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Sample records for simulated clinical conditions

  1. In vitro simulation of pathological bone conditions to predict clinical outcome of bone tissue engineered materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duong Thuy Thi

    According to the Centers for Disease Control, the geriatric population of ≥65 years of age will increase to 51.5 million in 2020; 40% of white women and 13% of white men will be at risk for fragility fractures or fractures sustained under normal stress and loading conditions due to bone disease, leading to hospitalization and surgical treatment. Fracture management strategies can be divided into pharmaceutical therapy, surgical intervention, and tissue regeneration for fracture prevention, fracture stabilization, and fracture site regeneration, respectively. However, these strategies fail to accommodate the pathological nature of fragility fractures, leading to unwanted side effects, implant failures, and non-unions. Compromised innate bone healing reactions of patients with bone diseases are exacerbated with protective bone therapy. Once these patients sustain a fracture, bone healing is a challenge, especially when fracture stabilization is unsuccessful. Traditional stabilizing screw and plate systems were designed with emphasis on bone mechanics rather than biology. Bone grafts are often used with fixation devices to provide skeletal continuity at the fracture gap. Current bone grafts include autologous bone tissue and donor bone tissue; however, the quality and quantity demanded by fragility fractures sustained by high-risk geriatric patients and patients with bone diseases are not met. Consequently, bone tissue engineering strategies are advancing towards functionalized bone substitutes to provide fracture reconstruction while effectively mediating bone healing in normal and diseased fracture environments. In order to target fragility fractures, fracture management strategies should be tailored to allow bone regeneration and fracture stabilization with bioactive bone substitutes designed for the pathological environment. The clinical outcome of these materials must be predictable within various disease environments. Initial development of a targeted

  2. [Clinical aspects and the course of psychopathologic conditions simulating vertebrogenic pathology].

    PubMed

    Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A

    1989-01-01

    The study of clinical picture and the course of unclear pathological states simulating the vertebral pathology suggested that the major signs were centered around the primary general and muscular sensory disorders. These served as a basis for development of more complicated psychosensory and psychomotor disorders and creation of an interpretative hypochondriac++ delirium system. Domination of psychomotor disorders led to a high incidence of social and labor dysadaptation of the patients. Thus, the study of this unclear mental pathology has a major theoretic, clinico-psychopathological and also practical medico-social importance. PMID:2781926

  3. Accuracy of linear measurement in the Galileos cone beam computed tomography under simulated clinical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, R; Ruprecht, A; Vincent, S; Hellstein, J; Timmons, S; Qian, F

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the geometric accuracy of cone beam CT (CBCT)-based linear measurements of bone height obtained with the Galileos CBCT (Sirona Dental Systems Inc., Bensheim, Hessen, Germany) in the presence of soft tissues. Methods Six embalmed cadaver heads were imaged with the Galileos CBCT unit subsequent to placement of radiopaque fiduciary markers over the buccal and lingual cortical plates. Electronic linear measurements of bone height were obtained using the Sirona software. Physical measurements were obtained with digital calipers at the same location. This distance was compared on all six specimens bilaterally to determine accuracy of the image measurements. Results The findings showed no statistically significant difference between the imaging and physical measurements (P > 0.05) as determined by a paired sample t-test. The intraclass correlation was used to measure the intrarater reliability of repeated measures and there was no statistically significant difference between measurements performed at the same location (P > 0.05). Conclusions The Galileos CBCT image-based linear measurement between anatomical structures within the mandible in the presence of soft tissues is sufficiently accurate for clinical use. PMID:21697155

  4. Computerized Clinical Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinecker, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Describes technique involved in designing a clinical simulation problem for the allied health field of respiratory therapy; discusses the structure, content, and scoring categories of the simulation; and provides a sample program which illustrates a programming technique in BASIC, including a program listing and a sample flowchart. (MBR)

  5. Benchtop study of leakages across the Portex, TaperGuard, and Microcuff endotracheal tubes under simulated clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Lau, Arthur C W; Lam, S M; Yan, W W

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVES. To compare three endotracheal tubes for leakage across the cuff (microaspiration) under a comprehensive set of simulated clinical situations. These were the Mallinckrodt TaperGuard (Covidien, US) with a tapered polyvinyl chloride cuff; the KimVent Microcuff (Kimberly-Clark Health Care, US) with a cylindrical polyurethane cuff; and a conventional Portex (Smiths Medical International Ltd, UK) with a globular polyvinyl chloride cuff. DESIGN. A benchtop experimental study. SETTING AND MATERIALS. A silicone cylinder serving as the model trachea was intubated with each of the three endotracheal tubes, one at a time. A total of 20 mL of water were added above the cuff and leakage measured every minute for 20 minutes under five simulated mechanical ventilation scenarios, including different positive end-expiratory pressure levels, and disconnection with and without spontaneous breathing efforts. Each scenario was studied under three cuff pressures of 10, 20 and 30 cm H2O, and then repeated with the application of a continuous suction force of 200 cm H2O, and leakage measured every minute for 3 minutes. RESULTS. The outcome of interest was the cumulative amount of leakage. The Microcuff endotracheal tubes with an ultrathin polyurethane cuff consistently provided the best protection against microaspiration under all simulated clinical situations, followed by TaperGuard with a tapered cuff, and lastly Portex with a globular polyvinyl chloride cuff. Clinical scenarios associated with the greatest leakage were mechanical ventilation with zero positive end-expiratory pressure, circuit disconnection with spontaneous breathing efforts, application of suction, and a low cuff pressure. CONCLUSIONS. Microcuff endotracheal tubes outperformed TaperGuard and Portex endotracheal tubes in preventing microaspiration, which is one of the major mechanisms for ventilator-associated pneumonia. PMID:23878202

  6. Conditions simulating androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Iorio, A; Di Nunno, D; Priolo, L; Fortuna, M C; Garelli, V; Carlesimo, M; Calvieri, S; Mari, E

    2015-07-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is a common form of hair loss, characterized by a progressive hair follicular miniaturization, caused by androgen hormones on a genetically susceptible hair follicle, in androgenic-dependent areas. Characteristic phenotype of androgenetic alopecia is also observed in many other hair disorders. These disorders are androgenetic-like diseases that cause many differential diagnosis or therapeutic error problems. The objective of this review was to systematically analyse the greatest number of conditions that mimic the AGA pattern and explain their disease pathogenesis. PMID:25571781

  7. PET-based dose delivery verification in proton therapy: a GATE based simulation study of five PET system designs in clinical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert, Charlotte; Fourrier, Nicolas; Sarrut, David; Stute, Simon; Gueth, Pierre; Grevillot, Loïc; Buvat, Irène

    2013-10-01

    PET is a promising technique for in vivo treatment verification in hadrontherapy. Three main PET geometries dedicated to in-beam treatment monitoring have been proposed in the literature: the dual-head PET geometry, the OpenPET geometry and the slanted-closed ring geometry. The aim of this work is to characterize the performance of two of these dedicated PET detectors in realistic clinical conditions. Several configurations of the dual-head PET and OpenPET systems were simulated using GATE v6.2. For the dual-head configuration, two aperture angles (15° and 45°) were studied. For the OpenPET system, two gaps between rings were investigated (110 and 160 mm). A full-ring PET system was also simulated as a reference. After preliminary evaluation of the sensitivity and spatial resolution using a Derenzo phantom, a real small-field head and neck treatment plan was simulated, with and without introducing patient displacements. No wash-out was taken into account. 3D maps of the annihilation photon locations were deduced from the PET data acquired right after the treatment session (5 min acquisition) using a dedicated OS-EM reconstruction algorithm. Detection sensitivity at the center of the field-of-view (FOV) varied from 5.2% (45° dual-head system) to 7.0% (full-ring PET). The dual-head systems had a more uniform efficiency within the FOV than the OpenPET systems. The spatial resolution strongly depended on the location within the FOV for the ϕ = 45° dual-head system and for the two OpenPET systems. All investigated architectures identified the magnitude of mispositioning introduced in the simulations within a 1.5 mm accuracy. The variability on the estimated mispositionings was less than 2 mm for all PET systems.

  8. Clinical simulation in teaching preclinical dentistry.

    PubMed

    Suvinen, T I; Messer, L B; Franco, E

    1998-02-01

    Current and projected approaches to dental education have created a wide interest in clinical simulation, and recently there has been a considerable expansion in the availability of experiential learning tools which imitate "real life" clinical conditions in dentistry. These include patient simulation devices such as heads, jaws, teeth and clinical environments, standardized patients, interactive video-discs and computer-based instruction. This paper reviews some of the equipment currently available for simulation of clinical procedures, and assesses the initial experiences and responses of 2nd, 3rd and 4th year undergraduate dental students at The University of Melbourne to case-based simulations in a patient simulator in comparison with preclinical exercises in a traditional bench and manikin laboratory. Student response to teaching and learning in the simulator over a 3-year evaluation period, collected via a student questionnaire was uniformly positive. Students were very enthusiastic about the learning environment and educational approach, preferring it to traditional preclinical laboratory instruction. PMID:9588960

  9. Remote ischemic conditioning: a clinical trial's update.

    PubMed

    Candilio, Luciano; Hausenloy, Derek J; Yellon, Derek M

    2011-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and early and successful restoration of myocardial reperfusion following an ischemic event is the most effective strategy to reduce final infarct size and improve clinical outcome. This process can, however, induce further myocardial damage, namely acute myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and worsen clinical outcome. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are required to protect the myocardium against IRI in patients with CAD. In this regard, the endogenous cardioprotective phenomenon of "ischemic conditioning," in which the heart is put into a protected state by subjecting it to one or more brief nonlethal episodes of ischemia and reperfusion, has the potential to attenuate myocardial injury during acute IRI. Intriguingly, the heart can be protected in this manner by applying the "ischemic conditioning" stimulus to an organ or tissue remote from the heart (termed remote ischemic conditioning or RIC). Furthermore, the discovery that RIC can be noninvasively applied using a blood pressure cuff on the upper arm to induce brief episodes of nonlethal ischemia and reperfusion in the forearm has greatly facilitated the translation of RIC into the clinical arena. Several recently published proof-of-concept clinical studies have reported encouraging results with RIC, and large multicenter randomized clinical trials are now underway to investigate whether this simple noninvasive and virtually cost-free intervention has the potential to improve clinical outcomes in patients with CAD. In this review article, we provide an update of recently published and ongoing clinical trials in the field of RIC. PMID:21821533

  10. The Impact of Human Patient Simulation on Nursing Clinical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinnick, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Public health relies on well trained nurses and clinical experience is an important component of that training. However, clinical experience training for student nurses also has significant challenges, as it can place patients at risk. Also it is difficult to schedule/predict patient conditions and procedures. Human patient simulation (HPS) can…

  11. Computer Clinical Simulations in Health Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Gary L; Keith, Kenneth D.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the key characteristics of clinical simulation, some developmental foundations, two current research studies, and some implications for the future of health science education. Investigations of the effects of computer-based simulation indicate that acquisition of decision-making skills is greater than with noncomputerized simulations.…

  12. Lunar Polar Environmental Testing: Regolith Simulant Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinhenz, Julie Elise

    2014-01-01

    As ISRU system development approaches flight fidelity, there is a need to test hardware in relevant environments. Extensive laboratory and field testing have involved relevant soil (lunar regolith simulants), but the current design iterations necessitate relevant pressure and temperature conditions. Including significant quantities of lunar regolith simulant in a thermal vacuum chamber poses unique challenges. These include facility operational challenges (dust tolerant hardware) and difficulty maintaining a pre-prepared soil state during pump down (consolidation state, moisture retention).For ISRU purposes, the regolith at the lunar poles will be of most interest due to the elevated water content. To test at polar conditions, the regolith simulant must be doped with water to an appropriate percentage and then chilled to cryogenic temperatures while exposed to vacuum conditions. A 1m tall, 28cm diameter bin of simulant was developed for testing these simulant preparation and drilling operations. The bin itself was wrapped with liquid nitrogen cooling loops (100K) so that the simulant bed reached an average temperature of 140K at vacuum. Post-test sampling was used to determine desiccation of the bed due to vacuum exposure. Depth dependent moisture data is presented from frozen and thawed soil samples.Following simulant only evacuation tests, drill hardware was incorporated into the vacuum chamber to test auguring techniques in the frozen soil at thermal vacuum conditions. The focus of this testing was to produce cuttings piles for a newly developed spectrometer to evaluate. This instrument, which is part of the RESOLVE program science hardware, detects water signatures from surface regolith. The drill performance, behavior of simulant during drilling, and characteristics of the cuttings piles will be offered.

  13. Implementation of conditional simulation by successive residuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jewbali, Arja; Dimitrakopoulos, Roussos

    2011-02-01

    Conditional simulation of ergodic and stationary Gaussian random fields using successive residuals is a new approach used to overcome the size limitations of the LU decomposition algorithm as well as provide fast updating of existing simulated realizations with new data. This paper discusses two different implementations of this approach. The implementations differ in the use of the new information available; in the first implementation new information is partially used to generate updated realizations; however, in the second implementation, the realizations are updated using all the new information available. The implementations are validated using the Walker Lake data set, and compared through a case study at a stockwork gold deposit.

  14. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:22073112

  15. Simulating Clinical Carious Lesions in Composition Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, E. R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A step-by-step technique to alter stock composition teeth and create simulated carious conditions that are ideal or otherwise is presented. The procedures provide the student with life-like lesions, suitable in texture and location and similar to conditions found in the oral cavity. (MLW)

  16. [A simulation exercise in a flu clinic].

    PubMed

    Barthe, Juliette; Aubert, Jean-Pierre; Lecapitaine, Anne-Lise; Lecompte, Françoise; Szwebel-Chikli, Céline

    2011-01-01

    A simulation exercise aimed at assessing the management and provision of ambulatory care in the context of a highly pathogenic influenza pandemic was conducted in a specifically dedicated consultation center (Centre de Consultation Dédié (CCD) à la grippe) based on official French guidelines. The exercise was carried out in a school in Paris equipped to simulate a "flu clinic". 3 practitioners provided treatment lasting 2 hours to nursing students acting as patients. The exercise highlighted a number of major organizational issues. Staff were found to be unable to manage the center and to perform patient transfers; face masks were not routinely and consistently worn by doctors and patients; and communication between professionals within the clinic was limited. The exercise showed that much remains to be done to ensure that "flu clinics" are effective and functional. The results suggest that the exercise will need to be repeated on a larger scale and over a longer period. PMID:22365047

  17. 42 CFR 484.48 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Clinical records. 484....48 Condition of participation: Clinical records. A clinical record containing pertinent past and... information; name of physician; drug, dietary, treatment, and activity orders; signed and dated clinical...

  18. 42 CFR 484.48 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Clinical records. 484....48 Condition of participation: Clinical records. A clinical record containing pertinent past and... information; name of physician; drug, dietary, treatment, and activity orders; signed and dated clinical...

  19. [Clinical evaluation of oxypertine in anxiety conditions].

    PubMed

    Somohano, M D; Broissin, M C; Sobrino Z, A

    1976-01-01

    suspended the treatment when placebo was to be substituted. In this same group, six cases initiated treatment with oxypertine, and after two weeks or more the medication was changed to placebo due to the same reasons mentioned above. Results were fair in one and poor in five. A significant response was observed in those cases where oxypertine replaced placebo and no response was obtained when placebo substituted oxypertine. Few cases abandoned mainly for two reasons: satisfactory remission of the anxiety or symptoms exacerbation. Investigators emphasize that the psychological conditions of the patients studied in this trial were different from the ones who ordinarily assist to the out patient clinics or private practice, mainly because were subjects with legal and social problems, as already mentioned, confined in a rehabilitation center. The conclusion of the stldy is that the administration of oxpertine at the dosage of 20 mg to patients with severe anxiety and with the special conditions mentioned above, provides a relative anxiolytic effect. PMID:12484

  20. 42 CFR 493.1225 - Condition: Clinical cytogenetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Testing § 493.1225 Condition: Clinical cytogenetics. If the laboratory provides services in the specialty of Clinical cytogenetics, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230 through... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Clinical cytogenetics. 493.1225...

  1. 42 CFR 493.1225 - Condition: Clinical cytogenetics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition: Clinical cytogenetics. 493.1225 Section... Testing § 493.1225 Condition: Clinical cytogenetics. If the laboratory provides services in the specialty of Clinical cytogenetics, the laboratory must meet the requirements specified in §§ 493.1230...

  2. 42 CFR 485.60 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of participation: Clinical records. The facility must maintain clinical records on all patients in accordance with accepted professional standards and practice. The clinical records must be completely... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Condition of participation: Clinical records....

  3. A New Boundary Condition for Computer Simulations of Interfacial Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ka-Yiu; Pettitt, Bernard M.; Montgomery, B.

    2000-08-18

    A new boundary condition for computer simulations of interfacial systems is presented. The simulation box used in this boundary condition is the asymmetric unit of space group Pb, and it contains only one interface. Compared to the simulation box using common periodic boundary conditions which contains two interfaces, the number of particles in the simulation is reduced by half. This boundary condition was tested against common periodic boundary conditions in molecular dynamic simulations of liquid water interacting with hydroxylated silica surfaces. It yielded results essentially identical to periodic boundary condition and consumed less CPU time for comparable statistics.

  4. A new boundary condition for computer simulations of interfacial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Ka-Yiu; Pettitt, B. Montgomery

    2000-08-01

    A new boundary condition for computer simulations of interfacial systems is presented. The simulation box used in this boundary condition is the asymmetric unit of space group Pb, and it contains only one interface. Compared to the simulation box using common periodic boundary conditions which contains two interfaces, the number of particles in the simulation is reduced by half. This boundary condition was tested against common periodic boundary conditions in molecular dynamic simulations of liquid water interacting with hydroxylated silica surfaces. It yielded results essentially identical to periodic boundary condition and consumed less CPU time for comparable statistics.

  5. 42 CFR 485.638 - Conditions of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conditions of participation: Clinical records. 485... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of Participation: Critical Access Hospitals (CAHs) § 485.638 Conditions...

  6. Mathematical simulation of power conditioning systems. Volume 1: Simulation of elementary units. Report on simulation methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prajous, R.; Mazankine, J.; Ippolito, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Methods and algorithms used for the simulation of elementary power conditioning units buck, boost, and buck-boost, as well as shunt PWM are described. Definitions are given of similar converters and reduced parameters. The various parts of the simulation to be carried out are dealt with; local stability, corrective network, measurements of input-output impedance and global stability. A simulation example is given.

  7. Organic degradation under simulated Martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoker, Carol R.; Bullock, Mark A.

    1997-05-01

    We report on laboratory experiments which simulate the breakdown of organic compounds under Martian surface conditions. Chambers containing Mars-analog soil mixed with the amino acid glycine were evacuated and filled to 100 mbar pressure with a Martian atmosphere gas mixture and then irradiated with a broad spectrum Xe lamp. Headspace gases were periodically withdrawn and analyzed via gas chromatography for the presence of organic gases expected to be decomposition products of the glycine. The quantum efficiency for the decomposition of glycine by light at wavelengths from 2000 to 2400 Å was measured to be 1.46+/-1.0×10-6molecules/photon. Scaled to Mars, this represents an organic destruction rate of 2.24+/-1.2×10-4g of Cm-2yr-1. We compare this degradation rate with the rate that organic compounds are brought to Mars as a result of meteoritic infall to show that organic compounds are destroyed on Mars at rates far exceeding the rate that they are deposited by meteorites. Thus the fact that no organic compounds were found on Mars by the Viking Lander Gas Chromatograph Mass Spectrometer experiment can be explained without invoking the presence of strong oxidants in the surface soils. The organic destruction rate may be considered as an upper bound for the globally averaged biomass production rate of extant organisms at the surface of Mars. This upper bound is comparable to the slow growing cryptoendolithic microbial communities found in dry Antarctica deserts. Finally, comparing these organic destruction rates to recently reported experiments on the stability of carbonate on the surface of Mars, we find that organic compounds may currently be more stable than calcite.

  8. Clinical Inquiry. Does turmeric relieve inflammatory conditions?

    PubMed

    White, Brett; Judkins, Dolores Zegar

    2011-03-01

    Yes, but data aren't plentiful. Limited evidence suggests that turmeric and its active compound, curcumin, are effective for rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions (strength of recommendation [SOR]: C, primarily low-quality cohort studies with small patient numbers). Curcumin has shown limited benefit for patients with psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease (IBS), inflammatory eye diseases, familial adenomatous polyposis, and kidney transplantation (SOR: B, small, short randomized controlled trials [RCTs]). No evidence indicates that curcumin helps patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (SOR: B, single RCT). PMID:21369559

  9. Simulations Promote Understanding of Handicapping Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesson, Caren; Mandell, Colleen

    1989-01-01

    Presented are suggestions for simulations for students in grades 3-12, designed to promote an understanding of how individuals with handicaps cope and adapt to their disability. Simulation ideas include toothbrushing while blindfolded and dressing with socks covering the hands. A participant's reaction form and an observer's reaction form are…

  10. 42 CFR 485.721 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Condition of participation: Clinical records. 485.721 Section 485.721 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION CONDITIONS OF PARTICIPATION: SPECIALIZED PROVIDERS Conditions of Participation for...

  11. Traction boundary conditions for molecular static simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiantao; Lu, Jianfeng

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a consistent approach to prescribe traction boundary conditions in atomistic models. Due to the typical multiple-neighbor interactions, finding an appropriate boundary condition that models a desired traction is a non-trivial task. We first present a one-dimensional example, which demonstrates how such boundary conditions can be formulated. We further analyze the stability, and derive its continuum limit. We also show how the boundary conditions can be extended to higher dimensions with an application to a dislocation dipole problem under shear stress.

