found that the yield of the silver nanoparticles was in accordance with the concentration of chitosan presence in the solution due to the reduction by the chitosan radical during irradiation. The highly stable chitosan encapsulated silver nanoparticles were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Visible spectrophotometer (UV-VIS) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD)

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using reducing agents obtained from natural sources (Rumex hymenosepalus extracts)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We have synthesized silver nanoparticles from silver nitrate solutions using extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus, a plant widely found in a large region in North America, as reducing agent. This plant is known to be rich in antioxidant molecules which we use as reducing agents. Silver nanoparticles grow in a single-step method, at room temperature, and with no addition of external energy. The nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, as a function of the ratio of silver ions to reducing agent molecules. The nanoparticle diameters are in the range of 2 to 40nm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and fast Fourier transform analysis show that two kinds of crystal structures are obtained: face-centered cubic and hexagonal. PMID:23841946

  2. Fabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Delonix elata leaf broth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathiya, C. K.; Akilandeswari, S.

    2014-07-01

    The synthesis of nanoparticles from plant sources has proved to be an effective and alternative method for the novel production of nanoparticles. This paper reports the bioreduction of silver nitrate into silver nanoparticle by the leaf extract of Delonix elata. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). In addition the size of the NPs was calculated by using Malvern Zetasizer and the stability by zeta potential. UV-vis spectra show the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 432 nm. This reveals the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) into silver (Ag°) and indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). SEM analysis revealed the spherical shape of the particles with sizes in the range of 35-45 nm and EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of silver along with other elements in the plant metabolite. The XRD analysis showed that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature and have face-centered cubic structure. FT-IR spectra show the existence of biomolecules responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate. The size of the AgNPs estimated from particle size distribution curve shows the 70 nm. The zeta potential of AgNPs was found to be -18 mV, indicating the dispersion and stability.

  3. Fabrication and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Delonix elata leaf broth.

    PubMed

    Sathiya, C K; Akilandeswari, S

    2014-07-15

    The synthesis of nanoparticles from plant sources has proved to be an effective and alternative method for the novel production of nanoparticles. This paper reports the bioreduction of silver nitrate into silver nanoparticle by the leaf extract of Delonix elata. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). In addition the size of the NPs was calculated by using Malvern Zetasizer and the stability by zeta potential. UV-vis spectra show the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) at 432 nm. This reveals the reduction of silver ions (Ag(+)) into silver (Ag°) and indicating the formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). SEM analysis revealed the spherical shape of the particles with sizes in the range of 35-45 nm and EDS spectrum confirmed the presence of silver along with other elements in the plant metabolite. The XRD analysis showed that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature and have face-centered cubic structure. FT-IR spectra show the existence of biomolecules responsible for the reduction of silver nitrate. The size of the AgNPs estimated from particle size distribution curve shows the 70 nm. The zeta potential of AgNPs was found to be -18 mV, indicating the dispersion and stability. PMID:24681317

  4. Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Desmodium triflorum: A Novel Approach Towards Weed Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Naheed; Sharma, Seema; Singh, V. N.; Shamsi, S. F.; Fatma, Anjum; Mehta, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    A single-step environmental friendly approach is employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. The biomolecules found in plants induce the reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ions demonstrated a peak at 425 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the formation of well-dispersed silver nanoparticles in the range of 5–20 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the AgNPs exhibited 2θ values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal. The process of reduction is extracellular and fast which may lead to the development of easy biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. Plants during glycolysis produce a large amount of H+ ions along with NAD which acts as a strong redoxing agent; this seems to be responsible for the formation of AgNPs. Water-soluble antioxidative agents like ascorbic acids further seem to be responsible for the reduction of AgNPs. These AgNPs produced show good antimicrobial activity against common pathogens. PMID:21350660

  5. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles via green technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zulfiqaar; Balu, S. S.

    2012-11-01

    The proposed work describes the comparison of various methods of green synthesis for preparation of Gold and Silver nanoparticles. Pure extracts of Lemon (Citrus limon) and Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were mixed with aqueous solution of auric tetrachloride and silver nitrate. The resultant solutions were treated with four common techniques to assist in the reduction namely photo catalytic, thermal, microwave assisted reduction and solvo - thermal reduction. UV - Visible Spectroscopy results and STM images of the final solutions confirmed the formation of stable metallic nanoparticles. A preliminary account of the green synthesis work is presented here.

  6. Facile and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using oxidized pectin.

    PubMed

    Tummalapalli, Mythili; Deopura, B L; Alam, M S; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2015-05-01

    In the current work, an alternative route for facile synthesis of nanosilver is reported. Oxidized pectin has been used as the reducing agent as well as the stabilizing agent, resulting in the formation of oxidized pectin-nanosilver (OP-NS) core sheath nanohydrogels. The effect of reaction parameters on the synthesized nanoparticles is investigated. The structural and morphological features have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) respectively. The crystal size of the synthesized nanosilver was calculated to be 28.76 nm. While the average size of the core sheath structure varied from 289 nm to 540 nm, the size of the silver nanoparticle entities at the core varied from 100 nm to 180 nm, with variation in reaction time. From the morphological examination, it could be seen that flower like nanostructures are formed with nanosilver in the core surrounded by a polymeric halo. PMID:25746242

  7. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica Officinalis fruit extract, their phase transfer and transmetallation in an organic solution.

    PubMed

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Damle, Chinmay; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

    2005-10-01

    The design, synthesis and characterization of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an area of significant interest. In this paper, we report the extracellular synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica Officinalis (amla, Indian Gooseberry) fruit extract as the reducing agent to synthesize Ag and Au nanoparticles, their subsequent phase transfer to an organic solution and the transmetallation reaction of hydrophobized silver nanoparticles with hydrophobized chloroaurate ions. On treating aqueous silver sulfate and chloroauric acid solutions with Emblica Officinalis fruit extract, rapid reduction of the silver and chloroaurate ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable silver and gold nanoparticles in solution. Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of the silver and gold nanoparticles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 20 nm and 15 to 25 nm respectively. Ag and Au nanoparticles thus synthesized were then phase transferred into an organic solution using a cationic surfactant octadecylamine. Transmetallation reaction between hydrophobized silver nanoparticles and hydrophobized chloroaurate ions in chloroform resulted in the formation of gold nanoparticles. PMID:16245525

  8. Synthesis and Study of Silver Nanoparticles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soloman, Sally D.; Bahadory, Mozghan; Jeyarajasingam, Aravindan V.; Rutkowsky, Susan A.; Boritz, Charles; Mulfinger, Lorraine

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory experiment was conducted in which the students synthesized yellow colloidal silver, estimate particle size using visible spectroscopy and studied aggregation effects. The students were thus introduced to nanotechnology along with other topics such as redox chemistry, limiting and excess reactants, spectroscopy and atomic size.

  9. Silver nanoparticles: Synthesis methods, bio-applications and properties.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Elham; Milani, Morteza; Fekri Aval, Sedigheh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nikasa, Parisa; Joo, San Woo; Hanifehpour, Younes; Nejati-Koshki, Kazem; Samiei, Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. Synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles for applications such as catalysis, electronics, optics, environmental and biotechnology is an area of constant interest. Two main methods for Silver nanoparticles are the physical and chemical methods. The problem with these methods is absorption of toxic substances onto them. Green synthesis approaches overcome this limitation. Silver nanoparticles size makes wide range of new applications in various fields of industry. This article summarizes exclusively scalable techniques and focuses on strengths, respectively, limitations with respect to the biomedical applicability and regulatory requirements concerning silver nanoparticles. PMID:24937409

  10. Inoculation of silicon nanoparticles with silver atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Cathal; Singh, Vidyadhar; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Djurabekova, Flyura; Nordlund, Kai; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2013-10-01

    Silicon (Si) nanoparticles were coated inflight with silver (Ag) atoms using a novel method to prepare multicomponent heterostructured metal-semiconductor nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations were employed, supported by high-resolution bright field (BF) transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a resolution <=0.1 nm in high angle annular dark field (HAADF) mode. These studies revealed that the alloying behavior and phase dynamics during the coating process are more complex than when attaching hetero-atoms to preformed nanoparticles. According to the MD simulations, Ag atoms condense, nucleate and diffuse into the liquid Si nanoparticles in a process that we term ``inoculation'', and a phase transition begins. Subsequent solidification involves an intermediate alloying stage that enabled us to control the microstructure and crystallinity of the solidified hybrid heterostructured nanoparticles.

  11. Inoculation of silicon nanoparticles with silver atoms

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, Cathal; Singh, Vidyadhar; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Djurabekova, Flyura; Nordlund, Kai; Sowwan, Mukhles

    2013-01-01

    Silicon (Si) nanoparticles were coated inflight with silver (Ag) atoms using a novel method to prepare multicomponent heterostructured metal-semiconductor nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations were employed, supported by high-resolution bright field (BF) transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) with a resolution ≤0.1 nm in high angle annular dark field (HAADF) mode. These studies revealed that the alloying behavior and phase dynamics during the coating process are more complex than when attaching hetero-atoms to preformed nanoparticles. According to the MD simulations, Ag atoms condense, nucleate and diffuse into the liquid Si nanoparticles in a process that we term “inoculation”, and a phase transition begins. Subsequent solidification involves an intermediate alloying stage that enabled us to control the microstructure and crystallinity of the solidified hybrid heterostructured nanoparticles. PMID:24170178

  12. Gellan gum capped silver nanoparticle dispersions and hydrogels: cytotoxicity and in vitro diffusion studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, S.; Murawala, P.; Shiras, A.; Pokharkar, V.; Prasad, B. L. V.

    2012-01-01

    The preparation of highly stable water dispersions of silver nanoparticles using the naturally available gellan gum as a reducing and capping agent is reported. Further, exploiting the gel formation characteristic of gellan gum silver nanoparticle incorporated gels have also been prepared. The optical properties, morphology, zeta potential and long-term stability of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were investigated. The superior stability of the gellan gum-silver nanoparticle dispersions against pH variation and electrolyte addition is revealed. Finally, we studied the cytotoxicity of AgNP dispersions in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (NIH3T3) and also evaluated the in vitro diffusion of AgNP dispersions/gels across rat skin.The preparation of highly stable water dispersions of silver nanoparticles using the naturally available gellan gum as a reducing and capping agent is reported. Further, exploiting the gel formation characteristic of gellan gum silver nanoparticle incorporated gels have also been prepared. The optical properties, morphology, zeta potential and long-term stability of the synthesized silver nanoparticles were investigated. The superior stability of the gellan gum-silver nanoparticle dispersions against pH variation and electrolyte addition is revealed. Finally, we studied the cytotoxicity of AgNP dispersions in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells (NIH3T3) and also evaluated the in vitro diffusion of AgNP dispersions/gels across rat skin. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Time dependent UV-Vis spectral studies revealing the stability of AgNP dispersions and agar plate images displaying the antibacterial activity of AgNPs. See DOI: 10.1039/c1nr10957j

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by Pulicaria glutinosa extract.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Tremel, Wolfgang; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H

    2013-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted tremendous attention in recent years because these protocols are low cost and more environmentally friendly than standard methods of synthesis. In this article, we report a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver NPs using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared silver NPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the effects of the concentration of the reductant (plant extract) and precursor solution (silver nitrate), the temperature on the morphology, and the kinetics of reaction were investigated. The results indicate that the size of the silver NPs varied as the plant extract concentration increased. The as-synthesized silver NPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. Further, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the plant extract not only acted as a bioreductant but also functionalized the NPs' surfaces to act as a capping ligand to stabilize them in the solvent. The developed eco-friendly method for the synthesis of NPs could prove a better substitute for the physical and chemical methods currently used to prepare metallic NPs commonly used in cosmetics, foods, and medicines. PMID:23620666

  14. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by Pulicaria glutinosa extract

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Tremel, Wolfgang; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H

    2013-01-01

    The green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) has attracted tremendous attention in recent years because these protocols are low cost and more environmentally friendly than standard methods of synthesis. In this article, we report a simple and eco-friendly method for the synthesis of silver NPs using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared silver NPs were characterized using ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the effects of the concentration of the reductant (plant extract) and precursor solution (silver nitrate), the temperature on the morphology, and the kinetics of reaction were investigated. The results indicate that the size of the silver NPs varied as the plant extract concentration increased. The as-synthesized silver NPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. Further, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis confirmed that the plant extract not only acted as a bioreductant but also functionalized the NPs’ surfaces to act as a capping ligand to stabilize them in the solvent. The developed eco-friendly method for the synthesis of NPs could prove a better substitute for the physical and chemical methods currently used to prepare metallic NPs commonly used in cosmetics, foods, and medicines. PMID:23620666

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Containing Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Lim; Park, Won Ho

    2014-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in formic acid aqueous solutions through chemical reduction. Formic acid was used for a reducing agent of Ag precursor and solvent of gelatin. Silver acetate, silver tetrafluoroborate, silver nitrate, and silver phosphate were used as Ag precursors. Ag+ ions were reduced into Ag NPs by formic acid. The formation of Ag NPs was characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Ag NPs were quickly generated within a few minutes in silver nitrate (AgNO3)/formic acid solution. As the water content of formic acid aqueous solution increased, more Ag NPs were generated, at a higher rate and with greater size. When gelatin was added to the AgNO3/formic acid solution, the Ag NPs were stabilized, resulting in smaller particles. Moreover, gelatin limits further aggregation of Ag NPs, which were effectively dispersed in solution. The amount of Ag NPs formed increased with increasing concentration of AgNO3 and aging time. Gelatin nanofibers containing Ag NPs were fabricated by electrospinning. The average diameters of gelatin nanofibers were 166.52 ± 32.72 nm, but these decreased with the addition of AgNO3. The average diameters of the Ag NPs in gelatin nanofibers ranged between 13 and 25 nm, which was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PMID:24758929

  16. Biosynthesis and structural characterization of silver nanoparticles from bacterial isolates

    SciTech Connect

    Zaki, Sahar; El Kady, M.F.; Abd-El-Haleem, Desouky

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: In this study five bacterial isolates belong to different genera were found to be able to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. Biosynthesis and spectral characterization are reported here. Highlights: {yields} About 300 bacterial isolates were screened for their ability to produce nanosilvers {yields} Five of them were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles {yields} Production of silver nanoparticles was examined using UV-Vis, XRD, SEM and EDS. {yields} The presence of nanoparticles with all five bacterial isolates was confirmed. -- Abstract: This study aimed to develop a green process for biosynthesis of silver nanomaterials by some Egyptian bacterial isolates. This target was achieved by screening an in-house culture collection consists of 300 bacterial isolates for silver nanoparticle formation. Through screening process, it was observed that strains belonging to Escherichia coli (S30, S78), Bacillus megaterium (S52), Acinetobacter sp. (S7) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S54) were potential candidates for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The extracellular production of silver nanoparticles by positive isolates was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results demonstrated that UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium containing silver ion showed a peak at 420 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy micrograph showed formation of silver nanoparticles in the range of 15-50 nm. XRD-spectrum of the silver nanoparticles exhibited 2{theta} values corresponding to the silver nanocrystal that produce in hexagonal and cubic crystal configurations with different plane of orientation. In addition, the signals of the silver atoms were observed by EDS-spectrum analysis that confirms the presence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in all positive bacterial isolates.

  17. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  18. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by novel Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. and their bactericidal activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Syed; Mohan Kumar, K.; Santosh, P.; Rakshith, D.; Satish, S.

    2015-02-01

    In present investigation extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles were synthesized using cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii AS41G isolated from Annona squamosa L. The bacterium significantly reduced silver nitrate to generate silver nanoparticles which was characterized with hyphenated techniques. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles preliminary confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry with the intense peak at 410 nm, Further FTIR analysis revealed the possible role of biomolecules in the supernatant responsible for mediating the nanoparticles formation. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 1 0 0, 1 1 1, 2 0 0, and 2 2 0 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM microgram showed polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 5 to 50 nm. Synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against human and environmental pathogens including MRSA. The study enlightens the role of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as an emerging alternative for drug resistant microorganisms. The obtained results are promising enough to pave the environmentally benign nanoparticle synthesis processes without use of any toxic chemicals and also envision the emerging role of endophytes towards synthesis of nanoparticles. With scanty reports available on P.veronii species, a new role has been reported in this study which will be very valuable for future researchers working on it.

  19. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by novel Pseudomonas veronii AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. and their bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Syed; Mohan Kumar, K; Santosh, P; Rakshith, D; Satish, S

    2014-10-19

    In present investigation extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles were synthesized using cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii AS41G isolated from Annona squamosa L. The bacterium significantly reduced silver nitrate to generate silver nanoparticles which was characterized with hyphenated techniques. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles preliminary confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometry with the intense peak at 410nm, Further FTIR analysis revealed the possible role of biomolecules in the supernatant responsible for mediating the nanoparticles formation. The XRD spectra exhibited the characteristic Bragg peaks of 100, 111, 200, and 220 facets of the face centred cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature. TEM microgram showed polydispersity of nanoparticles with size ranging from 5 to 50nm. Synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antibacterial activity against human and environmental pathogens including MRSA. The study enlightens the role of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles as an emerging alternative for drug resistant microorganisms. The obtained results are promising enough to pave the environmentally benign nanoparticle synthesis processes without use of any toxic chemicals and also envision the emerging role of endophytes towards synthesis of nanoparticles. With scanty reports available on P.veronii species, a new role has been reported in this study which will be very valuable for future researchers working on it. PMID:25459703

  20. Toxicogenomic responses of nanotoxicity in Daphnia magna exposed to silver nitrate and coated silver nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Applications for silver nanomaterials in consumer products are rapidly expanding, creating an urgent need for toxicological examination of the exposure potential and ecological effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The integration of genomic techniques into environmental toxic...

  1. Silver nanoparticles with tunable work functions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Pangpang; Tanaka, Daisuke; Ryuzaki, Sou; Araki, Shohei; Okamoto, Koichi; Tamada, Kaoru

    2015-10-12

    To improve the efficiencies of electronic devices, materials with variable work functions are required to decrease the energy level differences at the interfaces between working layers. Here, we report a method to obtain silver nanoparticles with tunable work functions, which have the same silver core of 5 nm in diameter and are capped by myristates and 1-octanethoilates self-assembled monolayers, respectively. The silver nanoparticles capped by organic molecules can form a uniform two-dimensional sheet at air-water interface, and the sheet can be transferred on various hydrophobic substrates. The surface potential of the two-dimensional nanoparticle sheet was measured in terms of Kelvin probe force microscopy, and the work function of the sheet was then calculated from the surface potential value by comparing with a reference material. The exchange of the capping molecules results in a work function change of approximately 150–250 meV without affecting their hydrophobicity. We systematically discussed the origin of the work function difference and found it should come mainly from the anchor groups of the ligand molecules. The organic molecule capped nanoparticles with tunable work functions have a potential for the applications in organic electronic devices.

  2. Silver nanoparticles with tunable work functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pangpang; Tanaka, Daisuke; Ryuzaki, Sou; Araki, Shohei; Okamoto, Koichi; Tamada, Kaoru

    2015-10-01

    To improve the efficiencies of electronic devices, materials with variable work functions are required to decrease the energy level differences at the interfaces between working layers. Here, we report a method to obtain silver nanoparticles with tunable work functions, which have the same silver core of 5 nm in diameter and are capped by myristates and 1-octanethoilates self-assembled monolayers, respectively. The silver nanoparticles capped by organic molecules can form a uniform two-dimensional sheet at air-water interface, and the sheet can be transferred on various hydrophobic substrates. The surface potential of the two-dimensional nanoparticle sheet was measured in terms of Kelvin probe force microscopy, and the work function of the sheet was then calculated from the surface potential value by comparing with a reference material. The exchange of the capping molecules results in a work function change of approximately 150-250 meV without affecting their hydrophobicity. We systematically discussed the origin of the work function difference and found it should come mainly from the anchor groups of the ligand molecules. The organic molecule capped nanoparticles with tunable work functions have a potential for the applications in organic electronic devices.

  3. Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri.

  4. Preparation, characterization and biocatalytic activity of a nanoconjugate of alpha amylase and silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Abhijeet; Ahmad, Razi; Singh, Veena; Gupta, Munishwar Nath; Sardar, Meryam

    2013-07-01

    The primary challenge in developing nanoparticle based enzymatic devices is to be able to chemically immobilize an enzyme, which will retain its activity or improve its function while being attached to the nanoparticle. This would be of even greater significance if the whole process could be performed under benign conditions without having to resort to functionalization of key molecules at various steps. In the present study the conjugates of amylase and silver nanoparticles were synthesized using neem leaf extract as the reducing and stabilizing agent. The silver nanoparticles were characterized using Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectra, Dynamic Light Spectroscopy (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Circular Dichroism (CD) and Surface Tunneling Microscopy (STM). The silver nanoparticles retained 85% amylase activity. The nanobiocatalyst was further characterized in terms of kinetic parameters and thermal stability. It was thermally more stable as compared to the free alpha amylase enzyme. PMID:23901526

  5. Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, M R; Umadevi, M

    2013-01-15

    Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract of Hibiscus cannabinus has been investigated. The influences of different concentration of H. cannabinus leaf extract, different metal ion concentration and different reaction time on the above cases on the synthesis of nanoparticles were evaluated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The prepared silver nanoparticles were monodispersed, spherical in shape with the average particle size of 9 nm and shows surface plasmon peak at 446 nm. The study also reveals that the ascorbic acid present in H. cannabinus leaf extract has been used as reducing agent. The prepared silver nanoparticle shows good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Shigella flexneri. PMID:23103459

  6. Novel method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their application on wool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boroumand, Majid Nasiri; Montazer, Majid; Simon, Frank; Liesiene, Jolanta; Šaponjic, Zoran; Dutschk, Victoria

    2015-08-01

    In this study, a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) suitable to impart antibacterial properties of wool fabric is proposed. AgNPs were synthesized by a biochemical reduction method. An aqueous solution of extracted dye from Pomegranate peel was used as a reducing agent for the synthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate. The ratio of dye to silver nitrate concentration (RDye/Ag = [Dye]/[AgNO3]) is the influencing factor in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles formation was followed by UV/Vis absorption spectroscopy. The size and shape of AgNPs were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size distribution and Zetapotential of nanoparticles were evaluated using diffraction light scattering (DLS) measurements. The antibacterial potential of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was examined qualitatively and quantitatively. Kinetic analysis of the bacteria reduction using AgNPs synthesized in different way was performed. AgNPs were applied on wool fabrics by exhaustion. The changes in surface morphology of wool fibers after AgNPs loading were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The amounts of silver deposited on wool fabrics at different pH and temperature were compared applying energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). AgNPs loaded fabrics showed excellent antibacterial efficiency even after five washing cycles. To investigate the nature of interaction and bonding between the AgNPs and the wool substrate XPS measurements were performed.

  7. Multistate resistive switching in silver nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandouk, Eric J.; Gimzewski, James K.; Stieg, Adam Z.

    2015-08-01

    Resistive switching devices have garnered significant consideration for their potential use in nanoelectronics and non-volatile memory applications. Here we investigate the nonlinear current-voltage behavior and resistive switching properties of composite nanoparticle films comprising a large collective of metal-insulator-metal junctions. Silver nanoparticles prepared via the polyol process and coated with an insulating polymer layer of tetraethylene glycol were deposited onto silicon oxide substrates. Activation required a forming step achieved through application of a bias voltage. Once activated, the nanoparticle films exhibited controllable resistive switching between multiple discrete low resistance states that depended on operational parameters including the applied bias voltage, temperature and sweep frequency. The films’ resistance switching behavior is shown here to be the result of nanofilament formation due to formative electromigration effects. Because of their tunable and distinct resistance states, scalability and ease of fabrication, nanoparticle films have a potential place in memory technology as resistive random access memory cells.

  8. A novel green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using soluble starch and its antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Yakout, Sobhy M; Mostafa, Ashraf A

    2015-01-01

    A green method of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) preparation has been established. This method depends on reduction of silver nitrate with soluble starch. The formation of AgNPs was observed by the color change from colorless to dark brown through the starch addition into silver nitrate solution. It was observed that use of starch makes convenient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and can reduce silver ions into the produced silver nanoparticles within one hour of reaction time without using any harsh conditions. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The synthesized green AgNPs showed a potential antibacterial activity that was stronger against Gram positive pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococus aureus and Streptococus pyogenes) than against Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Shigellasonnei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Inhibition zones diameter of antibacterial activity depends upon nanoparticles concentration as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for S.aureus (16.4 mm) followed by P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes while the least activity was observed for S. typhi (10.4 mm) at 40 μl/ disc. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agents in medical fields and process of synthesis creates new opportunities in process development for the synthesis of safe and eco-friendly AgNPs. PMID:26064246

  9. A novel green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using soluble starch and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Yakout, Sobhy M; Mostafa, Ashraf A

    2015-01-01

    A green method of Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) preparation has been established. This method depends on reduction of silver nitrate with soluble starch. The formation of AgNPs was observed by the color change from colorless to dark brown through the starch addition into silver nitrate solution. It was observed that use of starch makes convenient method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles and can reduce silver ions into the produced silver nanoparticles within one hour of reaction time without using any harsh conditions. The prepared silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy and evaluated for its antimicrobial activity. The synthesized green AgNPs showed a potential antibacterial activity that was stronger against Gram positive pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococus aureus and Streptococus pyogenes) than against Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella typhi, Shigellasonnei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Inhibition zones diameter of antibacterial activity depends upon nanoparticles concentration as AgNPs exhibited greater inhibition zone for S.aureus (16.4 mm) followed by P. aeruginosa and S. pyogenes while the least activity was observed for S. typhi (10.4 mm) at 40 μl/ disc. These results suggested that AgNPs can be used as an effective antiseptic agents in medical fields and process of synthesis creates new opportunities in process development for the synthesis of safe and eco-friendly AgNPs. PMID:26064246

  10. Antibacterial potential of silver nanoparticles against isolated urinary tract infectious bacterial pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob Inbaneson, Samuel; Ravikumar, Sundaram; Manikandan, Nachiappan

    2011-12-01

    The silver nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical reduction method and the nanoparticles were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were investigated to evaluate the antibacterial activity against urinary tract infectious (UTIs) bacterial pathogens. Thirty-two bacteria were isolated from mid urine samples of 25 male and 25 female patients from Thondi, Ramanathapuram District, Tamil Nadu, India and identified by conventional methods. Escherichia coli was predominant (47%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%), Enterobacter sp. (6%), Proteus morganii (3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (3%). The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by disc diffusion assay. P. aeruginosa showed maximum sensitivity (11 ± 0.58 mm) followed by Enterobacter sp. (8 ± 0.49 mm) at a concentration of 20 μg disc-1 and the sensitivity was highly comparable with the positive control kanamycin and tetracycline. K. pneumoniae, E. coli, P. morganii and S. aureus showed no sensitivity against all the tested concentrations of silver nanoparticles. The results provided evidence that, the silver nanoparticles might indeed be the potential sources to treat urinary tract infections caused by P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter sp.

  11. Therapeutic gold, silver, and platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Miko; Foote, Matthew; Prow, Tarl W

    2015-01-01

    There are an abundance of nanoparticle technologies being developed for use as part of therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on a narrow class of metal nanoparticles that have therapeutic potential that is a consequence of elemental composition and size. The most widely known of these are gold nanoshells that have been developed over the last two decades for photothermal ablation in superficial cancers. The therapeutic effect is the outcome of the thickness and diameter of the gold shell that enables fine tuning of the plasmon resonance. When these metal nanoparticles are exposed to the relevant wavelength of light, their temperature rapidly increases. This in turn induces a localized photothermal ablation that kills the surrounding tumor tissue. Similarly, gold nanoparticles have been developed to enhance radiotherapy. The high-Z nature of gold dramatically increases the photoelectric cross-section. Thus, the photoelectric effects are significantly increased. The outcome of these interactions is enhanced tumor killing with lower doses of radiation, all while sparing tissue without gold nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have been used for their wound healing properties in addition to enhancing the tumor-killing effects of anticancer drugs. Finally, platinum nanoparticles are thought to serve as a reservoir for platinum ions that can induce DNA damage in cancer cells. The future is bright with the path to clinical trials is largely cleared for some of the less complex therapeutic metal nanoparticle systems. PMID:25521618

  12. Catalytic degradation of methylene blue using biosynthesized gold and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suvith, V. S.; Philip, Daizy

    2014-01-01

    The scientific community is searching for new synthesis methods for the production of metallic nanoparticles. Green synthesis has now become a vast developing area of research. Here we report for the first time to best of our knowledge, a new green method for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles using the Kashayam, Guggulutiktham, an ayurvedic medicine. This method is nontoxic and environmentally benign. The reduction and the stabilization capacity of the ayurvedic Kashayam are described in this paper. The size and shape of the silver and gold nanoparticles can be tuned by varying the quantity of the Kashayam. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized using UV-VIS spectroscopy, TEM, XRD and FTIR. The size dependent catalytic activity of the synthesized nanoparticles is established in the reduction of Methylene Blue (MB) by NaBH4.

  13. Electrodeposition of silver nanoparticle arrays on transparent conductive oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dezhong; Tang, Yang; Jiang, Fuguo; Han, Zhihua; Chen, Jie

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a facile method for the preparation of silver nanoparticles on aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) via electrodeposition techniques at room temperature. The morphology and structure of silver nanoparticles are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Due to localized surface plasmon resonances, as-prepared silver nanoparticles on AZO glass exhibited different reflectivity in contrast with bare AZO glass. The weighted reflection of AZO substrate increased from 10.2% to 12.8%. The high reflection property of silver nanoparticle arrays on AZO substrate might be applicable for thin film solar cells and other optoelectronics applications.

  14. Silver nanoparticles as potential antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Franci, Gianluigi; Falanga, Annarita; Galdiero, Stefania; Palomba, Luciana; Rai, Mahendra; Morelli, Giancarlo; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Multi-drug resistance is a growing problem in the treatment of infectious diseases and the widespread use of broad-spectrum antibiotics has produced antibiotic resistance for many human bacterial pathogens. Advances in nanotechnology have opened new horizons in nanomedicine, allowing the synthesis of nanoparticles that can be assembled into complex architectures. Novel studies and technologies are devoted to understanding the mechanisms of disease for the design of new drugs, but unfortunately infectious diseases continue to be a major health burden worldwide. Since ancient times, silver was known for its anti-bacterial effects and for centuries it has been used for prevention and control of disparate infections. Currently nanotechnology and nanomaterials are fully integrated in common applications and objects that we use every day. In addition, the silver nanoparticles are attracting much interest because of their potent antibacterial activity. Many studies have also shown an important activity of silver nanoparticles against bacterial biofilms. This review aims to summarize the emerging efforts to address current challenges and solutions in the treatment of infectious diseases, particularly the use of nanosilver antimicrobials. PMID:25993417

  15. Aquatic Toxicity Comparison of Silver Nanoparticles and Silver Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Gyu; Kim, Jin Kwon; Kim, Ellen; Lee, Ji Hyun; Chung, Young Shin

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the potential ecotoxicological impact of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and silver nanowires (AgNWs) released into freshwater environments, the toxicities of these nanomaterials were assessed and compared using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guidelines, including a “Daphnia sp., acute immobilization test,” “Fish, acute toxicity test,” and “freshwater alga and cyanobacteria, growth inhibition test.” Based on the estimated median lethal/effective concentrations of AgNPs and AgNWs, the susceptibility to the nanomaterials was different among test organisms (daphnia > algae > fish), suggesting that the AgNPs are classified as “category acute 1” for Daphnia magna, “category acute 2” for Oryzias latipes, and “category acute 1” for Raphidocelis subcapitata, while the AgNWs are classified as “category acute 1” for Daphnia magna, “category acute 2” for Oryzias latipes, and “category acute 2” for Raphidocelis subcapitata, according to the GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals). In conclusion, the present results suggest that more attention should be paid to prevent the accidental or intentional release of silver nanomaterials into freshwater aquatic environments. PMID:26125025

  16. Synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles by callus and leaf extracts from saltmarsh plant, Sesuvium portulacastrum L.

    PubMed

    Nabikhan, Asmathunisha; Kandasamy, Kathiresan; Raj, Anburaj; Alikunhi, Nabeel M

    2010-09-01

    The present work studied the effect of extracts from tissue culture-derived callus and leaf of the saltmarsh plant, Sesuvium portulacastrum L. on synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles using AgNO(3) as a substrate. The callus extract could be able to produce silver nanoparticles, better than leaf extract. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was confirmed with X-ray diffraction spectrum which exhibited intense peaks, corresponding to the (1 1 1), (2 0 0), (2 2 0), (3 1 1), and (2 2 2) sets of lattice planes of silver. The extracts incubated with AgNO(3) showed gradual change in color of the extracts to yellowish brown, with intensity increasing during the period of incubation. Control without silver nitrate did not show any change in color. The silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical in shape with variable size ranging from 5 to 20 nm, as evident by Transmission Electron Microscopy. There were prominent peaks in the extracts corresponding to amide I, II and III indicating the presence of the protein, as revealed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurement. There were also peaks that were corresponding to aromatic rings, geminal methyls and ether linkages, indicating the presence of flavones and terpenoids responsible for the stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles were observed to inhibit clinical strains of bacteria and fungi. The antibacterial activity was more distinct than antifungal activity. The antimicrobial activity was enhanced when polyvinyl alcohol was added as a stabilizing agent. The present work highlighted the possibility of using tissue culture-derived callus extract from the coastal saltmarsh species for the synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles. PMID:20627485

  17. Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Garza-Navarro, Marco; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo; De la Rosa, Elder

    2010-01-15

    In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M(T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems. - Graphical abstract: Biopolymer chitosan was used as stabilization media to synthesize both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles. Results of HRTEM and NBD patterns confirm core/shell morphology of the obtained nanoparticles. It was found that the composites show diluted magnet-like behavior.

  18. Silver nanoparticles cause complications in pregnant mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi-Feng; Park, Jung-Hyun; Choi, Yun-Jung; Kang, Min-Hee; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted much interest and have been used for antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, and antiangiogenic applications because of their unique properties. The increased usage of AgNPs leads to a potential hazard to human health. However, the potential effects of AgNPs on animal models are not clear. This study was designed to investigate the potential impact of AgNPs on pregnant mice. Methods The synthesis of AgNPs was performed using culture extracts of Bacillus cereus. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. AgNPs were administrated into pregnant mice via intravenous infusion at 1.0 mg/kg doses at 6.5 days postcoitum (dpc). At 13.5, 15.5, and 17.5 dpc, the pregnant mice were euthanized, and the embryo and placenta were isolated. The meiotic status of oocytes was evaluated. DNA methylation studies were performed, and aberrant imprinting disrupted fetal, placental, and postnatal development. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis and Western blot were used to analyze various gene expressions. Results The synthesized AgNPs were uniformly distributed and were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs exposure increased the meiotic progression of female germ cells in the fetal mouse ovaries, and maternal AgNP exposure significantly disrupted imprinted gene expression in 15.5 dpc embryos and placentas, such as Ascl2, Snrpn, Kcnq1ot1, Peg3, Zac1, H19, Igf2r, and Igf2; DNA methylation studies revealed that AgNPs exposure significantly altered the methylation levels of differentially methylated regions of Zac1. Conclusion The results from this study indicated that early exposure to AgNPs has the potential to disrupt fetal and postnatal health through epigenetic changes in the embryo and abnormal development of the placenta. These results can contribute to research involved in the safe use of various biomedical applications of AgNPs and improves the understanding of the development of AgNPs in biomedical applications. PMID:26622177

  19. Enhancement of antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles-ceftriaxone conjugate through Mukia maderaspatana leaf extract mediated synthesis.

    PubMed

    Harshiny, Muthukumar; Matheswaran, Manickam; Arthanareeswaran, Gangasalam; Kumaran, Shanmugam; Rajasree, Shanmuganathan

    2015-11-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles with low range of toxicity and conjugation to antibiotics has become an attractive area of research for several biomedical applications. Nanoconjugates exhibited notable increase in biological activity compared to free antibiotic molecules. With this perception, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of leaves of Mukia maderaspatana and subsequent conjugation of the silver nanoparticles to antibiotic ceftriaxone. The leaves of this plant are known to be a rich source of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity that are used as reducing agents. The size, morphology, crystallinity, composition of the synthesized silver nanoparticles and conjugation of ceftriaxone to silver nanoparticles were studied using analytical techniques. The activity of the conjugates against Bacillus subtilis (MTCC 1790), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 3384), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), and Salmonella typhi (MTCC 3224) was compared to ceftriaxone and unconjugated nanoparticles using disc diffusion method. The effect of silver nanoparticles on the reduction of biofilms of Pseudomonas fluorescens (MTCC 6732) was determined by micro plate assay method. The antioxidant activities of extract, silver nitrate, silver nanoparticles, ceftriaxone and conjugates of nanoparticles were evaluated by radical scavenging 1, 1- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl test. Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the formation of metallic silver nanoparticles and conjugation to ceftriaxone. Atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and particle size analysis showed that the formed particles were of spherical morphology with appreciable nanosize and the conjugation was confirmed by slight increase in surface roughness. The results thus showed that the conjugation of ceftriaxone with silver nanoparticles has better antioxidant and antimicrobial effects than ceftriaxone and unconjugated nanoparticles. It can be suggested that M. maderaspatana mediated nanoparticle-ceftriaxone conjugate can be used effectively in the production of potential antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. The present study offers a significant overview to the development of novel antimicrobial nanoparticles. PMID:25982731

  20. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles by silver salt reduction and its characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzamil, Muhammad; Khalid, Naveed; Danish Aziz, M.; Aun Abbas, S.

    2014-06-01

    The wet chemical method route by metal salt reduction has been used to synthesize nanoparticles, using silver nitrate as an inorganic salt, aldehyde as a reducing agent and amino acid as a catalyst. During the reaction aldehyde oxidizes to carboxylic acid and encapsulates the silver nanoparticles to prevent agglomeration and provide barrier in the growth of particle. The existing work produces particles using lab grade chemical, here the presented work is by using industrial grade chemicals to make the process more cost & time effective. The nano silver powder has been studied for their formation, particle size, shape & compositional analysis using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with EDS. The particles size distributions were analyzed by Laser Particle Analyzer (LPA), structure & morphological analysis using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform-infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the stabilization of particles by coating of carboxylic group. These studies infer that the particles are mostly spherical in shape and have an average size between 70 to 350 nm.

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using medicinal Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumi Maria, Babu; Devadiga, Aishwarya; Shetty Kodialbail, Vidya; Saidutta, M. B.

    2015-08-01

    In the present paper, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Zizyphus xylopyrus bark extract is reported. Z. xylopyrus bark extract is efficiently used for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed surface plasmon resonance peaks in the range 413-420 nm confirming the formation of silver nanoparticles. Different factors affecting the synthesis of silver nanoparticles like methodology for the preparation of extract, concentration of silver nitrate solution used for biosynthesis and initial pH of the reaction mixture were studied. The extract prepared with 10 mM AgNO3 solution by reflux extraction method at optimum initial pH of 11, resulted in higher conversion of silver ions to silver nanoparticles as compared with those prepared by open heating or ultrasonication. SEM analysis showed that the biosynthesized nanoparticles are spherical in nature and ranged from 60 to 70 nm in size. EDX suggested that the silver nanoparticles must be capped by the organic components present in the plant extract. This simple process for the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Z. xylopyrus is a green technology without the usage of hazardous and toxic solvents and chemicals and hence is environment friendly. The process has several advantages with reference to cost, compatibility for its application in medical and drug delivery, as well as for large-scale commercial production.

  2. Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using living peanut seedling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, D.; Paneliya, Nikita; Mehta, Urmil J.

    2014-10-01

    Synthesis of nanoparticles by environment friendly method is an important aspect of nanotechnology. In the present study, extracellular reduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles was carried out using living peanut plant. The electron microscopic analysis shows that the formed nanoparticles were of different shapes and sizes. The formed nanoparticles were polydispersed. The shapes of the nanoparticles were spherical, square, triangle, hexagonal and rod. Most of the particles were spherical and 56 nm in size. EDS analysis confirmed the formed nanoparticles were of silver. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles was confirmed by diffraction. This method opens up an exciting possibility of plant-based synthesis of other inorganic nanomaterials. This study confirms the synthesis of extracellular silver nanoparticles by living plant.

  3. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle from leaf extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. and its biomedical potential.

    PubMed

    Thirunavoukkarasu, M; Balaji, U; Behera, S; Panda, P K; Mishra, B K

    2013-12-01

    An aqueous leaf extract of Desmodium gangeticum was employed to synthesize silver nano particles. Rapid formation of stable silver nanoparticles were observed on exposure of the aqueous leaf extract with solution of silver nitrate. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR). UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium peaked at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. SEM analysis revealed the spherical shape of the particles with sizes ranging from 18 to 39 nm and the EDAX spectrum confirmed the presence of silver along with other elements in the plant metabolite. Further, these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, thus implying significance of the present study in production of biomedical products. PMID:23973589

  4. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticle from leaf extract of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DC. and its biomedical potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirunavoukkarasu, M.; Balaji, U.; Behera, S.; Panda, P. K.; Mishra, B. K.

    2013-12-01

    An aqueous leaf extract of Desmodium gangeticum was employed to synthesize silver nano particles. Rapid formation of stable silver nanoparticles were observed on exposure of the aqueous leaf extract with solution of silver nitrate. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR). UV-visible spectrum of the aqueous medium peaked at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. SEM analysis revealed the spherical shape of the particles with sizes ranging from 18 to 39 nm and the EDAX spectrum confirmed the presence of silver along with other elements in the plant metabolite. Further, these biologically synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly toxic against pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli, thus implying significance of the present study in production of biomedical products.

  5. Green synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biocompatibility of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, Maqusood; Majeed Khan, M. A.; Siddiqui, M. K. J.; AlSalhi, Mohamad S.; Alrokayan, Salman A.

    2011-04-01

    Although green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) by various plants and microorganisms has been reported, the potential of plants as biological materials for the synthesis of nanoparticles and their compatibility to biological systems is yet to be fully explored. In this study, we report a simple green method for the synthesis of Ag NPs using garlic clove extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. In addition to green synthesis, biological response of Ag NPs in human lung epithelial A549 cells was also assessed. Ag NPs were rapidly synthesized using garlic clove extract and the formation of nanoparticles was observed within 30 min. The green synthesized Ag NPs were characterized using UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM), X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Characterization data demonstrated that the particles were crystalline in nature and spherical shaped with an average diameter of 12 nm. Measurements of cell viability, cell membrane integrity and intracellular production of reactive oxygen species have shown that the green synthesized Ag NPs were nontoxic to human lung epithelial A549 cells. This study demonstrated a simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign synthesis of Ag NPs with excellent biocompatibility to human lung epithelial A549 cells. This preliminary in vitro investigation needs to be followed up by future studies with various biological systems.

  6. Efficacy of fungus mediated silver and gold nanoparticles against Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Soni, Namita; Prakash, Soam

    2012-01-01

    Chrysosporium tropicum is a pathogenic fungus. It is known to be an effective mosquito control agent. In the present study, we have synthesized the silver and gold nanoparticles using C. tropicum. These nanoparticles have been characterized through Microscan reader, X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscopy, and further confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The characterization study confirmed the spherical shape and size (2-15 and 20-50 nm) of gold and silver nanoparticles. These silver and gold nanoparticles have been tested as a larvicide against the Aedes aegypti larvae. The larvicidal efficacy was noted when performed against all instars of A. aegypti at six different log concentrations, and significant results could be observed. The gold nanoparticles used as an efficacy enhancer have shown mortality at three times higher concentration than the silver nanoparticles. The larval mortality was observed after different time of exposures. The mortality values were obtained using the probit analysis. The larvae of A. aegypti were found to be highly susceptible for the silver nanoparticles. The second instar larvae have shown 100% mortality against the silver nanoparticles after 1 h, whereas the first, third, and fourth instars have shown efficacy (LC(50) = 3.47, 4, and 2; LC(90) = 12.30, 8.91, and 4; LC(99) = 13.18, 13.18, and 7.58, respectively) after 1 h. The results could suggest that the use of fungus C. tropicum, silver, and gold nanoparticles is a rapid, environmentally safer, and greener approach for mosquito control. This could lead us to a new possibility in vector control strategy. PMID:21647674

  7. Biopolymer protected silver nanoparticles on the support of carbon nanotube as interface for electrocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyanarayana, M.; Kumar, V. Sunil; Gobi, K. Vengatajalabathy

    2016-04-01

    In this research, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) are prepared on the surface of carbon nanotubes via chitosan, a biopolymer linkage. Here chitosan act as stabilizing agent for nanoparticles and forms a network on the surface of carbon nanotubes. Synthesized silver nanoparticles-MWCNT hybrid composite is characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy, XRD analysis, and FESEM with EDS to evaluate the structural and chemical properties of the nanocomposite. The electrocatalytic activity of the fabricated SNP-MWCNT hybrid modified glassy carbon electrode has been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance analysis. The silver nanoparticles are of size ˜35 nm and are well distributed on the surface of carbon nanotubes with chitosan linkage. The prepared nanocomposite shows efficient electrocatalytic properties with high active surface area and excellent electron transfer behaviour.

  8. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES OBTAINED BY GREEN SYNTHESIS

    PubMed Central

    MALLMANN, Eduardo José J.; CUNHA, Francisco Afrânio; CASTRO, Bruno N.M.F.; MACIEL, Auberson Martins; MENEZES, Everardo Albuquerque; FECHINE, Pierre Basílio Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD) in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment. PMID:25923897

  9. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles obtained by green synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Eduardo José J; Cunha, Francisco Afrânio; Castro, Bruno N M F; Maciel, Auberson Martins; Menezes, Everardo Albuquerque; Fechine, Pierre Basílio Almeida

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are metal structures at the nanoscale. AgNPs have exhibited antimicrobial activities against fungi and bacteria; however synthesis of AgNPs can generate toxic waste during the reaction process. Accordingly, new routes using non-toxic compounds have been researched. The proposal of the present study was to synthesize AgNPs using ribose as a reducing agent and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) as a stabilizer. The antifungal activity of these particles against C. albicans and C. tropicalis was also evaluated. Stable nanoparticles 12.5 ± 4.9 nm (mean ± SD) in size were obtained, which showed high activity against Candida spp. and could represent an alternative for fungal infection treatment. PMID:25923897

  10. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using haloarchaeal isolate Halococcus salifodinae BK3.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Pallavee; Bragança, Judith; Ramanan, Sutapa Roy; Kowshik, Meenal

    2013-09-01

    Numerous bacteria, fungi, yeasts and viruses have been exploited for biosynthesis of highly structured metal sulfide and metallic nanoparticles. Haloarchaea (salt-loving archaea) of the third domain of life Archaea, on the other hand have not yet been explored for nanoparticle synthesis. In this study, we report the intracellular synthesis of stable, mostly spherical silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by the haloarchaeal isolate Halococcus salifodinae BK3. The culture on adaptation to silver nitrate exhibited growth kinetics similar to that of the control. NADH-dependent nitrate reductase was involved in silver tolerance, reduction, synthesis of AgNPs, and exhibited metal-dependent increase in enzyme activity. The AgNPs preparation was characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, XRD, TEM and EDAX. The XRD analysis of the nanoparticles showed the characteristic Bragg peaks of face-centered cubic silver with crystallite domain size of 22 and 12 nm for AgNPs synthesized in NTYE and halophilic nitrate broth (HNB), respectively. The average particle size obtained from TEM analysis was 50.3 and 12 nm for AgNPs synthesized in NTYE and HNB, respectively. This is the first report on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles by haloarchaea. PMID:23884709

  11. Preparation of solid silver nanoparticles for inkjet printed flexible electronics with high conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Wenfeng; Zhang, Xianpeng; Huang, Qijin; Xu, Qingsong; Song, Weijie

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) which could be kept in solid form and were easily stored without degeneration or oxidation at room temperature for a long period of time were synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly wet chemistry method in an aqueous phase. Highly stable dispersions of aqueous silver NP inks, sintered at room temperature, for printing highly conductive tracks (~8.0 μΩ cm) were prepared simply by dispersing the synthesized silver NP powder in water. These inks are stable, fairly homogeneous and suitable for a wide range of patterning techniques. The inks were successfully printed on paper and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a common color printer. Upon annealing at 180 °C, the resistivity of the printed silver patterns decreased to 3.7 μΩ cm, which is close to twice that of bulk silver. Various factors affecting the resistivity of the printed silver patterns, such as annealing temperature and the number of printing cycles, were investigated. The resulting high conductivity of the printed silver patterns reached over 20% of the bulk silver value under ambient conditions, which enabled the fabrication of flexible electronic devices, as demonstrated by the inkjet printing of conductive circuits of LED devices.Silver nanoparticles (NPs) which could be kept in solid form and were easily stored without degeneration or oxidation at room temperature for a long period of time were synthesized by a simple and environmentally friendly wet chemistry method in an aqueous phase. Highly stable dispersions of aqueous silver NP inks, sintered at room temperature, for printing highly conductive tracks (~8.0 μΩ cm) were prepared simply by dispersing the synthesized silver NP powder in water. These inks are stable, fairly homogeneous and suitable for a wide range of patterning techniques. The inks were successfully printed on paper and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a common color printer. Upon annealing at 180 °C, the resistivity of the printed silver patterns decreased to 3.7 μΩ cm, which is close to twice that of bulk silver. Various factors affecting the resistivity of the printed silver patterns, such as annealing temperature and the number of printing cycles, were investigated. The resulting high conductivity of the printed silver patterns reached over 20% of the bulk silver value under ambient conditions, which enabled the fabrication of flexible electronic devices, as demonstrated by the inkjet printing of conductive circuits of LED devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional figures. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05479a