  12. [Psychopathologic characteristics of conditions simulating spinal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ostroglazov, V G; Lisina, M A

    1989-01-01

    Combined investigation of 27 patients with unclear pathological states in a vertebral pathology unit yielded a description of a type of concealed mental pathology. A complex of three major determinants of the patients' state was detected: pathological hypochondric notions of delirious or hallucinatory type, psychosensory and psychomotor disorders. The latter were prevalent in clinical picture suggesting the vertebral pathology and thus leading to misdiagnosis of vertebral disorders. PMID:2728725

  13. A Simulated Interprofessional Rounding Experience in a Clinical Assessment Course

    PubMed Central

    Shrader, Sarah; McRae, Lacy; King, William M.; Kern, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Objective To implement a simulated interprofessional rounding experience using human patient simulators as a required activity for third-year pharmacy students in a clinical assessment course. Design Interprofessional student teams consisting of pharmacy, medical, and physician assistant students participated in a simulated interprofessional rounding experience in which they provided comprehensive medical care for a simulated patient in an inpatient setting. Assessment Students completed a survey instrument to assess interprofessional attitudes and satisfaction before and after participation in the simulated interprofessional rounding experience. Overall student attitudes regarding interprofessional teamwork and communication significantly improved; student satisfaction with the experience was high and students’ self-perceived clinical confidence improved after participation. The mean team clinical performance scores were 65% and 75% for each simulated interprofessional rounding experience. Conclusion Incorporating a simulated interprofessional rounding experience into a required clinical assessment course improved student attitudes regarding interprofessional teamwork and was associated with high student satisfaction. PMID:21769137

  14. Clinical Audit of Gastrointestinal Conditions Occurring among Adults with Down Syndrome Attending a Specialist Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robyn A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are predisposed to syndromic and environmental gastrointestinal conditions. Method: In a hospital-based clinic for adults with DS, a chart audit was conducted to assess the range and frequency of gastrointestinal conditions. Results: From January 2003 to March 2005, 57 patients attended the clinic,…

  15. Simulation of boundary conditions for testing of masonry shear walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmanpour, Amir Hosein; Mojsilović, Nebojša

    2015-12-01

    This paper is focused on the simulation of the fixed-ends boundary conditions in shear testing of unreinforced masonry walls. Two different approaches to simulate the fixed-ends boundary conditions, i.e. the static and kinematic approaches, are introduced, and their validity is discussed with the help of our own recent experimental data. It is shown that the static approach can result in unrealistic boundary conditions, and it is not a proper way to simulate the fixed-ends boundary conditions.

  16. Simulating Freshwater Availability under Future Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, F.; Zeng, N.; Motesharrei, S.; Gustafson, K. C.; Rivas, J.; Miralles-Wilhelm, F.; Kalnay, E.

    2013-12-01

    Freshwater availability is a key factor for regional development. Precipitation, evaporation, river inflow and outflow are the major terms in the estimate of regional water supply. In this study, we aim to obtain a realistic estimate for these variables from 1901 to 2100. First we calculated the ensemble mean precipitation using the 2011-2100 RCP4.5 output (re-sampled to half-degree spatial resolution) from 16 General Circulation Models (GCMs) participating the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). The projections are then combined with the half-degree 1901-2010 Climate Research Unit (CRU) TS3.2 dataset after bias correction. We then used the combined data to drive our UMD Earth System Model (ESM), in order to generate evaporation and runoff. We also developed a River-Routing Scheme based on the idea of Taikan Oki, as part of the ESM. It is capable of calculating river inflow and outflow for any region, driven by the gridded runoff output. River direction and slope information from Global Dominant River Tracing (DRT) dataset are included in our scheme. The effects of reservoirs/dams are parameterized based on a few simple factors such as soil moisture, population density and geographic regions. Simulated river flow is validated with river gauge measurements for the world's major rivers. We have applied our river flow calculation to two data-rich watersheds in the United States: Phoenix AMA watershed and the Potomac River Basin. The results are used in our SImple WAter model (SIWA) to explore water management options.

  17. Graphite Oxidation Simulation in HTR Accident Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Massive air and water ingress, following a pipe break or leak in steam-generator tubes, is a design-basis accident for high-temperature reactors (HTRs). Analysis of these accidents in both prismatic and pebble bed HTRs requires state-of-the-art capability for predictions of: 1) oxidation kinetics, 2) air helium gas mixture stratification and diffusion into the core following the depressurization, 3) transport of multi-species gas mixture, and 4) graphite corrosion. This project will develop a multi-dimensional, comprehensive oxidation kinetics model of graphite in HTRs, with diverse capabilities for handling different flow regimes. The chemical kinetics/multi-species transport model for graphite burning and oxidation will account for temperature-related changes in the properties of graphite, oxidants (O2, H2O, CO), reaction products (CO, CO2, H2, CH4) and other gases in the mixture (He and N2). The model will treat the oxidation and corrosion of graphite in geometries representative of HTR core component at temperatures of 900°C or higher. The developed chemical reaction kinetics model will be user-friendly for coupling to full core analysis codes such as MELCOR and RELAP, as well as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes such as CD-adapco. The research team will solve governing equations for the multi-dimensional flow and the chemical reactions and kinetics using Simulink, an extension of the MATLAB solver, and will validate and benchmark the model's predictions using reported experimental data. Researchers will develop an interface to couple the validated model to a commercially available CFD fluid flow and thermal-hydraulic model of the reactor , and will perform a simulation of a pipe break in a prismatic core HTR, with the potential for future application to a pebble-bed type HTR.

  18. Using simulations to teach clinical nursing.

    PubMed

    Hanna, D R

    1991-01-01

    Incorporating play into formal teaching strategies was introduced in theory over 75 years ago by John Dewey and the Gestalt theorists. Play, in the form of simulations, has had a significant role in contemporary nursing education. Simulations can teach more than a skill or an idea, since they can be designed to teach the complexification of ideas. The author explores the theoretical and historical development, the advantages and disadvantages, and future uses of simulations. PMID:2011280

  19. Application of nitric oxide measurements in clinical conditions beyond asthma

    PubMed Central

    Malinovschi, Andrei; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Tufvesson, Ellen; Rolla, Giovanni; Bjermer, Leif; Alving, Kjell; Diamant, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a convenient, non-invasive method for the assessment of active, mainly Th2-driven, airway inflammation, which is sensitive to treatment with standard anti-inflammatory therapy. Consequently, FeNO serves as a valued tool to aid diagnosis and monitoring in several asthma phenotypes. More recently, FeNO has been evaluated in several other respiratory, infectious, and/or immunological conditions. In this short review, we provide an overview of several clinical studies and discuss the status of potential applications of NO measurements in clinical conditions beyond asthma. PMID:26672962

  20. Simulation of Flight Conditions for Rocket Engine Qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, K.; Zimmermann, H.

    2004-10-01

    With the development of ARIANE 5 the test bench P5 for the VULCAIN engine was erected in 1990. New developments like advanced nozzles, the reignition capability of rocket engines or unexpected events during flight drive again the question how to qualify rocket engines and propellant systems. It's getting more and more necessary to test rocket engines closer to original flight conditions. This is mainly the simulation of pressure and temperature conditions. For the main stage engines it's the transition from sea level up to altitude conditions and for upper stage engines and satellite propulsion it's the high altitude with low vacuum pressures. The stage feeding conditions or special simulations like booster separation influences the behaviour of the engine and has to be simulated too. What are the needed simulation conditions to qualify for the flight? The rocket engines of the ARIANE launcher are taken to demonstrate the principle conditions. In 1992 the P4.2 was adapted to the AESTUS altitude simulation. Actual activities are the preparation of the altitude simulation for VINCI on P4.1 and the load simulation device for VULCAIN II nozzle on P5.

  1. Clinical simulation training improves the clinical performance of Chinese medical students

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-ya; Cheng, Xin; Xu, An-ding; Luo, Liang-ping; Yang, Xuesong

    2015-01-01

    Background Modern medical education promotes medical students’ clinical operating capacity rather than the mastery of theoretical knowledge. To accomplish this objective, clinical skill training using various simulations was introduced into medical education to cultivate creativity and develop the practical ability of students. However, quantitative analysis of the efficiency of clinical skill training with simulations is lacking. Methods In the present study, we compared the mean scores of medical students (Jinan University) who graduated in 2013 and 2014 on 16 stations between traditional training (control) and simulative training groups. In addition, in a clinical skill competition, the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) scores of participating medical students trained using traditional and simulative training were compared. The data were statistically analyzed and qualitatively described. Results The results revealed that simulative training could significantly enhance the graduate score of medical students compared with the control. The OSCE scores of participating medical students in the clinical skill competition, trained using simulations, were dramatically higher than those of students trained through traditional methods, and we also observed that the OSCE marks were significantly increased for the same participant after simulative training for the clinical skill competition. Conclusions Taken together, these data indicate that clinical skill training with a variety of simulations could substantially promote the clinical performance of medical students and optimize the resources used for medical education, although a precise analysis of each specialization is needed in the future. PMID:26478142

  2. Ischaemic conditioning: pitfalls on the path to clinical translation

    PubMed Central

    Przyklenk, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The development of novel adjuvant strategies capable of attenuating myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury and reducing infarct size remains a major, unmet clinical need. A wealth of preclinical evidence has established that ischaemic ‘conditioning’ is profoundly cardioprotective, and has positioned the phenomenon (in particular, the paradigms of postconditioning and remote conditioning) as the most promising and potent candidate for clinical translation identified to date. However, despite this preclinical consensus, current phase II trials have been plagued by heterogeneity, and the outcomes of recent meta-analyses have largely failed to confirm significant benefit. As a result, the path to clinical application has been perceived as ‘disappointing’ and ‘frustrating’. The goal of the current review is to discuss the pitfalls that may be stalling the successful clinical translation of ischaemic conditioning, with an emphasis on concerns regarding: (i) appropriate clinical study design and (ii) the choice of the ‘right’ preclinical models to facilitate clinical translation. PMID:25560903

  3. The accuracy of linear measurements of maxillary and mandibular edentulous sites in cone-beam computed tomography images with different fields of view and voxel sizes under simulated clinical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Aruna; Pagni, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of varying resolutions of cone-beam computed tomography images on the accuracy of linear measurements of edentulous areas in human cadaver heads. Intact cadaver heads were used to simulate a clinical situation. Materials and Methods Fiduciary markers were placed in the edentulous areas of 4 intact embalmed cadaver heads. The heads were scanned with two different CBCT units using a large field of view (13 cm×16 cm) and small field of view (5 cm×8 cm) at varying voxel sizes (0.3 mm, 0.2 mm, and 0.16 mm). The ground truth was established with digital caliper measurements. The imaging measurements were then compared with caliper measurements to determine accuracy. Results The Wilcoxon signed rank test revealed no statistically significant difference between the medians of the physical measurements obtained with calipers and the medians of the CBCT measurements. A comparison of accuracy among the different imaging protocols revealed no significant differences as determined by the Friedman test. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.961, indicating excellent reproducibility. Inter-observer variability was determined graphically with a Bland-Altman plot and by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient. The Bland-Altman plot indicated very good reproducibility for smaller measurements but larger discrepancies with larger measurements. Conclusion The CBCT-based linear measurements in the edentulous sites using different voxel sizes and FOVs are accurate compared with the direct caliper measurements of these sites. Higher resolution CBCT images with smaller voxel size did not result in greater accuracy of the linear measurements. PMID:27358816

  4. 42 CFR 485.60 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Clinical records. 485.60 Section 485.60 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...) Progress notes or other documentation that reflect patient reaction to treatment, tests, or injury, or...

  5. Psychometric Study of the Clinical Treatment Planning Simulations (CTPS) for Assessing Clinical Judgment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falvey, Janet Elizabeth; Hebert, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Examined psychometric properties of four clinical treatment planning simulations (CTPS) developed by interdisciplinary mental health experts to examine clinical judgment in treatment planning processes of practitioners. Found that scoring reliability was high and simulations demonstrated adequate content, discriminant, and predictive validity.…

  6. Measuring the instructional validity of clinical simulation problems.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, E; Gustavson, L P; Levine, H G

    1983-03-01

    Written clinical simulation problems in two formats--forced-choiced and essay--were used to test junior and senior medical students at the conclusion of their pediatric rotations. A comparison was made in the performance of students with varying levels of clinical experience. There seemed to be no consistent pattern of improvement with increased instructional time on the forced-choice management problems. Junior students did show improvement over time on the essay management problems, which also seemed to reflect the increased problem-solving and organizational skills of seniors in comparison to juniors. Correlations across problems and correlations between the clinical problem test and other measurement techniques were very weak, partly due to the low sampling reliability of clinical simulation problems. In this study, clinical simulation problems failed to demonstrate responsiveness to development and maturation in the problem-solving approach to patient care. PMID:10259952

  7. Preignition Characteristics of Several Fuels Under Simulated Engine Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, R C

    1941-01-01

    The preignition characteristics of a number of fuels have been studied under conditions similar to those encountered in an engine. These conditions were simulated by suddenly compressing a fuel-air mixture in contact with an electrically heated hot spot in the cylinder head of the NACA combustion apparatus. Schlieren photographs and indicator cards were taken of the burning, and the hot-spot temperatures necessary to cause ignition under various conditions were determined.

  8. Exploring Iconic Interpretation and Mathematics Teacher Development through Clinical Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dotger, Benjamin; Masingila, Joanna; Bearkland, Mary; Dotger, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Field placements serve as the traditional "clinical" experience for prospective mathematics teachers to immerse themselves in the mathematical challenges of students. This article reports data from a different type of learning experience, that of a clinical simulation with a standardized individual. We begin with a brief background on…

  9. Piloting Augmented Reality Technology to Enhance Realism in Clinical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Jacqueline; Lister, Michael; Shaw, Ryan J

    2016-09-01

    We describe a pilot study that incorporated an innovative hybrid simulation designed to increase the perception of realism in a high-fidelity simulation. Prelicensure students (N = 12) cared for a manikin in a simulation lab scenario wearing Google Glass, a wearable head device that projected video into the students' field of vision. Students reported that the simulation gave them confidence that they were developing skills and knowledge to perform necessary tasks in a clinical setting and that they met the learning objectives of the simulation. The video combined visual images and cues seen in a real patient and created a sense of realism the manikin alone could not provide. PMID:27258807

  10. Clinical simulation: A method for development and evaluation of clinical information systems.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sanne; Kushniruk, Andre W; Nøhr, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Use of clinical simulation in the design and evaluation of eHealth systems and applications has increased during the last decade. This paper describes a methodological approach for using clinical simulations in the design and evaluation of clinical information systems. The method is based on experiences from more than 20 clinical simulation studies conducted at the ITX-lab in the Capital Region of Denmark during the last 5 years. A ten-step approach to conducting simulations is presented in this paper. To illustrate the approach, a clinical simulation study concerning implementation of Digital Clinical Practice Guidelines in a prototype planning and coordination module is presented. In the case study potential benefits were assessed in a full-scale simulation test including 18 health care professionals. The results showed that health care professionals can benefit from such a module. Unintended consequences concerning terminology and changes in the division of responsibility amongst healthcare professionals were also identified, and questions were raised concerning future workflow across sector borders. Furthermore unexpected new possible benefits concerning improved communication, content of information in discharge letters and quality management emerged during the testing. In addition new potential groups of users were identified. The case study is used to demonstrate the potential of using the clinical simulation approach described in the paper. PMID:25684129

  11. DSMC Simulations of Apollo Capsule Aerodynamics for Hypersonic Rarefied Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, James N.; Glass, Christopher E.; Greene, Francis A.

    2006-01-01

    Direct simulation Monte Carlo DSMC simulations are performed for the Apollo capsule in the hypersonic low density transitional flow regime. The focus is on ow conditions similar to that experienced by the Apollo Command Module during the high altitude portion of its reentry Results for aerodynamic forces and moments are presented that demonstrate their sensitivity to rarefaction that is for free molecular to continuum conditions. Also aerodynamic data are presented that shows their sensitivity to a range of reentry velocity encompasing conditions that include reentry from low Earth orbit lunar return and Mars return velocities to km/s. The rarefied results are anchored in the continuum regime with data from Navier Stokes simulations

  12. Extremophiles Survival to Simulated Space Conditions: An Astrobiology Model Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastascusa, V.; Romano, I.; Di Donato, P.; Poli, A.; Della Corte, V.; Rotundi, A.; Bussoletti, E.; Quarto, M.; Pugliese, M.; Nicolaus, B.

    2014-09-01

    In this work we investigated the ability of four extremophilic bacteria from Archaea and Bacteria domains to resist to space environment by exposing them to extreme conditions of temperature, UV radiation, desiccation coupled to low pressure generated in a Mars' conditions simulator. All the investigated extremophilic strains (namely Sulfolobus solfataricus, Haloterrigena hispanica, Thermotoga neapolitana and Geobacillus thermantarcticus) showed a good resistance to the simulation of the temperature variation in the space; on the other hand irradiation with UV at 254 nm affected only slightly the growth of H. hispanica, G. thermantarcticus and S. solfataricus; finally exposition to Mars simulated condition showed that H. hispanica and G. thermantarcticus were resistant to desiccation and low pressure.

  13. Extremophiles survival to simulated space conditions: an astrobiology model study.

    PubMed

    Mastascusa, V; Romano, I; Di Donato, P; Poli, A; Della Corte, V; Rotundi, A; Bussoletti, E; Quarto, M; Pugliese, M; Nicolaus, B

    2014-09-01

    In this work we investigated the ability of four extremophilic bacteria from Archaea and Bacteria domains to resist to space environment by exposing them to extreme conditions of temperature, UV radiation, desiccation coupled to low pressure generated in a Mars' conditions simulator. All the investigated extremophilic strains (namely Sulfolobus solfataricus, Haloterrigena hispanica, Thermotoga neapolitana and Geobacillus thermantarcticus) showed a good resistance to the simulation of the temperature variation in the space; on the other hand irradiation with UV at 254 nm affected only slightly the growth of H. hispanica, G. thermantarcticus and S. solfataricus; finally exposition to Mars simulated condition showed that H. hispanica and G. thermantarcticus were resistant to desiccation and low pressure. PMID:25573749

  14. Simulation-based medical education in clinical skills laboratory.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Masashi; Fukutomi, Miki; Nagamune, Masami; Fujimoto, Akiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ishida, Kazuko; Iwata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Clinical skills laboratories have been established in medical institutions as facilities for simulation-based medical education (SBME). SBME is believed to be superior to the traditional style of medical education from the viewpoint of the active and adult learning theories. SBME can provide a learning cycle of debriefing and feedback for learners as well as evaluation of procedures and competency. SBME offers both learners and patients a safe environment for practice and error. In a full-environment simulation, learners can obtain not only technical skills but also non-technical skills, such as leadership, team work, communication, situation awareness, decision-making, and awareness of personal limitations. SBME is also effective for integration of clinical medicine and basic medicine. In addition, technology-enhanced simulation training is associated with beneficial effects for outcomes of knowledge, skills, behaviors, and patient-related outcomes. To perform SBME, effectively, not only simulators including high-fidelity mannequin-type simulators or virtual-reality simulators but also full-time faculties and instructors as professionals of SBME are essential in a clinical skills laboratory for SBME. Clinical skills laboratory is expected to become an integrated medical education center to achieve continuing professional development, integrated learning of basic and clinical medicine, and citizens' participation and cooperation in medical education. PMID:22449990

  15. Protection of chemolithoautotrophic bacteria exposed to simulated Mars environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Felipe; Mateo-Martí, Eva; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martín-Gago, Jose; Amils, Ricardo

    2010-10-01

    Current surface conditions (strong oxidative atmosphere, UV radiation, low temperatures and xeric conditions) on Mars are considered extremely challenging for life. The question is whether there are any features on Mars that could exert a protective effect against the sterilizing conditions detected on its surface. Potential habitability in the subsurface would increase if the overlaying material played a protective role. With the aim of evaluating this possibility we studied the viability of two microorganisms under different conditions in a Mars simulation chamber. An acidophilic chemolithotroph isolated from Río Tinto belonging to the Acidithiobacillus genus and Deinococcus radiodurans, a radiation resistant microorganism, were exposed to simulated Mars conditions under the protection of a layer of ferric oxides and hydroxides, a Mars regolith analogue. Samples of these microorganisms were exposed to UV radiation in Mars atmospheric conditions at different time intervals under the protection of 2 and 5 mm layers of oxidized iron minerals. Viability was evaluated by inoculation on fresh media and characterization of their growth cultures. Here we report the survival capability of both bacteria to simulated Mars environmental conditions.

  16. Response of HEPA filters to simulated-accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, W.S.; Martin, R.A.; Smith, P.R.; Fenton, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters have been subjected to simulated accident conditions to determine their response to abnormal operating events. Both domestic and European standard and high-capacity filters have been evaluated to determine their response to simulated fire, explosion, and tornado conditions. The HEPA filter structural limitations for tornado and explosive loadings are discussed. In addition, filtration efficiencies during these accident conditions are reported for the first time. Our data indicate efficiencies between 80% and 90% for shock loadings below the structural limit level. We describe two types of testing for ineffective filtration - clean filters exposed to pulse-entrained aerosol and dirty filters exposed to tornado and shock pulses. Efficiency and material loss data are described. Also, the resonse of standard HEPA filters to simulated fire conditions is presented. We describe a unique method of measuring accumulated combustion products on the filter. Additionally, data relating to pressure drop vs accumulated mass during plugging are reported for simulated combustion aerosols. The effects of concentration and moisture levels on filter plugging were evaluated. We are obtaining all of the above data so that mathematical models can be developed for fire, explosion, and tornado accident analysis computer codes. These computer codes can be used to assess the response of nuclear air cleaning systems to accident conditions.

  17. Clinical application of exome sequencing in undiagnosed genetic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Need, Anna C; Shashi, Vandana; Hitomi, Yuki; Schoch, Kelly; Shianna, Kevin V; McDonald, Marie T; Meisler, Miriam H

    2012-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in the use of next-generation sequencing to help diagnose unidentified genetic conditions, but it is difficult to predict the success rate in a clinical setting that includes patients with a broad range of phenotypic presentations. Methods The authors present a pilot programme of whole-exome sequencing on 12 patients with unexplained and apparent genetic conditions, along with their unaffected parents. Unlike many previous studies, the authors did not seek patients with similar phenotypes, but rather enrolled any undiagnosed proband with an apparent genetic condition when predetermined criteria were met. Results This undertaking resulted in a likely genetic diagnosis in 6 of the 12 probands, including the identification of apparently causal mutations in four genes known to cause Mendelian disease (TCF4, EFTUD2, SCN2A and SMAD4) and one gene related to known Mendelian disease genes (NGLY1). Of particular interest is that at the time of this study, EFTUD2 was not yet known as a Mendelian disease gene but was nominated as a likely cause based on the observation of de novo mutations in two unrelated probands. In a seventh case with multiple disparate clinical features, the authors were able to identify homozygous mutations in EFEMP1 as a likely cause for macular degeneration (though likely not for other features). Conclusions This study provides evidence that next-generation sequencing can have high success rates in a clinical setting, but also highlights key challenges. It further suggests that the presentation of known Mendelian conditions may be considerably broader than currently recognised. PMID:22581936

  18. Phase Distribution Phenomena for Simulated Microgravity Conditions: Experimental Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Maneesh; Bonetto, Fabian J.; Lahey, R. T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the work accomplished at Rensselaer to study phase distribution phenomenon under simulated microgravity conditions. Our group at Rensselaer has been able to develop sophisticated analytical models to predict phase distribution in two-phase flows under a variety of conditions. These models are based on physics and data obtained from carefully controlled experiments that are being conducted here. These experiments also serve to verify the models developed.