  12. Structural and thermal studies of silver nanoparticles and electrical transport study of their thin films

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the preparation and characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized through wet chemical solution method and of silver films deposited by dip-coating method. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), field emission transmission electron microscopy (FETEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) have been used to characterize the prepared silver nanoparticles and thin film. The morphology and crystal structure of silver nanoparticles have been determined by FESEM, HRTEM, and FETEM. The average grain size of silver nanoparticles is found to be 17.5 nm. The peaks in XRD pattern are in good agreement with that of face-centered-cubic form of metallic silver. TGA/DTA results confirmed the weight loss and the exothermic reaction due to desorption of chemisorbed water. The temperature dependence of resistivity of silver thin film, determined in the temperature range of 100-300 K, exhibit semiconducting behavior of the sample. The sample shows the activated variable range hopping in the localized states near the Fermi level. PMID:21711498

  13. Synthesis of silver nanoparticle at a gas/liquid interface in the presence of silver seeds and its application for electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ziyin; Qi, Chengcheng; Zheng, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianbin

    2015-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing [Ag(NH3)2](+) at a gas/liquid interface in the presence of silver seeds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations reveal that the size of these silver nanoparticles is around 35-40 nm with the average particle size of 37 nm. The silver nanoparticles were applied for the electrochemical sensor and electrochemical investigations indicate that the nanoparticles possess an excellent performance toward H2O2. The linear range is estimated to be from 5.0 ?M to 4.0 mM with a low detection limit of 1.7 ?M, a sensitivity of 166.7 ?A mM(-1) cm(-2) and a response time of 3 s. Additionally, the sensor exhibits good anti-interference. PMID:26048842

  14. Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation processes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Tang, Ting; Yuan, Zhihua; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-10-15

    Commercial use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will lead to a potential route for human exposure via potable water. Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the drinking water treatment facilities, may become an important barrier to prevent human from AgNP exposures. This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. In the aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride coagulation systems, the water parameters slightly affected the AgNP removal. However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca(2+) and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal. In addition, results from the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed AgNPs or silver-containing nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the flocs. Finally, natural water samples were used to validate AgNP removal by coagulation. This study suggests that in the case of release of AgNPs into the source water, the traditional water treatment process, coagulation/sedimentation, can remove AgNPs and minimize the silver ion concentration under the well-optimized conditions. PMID:23973474

  15. Active Silver Nanoparticles for Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Rigo, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Munivrana, Ivan; Gardin, Chiara; Cairns, Warren R. L.; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)-based dressing, Acticoat™ Flex 3, has been applied to a 3D fibroblast cell culture in vitro and to a real partial thickness burn patient. The in vitro results show that Ag NPs greatly reduce mitochondrial activity, while cellular staining techniques show that nuclear integrity is maintained, with no signs of cell death. For the first time, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses were carried out on skin biopsies taken from a single patient during treatment. The results show that Ag NPs are released as aggregates and are localized in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. No signs of cell death were observed, and the nanoparticles had different distributions within the cells of the upper and lower dermis. Depth profiles of the Ag concentrations were determined along the skin biopsies. In the healed sample, most of the silver remained in the surface layers, whereas in the unhealed sample, the silver penetrated more deeply. The Ag concentrations in the cell cultures were also determined. Clinical observations and experimental data collected here are consistent with previously published articles and support the safety of Ag NP-based dressing in wound treatment. PMID:23455461

  16. Active silver nanoparticles for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Chiara; Ferroni, Letizia; Tocco, Ilaria; Roman, Marco; Munivrana, Ivan; Gardin, Chiara; Cairns, Warren R L; Vindigni, Vincenzo; Azzena, Bruno; Barbante, Carlo; Zavan, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the silver nanoparticle (Ag NP)-based dressing, Acticoat Flex 3, has been applied to a 3D fibroblast cell culture in vitro and to a real partial thickness burn patient. The in vitro results show that Ag NPs greatly reduce mitochondrial activity, while cellular staining techniques show that nuclear integrity is maintained, with no signs of cell death. For the first time, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses were carried out on skin biopsies taken from a single patient during treatment. The results show that Ag NPs are released as aggregates and are localized in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts. No signs of cell death were observed, and the nanoparticles had different distributions within the cells of the upper and lower dermis. Depth profiles of the Ag concentrations were determined along the skin biopsies. In the healed sample, most of the silver remained in the surface layers, whereas in the unhealed sample, the silver penetrated more deeply. The Ag concentrations in the cell cultures were also determined. Clinical observations and experimental data collected here are consistent with previously published articles and support the safety of Ag NP-based dressing in wound treatment. PMID:23455461

  17. Determination of lamotrigine by adsorptive stripping voltammetry using silver nanoparticle-modified carbon screen-printed electrodes.

    PubMed

    Burgoa Calvo, M Encarnación; Domínguez Renedo, Olga; Arcos Martínez, M Julia

    2007-11-15

    Carbon screen-printed electrodes (CSPE) modified with silver nanoparticles present an interesting alternative in the determination of lamotrigine (LTG) using differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Metallic silver nanoparticle deposits have been obtained by electrochemical deposition. Scanning electron microscopy measurements show that the electrochemically synthesized silver nanoparticles are deposited in aggregated form. The detection limit for this analytical procedure was 3.72 x 10(-7) M. In terms of reproducibility, the precision of the above mentioned method in %R.S.D. values was calculated at 2.58%. The method was applied satisfactorily to the determination of LTG in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:18371613

  18. One-step synthesis of silver nanoparticle-filled Nylon 6 nanofibers and their antibacterial properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel and facile one-step approach to in situ synthesize silver nanoparticle-filled nylon 6 nanofibers by electrospinning is reported. The method does not need post-treatments and can be carried out at ambient conditions without using additional chemicals. It employs the electrospinning solvent as...

  19. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in textile finish aqueous system and their antimicrobial properties on cotton fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by a simple and environmentally benign procedure using poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) as reducing agent and stabilizer in the textile finish aqueous system, and their antimicrobial properties on greige (mechanically cleaned) and bleached cotton fibers were i...

  20. Antibacterial wound dressing from chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers mats embedded with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Feng; Gao, Jing; Wang, Lu

    2015-03-01

    Novel antibacterial nanomaterials have been developed for biomedical applications. The present study involves the preparation and properties of antibacterial nanofibers from chitosan/polyethylene oxide electrospun nanofibers incorporated with silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were efficiently synthesized in situ after ultra violet (UV) with AgNO3 as precursor and chitosan/polyethylene oxide as reducing agent and protecting agent, respectively. Then the resultant solutions were electrospun into nanofibers. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed with ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the electrospun nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray. The resultant fibers exhibited uniform morphology with silver nanoparticles distributed throughout the fiber. Also, the fibers showed certain tensile strength and excellent antibacterial activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. Sustained release of silver nanoparticles from fibers could last for over 72 h. The silver-containing chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibers showed excellent cytocompatibility. PMID:25281643

  1. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in melts of amphiphilic polyesters.

    PubMed

    Vasylyev, S; Damm, C; Segets, D; Hanisch, M; Taccardi, N; Wasserscheid, P; Peukert, W

    2013-03-22

    The current work presents a one-step procedure for the synthesis of amphiphilic silver nanoparticles suitable for production of silver-filled polymeric materials. This solvent free synthesis via reduction of Tollens' reagent as silver precursor in melts of amphiphilic polyesters consisting of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) blocks and hydrophobic alkyl chains allows the production of silver nanoparticles without any by-product formation. This makes them especially interesting for the production of medical devices with antimicrobial properties. In this article the influences of the chain length of the hydrophobic block in the amphiphilic polyesters and the process temperature on the particle size distribution (PSD) and the stability of the particles against agglomeration are discussed. According to the results of spectroscopic and viscosimetric investigations the silver precursor is reduced to elemental silver nanoparticles by a single electron transfer process from the poly(ethylene glycol) chain to the silver ion. PMID:23449006

  2. Chitin membranes containing silver nanoparticles for wound dressing application.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles are gaining importance as an antimicrobial agent in wound dressings. Chitin is a biopolymer envisioned to promote rapid dermal regeneration and accelerate wound healing. This study was focused on the evaluation of chitin membranes containing silver nanoparticles for use as an antimicrobial wound dressing. Silver nanoparticles were synthesised by gamma irradiation at doses of 50 kGy in the presence of sodium alginate as stabiliser. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of nanoparticles exhibited an absorption band at 415-420 nm, which is the typical plasmon resonance band of silver nanoparticles. The peaks in the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern are in agreement with the standard values of the face-centred cubic silver. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate silver nanoparticles with spherical morphology and small particle size in the range of 3-13 nm. In vitro antimicrobial tests were performed using Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus to determine the antimicrobial efficiency of the chitin membranes containing 30, 50, 70 and 100 ppm nanosilver. No viable counts for P. aeruginosa were detected with 70 ppm silver nanoparticles dressing after 1-hour exposure. A 2-log reduction in viable cell count was observed for S. aureus after 1 hour and a 4-log reduction after 6 hours with 100 ppm nanosilver chitin membranes. This study demonstrates the antimicrobial capability of chitin membranes containing silver nanoparticles. The chitin membranes with 100 ppm nanosilver showed promising antimicrobial activity against common wound pathogens. PMID:22958740

  3. Fluorescence of pyrene in inhomogeneous media containing silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskaya, G. I.

    2014-05-01

    Pyrene fluorescence in inhomogeneous media based on ionic detergents containing silver nanoparticles with different morphologies is investigated. An increase in pyrene monomer emissions in the spectral range of 400-500 nm is observed, due to the resonance between electronic transitions in pyrene molecules in that region and the plasmonic oscillations of silver nanoparticles.

  4. Transformation of Silver Nanoparticles in Fresh, Aged, and Incinerated Biosolids

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the chemical transformation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in aged, fresh, and incinerated biosolids in order to provide information for AgNP life cycle analyses. Silver nanoparticles were introduced to the influent of a pilot...

  5. Biogenic silver nanoparticles with chlorogenic acid as a bioreducing agent.

    PubMed

    Noh, Hwa Jung; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Jun, Sang Hui; Kang, Young-Hwa; Cho, Seonho; Park, Youmie

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles using chlorogenic acid as a bioreducing agent. Chlorogenic acid is a polyphenol compound abundant in coffee. UV-Vis spectra showed the characteristic surface plasmon resonance band at 415 nm, indicating the successful synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles. Spherical and irregular shaped nanoparticles were observed with an average diameter of 19.29 +/- 8.23 nm. The reaction yield from silver ion to silver nanoparticles was observed as 95.43% by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Fourier transform infrared spectra revealed that the -C = O groups of chlorogenic acid may coordinate or complex into silver nanoparticles. Biogenic silver nanoparticles exerted higher antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria than against Gram-positive bacteria. Interestingly, a comparable antibacterial activity to a standard antibiotic was observed against two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.66 microg/mL). The synergistic effect of a combination of silver nanoparticles and chlorogenic acid on antibacterial activity is obvious, leading to approximately 8-fold enhancement in the case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa when compared with chlorogenic acid alone. The present report suggests that a pure compound with a plant origin is capable of being a bioreducing agent for the synthesis of biogenic silver nanoparticles with superior antibacterial activity, opening up many applications in nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology. PMID:23882836

  6. Biogenic silver nanoparticles: efficient and effective antifungal agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netala, Vasudeva Reddy; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Domdi, Latha; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Bobbu, Pushpalatha; Venkata, Sucharitha K.; Ghosh, Sukhendu Bikash; Tartte, Vijaya

    2015-06-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by exploiting various plant materials is an emerging field and considered green nanotechnology as it involves simple, cost effective and ecofriendly procedure. In the present study AgNPs were successfully synthesized using aqueous callus extract of Gymnema sylvestre. The aqueous callus extract treated with 1nM silver nitrate solution resulted in the formation of AgNPs and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the formed AgNPs showed a peak at 437 nm in the UV Visible spectrum. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). FTIR spectra showed the peaks at 3333, 2928, 2361, 1600, 1357 and 1028 cm-1 which revealed the role of different functional groups possibly involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. TEM micrograph clearly revealed the size of the AgNPs to be in the range of 3-30 nm with spherical shape and poly-dispersed nature; it is further confirmed by Particle size analysis that the stability of AgNPs is due its high negative Zeta potential (-36.1 mV). XRD pattern revealed the crystal nature of the AgNPs by showing the braggs peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes of face-centered cubic crystal phase of silver. Selected area electron diffraction pattern showed diffraction rings and confirmed the crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited effective antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida nonalbicans and Candida tropicalis.

  7. Biogenic silver nanoparticles: efficient and effective antifungal agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netala, Vasudeva Reddy; Kotakadi, Venkata Subbaiah; Domdi, Latha; Gaddam, Susmila Aparna; Bobbu, Pushpalatha; Venkata, Sucharitha K.; Ghosh, Sukhendu Bikash; Tartte, Vijaya

    2016-04-01

    Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by exploiting various plant materials is an emerging field and considered green nanotechnology as it involves simple, cost effective and ecofriendly procedure. In the present study AgNPs were successfully synthesized using aqueous callus extract of Gymnema sylvestre. The aqueous callus extract treated with 1nM silver nitrate solution resulted in the formation of AgNPs and the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the formed AgNPs showed a peak at 437 nm in the UV Visible spectrum. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). FTIR spectra showed the peaks at 3333, 2928, 2361, 1600, 1357 and 1028 cm-1 which revealed the role of different functional groups possibly involved in the synthesis and stabilization of AgNPs. TEM micrograph clearly revealed the size of the AgNPs to be in the range of 3-30 nm with spherical shape and poly-dispersed nature; it is further confirmed by Particle size analysis that the stability of AgNPs is due its high negative Zeta potential (-36.1 mV). XRD pattern revealed the crystal nature of the AgNPs by showing the braggs peaks corresponding to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes of face-centered cubic crystal phase of silver. Selected area electron diffraction pattern showed diffraction rings and confirmed the crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs exhibited effective antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida nonalbicans and Candida tropicalis.

  8. Production of silver nanoparticles by laser ablation in open air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Comesaña, R.; Lusquiños, F.; Riveiro, A.; del Val, J.; Pou, J.

    2015-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles have attracted much attention as a subject of investigation due to their well-known properties, such as good conductivity, antibacterial and catalytic effects, etc. They are used in many different areas, such as medicine, industrial applications, scientific investigation, etc. There are different techniques for producing Ag nanoparticles, chemical, electrochemical, sonochemical, etc. These methods often lead to impurities together with nanoparticles or colloidal solutions. In this work, laser ablation of solids in open air conditions (LASOA) is used to produce silver nanoparticles and collect them on glass substrates. Production and deposition of silver nanoparticles are integrated in the same step to reduce the process. The obtained particles are analysed and the nanoparticles formation mechanism is discussed. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and UV/VIS absorption spectroscopy. The obtained nanoparticles consisted of Ag nanoparticles showing rounded shape with diameters ranging from few to 50 nm

  9. Comparison of bioconcentration of ionic silver and silver nanoparticles in zebrafish eleutheroembryos.

    PubMed

    López-Serrano, A; Muñoz-Olivas, R; Sanz-Landaluze, J; Olasagasti, M; Rainieri, S; Cámara, C

    2014-08-01

    The production of silver nanoparticles has reached nowadays high levels. Bioconcentration studies, information on persistence and toxicity are fundamental to assess their global risk and thus necessary to establish legislations regarding their use. Previous studies on silver nanoparticle toxicity have determined a clear correlation between their chemical stability and toxicity. In this work, experimental conditions able to assure silver nanoparticles stability have been optimized. Then, zebrafish (Danio rerio) eleutheroembryos were exposed to ionic silver and to Ag NPs for comparison purposes. A protocol alternative to the OECD 305 technical guideline was used. To determine silver concentration in both the eleutheroembryos and the exposure media, an analytical method consisting in ultrasound assisted extraction, followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, was developed. Then, bioconcentration factors were calculated. The results revealed that ionic silver was more accumulative for zebrafish eleutheroembryos than nanoparticles at the levels tested. PMID:24858804

  10. Spectroscopic dimensions of silver nanoparticles and clusters in ZnO matrix and their role in bioinspired antifouling and photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Michael, Robin Jude Vimal; Sambandam, Balaji; Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Umapathy, Manickam J; Manoharan, Periakaruppan T

    2014-05-14

    Silver doped zinc oxide nanoparticles are synthesized by a solution combustion method. The samples characterized by a variety of spectroscopic and other techniques clearly reveal the presence of silver nanoparticles as well as silver clusters. The silver in the two forms was identified by careful deconvolution of X-ray photoelectron spectral results. Their formation was also confirmed by the presence of plasmons, the concentration and energy of which increase on increasing silver input, indicating the presence of perpendicular excitons since aggregates of clusters are known to shift the plasmon resonances depending on their topologies. Further confirmation of clusters came from EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance), HRSEM (high resolution scanning electron microscopy) and HRTEM (high resolution transmission electron microscopy); direct proof for clusters came from matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectral measurements. The antimicrobial activity of the silver doped zinc oxide polymer nanocomposites as biomedical devices are measured by zone of inhibition. Also, samples coated on paper disk with acacia binder are evaluated by a disk diffusion method. While pure zinc oxide does not show any antimicrobial property, the activity of silver-doped zinc oxide is comparable to that of commercial antibiotics and found to be related to nanoparticulate silver. Similarly, the microbial adherence to the surface of polymer nanocomposite which mimics a biomedical device also was influenced by nanoparticles of silver. The photocatalytic water treatment was carried out using silver carrying nanoparticles with Rhodamine-B and 4-chlorophenol as model pollutants. The increased photocatalytic activity of silver containing zinc oxide as compared to pure zinc oxide nanoparticles is attributed to the synergistic display of the properties of silver nanoparticles and clusters in zinc oxide. This activity depends upon the dispersion of silver nanoparticles over the zinc oxide lattice where charge separation plays a dominant role. The mechanisms for both photocatalysis and antimicrobial activity are discussed. PMID:24671627

  11. TOP as ligand and solvent to synthesize silver telluride nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shutang; Lee, Soonil

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Silver telluride nanosheets were prepared through one-pot synthetic strategy. • TOP as both ligand and solvent favors silver telluride nanosheets growth. • The I–V curve of an Ag{sub 2}Te-nanosheet film indicates that as-prepared Ag{sub 2}Te nanosheets have good electric conductivity. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}Te nanosheets are synthesized by a simple one-pot route using trioctylphosphine (TOP) as both solvent and stabilizer. Various controlling parameters were examined, such as molar ratios of AgNO{sub 3} to tellurium powder, reaction temperature and time, and precursor concentration. The morphology and composition of the products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. On the basis of a series of synthesis and characterizations, the formation mechanism of the Ag{sub 2}Te nanosheets are discussed. The I–V curve of an Ag{sub 2}Te-nan osheet film indicates that as-prepared Ag{sub 2}Te nanosheets have good electric conductivity.

  12. Release of silver nanoparticles from outdoor facades.

    PubMed

    Kaegi, Ralf; Sinnet, Brian; Zuleeg, Steffen; Hagendorfer, Harald; Mueller, Elisabeth; Vonbank, Roger; Boller, Markus; Burkhardt, Michael

    2010-09-01

    In this study we investigate the release of metallic silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) from paints used for outdoor applications. A facade panel mounted on a model house was exposed to ambient weather conditions over a period of one year. The runoff volume of individual rain events was determined and the silver and titanium concentrations of 36 out of 65 runoff events were measured. Selected samples were prepared for electron microscopic analysis. A strong leaching of the Ag-NP was observed during the initial runoff events with a maximum concentration of 145 micro Ag/l. After a period of one year, more than 30% of the Ag-NP were released to the environment. Particles were mostly <15 nm and are released as composite colloids attached to the organic binders of the paint. Microscopic results indicate that the Ag-NP are likely transformed to considerably less toxic forms such as Ag2S. PMID:20621404

  13. Caging antimicrobial silver nanoparticles inside cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a stable, non-leaching Ag-cotton nanocomposite fiber has been characterized. Siver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were previously synthesized in the alkali-swollen substructure of cotton fiber; the nano-sized micofibrillar channels allowed diffusion-controlled conditions to produce mono-dispe...

  14. Polyhexamethylene biguanide functionalized cationic silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), a broad spectrum disinfectant against many pathogens, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles. The particles formed were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and TEM to measure their morphology and surface chemistry. PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a gram-negative bacterial strain, Escherichia coli. These silver nanoparticles were found to have about 100 times higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, compared to the previous reports, due to the combined antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and PHMB. In addition to other applications, PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles would be extremely useful in textile industry due to the strong interaction of PHMB with cellulose fabrics. PMID:22625664

  15. Polyhexamethylene biguanide functionalized cationic silver nanoparticles for enhanced antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Sumaira; Akhtar, Nasrin; Ghauri, Muhammad Afzal; Rajoka, Muhammad Ibrahim; Khalid, Zafar M.; Hussain, Irshad

    2012-05-01

    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), a broad spectrum disinfectant against many pathogens, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles. The particles formed were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and TEM to measure their morphology and surface chemistry. PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a gram-negative bacterial strain, Escherichia coli. These silver nanoparticles were found to have about 100 times higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, compared to the previous reports, due to the combined antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and PHMB. In addition to other applications, PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles would be extremely useful in textile industry due to the strong interaction of PHMB with cellulose fabrics.

  16. Silver nanoparticles as potential antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Galdiero, Stefania; Falanga, Annarita; Vitiello, Mariateresa; Cantisani, Marco; Marra, Veronica; Galdiero, Massimiliano

    2011-01-01

    Virus infections pose significant global health challenges, especially in view of the fact that the emergence of resistant viral strains and the adverse side effects associated with prolonged use continue to slow down the application of effective antiviral therapies. This makes imperative the need for the development of safe and potent alternatives to conventional antiviral drugs. In the present scenario, nanoscale materials have emerged as novel antiviral agents for the possibilities offered by their unique chemical and physical properties. Silver nanoparticles have mainly been studied for their antimicrobial potential against bacteria, but have also proven to be active against several types of viruses including human imunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, herpes simplex virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and monkey pox virus. The use of metal nanoparticles provides an interesting opportunity for novel antiviral therapies. Since metals may attack a broad range of targets in the virus there is a lower possibility to develop resistance as compared to conventional antivirals. The present review focuses on the development of methods for the production of silver nanoparticles and on their use as antiviral therapeutics against pathogenic viruses. PMID:22024958

  17. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using carambola fruit extract and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane Gavade, S. J.; Nikam, G. H.; Dhabbe, R. S.; Sabale, S. R.; Tamhankar, B. V.; Mulik, G. N.

    2015-12-01

    In this study well defined silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using carambola fruit extract. After exposing the silver ions to the fruit extract, the rapid reduction of silver ions led to the formation of stable AgNPs in solution due to the reducing and stabilizing properties of carambola fruit juice. The synthesized NPs were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction pattern. The as-synthesized AgNPs were phase pure and well crystalline with a face-centered cubic structure. The AgNPs were characterized by TEM to determine their size and morphology. The antimicrobial activity of the synthesized AgNPs was investigated against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by agar well diffusion method. This newly developed method is eco-friendly and could prove a better substitute for the current physical and chemical methods for the synthesis of AgNPs.

  18. Encapsulated Silver Nanoparticles Can Be Directly Converted to Silver Nanoshell in the Gas Phase.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peipei; Xu, Yong; Chen, Lei; Wang, Xuchun; Mao, Baohua; Xie, Zhongzhi; Wang, Sui-Dong; Bao, Feng; Zhang, Qiao

    2015-12-01

    We report, for the first time, that an encapsulated silver nanoparticle can be directly converted to a silver nanoshell through a nanoscale localized oxidation and reduction process in the gas phase. Silver can be etched when exposed to a mixture of NH3/O2 gases through a mechanism analogous to the formation of aqueous Tollens' reagent, in which a soluble silver-ammonia complex was formed. Starting with Ag@resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin core-shell nanoparticles, we demonstrate that RF-core@Ag-shell nanoparticles can be prepared successfully when the etching rate and RF thickness were well controlled. Due to the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) coupling effect among neighboring silver nanoparticles, the RF@Ag nanoparticle showed great SPR and SERS performance. This process provides a general route to the conversion of Ag-core to Ag-shell nanostructures and might be extended to other systems. PMID:26605760

  19. Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Prozorova, Galina F; Pozdnyakov, Alexsandr S; Kuznetsova, Nadezhda P; Korzhova, Svetlana A; Emel'yanov, Artem I; Ermakova, Tamara G; Fadeeva, Tat'yana V; Sosedova, Larisa M

    2014-01-01

    New water-soluble nontoxic nanocomposites of nanosized silver particles in a polymer matrix were synthesized by a green chemistry method. Nontoxic poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole) was used as a stabilizing precursor agent in aqueous medium. Glucose and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as the silver ion-reducing agents to yield silver nanoparticles 2-26 nm and 2-8 nm in size, respectively. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption, and thermogravimetric data analysis. The nanocomposites showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24790430

  20. Green synthesis of water-soluble nontoxic polymeric nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Prozorova, Galina F; Pozdnyakov, Alexsandr S; Kuznetsova, Nadezhda P; Korzhova, Svetlana A; Emel’yanov, Artem I; Ermakova, Tamara G; Fadeeva, Tat’yana V; Sosedova, Larisa M

    2014-01-01

    New water-soluble nontoxic nanocomposites of nanosized silver particles in a polymer matrix were synthesized by a green chemistry method. Nontoxic poly(1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole) was used as a stabilizing precursor agent in aqueous medium. Glucose and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as the silver ion-reducing agents to yield silver nanoparticles 2–26 nm and 2–8 nm in size, respectively. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption, and thermogravimetric data analysis. The nanocomposites showed strong antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:24790430

  1. Synthesis and characterization of cysteine functionalized silver nanoparticles for biomolecule immobilization.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan; Verma, Nishant

    2014-11-01

    A facile method for the aqueous phase synthesis of cysteine-functionalized silver nanoparticles by potato extract has been reported in the present work. These functionalized nanoparticles were then used for the covalent immobilization of a biomolecule, alkaline phosphatase, on its surface through carbodiimide coupling. Different reaction parameters such as cysteine concentration, reducing agent concentration, temperature, pH and reaction time were varied during the nanoparticles' formation, and their effects on plasmon resonance were studied using Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the surface modification of silver nanoparticles by cysteine and the particle size analysis was done using particle size analyzer, which showed the average nanoparticles' size of 61 nm for bare silver nanoparticles and 201 nm for the enzyme-immobilized nanoparticles. The synthesized nanoparticles were found to be highly efficient for the covalent immobilization of alkaline phosphatase on its surface and retained 67% of its initial enzyme activity (9.44 U/mg), with 75% binding efficiency. The shelf life of the enzyme-nanoparticle bioconjugates was found to be 60 days, with a 12% loss in the initial enzyme activity. With a simple synthesis strategy, high immobilization efficiency and enhanced stability, these enzyme-coated nanoparticles have the potential for further integration into the biosensor technology. PMID:24760173

  2. Phytogenic silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles as novel antitubercular agents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Richa; Nawale, Laxman; Arkile, Manisha; Wadhwani, Sweety; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha; Chopade, Snehal; Sarkar, Dhiman; Chopade, Balu Ananda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global threat to human health. It requires immediate action to seek new antitubercular compounds and devise alternate strategies. Nanomaterials, in the present scenario, have opened new avenues in medicine, diagnosis, and therapeutics. In view of this, the current study aims to determine the efficacy of phytogenic metal nanoparticles to inhibit mycobacteria. Methods Silver (AgNPs), gold (AuNPs), and gold–silver bimetallic (Au–AgNPs) nanoparticles synthesized from medicinal plants, such as Barleria prionitis, Plumbago zeylanica, and Syzygium cumini, were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays were designed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and half maximal inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Microscopic analyses were carried out to demonstrate intracellular uptake of nanoparticles in macrophages. Besides this, biocompatibility, specificity, and selectivity of nanoparticles were also established with respect to human cell lines. Results Au–AgNPs exhibited highest antitubercular activity, with MIC of <2.56 μg/mL, followed by AgNPs. AuNPs did not show such activity at concentrations of up to 100 μg/mL. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays revealed the inhibition of both active and dormant stage mycobacteria on exposure to Au–AgNPs. These nanoparticles were capable of entering macrophage cells and exhibited up to 45% cytotoxicity at 30 μg/mL (ten times MIC concentration) after 48 hours. Among these, Au–AgNPs synthesized from S. cumini were found to be more specific toward mycobacteria, with their selectivity index in the range of 94–108. Conclusion This is the first study to report the antimycobacterial activity of AuNPs, AgNPs, and Au–AgNPs synthesized from medicinal plants. Among these, Au–AgNPs from S. cumini showed profound efficiency, specificity, and selectivity to kill mycobacteria. These should be investigated further to develop novel TB nanoantibiotics. PMID:27217751

  3. Investigation of antibacterial properties silver nanoparticles prepared via green method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aims to investigate the influence of different stirring times on antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles in polyethylene glycol (PEG) suspension. The silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were prepared by green synthesis method using green agents, polyethylene glycol (PEG) under moderate temperature at different stirring times. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was taken as the metal precursor while PEG was used as the solid support and polymeric stabilizer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of nanosilver was investigated against Gram–positive [Staphylococcus aureus] and Gram–negative bacteria [Salmonella typhimurium SL1344] by the disk diffusion method using Müeller–Hinton Agar. Results Formation of Ag-NPs was determined by UV–vis spectroscopy where surface plasmon absorption maxima can be observed at 412–437 nm from the UV–vis spectrum. The synthesized nanoparticles were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The peaks in the XRD pattern confirmed that the Ag-NPs possessed a face-centered cubic and peaks of contaminated crystalline phases were unable to be located. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that Ag-NPs synthesized were in spherical shape. The optimum stirring time to synthesize smallest particle size was 6 hours with mean diameter of 11.23 nm. Zeta potential results indicate that the stability of the Ag-NPs is increases at the 6 h stirring time of reaction. The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum suggested the complexation present between PEG and Ag-NPs. The Ag-NPs in PEG were effective against all bacteria tested. Higher antibacterial activity was observed for Ag-NPs with smaller size. These suggest that Ag-NPs can be employed as an effective bacteria inhibitor and can be applied in medical field. Conclusions Ag-NPs were successfully synthesized in PEG suspension under moderate temperature at different stirring times. The study clearly showed that the Ag-NPs with different stirring times exhibit inhibition towards the tested gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22839208

  4. Synthesis and applications of novel silver nanoparticle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukes, Kyle

    The field of nanotechnology is rapidly expanding across disciplines as each new development is realized. New exciting technologies are being driven by advances in the application of nanotechnology; including biochemical, optical, and semiconductors research. This thesis will focus on the use of silver nanoparticles as optical labels on cells, methods of forming different small structures of silver nanoparticles, as well as the use of silver nanoparticles in the development of a photovoltaic cell. Silver nanoparticles have been modified with self-assembled monolayers of hydroxyl-terminated long chain thiols and encapsulated with a silica shell. The resulting core-shell nanoparticles were used as optical labels for cell analysis using flow cytometry and microscopy. The excitation of plasmon resonances in nanoparticles results in strong depolarized scattering of visible light permitting detection at the single nanoparticle level. The nanoparticles were modified with neutravidin via epoxide-azide coupling chemistry and biotinylated antibodies targeting cell surface receptors were bound to the nanoparticle surface. The nanoparticle labels exhibited long-term stability under physiological conditions without aggregation or silver ion leaching. Labeled cells exhibited two orders of magnitude enhancement of the scattering intensity compared to unlabeled cells. Dimers of silver nanoparticles have been fabricated by first immobilizing a monolayer of single silver nanoparticles onto poly(4-vinylpyridine) covered glass slides. The monolayer was then exposed to adenine, which has two amines which will bind to silver. The nanoparticle monolayer, now modified with adenine, is exposed to a second suspension of nanoparticles which will bind with the amine modified monolayer. Finally, a thin silica shell is formed about the structure via solgel chemistry to prevent dissolution or aggregation upon sonication/striping. Circular arrays of silver nanoparticels are developed using a template base self assembly. A 1.5 micron silica sphere is bound to poly(4-vinylpyridine) coated glass and used as a template. a mask of silica monoxide is vacuum deposited atop the spheres/glass leaving a ring just below the sphere untouched and able to bind silver nanoparticles. Optical microscopy reveal interesting results under depolarized light conditions, but ultimate structural analysis has proven elusive. Semiconducting p-type cuprous oxide was electrochemically deposited on both silver and indium tin oxide electrodes. Silver nanoparticles were incorporated into the architecture either atop the cuprous oxide or sandwiched between cuprous oxide and n-type material. Increases in photocurrent were observed in both cases and further work must be conducted to optimize a solid state device for photovoltaic applications.

  5. Acute inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jae Hyuck; Ji, Jun Ho; Song, Kyung Seuk; Lee, Ji Hyun; Choi, Kyung Hee; Lee, Sang Hee; Yu, Il Je

    2011-03-01

    The acute inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. Seven-week-old rats, weighing approximately 218 g (males) and 153 g (females), were divided into four groups (five rats in each group): fresh-air control, low-dose (0.94 × 10(6) particle/cm(3), 76 µg/m(3)), middle-dose (1.64 × 10(6) particle/ cm(3), 135 µg/m( 3)), and high-dose (3.08 × 10(6) particle/cm(3), 750 µg/m(3)). The animals were then exposed to silver nanoparticles (average diameter 18-20 nm) for 4 hours in a whole-body inhalation chamber. The experiment was conducted following Organization Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) test guideline 403 with the application of good laboratory practice (GLP). In addition to mortality and clinical observations, the body weights, food consumption, and pulmonary function tests were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, and the organ weights measured. The lung function was also measured twice per week after the initial 4-hour exposure. No significant body weight changes or clinical changes were found during the 2-week observation period. The lung function tests also indicated no significant difference between the fresh air control and the exposed groups. Thus, LC50 silver nanoparticles are suggested for higher than 3.1 × 10(6) particles/cm(3) (750 µg/m(3)). PMID:20870693

  6. Preparation of a silver nanoparticle-based dual-functional sensor using a complexation-reduction method.

    PubMed

    Mi, Fwu-Long; Wu, Shao-Jung; Zhong, Wen-Qi; Huang, Cheng-Yu

    2015-09-01

    A dual-functional sensor based on silver nanoparticles was synthesized by a two-stage procedure consisting of a low-temperature chitosan-Ag(+) complexation followed by a high-temperature reduction of the complex to form chitosan-capped silver nanoparticles (CS-capped Ag NPs). The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption and fluorescence emission of the silver nanoparticles were influenced by the concentration and degradation time of chitosan, and the temperatures of the complexation and reduction reactions. The SPR absorption band was blue-shifted while the intensities of emission and absorption were decreased after reacting the silver nanoparticles with Hg(2+) ions. The silver nanoparticles reacted with Hg(2+) were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy (SERS). The results suggested that the particle growth and aggregation of the silver nanoparticles were caused by the adsorption of Hg(2+) and deposition of Hg(0) on the nanoparticle surface. Direct correlations of the SPR absorption and fluorescence emission with the concentration of Hg(2+) were useful for quantitative analysis of Hg(2+). It was possible to use the dual-functional silver nanoparticles as a colorimetric and fluorescent sensor for sensitive and selective detection of Hg(2+) ions. PMID:25619929

  7. Rapid photogeneration of silver nanoparticles in ethanolic solution: A kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahyaei, Bahareh; Azizian, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Ag nanoparticles have been synthesized via UV irradiation of ethanolic solution of AgNO3 in presence of pluronic F127 surfactant. This study is aimed at developing a rapid, simple and green method to prepare Ag nanoparticles and understanding its generation kinetics. The formation dependency of silver nanoparticles on the concentration of reactants, UV exposure time and temperature has been investigated by using UV-vis spectroscopy. The 2D map technique has been used for the first time to estimate the switching time between the nucleation and growth of Ag nanoparticles. Appropriate kinetic models were used for modelling of both stages.

  8. Intracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticle by actinobacteria and its antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otari, S. V.; Patil, R. M.; Ghosh, S. J.; Thorat, N. D.; Pawar, S. H.

    2015-02-01

    Intracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Rhodococcus spp. is demonstrated. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, Fourier trans-form infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Transmission electron microscopy study of microorganisms' revealed synthesis of nanoparticle was occurring inside the cell, in the cytoplasm. AgNPs ranged from 5 to 50 nm. Formed nanoparticles were stable in the colloidal solution due to presence of proteins on the surface. AgNPs showed excellent bactericidal and bacteriostatic activity against pathogenic microorganisms.

  9. A review on plants extract mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for antimicrobial applications: A green expertise

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Shakeel; Ahmad, Mudasir; Swami, Babu Lal; Ikram, Saiqa

    2015-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are being utilized in every phase of science along with engineering including medical fields and are still charming the scientists to explore new dimensions for their respective worth which is generally attributed to their corresponding small sizes. The up-and-coming researches have proven their antimicrobial significance. Among several noble metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have attained a special focus. Conventionally silver nanoparticles are synthesized by chemical method using chemicals as reducing agents which later on become accountable for various biological risks due to their general toxicity; engendering the serious concern to develop environment friendly processes. Thus, to solve the objective; biological approaches are coming up to fill the void; for instance green syntheses using biological molecules derived from plant sources in the form of extracts exhibiting superiority over chemical and/or biological methods. These plant based biological molecules undergo highly controlled assembly for making them suitable for the metal nanoparticle syntheses. The present review explores the huge plant diversity to be utilized towards rapid and single step protocol preparatory method with green principles over the conventional ones and describes the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles. PMID:26843966

  10. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pinus eldarica Bark Extract

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, Siavash; Zolfaghari, Behzad

    2013-01-01

    Recently, development of reliable experimental protocols for synthesis of metal nanoparticles with desired morphologies and sizes has become a major focus of researchers. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using organisms has emerged as a nontoxic and ecofriendly method for synthesis of metal nanoparticles. The objectives of this study were production of silver nanoparticles using Pinus eldarica bark extract and optimization of the biosynthesis process. The effects of quantity of extract, substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the formation of silver nanoparticles are studied. TEM images showed that biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (approximately in the range of 10–40 nm) were predominantly spherical in shape. The preparation of nano-structured silver particles using P. eldarica bark extract provides an environmentally friendly option, as compared to currently available chemical and/or physical methods. PMID:24083233

  11. Synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles for ink-jet printed flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Xingye; Xin, Zhiqing; Deng, Mengmeng; Wen, Yongqiang; Song, Yanlin

    2011-10-21

    In this study, monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized with a new reduction system consisting of adipoyl hydrazide and dextrose at ambient temperature. By this facile and rapid approach, high concentration monodisperse silver nanoparticles were obtained on a large scale at low protectant/AgNO(3) mass ratio which was highly beneficial to low cost and high conductivity. Based on the synthesized monodisperse silver nanoparticles, conductive inks were prepared with water, ethanol and ethylene glycol as solvents, and were expected to be more environmentally friendly. A series of electrocircuits were fabricated by ink-jet printing silver nanoparticle ink on paper substrate with a commercial printer, and they had low resistivity in the range of 9.18 × 10( - 8)-8.76 × 10( - 8) Ω m after thermal treatment at 160 °C for 30 min, which was about five times that of bulk silver (1.586 × 10( - 8) Ω m). Moreover, a radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by ink-jet printing, and 6 m wireless identification was realized after an Alien higgs-3 chip was mounted on the printed antenna by the flip-chip method. These flexible electrocircuits produced by ink-jet printing would have enormous potential for low cost electrodes and sensor devices. PMID:21937786

  12. Synthesis of monodisperse silver nanoparticles for ink-jet printed flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Xingye; Xin, Zhiqing; Deng, Mengmeng; Wen, Yongqiang; Song, Yanlin

    2011-10-01

    In this study, monodisperse silver nanoparticles were synthesized with a new reduction system consisting of adipoyl hydrazide and dextrose at ambient temperature. By this facile and rapid approach, high concentration monodisperse silver nanoparticles were obtained on a large scale at low protectant/AgNO3 mass ratio which was highly beneficial to low cost and high conductivity. Based on the synthesized monodisperse silver nanoparticles, conductive inks were prepared with water, ethanol and ethylene glycol as solvents, and were expected to be more environmentally friendly. A series of electrocircuits were fabricated by ink-jet printing silver nanoparticle ink on paper substrate with a commercial printer, and they had low resistivity in the range of 9.18 × 10 - 8-8.76 × 10 - 8 Ω m after thermal treatment at 160 °C for 30 min, which was about five times that of bulk silver (1.586 × 10 - 8 Ω m). Moreover, a radio frequency identification (RFID) antenna was fabricated by ink-jet printing, and 6 m wireless identification was realized after an Alien higgs-3 chip was mounted on the printed antenna by the flip-chip method. These flexible electrocircuits produced by ink-jet printing would have enormous potential for low cost electrodes and sensor devices.

  13. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles prepared by a thermal decomposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Le Thi; Phan, Vu Ngoc; Lan, Hoang; Thuy, Nguyen Thanh; Hien, Tran Minh; Huy, Tran Quang; Quy, Nguyen Van; Chinh, Huynh Dang; Tung, Le Minh; Tuan, Pham Anh; Lam, Vu Dinh; Le, Anh-Tuan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing need of efficient synthetic protocols using eco-friendly conditions including low costs and green chemicals for production of metal nanoparticles. In this work, silver nanoparticles (silver NPs) with average particle size about 10 nm were synthesized by using a thermal decomposition technique. Unlike the colloidal chemistry method, the thermal decomposition method developed has advantages such as the high crystallinity, single-reaction synthesis, and easy dispersion ability of the synthesized NPs in organic solvents. In a modified synthesis process, we used sodium oleate as a capping agent to modify the surface of silver NPs because the oleate has a C18 tail with a double bond in the middle, therefore, forming a kink which is to be effective for aggregative stability. Importantly, the as-synthesized silver NPs have demonstrated strong antimicrobial effects against various bacteria and fungi strains. Electron microscopic studies reveal physical insights into the interaction and bactericidal mechanism between the prepared silver NPs and tested bacteria in question. The observed excellent antibacterial and antifungal activity of the silver NPs make them ideal for disinfection and biomedicine applications.

  14. Biosynthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial applications of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Singh, Hina; Wang, Chao; Hwang, Kyu Hyon; Farh, Mohamed El-Agamy; Yang, Deok Chun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the strain Brevibacterium frigoritolerans DC2 was explored for the efficient and extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles. These biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry, which detected the formation of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture and showed a maximum absorbance at 420 nm. In addition, field emission transmission electron microscopy revealed the spherical shape of the nanoparticles. The dynamic light scattering results indicated the average particle size of the product was 97 nm with a 0.191 polydispersity index. Furthermore, the product was analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and elemental mapping, which displayed the presence of elemental silver in the product. Moreover, on a medical platform, the product was checked against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The nanoparticles demonstrated antimicrobial activity against all of these pathogenic microorganisms. Additionally, the silver nanoparticles were evaluated for their combined effects with the commercial antibiotics lincomycin, oleandomycin, vancomycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, and rifampicin against these pathogenic microorganisms. These results indicated that the combination of antibiotics with biosynthesized silver nanoparticles enhanced the antimicrobial effects of antibiotics. Therefore, the current study is a demonstration of an efficient biological synthesis of silver nanoparticles by B. frigoritolerans DC2 and its effect on the enhancement of the antmicrobial efficacy of well-known commercial antibiotics. PMID:25848272

  15. Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles at the Air-Liquid Interface

    PubMed Central

    Holder, Amara L.; Marr, Linsey C.

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials in consumer products. Some of these products are likely to be aerosolized, making silver nanoparticles a high priority for inhalation toxicity assessment. To study the inhalation toxicity of silver nanoparticles, we have exposed cultured lung cells to them at the air-liquid interface. Cells were exposed to suspensions of silver or nickel oxide (positive control) nanoparticles at concentrations of 2.6, 6.6, and 13.2 μg cm−2 (volume concentrations of 10, 25, and 50 μg ml−1) and to 0.7 μg cm−2 silver or 2.1 μg cm−2 nickel oxide aerosol at the air-liquid interface. Unlike a number of in vitro studies employing suspensions of silver nanoparticles, which have shown strong toxic effects, both suspensions and aerosolized nanoparticles caused negligible cytotoxicity and only a mild inflammatory response, in agreement with animal exposures. Additionally, we have developed a novel method using a differential mobility analyzer to select aerosolized nanoparticles of a single diameter to assess the size-dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles. PMID:23484109

  16. Facile Algae-Derived Route to Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Antibacterial, and Photocatalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Nafe; Faraz, Mohd; Pandey, Rishikesh; Shakir, Mohd; Fatma, Tasneem; Varma, Ajit; Barman, Ishan; Prasad, Ram

    2015-10-27

    Biogenic synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of considerable interest, as it affords clean, biocompatible, nontoxic, and cost-effective fabrication. Driven by their ability to withstand variable extremes of environmental conditions, several microorganisms, notably bacteria and fungi, have been investigated in the never-ending search for optimal nanomaterial production platforms. Here, we present a hitherto unexplored algal platform featuring Chlorella pyrenoidosa, which offers a high degree of consistency in morphology of synthesized silver nanoparticles. Using a suite of characterization methods, we reveal the intrinsic crystallinity of the algae-derived nanoparticles and the functional moieties associated with its surface stabilization. Significantly, we demonstrate the antibacterial and photocatalytic properties of these silver nanoparticles and discuss the potential mechanisms that drive these critical processes. The blend of photocatalytic and antibacterial properties coupled with their intrinsic biocompatibility and eco-friendliness make these nanoparticles particularly attractive for wastewater treatment. PMID:26447769

  17. Phytosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coccinia grandis leaf extract and its application in the photocatalytic degradation.

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, Rajeswari; Dhanasingh, Sujatha; Kalimuthu, Balasaraswathi; Uthirappan, Mani; Rose, Chellan; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2012-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from aqueous AgNO(3) through a simple green route using the leaf extract of Coccinia grandis as a reducing as well as capping agent. The results obtained from UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier-transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed that the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles were in the size range of 20-30 nm and is crystallized in face centered cubic symmetry. Further, the thermal stability of nanoparticles was studied using thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Photocatalytic property of the Ag nanoparticles was investigated by degradation of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 under UV light. The results show that Ag nanoparticles have suitable activity for the degradation of Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250. PMID:22348986

  18. Size-dependent Structure and Reactivity of Silver Nanoparticles under Different Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, C.; Michel, F. M.; Kendelewicz, T.; Brown, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    Rapid development of nanotechnologies has raised environmental questions concerning the impact of nanoparticles on microbes and other organisms. Ag nanoparticles are of particular interest because they are the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry and are expected to be released into the environment in relatively large amounts. In this context, the focus of our study is on the structure and reactivity of near-spherical Ag nanoparticles as a function of particle size (5-100 nm) and environmental conditions (e.g., Eh, pH, solution composition). The first step consists of synthesizing silver nanoparticles using a modification of the polyol process. To prevent aggregation, the nanoparticles are coated with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP). Total scattering experiments combined with pair distribution function analysis revealed that silver nanoparticles are crystalline with a fcc lattice for 5 to 50 nm particle sizes. We have observed no changes of the lattice parameter (a = 4.09 ± 0.01 Å) with increasing particle size. A focus of our current study is characterization of surface products on Ag nanoparticles formed under different conditions that will impact the reactivity of the nanoparticles. Preliminary surface characterization studies have been performed, including Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). These two techniques appear to be well adapted for characterizing the polymer stability under different conditions as well as the silver nanoparticle surface corrosion products. Indeed, STXM results reveal the presence of sulfur at the surfaces of the silver nanoparticles exposed to ambient air during the past few months. An interesting result is that PVP does not prevent the sulfidation of the silver nanoparticle surfaces. Sulfidation of silver nanoparticle surfaces results in the formation of acanthite (Ag2S), which is a well-known process. However, the effect of particle size on sulfidation rate is unknown and needs to be further explored. The chemical reactivity of our aged silver nanoparticles will be investigated as a function of particle size. Zn(II) will be used as a probe ion to investigate the reactive sites of the Ag nanoparticle surfaces. Zn(II) sorption on Ag nanoparticle surfaces prepared under different environmental conditions will be investigated by measuring pH-dependent and concentration-dependent Zn adsorption isotherms. Sorption products will be characterized using Zn K-edge EXAFS and TEM.