  19. Phase Distribution Phenomena for Simulated Microgravity Conditions: Experimental Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhal, Maneesh; Bonetto, Fabian J.; Lahey, R. T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the work accomplished at Rensselaer to study phase distribution phenomenon under simulated microgravity conditions. Our group at Rensselaer has been able to develop sophisticated analytical models to predict phase distribution in two-phase flows under variety of conditions. These models are based on physics and data obtained from carefully controlled experiments that are being conducted here. These experiments also serve to verify the models developed.

  20. Zircoloy Cladding Oxidation Simulation for LWR under LOCA Conditions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-04-25

    PRECIP-2 simulates zircaloy cladding oxidation under LOCA conditions of LWR’s. The code calculates oxygen concentration distribution across the cladding wall by solving the diffusion equation with moving boundary conditions, taking into account the structure change of the beta— phase, i.e. alpha precipitation during the cooling period. The code also predicts total oxygen uptake, thicknesses of alpha, beta and oxide layers.

  1. Physiological and pathological clinical conditions and light scattering in brain

    PubMed Central

    Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Sachiko; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Oda, Motoki; Ohmae, Etsuko; Araki, Yuko; Sugioka, Takashi; Takashima, Sachio; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    MRI of preterm infants at term commonly reveals subtle brain lesions such as diffuse white matter injury, which are linked with later cognitive impairments. The timing and mechanism of such injury remains unclear. The reduced scattering coefficient of near-infrared light (μs’) has been shown to correlate linearly with gestational age in neonates. To identify clinical variables associated with brain μs’, 60 preterm and full-term infants were studied within 7 days of birth. Dependence of μs’ obtained from the frontal head on clinical variables was assessed. In the univariate analysis, smaller μs’ was associated with antenatal glucocorticoid, emergency Caesarean section, requirement for mechanical ventilation, smaller gestational age, smaller body sizes, low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, higher cord blood pH and PO2, and higher blood HCO3− at the time of study. Multivariate analysis revealed that smaller gestational age, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and higher HCO3− at the time of study were correlated with smaller μs’. Brain μs’ depended on variables associated with physiological maturation and pathological conditions of the brain. Further longitudinal studies may help identify pathological events and clinical conditions responsible for subtle brain injury and subsequent cognitive impairments following preterm birth. PMID:27511644

  2. Physiological and pathological clinical conditions and light scattering in brain.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Tsuyoshi; Iwata, Sachiko; Tsuda, Kennosuke; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Hara, Naoko; Oda, Motoki; Ohmae, Etsuko; Araki, Yuko; Sugioka, Takashi; Takashima, Sachio; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    MRI of preterm infants at term commonly reveals subtle brain lesions such as diffuse white matter injury, which are linked with later cognitive impairments. The timing and mechanism of such injury remains unclear. The reduced scattering coefficient of near-infrared light (μs') has been shown to correlate linearly with gestational age in neonates. To identify clinical variables associated with brain μs', 60 preterm and full-term infants were studied within 7 days of birth. Dependence of μs' obtained from the frontal head on clinical variables was assessed. In the univariate analysis, smaller μs' was associated with antenatal glucocorticoid, emergency Caesarean section, requirement for mechanical ventilation, smaller gestational age, smaller body sizes, low 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, higher cord blood pH and PO2, and higher blood HCO3(-) at the time of study. Multivariate analysis revealed that smaller gestational age, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and higher HCO3(-) at the time of study were correlated with smaller μs'. Brain μs' depended on variables associated with physiological maturation and pathological conditions of the brain. Further longitudinal studies may help identify pathological events and clinical conditions responsible for subtle brain injury and subsequent cognitive impairments following preterm birth. PMID:27511644

  3. Analysis of Boundary Conditions for Crystal Defect Atomistic Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlacher, V.; Ortner, C.; Shapeev, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical simulations of crystal defects are necessarily restricted to finite computational domains, supplying artificial boundary conditions that emulate the effect of embedding the defect in an effectively infinite crystalline environment. This work develops a rigorous framework within which the accuracy of different types of boundary conditions can be precisely assessed. We formulate the equilibration of crystal defects as variational problems in a discrete energy space and establish qualitatively sharp regularity estimates for minimisers. Using this foundation we then present rigorous error estimates for (i) a truncation method (Dirichlet boundary conditions), (ii) periodic boundary conditions, (iii) boundary conditions from linear elasticity, and (iv) boundary conditions from nonlinear elasticity. Numerical results confirm the sharpness of the analysis.

  4. Automating Identification of Multiple Chronic Conditions in Clinical Practice Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Tiffany I.; Jalal, Hawre; Zulman, Donna M.; Dumontier, Michel; Owens, Douglas K.; Musen, Mark A.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to provide evidence-based guidance to clinicians on a single disease, and are frequently considered inadequate when caring for patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCC), or two or more chronic conditions. It is unclear to what degree disease-specific CPGs provide guidance about MCC. In this study, we develop a method for extracting knowledge from single-disease chronic condition CPGs to determine how frequently they mention commonly co-occurring chronic diseases. We focus on 15 highly prevalent chronic conditions. We use publicly available resources, including a repository of guideline summaries from the National Guideline Clearinghouse to build a text corpus, a data dictionary of ICD-9 codes from the Medicare Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse (CCW) to construct an initial list of disease terms, and disease synonyms from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology to enhance the list of disease terms. First, for each disease guideline, we determined the frequency of comorbid condition mentions (a disease-comorbidity pair) by exactly matching disease synonyms in the text corpus. Then, we developed an annotated reference standard using a sample subset of guidelines. We used this reference standard to evaluate our approach. Then, we compared the co-prevalence of common pairs of chronic conditions from Medicare CCW data to the frequency of disease-comorbidity pairs in CPGs. Our results show that some disease-comorbidity pairs occur more frequently in CPGs than others. Sixty-one (29.0%) of 210 possible disease-comorbidity pairs occurred zero times; for example, no guideline on chronic kidney disease mentioned depression, while heart failure guidelines mentioned ischemic heart disease the most frequently. Our method adequately identifies comorbid chronic conditions in CPG recommendations with precision 0.82, recall 0.75, and F-measure 0.78. Our work identifies knowledge currently embedded in the free text of

  5. Automating Identification of Multiple Chronic Conditions in Clinical Practice Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Leung, Tiffany I; Jalal, Hawre; Zulman, Donna M; Dumontier, Michel; Owens, Douglas K; Musen, Mark A; Goldstein, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) are intended to provide evidence-based guidance to clinicians on a single disease, and are frequently considered inadequate when caring for patients with multiple chronic conditions (MCC), or two or more chronic conditions. It is unclear to what degree disease-specific CPGs provide guidance about MCC. In this study, we develop a method for extracting knowledge from single-disease chronic condition CPGs to determine how frequently they mention commonly co-occurring chronic diseases. We focus on 15 highly prevalent chronic conditions. We use publicly available resources, including a repository of guideline summaries from the National Guideline Clearinghouse to build a text corpus, a data dictionary of ICD-9 codes from the Medicare Chronic Conditions Data Warehouse (CCW) to construct an initial list of disease terms, and disease synonyms from the National Center for Biomedical Ontology to enhance the list of disease terms. First, for each disease guideline, we determined the frequency of comorbid condition mentions (a disease-comorbidity pair) by exactly matching disease synonyms in the text corpus. Then, we developed an annotated reference standard using a sample subset of guidelines. We used this reference standard to evaluate our approach. Then, we compared the co-prevalence of common pairs of chronic conditions from Medicare CCW data to the frequency of disease-comorbidity pairs in CPGs. Our results show that some disease-comorbidity pairs occur more frequently in CPGs than others. Sixty-one (29.0%) of 210 possible disease-comorbidity pairs occurred zero times; for example, no guideline on chronic kidney disease mentioned depression, while heart failure guidelines mentioned ischemic heart disease the most frequently. Our method adequately identifies comorbid chronic conditions in CPG recommendations with precision 0.82, recall 0.75, and F-measure 0.78. Our work identifies knowledge currently embedded in the free text of

  6. Clinical simulators: applications and implications for rural medical education.

    PubMed

    Ypinazar, V A; Margolis, S A

    2006-01-01

    Medical education has undergone significant changes globally. Calls for the revitalisation of centuries old pathways of learning have resulted in innovative medical curricula. Didactic modes of teaching which involved the learning of copious amounts of facts have given way to curricula that focus on the horizontal and vertical integration of basic and clinical sciences. Increasing concern for patient care and safety has led to a 'gap' between the needs of medical students to acquire necessary psychomotor skills and the safety and wellbeing of the patient. This has resulted in alternate teaching methods that include non-patient based training for the acquisition of clinical skills. The use of computerised, full-sized human simulators provides medical students with the necessary psychomotor and clinical reasoning skills in a realistic learning environment, while remaining risk free to patients. These clinical simulators are powerful learning tools that have applications at all levels of medical education across multiple disciplines, emphasising the multidisciplinary approach required in many medical situations. This article reviews the literature on medical simulation and provides the contextual basis for the establishment of a Clinical Simulation Learning Centre (CSLC) in a rural clinical school in Australia. The educational program, as well as the design, layout and equipment of the CSLC are described, as well as implications for rural practitioners. The CSLC has been a major capital investment in a relatively under-resourced part of regional Australia and has provided opportunities for ongoing education across a range of healthcare professionals in the community. PMID:16764503

  7. Cardioprotection by remote ischemic conditioning: Mechanisms and clinical evidences.

    PubMed

    Aimo, Alberto; Borrelli, Chiara; Giannoni, Alberto; Pastormerlo, Luigi Emilio; Barison, Andrea; Mirizzi, Gianluca; Emdin, Michele; Passino, Claudio

    2015-10-26

    In remote ischemic conditioning (RIC), several cycles of ischemia and reperfusion render distant organ and tissues more resistant to the ischemia-reperfusion injury. The intermittent ischemia can be applied before the ischemic insult in the target site (remote ischemic preconditioning), during the ischemic insult (remote ischemic perconditioning) or at the onset of reperfusion (remote ischemic postconditioning). The mechanisms of RIC have not been completely defined yet; however, these mechanisms must be represented by the release of humoral mediators and/or the activation of a neural reflex. RIC has been discovered in the heart, and has been arising great enthusiasm in the cardiovascular field. Its efficacy has been evaluated in many clinical trials, which provided controversial results. Our incomplete comprehension of the mechanisms underlying the RIC could be impairing the design of clinical trials and the interpretation of their results. In the present review we summarize current knowledge about RIC pathophysiology and the data about its cardioprotective efficacy. PMID:26516416

  8. Discretely Integrated Condition Event (DICE) Simulation for Pharmacoeconomics.

    PubMed

    Caro, J Jaime

    2016-07-01

    Several decision-analytic modeling techniques are in use for pharmacoeconomic analyses. Discretely integrated condition event (DICE) simulation is proposed as a unifying approach that has been deliberately designed to meet the modeling requirements in a straightforward transparent way, without forcing assumptions (e.g., only one transition per cycle) or unnecessary complexity. At the core of DICE are conditions that represent aspects that persist over time. They have levels that can change and many may coexist. Events reflect instantaneous occurrences that may modify some conditions or the timing of other events. The conditions are discretely integrated with events by updating their levels at those times. Profiles of determinant values allow for differences among patients in the predictors of the disease course. Any number of valuations (e.g., utility, cost, willingness-to-pay) of conditions and events can be applied concurrently in a single run. A DICE model is conveniently specified in a series of tables that follow a consistent format and the simulation can be implemented fully in MS Excel, facilitating review and validation. DICE incorporates both state-transition (Markov) models and non-resource-constrained discrete event simulation in a single formulation; it can be executed as a cohort or a microsimulation; and deterministically or stochastically. PMID:26961779

  9. Large Eddy Simulation in a Channel with Exit Boundary Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cziesla, T.; Braun, H.; Biswas, G.; Mitra, N. K.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of the exit boundary conditions (vanishing first derivative of the velocity components and constant pressure) on the large eddy simulation of the fully developed turbulent channel flow has been investigated for equidistant and stretched grids at the channel exit. Results show that the chosen exit boundary conditions introduce some small disturbance which is mostly damped by the grid stretching. The difference between the fully developed turbulent channel flow obtained with LES with periodicity condition and the inlet and exit and the LES with fully developed flow at the inlet and the exit boundary condition is less than 10% for equidistant grids and less than 5% for the case grid stretching. The chosen boundary condition is of interest because it may be used in complex flows with backflow at exit.

  10. A brief simulation intervention increasing basic science and clinical knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Sheakley, Maria L.; Gilbert, Gregory E.; Leighton, Kim; Hall, Maureen; Callender, Diana; Pederson, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) is increasing clinical content on the Step 1 exam; thus, inclusion of clinical applications within the basic science curriculum is crucial. Including simulation activities during basic science years bridges the knowledge gap between basic science content and clinical application. Purpose To evaluate the effects of a one-off, 1-hour cardiovascular simulation intervention on a summative assessment after adjusting for relevant demographic and academic predictors. Methods This study was a non-randomized study using historical controls to evaluate curricular change. The control group received lecture (nl=515) and the intervention group received lecture plus a simulation exercise (nl+s=1,066). Assessment included summative exam questions (n=4) that were scored as pass/fail (≥75%). USMLE-style assessment questions were identical for both cohorts. Descriptive statistics for variables are presented and odds of passage calculated using logistic regression. Results Undergraduate grade point ratio, MCAT-BS, MCAT-PS, age, attendance at an academic review program, and gender were significant predictors of summative exam passage. Students receiving the intervention were significantly more likely to pass the summative exam than students receiving lecture only (P=0.0003). Discussion Simulation plus lecture increases short-term understanding as tested by a written exam. A longitudinal study is needed to assess the effect of a brief simulation intervention on long-term retention of clinical concepts in a basic science curriculum. PMID:27060102

  11. Enhancing pediatric clinical competency with high-fidelity simulation.

    PubMed

    Birkhoff, Susan D; Donner, Carol

    2010-09-01

    In today's tertiary pediatric hospital setting, the increased complexity of patient care demands seamless coordination and collaboration among multidisciplinary team members. In an effort to enhance patient safety, clinical competence, and teamwork, simulation-based learning has become increasingly integrated into pediatric clinical practice as an innovative educational strategy. The simulated setting provides a risk-free environment where learners can incorporate cognitive, psychomotor, and affective skill acquisition without fear of harming patients. One pediatric university hospital in Southeastern Pennsylvania has enhanced the traditional American Heart Association (AHA) Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course by integrating high-fidelity simulation into skill acquisition, while still functioning within the guidelines and framework of the AHA educational standards. However, very little research with reliable standardized testing methods has been done to measure the effect of simulation-based learning. This article discusses the AHA guidelines for PALS, evaluation of PALS and nursing clinical competencies, communication among a multidisciplinary team, advantages and disadvantages of simulation, incorporation of high-fidelity simulation into pediatric practice, and suggestions for future practice. PMID:20506930

  12. Adenomyosis: A Clinical Review of a Challenging Gynecologic Condition.

    PubMed

    Struble, Jennifer; Reid, Shannon; Bedaiwy, Mohamed A

    2016-02-01

    Adenomyosis is a heterogenous gynecologic condition. Patients with adenomyosis can have a range of clinical presentations. The most common presentation of adenomyosis is heavy menstrual bleeding and dysmenorrhea; however, patients can also be asymptomatic. Currently, there are no standard diagnostic imaging criteria, and choosing the optimal treatment for patients is challenging. Women with adenomyosis often have other associated gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis or leiomyomas, therefore making the diagnosis and evaluating response to treatment challenging. The objective of this review was to highlight current clinical information regarding the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, imaging findings, and treatment of adenomyosis. Several studies support the theory that adenomyosis results from invasion of the endometrium into the myometrium, causing alterations in the junctional zone. These changes are commonly seen on imaging studies such as transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The second most common theory is that adenomyosis results from embryologic-misplaced pluripotent mullerian remnants. Traditionally, adenomyosis was only diagnosed after hysterectomy; however, studies have shown that a diagnosis can be made with biopsies at hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Noninvasive imaging can be used to help guide the differential diagnosis. The most common findings on 2-dimensional/3-dimensional TVUS and MRI are reviewed. Two-dimensional TVUS and MRI have a respectable sensitivity and specificity; however, recent studies indicate that 3-dimensional TVUS is superior to 2-dimensional TVUS for the diagnosis of adenomyosis and may allow for the diagnosis of early-stage disease. Management options for adenomyosis, both medical and surgical, are reviewed. Currently, the only definitive management option for patients is hysterectomy. PMID:26427702

  13. Generating Optimal Initial Conditions for Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diehl, S.; Rockefeller, G.; Fryer, C. L.; Riethmiller, D.; Statler, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    We review existing smoothed particle hydrodynamics setup methods and outline their advantages, limitations, and drawbacks. We present a new method for constructing initial conditions for smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations, which may also be of interest for N-body simulations, and demonstrate this method on a number of applications. This new method is inspired by adaptive binning techniques using weighted Voronoi tessellations. Particles are placed and iteratively moved based on their proximity to neighbouring particles and the desired spatial resolution. This new method can satisfy arbitrarily complex spatial resolution requirements.

  14. DSMC Shock Simulation of Saturn Entry Probe Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Kyle J.; Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; Liechty, Derek S.; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) investigation of Saturn entry probe scenarios and the influence of non-equilibrium phenomena on Saturn entry conditions. The DSMC simulations coincide with rarefied hypersonic shock tube experiments of a hydrogen-helium mixture performed in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) at the NASA Ames Research Center. The DSMC simulations are post-processed through the NEQAIR line-by-line radiation code to compare directly to the experimental results. Improved collision cross-sections, inelastic collision parameters, and reaction rates are determined for a high temperature DSMC simulation of a 7-species H2-He mixture and an electronic excitation model is implemented in the DSMC code. Simulation results for 27.8 and 27.4 km/s shock waves are obtained at 0.2 and 0.1 Torr, respectively, and compared to measured spectra in the VUV, UV, visible, and IR ranges. These results confirm the persistence of non-equilibrium for several centimeters behind the shock and the diffusion of atomic hydrogen upstream of the shock wave. Although the magnitude of the radiance did not match experiments and an ionization inductance period was not observed in the simulations, the discrepancies indicated where improvements are needed in the DSMC and NEQAIR models.

  15. DSMC Shock Simulation of Saturn Entry Probe Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higdon, Kyle J.; Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron; Liechty, Derek S.; Goldstein, David B.; Varghese, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) investigation of Saturn entry probe scenarios and the influence of non-equilibrium phenomena on Saturn entry conditions. The DSMC simulations coincide with rarefied hypersonic shock tube experiments of a hydrogen-helium mixture performed in the Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) at NASA Ames Research Center. The DSMC simulations are post-processed through the NEQAIR line-by-line radiation code to compare directly to the experimental results. Improved collision cross-sections, inelastic collision parameters, and reaction rates are determined for a high temperature DSMC simulation of a 7-species H2-He mixture and an electronic excitation model is implemented in the DSMC code. Simulation results for 27.8 and 27.4 kms shock waves are obtained at 0.2 and 0.1 Torr respectively and compared to measured spectra in the VUV, UV, visible, and IR ranges. These results confirm the persistence of non-equilibrium for several centimeters behind the shock and the diffusion of atomic hydrogen upstream of the shock wave. Although the magnitude of the radiance did not match experiments and an ionization inductance period was not observed in the simulations, the discrepancies indicated where improvements are needed in the DSMC and NEQAIR models.

  16. Evidence of clinical competence by simulation, a hermeneutical observational study.

    PubMed

    Lejonqvist, Gun-Britt; Eriksson, Katie; Meretoja, Riitta

    2016-03-01

    Making the transition from theory to practise easier in nursing education through simulation is widely implemented all over the world, and there is research evidence of the positive effects of simulation. The pre-understanding for this study is based on a definition of clinical competence as encountering, knowing, performing, maturing and developing, and the hypothesis is that these categories should appear in simulated situations. The aim of the study was to explore the forms and expressions of clinical competence in simulated situations and furthermore to explore if and how clinical competence could be developed by simulation. An observational hermeneutic study with a hypothetic-deductive approach was used in 18 simulated situations with 39 bachelor degree nursing students. In the situations, the scenarios, the actors and the plots were described. The story told was "the way from suffering to health" in which three main plots emerged. The first was, doing as performing and knowing, which took the shape of knowing what to do, acting responsibly, using evidence and equipment, appearing confident and feeling comfortable, and sharing work and information with others. The second was, being as encountering the patient, which took the shape of being there for him/her and confirming by listening and answering. The third plot was becoming as maturing and developing which took the shape of learning in co-operation with other students. All the deductive categories, shapes and expressions appeared as dialectic patterns having their negative counterparts. The study showed that clinical competence can be made evident and developed by simulation and that the challenge is in encountering the patient and his/her suffering. PMID:26763209

  17. Simulation of Earth textures by conditional image quilting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, K.; Mariethoz, G.; Caers, J.; Tahmasebi, P.; Baker, A.

    2014-04-01

    Training image-based approaches for stochastic simulations have recently gained attention in surface and subsurface hydrology. This family of methods allows the creation of multiple realizations of a study domain, with a spatial continuity based on a training image (TI) that contains the variability, connectivity, and structural properties deemed realistic. A major drawback of these methods is their computational and/or memory cost, making certain applications challenging. It was found that similar methods, also based on training images or exemplars, have been proposed in computer graphics. One such method, image quilting (IQ), is introduced in this paper and adapted for hydrogeological applications. The main difficulty is that Image Quilting was originally not designed to produce conditional simulations and was restricted to 2-D images. In this paper, the original method developed in computer graphics has been modified to accommodate conditioning data and 3-D problems. This new conditional image quilting method (CIQ) is patch based, does not require constructing a pattern databases, and can be used with both categorical and continuous training images. The main concept is to optimally cut the patches such that they overlap with minimum discontinuity. The optimal cut is determined using a dynamic programming algorithm. Conditioning is accomplished by prior selection of patches that are compatible with the conditioning data. The performance of CIQ is tested for a variety of hydrogeological test cases. The results, when compared with previous multiple-point statistics (MPS) methods, indicate an improvement in CPU time by a factor of at least 50.

  18. The Dialysis Exercise: A Clinical Simulation for Preclinical Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Bernstein, Richard A.