  19. Anaerobic toxicity of cationic silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gitipour, Alireza; Thiel, Stephen W; Scheckel, Kirk G; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2016-07-01

    The microbial toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) stabilized with different capping agents was compared to that of Ag(+) under anaerobic conditions. Three AgNPs were investigated: (1) negatively charged citrate-coated AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs), (2) minimally charged polyvinylpyrrolidone coated AgNPs (PVP-AgNPs) and (3) positively charged branched polyethyleneimine coated AgNPs (BPEI-AgNPs). The AgNPs investigated in this experiment were similar in size (10-15nm), spherical in shape, but varied in surface charge which ranged from highly negative to highly positive. While, at AgNPs concentrations lower than 5mgL(-1), the anaerobic decomposition process was not influenced by the presence of the nanoparticles, there was an observed impact on the diversity of the microbial community. At elevated concentrations (100mgL(-1) as silver), only the cationic BPEI-AgNPs demonstrated toxicity similar in magnitude to that of Ag(+). Both citrate and PVP-AgNPs did not exhibit toxicity at the 100mgL(-1) as measured by biogas evolution. These findings further indicate the varying modes of action for nanoparticle toxicity and represent one of the few studies that evaluate end-of-life management concerns with regards to the increasing use of nanomaterials in our everyday life. These findings also highlight some of the concerns with a one size fits all approach to the evaluation of environmental health and safety concerns associated with the use of nanoparticles. PMID:27016684

  20. Biological Mechanism of Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Najealicka Nicole

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), like almost all nanoparticles, are potentially toxic beyond a certain concentration because the survival of the organism is compromised due to scores of pathophysiological abnormalities above that concentration. However, the mechanism of AgNP toxicity remains undetermined. Instead of applying a toxic dose, these investigations were attempted to monitor the effects of AgNPs at a non-lethal concentration on wild type Drosophila melanogaster by exposing them to nanoparticles throughout their development. All adult flies raised in AgNP doped food indicated that of not more than 50 mg/L had no negative influence on median survival; however, these flies appeared uniformly lighter in body color due to the loss of melanin pigments in their cuticle. Additionally, fertility and vertical movement ability were compromised after AgNP feeding. The determination of the amount of free ionic silver (Ag+) indicated that the observed biological effects had resulted from the AgNPs and not from Ag+. Biochemical analysis suggests that the activity of copper dependent enzymes, namely tyrosinase and Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase, were decreased significantly following the consumption of AgNPs, despite the constant level of copper present in the tissue. Furthermore, copper supplementation restored the loss of AgNP induced demelanization, and the reduction of functional Ctr1 in Ctr1 heterozygous mutants caused the flies to be resistant to demelanization. Consequently, these studies proposed a mechanism whereby consumption of excess AgNPs in association with membrane bound copper transporter proteins cause sequestration of copper, thus creating a condition that resembles copper starvation. This model also explained the cuticular demelanization effect resulting from AgNP since tyrosinase activity is essential for melanin biosynthesis. Finally, these investigations demonstrated that Drosophila, an established genetic model system, can be well utilized for further characterizing the biological effects of nanoparticles.

  1. Electrospinning of silver nanoparticles loaded highly porous cellulose acetate nanofibrous membrane for treatment of dye wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Ma, Qian; Wang, Shu-Dong; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Sheng-Zhong; Bao, Wei; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Ling, Liang-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, silver nanoparticles (NPs) were reduced form silver nitrate. Morphology and distribution of the synthesized silver NPs were characterized. In order to obtain cellulose acetate (CA), nanofibrous membrane with high effective adsorption performance to carry silver NPs for treatment of dye wastewater, different solvent systems were used to fabricate CA nanofibrous membranes with different morphologies and porous structures via electrospinning. Morphologies and structures of the obtained CA nanofibrous membranes were compared by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which showed that CA nanofibrous membrane obtained from acetone/dichloromethane (1/2, v/v) was with the highly porous structure. SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that the silver NPs were effectively incorporated in the CA nanofibrous membrane and the addition of silver NPs did not damage the porous structure of the CA nanofibrous membrane. Adsorption of dye solution (rhodamine B aqueous solution) revealed that the highly porous CA nanofibrous membrane exhibited effective adsorption performance and the addition of silver NPs did not affect the adsorption of the dye. Antibacterial property of the CA nanofibrous membrane showed that the silver-loaded highly porous CA nanofibrous membrane had remarkable antibacterial property when compared to the CA nanofibrous membrane without silver NPs. The silver-loaded highly porous CA nanofibrous membrane could be considered as an ideal candidate for treatment of the dye wastewater.

  2. Silver nanoparticles: synthesis and application in mineralization of pesticides using membrane support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimegalai, G.; Shanthakumar, S.; Sharma, Chandan

    2014-05-01

    Pesticides are deliberately used for controlling the pests in agriculture and public health, due to which, a part of it is present in the drinking water. Due to their widespread use, they are present in both surface and ground water. Most of the pesticides are resistant to biodegradation and are found to be carcinogenic in nature even at trace levels. Conventional methods of pesticide removal are disadvantageous due to their inherent time consumption or expensiveness. Nanoparticles alleviate both of these drawbacks and hence, they can be effectively utilized for the mineralization of pesticides. To prevent the presence of nanoparticles in the purified water after mineralization of pesticides, they need to be incorporated on a support. In earlier studies, researchers employed activated carbon and alumina as support for silver nanoparticles in pesticide mineralization. However, not many studies have been carried out on polymeric membranes as support for silver nanoparticles in the mineralization of pesticides (chlorpyrifos and malathion). With this in view, a detailed study has been carried out to estimate the mineralization potential of silver nanoparticles (synthesized using glucose) supported on cellulose acetate membrane. It is observed that the silver nanoparticles can effectively mineralize the pesticides, and the concentration of nanoparticles enhances the rate of mineralization.

  3. Enhancement of antidandruff activity of shampoo by biosynthesized silver nanoparticles from Solanum trilobatum plant leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Gaurav; Nayak, Nitesh; Gyana Prasuna, R.

    2013-10-01

    The present investigation describes simple and effective method for synthesis of silver nanoparticles via green route. Solanum trilobatum Linn extract were prepared by both conventional and homogenization method. We optimized the production of silver nanoparticles under sunlight, microwave and room temperature. The best results were obtained with sunlight irradiation, exhibiting 15-20 nm silver nanoparticles having cubic and hexagonal shape. Biosynthesized nanoparticles were highly toxic to various bacterial strains tested. In this study we report antibacterial activity against various Gram negative ( Klebsiella pneumoniae, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella typhi) and Gram positive ( Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus luteus) bacterial strains. Screening was also performed for any antifungal properties of the nanoparticles against human pathogenic fungal strains ( Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis). We also demonstrated that these nanoparticles when mixed with shampoo enhance the anti-dandruff effect against dandruff causing fungal pathogens ( Pityrosporum ovale and Pityrosporum folliculitis). The present study showed a simple, rapid and economical route to synthesize silver nanoparticles and their applications hence has a great potential in biomedical field.

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from the extract of the inflorescence of Cocos nucifera (Family: Arecaceae) for enhanced antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariselvam, R.; Ranjitsingh, A. J. A.; Usha Raja Nanthini, A.; Kalirajan, K.; Padmalatha, C.; Mosae Selvakumar, P.

    2014-08-01

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles using plant source has been given much importance. In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using the ethyl acetate and methanol (EA: M 40:60) extracts of the inflorescence of the tree Cocous nucifera. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscope, FTIR and TEM analysis. The particle size of the synthesized AgNPs was 22 nm as confirmed by TEM. The qualitative assessment of reducing potential of the extracts of inflorescence indicated the presence of reducing agents. Synthesized AgNPs exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against human bacterial pathogens viz., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella paratyphi.

  5. Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frits for silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingfen; Gan, Weiping; Li, Biyuan

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles-coated glass frit composite powders for silicon solar cells were prepared by electroless plating. Silver colloids were used as the activating agent of glass frits. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. The characterization results indicated that silver nanoparticles with the melting temperature of 838 °C were uniformly deposited on glass frit surface. The particle size of silver nanoparticles could be controlled by adjusting the [Ag(NH3)2]NO3 concentration. The as-prepared composite powders were applied in the front side metallization of silicon solar cells. Compared with those based on pure glass frits, the solar cells containing the composite powders had the denser silver electrodes and the better silver-silicon ohmic contacts. Furthermore, the photovoltaic performances of solar cells were improved after the electroless plating.

  6. Spectroscopy study of silver nanoparticles fabrication using synthetic humic substances and their antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Valentina A.; Minaev, Boris F.

    2013-05-01

    In this present study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized using synthetic humic substances (HSs) as reducing and stabilizing agents. Preference of synthetic HSs over natural humic matter is determined by a standardization problem resolution of the product due to the strict control of conditions of the synthetic HSs formation. It allows to receive the silver nanoparticles with the standardized biologically-active protective shell that is very important for their use, mainly in medicine. The concentration of sodium hydroxide, synthetic HSs, silver nitrate and temperature employed in the synthesis process are optimized to attain better yield, controlled size and stability by means of UV-visible technique. In the optimal reaction conditions the concentrated silver colloids (55 mM) with 99.99% yield are obtained which were stable for more than 1 year under ambient conditions. The received silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles against fungal and bacterial strains is also shown.

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Coffea arabica seed extract and its antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Vivek; Soumya, L; Bharadwaj, S; Chakra, Shilpa; Bhatt, Deepika; Sreedhar, B

    2016-01-01

    A novel green source was opted to synthesize silver nanoparticles using dried roasted Coffea arabica seed extract. Bio-reduction of silver was complete when the mixture (AgNO3+extract) changed its color from light to dark brown. UV-vis spectroscopy result showed maximum adsorption at 459 nm, which represents the characteristic surface plasmon resonance of nanosilver. X-ray crystal analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are highly crystalline and exhibit a cubic, face centered lattice with characteristic (111), (200), (220) and (311) orientations. Particles exhibit spherical and ellipsoidal shaped structures as observed from TEM. Composition analysis obtained from SEM-EDXA confirmed the presence of elemental signature of silver. FTIR results recorded a downward shift of absorption bands between 800-1500 cm(-1) indicting the formation of silver nanoparticles. The mean particle size investigated using DLS was found to be in between 20-30 nm respectively. Anti-bacterial activity of silver nanoparticles on E. coli and S. aureus demonstrated diminished bacterial growth with the development of well-defined inhibition zones. PMID:26478284

  8. A Novel Photosynthesis of Carboxymethyl Starch-Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    The water soluble photoinitiator (PI) 4-(trimethyl ammonium methyl) benzophenone chloride is used for the first time in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). A new green synthesis method involves using PI/UV system, carboxymethyl starch (CMS), silver nitrate, and water. A mechanism of the reduction of silver ions to AgNPs by PI/UV system as well as by the newly born aldehydic groups was proposed. The synthesis process was assessed by UV-vis spectra and TEM of AgNPs colloidal solution. The highest absorbance was obtained using CMS, PI and AgNO3 concentrations of 10 g/L, 1 g/L, and 1 g/L, respectively; 40°C; 60 min; pH 7; and a material : liquor ratio 1 : 20. AgNPs so-obtained were stable in aqueous solution over a period of three weeks at room temperature (~25°C) and have round shape morphology. The sizes of synthesized AgNPs were in the range of 1–21 nm and the highest counts % of these particles were for particles of 6–10 and 1–3 nm, respectively. PMID:24672325

  9. A Facile Route for Synthesis of Octyl Amine Capped Silver Nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agasti, Nityananda; Kaushik, N. K.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a simple and convenient procedure for the preparation of octyl amine capped silver nanoparticles. AgNO3 has been reduced by octyl amine with benzene or toluene as solvent at 100C to produce silver nanoparticles. Octyl amine plays its role both as reducing and capping agent and thus provides the advantage of avoiding the use of extra stabilizing agent. Time dependent formation mechanism of silver nanoparticle has been investigated. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) shows weight change due to loss of capping agent. The reaction can easily be monitored from variation of color with time. The method is easy and reproducible. Very low concentration (1 mM) of metal ion is used. The particles synthesized were characterized by UV-Visible, FTIR, TGA, TEM and X-ray diffraction studies.

  10. Effect of silver on the shape of palladium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dikshita; Barman, P. B.; Hazra, S. K.

    2016-05-01

    We report a facile route to prepare palladium-silver nanoparticles at considerably low temperature. First the controlled synthesis of palladium nanoparticles was performed via reduction of sodium tetrachloropalladate (II) in ethylene glycol in the presence of PVP(polyvinylpyrrolidone) as capping agent. The reaction was carried out at three different temperatures-80°C, 100°C and 120°C for one hour. Short reaction time and low synthesis temperature adds advantage to this method over others. Formed palladium nanoparticles were nearly spherical with the average particle size of 7.5±0.5 nm, 9.5±0.5 nm and 10.5±0.5 nm at 80°C, 100°C and 120°C respectively. Secondly, the palladium-silver nanoparticles were prepared by the simultaneous reduction of palladium and silver from their respective precursors in ethylene glycol at 100°C (optimized temperature). The shape and size distribution was studied by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). The role of silver in transforming the shape of palladium nanoparticles from spherical to triangular has been discussed. Spherical symmetry of palladium nanoparticles is disturbed by the interaction of silver ions on the crystal facets of palladium nanoparticles. From UV-vis spectra, the absorption maxima of palladium nanoparticles at 205 nm and absorption maxima of palladium-silver nanoparticles at 272 nm revealed the partial evidence of their formation.

  11. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Behavior of Fungal Extracellular Synthesized Ag Nanoparticles Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Salaheldin, Taher A.; Husseiny, Sherif M.; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M.; Elzatahry, Ahmed; Cowley, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by subjecting a reaction medium to a Fusarium oxysporum biomass at 28 °C for 96 h. The biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles were characterized on the basis of their anticipated peak at 405 nm using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Structural confirmation was evident from the characteristic X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, high-resolution transmission electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and the particle size analyzer. The Ag nanoparticles were of dimension 40 ± 5 nm and spherical in shape. The study mainly focused on using the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to examine the cytotoxic activities of fungal synthesized Ag nanoparticles on a human breast carcinoma cell line MCF7 cell, which featured remarkable vacuolation, thus indicating a potent cytotoxic activity. PMID:26950118

  12. Evaluation of the Cytotoxic Behavior of Fungal Extracellular Synthesized Ag Nanoparticles Using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope.

    PubMed

    Salaheldin, Taher A; Husseiny, Sherif M; Al-Enizi, Abdullah M; Elzatahry, Ahmed; Cowley, Alan H

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized by subjecting a reaction medium to a Fusarium oxysporum biomass at 28 °C for 96 h. The biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles were characterized on the basis of their anticipated peak at 405 nm using UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Structural confirmation was evident from the characteristic X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern, high-resolution transmission electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and the particle size analyzer. The Ag nanoparticles were of dimension 40 ± 5 nm and spherical in shape. The study mainly focused on using the confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) to examine the cytotoxic activities of fungal synthesized Ag nanoparticles on a human breast carcinoma cell line MCF7 cell, which featured remarkable vacuolation, thus indicating a potent cytotoxic activity. PMID:26950118

  13. An Evaluation of Coating Material Dependent Toxicity of Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Thilini Upekshika

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using numerous types of coating materials may exhibit different toxicity effects. The study evaluated coating material dependent toxicity by selecting 3 types of AgNP synthesis methods with different coating materials (citrate, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, and branched polyethyleneimine, coated AgNPs as citrate-AgNPs, PVP-AgNPs, and BPEI-AgNPs respectively). Two acute aquatic toxicity tests were performed; 48hr D. magna and MetPLATE E. coli toxicity tests. Significantly different toxicity effects were observed in D. magna test exhibiting lethal median concentrations (LC50) for citrate-AgNPs, PVP-AgNPs, and BPEI AgNPs respectively as, 2.7, 11.2, and 0.57microg/L. Median inhibitory concentrations (EC50) for MetPLATE tests were 1.27, 1.73, and 0.31mg/L respectively with significant different toxicity effects. Silver ion fractions were detected in the range of 2.4-19.2% in tested NP suspensions. Study suggests the toxicity effects are due to the cumulative action of ionic and nanoparticle fractions in the suspensions.

  14. A new approach causing the patterns fabricated by silver nanoparticles to be conductive without sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yao; He, Wei; Zhou, Guoyun; Wang, Shouxu; Yang, Xiaojian; Tao, Zhihua; Zhou, Juncheng

    2012-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with a mean size of about 90 nm were synthesized by polyol reduction of silver nitrate with ethylene glycol (EG) in the presence of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). The Ag NPs undergo a spontaneous coalescence in the presence of chloride ions even without a traditional sintering process which occurs at a relatively high temperature. Such behavior can cause a rapid decrease in the resistivity of the patterns fabricated by Ag NPs. Conductive silver lines were successfully fabricated on FR-4 substrate using this method. The resulting conductivity of the silver lines reached about 16% of the bulk silver value, which enables fabrication of conductive patterns on some electronic devices.

  15. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Nelumbo nucifera leaf extract and its larvicidal activity against malaria and filariasis vectors.

    PubMed

    Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Marimuthu, Sampath; Bagavan, Asokan; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Elango, Gandhi; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal potential of the hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol, and aqueous leaf extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nymphaeaceae) and synthesized silver nanoparticles using aqueous leaf extract against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. It was found that aqueous silver ions can be reduced by aqueous extract of plant parts to generate extremely stable silver nanoparticles in water. The results recorded from UV-vis spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared support the biosynthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles. Larvae were exposed to varying concentrations of plant extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles for 24 h. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the maximum efficacy was observed in crude methanol, aqueous, and synthesized silver nanoparticles against the larvae of A. subpictus (LC(50) = 8.89, 11.82, and 0.69 ppm; LC(90) = 28.65, 36.06, and 2.15 ppm) and against the larvae of C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) = 9.51, 13.65, and 1.10 ppm; LC(90) = 28.13, 35.83, and 3.59 ppm), respectively. These results suggest that the leaf methanol, aqueous extracts of N. nucifera, and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the A. subpictus and C. quinquefasciatus. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the plant extracts and synthesized nanoparticles. PMID:20978795

  16. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using DL-alanine for ESR dosimetry applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Nicolucci, Patricia; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2012-03-01

    The potential use of alanine for the production of nanoparticles is presented here for the first time. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a simple green method, namely the thermal treatment of silver nitrate aqueous solutions with DL-alanine. The latter compound was employed both as a reducing and a capping agent. Particles with average size equal to 7.5 nm, face-centered cubic crystalline structure, narrow size distribution, and spherical shape were obtained. Interaction between the silver ions present on the surface of the nanoparticles and the amine group of the DL-alanine molecule seems to be responsible for reduction of the silver ions and for the stability of the colloid. The bio-hybrid nano-composite was used as an ESR dosimeter. The amount of silver nanoparticles in the nanocomposite was not sufficient to cause considerable loss of tissue equivalency. Moreover, the samples containing nanoparticles presented increased sensitivity and reduced energetic dependence as compared with pure DL-alanine, contributing to the construction of small-sized dosimeters.

  17. γ-Cyclodextrin capped silver nanoparticles for molecular recognition and enhancement of antibacterial activity of chloramphenicol.

    PubMed

    Gannimani, Ramesh; Ramesh, Muthusamy; Mtambo, Sphamandla; Pillay, Karen; Soliman, Mahmoud E; Govender, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Computational studies were conducted to identify the favourable formation of the inclusion complex of chloramphenicol with cyclodextrins. The results of molecular docking and molecular dynamics predicted the strongest interaction of chloramphenicol with γ-cyclodextrin. Further, the inclusion complex of chloramphenicol with γ-cyclodextrin was experimentally prepared and a phenomenon of inclusion was verified by using different characterization techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and two dimensional nuclear overhauser effect spectroscopy (NOESY) experiments. From these results it was concluded that γ-cyclodextrins could be an appropriate cyclodextrin polymer which can be used to functionalize chloramphenicol on the surface of silver nanoparticles. In addition, γ-cyclodextrin capped silver nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and zeta potential analysis. Molecular recognition of chloramphenicol by these cyclodextrin capped silver nanoparticles was confirmed by surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS) experiments. Synergistic antibacterial effect of chloramphenicol with γ-cyclodextrin capped silver nanoparticles was evaluated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 5129), Klebsiella pneumoniae (ATCC 700603) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 43300). The results from the antibacterial experiment were favourable thus allowing us to conclude that the approach of modifying organic drug molecules with cyclodextrin capped inorganic silver nanoparticles could help to enhance the antibacterial activity of them. PMID:26824520

  18. Study of Interaction Between Tryptophan, Tyrosine, and Phenylalanine Separately with Silver Nanoparticles by Fluorescence Quenching Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S.; Das, T. K.

    2015-09-01

    Using the spectroscopic method, the individual interaction of the three biochemically important amino acids, which are constituents of protein, namely, tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine with biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles has been investigated. The obtained UV-Vis spectra show the formation of ground-state complexes between tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine with silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles possess the ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of the aforesaid amino acids by a dynamic quenching process. The binding constant, number of binding sites, and corresponding thermodynamic parameters (Δ H, Δ S, and Δ G) based on the interaction system were calculated for 293, 303, and 313 K. In the case of tryptophan and phenylalanine, with increase in temperature, the binding constant K was found to decrease; conversely, it was found to increase with increase in temperature in the case of tyrosine. The thermodynamic results revealed that the binding process was spontaneous; hydrogen bonding and van der Waals interaction were the predominant forces responsible for the complex stabilization in the case of tryptophan and phenylalanine, respectively, whereas in the case of tyrosine, hydrophobic interaction was the sole force conferring stability. Moreover, the Förster non-radiation energy transfer theory has been applied to calculate the average binding distance among the above amino acids and silver nanoparticles. The results show a binding distance of <7 nm, which ensures that energy transfer does occur between the said amino acids and silver nanoparticles.

  19. Silver nanoparticle protein corona and toxicity: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Durán, Nelson; Silveira, Camila P; Durán, Marcela; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are one of the most important materials in the nanotechnology industry. Additionally, the protein corona is emerging as a key entity at the nanobiointerface; thus, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between proteins and silver nanoparticles is imperative. Therefore, literature reporting studies involving both single molecule protein coronas (i.e., bovine and human serum albumin, tubulin, ubiquitin and hyaluronic-binding protein) and complex protein coronas (i.e., fetal bovine serum and yeast extract proteins) were selected to demonstrate the effects of protein coronas on silver nanoparticle cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity. There is evidence that distinct and differential protein components may yield a "protein corona signature" that is related to the size and/or surface curvature of the silver nanoparticles. Therefore, the formation of silver nanoparticle protein coronas together with the biological response to these coronas (i.e., oxidative stress, inflammation and cytotoxicity) as well as other cellular biophysicochemical mechanisms (i.e., endocytosis, biotransformation and biodistribution) will be important for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. Researchers may benefit from the information contained herein to improve biotechnological applications of silver nanoparticles and to address related safety concerns. In summary, the main aim of this mini-review is to highlight the relationship between the formation of silver nanoparticle protein coronas and toxicity. PMID:26337542

  20. Liquid injection atomic layer deposition of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalker, P. R.; Romani, S.; Marshall, P. A.; Rosseinsky, M. J.; Rushworth, S.; Williams, P. A.

    2010-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles are being developed for applications in plasmonics, catalysts and analytical methods, amongst others. Herein, we demonstrate the growth of silver nanoparticles using an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for the first time. The silver was deposited from pulses of the organometallic precursor (hfac)Ag(1,5-COD) ((hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene)) dissolved in a 0.1 M toluene solution. Catalytic oxidative dehydrogenation of the silver was achieved using intermittent pulses of propanol. The effect of substrate temperature on the size and distribution of nanoparticles has been investigated over the temperature range 110-150 C. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the nanoparticles consist of face centred cubic, facetted silver crystallites. The localized surface plasmon modes of the nanoparticles have been investigated using electron energy loss spectroscopy mapping. The distributions of plasmons within the ALD nanoparticles are comparable to those grown by solution methods. Both dipolar and quadrupolar resonant modes are observed, which is consistent with previous discrete dipole approximation models. Energy loss mapping of a loss feature at 8.1 eV reveals that it correlates with the bulk or volume region of the silver nanoparticles investigated here.

  1. Reprotoxicity of gold, silver, and gold-silver alloy nanoparticles on mammalian gametes.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann, Daniela; Taylor, Ulrike; Rehbock, Christoph; Jakobi, Jurij; Klein, Sabine; Kues, Wilfried A; Barcikowski, Stephan; Rath, Detlef

    2014-03-01

    Metal and alloy nanoparticles are increasingly developed for biomedical applications, while a firm understanding of their biocompatibility is still missing. Various properties have been reported to influence the toxic potential of nanoparticles. This study aimed to assess the impact of nanoparticle size, surface ligands and chemical composition of gold, silver or gold-silver alloy nanoparticles on mammalian gametes. An in vitro assay for porcine gametes was developed, since these are delicate primary cells, for which well-established culture systems exist and functional parameters are defined. During coincubation with oocytes for 46 h neither any of the tested gold nanoparticles nor the gold-silver alloy particles with a silver molar fraction of up to 50% showed any impact on oocyte maturation. Alloy nanoparticles with 80% silver molar fraction and pure silver nanoparticles inhibited cumulus-oocyte maturation. Confocal microscopy revealed a selective uptake of gold nanoparticles by oocytes, while silver and alloy particles mainly accumulated in the cumulus cell layer surrounding the oocyte. Interestingly sperm vitality parameters (motility, membrane integrity and morphology) were not affected by any of the tested nanoparticles. Only sporadic association of nanoparticles with the sperm plasma membrane was found by transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, mammalian oocytes were sensitive to silver containing nanoparticles. Likely, the delicate process of completing meiosis in maternal gametes features high vulnerability towards nanomaterial derived toxicity. The results imply that released Ag(+)-ions are responsible for the observed toxicity, but the compounding into an alloy seemed to alleviate the toxic effects to a certain extent. PMID:24171189

  2. A study on the stability and green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) extract at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, Babak; Gholamhoseinpoor, F.