    1980-01-01

    A clinical decision-making simulation that helps students understand the relationship between psychosocial factors and medical problem-solving is described. A group of medical students and one faculty member comprise a selection committee to agree on the order in which four patients will be selected for renal dialysis. (MLW)

  19. [Simulation and air-conditioning in the nose].

    PubMed

    Keck, T; Lindemann, J

    2010-05-01

    Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid dessication and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible to a restricted extent, only providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations only calculate predictions in a computational model, e. g. realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this report is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:20352565

  20. Multiscale molecular simulations of proteins in cell-like conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samiotakis, Antonios

    Proteins are the workhorses of all living organisms, performing a broad range of functions in the crowded cellular interior. However, little is known about how proteins function in cell-like conditions since most studies focus in dilute aqueous environments. In order to address this problem we incorporated molecular simulations and coarse-grained models that capture the protein dynamics in the cellular interior. We study the macromolecular crowding effects of cell-like environments on protein Borrelia Burgdorferi VlsE (variable major protein-like sequence-expressed), an aspherical membrane protein, and the enzyme Phosphoglycerate kinase. We show that protein conformation can be significantly perturbed under crowded cell-like conditions which, in turn, can have dramatic effects to the proteins' function. In addition, we look into the effects of mutations in the folding pathways of the topologically frustrated protein apoflavodoxin while correlation with experiments is also achieved. We further developed a multiscale simulation scheme that combines the sampling efficiency of low-resolution models with the detail of all-atomistic simulations. An algorithm that reconstructs all-atomistic conformations from coarse-grained representations was developed, in addition to an energy function that accounts for chemical interference based on the Boltzamn inversion method. The multiscale simulation scheme manages to sample all-atomistic structures of the protein Trp-cage that match very well with experiments. The folding kinetic behavior of Trp-cage was also studied in the combined presence of urea denaturant and macromolecular crowding.

  1. Program Code Generator for Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulation with Automatic PDE Boundary Condition Handling.

    PubMed

    Punzalan, Florencio Rusty; Kunieda, Yoshitoshi; Amano, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies involving human hearts can have certain limitations. Methods such as computer simulations can be an important alternative or supplemental tool. Physiological simulation at the tissue or organ level typically involves the handling of partial differential equations (PDEs). Boundary conditions and distributed parameters, such as those used in pharmacokinetics simulation, add to the complexity of the PDE solution. These factors can tailor PDE solutions and their corresponding program code to specific problems. Boundary condition and parameter changes in the customized code are usually prone to errors and time-consuming. We propose a general approach for handling PDEs and boundary conditions in computational models using a replacement scheme for discretization. This study is an extension of a program generator that we introduced in a previous publication. The program generator can generate code for multi-cell simulations of cardiac electrophysiology. Improvements to the system allow it to handle simultaneous equations in the biological function model as well as implicit PDE numerical schemes. The replacement scheme involves substituting all partial differential terms with numerical solution equations. Once the model and boundary equations are discretized with the numerical solution scheme, instances of the equations are generated to undergo dependency analysis. The result of the dependency analysis is then used to generate the program code. The resulting program code are in Java or C programming language. To validate the automatic handling of boundary conditions in the program code generator, we generated simulation code using the FHN, Luo-Rudy 1, and Hund-Rudy cell models and run cell-to-cell coupling and action potential propagation simulations. One of the simulations is based on a published experiment and simulation results are compared with the experimental data. We conclude that the proposed program code generator can be used to

  2. Program Code Generator for Cardiac Electrophysiology Simulation with Automatic PDE Boundary Condition Handling

    PubMed Central

    Punzalan, Florencio Rusty; Kunieda, Yoshitoshi; Amano, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and experimental studies involving human hearts can have certain limitations. Methods such as computer simulations can be an important alternative or supplemental tool. Physiological simulation at the tissue or organ level typically involves the handling of partial differential equations (PDEs). Boundary conditions and distributed parameters, such as those used in pharmacokinetics simulation, add to the complexity of the PDE solution. These factors can tailor PDE solutions and their corresponding program code to specific problems. Boundary condition and parameter changes in the customized code are usually prone to errors and time-consuming. We propose a general approach for handling PDEs and boundary conditions in computational models using a replacement scheme for discretization. This study is an extension of a program generator that we introduced in a previous publication. The program generator can generate code for multi-cell simulations of cardiac electrophysiology. Improvements to the system allow it to handle simultaneous equations in the biological function model as well as implicit PDE numerical schemes. The replacement scheme involves substituting all partial differential terms with numerical solution equations. Once the model and boundary equations are discretized with the numerical solution scheme, instances of the equations are generated to undergo dependency analysis. The result of the dependency analysis is then used to generate the program code. The resulting program code are in Java or C programming language. To validate the automatic handling of boundary conditions in the program code generator, we generated simulation code using the FHN, Luo-Rudy 1, and Hund-Rudy cell models and run cell-to-cell coupling and action potential propagation simulations. One of the simulations is based on a published experiment and simulation results are compared with the experimental data. We conclude that the proposed program code generator can be used to

  3. Conditions for the relevance of infant research to clinical psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, B

    1993-10-01

    There is increased pluralism within psychoanalysis today, and the practice of psychoanalysis rests on many different theories and distinctly different epistemologic perspectives about the nature of the truth, the position of the observer-analyst in the process, and the phenomena to be observed. The relevance of developmental observation research to clinical psychoanalysis will vary with the epistemological perspective of the practitioner, and to be relevant the perspective of the researcher must 'match' that of the clinician. Additionally, its relevance is conditioned by what is considered 'empirical' data, i.e. whether the data are defined behaviourally or by empathic judgements of an observer. Three broad categories of psychoanalytic perspectives are discussed: empirical-natural science, hermeneutic-empirical, and hermeneutic-constructivist. A patient in analysis is described, with details of two sessions. Three imaginary consultants, each representing one of the major epistemological clinical perspectives, comment on the material to demonstrate the relationship among technique, epistemology, and the ways infants and developmental observation research may be relevant (or not relevant). PMID:8307704

  4. Numerical simulations of clinical focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Pulkkinen, Aki; Werner, Beat; Martin, Ernst; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-01-01

    A computational model utilizing grid and finite difference methods was developed to simulate focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery interventions. The model couples the propagation of ultrasound in fluids (soft tissues) and solids (skull) with acoustic and visco-elastic wave equations. The computational model was applied to simulate clinical focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery treatments performed in patients suffering from therapy resistant chronic neuropathic pain. Datasets of five patients were used to derive the treatment geometry. Eight sonications performed in the treatments were then simulated with the developed model. Computations were performed by driving the simulated phased array ultrasound transducer with the acoustic parameters used in the treatments. Resulting focal temperatures and size of the thermal foci were compared quantitatively, in addition to qualitative inspection of the simulated pressure and temperature fields. This study found that the computational model and the simulation parameters predicted an average of 24 ± 13 % lower focal temperature elevations than observed in the treatments. The size of the simulated thermal focus was found to be 40 ± 13 % smaller in the anterior–posterior direction and 22 ± 14% smaller in the inferior–superior direction than in the treatments. The location of the simulated thermal focus was off from the prescribed target by 0.3 ± 0.1 mm, while the peak focal temperature elevation observed in the measurements was off by 1.6 ± 0.6 mm. Although the results of the simulations suggest that there could be some inaccuracies in either the tissue parameters used, or in the simulation methods, the simulations were able to predict the focal spot locations and temperature elevations adequately for initial treatment planning performed to assess, for example, the feasibility of sonication. The accuracy of the simulations could be improved if more precise ultrasound tissue properties (especially of the

  5. Numerical simulations of clinical focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, Aki; Werner, Beat; Martin, Ernst; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-04-01

    A computational model utilizing grid and finite difference methods were developed to simulate focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery interventions. The model couples the propagation of ultrasound in fluids (soft tissues) and solids (skull) with acoustic and visco-elastic wave equations. The computational model was applied to simulate clinical focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery treatments performed in patients suffering from therapy resistant chronic neuropathic pain. Datasets of five patients were used to derive the treatment geometry. Eight sonications performed in the treatments were then simulated with the developed model. Computations were performed by driving the simulated phased array ultrasound transducer with the acoustic parameters used in the treatments. Resulting focal temperatures and size of the thermal foci were compared quantitatively, in addition to qualitative inspection of the simulated pressure and temperature fields. This study found that the computational model and the simulation parameters predicted an average of 24 ± 13% lower focal temperature elevations than observed in the treatments. The size of the simulated thermal focus was found to be 40 ± 13% smaller in the anterior-posterior direction and 22 ± 14% smaller in the inferior-superior direction than in the treatments. The location of the simulated thermal focus was off from the prescribed target by 0.3 ± 0.1 mm, while the peak focal temperature elevation observed in the measurements was off by 1.6 ± 0.6 mm. Although the results of the simulations suggest that there could be some inaccuracies in either the tissue parameters used, or in the simulation methods, the simulations were able to predict the focal spot locations and temperature elevations adequately for initial treatment planning performed to assess, for example, the feasibility of sonication. The accuracy of the simulations could be improved if more precise ultrasound tissue properties (especially of the

  6. Numerical simulations of clinical focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulkkinen, Aki; Werner, Beat; Martin, Ernst; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2014-04-01

    A computational model utilizing grid and finite difference methods were developed to simulate focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery interventions. The model couples the propagation of ultrasound in fluids (soft tissues) and solids (skull) with acoustic and visco-elastic wave equations. The computational model was applied to simulate clinical focused ultrasound functional neurosurgery treatments performed in patients suffering from therapy resistant chronic neuropathic pain. Datasets of five patients were used to derive the treatment geometry. Eight sonications performed in the treatments were then simulated with the developed model. Computations were performed by driving the simulated phased array ultrasound transducer with the acoustic parameters used in the treatments. Resulting focal temperatures and size of the thermal foci were compared quantitatively, in addition to qualitative inspection of the simulated pressure and temperature fields. This study found that the computational model and the simulation parameters predicted an average of 24 ± 13% lower focal temperature elevations than observed in the treatments. The size of the simulated thermal focus was found to be 40 ± 13% smaller in the anterior-posterior direction and 22 ± 14% smaller in the inferior-superior direction than in the treatments. The location of the simulated thermal focus was off from the prescribed target by 0.3 ± 0.1 mm, while the peak focal temperature elevation observed in the measurements was off by 1.6 ± 0.6 mm. Although the results of the simulations suggest that there could be some inaccuracies in either the tissue parameters used, or in the simulation methods, the simulations were able to predict the focal spot locations and temperature elevations adequately for initial treatment planning performed to assess, for example, the feasibility of sonication. The accuracy of the simulations could be improved if more precise ultrasound tissue properties (especially of the

  7. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  8. Boundary conditions towards realistic simulation of jet engine noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamankar, Nitin S.

    Strict noise regulations at major airports and increasing environmental concerns have made prediction and attenuation of jet noise an active research topic. Large eddy simulation coupled with computational aeroacoustics has the potential to be a significant research tool for this problem. With the emergence of petascale computer clusters, it is now computationally feasible to include the nozzle geometry in jet noise simulations. In high Reynolds number experiments on jet noise, the turbulent boundary layer on the inner surface of the nozzle separates into a turbulent free shear layer. Inclusion of a nozzle with turbulent inlet conditions is necessary to simulate this phenomenon realistically. This will allow a reasonable comparison of numerically computed noise levels with the experimental results. Two viscous wall boundary conditions are implemented for modeling the nozzle walls. A characteristic-based approach is compared with a computationally cheaper, extrapolation-based formulation. In viscous flow over a circular cylinder under two different regimes, excellent agreement is observed between the results of the two approaches. The results agree reasonably well with reference experimental and numerical results. Both the boundary conditions are thus found to be appropriate, the extrapolation-based formulation having an edge with its low cost. This is followed with the crucial step of generation of a turbulent boundary layer inside the nozzle. A digital filter-based turbulent inflow condition, extended in a new way to non-uniform curvilinear grids is implemented to achieve this. A zero pressure gradient flat plate turbulent boundary layer is simulated at a high Reynolds number to show that the method is capable of producing sustained turbulence. The length of the adjustment region necessary for synthetic inlet turbulence to recover from modeling errors is estimated. A low Reynolds number jet simulation including a round nozzle geometry is performed and the method

  9. Growth of Methanogens on a Mars Soil Simulant Under Simulated Martian Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, Timothy A.; Bekkum, Curtis R.; McKay, Christopher P.

    2004-06-01

    Due to the hostile conditions at the surface, any life forms existing on Mars today would most likely inhabit a subsurface environment where conditions are potentially wetter and warmer, but organic compounds may be lacking and light energy for photosynthesis would be absent. Methanogens, members of the domain Archaea, are microorganisms from planet Earth that can grow under these relatively extreme conditions. We have demonstrated that certain methanogenic species can indeed grow on a Mars soil simulant, JSC Mars-1, with limited amounts of water, under conditions approaching a possible subsurface environment on Mars.

  10. Animated-simulation modeling facilitates clinical-process costing.

    PubMed

    Zelman, W N; Glick, N D; Blackmore, C C

    2001-09-01

    Traditionally, the finance department has assumed responsibility for assessing process costs in healthcare organizations. To enhance process-improvement efforts, however, many healthcare providers need to include clinical staff in process cost analysis. Although clinical staff often use electronic spreadsheets to model the cost of specific processes, PC-based animated-simulation tools offer two major advantages over spreadsheets: they allow clinicians to interact more easily with the costing model so that it more closely represents the process being modeled, and they represent cost output as a cost range rather than as a single cost estimate, thereby providing more useful information for decision making. PMID:11552586

  11. Survival rates of some terrestrial microorganisms under simulated space conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, J.; Oshima, T.; Koike, K. A.; Taguchi, H.; Tanaka, R.; Nishimura, K.; Miyaji, M.

    1992-10-01

    In connection with planetary quarantine, we have been studying the survival rates of nine species of terrestrial microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, yeasts, fungi, etc.) under simulated interstellar conditions. If common terrestrial microorganisms cannot survive in space even for short periods, we can greatly reduce expenditure for sterilizing space probes. The interstellar environment in the solar system has been simulated by low temperature, high vacuum (77 k, 4 × 10-6 torr), and protons irradiation from a Van de Graaff generator. After exposure to a barrage of protons corresponding to about 250 years of irradiation in solar space, Tobacco mosaic virus. Bacillus subtilis spores, Aspergillus niger spores, and Clostridium mangenoti spores showed survival rates of 82%, 45%, 28%, and 25%, respectively. Furthermore, pathogenic Candida albicans showed 7% survival after irradiation corresponding to about 60 years in space.

  12. Characterization of Apollo Bulk Soil Samples Under Simulated Lunar Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    Remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces. A fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies like the Moon creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements [e.g. Logan et al. 1973, Salisbury and Walter 1989, Thomas et al. 2012, Donaldson Hanna et al. 2012]. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured. To best understand the effects of the near surface-environment of the Moon, a consortium of four institutions with the capabilities of characterizing lunar samples was created. The goal of the Thermal Infrared Emission Studies of Lunar Surface Compositions Consortium (TIRES-LSCC) is to characterize Apollo bulk soil samples with a range of compositions and maturities in simulated lunar conditions to provide better context for the spectral effects due to varying compositions and soil maturity as well as for the interpretation of data obtained by the LRO Diviner Lunar Radiometer and future lunar and airless body thermal emission spectrometers. An initial set of thermal infrared emissivity measurements of the bulk lunar soil samples will be made in three of the laboratories included in the TIRES-LSCC: the Asteroid and Lunar Environment Chamber (ALEC) in RELAB at Brown University, the Simulated Lunar Environment chamber in the Planetary Spectroscopy Facility (PSF) at the University of Oxford, and the Simulated Airless Body Emission Laboratory (SABEL) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  13. Simulating the Phoenix Lander meteorological conditions with a Mars GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daerden, F.; Neary, L.; Whiteway, J.; Dickinson, C.; Komguem, L.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.

    2012-04-01

    An updated version of the GEM-Mars Global Circulation Model [1] is applied for the simulation of the meteorological conditions at the Phoenix lander site for the time period of the surface operations (Ls=76-150). The simulation results for pressure and temperature at the surface are compared to data from the Phoenix Meteorological Station (MET). The vertical profiles of dust and temperature are compared to Phoenix LIDAR measurements and data from orbit (CRISM and MCS on MRO). The simulated conditions in the PBL are compared to those obtained in a dedicated PBL-Aeolian dust model [2] which was successfully applied to drive a detailed microphysical model [3] for the interpretation of clouds and precipitation observed by the LIDAR on Phoenix [4,5]. [1] Moudden, Y. and J.C. McConnell (2005): A new model for multiscale modeling of the Martian atmosphere, GM3, J. Geophys. Res. 110, E04001, doi:10.1029/2004JE002354 [2] Davy, R., P. A. Taylor, W. Weng, and P.-Y. Li (2009), A model of dust in the Martian lower atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D04108, doi:10.1029/2008JD010481. [3] Daerden, F., J.A. Whiteway, R. Davy, C. Verhoeven, L. Komguem, C. Dickinson, P. A. Taylor, and N. Larsen (2010), Simulating Observed Boundary Layer Clouds on Mars, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L04203, doi:10.1029/2009GL041523 [4] Whiteway, J., M. Daly, A. Carswell, T. Duck, C. Dickinson, L. Komguem, and C. Cook (2008), Lidar on the Phoenix mission to Mars, J. Geophys. Res., 113, E00A08, doi:10.1029/2007JE003002. [5] Whiteway, J., et al. (2009), Mars water ice clouds and precipitation, Science, 325, 68 - 70.

  14. Recognizing Clinical Styles in a Dental Surgery Simulator.

    PubMed

    Rhienmora, Phattanapon; Haddawy, Peter; Suebnukarn, Siriwan; Shrestha, Poonam; Dailey, Matthew N

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing clinical style is essential for generating intelligent guidance in virtual reality simulators for dental skill acquisition. The aim of this study was to determine the potential of Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) in matching novices' tooth cutting sequences with those of experts. Forty dental students and four expert dentists were enrolled to perform access opening to the root canals with a simulator. Four experts performed in manners that differed widely in the tooth preparation sequence. Forty students were randomly allocated into four groups and were trained following each expert. DTW was performed between each student's sequence and all the expert sequences to determine the best match. Overall, the accuracy of the matching was high (95%). The current results suggest that the DTW is a useful technique to find the best matching expert for a student so that feedback based on that expert's performance can be given to the novice in clinical skill training. PMID:26262031

  15. Quantifying strain on posterior shoulder tissues during 5 simulated clinical tests: A cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Borstad, John D.; Dashottar, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Study design Controlled laboratory study using a repeated measures approach. Objective To quantify the amount of strain on cadaver posterior shoulder tissues during simulated clinical tests across different tissue conditions. Background Several clinical tests are used to quantify posterior glenohumeral joint (GHJ) tissue tightness; however the ability of these tests to directly assess the flexibility or tightness of the posterior capsule has not been evaluated. Methods The middle and lower regions of the posterior shoulder tissues were instrumented with strain gauges on 8 cadaver shoulder specimens. Strain was quantified on the posterior shoulder muscles, on the native posterior GHJ capsule (baseline condition), and on the posterior GHJ capsule after it was experimentally contracted using thermal energy. Five simulated clinical tests were compared across each of the 3 conditions; humerus cross-body adduction, and GHJ internal rotation with the humerus positioned in 4 combinations of plane and elevation angle. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to compare strain measured during the 5 simulated clinical tests across the 3 conditions, and to evaluate the change in strain after contracting the posterior capsule. Results There was a statistically significant interaction between tests and conditions for the middle region of the posterior shoulder. In the experimentally contracted condition, strain was greater when GHJ internal rotation was added to humerus flexion than when GHJ internal rotation was added to humerus abduction. There was a statistically significant main effect of tests at the lower region of the posterior shoulder, with internal rotation in abduction and internal rotation in the GHJ resting position demonstrating greater strain than cross-body adduction. The percent change in strain between the baseline and contracted capsule conditions did not reach statistical significance at either region. Conclusion Strain on an experimentally contracted posterior GHJ

  16. Simulating Realistic Imaging Conditions For In-Situ Liquid Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy enables the imaging of biological cells, macromolecular protein complexes, nanoparticles, and other systems in a near-native environment. In order to improve interpretation of image contrast features and also predict ideal imaging conditions ahead of time, new virtual electron microscopic techniques are needed. A technique for virtual fluid-stage high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with the multislice method is presented that enables the virtual imaging of model fluid-stage systems composed of millions of atoms. The virtual technique is exemplified by simulating images of PbS nanoparticles under different imaging conditions and the results agree with previous experimental findings. General insight is obtained on the influence of the effects of fluid path length, membrane thickness, nanoparticle position, defocus and other microscope parameters on attainable image quality. PMID:23872040

  17. Simulating realistic imaging conditions for in situ liquid microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, David A.; Faller, Roland; Evans, James E.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-12-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy enables the imaging of biological cells, macromolecular protein complexes, nanoparticles, and other systems in a near-native environment. In order to improve interpretation of image contrast features and also predict ideal imaging conditions ahead of time, new virtual electron microscopic techniques are needed. A technique for virtual fluid-stage high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy with the multislice method is presented that enables the virtual imaging of model fluid-stage systems composed of millions of atoms. The virtual technique is exemplified by simulating images of PbS nanoparticles under different imaging conditions and the results agree with previous experimental findings. General insight is obtained on the influence of the effects of fluid path length, membrane thickness, nanoparticle position, defocus and other microscope parameters on attainable image quality.

  18. A Boundary Condition for Simulation of Flow Over Porous Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frink, Neal T.; Bonhaus, Daryl L.; Vatsa, Veer N.; Bauer, Steven X. S.; Tinetti, Ana F.

    2001-01-01

    A new boundary condition is presented.for simulating the flow over passively porous surfaces. The model builds on the prior work of R.H. Bush to eliminate the need for constructing grid within an underlying plenum, thereby simplifying the numerical modeling of passively porous flow control systems and reducing computation cost. Code experts.for two structured-grid.flow solvers, TLNS3D and CFL3D. and one unstructured solver, USM3Dns, collaborated with an experimental porosity expert to develop the model and implement it into their respective codes. Results presented,for the three codes on a slender forebody with circumferential porosity and a wing with leading-edge porosity demonstrate a good agreement with experimental data and a remarkable ability to predict the aggregate aerodynamic effects of surface porosity with a simple boundary condition.

  19. MHD simulations using average solar wind conditions for substorms observed under northward IMF conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, K. S.; Lee, D.-Y.; Ogino, T.; Lee, D. H.

    2015-09-01

    Substorms are known to sometimes occur even under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. In this paper, we perform three-dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic simulations to examine dayside reconnection, tail, and ionospheric signatures for two cases of substorm observations under prolonged northward and dawnward IMF conditions: (1) a strongly northward/dawnward IMF case with BIMF = (0, -20, 20) nT; (2) a weakly northward/dawnward IMF case with BIMF = (0, -2, 2) nT. Throughout the simulations, we used the constant solar wind conditions to reflect the prolonged solar wind conditions around the substorm times. We found that, in both cases, the tail reconnection occurred after the usual high-latitude reconnection on the dayside, providing a possible energy source for later triggered substorm observations under northward IMF conditions. The presence of an equal amount of IMF By allows the high-latitude reconnected magnetic field lines to transport to the tail lobe, eventually leading to the tail reconnection. The simulation results also revealed the following major differences between the two cases: First, the reconnection onset (both on dayside and in the tail) occurs earlier in the strongly northward IMF case than in the weakly northward IMF case. Second, the polar cap size, which is finite in both cases despite the northward IMF conditions and thus supports the lobe energy buildup needed for the substorm occurrences, is larger in the strongly northward IMF case. Accordingly, the polar cap potential is far larger in the strongly northward IMF case (hundreds of kilovolt) than in the weakly northward IMF case (tens of kilovolt). Third, in the strongly northward IMF case, the strong earthward tail plasma flow appears to be caused by the enhanced convection (so enhanced duskward Ey) due to the tail reconnection. In contrast, in the weakly northward IMF case, the earthward tail plasma flow increases gradually in association with a modestly increased

  20. Overall thermal performance of flexible piping under simulated bending conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fesmire, J. E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.

    2002-05-01

    Flexible, vacuum-insulated transfer lines for low-temperature applications have higher thermal losses than comparable rigid lines. Typical flexible piping construction uses corrugated tubes, inner and outer, with a multilayer insulation (MLI) system in the annular space. Experiments on vacuum insulation systems in a flexible geometry were conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. The effects of bending were simulated by causing the inner tube to be eccentric with the outer tube. The effects of spacers were simulated in a controlled way by inserting spacer tubes for the length of the cylindrical test articles. Two material systems, standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI), were tested under the full range of vacuum levels using a liquid nitrogen boiloff calorimeter to determine the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value). The results indicate that the flexible piping under simulated bending conditions significantly degrades the thermal performance of the insulation system. These data are compared to standard MLI for both straight and flexible piping configurations. The definition of an overall k-value for actual field installations (koafi) is described for use in design and analysis of cryogenic piping systems.

  1. On stochastic inlet boundary condition for unsteady simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedoba, P.; Jícha, M.; Čermák, L.

    2014-03-01

    The paper deals with the stochastic generation of synthesized turbulence, which may be used for a generating of an inlet boundary condition for unsteady simulations, e.g. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) or Large Eddy Simulation (LES). Assumptions for the generated turbulence are isotropy and homogeneity. The described method produces a stochastic turbulent velocity field using the synthesis of a finite sum of random Fourier modes. The calculation of individual Fourier modes is based on known energy spectrum of turbulent flow, and some turbulent quantities, e.g. turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent dissipation rate. A division of wave number range of the energy spectrum determines directly the number of Fourier modes, and has a direct impact on accuracy and speed of this calculation. Therefore, this work will examine the influence of the number of Fourier modes on a conservation of the first and second statistical moments of turbulent velocity components, which are prespecified. It is important to ensure a sufficient size of a computational domain, and a sufficient number of cells for meaningful comparative results. Dimensionless parameters characterizing the resolution and size of the computational domain according to a turbulent length scale will be introduced for this purpose. Subsequently, the sufficient values of this parameters will be shown for individual numbers of Fourier modes.

  2. Leaching of metals from cement under simulated environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huixia; Wei, Fang; Tang, Jingchun; Giesy, John P

    2016-03-15

    Leaching of metals from cement under various environmental conditions was measured to evaluate their environmental safety. A cement product containing clinker, which was produced from cement kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes, was solidified and leaching of metals was characterized using the 8-period test. Concentrations and speciation of metals in cements were determined. Effects of ambient environment and particle size on leachability of metals and mineralogical phases of cement mortars were evaluated by use of XRD and SEM. Results indicated that metals in cements were leachable in various media in descending order of: sea water, groundwater and acid rain. Cr, Ni, As, Co and V were leached by simulated sea water, while Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sb and Tl were not leached in simulated sea water, groundwater or acid rain. When exposed to simulated acid rain or groundwater, amounts of Cr, Ni, As and V leached was inversely proportional to particle size of cement mortar. According to the one-dimensional diffusion equation, Cr was most leachable and the cumulative leached mass was predicted to be 9.6 mg kg(-1) after 20 years. Results of this study are useful in predicting releases of metals from cement products containing ash and clinkers cement kiln co-processing of hazardous wastes, so that they can be safely applied in the environment. PMID:26802528

  3. Overall Thermal Performance of Flexible Piping Under Simulated Bending Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesmire, James E.; Augustynowicz, S. D.; Demko, J. A.; Thompson, Karen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Flexible, vacuum-insulated transfer lines for low-temperature applications have higher thermal losses than comparable rigid lines. Typical flexible piping construction uses corrugated tubes, inner and outer, with a multilayer insulation (MLI) system in the annular space. Experiments on vacuum insulation systems in a flexible geometry were conducted at the Cryogenics Test Laboratory of NASA Kennedy Space Center. The effects of bending were simulated by causing the inner tube to be eccentric with the outer tube. The effects of spacers were simulated in a controlled way by inserting spacer tubes for the length of the cylindrical test articles. Two material systems, standard MLI and a layered composite insulation (LCI), were tested under the full range of vacuum levels using a liquid nitrogen boiloff calorimeter to determine the apparent thermal conductivity (k-value). The results indicate that the flexible piping under simulated bending conditions significantly degrades the thermal performance of the insulation system. These data are compared to standard MLI for both straight and flexible piping configurations. The definition of an overall k-value for actual field installations (k(sub oafi)) is described for use in design and analysis of cryogenic piping systems.

  4. Numerical simulation of isolated droplet combustion under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroenlein, Kenneth G.

    A new numerical model for the simulation of liquid fuel droplet vaporization and combustion time-histories under conditions of no body forces or bulk fluid flow is developed. Assuming spherosymmetry, the model applies finite volume methods combined with high-order implicit time integration to the system of interest. Molecular transport, thermal radiation, thermophysical properties, and chemical kinetic behaviors are represented in rigorous detail. Specifically, this effort represents the first implementation of a Stefan-Maxwellian transport formulation and of a spectrally-resolved radiant thermal transport formulation to this physical configuration. Particular effort has been applied toward computational efficiency so that the interactive complexities of these phenomena can be represented with substantial detail. Liquid fuels, consisting of n-heptane, n-nonane, n-hexadecane and methanol, under a variety of ambient conditions were simulated yielding generally good agreement with experiment and highlighting areas for future model development where discrepancies do exist. In particular, the highly modular design allows for the inclusion and comparison of differing chemical, thermodynamic and transport representations, aiding in the validation of simplified representations, highlighting the impact of more detailed ones and making the inclusion of new phenomena such as soot production or radiative penetration of the liquid phase dependent only on developing the appropriate submodel.

  5. Modelling and simulation of concrete leaching under outdoor exposure conditions.

    PubMed

    Schiopu, Nicoleta; Tiruta-Barna, Ligia; Jayr, Emmanuel; Méhu, Jacques; Moszkowicz, Pierre

    2009-02-15

    Recently, a demand regarding the assessment of release of dangerous substances from construction products was raised by European Commission which has issued the Mandate M/366 addressed to CEN. This action is in relation with the Essential Requirement No. 3 "Hygiene, Health and Environment" of the Construction Products Directive (89/106/EC). The potential hazard for environment and health may arise in different life cycle stages of a construction product. During the service life stage, the release of substances due to contact with the rain water is the main potential hazard source, as a consequence of the leaching phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a coupled chemical-transport model for the case of a concrete based construction product, i.e. concrete paving slabs, exposed to rain water under outdoor exposure conditions. The development of the model is based on an iterative process of comparing the experimental results with the simulated results up to an acceptable fit. The experiments were conducted at laboratory scale (equilibrium and dynamic leaching tests) and field scale. The product was exposed for one year in two types of leaching scenarios under outdoor conditions, "runoff" and "stagnation", and the element release was monitored. The model was calibrated using the experimental data obtained at laboratory scale and validated against measured field data, by taking into account the specific rain water balance and the atmospheric CO2 uptake as input parameters. The numerical tool used in order to model and simulate the leaching behaviour was PHREEQC, coupled with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) thermodynamic data base. The simulation results are satisfying and the paper demonstrates the feasibility of the modelling approach for the leaching behaviour assessment of concrete type construction materials. PMID:19118868

  6. Influence of Spanwise Boundary Conditions on Slat Noise Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Buning, Pieter G.

    2015-01-01

    The slat noise from the 30P/30N high-lift system is being investigated through computational fluid dynamics simulations with the OVERFLOW code in conjunction with a Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustics solver. In the present study, two different spanwise grids are being used to investigate the effect of the spanwise extent and periodicity on the near-field unsteady structures and radiated noise. The baseline grid with periodic boundary conditions has a short span equal to 1/9th of the stowed chord, whereas the other, longer span grid adds stretched grids on both sides of the core, baseline grid to allow inviscid surface boundary conditions at both ends. The results indicate that the near-field mean statistics obtained using the two grids are similar to each other, as are the directivity and spectral shapes of the radiated noise. However, periodicity forces all acoustic waves with less than one wavelength across the span to be two-dimensional, without any variation in the span. The spanwise coherence of the acoustic waves is what is needed to make estimates of the noise that would be radiated from realistic span lengths. Simulations with periodic conditions need spans of at least six slat chords to allow spanwise variation in the low-frequencies associated with the peak of broadband slat noise. Even then, the full influence of the periodicity is unclear, so employing grids with a fine, central region and highly stretched meshes that go to slip walls may be a more efficient means of capturing the spanwise decorrelation of low-frequency acoustic phenomena.

  7. Aqueous alteration of VHTR fuels particles under simulated geological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait Chaou, Abdelouahed; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Karakurt, Gökhan; Grambow, Bernd

    2014-05-01

    Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) fuels consist of the bistructural-isotropic (BISO) or tristructural-isotropic (TRISO)-coated particles embedded in a graphite matrix. Management of the spent fuel generated during VHTR operation would most likely be through deep geological disposal. In this framework we investigated the alteration of BISO (with pyrolytic carbon) and TRISO (with SiC) particles under geological conditions simulated by temperatures of 50 and 90 °C and in the presence of synthetic groundwater. Solid state (scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, electron probe microanalyses (EPMA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)) and solution analyses (ICP-MS, ionique chromatography (IC)) showed oxidation of both pyrolytic carbon and SiC at 90 °C. Under air this led to the formation of SiO2 and a clay-like Mg-silicate, while under reducing conditions (H2/N2 atmosphere) SiC and pyrolytic carbon were highly stable after a few months of alteration. At 50 °C, in the presence and absence of air, the alteration of the coatings was minor. In conclusion, due to their high stability in reducing conditions, HTR fuel disposal in reducing deep geological environments may constitute a viable solution for their long-term management.

  8. Responses to simulated winter conditions differ between threespine stickleback ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Taylor C; Rudman, Seth M; Schulte, Patricia M

    2016-02-01

    Abiotic factors can act as barriers to colonization and drive local adaptation. During colonization, organisms may cope with changes in abiotic factors using existing phenotypic plasticity, but the role of phenotypic plasticity in assisting or hindering the process of local adaptation remains unclear. To address these questions, we explore the role of winter conditions in driving divergence during freshwater colonization and the effects of plasticity on local adaptation in ancestral marine and derived freshwater ecotypes of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We found that freshwater-resident stickleback had greater tolerance of acute exposure to low temperatures than marine stickleback, but these differences were abolished after acclimation to simulated winter conditions (9L:15D photoperiod at 4 °C). Plasma chloride levels differed between the ecotypes, but showed a similar degree of plasticity between ecotypes. Gene expression of the epithelial calcium channel (ECaC) differed between ecotypes, with the freshwater ecotype demonstrating substantially greater expression than the marine ecotype, but there was no plasticity in this trait under these conditions in either ecotype. In contrast, growth (assessed as final mass) and the expression of an isoform of the electroneutral Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3) exhibited substantial change with temperature in the marine ecotype that was not observed in the freshwater ecotype under the conditions tested here, which is consistent with evolution of these traits by a process such as genetic assimilation. These data demonstrate substantial divergence in many of these traits between freshwater and marine stickleback, but also illustrate the complexity of possible relationships between plasticity and local adaptation. PMID:26645643

  9. Spectral Characterization of Phobos Analogues Under Simulated Environmental Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson Hanna, K. L.; Bowles, N. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Glotch, T. D.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Pieters, C. M.; Thomas, I.

    2014-12-01

    The surface of Phobos holds many keys for understanding its formation and evolution as well as the history and dynamics of the Mars-Phobos system. Visible to near infrared (VNIR) observations suggests that Phobos' surface is compositionally heterogeneous with 'redder' and 'bluer' units that both appear to be anhydrous in nature. Lunar highland spectra have been identified as spectral analogues for the 'redder' and 'bluer' units while thermally metamorphosed CI/CM chondrites, lab-heated carbonaceous chondrites and highly space weathered mafic mineral assemblages have been identified as the best analogues for the 'bluer' surface units. Additionally, thermal infrared emissivity spectra indicate that if Phobos' surface is optically mature it may be rich in feldspar, which is consistent with VNIR observations of Phobos' surface being spectrally similar to lunar highland spectra. While remote observations provide key insights into the composition and evolution of planetary surfaces, a fundamentally important component to any remote compositional analysis of planetary surfaces is laboratory measurements of well-characterized samples measured under the appropriate environmental conditions. The vacuum environment of airless bodies creates a steep thermal gradient in the upper hundreds of microns of regolith. Lab studies of particulate rocks and minerals as well as selected lunar soils under vacuum and lunar-like conditions have identified significant effects of this thermal gradient on thermal infrared (TIR) spectral measurements. However recent lab measurements of carbonaceous chondrites demonstrated that simulated asteroid conditions do not affect the resulting emissivity spectra to the degree observed in lunar soils and is highly dependent on composition. Such lab studies demonstrate the high sensitivity of TIR emissivity spectra to environmental conditions under which they are measured and indicate that the near surface environment of all airless bodies do not

  10. Effects of Perchlorate on Organic Molecules under Simulated Mars Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrier, B. L.; Kounaves, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) was discovered in the northern polar region of Mars by the Mars Phoenix Lander in 2008 and has also been recently detected by the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater [1,2]. Perchlorate has also been shown to be formed under current Mars conditions via the oxidation of mineral chlorides, further supporting the theory that perchlorate is present globally on Mars [3]. The discovery of perchlorate on Mars has raised important questions about the effects of perchlorate on the survival and detection of organic molecules. Although it has been shown that pyrolysis in the presence of perchlorate results in the alteration or destruction of organic molecules [4], few studies have been conducted on the potential effects of perchlorate on organic molecules under martian surface conditions. Although perchlorate is typically inert under Mars-typical temperatures [5], perchlorate does absorb high energy UV radiation, and has been shown to decompose to form reactive oxychlorine species such as chlorite (ClO2-) when exposed to martian conditions including UV or ionizing radiation [6,7]. Here we investigate the effects of perchlorate on the organic molecules tryptophan, benzoic acid and mellitic acid in order to determine how perchlorate may alter these compounds under Mars conditions. Experiments are performed in a Mars Simulation Chamber (MSC) capable of reproducing the temperature, pressure, atmospheric composition and UV flux found on Mars. Soil simulants are prepared consisting of SiO2 and each organic, as well as varying concentrations of perchlorate salts, and exposed in the MSC. Subsequent to exposure in the MSC samples are leached and the leachate analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS to determine the degree of degradation of the original organic and the identity of any potential decomposition products formed by oxidation or chlorination. References: [1] Kounaves et al., J. Geophys. Res. Planets, Vol. 115, p. E00E10, 2010 [2] Glavin et al., J. Geophys. Res. Planets, Vol

  11. Simulating flight boundary conditions for orbiter payload modal survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Y. T.; Sernaker, M. L.; Peebles, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    An approach to simulate the characteristics of the payload/orbiter interfaces for the payload modal survey was developed. The flexure designed for this approach is required to provide adequate stiffness separation in the free and constrained interface degrees of freedom to closely resemble the flight boundary condition. Payloads will behave linearly and demonstrate similar modal effective mass distribution and load path as the flight if the flexure fixture is used for the payload modal survey. The potential non-linearities caused by the trunnion slippage during the conventional fixed base modal survey may be eliminated. Consequently, the effort to correlate the test and analysis models can be significantly reduced. An example is given to illustrate the selection and the sensitivity of the flexure stiffness. The advantages of using flexure fixtures for the modal survey and for the analytical model verification are also demonstrated.

  12. Properties of Cerro Prieto rock at simulated in situ conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Schatz, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Rocks from the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field were tested under simulated in situ conditions in the laboratory to determine their properties and response to pore pressure reduction as would be caused by reservoir production. The primary purpose of the project was to provide information on compaction and creep as they may contribute to surface subsidence. Results show typical compressibilities for reservoir rocks of about 1 x 10/sup -6/ psi/sup -1/ and creep compaction rates of about 1 x 10/sup -9/ sec/sup -1/ when triggered by 1000 psi pore pressure reduction. This creep rate would cause significant porosity reduction if it continued for several years. Therefore it becomes important to learn how to correctly extrapolate such data to long times.

  13. Filter Media Tests Under Simulated Martian Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of Mars will require the optimal utilization of planetary resources. One of its abundant resources is the Martian atmosphere that can be harvested through filtration and chemical processes that purify and separate it into its gaseous and elemental constituents. Effective filtration needs to be part of the suite of resource utilization technologies. A unique testing platform is being used which provides the relevant operational and instrumental capabilities to test articles under the proper simulated Martian conditions. A series of tests were conducted to assess the performance of filter media. Light sheet imaging of the particle flow provided a means of detecting and quantifying particle concentrations to determine capturing efficiencies. The media's efficiency was also evaluated by gravimetric means through a by-layer filter media configuration. These tests will help to establish techniques and methods for measuring capturing efficiency and arrestance of conventional fibrous filter media. This paper will describe initial test results on different filter media.

  14. Multi-Scale Initial Conditions For Cosmological Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /ZAH, Heidelberg /HITS, Heidelberg

    2011-11-04

    We discuss a new algorithm to generate multi-scale initial conditions with multiple levels of refinements for cosmological 'zoom-in' simulations. The method uses an adaptive convolution of Gaussian white noise with a real-space transfer function kernel together with an adaptive multi-grid Poisson solver to generate displacements and velocities following first- (1LPT) or second-order Lagrangian perturbation theory (2LPT). The new algorithm achieves rms relative errors of the order of 10{sup -4} for displacements and velocities in the refinement region and thus improves in terms of errors by about two orders of magnitude over previous approaches. In addition, errors are localized at coarse-fine boundaries and do not suffer from Fourier-space-induced interference ringing. An optional hybrid multi-grid and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based scheme is introduced which has identical Fourier-space behaviour as traditional approaches. Using a suite of re-simulations of a galaxy cluster halo our real-space-based approach is found to reproduce correlation functions, density profiles, key halo properties and subhalo abundances with per cent level accuracy. Finally, we generalize our approach for two-component baryon and dark-matter simulations and demonstrate that the power spectrum evolution is in excellent agreement with linear perturbation theory. For initial baryon density fields, it is suggested to use the local Lagrangian approximation in order to generate a density field for mesh-based codes that is consistent with the Lagrangian perturbation theory instead of the current practice of using the Eulerian linearly scaled densities.

  15. Inner Magnetosphere Simulations: Exploring Magnetosonic Wave Generation Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaharia, S. G.; Jordanova, V. K.; MacDonald, E.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the conditions for magnetosonic wave generation in the near-Earth magnetosphere by performing numerical simulations with our newly improved self-consistent model, RAM-SCB. The magnetosonic (ion Bernstein) instability, a potential electron acceleration mechanism in the outer radiation belt, is driven by a positive slope in the ion distribution function perpendicular to the magnetic field, a so-called "velocity ring" distribution at energies above 1 keV. The formation of such distributions is dependent on the interplay of magnetic and electric drifts, as well as ring current losses, and therefore its study requires a realistic treatment of both plasma and field dynamics. The RAM-SCB model represents a 2-way coupling of the kinetic ring current-atmosphere interactions model (RAM) with a 3D plasma equilibrium code. In RAM-SCB the magnetic field is computed in force balance with the RAM anisotropic pressures and then returned to RAM to guide the particle dynamics. RAM-SCB thus properly treats both the kinetic drift physics crucial in the inner magnetosphere and the self-consistent interaction between plasma and magnetic field (required due to the strong field depressions during storms, depressions that strongly affect particle drifts). In order to provide output at geosynchronous locations, recently the RAM-SCB boundary has been expanded to 9 RE from Earth, with plasma pressure and magnetic field boundary conditions prescribed there from empirical models. This presentation will analyze, using event simulations with the improved model and comparisons with LANL MPA geosynchronous observations, the occurrence and location of magnetosonic unstable regions in the inner magnetosphere and their dependence on the following factors: 1). geomagnetic activity level (including quiet time, storm main phase and recovery); 2). magnetic field self-consistency (stretched vs. dipole fields). We will also discuss the physical mechanism for the occurrence of the velocity

  16. Denitrification by Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Under Simulated Engineered Martain Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, S. D.; Currier, P. A.; Thomas, D. J.

    The growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in denitrifying medium was observed for 14 days in the presence of a martian soil analog (JSC Mars-1) and elevated CO2 levels. A four-way test was conducted comparing growth of experimental samples to growth in the presence of inert silica (“Earth soil”) and normal terrestrial atmosphere. The combination of 50 mL of fluorescence-denitrification medium and 10 grams of soil additive simulated an aquatic environment, which was contained in sealed culture bottles. Nitrite assays of the media (to test for consumption during denitrification), gas sampling from the bottles to observe nitrogen production, and colony counts to quantify growth rate were all performed at 0, 7 and 14 days after inoculation. Supplemental tests performed included nitrate assays (to confirm the occurrence of denitrification) and culture fluorescence (as a non-invasive growth test). Growth and denitrification took place under all conditions, and no significant differ- ences were observed between samples. These data indicate that the presence of simulated martian regolith and elevated CO2 have little or no effect on the growth of or denitrification by P. aeruginosa at the concentrations used.