    2015-01-01

    Biomolecules present in plant extracts can be used to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles in a single-step green synthesis process. This biogenic reduction of metal ion to base metal is quite rapid, readily conducted at room temperature and pressure, and easily scaled up. Mediated Synthesis by plant extracts is environmentally benign. The involved reducing agents include the various water soluble plant metabolites (e.g. alkaloids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids) and co-enzymes. Silver (Ag) nanoparticles have the particular focus of plant-based syntheses. Extracts of a diverse range of Ziziphora tenuior (Zt) have been successfully used in making nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant properties of this plant and its ability to synthesize silver nanoparticles. Z.tenuior leaves were used to prepare the aqueous extract for this study. Silver nanoparticles were characterized with different techniques such as UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Transmission electron microscopy experiments showed that these nanoparticles are spherical and uniformly distributed and its size is from 8 to 40 nm. FT-IR spectroscopy revealed that silver nanoparticles were functionalized with biomolecules that have primary amine group (sbnd NH2), carbonyl group, sbnd OH groups and other stabilizing functional groups. X-ray diffraction pattern showed high purity and face centered cubic structure of silver nanoparticles with size of 38 nm. In addition to plant extracts, live plants can be used for the synthesis. Here were view the methods of making nanoparticles using plant extracts. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) implies the right of forming silver nanoparticles. The results of TEM, SEM, FT-IR, UV-VIS and XRD confirm that the leaves extract of Zt can synthesis silver nanoparticles.

  3. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles in montmorillonite and their antibacterial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shameli, Kamyar; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Zargar, Mohsen; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Rustaiyan, Abdolhossein; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa

    2011-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were synthesized by the chemical reducing method in the external and interlamellar space of montmorillonite (MMT) as a solid support at room temperature. AgNO3 and NaBH4 were used as a silver precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The most favorable experimental conditions for synthesizing Ag NPs in the MMT are described in terms of the initial concentration of AgNO3. The interlamellar space limits changed little (d-spacing = 1.24–1.47 nm); therefore, Ag NPs formed on the MMT suspension with d-average = 4.19–8.53 nm diameter. The Ag/MMT nanocomposites (NCs), formed from AgNO3/MMT suspension, were characterizations with different instruments, for example UV-visible, PXRD, TEM, SEM, EDXRF, FT-IR, and ICP-OES analyzer. The antibacterial activity of different sizes of Ag NPs in MMT were investigated against Gram-positive, ie, Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Gram-negative bacteria, ie, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, by the disk diffusion method using Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA). The smaller Ag NPs were found to have significantly higher antibacterial activity. These results showed that Ag NPs can be used as effective growth inhibitors in different biological systems, making them applicable to medical applications. PMID:21674015

  4. One-pot synthesis of PVA-capped silver nanoparticles their characterization and biomedical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Rupali S.; Kokate, Mangesh R.; Jambhale, Chitra L.; Pawar, Sambhaji M.; Han, Sung H.; Kolekar, Sanjay S.

    2012-03-01

    The rapid one-pot synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) at room temperature by using hydrazine hydrate as reducing agent and polyvinyl alcohol as stabilizing agent is reported. The SNPs were characterized with UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized silver nanoparticle shows surface plasmon resonance at 410 nm. The XRD reveals face-centered cubic (FCC) structure of SNPs. FE-SEM, AFM and TEM show that nanoparticles have spherical morphology with diameters in the range of 10–60 nm. The antimicrobial activity of synthesized hybrid material against strains of four different bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococus aureus, Proteus vulgaris), that are commonly found in hospitals has been studied. The results indicate that such particles have potential applications in biotechnology and biomedical science.

  5. Anticancer activity of Moringa oleifera mediated silver nanoparticles on human cervical carcinoma cells by apoptosis induction.

    PubMed

    Vasanth, Karunamoorthy; Ilango, Kaliappan; MohanKumar, Ramasamy; Agrawal, Aruna; Dubey, Govind Prasad

    2014-05-01

    Silver nanomaterial plays a crucial role in the growing field of nanotechnology as there is an increasing commercial demand for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) owing to their wide biological applications. The present investigation aims at developing anti-cancerous colloidal silver using Moringa olifera stem bark extract. Electron and atomic force microscopic images were taken to analyze the surface morphology of the synthesized AgNPs. The effects of synthesized AgNPs were tested against human cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) and cell morphology was further evaluated using 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. The efficiency of green synthesized AgNPs was studied with the help of fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and was shown to induce apoptosis through reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in HeLa cells. PMID:24681047

  6. Orientation of N-(1-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide on silver nanoparticles: SERS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuratha, M.; Jawahar, A.; Umadevi, M.; Sathe, V. G.; Vanelle, P.; Terme, T.; Meenakumari, V.; Milton Franklin Benial, A.

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a solution combustion method with urea as fuel. The prepared silver nanoparticles show an FCC crystalline structure with particle size of 59 nm. FESEM image shows the prepared silver is a rod like structure. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectrum indicates that the N-(1-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (CS) molecule adsorbed on the silver nanoparticles. The spectral analysis reveals that the sulfonamide is adsorbed by tilted orientation on the silver surface. The Hatree Fock calculations were also performed to predict the vibrational motions of CS. This present investigation has been a model system to deduce the interaction of drugs with DNA.

  7. Silver/polysaccharide-based nanofibrous materials synthesized from green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rodríguez, M A; Garza-Navarro, M A; Moreno-Cortez, I E; Lucio-Porto, R; González-González, V A

    2016-01-20

    In this contribution a novel green chemistry approach for the synthesis of nanofibrous materials based on blends of carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC)-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) composite and polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) is proposed. These nanofibrous materials were obtained from the electrospinning of blends of aqueous solutions of CMC-AgNPs composite and PVA, which were prepared at different CMC/PVA weight ratios in order to electrospin nanofibers applying a constant tension of 15kV. The synthesized materials were characterized by means of transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy; as well as Fourier-transform infrared, ultraviolet and Raman spectroscopic techniques. Experimental evidence suggests that the diameter of the nanofibers is thinner than any other reported in the literature regarding the electrospinning of CMC. This feature is related to the interactions of AgNPs with carboxyl functional groups of the CMC, which diminish those between the later and acetyl groups of PVA. PMID:26572327

  8. Toxicity of fungal-generated silver nanoparticles to soil-inhabiting Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a rhizospheric bacterium responsible for plant protection and bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Indarchand R; Anderson, Anne J; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-04-01

    Silver nanoparticles have attracted considerable attention due to their beneficial properties. But toxicity issues associated with them are also rising. The reports in the past suggested health hazards of silver nanoparticles at the cellular, molecular, or whole organismal level in eukaryotes. Whereas, there is also need to examine the exposure effects of silver nanoparticle to the microbes, which are beneficial to humans as well as environment. The available literature suggests the harmful effects of physically and chemically synthesised silver nanoparticles. The toxicity of biogenically synthesized nanoparticles has been less studied than physically and chemically synthesised nanoparticles. Hence, there is a greater need to study the toxic effects of biologically synthesised silver nanoparticles in general and mycosynthesized nanoparticles in particular. In the present study, attempts have been made to assess the risk associated with the exposure of mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles on a beneficial soil microbe Pseudomonas putida. KT2440. The study demonstrates mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterisation by UV-vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, nanosight LM20--a particle size distribution analyzer and TEM. Silver nanoparticles obtained herein were found to exert the hazardous effect at the concentration of 0.4 μg/ml, which warrants further detailed investigations concerning toxicity. PMID:25562807

  9. Effect of the crystallinity of silver nanoparticles on surface plasmon resonance induced enhancement of effective absorption cross-section of dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanvi, Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.; Kumar, Subodh; Saxena, Vibha; Aswal, D. K.

    2015-02-01

    The effective absorption cross-section of dye, and therefore, the efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell can be increased by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of metal nanoparticles with enhanced dephasing time. Further, the dephasing time is proportional to the enhancement factor of electric field in the vicinity of nanoparticle surface, and is governed by size, shape, and dielectric constant of surrounding medium. In this paper, we demonstrate that crystallinity of silver nanoparticles plays an important role in enhancing the dephasing time of SPR. Our theoretical formulation indicates that the dephasing time is higher for single crystalline silver nanoparticles as compared to that of polycrystalline nanoparticles, which is attributed to the presence of scattering centers in the latter. This suggests that single crystalline silver nanoparticles are interesting candidates for the enhancement of effective absorption cross-section of dyes. In order to validate our theoretical formulation, we have synthesized single crystalline and polycrystalline silver nanoparticles and studied their effect on absorption cross-section of N719 dye. We observed that dye incorporated with single crystalline silver nanoparticles showed a significant enhancement as compared to polycrystalline silver nanoparticles (24.42% in solution, 21.01% in thin film form in single crystalline silver nanoparticles while 8.52% in solution, 7.97% in thin film form in polycrystalline silver nanoparticles, respectively).

  10. Synthesis of monodisperse, quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles with sizes defined by the nature of silver precursors.

    PubMed

    Li, Houshen; Xia, Haibing; Ding, Wenchao; Li, Yijing; Shi, Qiurong; Wang, Dayang; Tao, Xutang

    2014-03-11

    Monodisperse, quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) with controlled sizes have been produced directly in water via adding the aqueous solutions of the mixtures of AgNO3 and sodium citrate to boiling aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid (AA). Different compounds, including NaCl, NaBr, KI, Na2SO4, Na2CO3, Na2S, and Na3PO4, are added to the AgNO3/citrate mixture solutions to form new silver compounds with fairly low solubility in water, which are used as precursors instead of soluble Ag(+) ions to synthesize Ag NPs via AA/citrate reduction. This enables us not only to produce monodisperse, quasi-spherical Ag NPs but also to tune the sizes of the resulting NPs from 16 to 30 nm according to the potential of new silver precursors as well as the concentrations of anions. PMID:24528373

  11. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous Aegle marmelos leaf extract

    SciTech Connect

    Jagajjanani Rao, K.; Paria, Santanu

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Silver nanoparticles capped with polyphenols present in Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles are synthesized using Aegle marmelos leaf extract in aqueous media. ► Reduction reaction is fast and occurs at room temperature. ► The presence of polyphenols acts as in situ capping agent. -- Abstract: Synthesis of nanoparticles by green route is an emerging technique drawing more attention recently because of several advantages over the convention chemical routes. The present study reports one-pot synthesis and in situ stabilization of silver nanoparticles using Aegle marmelos leaf extract. Nanoparticles of almost uniform spherical size (∼60 nm) were synthesized within ∼25 min reaction time at room temperature. The size of particles depends on the ratio of AgNO{sub 3} and leaf extract. The crystallinity, size, and shape of the nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and scanning electron microscopy respectively. The size stability was attained by the capping effect of polyphenolic tannin compound, procatacheuate in the extract. The capped polyphenols can be removed from the particle surface by simple NaOH/methanol wash. The involvement of phenolic compounds in metal ion reduction and capping were supported by UV–visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and zeta potential measurements.

  12. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles through green approach using Dioscorea alata and their characterization on antibacterial activities and optical limiting behavior.

    PubMed

    Pugazhendhi, S; Sathya, P; Palanisamy, P K; Gopalakrishnan, R

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we have successfully synthesized highly biocompatible and functionalized Dioscorea alata (D. alata) mediated silver nanoparticles with different quantities of its extract for the evaluation of proficient bactericidal activity and optical limiting behavior. The crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was confirmed by powder X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis and furthermore confirmed from SAED pattern of HRTEM Analysis. The Surface Plasmon Resonance band was measured and monitored by UV-Visible spectral studies. The functional groups present in the extract for the reduction and stabilization of the nanoparticles were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique. Surface morphology and size of particles were determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy analysis (HRTEM). The elemental analysis was made by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX). The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in colloidal form were found to exhibit third order optical nonlinearity as studied by closed aperture Z-scan technique and open aperture technique using 532nm Nd:YAG (SHG) CW laser beam (COHERENT-Compass 215M-50 diode-pumped) output as source. The negative nonlinearity observed was well utilized for the study of optical limiting behavior of the silver nanoparticles. D. alata mediated silver nanoparticles possess very good antimicrobial activity which was confirmed by agar well diffusion assay method. PMID:27064188

  13. Preparation of silver nanoparticles fabrics against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanh, Truong Thi; Thu, Nguyen Thi; Hien, Nguyen Quoc; An, Pham Ngoc; Loan, Truong Thi Kieu; Hoa, Phan Thi

    2016-04-01

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)/peco fabrics were prepared by immobilization of AgNPs on fabrics in which AgNPs were synthesized by γ-irradiation of the 10 mM AgNO3 chitosan solution at the dose of 17.6 kGy. The AgNPs size has been estimated to be about 11 nm from TEM image. The AgNPs content onto peco fabrics was of 143±6 mg/kg at the initial AgNPs concentration of 100 ppm. The AgNPs colloidal solution was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and TEM image. The antibacterial activity of AgNPs/peco fabrics after 60 washings against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae was found to be over 99%. Effects of AgNPs fabics on multidrug-resistant pathogens from the clinical specimens were also tested.

  14. Powerful colloidal silver nanoparticles for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Tam Le, Thi; Quy Nguyen, Van; Hoang Tran, Huy; Dang, Duc Anh; Tran, Quang Huy; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2012-12-01

    In this work we have demonstrated a powerful disinfectant ability of colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs) for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections. The silver NPs colloid was synthesized by a UV-enhanced chemical precipitation. Two gastrointestinal bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC 43888-O157:k-:H7) and Vibrio cholerae (O1) were used to verify the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared silver NPs colloid by means of surface disinfection assay in agar plates and turbidity assay in liquid media. Transmission electron microscopy was also employed to analyze the ultrastructural changes of bacterial cells caused by silver NPs. Noticeably, our silver NPs colloid displayed a highly effective bactericidal effect against two tested gastrointestinal bacterial strains at a silver concentration as low as ˜3 mg l-1. More importantly, the silver NPs colloid showed an enhancement of antibacterial activity and long-lasting disinfectant effect as compared to conventional chloramin B (5%) disinfection agent. These advantages of the as-prepared colloidal silver NPs make them very promising for environmental treatments contaminated with gastrointestinal bacteria and other infectious pathogens. Moreover, the powerful disinfectant activity of silver-containing materials can also help in controlling and preventing further outbreak of diseases.

  15. "Synthesis, characterization and studies on antioxidant activity of silver nanoparticles using Elephantopus scaber leaf extract".

    PubMed

    Kharat, Sopan N; Mendhulkar, Vijay D

    2016-05-01

    The simple, eco-friendly and cost effective method of green synthesis of silver nanoparticle in the leaf extract of medicinal plant Elephantopus scaber L. is illustrated in the present work. The synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were characterized with UV-Vis-spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The UV-spectra show maximum absorbance at 435nm, NTA analysis shows 78nm average sizes of nanoparticles, TEM analysis indicates spherical shape of the nanoparticles with the average diameter of 50nm. The XRD peaks at 2θ range of 30-80° correspond to (111), (200), (220), (311) reflection planes that indicate the structure of metallic silver. FTIR analysis reveals surface capping of phenolic groups. Existence of peaks in the range of 1611 to 1400cm(-1) indicates the presence of aromatic rings in the leaf extract. The peak at 1109cm(-1) is due to the presence of OH groups. The antioxidant activity of synthesized nanoparticles was evaluated performing DPPH assay and it is observed that the photosynthesized nanoparticle also possesses antioxidant potentials. Thus, it can be used as potential free radical scavenger. Silver particles have tremendous applications in the field of diagnostics and therapeutics. To this context, the surface coating of plant metabolite constituents has great potentials. Therefore, the present work has been undertaken to synthesize the AgNPs using leaf extract of medicinal plant, E. scaber, to characterize and access their antioxidant properties. PMID:26952477

  16. Nanoindentation of Chitosan Doped with Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Matthew; Teklu, Alem; Kuthirummal, Narayanan; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole; Department of Physics; Astronomy, College of Charleston Collaboration; Department of Plastic; Reconstructive Surgery, Wake Forest University Health Sciences Collaboration

    Imaging and spectroscopic analysis via nanoindentation was performed with the Nanosurf EasyScan2 AFM on the pure and silver doped chitosan samples allowing for a more localized determination of their stiffness, hardness, and reduced Young's modulus. The pure chitosan sample was tested to have a stiffness of 0.367 N/m, a hardness of 1.12 GPa, and a reduced Young's modulus of 30.5 MPa. The film with 5mg Ag nanoparticle per gram of chitosan was tested on the boundaries between the chitosan and Ag nanoparticles to show an increase in stiffness of about 4.6% at 0.384 N/m, an increase in hardness of about 5.4% at 1.18 GPa, and an increase in the reduced Young's modulus of about 5.0% at 3.2 MPa in comparison to the pure chitosan sample. On the other hand, upon increasing the doping to 10mg Ag nanoparticle per gram of chitosan showed a decrease in stiffness of about 6.3% at 0.344 N/m, a decrease in hardness of about 27.0% at 0.820 GPa, and a decrease in the reduced Young's modulus of about 6.0% at 28.7 MPa in comparison to the pure chitosan sample. Obviously, films doped with 5mg Ag nanoparicle per gram of chitosan provided the composites with improved mechanical strength compared to chitosan alone.

  17. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Prosopis farcta extract and its antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miri, Abdolhossein; Sarani, Mina; Rezazade Bazaz, Mahere; Darroudi, Majid

    2015-04-01

    "Green" synthesis of metal nanoparticles has become a promising synthetic strategy in nanoscience and nanotechnology in recent years. In this work, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized from extract of Prosopis farcta at room temperature. Formation of Ag-NPs at 1 mM concentration of AgNO3 gave spherical shape nanoparticles with mean diameter about 10.8 nm. The formation of nanoparticle was confirmed by the surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) band illustrated in UV-vis spectrophotometer. The morphology and size of the Ag-NPs were determined using high magnification transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The crystalline structure of obtained nanoparticles was investigated using the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern. In addition, these green synthesized Ag-NPs were found to show higher antibacterial activity against multi drug resistant clinical isolates.

  18. Green synthesis and characterization of silver nanoparticles using Cydonia oblong seed extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zia, Faria; Ghafoor, Nida; Iqbal, Mudassir; Mehboob, Saliha

    2016-01-01

    The green synthesis of nanoparticles has emerged as a cost-effective and environmentally benign technique. The present study describes the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using a seed extract of Cydonia oblonga. The conditions were optimized by adjusting pH, temperature, time and amount of seed extract. The nanoparticles produced were characterized by different techniques, namely UV-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy. The formation of Ag-NPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopic analysis. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the biomolecules, which played a key role in the reduction of Ag+ ions. XRD confirmed that the silver nanoparticles possessed face-centered cubic structure. The green chemistry approach has proven that Ag-NPs can be synthesized by using plant extract in which biomolecules effectively act as capping and reducing agent.

  19. Malva parviflora extract assisted green synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zayed, Mervat F; Eisa, Wael H; Shabaka, A A

    2012-12-01

    Five plant leaf extracts (Malva parviflora, Beta vulgaris subsp. Vulgaris, Anethum graveolens, Allium kurrat and Capsicum frutescens) were screened for their bioreduction behavior for synthesis of silver nanoparticles. M. parviflora (Malvaceae) was found to exhibit the best reducing and protecting action in terms of synthesis rate and monodispersity of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Our measurements indicate that biosynthesis of Ag nanoparticles by M. parviflora produces Ag nanoparticles with the diameters in the range of 19-25 nm. XRD studies reveal a high degree of crystallinity and monophasic Ag nanoparticles of face-centered cubic structure. FTIR analysis proved that particles are reduced and stabilized in solution by the capping agent that is likely to be proteins secreted by the biomass. The present process is an excellent candidate for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive. PMID:23010627

  20. Silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersome nanocarriers for the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geilich, Benjamin M.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Singleton, Gloria L.; Sepúlveda, Liuda J.; Sridhar, Srinivas; Webster, Thomas J.

    2015-02-01

    The rapidly diminishing number of effective antibiotics that can be used to treat infectious diseases and associated complications in a physician's arsenal is having a drastic impact on human health today. This study explored the development and optimization of a polymersome nanocarrier formed from a biodegradable diblock copolymer to overcome bacterial antibiotic resistance. Here, polymersomes were synthesized containing silver nanoparticles embedded in the hydrophobic compartment, and ampicillin in the hydrophilic compartment. Results showed for the first time that these silver nanoparticle-embedded polymersomes (AgPs) inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli transformed with a gene for ampicillin resistance (bla) in a dose-dependent fashion. Free ampicillin, AgPs without ampicillin, and ampicillin polymersomes without silver nanoparticles had no effect on bacterial growth. The relationship between the silver nanoparticles and ampicillin was determined to be synergistic and produced complete growth inhibition at a silver-to-ampicillin ratio of 1 : 0.64. In this manner, this study introduces a novel nanomaterial that can effectively treat problematic, antibiotic-resistant infections in an improved capacity which should be further examined for a wide range of medical applications.

  1. One-step synthesis of silver nanoparticles in an aqueous solution and their antibacterial activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guangyu; Zhang, Feng; Morikawa, Hideaki; Chen, Yueyue

    2014-03-01

    A one-step simple synthesis of silver colloid nanoparticles with controllable sizes is presented in this research. In the synthesis, an amino-terminated hyperbranched polymer (HBP-NH2) was applied as a stabilizer and a reductant. The syntheses, performed at various initial AgNO3 concentrations (0.28-0.56 g/l) in a 2 g/l HBP-NH2 aqueous solution, produced silver colloid nanoparticles having average sizes from 3 to 30 nm with narrow size distributions. The formation of silver colloid nanoparticles was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR), Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), UV/Visible Absorption Spectrophotometry, and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) measurements. The results indicated that both particle size and the UV absorption are strongly dependent on the initial AgNO3 concentrations. The silver colloid nanoparticles, prepared with a 0.35 g/l AgNO3 aqueous solution in the presences of 2 g/l HBP-NH2, showed good antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria ( Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus). A very low concentration of nano-silver (as low as 3.0 ug/ml Ag) also gave excellent antibacterial performance.

  2. Optimization and antioxidant properties of phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Dianthus caryophyllus L. (carnation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachna, Saharan, Baljeet Singh; Yadav, M. S.; Sharma, Nisha

    2016-05-01

    In the recent years, silver nanoparticles have been the focus of Nanobiotechnology due to their unique interdisciplinary applications in the field of biomedicals, material diagnostics, optics and chemistry. A wide set of physical and chemical methods have been devised for providing the effective and efficient synthesis procedure of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) but are somehow expensive and involve toxic substances. There is a critical need to develop reliable and eco-friendly process for synthesizing silver nanoparticles. In the present investigation, a simple and cost-effective green approach has been utilized for the production of stable silver nanoparticles by employing Dianthus caryophyllus flower extract. Different optimization conditions were checked for extract capped AgNPs and characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The optimum 0.02 dilution of extract found efficient to reduce 4 mM silver ions in the ratio 60:40 at pH 9. The antioxidant potential of the resultant AgNPs was observed using Hydrogen peroxide assay. There was an increasing trend of antioxidant property with increasing concentration. This potential of these photosynthesized AgNPs makes them reliable for good cause of society, mainly in therapeutic and biomedical applications.