  17. Numerical Simulations of Conditionally Unstable Flows over a Mountain Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotunno, R.

    2009-09-01

    This presentation describes numerical simulations of conditionally unstable flows impinging on an idealized mesoscale mountain ridge. These idealized simulations, which were performed with an explicitly resolving cloud model, allow the investigation of the solution precipitation characteristics as a function of the prescribed environment. The numerical solutions were first carried out for different uniform-wind profiles impinging on a bell-shaped ridge 2000 m high. In the experiments with weaker environmental wind speeds (2.5 m/s), the cold-air outflow, caused by the evaporative cooling of rain from precipitating convective cells, is the main mechanism for cell redevelopment and movement; this outflow produces new convective cells near the head of the up- and down-stream density currents, which rapidly propagate far from the ridge, so that no rainfall is produced close to the ridge at later times. For larger wind speeds (10, 20 m/s), there is less time for upwind, evaporation-induced, cold-pool formation before air parcels reach the ridge top and descend downwind and so the (statistically) steady rainfall tends to be concentrated near the ridge top. Further experiments with different ridge heights and half-widths were carried out in order to analyze their effect on the distribution and intensity of precipitation. Dimensional analysis reveals that the maximum (nondimensional) rainfall rate mainly depends on the ratio of mountain height to the level of free convection, the ridge aspect ratio and on a parameter that measures the ratio of advective to convective time scale.

  18. Reactivity landscape of pyruvate under simulated hydrothermal vent conditions

    PubMed Central

    Novikov, Yehor; Copley, Shelley D.

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate is an important “hub” metabolite that is a precursor for amino acids, sugars, cofactors, and lipids in extant metabolic networks. Pyruvate has been produced under simulated hydrothermal vent conditions from alkyl thiols and carbon monoxide in the presence of transition metal sulfides at 250 °C [Cody GD et al. (2000) Science 289(5483):1337–1340], so it is plausible that pyruvate was formed in hydrothermal systems on the early earth. We report here that pyruvate reacts readily in the presence of transition metal sulfide minerals under simulated hydrothermal vent fluids at more moderate temperatures (25–110 °C) that are more conducive to survival of biogenic molecules. We found that pyruvate partitions among five reaction pathways at rates that depend upon the nature of the mineral present; the concentrations of H2S, H2, and NH4Cl; and the temperature. In most cases, high yields of one or two primary products are found due to preferential acceleration of certain pathways. Reactions observed include reduction of ketones to alcohols and aldol condensation, both reactions that are common in extant metabolic networks. We also observed reductive amination to form alanine and reduction to form propionic acid. Amino acids and fatty acids formed by analogous processes may have been important components of a protometabolic network that allowed the emergence of life. PMID:23872841

  19. Reactivity landscape of pyruvate under simulated hydrothermal vent conditions.

    PubMed

    Novikov, Yehor; Copley, Shelley D

    2013-08-13

    Pyruvate is an important "hub" metabolite that is a precursor for amino acids, sugars, cofactors, and lipids in extant metabolic networks. Pyruvate has been produced under simulated hydrothermal vent conditions from alkyl thiols and carbon monoxide in the presence of transition metal sulfides at 250 °C [Cody GD et al. (2000) Science 289(5483):1337-1340], so it is plausible that pyruvate was formed in hydrothermal systems on the early earth. We report here that pyruvate reacts readily in the presence of transition metal sulfide minerals under simulated hydrothermal vent fluids at more moderate temperatures (25-110 °C) that are more conducive to survival of biogenic molecules. We found that pyruvate partitions among five reaction pathways at rates that depend upon the nature of the mineral present; the concentrations of H2S, H2, and NH4Cl; and the temperature. In most cases, high yields of one or two primary products are found due to preferential acceleration of certain pathways. Reactions observed include reduction of ketones to alcohols and aldol condensation, both reactions that are common in extant metabolic networks. We also observed reductive amination to form alanine and reduction to form propionic acid. Amino acids and fatty acids formed by analogous processes may have been important components of a protometabolic network that allowed the emergence of life. PMID:23872841

  20. Computer simulation of equilibrium conditions following a plant 'trip'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limb, D.

    When a process or part of a process experiences an emergency 'trip', the contained fluids redistribute themselves based upon the prevailing pressure gradients and depending upon the positions of valves at the time of the trip. Reverse flow through rotating compression machinery may occur, depending upon the locations of non-return valves. Reduction in pressure and mixing of cryogenic fluids of different compositions and/or temperatures can both lead to generation of significant volumes of vapour. This equilibration process is usually largely over in a matter of seconds rather than minutes. Key questions facing process and mechanical designers are: what is the settle-out pressure, and can we ensure relief valves do not lift following a trip? To answer these related questions it is necessary to analyse the state of the system prior to the trip, and then, based upon valve positions, etc., construct a model of the worst case probable scenarios for the qualitative redistribution of fluid inventory. At this point the simulation program may be employed to help calculate rigorously the final settle out conditions for each of the possible scenarios. This technique is particularly appropriate for cryogenic processes including refrigeration cycles. It is illustrated here with the help of a multistage hydrocarbon compressor example. Other related non-standard applications of the steady state process simulation program are identified.

  1. Teaching Nursing Leadership: Comparison of Simulation versus Traditional Inpatient Clinical.

    PubMed

    Gore, Teresa N; Johnson, Tanya Looney; Wang, Chih-hsuan

    2015-01-01

    Nurse educators claim accountability to ensure their students are prepared to assume leadership responsibilities upon graduation. Although front-line nurse leaders and nurse executives feel new graduates are not adequately prepared to take on basic leadership roles, professional nursing organizations such as the American Nurses Association (ANA) and the Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) deem leadership skills are core competencies of new graduate nurses. This study includes comparison of a leadership-focused multi-patient simulation and the traditional leadership clinical experiences in a baccalaureate nursing leadership course. The results of this research show both environments contribute to student learning. There was no statistical difference in the overall score. Students perceived a statistically significant difference in communication with patients in the traditional inpatient environment. However, the students perceived a statistical significant difference in teaching-learning dyad toward simulation. PMID:25928758

  2. An R package for simulation experiments evaluating clinical trial designs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Day, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an open-source application for evaluating competing clinical trial (CT) designs using simulations. The S4 system of classes and methods is utilized. Using object-oriented programming provides extensibility through careful, clear interface specification; using R, an open-source widely-used statistical language, makes the application extendible by the people who design CTs: biostatisticians. Four key classes define the specifications of the population models, CT designs, outcome models and evaluation criteria. Five key methods define the interfaces for generating patient baseline characteristics, stopping rule, assigning treatment, generating patient outcomes and calculating the criteria. Documentation of their connections with the user input screens, with the central simulation loop, and with each other faciliates the extensibility. New subclasses and instances of existing classes meeting these interfaces can integrate immediately into the application. To illustrate the application, we evaluate the effect of patient pharmacokinetic heterogeneity on the performance of a common Phase I "3+3" design. PMID:21347151

  3. Students' experiences of learning manual clinical skills through simulation.

    PubMed

    Johannesson, Eva; Silén, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Håkan

    2013-03-01

    Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and thoughts about their learning through simulation skills training. The study was designed for an educational setting at a clinical skills centre. Ten third-year undergraduate nursing students performed urethral catheterisation, using the virtual reality simulator UrecathVision™, which has haptic properties. The students practised in pairs. Each session was videotaped and the video was used to stimulate recall in subsequent interviews. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis from interviews resulted in three themes: what the students learn, how the students learn, and the simulator's contribution to the students' learning. Students learned manual skills, how to perform the procedure, and professional behaviour. They learned by preparing, watching, practising and reflecting. The simulator contributed by providing opportunities for students to prepare for the skills training, to see anatomical structures, to feel resistance, and to become aware of their own performance ability. The findings show that the students related the task to previous experiences, used sensory information, tested themselves and practised techniques in a hands-on fashion, and reflected in and on action. The simulator was seen as a facilitator to learning the manual skills. The study design, with students working in pairs combined with video recording, was found to enhance opportunities for reflection. PMID:22395307

  4. 42 CFR 410.45 - Rural health clinic services: Scope and conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rural health clinic services: Scope and conditions... Services § 410.45 Rural health clinic services: Scope and conditions. (a) Medicare Part B pays for the following rural health clinic services, if they are furnished in accordance with the requirements...

  5. DNA damage under simulated extraterrestrial conditions in bacteriophage T7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, A.; Módos, K.; Hegedüs, M.; Kovács, G.; Rontó, Gy.; Péter, Á.; Lammer, H.; Panitz, C.

    The experiment "Phage and Uracil response" will be accommodated in the EXPOSE facility of the International Space Station. Its objective is to examine and quantify the effect of specific space conditions on nucleic acid models, especially on bacteriophage T7 and isolated T7 DNA thin films. In order to define the environmental and technical requirements of the EXPOSE, the samples were subjected to the experiment verification test (EVT). During EVT, the samples were exposed to vacuum (10 -4-10 -6 Pa) and polychromatic UV-radiation (200-400 nm) in air, in inert atmosphere, as well as in simulated space vacuum. The effect of extreme temperature in vacuum and the influence of temperature fluctuations around 0 °C were also studied. The total intraphage/isolated DNA damage was determined by quantitative PCR using 555 and 3826 bp fragments of T7 DNA. The type of the damage was resolved using a combination of enzymatic probes and neutral and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis; the structural/chemical effects were analyzed by spectroscopic and microscopical methods. We obtained substantial evidence that DNA lesions accumulate throughout exposure, but the amount of damage depends on the thickness of the layers. According to our preliminary results, the damages by exposure to conditions of dehydration and UV-irradiation are larger than the sum of vacuum alone, or radiation alone case, suggesting a synergistic action of space vacuum and UV radiation with DNA being the critical target.

  6. [Caries occurrence and periodontal condition in 100 dental students in their clinical semester. A clinical study].

    PubMed

    Kern, M; Jonas, I

    1988-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of caries and periodontal condition of 100 randomly selected clinical dental students (73 males, 27 females) in the age range of 22-37 years (means = 26.1 +/- 3.3 years). The statistical analysis revealed the following results: DMF-T Index (Klein & Palmer 1940) = 12.61 +/- 5.41 Plaque Index (Silness & Löe 1964) = 0.37 +/- 0.23 Gingiva Index (Löe & Silness 1963) = 0.39 +/- 0.20 Periodontal pocket depth = 1.65 +/- 0.27 mm. In relation to the results of other studies, clinical dental students had a decreased DMF-T Index and were in a better state of oral health and restaurations as compared to other groups of the same age. Female students had significantly less carious teeth, plaque and gingival disease than the male students. Increasing age had a highly significant correlation to DMF-T Index. Gingiva Index and pocket depth, whereas Plaque Index was correlated to a lesser degree. Plaque was confirmed as the essential factor of gingival disease. PMID:3273778

  7. Heart rate, anxiety and performance of residents during a simulated critical clinical encounter: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High-fidelity patient simulation has been praised for its ability to recreate lifelike training conditions. The degree to which high fidelity simulation elicits acute emotional and physiologic stress among participants – and the influence of acute stress on clinical performance in the simulation setting – remain areas of active exploration. We examined the relationship between residents’ self-reported anxiety and a proxy of physiologic stress (heart rate) as well as their clinical performance in a simulation exam using a validated assessment of non-technical skills, the Ottawa Crisis Resource Management Global Rating Scale (Ottawa GRS). Methods This was a prospective observational cohort study of emergency medicine residents at a single academic center. Participants managed a simulated clinical encounter. Anxiety was assessed using a pre- and post-simulation survey, and continuous cardiac monitoring was performed on each participant during the scenario. Performance in the simulation scenario was graded by faculty raters using a critical actions checklist and the Ottawa GRS instrument. Results Data collection occurred during the 2011 academic year. Of 40 eligible residents, 34 were included in the analysis. The median baseline heart rate for participants was 70 beats per minute (IQR: 62 – 78). During the simulation, the median maximum heart rate was 140 beats per minute (IQR: 137 – 151). The median minimum heart rate during simulation was 81 beats per minute (IQR: 72 – 92), and mean heart rate was 117 beats per minute (95% CI: 111 – 123). Pre- and post-simulation anxiety scores were equal (mean 3.3, IQR: 3 to 4). The minimum and maximum Overall Ottawa GRS scores were 2.33 and 6.67, respectively. The median Overall score was 5.63 (IQR: 5.0 to 6.0). Of the candidate predictors of Overall performance in a multivariate logistic regression model, only PGY status showed statistical significance (P = 0.02). Conclusions Simulation is associated

  8. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a... testing; clinical consultant. 493.1453 Section 493.1453 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION...

  9. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditioning test simulations. 86.162-03 Section 86.162-03 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... alternative air conditioning test simulations. (a) Upon petition from a manufacturer or upon the Agency's own initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning...

  10. Experiments and numerical simulation of mixing under supercritical conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, T.; Rodriguez, J.; Leyva, I. A.; Candel, S.

    2012-05-01

    Supercritical pressure conditions designate a situation where the working fluid pressure is above the critical point. Among these conditions, it is interesting to identify a transcritical range which corresponds to cases where the pressure is above the critical point, but the injection temperature is below the critical value. This situation is of special interest because it raises fundamental issues which have technological relevance in the analysis of flows in liquid rocket engines. This situation is here envisaged by analyzing the behavior of a nitrogen shear coaxial jet comprising an inner stream injected at temperatures close to the critical temperature and a coaxial flow at a higher temperature. Experiments are carried out both in the absence of external modulation and by imposing a large amplitude transverse acoustic field. Real gas large eddy simulations are performed for selected experiments. The combination of experiments and calculations is used to evaluate effects of injector geometry and operating parameters. Calculations retrieve what is observed experimentally when the momentum flux ratio of the outer to the inner stream J= (ρ _eu_e^2)/(ρ _iu_i^2) is varied. Results exhibit the change in flow structure and the development of a recirculation region when this parameter exceeds a critical value. The instantaneous flow patterns for different momentum flux ratios are used in a second stage to characterize the dynamical behavior of the flow in terms of power spectral density of velocity and density fluctuations. Results obtained under acoustic modulation provide insight into mixing enhancement of coaxial streams with a view of its possible consequences in high frequency combustion instabilities. It is shown in particular that the presence of strong acoustic modulations notably reduces the high density jet core length, indicating an increased mixing efficiency. This behavior is more pronounced when the jet is placed at the location of maximum transverse

  11. CO2/ brine substitution experiments at simulated reservoir conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kummerow, Juliane; Spangenberg, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Capillary properties of rocks affect the mobility of fluids in a reservoir. Therefore, the understanding of the capillary pressure behaviour is essential to assess the long-term behaviour of CO2 reservoirs. Beyond this, a calibration of the petrophysical properties on water saturation of reservoir rocks at simulated in situ conditions is crucial for a proper interpretation of field monitoring data. We present a set-up, which allows for the combined measurements of capillary pressure, electric resistivity, and elastic wave velocities under controlled reservoir conditions (pconf = 400 bar, ppore = 180 bar, T = 65 ° C) at different brine-CO2 saturations. The capillary properties of the samples are measured using the micropore membrane technique. The sample is jacketed with a Viton tube (thickness = 4 mm) and placed between two current electrode endcaps, which as well contain pore fluid ports and ultrasonic P and S wave transducers. Between the sample and the lower endcap the hydrophilic semi-permeable micro-pore membrane (pore size = 100 nm) is integrated. It is embedded into filter papers to establish a good capillary contact and to protect the highly sensitive membrane against mechanical damage under load. Two high-precision syringe pumps are used to displace a quantified volume of brine by CO2 and determine the corresponding sample saturation. The fluid displacement induces a pressure gradient along the sample, which corresponds to the capillary pressure at a particular sample saturation. It is measured with a differential pressure sensor in the range between 0 - 0.2 MPa. Drainage and imbibition cycles are performed to provide information on the efficiency of capillary trapping and to get a calibration of the petrophysical parameters of the sample.

  12. Comparing Burned and Unburned Forest Conditions Using Simulated Rill Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, P. R.; Brown, R. E.; Wagenbrenner, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Despite the dominance of concentrated flow or rill erosion in the erosion processes in disturbed forests, few studies have quantified the effects of different types of forest disturbance on rill erosion. This study quantified the effects of four forest conditions--natural (recently undisturbed), low soil burn severity, high soil burn severity, and skid trails--on rill runoff quantity, runoff velocity, and rill erosion. Simulated rill experiments were conducted at sites in eastern Oregon (Tower Fire) and in northern Washington (North 25 Fire) on forested slopes with granitic and volcanic soils, respectively. The natural and skid trail conditions were established near each burned area in unburned forest. For each rill experiment, concentrated flow was applied at the top of the plot through an energy dissipater at five inflow rates for 12 min each. Runoff was sampled every 2 min and runoff volume and sediment concentration were determined for each sample. The runoff velocity was measured using a dyed calcium chloride solution and two conductivity probes placed a known distance apart. Runoff volume, runoff velocities, and sediment concentrations increased with increasing levels of disturbance. The natural plots had very low runoff rates and sediment concentrations at both the Tower and North 25 sites. The low soil burn severity plots had greater responses than the natural plots, but the responses in the two sites were different as a result of variability in effect of burning and differences in time between burning and the rill experiments. The high soil burn severity and the skid trail plots had the highest runoff ratios, runoff velocities, and sediment concentrations and the responses were similar at both sites. These results suggest that any differences in responses related to soil type or other site factors were masked by the increase in response resulting from the high levels of disturbance.

  13. 42 CFR 418.104 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) The initial plan of care, updated plans of care, initial assessment, comprehensive assessment, updated comprehensive assessments, and clinical notes. (2) Signed copies of the notice of patient rights... medications, symptom management, treatments, and services. (4) Outcome measure data elements, as described...

  14. 42 CFR 418.104 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: (1) The initial plan of care, updated plans of care, initial assessment, comprehensive assessment, updated comprehensive assessments, and clinical notes. (2) Signed copies of the notice of patient rights... medications, symptom management, treatments, and services. (4) Outcome measure data elements, as described...

  15. Structural performance of HEPA filters under simulated tornado conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, H. L.; Gregory, W. S.; Ricketts, C. I.; Smith, P. R.

    1982-02-01

    The response of high efficiency particulate air filters to simulated tornado conditions was determined. The data include the structural limits of the filters, their resistance at high flow rates, and the effects of filter design features and tornado parameters. Considering all the filters tested, the mean break pressure or structural limit was found to be 2.35 pse (16.2 kPa). The maximum value was 2.87 psi (19.8 kPa), and the low value found was 1.31 psi (9.0 kPa). The type of failure was usually a medium break of the downstream filter fold. The types of filters that were evaluated were nuclear grade with design flow rates of 1000 cfm (0.472 cu m/s), standard separators, and folded medium design. The parameters evaluated that are characteristic of the filter included manufacturer, separator type, face-guards, pack tightness, and aerosol loading. Manufacturer and medium properties were found to have a large effect on the structural limits.

  16. Arsenopyrite weathering under conditions of simulated calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Lara, René H; Velázquez, Leticia J; Vazquez-Arenas, Jorge; Mallet, Martine; Dossot, Manuel; Labastida, Israel; Sosa-Rodríguez, Fabiola S; Espinosa-Cristóbal, León F; Escobedo-Bretado, Miguel A; Cruz, Roel

    2016-02-01

    Mining activities release arsenopyrite into calcareous soils where it undergoes weathering generating toxic compounds. The research evaluates the environmental impacts of these processes under semi-alkaline carbonated conditions. Electrochemical (cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, EIS), spectroscopic (Raman, XPS), and microscopic (SEM, AFM, TEM) techniques are combined along with chemical analyses of leachates collected from simulated arsenopyrite weathering to comprehensively examine the interfacial mechanisms. Early oxidation stages enhance mineral reactivity through the formation of surface sulfur phases (e.g., S n (2-)/S(0)) with semiconductor properties, leading to oscillatory mineral reactivity. Subsequent steps entail the generation of intermediate siderite (FeCO3)-like, followed by the formation of low-compact mass sub-micro ferric oxyhydroxides (α, γ-FeOOH) with adsorbed arsenic (mainly As(III), and lower amounts of As(V)). In addition, weathering reactions can be influenced by accessible arsenic resulting in the formation of a symplesite (Fe3(AsO4)3)-like compound which is dependent on the amount of accessible arsenic in the system. It is proposed that arsenic release occurs via diffusion across secondary α, γ-FeOOH structures during arsenopyrite weathering. We suggest weathering mechanisms of arsenopyrite in calcareous soil and environmental implications based on experimental data. PMID:26498805

  17. Simulation of cosmic irradiation conditions in thick target arrangements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theis, S.; Englert, P.; Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    One approach to simulate 2-pi irradiation conditions of planetary surfaces which has been widely applied in the past are bombardments of so called thick targets. A very large thick target was exposed recently to 2.1 GeV protons at the Bevatron-Bevalac in Berkeley. In a 100x100x180 cm steel-surrounded granodiorite target radioactive medium and high energy spallation products of the incident primary and of secondary particles were analyzed along the beam axis down to depths of 140 g/cm(2) in targets such as Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, T, Si, SiO2 and Al. Activities of these nuclides were exclusively determined via instrumental gamma-ray spectroscopy. Relative yields of neutron capture and spallation products induced in Co and Cu targets during the thick target bombardment are shown as a function of depth. The majority of the medium energy products such as Co-58 from Co targets exhibit a maximum at shallow depths of 40-60 g/cm(2) and then decrease exponentially. In a comparable 600 MeV proton bombarded thick target such a slight maximum for medium energy products was not observed. Rather, Co-58 activities in Co decreased steadily with the highest activity at the surface. The activities of the n-capture product Co-60 increase steadily starting at the surface. This indicates the rapidly growing flux of low energy neutrons within the target.

  18. Structural performance of HEPA filters under simulated tornado conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, H.L.; Gregory, W.S.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.

    1982-02-01

    This report contains the results of structural tests to determine the response of High Efficiency Particulate Air filters to simulated tornado conditions. The data include the structural limits of the filters, their resistance at high flow rates, and the effects of filter design features and tornado parameters. Considering all the filters tested, the mean break pressure or structural limit was found to be 2.35 pse (16.2 kPa). The maximum value was 2.87 psi (19.8 kPa), and the low value found was 1.31 psi (9.0 kPa). The type of failure was usually a medium break of the downstream filter fold. The type of filters that were evaluated were nuclear grade with design flow rates of 1000 cfm (0.472 m/sup 3//s), standard separators, and folded medium design. The parameters evaluated that are characteristic of the filter included manufacturer, separator type, faceguards, pack tightness, and aerosol loading. Manufacturer and medium properties were found to have a large effect on the structural limits.

  19. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  20. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  1. Simulated Firefighting Task Performance and Physiology Under Very Hot Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Brianna; Snow, Rod; Williams-Bell, Michael; Aisbett, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of very hot (45°C) conditions on the performance of, and physiological responses to, a simulated firefighting manual-handling task compared to the same work in a temperate environment (18°C). Methods: Ten male volunteer firefighters performed a 3-h protocol in both 18°C (CON) and 45°C (VH). Participants intermittently performed 12 × 1-min bouts of raking, 6 × 8-min bouts of low-intensity stepping, and 6 × 20-min rest periods. The area cleared during the raking task determined work performance. Core temperature, skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously. Participants also periodically rated their perceived exertion (RPE) and thermal sensation. Firefighters consumed water ad libitum. Urine specific gravity (USG) and changes in body mass determined hydration status. Results: Firefighters raked 19% less debris during the VH condition. Core and skin temperature were 0.99 ± 0.20 and 5.45 ± 0.53°C higher, respectively, during the VH trial, and heart rate was 14–36 beats.min−1 higher in the VH trial. Firefighters consumed 2950 ± 1034 mL of water in the VH condition, compared to 1290 ± 525 in the CON trial. Sweat losses were higher in the VH (1886 ± 474 mL) compared to the CON trial (462 ± 392 mL), though both groups were hydrated upon protocol completion (USG < 1.020). Participants' average RPE was higher in the VH (15.6 ± 0.9) compared to the CON trial (12.6 ± 0.9). Similarly, the firefighers' thermal sensation scores were significantly higher in the VH (6.4 ± 0.5) compared to the CON trial (4.4 ± 0.4). Conclusions: Despite the decreased work output and aggressive fluid replacement observed in the VH trial, firefighters' experienced increases in thermal stress, and exertion. Fire agencies should prioritize the health and safety of fire personnel in very hot temperatures, and consider the impact of reduced productivity on fire suppression efforts. PMID:26617527

  2. 42 CFR 485.721 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.721 Condition of...) Identification data and consent forms. (3) Medical history. (4) Report of physical examinations, if any....

  3. 42 CFR 485.721 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.721 Condition of...) Identification data and consent forms. (3) Medical history. (4) Report of physical examinations, if any....

  4. 42 CFR 485.721 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.721 Condition of...) Identification data and consent forms. (3) Medical history. (4) Report of physical examinations, if any....

  5. 42 CFR 485.721 - Condition of participation: Clinical records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Providers of Outpatient Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.721 Condition of...) Identification data and consent forms. (3) Medical history. (4) Report of physical examinations, if any....

  6. An Oracle: Antituberculosis Pharmacokinetics-Pharmacodynamics, Clinical Correlation, and Clinical Trial Simulations To Predict the Future▿

    PubMed Central

    Pasipanodya, Jotam; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) science and clinical trial simulations have not been adequately applied to the design of doses and dose schedules of antituberculosis regimens because many researchers are skeptical about their clinical applicability. We compared findings of preclinical PK/PD studies of current first-line antituberculosis drugs to findings from several clinical publications that included microbiologic outcome and pharmacokinetic data or had a dose-scheduling design. Without exception, the antimicrobial PK/PD parameters linked to optimal effect were similar in preclinical models and in tuberculosis patients. Thus, exposure-effect relationships derived in the preclinical models can be used in the design of optimal antituberculosis doses, by incorporating population pharmacokinetics of the drugs and MIC distributions in Monte Carlo simulations. When this has been performed, doses and dose schedules of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and moxifloxacin with the potential to shorten antituberculosis therapy have been identified. In addition, different susceptibility breakpoints than those in current use have been identified. These steps outline a more rational approach than that of current methods for designing regimens and predicting outcome so that both new and older antituberculosis agents can shorten therapy duration. PMID:20937778

  7. [A Critical Condition of Clinical Studies in Japan -- A Battle of Clinical Study Groups].

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The post-marketing clinical study groups have been losing their activity due to stop of financial support. As the result, clinical study groups cannot achieve any EBM for treatment guidelines. Financial supports should be restarted immediately not to extinguish the post-marketing clinical studies and study groups. PMID:27220798

  8. Numerical Simulation of HIWC Conditions with the Terminal Area Simulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Switzer, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional, numerical simulation of a mesoconvective system is conducted in order to better understand conditions associated with High Ice Water Content (HIWC) and its threat to aviation safety. Although peak local values of ice water content may occur early in the storm lifetime, large areas of high concentrations expand with time and persist even when the storm tops begin to warm. The storm canopy which contains HIWC, has low radar reflectivity factor and is fed by an ensemble of regenerating thermal pulses.

  9. Potential workload in applying clinical practice guidelines for patients with chronic conditions and multimorbidity: a systematic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Buffel du Vaure, Céline; Ravaud, Philippe; Baron, Gabriel; Barnes, Caroline; Gilberg, Serge; Boutron, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the potential workload for patients with multimorbidity when applying existing clinical practice guidelines. Design Systematic analysis of clinical practice guidelines for chronic conditions and simulation modelling approach. Data sources National Guideline Clearinghouse index of US clinical practice guidelines. Study selection We identified the most recent guidelines for adults with 1 of 6 prevalent chronic conditions in primary care (ie hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), osteoarthritis and depression). Data extraction From the guidelines, we extracted all recommended health-related activities (HRAs) such as drug management, self-monitoring, visits to the doctor, laboratory tests and changes of lifestyle for a patient aged 45–64 years with moderate severity of conditions. Simulation modelling approach For each HRA identified, we performed a literature review to determine the potential workload in terms of time spent on this HRA. Then, we used a simulation modelling approach to estimate the potential workload needed to comply with these recommended HRAs for patients with several of these chronic conditions. Results Depending on the concomitant chronic condition, patients with 3 chronic conditions complying with all the guidelines would have to take a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 medications per day, visit a health caregiver a minimum of 1.2 to a maximum of 5.9 times per month and spend a mean (SD) of 49.6 (27.3) to 71.0 (34.5) h/month in HRAs. The potential workload increased greatly with increasing number of concomitant conditions, rising to 18 medications per day, 6.6 visits per month and 80.7 (35.8) h/month in HRAs for patients with 6 chronic conditions. PMID:27006342

  10. Using a simulated environment to support students learning clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Doody, O; Condon, M

    2013-11-01

    Within intellectual disability nursing students are prepared within a biopsychosocialeducational model and curriculum address these challenges. Using a simulated learning environment has great potential for promoting competence and in-depth knowledge of substantive topics relevant to practice. This article presents an assignment designed to more closely resemble real-world activities to allow students develop and exercise skills that translate to practice activities and incorporates a student's reflective comments on the process. The assignment was designed to foster intellectual disability student nurses ability to facilitate family/client education. The aim of the assignment was fulfilled through the students designing a clinical skill teaching session that could be used with families/clients. The sessions were recorded and the student reviewed their recording to reflect on their performance and to self assess. To facilitate student learning the modules academic lecturer also reviewed the recording and both lecturer and student meet to discuss the reflection and self assessment. PMID:23602694

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of photon way in clinical laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionita, Iulian; Voitcu, Gabriel

    2011-07-01

    The multiple scattering of light can increase efficiency of laser therapy of inflammatory diseases enlarging the treated area. The light absorption is essential for treatment while scattering dominates. Multiple scattering effects must be introduced using the Monte Carlo method for modeling light transport in tissue and finally to calculate the optical parameters. Diffuse reflectance measurements were made on high concentrated live leukocyte suspensions in similar conditions as in-vivo measurements. The results were compared with the values determined by MC calculations, and the latter have been adjusted to match the specified values of diffuse reflectance. The principal idea of MC simulations applied to absorption and scattering phenomena is to follow the optical path of a photon through the turbid medium. The concentrated live cell solution is a compromise between homogeneous layer as in MC model and light-live cell interaction as in-vivo experiments. In this way MC simulation allow us to compute the absorption coefficient. The values of optical parameters, derived from simulation by best fitting of measured reflectance, were used to determine the effective cross section. Thus we can compute the absorbed radiation dose at cellular level.

  12. DNA damage under simulated extraterrestrial conditions in bacteriophage T7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, A.; Kovács, G.; Hegedüs, M.; Módos, K.; Rontó, Gy.; Lammer, H.; Panitz, C.

    The experiment ``Phage and uracil response'' (PUR) will be accommodated in the EXPOSE facility of the ISS aiming to examine and quantify the effect of specific space conditions on bacteriophage T7 and isolated T7 DNA thin films. To achieve this new method was elaborated for the preparation of DNA and nucleoprotein thin films (1). During the EXPOSE Experiment Verification Tests (EVT) the samples were exposed to vacuum (10 -6 Pa), to monochromatic (254 nm) and polychromatic (200-400 nm) UV radiation in air as well in simulated space vacuum. Using neutral density (ND) filters dose-effect curves were performed in order to define the maximum doses tolerated, and we also studied the effect of temperature in vacuum as well as the influence of temperature fluctuations. We obtained substantial evidence that DNA lesions (e.g. strand breaks, DNA-protein cross-links, DNA-DNA cross-links) accumulate throughout exposure. DNA damage was determined by quantitative PCR using 555 bp and 3826 bp fragments of T7 DNA (2) and by neutral and alkaline agarose gel electrophoresis; the structural/chemical effects were analyzed by spectroscopic and microscopical methods. Characteristic changes in the absorption spectrum, in the electrophoretic pattern of DNA and the decrease of the amount of the PCR products have been detected indicating the damage of isolated and intraphage DNA. Preliminary results suggest a synergistic action of space vacuum and UV radiation with DNA being the critical target. Fekete et al. J. Luminescence 102-103, 469-475, 2003 Hegedüs et al. Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 213-219, 2003

  13. Flux Based Surface Boundary Conditions for Navier-Stokes Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fertig, M.; Auweter-Kurtz, M.

    2005-02-01

    During re-entry high thermal combined with mechanical loads arise at the TPS surface of a re-entry vehicle. Due to low gas density, high Knudsen Numbers arise, which indicate rarefaction effects such as thermo-chemical non-equilibrium as well as temperature and velocity slip. With increasing altitude, local Knudsen Numbers predict the failure of continuum equations starting in the bow shock and at the surface. While local failure of the equations in the shock can be neglected for the determination of surface loads, local failure at the surface is not negligible. The validity of continuum models can be extended by emploing surface boundary equations accounting for temperature and velocity slip. A new flux based model has been developed originating on the Boltzmann Equation. Making use of the Enskog Method perturbed partition functions for a multi-component gas are determined from the Boltzmann Equation. By introduction of the moments of Boltzmann's Equation, Maxwell's Transport Equation can be obtained. Particles approaching the surface are distinguished from particles leaving the surface depending on their molecular velocities. Hence, mass, momentum and energy fluxes to the surface can be determined employing the collisional invariants. Reactive as well as scattering models can be easily introduced in order to compute the fluxes from the surface. Finally, flux differences are balanced with the continuum fluxes from the Navier-Stokes equations. Hence, the model is able to predict temperature and velocity slip at the surface of a re-entry vehicle under rarefied conditions. Moreover, it is valid in the continuum regime as well. The boundary equations are solved fully implicit and fully coupled with the non-equilibrium Navier-Stokes Code URANUS. Results are compared to DSMC simulations for the re-entry of the US Space Shuttle orbiter at high altitudes. Key words: Navier-Stokes; re-entry; slip; non-equilibrium.

  14. Simulated prostate biopsy: prostate cancer distribution and clinical correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, John J.; Zeng, Jianchao; Zhang, Wei; Sesterhenn, Isabell A.; Dean, Robert; Moul, Judd W.; Mun, Seong K.

    2000-04-01

    Our group has recently obtained data based upon whole- mounted step-sectioned radical prostatectomy specimens using a 3D computer assisted prostate biopsy simulator that suggests an increased detection rate is possible using laterally placed biopsies. A new 10-core biopsy pattern was demonstrated to be superior to the traditional sextant biopsy. This patter includes the traditional sextant biopsy cores and four laterally placed biopsies in the right and left apex and mid portion of the prostate gland. The objective of this study is to confirm the higher prostate cancer defection rate obtained using our simulated 10-core biopsy pattern in a small clinical trial. We retrospectively reviewed 35 consecutive patients with a pathologic diagnosis of prostate cancer biopsied by a single urologist using the 10-core prostate biopsy patterns were compared with respect to prostate cancer detection rate. Of the 35 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, 54.3 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent were diagnosed when reviewing the sextant biopsy data only. Review of the 10-core pattern revealed that an additional 45.7 percent of patients were diagnosed solely with the laterally placed biopsies. Our results suggest that biopsy protocols that use laterally placed biopsies based upon a five region anatomical model are superior to the routinely used sextant prostate biopsy pattern.

  15. Synthesis of hydrogen cyanide under simulated hydrothermal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinedo-González, Paulina

    Nitrogen is a fundamental element for life, where is present in structural (e.g., proteins), catalytic (e.g., enzymes and ribozymes), energy transfer (e.g., ATP) and information storage (RNA and DNA) biomolecules. Atmospheric and planetary models suggest that nitrogen was abundant in the early atmospheres of Earth as dinitrogen (N2 ), an inert gas under normal atmospheric conditions. To be available for prebiotic synthesis it must be converted into hydrogen cyanide (HCN), ammonia (NH3 ) and/or nitric oxide (NO), in a process referred to as nitrogen fixation. Due to the strength of the triple bond in N2 , nitrogen fixation, while thermodynamically favored is kinetically restricted. In a reducing atmosphere dominated by CH4 -N2 , thunderstorm lightning efficiently produces HCN and NH3 (Stribling and Miller, 1987). Nevertheless, photochemical and geochemical constraints strongly suggest that the early atmosphere was weakly reducing, dominated by CO2 and N2 with traces of CH4 , CO, and H2 (Kasting, 1993). Under these conditions, HCN is no longer synthesized in the lightning channel and instead NO is formed (Navarro-Gonźlez, et al., 2001). In volcanic plumes, where magmatic gases a were more reducing than in the atmosphere, NO can also be formed by the lava heat (Mather et al., 2004) or volcanic lightning (Navarro-Gonźlez et al., 1998). Surprisingly, dinitrogen can be a reduced to NH3 in hydrothermal systems (Brandes et al., 1998), but the formation of HCN and its derivates were not investigated. The present work explores the possibility of the formation of HCN as well as other nitrile derivatives catalyzed by mineral surfaces in hydrothermal vents. To simulate a hydrothermal atmosphere, the experiments were carried out in a stainless steel Parr R minireactor with a 0.1 M NH4 HCO3 solution (200 ml) with or without a mineral surface exposed at 1 bar at temperatures ranging from 100 to 375° C. Different mineral matrices are been investigated. Our preliminary results

  16. 42 CFR 493.1453 - Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... testing; clinical consultant. 493.1453 Section 493.1453 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Condition: Laboratories performing high complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a clinical consultant who meets the requirements of § 493.1455 of this subpart and provides...

  17. 42 CFR 493.1415 - Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... complexity testing; clinical consultant. 493.1415 Section 493.1415 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... § 493.1415 Condition: Laboratories performing moderate complexity testing; clinical consultant. The laboratory must have a clinical consultant who meets the qualification requirements of § 493.1417 of...

  18. Simultaneous Bilateral Spontaneous Pneumothorax: A Rare Emergency Clinical Condition

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Yener; Turkyilmaz, Atila; İntepe, Yavuz Selim; Eroglu, Atilla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Spontaneous pneumothorax is a disease that may cause serious respiratory distress and can be a life-threatening condition. A total of 1.3% of all spontaneous pneumothorax cases are simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP). In this study, because of its rarity, we discuss SBSP cases in light of previously reported cases. Materials and Methods: Between January 2004 and December 2009, SBSP was detected in five patients. Results: All patients were male, and the mean patient age was 18.6 (between 16 and 22 years of age). All patients had various degrees of dyspnea and chest pain. All diagnoses were established by chest X-rays. Two patients (40%) had primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), and three (60%) had secondary spontaneous pneumothorax (SSP) (two patients had silicosis, and one had Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia). Previously, bilateral tube thoracostomies were performed on all patients. One PSP patient had a left apical pleurectomy with axillary thoracotomy; the other had a right apical pleurectomy. Tetracycline pleurodesis was performed on one of the silicosis patients. No additional surgical procedure or pleurodesis was performed on the other silicosis patient or on the pneumonia patient. No recurrence of pneumothorax was observed in any patient. Conclusions: SBSP could be a life-threatening condition; therefore, urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment of this condition can save patients’ lives. PMID:25610108

  19. Nursing Students' Perceptions of Satisfaction and Self-Confidence with Clinical Simulation Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omer, Tagwa

    2016-01-01

    Nursing and other health professionals are increasingly using simulation as a strategy and a tool for teaching and learning at all levels that need clinical training. Nursing education for decades used simulation as an integral part of nursing education. Recent studies indicated that simulation improves nursing knowledge, clinical practice,…

  20. Computer-Based versus High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation in Developing Clinical Judgment in Nursing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Beverly J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if students learn clinical judgment as effectively using computer-based simulations as when using high-fidelity mannequin simulations. There was a single research questions for this study: What is the difference in clinical judgment between participants completing high-fidelity human simulator mannequin…

  1. Asynclitism: a literature review of an often forgotten clinical condition.

    PubMed

    Malvasi, Antonio; Barbera, Antonio; Di Vagno, Giovanni; Gimovsky, Alexis; Berghella, Vincenzo; Ghi, Tullio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Tinelli, Andrea

    2015-11-01

    Asynclitism is defined as the "oblique malpresentation of the fetal head in labor". Asynclitism is a clinical diagnosis that may be difficult to make; it may be found during vaginal examination. It is significant because it may cause failure of progress operative or cesarean delivery. We reviewed all literature for asynclitism by performing an extensive electronic search of studies from 1959 to 2013. All studies were first reviewed by a single author and discussed with co-authors. The following studies were identified: 8 book chapters, 14 studies on asynclitism alone and 10 papers on both fetal occiput posterior position and asynclitism. The fetal head in a laboring patient may be associated with some degree of asynclitism; this is seen as usual way of the fetal head to adjust to maternal pelvic diameters. However, marked asynclitism is often detected in presence of a co-existing fetal head malposition, especially the transverse and occipital posterior positions. Digital diagnosis of asynclitism is enhanced by intrapartum ultrasound with transabdominal or transperineal approach. The accurate diagnosis of asynclitism, in an objective way, may provide a better assessment of the fetal head position that will help in the correct application of vacuum and forceps, allowing the prevention of unnecessary cesarean deliveries. PMID:25283847

  2. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alternative air conditioning test simulations. (a) Upon petition from a manufacturer or upon the Agency's own initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  3. Water ice nucleation characteristics of JSC Mars-1 regolith simulant under simulated Martian atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phebus, Bruce D.; Johnson, Alexandria V.; Mar, Brendan; Stone, Bradley M.; Colaprete, Anthony; Iraci, Laura T.

    2011-04-01

    Water ice clouds in the Martian atmosphere are governed by parameters such as number density and particle size distribution that in turn affect how they influence the climate. With some of the underlying properties of cloud formation well known only for Earth, extrapolations to Mars are potentially misleading. We report here continued laboratory experiments to identify critical onset conditions for water ice formation under Martian cloud forming temperatures and water partial pressures (155-182 K, 7.6 × 10-5 to 7.7 × 10-3 Pa H2O). By observing the 3 μm infrared band to monitor nucleation and growth, we observe significant temperature dependence in the nucleation of ice on JSC Mars-1 regolith simulant, with critical saturation ratios, Scrit, as high as 3.8 at 155 K. At temperatures below ˜180 K, ice nucleation on JSC Mars-1 requires significant supersaturation, potentially impacting the Martian hydrological cycle.

  4. Development of Automatic Controller of Brain Temperature Based on the Conditions of Clinical Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utsuki, Tomohiko; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi

    A new automatic controller of brain temperature was developed based on the inevitable conditions of its clinical use from the viewpoint of various kinds of feasibility, in particular, electric power consumption of less than 1,500W in ICU. The adaptive algorithm was employed to cope with individual time-varying characteristic change of patients. The controller under water-surface cooling hypothermia requires much power for the frequent regulation of the water temperature of cooling blankets. Thus, in this study, the power consumption of the controller was checked by several kinds of examinations involving the control simulation of brain temperature using a mannequin with thermal characteristics similar to that of adult patients. The required accuracy of therapeutic brain hypothermia, i.e. control deviation within ±0.1C was experimentally confirmed using “root mean square of the control error”, despite the present controller consumes less energy comparing with the one in the case of our conventional controller, where it can still keeps remaining power margin more than 300W even in the full operation. Thereby, the clinically required water temperature was also confirmed within the limit of power supply, thus its practical application is highly expected with less physical burden of medical staff inclusive of more usability and more medical cost performance.

  5. Pressure Drop in Tortuosity/Kinking of the Internal Carotid Artery: Simulation and Clinical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Daming; Hu, Shen; Liu, Jiachun; Zhou, Zhilun; Lu, Jun; Qi, Peng; Song, Shiying

    2016-01-01

    Background. Whether carotid tortuosity/kinking of the internal carotid artery leads to cerebral ischemia remains unclear. There is very little research about the hemodynamic variation induced by carotid tortuosity/kinking in the literature. The objective of this study was to research the blood pressure changes induced by carotid tortuosity/kinking. Methods. We first created a geometric model of carotid tortuosity/kinking. Based on hemodynamic boundary conditions, the hemodynamics of carotid tortuosity and kinking were studied via a finite element simulation. Then, an in vitro system was built to validate the numerical simulation results. The mean arterial pressure changes before and after carotid kinking were measured using pressure sensors in 12 patients with carotid kinking. Results. Numerical simulation revealed that the pressure drops increased with increases in the kinking angles. Clinical tests and in vitro experiments confirmed the numerical simulation results. Conclusions. Carotid kinking leads to blood pressure reduction. In certain conditions, kinking may affect the cerebral blood supply and be associated with cerebral ischemia. PMID:27195283

  6. Visual-search observers for SPECT simulations with clinical backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gifford, Howard C.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to test the ability of visual-search (VS) model observers to predict the lesion- detection performance of human observers with hybrid SPECT images. These images consist of clinical back- grounds with simulated abnormalities. The application of existing scanning model observers to hybrid images is complicated by the need for extensive statistical information, whereas VS models based on separate search and analysis processes may operate with reduced knowledge. A localization ROC (LROC) study involved the detection and localization of solitary pulmonary nodules in Tc-99m lung images. The study was aimed at op- timizing the number of iterations and the postfiltering of four rescaled block-iterative reconstruction strategies. These strategies implemented different combinations of attenuation correction, scatter correction, and detector resolution correction. For a VS observer in this study, the search and analysis processes were guided by a single set of base morphological features derived from knowledge of the lesion profile. One base set used difference-of- Gaussian channels while a second base set implemented spatial derivatives in combination with the Burgess eye filter. A feature-adaptive VS observer selected features of interest for a given image set on the basis of training-set performance. A comparison of the feature-adaptive observer results against previously acquired human-observer data is presented.