  3. Facile and Scalable Preparation of Solid Silver Nanoparticles (<10 nm) for Flexible Electronics.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yan-Long; Yang, Zhen-Guo

    2015-08-12

    Metal conductive ink for flexible electroncs has exhibited a promising future recently. Here, an innovative strategy was reported to synthesize silver nanocolloid (2.5±0.5 nm) and separate solid silver nanoparticles (<10 nm) effectively. Specifically, silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as a silver precursor, sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as a reducing agent, fatty acid (CnH2n+1COOH) as a dispersant agent, and ammonia (NH3·H2O) and hydrochloride (HCl) as a pH regulator and complexing agent in aqueous solution. The main mechanism is the solubility changes of fatty acid salts (CnH2n+1COO-NH4+) and fatty acid (CnH2n+1COOH) coated on the synthesized silver nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous solution. This change determines the suspension and precipitation of silver NPs directly. The results show that when n in dispersant is 12 and molar ratio (C12H24O2/AgNO3) is 1.0, the separation yield of silver NPs is up to 94.8%. After sintering at 125 °C for 20 min, the as-prepared conductive silver nanoink (20 wt %) presents a satisfactory resistivity (as low as 6.6 μΩ·cm on the polyester-PET substrate), about 4 times the bulk silver. In addition, the efficacy of the as-prepared conductive ink was verified with the construction of a radio frequency antenna by inkjet printing and conductive character pattern (Fudan-Fudan) by direct wiring, showing excellent electrical performance. PMID:26133543

  4. Colorimetric determination of melamine in milk using unmodified silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Harish; Mann, Bimlesh; Seth, Raman

    2016-03-01

    Melamine is nitrogen rich chemical compound used as an adulterant in dairy products by unscrupulous people to increase the apparent protein content. This incident prompted the researchers to develop simple methods for easy detection of melamine in food samples. In the present paper, we report a simple and sensitive colorimetric method for detection of melamine in milk based on silver nanoparticles. This method relies upon the principle that melamine causes the aggregation of silver nanoparticles, resulting in abrupt color change from yellow to red under optimized conditions. The concentration of melamine in adulterated sample can be quantitated by monitoring the absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The present colorimetric method which utilizes silver nanoparticles of 35 nm can reliably detect melamine down to a concentration of 0.04 mg l- 1.

  5. Colorimetric determination of melamine in milk using unmodified silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naveen; Kumar, Harish; Mann, Bimlesh; Seth, Raman

    2016-03-01

    Melamine is nitrogen rich chemical compound used as an adulterant in dairy products by unscrupulous people to increase the apparent protein content. This incident prompted the researchers to develop simple methods for easy detection of melamine in food samples. In the present paper, we report a simple and sensitive colorimetric method for detection of melamine in milk based on silver nanoparticles. This method relies upon the principle that melamine causes the aggregation of silver nanoparticles, resulting in abrupt color change from yellow to red under optimized conditions. The concentration of melamine in adulterated sample can be quantitated by monitoring the absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrometer. The present colorimetric method which utilizes silver nanoparticles of 35 nm can reliably detect melamine down to a concentration of 0.04 mg l(-1). PMID:26654965

  6. Fate of Zinc and Silver Engineered Nanoparticles in Sewerage Networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engineered zinc oxide (ZnO) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) used in consumer products are largely released into the environment through the wastewater stream. Limited information is available regarding the transformations they undergo during their transit through sewerage sy...

  7. Imaging of Biological Cells Using Luminescent Silver Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, Vira; Almemar, Zamavang; Jiang, Ke; Culhane, Kyle; Machado, Rosa; Hagen, Guy; Kotko, Andriy; Dmytruk, Igor; Spendier, Kathrin; Pinchuk, Anatoliy

    2016-01-01

    The application of luminescent silver nanoparticles as imaging agents for neural stem and rat basophilic leukemia cells was demonstrated. The experimental size dependence of the extinction and emission spectra for silver nanoparticles were also studied. The nanoparticles were functionalized with fluorescent glycine dimers. Spectral position of the resonance extinction and photoluminescence emission for particles with average diameters ranging from 9 to 32 nm were examined. As the particle size increased, the spectral peaks for both extinction and the intrinsic emission of silver nanoparticles shifted to the red end of the spectrum. The intrinsic photoluminescence of the particles was orders of magnitude weaker and was spectrally separated from the photoluminescence of the glycine dimer ligands. The spectral position of the ligand emission was independent of the particle size; however, the quantum yield of the nanoparticle-ligand system was size-dependent. This was attributed to the enhancement of the ligand's emission caused by the local electric field strength's dependence on the particle size. The maximum quantum yield determined for the nanoparticle-ligand complex was (5.2 ± 0.1) %. The nanoparticles were able to penetrate cell membranes of rat basophilic leukemia and neural stem cells fixed with paraformaldehyde. Additionally, toxicity studies were performed. It was found that towards rat basophilic leukemia cells, luminescent silver nanoparticles had a toxic effect in the silver atom concentration range of 10-100 μM.

  8. Imaging of Biological Cells Using Luminescent Silver Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kravets, Vira; Almemar, Zamavang; Jiang, Ke; Culhane, Kyle; Machado, Rosa; Hagen, Guy; Kotko, Andriy; Dmytruk, Igor; Spendier, Kathrin; Pinchuk, Anatoliy

    2016-12-01

    The application of luminescent silver nanoparticles as imaging agents for neural stem and rat basophilic leukemia cells was demonstrated. The experimental size dependence of the extinction and emission spectra for silver nanoparticles were also studied. The nanoparticles were functionalized with fluorescent glycine dimers. Spectral position of the resonance extinction and photoluminescence emission for particles with average diameters ranging from 9 to 32 nm were examined. As the particle size increased, the spectral peaks for both extinction and the intrinsic emission of silver nanoparticles shifted to the red end of the spectrum. The intrinsic photoluminescence of the particles was orders of magnitude weaker and was spectrally separated from the photoluminescence of the glycine dimer ligands. The spectral position of the ligand emission was independent of the particle size; however, the quantum yield of the nanoparticle-ligand system was size-dependent. This was attributed to the enhancement of the ligand's emission caused by the local electric field strength's dependence on the particle size. The maximum quantum yield determined for the nanoparticle-ligand complex was (5.2 ± 0.1) %. The nanoparticles were able to penetrate cell membranes of rat basophilic leukemia and neural stem cells fixed with paraformaldehyde. Additionally, toxicity studies were performed. It was found that towards rat basophilic leukemia cells, luminescent silver nanoparticles had a toxic effect in the silver atom concentration range of 10-100 μM. PMID:26781288

  9. Tailored super magnetic nanoparticles synthesized via template free hydrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attallah, Olivia A.; Girgis, E.; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed M. S. A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles of controlled shape and dimensions were synthesized using a modified hydrothermal technique. The influence of different synthesis conditions on the shape, size (length and diameter), structure and magnetic properties of the prepared nanoparticles is presented. The mineral phases, the morphologies, size distribution of the resulting magnetic nanoparticles and their magnetic properties were characterized using different characterization methods. We designed magnetite nanoparticles with different morphologies (nanospheres, nanorods, nanocubes and hexagons) and with improved saturation magnetization reaching 90 emu/g.

  10. Development of an eco-friendly approach for biogenesis of silver nanoparticles using spores of Bacillus athrophaeus.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Abari, Afrouzossadat; Emtiazi, Giti; Ghasemi, Seyed Mahdi

    2013-12-01

    The biological synthesis methods have been emerging as a promising new approach for production of nanoparticles due to their simplicity and non-toxicity. In the present study, spores of Bacillus athrophaeus were used to achieve the objective of developing a green synthesis method of silver nanoparticles. Enzyme assay revealed that the spores and their heat inactivated forms (microcapsules) were highly active and their enzymatic contents differed from the vegetative cells. Laccase, glucose oxidase, and alkaline phosphatase activities were detected in the dormant forms, but not in the vegetative cells. Although no nanoparticle was produced by active cells of B. athrophaeus, both spores and microcapsules were efficiently capable of reducing the silver ions (Ag⁺) to elemental silver (Ag⁰) leading to the formation of nanoparticles from silver nitrate (AgNO₃). The presence of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles was determined by obtaining broad spectra with maximum absorbance at 400 nm in UV-visible spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction analysis pattern revealed that the nanoscale particles have crystalline nature with various topologies, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM micrograph showed the nanocrystal structures with dimensions ranging from 5 to 30 nm. Accordingly, the spore mixture could be employed as a factory for detoxification of heavy metals and subsequent production of nanoparticles. This research introduces an environmental friendly and cost effective biotechnological process for the extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the bacterial spores. PMID:23771809

  11. Pine cone-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against agricultural pathogens.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Sang-Myung; Iydroose, Mahudunan; Lee, Kui-Jae; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal and physicochemical properties of nanoscale materials are strong functions of the particle size and the materials used in their synthesis. The nanoparticle shape also contributes significantly to their medicinal properties. Several shapes ranging from oval, spherical, rods, to teardrop structures may be obtained by chemical methods. Triangular and hexagonal nanoparticles have been synthesized by using a pine cone extract (PCE). Here, we report the discovery that PCE, when reacted with silver nitrate ions, yields a high percentage of thin, flat, single-crystalline nanohexagonal and nanotriangular silver nanoparticles. The nanohexagonal and nanotriangular nanoparticles appear to grow by a process involving rapid reduction with assembly at room temperature at a high pH. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, SEM-EDS, TEM, FTIR, and X-ray diffraction analyses. The anisotropy of the nanoparticle shape results in large near-infrared absorption by the particles. Highly anisotropic particles are applicable in various fields, including agriculture and medicine. The obtained silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) had significant antibacterial action on both Gram classes of bacteria associated with agriculture. Because the Ag NPs are encapsulated with functional group-rich PCE, they can be easily integrated in various applications. PMID:22290649

  12. Ultra-efficient photocatalytic deprivation of methylene blue and biological activities of biogenic silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif Ullah; Yuan, Qipeng; Wei, Yun; Khan, Zia Ul Haq; Tahir, Kamran; Khan, Shahab Ullah; Ahmad, Aftab; Khan, Shafiullah; Nazir, Sadia; Khan, Faheem Ullah

    2016-06-01

    Phytosynthesis of metal nanoparticles is considered as a safe, cost-effective, and green approach. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were successfully synthesized using the aqueous extract of Lychee (Litchi chinensis) fruit peel and an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by several analytical techniques i.e. UV-Vis Spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray diffraction spectroscopy), EDX (electron dispersive X-ray), SAED (selected area electron diffraction), HRTEM (high-resolution transmission electron microscopy), and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy). HRTEM and XRD results indicated that the prepared AgNPs are spherical in shape, well dispersed and face centered cubic crystalline. AgNPs showed potent antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 125μg against E. coli and 62.5μg against both S. aureus and B. subtilis. AgNPs induce efficient cell constituent release from bacterial cells, which indicates the deterioration of cytoplasmic membrane. Moreover, antioxidant studies on the as-synthesized nanoparticles reveal efficient scavenging of the stable or harmful DPPH free radical. The cytotoxicity assay confirmed that biosynthesized AgNPs are nontoxic to normal healthy RBCs. AgNPs exhibited consistent release of Ag(+) determined by ICP-AES analysis. AgNPs exhibited extraordinary photocatalytic degradation (99.24%) of methylene blue. On the other hand, commercial silver nanoparticles have moderate biological activities against the tested bacterial strains and negligible photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue. The significant biological and photocatalytic activities of the biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are attributed to their small size, spherical morphology and high dispersion. PMID:27016719

  13. Effect of silver nanoparticle geometry on methicillin susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and osteoblast viability.

    PubMed

    Actis, Lisa; Srinivasan, Anand; Lopez-Ribot, Jose L; Ramasubramanian, Anand K; Ong, Joo L

    2015-07-01

    Orthopedic implant failure as a result of bacterial infection affects approximately 0.5-5% of patients. These infections are often caused by Staphylococcus aureus which is capable of attaching and subsequently forming a biofilm on the implant surface, making it difficult to eradicate with systemic antibiotics. Further, with the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, alternative treatments are necessary. Silver nanoparticles have received much attention for their broad spectrum antibacterial activity which has been reported to be both size and shape dependent. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of three different geometries on their effect on microbial susceptibility as well as evaluate their effect on bone cell viability. Silver nanoparticles of spherical, triangular and cuboid shapes were synthesized by chemical reduction methods. The susceptibility of S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus was evaluated a 24 h period and determined using a colorimetric assay. Further, the viability of human fetal osteoblast (hFOB) cells in the presence of the silver nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of 7 days by AlmarBlue fluorescence assay. hFOB morphology was also evaluated by light microscopy imaging. Results indicated that silver nanoparticle geometry did not have an effect on microbiota susceptibility or hFOB viability. However, high concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5 nM) conferred significant susceptibility towards the bacteria and significantly reduced hFOB viability. It was also found that the hFOBs exhibited an increasingly reduced viability to lower silver nanoparticle concentrations with an increase in exposure time. PMID:26194976

  14. Green and Rapid Synthesis of Anticancerous Silver Nanoparticles by Saccharomyces boulardii and Insight into Mechanism of Nanoparticle Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kaler, Abhishek; Jain, Sanyog; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly developing field of nanobiotechnology dealing with metallic nanoparticle (MNP) synthesis is primarily lacking control over size, shape, dispersity, yield, and reaction time. Present work describes an ecofriendly method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by cell free extract (CFE) of Saccharomyces boulardii. Parameters such as culture age (stationary phase growth), cell mass concentration (400 mg/mL), temperature (35°C), and reaction time (4 h), have been optimized to exercise a control over the yield of nanoparticles and their properties. Nanoparticle (NP) formation was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, elemental composition by EDX (energy dispersive X-rays) analysis, and size and shape by transmission electron microscopy. Synthesized nanoparticles had the size range of 3–10 nm with high negative zeta potential (−31 mV) indicating excellent stability. Role of proteins/peptides in NP formation and their stability were also elucidated. Finally, anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles as compared to silver ions was determined on breast cancer cell lines. PMID:24298556

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of silver nanoparticles material for solid phase extraction of cobalt from water samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Sanchooli, Esmael

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a new solid phase extractor, nano-scale silver particles were synthesized. The silver nanoparticle-based solid phase extraction was used for separation and preconcentration of the trace amount of cobalt ion from various water samples prior to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of various parameters, including pH, amount of complexing agent [1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol] (PAN), flow rates of solution and eluent, type and least amount of the eluent for elution of the cobalt from silver nanoparticles were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit of this procedure was 0.78 ?g L-1, and the relative standard deviation (RSD%) was 3.1% ( n = 10, c = 20 ?g L-1). This method was applied to the determination of cobalt in water samples.

  16. Fluorescence quenching and photocatalytic degradation of textile dyeing waste water by silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kavitha, S R; Umadevi, M; Janani, S R; Balakrishnan, T; Ramanibai, R

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes have been prepared by chemical reduction method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence spectral analysis showed that the quenching of fluorescence of textile dyeing waste water (TDW) has been found to decrease with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. Experimental results show that the silver nanoparticles can quench the fluorescence emission of adsorbed TDW effectively. The fluorescence interaction between Ag NPs (acceptor) and TDW (donor) confirms the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism. Long range dipole-dipole interaction between the excited donor and ground state acceptor molecules is the dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer. Furthermore, photocatalytic degradation of TDW was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under UV light illumination. The kinetic study revealed that synthesized Ag NPs was found to be effective in degrading TDW. PMID:24632164

  17. Fluorescence quenching and photocatalytic degradation of textile dyeing waste water by silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, S. R.; Umadevi, M.; Janani, S. R.; Balakrishnan, T.; Ramanibai, R.

    2014-06-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) of different sizes have been prepared by chemical reduction method and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Fluorescence spectral analysis showed that the quenching of fluorescence of textile dyeing waste water (TDW) has been found to decrease with decrease in the size of the Ag NPs. Experimental results show that the silver nanoparticles can quench the fluorescence emission of adsorbed TDW effectively. The fluorescence interaction between Ag NPs (acceptor) and TDW (donor) confirms the Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) mechanism. Long range dipole-dipole interaction between the excited donor and ground state acceptor molecules is the dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer. Furthermore, photocatalytic degradation of TDW was measured spectrophotometrically by using silver as nanocatalyst under UV light illumination. The kinetic study revealed that synthesized Ag NPs was found to be effective in degrading TDW.

  18. Green synthesis of protein capped silver nanoparticles from phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid with antimicrobial properties against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, green synthesis of nanoparticles, i.e., synthesizing nanoparticles using biological sources like bacteria, algae, fungus, or plant extracts have attracted much attention due to its environment-friendly and economic aspects. The present study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low-cost method of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using cell-free filtrate of phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. UV-visible spectrum showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of spherical silver nanoparticles of the size range 5 to 40 nm, most of these being 16 to 20 nm in diameter. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the nanoparticles exhibited 2θ values corresponding to silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were found to be naturally protein coated. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of an 85-kDa protein band responsible for capping and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activities of the silver nanoparticles against human as well as plant pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacteria were assayed. The particles showed inhibitory effect on the growth kinetics of human and plant bacteria. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of the silver nanoparticles with increasing concentrations was evaluated by DNA fragmentation studies using plasmid DNA. PMID:25114655

  19. Green synthesis of protein capped silver nanoparticles from phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid with antimicrobial properties against multidrug-resistant bacteria.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Supriyo; Basu, Arpita; Kundu, Surekha

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, green synthesis of nanoparticles, i.e., synthesizing nanoparticles using biological sources like bacteria, algae, fungus, or plant extracts have attracted much attention due to its environment-friendly and economic aspects. The present study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low-cost method of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using cell-free filtrate of phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. UV-visible spectrum showed a peak at 450nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of spherical silver nanoparticles of the size range 5 to 40nm, most of these being 16 to 20nm in diameter. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the nanoparticles exhibited 2? values corresponding to silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were found to be naturally protein coated. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of an 85-kDa protein band responsible for capping and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activities of the silver nanoparticles against human as well as plant pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacteria were assayed. The particles showed inhibitory effect on the growth kinetics of human and plant bacteria. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of the silver nanoparticles with increasing concentrations was evaluated by DNA fragmentation studies using plasmid DNA. PMID:25114655

  20. Green synthesis of protein capped silver nanoparticles from phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid with antimicrobial properties against multidrug-resistant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Supriyo; Basu, Arpita; Kundu, Surekha

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, green synthesis of nanoparticles, i.e., synthesizing nanoparticles using biological sources like bacteria, algae, fungus, or plant extracts have attracted much attention due to its environment-friendly and economic aspects. The present study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low-cost method of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using cell-free filtrate of phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. UV-visible spectrum showed a peak at 450 nm corresponding to the plasmon absorbance of silver nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed the presence of spherical silver nanoparticles of the size range 5 to 40 nm, most of these being 16 to 20 nm in diameter. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum of the nanoparticles exhibited 2 θ values corresponding to silver nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were found to be naturally protein coated. SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of an 85-kDa protein band responsible for capping and stabilization of the silver nanoparticles. Antimicrobial activities of the silver nanoparticles against human as well as plant pathogenic multidrug-resistant bacteria were assayed. The particles showed inhibitory effect on the growth kinetics of human and plant bacteria. Furthermore, the genotoxic potential of the silver nanoparticles with increasing concentrations was evaluated by DNA fragmentation studies using plasmid DNA.

  1. Euphorbia helioscopia Linn as a green source for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their optical and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud; Sajadi, S Mohammad; Babaei, Ferydon; Maham, Mehdi

    2015-07-15

    During this study, we report the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Euphorbia helioscopia Linn leaf extract for the synthesis of propargylamines. Also, the structural and optical properties are studied. The synthesized nanoparticles are characterized by TEM, XRD, FT-IR and UV-visible techniques. UV-visible studies show an absorption band at 440 nm due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, the catalyst exhibits high catalytic activity, superior cycling stability and excellent substrate applicability. PMID:25854504

  2. Autocatalytic growth of biofunctionalized antibacterial silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dhas, Sindhu Priya; John, Shiny Punalur; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2014-01-01

    Development of eco-friendly processes for nanosynthesis is gaining importance owing to the widespread application of nanoparticles (NPs). In the present study, we have explained the mechanism and kinetics of bioreduction in the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of Rhizophora apiculata. Spectrophotometric methods were employed to quantify the bioactive molecules present before and after the reduction process. The results showed that the polyphenols were the main components responsible for the biosynthesis of AgNPs, which was further confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The kinetics of formation of AgNPs were monitored by time-resolved spectrophotometric and X-ray diffraction studies, which revealed that the NP formation is an autocatalytic process with a rate constant of 1.9נ10(-2) Min(-1) . The NPs were characterized using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques like ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The biogenic AgNPs showed substantial inhibitory activity to Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration values of 2.5, 12.5, 2.5, and 31.25?g/mL, respectively. The current research provides an insight into the mechanistic aspects of bioreduction and formation of AgNPs. PMID:24117922

  3. Chemiluminescent Reactions Catalyzed by Nanoparticles of Gold, Silver, and Gold/Silver Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abideen, Saqib Ul

    Chemiluminescence (CL) reactions are catalyzed by metals nanoparticles, which display unique catalytic properties due to an increased surface area. The present study describes the catalytic effects of nanoparticles (NP) of silver, gold, and alloys of Au/Ag nanoparticles on the chemiluminescent reaction taking place between luminol and potassium ferricyanide. It was found that silver nanoparticles and alloy nanoparticles enhance the CL process when their sizes remained in the range of 30 nm to 50 nm. The data show that the intensity and rate of chemiluminescence were influenced by the mole fraction of gold and silver in the alloy. Data to this chemiluminescence reaction are modeled by a double exponential curve, which indicates that two competing processes are occurring.

  4. Bioactive compound loaded stable silver nanoparticle synthesis from microwave irradiated aqueous extracellular leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata and its wound healing activity in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, T; Thiyagarajan, M; Geetha, N; Venkatachalam, P

    2014-07-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles was developed using Naringi crenulata leaf extracts via microwave irradiation method. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by treating N. crenulata leaf extracts with 1mM of aqueous silver nitrate solution. An effective bioactive compound such as alkaloids, phenols, saponins and quinines present in the N. crenulata reduces the Ag(+) into Ag(0). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometer and further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 390nm due to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. From FESEM results, an average crystal size of the synthesized nanoparticle was 72-98nm. FT-IR results showed sharp absorption peaks and they were assigned to phosphine, alkyl halides and sulfonate groups. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical and cubic shape. Topical application of ointment prepared from silver nanoparticles of N. crenulata were formulated and evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model on Wistar albino rats. The measurement of the wound areas was performed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th days and the percentage of wound closures was calculated accordingly. By the 15th day, the ointment base containing 5% (w/w) of silver nanoparticles showed 100% wound healing activity compared with that of the reference as well as control bases. The results strongly suggested that the batch C ointment containing silver nanaoparticles synthesized from the leaf extracts of N. crenulata was found to be very effective in wound repair and encourages harnessing the potentials of the plant biomolecules loaded silver nanoparticle in the treatment of tropical diseases including wound healing. PMID:24681224

  5. Less is more, greener microbial synthesis of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lihong; Liu, Tingting; Tade, Moses; Wang, Shaobin; Li, Xinyong; Liu, Shaomin

    2014-12-01

    Microbial nano-synthesis has been well established as a green method for the sustainable development of nanotechnology. However, the mechanism of this biotechnology has to be reconsidered with the increasing realization that microorganism culture broth plays a vital role during the synthesis, which may obviate the dependence on microbes. Here, we demonstrate that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could be synthesized in several types of microorganism culture broth (an aqueous solution abundant in peptone, yeast extract from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, dextrose and other reducing and stabilizing agents) without any specific living microbe involvement. Light and high pH values of broth were identified as two critical factors in ensuring pure AgNPs formation. In broths containing NaCl at high concentration (0.5wt%), silver chloride was identified as the major intermediate and could be converted to AgNPs via one-pot photoreduction. Our broth alone strategy dramatically simplifies the conventional microbial nano-synthesis process by cutting the use of microorganisms and thus provides a more eco-friendly way for nano-Ag preparation. The fundamental understanding of the microbial synthesis mechanisms and implementing of complete green methods to fabricate technologically important nanomaterials will be further promoted by this study. PMID:25442949

  6. Comparative assessment of the apoptotic potential of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Bacillus tequilensis and Calocybe indica in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells: targeting p53 for anticancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Park, Jung Hyun; Han, Jae Woong; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2015-01-01

    Background Recently, the use of nanotechnology has been expanding very rapidly in diverse areas of research, such as consumer products, energy, materials, and medicine. This is especially true in the area of nanomedicine, due to physicochemical properties, such as mechanical, chemical, magnetic, optical, and electrical properties, compared with bulk materials. The first goal of this study was to produce silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using two different biological resources as reducing agents, Bacillus tequilensis and Calocybe indica. The second goal was to investigate the apoptotic potential of the as-prepared AgNPs in breast cancer cells. The final goal was to investigate the role of p53 in the cellular response elicited by AgNPs. Methods The synthesis and characterization of AgNPs were assessed by various analytical techniques, including ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The apoptotic efficiency of AgNPs was confirmed using a series of assays, including cell viability, leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential, and Western blot. Results The absorption spectrum of the yellow AgNPs showed the presence of nanoparticles. XRD and FTIR spectroscopy results confirmed the crystal structure and biomolecules involved in the synthesis of AgNPs. The AgNPs derived from bacteria and fungi showed distinguishable shapes, with an average size of 20 nm. Cell viability assays suggested a dose-dependent toxic effect of AgNPs, which was confirmed by leakage of LDH, activation of ROS, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Western blot analyses revealed that AgNPs induce cellular apoptosis via activation of p53, p-Erk1/2, and caspase-3 signaling, and downregulation of Bcl-2. Cells pretreated with pifithrin-alpha were protected from p53-mediated AgNPs-induced toxicity. Conclusion We have demonstrated a simple approach for the synthesis of AgNPs using the novel strains B. tequilensis and C. indica, as well as their mechanism of cell death in a p53-dependent manner in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. The present findings could provide insight for the future development of a suitable anticancer drug, which may lead to the development of novel nanotherapeutic molecules for the treatment of cancers. PMID:26170659

  7. Antibacterial activity of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Wesam; Leitner, Deborah R.; Zingl, Franz G.; Schratter, Gebhart; Prassl, Ruth; Goessler, Walter; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain two dominant bacterial causes of severe secretory diarrhea and still a significant cause of death, especially in developing countries. In order to investigate new effective and inexpensive therapeutic approaches, we analyzed nanoparticles synthesized by a green approach using corresponding salt (silver or zinc nitrate) with aqueous extract of Caltropis procera fruit or leaves. We characterized the quantity and quality of nanoparticles by UV–visible wavelength scans and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Nanoparticles could be synthesized in reproducible yields of approximately 108 particles/ml with mode particles sizes of approx. 90–100 nm. Antibacterial activity against two pathogens was assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration assays and survival curves. Both pathogens exhibited similar resistance profiles with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging between 5 × 105 and 107 particles/ml. Interestingly, zinc nanoparticles showed a slightly higher efficacy, but sublethal concentrations caused adverse effects and resulted in increased biofilm formation of V. cholerae. Using the expression levels of the outer membrane porin OmpT as an indicator for cAMP levels, our results suggest that zinc nanoparticles inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity. This consequently deceases the levels of this second messenger, which is a known inhibitor of biofilm formation. Finally, we demonstrated that a single oral administration of silver nanoparticles to infant mice colonized with V. cholerae or ETEC significantly reduces the colonization rates of the pathogens by 75- or 100-fold, respectively. PMID:25466205

  8. Antibacterial activity of silver and zinc nanoparticles against Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Salem, Wesam; Leitner, Deborah R; Zingl, Franz G; Schratter, Gebhart; Prassl, Ruth; Goessler, Walter; Reidl, Joachim; Schild, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxic Escherichia coli (ETEC) remain two dominant bacterial causes of severe secretory diarrhea and still a significant cause of death, especially in developing countries. In order to investigate new effective and inexpensive therapeutic approaches, we analyzed nanoparticles synthesized by a green approach using corresponding salt (silver or zinc nitrate) with aqueous extract of Caltropis procera fruit or leaves. We characterized the quantity and quality of nanoparticles by UV-visible wavelength scans and nanoparticle tracking analysis. Nanoparticles could be synthesized in reproducible yields of approximately 10(8) particles/ml with mode particles sizes of approx. 90-100 nm. Antibacterial activity against two pathogens was assessed by minimal inhibitory concentration assays and survival curves. Both pathogens exhibited similar resistance profiles with minimal inhibitory concentrations ranging between 5×10(5) and 10(7) particles/ml. Interestingly, zinc nanoparticles showed a slightly higher efficacy, but sublethal concentrations caused adverse effects and resulted in increased biofilm formation of V. cholerae. Using the expression levels of the outer membrane porin OmpT as an indicator for cAMP levels, our results suggest that zinc nanoparticles inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity. This consequently deceases the levels of this second messenger, which is a known inhibitor of biofilm formation. Finally, we demonstrated that a single oral administration of silver nanoparticles to infant mice colonized with V. cholerae or ETEC significantly reduces the colonization rates of the pathogens by 75- or 100-fold, respectively. PMID:25466205

  9. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: chemical, physical and biological methods

    PubMed Central

    Iravani, S.; Korbekandi, H.; Mirmohammadi, S.V.; Zolfaghari, B.

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) have been the subjects of researchers because of their unique properties (e.g., size and shape depending optical, antimicrobial, and electrical properties). A variety of preparation techniques have been reported for the synthesis of silver NPs; notable examples include, laser ablation, gamma irradiation, electron irradiation, chemical reduction, photochemical methods, microwave processing, and biological synthetic methods. This review presents an overview of silver nanoparticle preparation by physical, chemical, and biological synthesis. The aim of this review article is, therefore, to reflect on the current state and future prospects, especially the potentials and limitations of the above mentioned techniques for industries. PMID:26339255

  10. Anti-proliferative activity of silver nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    AshaRani, PV; Hande, M Prakash; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2009-01-01

    Background Nanoparticles possess exceptional physical and chemical properties which led to rapid commercialisation. Silver nanoparticles (Ag-np) are among the most commercialised nanoparticles due to their antimicrobial potential. Ag-np based cosmetics, therapeutic agents and household products are in wide use, which raised a public concern regarding their safety associated with human and environmental use. No safety regulations are in practice for the use of these nanomaterials. The interactions of nanomaterials with cells, uptake mechanisms, distribution, excretion, toxicological endpoints and mechanism of action remain unanswered. Results Normal human lung fibroblasts (IMR-90) and human glioblastoma cells (U251) were exposed to different doses of Ag-nps in vitro. Uptake of Ag-nps occurred mainly through endocytosis (clathrin mediated process and macropinocytosis), accompanied by a time dependent increase in exocytosis rate. The electron micrographs revealed a uniform intracellular distribution of Ag-np both in cytoplasm and nucleus. Ag-np treated cells exhibited chromosome instability and mitotic arrest in human cells. There was efficient recovery from arrest in normal human fibroblasts whereas the cancer cells ceased to proliferate. Toxicity of Ag-np is mediated through intracellular calcium (Ca2+) transients along with significant alterations in cell morphology and spreading and surface ruffling. Down regulation of major actin binding protein, filamin was observed after Ag-np exposure. Ag-np induced stress resulted in the up regulation of metallothionein and heme oxygenase -1 genes. Conclusion Here, we demonstrate that uptake of Ag-np occurs mainly through clathrin mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis. Our results suggest that cancer cells are susceptible to damage with lack of recovery from Ag-np-induced stress. Ag-np is found to be acting through intracellular calcium transients and chromosomal aberrations, either directly or through activation of catabolic enzymes. The signalling cascades are believed to play key roles in cytoskeleton deformations and ultimately to inhibit cell proliferation. PMID:19761582

  11. Plant extract-mediated biogenic synthesis of silver, manganese dioxide, silver-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against food- and water-borne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Chandran; Ji, Byoung-Jun; Harper, Stacey L; Yun, Soon-Il

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO2NPs) and silver-doped manganese dioxide nanoparticles (Ag-doped MnO2NPs) were synthesized by simultaneous green chemistry reduction approach. Aqueous extract from the leaves of medicinally important plant Cucurbita pepo was used as reducing and capping agents. Various characterization techniques were carried out to affirm the formation of nanoparticles. HR-TEM analysis confirmed the size of nanoparticles in the range of 15-70 nm and also metal doping was confirmed through XRD and EDS analyses. FT-IR analysis confirmed that the presence of biomolecules in the aqueous leaves extract was responsible for nanoparticles synthesis. Further, the concentration of metals and their doping in the reaction mixture was achieved by ICP-MS. The growth curve and well diffusion study of synthesized nanoparticles were performed against food- and water-borne Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The mode of interaction of nanoparticles on bacterial cells was demonstrated through Bio-TEM analysis. Interestingly, AgNPs and Ag-doped MnO2 NPs showed better antibacterial activity against all the tested bacterial pathogens; however, MnO2NPs alone did not show any antibacterial properties. Hence, AgNPs and Ag-doped MnO2 NPs synthesized from aqueous plant leaves extract may have important role in controlling various food spoilage caused by bacteria. PMID:26857369

  12. Silver and oxygen: Transition from clusters to nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Martin; Bréchignac, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    By varying the sizes of isolated and charged silver particles, we may observe a wide range of reactions from weak molecular-oxygen physisorption to strong oxygen chemisorption. The global electron configuration dominates the stability of the silver-oxygen complexes. Our experimental studies at 77 K show a cluster regime below 40 free valence electrons in the system. Here each atom of silver added to the complex cause strong alternations of the oxygen binding by quantum effects. Bigger silver-oxygen complexes show smoother size dependence. As is rather typical for nanoparticles, the quantum effects are here less important, while the system size still matters. The electrostatic interaction between the charge state of the nanoparticle and the charge transfer of the reaction accounts for the general trends observed at silver, as it is in related oxygen-metal complexes. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by atmospheric microplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Kaur, Parvin; Tan, Augustine Tuck Lee; Singh, Rajveer; Lee, Paul Choon Keat; Springham, Stuart Victor; Ramanujan, Raju V.; Rawat, R. S.

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles using the atmospheric microplasma (AMP). The properties of iron oxide nanoparticles synthesized using AMP are compared with particles (i) formed in as-prepared solution and (ii) prepared using thermal decomposition method. Iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by all the 3 treatment methods exhibit quite soft ferromagnetic properties with coercivities less than 10 G. The AMP synthesis technique was found to be more efficient and better than thermal decomposition method due to ultra-shorter experiment time (around 2.5 min) as compared to 90 min required for thermal decomposition method. Moreover, AMP synthesized nanoparticles are better isolated and of smaller size than thermal decomposition ones. The effect of plasma discharge timings on synthesized nanoparticles has also been studied in this work. Coercivity of synthesized nanoparticles decreases with the increasing plasma discharge timings from 3 to 10 min. The nanoparticles synthesized using plasma discharge timing of 10 min exhibit the smallest coercivity of around 3 G. This suggests a high possibility of achieving super-paramagnetic nanoparticles by optimizing the plasma discharge timings of AMP.

  14. Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of Pluronic Stabilized Silver-Gold Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Megan S.; Nick, Kevin E.; Hall, Mia; Milligan, Jamie R.; Chen, Qiao; Perry, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we demonstrate a rapid, simple, and green method for synthesizing silver-gold (Ag-Au) bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs). We used a novel modification to the galvanic replacement reaction by suspending maltose coated silver nanoparticles (NPs) in ≈ 2% aqueous solution of EO100PO65EO100 (Pluronic F127) prior to HAuCl4 addition. The Pluronic F127 stabilizes the BNPs, imparts biocompatibility, and mitigates the toxicity issues associated with other surfactant stabilizers. BNPs with higher Au:Ag ratios and, subsequently, different morphologies were successfully synthesized by increasing the concentration of gold salt added to the Ag NP seeds. These BNPs have enhanced catalytic activities than typically reported for monometallic Au or Ag NPs (∼ 2–10 fold) of comparable sizes in the sodium borohydride reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The 4-nitrophenol reduction rates were highest for partially hollow BNP morphologies. PMID:25580244

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using polysaccharides extracted from marine macro algae.

    PubMed

    El-Rafie, H M; El-Rafie, M H; Zahran, M K

    2013-07-25

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles that have environmentally acceptable solvent systems and eco-friendly reducing agents is of great importance. The aim of this work was to synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using water soluble polysaccharides extracted from four marine macro-algae, namely, Pterocladia capillacae (Pc), Jania rubins (Jr), Ulva faciata (Uf), and Colpmenia sinusa (Cs) as reducing agents for silver ions as well as stabilizing agents for the synthesized AgNPs. The formed Ag-NPs have been confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR analysis and TEM. The resultant Ag-NPs colloidal solutions were applied to cotton fabrics in presence and absence of citric acid (CA) or a binder (B). The antimicrobial activity of the treated fabrics was evaluated. The results revealed that the antimicrobial activity depends on type of the fabric treatment, size of the synthesized Ag-NPs and the algal species used for polysaccharides extraction. PMID:23768580

  16. Synthesis of silver nanoparticles prepared in aqueous solutions using helium dc microplasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li Thong, Ying; Hoong Chin, Oi; Hoong Ong, Boon; Huang, Nay Ming

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in aqueous solutions by reduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) assisted by a helium dc microplasma jet at atmospheric pressure without additional chemical reducing agents. Surfactant-free AgNPs were obtained at low initial AgNO3 precursor concentrations ≤0.5 mM. A surface plasmon resonance peak at approximately 400 nm confirmed the presence of AgNPs. At higher concentrations, sucrose was used to prevent agglomeration and cap the growth of nanoparticles. The effects of the molar ratio of sucrose/AgNO3 on the size distribution and morphologies of AgNPs were investigated. The average sizes of AgNPs synthesized at molar ratios of 20, 50, and 60% were 11.2 ± 0.4, 10.0 ± 0.2, and 6.2 ± 0.1 nm, respectively.

  17. Synthesis of fibrinolytic active silver nanoparticle using wheat bran xylan as a reducing and stabilizing agent.

    PubMed

    Harish, B S; Uppuluri, Kiran Babu; Anbazhagan, Veerappan

    2015-11-01

    A facile synthesis of highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was reported using a biopolymer, xylan as both a reducing and stabilizing agent. Xylan was isolated from waste biomass, wheat bran (WB) by alkaline treatment and was characterized by Fehling's test, dinitrosalicylic acid assay, FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The nanoparticles were polydispersed with the size ranging from 20 to 45 nm. The synthesized WB-xylan AgNPs showed excellent free radical scavenging activity. In addition, WB-xylan AgNPs showed fibrinolytic activity as evidenced by the zone of clearance in fibrin plate assay. The biomedical potential of the WB-xylan AgNPs was demonstrated by dissolution of preformed blood clots. These results suggest that the development of xylan-metal nanoparticle composite would be feasible to treat thrombus related diseases. PMID:26256330

  18. Second harmonic generation from silver nanoparticles in aqueous solution with different protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Hoang M.; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle

    2014-08-01

    Nanometer-sized metallic colloidal particles with plasmonic resonances in the visible range are widely investigated for their attractive optical properties as sensors, for imaging and cancer treatment. Their second-order nonlinear optical properties are remarkably high. In this work, silver colloidal solutions have been synthesized by a simple and quick method in aqueous solutions with different protective agents (PVA, PVP). The first hyperpolarizability β values of Ag per atom and per particle for nanospheres at 1064 nm have been measured. Silver nanoparticles, which possess intense visible region surface plasmon absorption bands, prove to be excellent nonlinear scatterers.

  19. Size of silver nanoparticles determines proliferation ability of human circulating lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joksić, Gordana; Stašić, Jelena; Filipović, Jelena; Šobot, Ana Valenta; Trtica, Milan

    2016-04-15

    In this work we present biological effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by picosecond laser ablation of silver in deionized water. We examined induction of chromosomal aberrations, lymphocyte micronuclei, appearance and recovery of double strand breaks (DSBs) of DNA, cell proliferation potential, concentration of lipid peroxidation products and insulin-like growth factor 1 (ILGF-1). We found that AgNPs sized from 3nm to 8nm induce cell cytostasis, which is accompanied with its clastogenic action on DNA, while AgNPs, sized 2nm behaves contrary stimulating cell proliferation by enhancing ILGF-1 concentration. PMID:26892717

  20. Magnetic Silver-Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles and Their Application in Thick Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Huang, Baling; Li, Xiangyou; Li, Ping; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2010-12-01

    Magnetic silver-coated ferrite nanoparticles with 39.8% weight gain (relative to ferrite nanopowder coated by a silver layer) were synthesized by electroless deposition of silver on ferrite nanopowder. The mechanism of the electroless deposition was explored in terms of pretreatment, sensitization, activation, and the reduction of silver-ammonia complexes. Experiments showed that the optimal deposition conditions were a temperature of 50°C, pH value of 10 to 12, duration of 65 min with ethanol plus polyethylene glycol as additives, and ultrasonic vibration as a method of dispersing the nanoparticles. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, it was observed that as-synthesized nanoparticles had a core-shell structure with a particle size of 35 nm to 90 nm and a shell thickness of 5 nm to 20 nm. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that only ferrite and metallic silver were present in the product. Electrical resistance and magnetic hysteresis measurements demonstrated that the nanoparticles were both electrically conductive (volume electrical resistivity on the order of 10-4 Ω cm to 10-3 Ω cm when compressed to pressure of 2 × 10 6 Pa) and possessed ferrimagnetic properties. After a thick-film paste, obtained with the nanoparticles as the functional phase, was directly written and sintered, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and electrical resistance measurements of conductive lines in the acquired array pattern showed that an electrically conductive network with some defects and cavities was formed, with a volume electrical resistivity of 1 × 10-4 Ω cm to 1 × 10-3 Ω cm.

  1. Thermal conductivity studies of novel nanofluids based on metallic silver decorated mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Tadjarodi, Azadeh; Zabihi, Fatemeh

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metallic silver was decorated in mSiO{sub 2} with grafted hemiaminal functional groups. • Synthesized nanoparticles were used for preparation of glycerol based nanofluids. • The effect of temperature, weight fraction of mSiO{sub 2} and concentration of silver nanoparticles on thermal conductivity of nanofluids was investigated. - Abstract: In the present study, the mesoporous structure of silica (mSiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles as well as hemiaminal grafted mSiO{sub 2} decorated by metallic silver (Ag/mSiO{sub 2}) has been used for the preparation of glycerol based nanofluids. Structural and morphological characterization of the synthesized products have been carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms. The thermal conductivity and viscosity of the nanofluids have been measured as a function of temperature for various weight fractions and silver concentrations of mSiO{sub 2} and Ag/mSiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, respectively. The results show that the thermal conductivity of the nanofluids increase up to 9.24% as the weight fraction of mSiO{sub 2} increases up to 4 wt%. Also, increasing the percent of the silver decorated mSiO{sub 2} (Ag/mSiO{sub 2}) up to 2.98% caused an enhancement in the thermal conductivity of the base fluid up to 10.95%. Furthermore, the results show that the nanofluids have Newtonian behavior in the tested temperature range for various concentrations of nanoparticles.

  2. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Gloriosa superba L. leaf extract and their catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashokkumar, S.; Ravi, S.; Velmurugan, S.

    2013-11-01

    The present work focuses the use of aqueous extract of Gloriosa superba Linn. (Glory Lily) for producing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate aqueous solution. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, amino acids, carbohydrates and proteins in the extract and they serve as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterised by UV (Ultra violet), FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray), and PL (Photoluminescence) studies. Moreover, the catalytic activity of synthesized AgNPs in the reduction of methylene blue was studied by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The synthesized AgNPs are observed to have a good catalytic activity on the reduction of methylene blue by G. superba extract which is confirmed by the decrease in absorbance maximum values of methylene blue with respect to time using UV-vis spectrophotometer.

  3. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Gloriosa superba L. leaf extract and their catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Ashokkumar, S; Ravi, S; Velmurugan, S

    2013-11-01

    The present work focuses the use of aqueous extract of Gloriosa superba Linn. (Glory Lily) for producing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate aqueous solution. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloid, amino acids, carbohydrates and proteins in the extract and they serve as effective reducing and capping agents for converting silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterised by UV (Ultra violet), FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared), XRD (X-ray diffraction), TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope) SEM-EDX (Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-ray), and PL (Photoluminescence) studies. Moreover, the catalytic activity of synthesized AgNPs in the reduction of methylene blue was studied by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The synthesized AgNPs are observed to have a good catalytic activity on the reduction of methylene blue by G. superba extract which is confirmed by the decrease in absorbance maximum values of methylene blue with respect to time using UV-vis spectrophotometer. PMID:23860402

  4. Electrospun polyacrylonitrile nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles by silver mirror reaction.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yongzheng; Li, Yajing; Zhang, Jianfeng; Yu, Zhongzhen; Yang, Dongzhi

    2015-06-01

    The silver mirror reaction (SMR) method was selected in this paper to modify electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers, and these nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles showed excellent antibacterial properties. PAN nanofibers were first pretreated in AgNO3 aqueous solution before the SMR process so that the silver nanoparticles were distributed evenly on the outer surface of the nanofibers. The final PAN nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM-selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM, TEM micrographs and SAED patterns confirmed homogeneous dispersion of the silver nanoparticles which were composed of monocrystals with diameters 20-30nm. EDS and XRD results showed that these monocrystals tended to form face-centered cubic single silver. TGA test indicated that the nanoparticles loaded on the nanofibers reached above 50wt.%. This material was also evaluated by the viable cell-counting method. The results indicated that PAN nanofibers loaded with silver nanoparticles exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities against gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli), gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and the fungus Monilia albicans. Thus, this material had many potential applications in biomedical fields. PMID:25842144

  5. Adsorption of N-(1-(2-bromophenyl)-2-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide on silver nanoparticles: SERS investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anuratha, M.; Jawahar, A.; Umadevi, M.; Sathe, V. G.; Vanelle, P.; Terme, T.; Khoumeri, O.; Meenakumari, V.; Milton Franklin Benial, A.

    2015-03-01

    SERS provides essential data regarding the interaction of molecules in drugs with DNA. In the present study silver nanoparticles were synthesized using a solution combustion method with urea as fuel. The prepared silver nanoparticles are rod like structure. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of N-(1-2-bromophenyl)-2-(2-nitrophenyl)ethyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (BrS) adsorbed on the silver nanoparticle was studied. The nRs and Raman spectral analysis reveal that the BrS adsorbed tilted orientation on the silver surface. Vibrational modes of nRs along with HF calculations are also performed to study the HOMO and LUMO behavior and vibrational features of BrS.

  6. Preparation of mono-dispersed silver nanoparticles assisted by chitosan-g-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) micelles and their antimicrobial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chunhua; Zhang, Huan; Lang, Meidong

    2014-05-01

    Amphiphilic chitosan-graft-poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (CS-g-PCLs) copolymers were synthesized by a homogeneous coupling method and characterized by 1H NMR, FTIR and ninhydrin assay. The graft copolymers were subsequently self-assembled into micelles, which were measured by DLS and TEM. The particle size of the micelles decreased as the segment grafting fraction was increased. Thereafter, silver nanoparticles were prepared in the presence of chitosan-based micelles under UV irradiation. The molar ratio and radiation time of silver to micelles were optimized with process monitored via UV-vis spectrophotometer. DLS and TEM were used to illustrate the particle structure and size while XRD patterns were applied to characterize the crystal structures of polymer-assisted silver nanoparticles. Films impregnated with silver nanoparticles were conducted with results of strong antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as model Gram-negative and positive bacteria.

  7. A Study on the Plasmonic Properties of Silver Core Gold Shell Nanoparticles: Optical Assessment of the Particle Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mott, Derrick; Lee, JaeDong; Thi Bich Thuy, Nguyen; Aoki, Yoshiya; Singh, Prerna; Maenosono, Shinya

    2011-06-01

    This paper reports a qualitative comparison between the optical properties of a set of silver core, gold shell nanoparticles with varying composition and structure to those calculated using the Mie solution. To achieve this, silver nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous phase from a silver hydroxide precursor with sodium acrylate as dual reducing-capping agent. The particles were then coated with a layer of gold with controllable thickness through a reduction-deposition process. The resulting nanoparticles reveal well defined optical properties that make them suitable for comparison to ideal calculated results using the Mie solution. The discussion focuses on the correlation between the synthesized core shell nanoparticles with varying Au shell thickness and the Mie solution results in terms of the optical properties. The results give insight in how to design and synthesize silver core, gold shell nanoparticles with controllable optical properties (e.g., SPR band in terms of intensity and position), and has implications in creating nanoparticle materials to be used as biological probes and sensing elements.

  8. Production of putrescine-capped stable silver nanoparticle: its characterization and antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Saswati; Gupta, Bhaskar; Gupta, Kamala; Chaudhuri, Mahua Ghosh

    2016-04-01

    Integration of biology with nanotechnology is now becoming attention-grabbing area of research. The antimicrobial potency of silver has been eminent from antiquity. Due to the recent desire for the enhancement of antibacterial efficacy of silver, various synthesis methods of silver in their nano dimensions are being practiced using a range of capping material. The present work highlights a facile biomimetic approach for production of silver nanoparticle being capped and stabilized by putrescine, possessing a diameter of 10-25 ± 1.5 nm. The synthesized nanoparticles have been analyzed spectrally and analytically. Morphological studies are carried out by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and crystallinity by selected area electron diffraction patterns. Moreover, the elemental composition of the capped nanoparticles was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. A comparative study (zone of inhibition and minimum inhibitory concentration) regarding the interactions and antibacterial potentiality of the capped silver nanoparticles with respect to the bare ones reveal the efficiency of the capped one over the bare one. The bacterial kinetic study was executed to monitor the interference of nanoparticles with bacterial growth rate. The results also highlight the efficacy of putrescine-capped silver nanoparticles as effective growth inhibitors against multi-drug resistant human pathogenic bacterial strains, which may, thus, potentially be applicable as an effective antibacterial control system to fight diseases.

  9. Nano