  7. Problem-Solving in the Pre-Clinical Curriculum: The Uses of Computer Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Joel A.; Rovick, Allen A.

    1986-01-01

    Promotes the use of computer-based simulations in the pre-clinical medical curriculum as a means of providing students with opportunities for problem solving. Describes simple simulations of skeletal muscle loads, complex simulations of major organ systems and comprehensive simulation models of the entire human body. (TW)

  8. Desert Cyanobacteria under simulated space and Martian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billi, D.; Ghelardini, P.; Onofri, S.; Cockell, C. S.; Rabbow, E.; Horneck, G.

    2008-09-01

    The environment in space and on planets such as Mars, can be lethal to living organisms and high levels of tolerance to desiccation, cold and radiation are needed for survival: rock-inhabiting cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Chroococcidiopsis can fulfil these requirements [1]. These cyanobacteria constantly appear in the most extreme and dry habitats on Earth, including the McMurdo Dry Valleys (Antarctica) and the Atacama Desert (Chile), which are considered the closest terrestrial analogs of two Mars environmental extremes: cold and aridity. In their natural environment, these cyanobacteria occupy the last refuges for life inside porous rocks or at the stone-soil interfaces, where they survive in a dry, dormant state for prolonged periods. How desert strains of Chroococcidiopsis can dry without dying is only partially understood, even though experimental evidences support the existence of an interplay between mechanisms to avoid (or limit) DNA damage and repair it: i) desert strains of Chroococcidiopsis mend genome fragmentation induced by ionizing radiation [2]; ii) desiccation-survivors protect their genome from complete fragmentation; iii) in the dry state they show a survival to an unattenuated Martian UV flux greater than that of Bacillus subtilis spores [3], and even though they die following atmospheric entry after having orbited the Earth for 16 days [4], they survive to simulated shock pressures up to 10 GPa [5]. Recently additional experiments were carried out at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) of Cologne (Germany) in order to identify suitable biomarkers to investigate the survival of Chroococcidiopsis cells present in lichen-dominated communities, in view of their direct and long term space exposition on the International Space Station (ISS) in the framework of the LIchens and Fungi Experiments (LIFE, EXPOSEEuTEF, ESA). Multilayers of dried cells of strains CCMEE 134 (Beacon Valley, Antarctica), and CCMEE 123 (costal desert, Chile ), shielded by

  9. Effects of an Experiential Learning Simulation Design on Clinical Nursing Judgment Development.

    PubMed

    Chmil, Joyce Victor; Turk, Melanie; Adamson, Katie; Larew, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Simulation design should be theory based and its effect on outcomes evaluated. This study (1) applied a model of experiential learning to design a simulation experience, (2) examined how this design affected clinical nursing judgment development, and (3) described the relationship between clinical nursing judgment development and student performance when using the experiential learning design. Findings suggest that using an experiential learning simulation design results in more highly developed nursing judgment and competency in simulation performance. PMID:25763781

  10. Simulating Expert Clinical Comprehension: Adapting Latent Semantic Analysis to Accurately Extract Clinical Concepts from Psychiatric Narrative

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Blatter, Brett; Patel, Vimla

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive studies reveal that less-than-expert clinicians are less able to recognize meaningful patterns of data in clinical narratives. Accordingly, psychiatric residents early in training fail to attend to information that is relevant to diagnosis and the assessment of dangerousness. This manuscript presents cognitively motivated methodology for the simulation of expert ability to organize relevant findings supporting intermediate diagnostic hypotheses. Latent Semantic Analysis is used to generate a semantic space from which meaningful associations between psychiatric terms are derived. Diagnostically meaningful clusters are modeled as geometric structures within this space and compared to elements of psychiatric narrative text using semantic distance measures. A learning algorithm is defined that alters components of these geometric structures in response to labeled training data. Extraction and classification of relevant text segments is evaluated against expert annotation, with system-rater agreement approximating rater-rater agreement. A range of biomedical informatics applications for these methods are suggested. PMID:18455483

  11. Parametric initial conditions for core-collapse supernova simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Yudai; Müller, Ewald

    2016-08-01

    We investigate a method to construct parametrized progenitor models for core-collapse supernova simulations. Different from all modern core-collapse supernova studies, which rely on progenitor models from stellar evolution calculations, we follow the methodology of Baron & Cooperstein to construct initial models. Choosing parametrized spatial distributions of entropy and electron fraction as a function of mass coordinate and solving the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium, we obtain the initial density structures of our progenitor models. First, we calculate structures with parameters fitting broadly the evolutionary model s11.2 of Woosley et al. (2002). We then demonstrate the reliability of our method by performing general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in spherical symmetry with the isotropic diffusion source approximation to solve the neutrino transport. Our comprehensive parameter study shows that initial models with a small central entropy (≲0.4 kB nucleon-1) can explode even in spherically symmetric simulations. Models with a large entropy (≳6 kB nucleon-1) in the Si/O layer have a rather large explosion energy (˜4 × 1050 erg) at the end of the simulations, which is still rapidly increasing.

  12. Parametric initial conditions for core-collapse supernova simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwa, Yudai; Müller, Ewald

    2016-08-01

    We investigate a method to construct parametrized progenitor models for core-collapse supernova simulations. Different from all modern core-collapse supernova studies, which rely on progenitor models from stellar evolution calculations, we follow the methodology of Baron & Cooperstein (1990) to construct initial models. Choosing parametrized spatial distributions of entropy and electron fraction as a function of mass coordinate and solving the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium, we obtain the initial density structures of our progenitor models. First, we calculate structures with parameters fitting broadly the evolutionary model s11.2 of Woosley et al. (2002). We then demonstrate the reliability of our method by performing general relativistic hydrodynamic simulations in spherical symmetry with the isotropic diffusion source approximation to solve the neutrino transport. Our comprehensive parameter study shows that initial models with a small central entropy ($\\lesssim 0.4\\,k_B$ nucleon$^{-1}$) can explode even in spherically symmetric simulations. Models with a large entropy ($\\gtrsim 6\\,k_B$ nucleon$^{-1}$) in the Si/O layer have a rather large explosion energy ($\\sim 4\\times 10^{50}$ erg) at the end of the simulations, which is still rapidly increasing.

  13. Simulation of Martian surface conditions and dust transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørnberg, P.; Merrison, J. P.; Finster, K.; Folkmann, F.; Gunnlaugsson, H. P.; Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.; Kinch, K.; Lomstein, B. Aa.; Mugford, R.

    2002-11-01

    The suspended atmospheric dust which is also found deposited over most of the Martian globe plays an important (possibly vital) role in shaping the surface environment. It affects the weather (solar flux), water transport and possibly also the electrical properties at the surface. The simulation facilities at Aarhus provide excellent tools for studying the properties of this Martian environment. Much can be learned from such simulations, supporting and often inspiring new investigations of the planet. Electrical charging of a Mars analogue dust is being studied within a wind tunnel simulation aerosol. Here electric fields are used to extract dust from suspension. Although preliminary the results indicate that a large fraction of the dust is charged to a high degree, sufficient to dominate adhesion/cohesion processes. A Mars analogue dust layer has been shown to be an excellent trap for moisture, causing increased humidity in the soil below. This allows the possibility for liquid water to be stable close to the surface (less than 10 cm). This is being investigated in an environment simulator where heat and moisture transport can be studied through layers of Mars analogue dust.

  14. Clinical significance of microembolus detection by transcranial Doppler sonography in cardiovascular clinical conditions.

    PubMed

    Hudorović, Narcis

    2006-01-01

    Transcranial Doppler can detect microembolic signals, which are characterized by unidirectional high intensity increase, short duration, and random occurrence, producing a "whistling" sound. Microembolic signals have been proven to represent solid or gaseous particles within the blood flow. Microemboli have been detected in a number of clinical cardiovascular settings: carotid artery stenosis, aortic arch plaques, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, prosthetic heart valves, patent foramen ovale, valvular stenosis, during invasive procedures (angiography, percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) and surgery (carotid, cardiopulmonary bypass). Despite numerous studies performed so far, clinical significance of microembolic signals is still unclear. This article provides an overview of the development and current state of technical and clinical aspects of microembolus detection. PMID:17462357

  15. Sensitivity of a Simulated Derecho Event to Model Initial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei

    2014-05-01

    Since 2003, the MMM division at NCAR has been experimenting cloud-permitting scale weather forecasting using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Over the years, we've tested different model physics, and tried different initial and boundary conditions. Not surprisingly, we found that the model's forecasts are more sensitive to the initial conditions than model physics. In 2012 real-time experiment, WRF-DART (Data Assimilation Research Testbed) at 15 km was employed to produce initial conditions for twice-a-day forecast at 3 km. On June 29, this forecast system captured one of the most destructive derecho event on record. In this presentation, we will examine forecast sensitivity to different model initial conditions, and try to understand the important features that may contribute to the success of the forecast.

  16. Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Sim, Shaun Sebastian Khung Peng; Yau, Christine Wen Leng; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2016-01-01

    This is a review education paper on the current ophthalmology simulators utilized worldwide for undergraduate and postgraduate training. At present, various simulators such as the EYE Exam Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), Eyesi direct ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), Eyesi indirect ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and Eyesi cataract simulators (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). These simulators are thought to be able to reduce the initial learning curve for the ophthalmology training but further research will need to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the simulation-assisted Ophthalmology training. Future research will be of great value to assess the medical students and residents' responses and performance regarding the usefulness of the individual eye simulator. PMID:27366698

  17. Ophthalmology simulation for undergraduate and postgraduate clinical education.

    PubMed

    Ting, Daniel Shu Wei; Sim, Shaun Sebastian Khung Peng; Yau, Christine Wen Leng; Rosman, Mohamad; Aw, Ai Tee; Yeo, Ian Yew San

    2016-01-01

    This is a review education paper on the current ophthalmology simulators utilized worldwide for undergraduate and postgraduate training. At present, various simulators such as the EYE Exam Simulator (Kyoto Kagaku Co. Ltd., Kyoto, Japan), Eyesi direct ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany), Eyesi indirect ophthalmoscope simulator (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and Eyesi cataract simulators (VRmagic, GmbH, Mannheim, Germany). These simulators are thought to be able to reduce the initial learning curve for the ophthalmology training but further research will need to be conducted to assess the effectiveness of the simulation-assisted Ophthalmology training. Future research will be of great value to assess the medical students and residents' responses and performance regarding the usefulness of the individual eye simulator. PMID:27366698

  18. Enhancing nursing informatics competencies and critical thinking skills using wireless clinical simulation laboratories.

    PubMed

    Cholewka, Patricia A; Mohr, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Nursing students at New York City College of Technology are assigned client care experiences that focus on common alterations in health status. However, due to the unpredictability of client census within any healthcare facility, it is not possible for all students to have the same opportunity to care for clients with specific medical conditions. But with the use of patient simulators in a dedicated Clinical Simulation Laboratory setting, students can be universally, consistently, and repeatedly exposed to programmed scenarios that connect theory with the clinical environment. Outcomes from using patient simulators include improved nursing knowledge base, enhanced critical thinking, reflective learning, and increased understanding of information technology for using a Personal Digital Assistant and documenting care by means of an electronic Patient Record System. An innovative nursing education model using a wireless, inter-connective data network was developed by this college in response to the need for increasing nursing informatics competencies and critical thinking skills by students in preparation for client care. PMID:19592905

  19. Clinical simulation as a boundary object in design of health IT-systems.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Stine Loft; Jensen, Sanne; Lyng, Karen Marie

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are very complex, holding numerous stakeholders with various approaches and goals towards the design of health IT-systems. Some of these differences may be approached by applying the concept of boundary objects in a participatory IT-design process. Traditionally clinical simulation provides the opportunity to evaluate the design and the usage of clinical IT-systems without endangering the patients and interrupting clinical work. In this paper we present how clinical simulation additionally holds the potential to function as a boundary object in the design process. The case points out that clinical simulation provides an opportunity for discussions and mutual learning among the various stakeholders involved in design of standardized electronic clinical documentation templates. The paper presents and discusses the use of clinical simulation in the translation, transfer and transformation of knowledge between various stakeholders in a large healthcare organization. PMID:23941951

  20. The impact of training and working conditions on junior doctors’ intention to leave clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The shortage of physicians is an evolving problem throughout the world. In this study we aimed to identify to what extent junior doctors’ training and working conditions determine their intention to leave clinical practice after residency training. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted in 557 junior doctors undergoing residency training in German hospitals. Self-reported specialty training conditions, working conditions and intention to leave clinical practice were measured over three time points. Scales covering training conditions were assessed by structured residency training, professional support, and dealing with lack of knowledge; working conditions were evaluated by work overload, job autonomy and social support, based on the Demand–Control–Support model. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression analyses with random intercept for longitudinal data were applied to determine the odds ratio of having a higher level of intention to leave clinical practice. Results In the models that considered training and working conditions separately to predict intention to leave clinical practice we found significant baseline effects and change effects. After modelling training and working conditions simultaneously, we found evidence that the change effect of job autonomy (OR 0.77, p = .005) was associated with intention to leave clinical practice, whereas for the training conditions, only the baseline effects of structured residency training (OR 0.74, p = .017) and dealing with lack of knowledge (OR 0.74, p = .026) predicted intention to leave clinical practice. Conclusions Junior doctors undergoing specialty training experience high workload in hospital practice and intense requirements in terms of specialty training. Our study indicates that simultaneously improving working conditions over time and establishing a high standard of specialty training conditions may prevent junior doctors from considering leaving clinical practice after

  1. Boundary conditions and the simulation of low Mach number flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagstrom, Thomas; Lorenz, Jens

    1993-01-01

    The problem of accurately computing low Mach number flows, with the specific intent of studying the interaction of sound waves with incompressible flow structures, such as concentrations of vorticity is considered. This is a multiple time (and/or space) scales problem, leading to various difficulties in the design of numerical methods. Concentration is on one of these difficulties - the development of boundary conditions at artificial boundaries which allow sound waves and vortices to radiate to the far field. Nonlinear model equations are derived based on assumptions about the scaling of the variables. Then these are linearized about a uniform flow and exact boundary conditions are systematically derived using transform methods. Finally, useful approximations to the exact conditions which are valid for small Mach number and small viscosity are computed.

  2. Dissolved carbon in extreme conditions characterized by first principles simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Ding; Galli, Giulia

    One key component to understanding carbon transport in the Earth interior is the determination of the molecular species formed when carbon bearing materials are dissolved in water at extreme conditions. We used first principles molecular dynamics to investigate oxidized carbon in water at high pressure (P) and high temperature (T), up to the conditions of the Earth's upper mantle. Contrary to popular geochemistry models assuming that CO2 is the major carbon species present in water, we found that most of the dissolved carbon at 10 GPa and 1000 K is in the form of solvated CO32- and HCO3-anions. We also found that ion pairing between alkali metal cations and CO32- or HCO3-anions is greatly affected by P-T conditions, decreasing with pressure along an isotherm. Our study shows that it is crucial to take into account the specific molecular structure of water under extreme conditions and the changes in hydrogen bonding occurring at high P and T, in order to predict chemical reactions in dissolved carbon. Our findings also shed light on possible reduction mechanisms of CO2 when it is geologically stored, depending on the availability of water. The work is supported by the Sloan Foundation through the Deep Carbon Observatory.

  3. Survival of bacterial spores under some simulated lunar surface conditions.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G; Bucker, H; Wollenhaupt, H

    1971-01-01

    Spores of Bacillus subtilis were exposed to simulated lunar environmental factors, in order to estimate the chance of living matter to survive on the moon. Vacuum, radiation and extreme temperature were selected and their individual and combined influence was tested. High vacuum up to 2 x 10(-7) torr and ultra-high vacuum up to 5 x 10(-9) torr, ultraviolet rays (254 nm) and a temperature of 80 degrees C were used. The results were compared with those of experiments on vegetative cells. PMID:12206178

  4. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... approvals will be granted, the Administrator will consider data showing how well the simulation matches environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  5. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... approvals will be granted, the Administrator will consider data showing how well the simulation matches environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such...

  6. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such as the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  7. Developing Clinical Competency in Crisis Event Management: An Integrated Simulation Problem-Based Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaw, S. Y.; Chen, F. G.; Klainin, P.; Brammer, J.; O'Brien, A.; Samarasekera, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the integration of a simulation based learning activity on nursing students' clinical crisis management performance in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. It was hypothesized that the clinical performance of first year nursing students who participated in a simulated learning activity during the PBL session…

  8. Shifted periodic boundary conditions for simulations of wall-bounded turbulent flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munters, Wim; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2016-02-01

    In wall-bounded turbulent flow simulations, periodic boundary conditions combined with insufficiently long domains lead to persistent spanwise locking of large-scale turbulent structures. This leads to statistical inhomogeneities of 10%-15% that persist in time averages of 60 eddy turnover times and more. We propose a shifted periodic boundary condition that eliminates this effect without the need for excessive streamwise domain lengths. The method is tested based on a set of direct numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow, and large-eddy simulations of a high Reynolds number rough-wall half-channel flow. The method is very useful for precursor simulations that generate inlet conditions for simulations that are spatially inhomogeneous, but require statistically homogeneous inlet boundary conditions in the spanwise direction. The method's advantages are illustrated for the simulation of a developing wind-farm boundary layer.

  9. Confirmation of uncontrolled flow dynamics in clinical simulated multi-infusion setups using absorption spectral photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmerman, Anna M.; Riphagen, Brechtje; Klaessens, John H.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2010-02-01

    Multi-infusion systems are used frequently at intensive care units to administer several liquid therapeutic agents to patients simultaneously. By passively combining the separate infusion lines in one central line, the number of punctures needed to access the patient's body, is reduced. So far, the mutual influence between the different infusion lines is unknown. Although the flow properties of single infusion systems have been investigated extensively, only a few research groups have investigated the flow properties of multi-infusion systems. We showed in a previous study that applying multi-infusion can lead to fluctuations in syringe pump infusions, resulting in uncontrolled and inaccurate drug administration. This study presents a performance analysis of multi-infusion systems as used in the Neonatology Intensive Care Unit. The dynamics between multiple infusion lines in multi-infusion systems were investigated by simulation experiments of clinical conditions. A newly developed real-time spectral-photometric method was used for the quantitative determination of concentration and outflow volume using a deconvolution method of absorption spectra of mixed fluids. The effects for common clinical interventions were studied in detail. Results showed mutual influence between the different infusion lines following these interventions. This mutual influence led to significant volume fluctuations up to 50%. These deviations could result in clinically dangerous situations. A complete analysis of the multiinfusion system characteristics is recommended in further research to estimate both the presence and severity of potential risks in clinical use.

  10. A suitable boundary condition for bounded plasma simulation without sheath resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, S.E.; Procassini, R.J.; Birdsall, C.K. ); Cohen, B.I. )

    1993-01-01

    We have developed a technique that allows for a sheath boundary layer without having to resolve the inherently small space and time scales of the sheath region. We refer to this technique as the logical sheath boundary condition. This boundary condition, when incorporated into a direct-implicit particle code, permits large space- and time-scale simulations of bounded systems, which would otherwise be impractical on current supercomputers. The lack of resolution of the collector sheath potential drop obtained from conventional implicit simulations at moderate values of [omega][sub pe][Delta]t and [Delta]z/[lambda][sup De] provides the motivation for the development of the logical sheath boundary condition. The algorithm for use of the logical sheath boundary condition in a particle simulation is presented. Results from simulations which use the logical sheath boundary condition are shown to compare reasonably well with those from an analytic theory and simulations in which the sheath is resolved.

  11. Clinical simulation: a sine qua non of nurse education or a white elephant?

    PubMed

    Stayt, Louise C

    2012-07-01

    An emphasis has been placed on clinical skill development in nurse education curricula due to the expressed concern about nursing students' clinical competence at the point of registration. Hence, the use of clinical simulation as an educational tool has become increasingly popular. The aim of this article is to examine the learning theory that underpins clinical simulation by utilising Carper's patterns of knowing (1978) as a theoretical framework. It is revealed that there is a philosophical conflict between the different learning approaches required to meet all the expected learning outcomes. It would also appear that due to a paucity of the current evidence base that the cost benefits of clinical simulation are largely unknown. The implications of these limitations may in part be overcome by future research endeavours, judicious curriculum development and a pluralistic approach to the facilitation of clinical simulation. PMID:21741136

  12. Computer simulations of planetary accretion dynamics: Sensitivity to initial conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaacman, R.; Sagan, C.

    1976-01-01

    The implications and limitations of program ACRETE were tested. The program is a scheme based on Newtonian physics and accretion with unit sticking efficiency, devised to simulate the origin of the planets. The dependence of the results on a variety of radial and vertical density distribution laws, the ratio of gas to dust in the solar nebula, the total nebular mass, and the orbital eccentricity of the accreting grains was explored. Only for a small subset of conceivable cases are planetary systems closely like our own generated. Many models have tendencies towards one of two preferred configurations: multiple star systems, or planetary systems in which Jovian planets either have substantially smaller masses than in our system or are absent altogether. But for a wide range of cases recognizable planetary systems are generated - ranging from multiple star systems with accompanying planets, to systems with Jovian planets at several hundred AU, to single stars surrounded only by asteroids.

  13. Preparation and reactivity of lepidocrocite under simulated feedwater conditions

    SciTech Connect

    McGarvey, G.B.; Burnett, K.B.; Owen, D.G.

    1998-02-01

    Lepidocrocite ({gamma}-FeOOH), prepared using several different aging temperatures and aging times, possesses widely varying morphological and structural features. Mean particle dimensions and surface areas were all found to depend on the conditions of the synthesis. Studies of the aqueous reduction of several of the lepidocrocite samples to magnetite indicated that the initial steps in the dissolution-reprecipitation process were influenced by the crystallinity of the material. Results of the morphological studies and the transformation reaction studies are described within the context of corrosion-product generation and stability in secondary feedwater systems of pressurized heavy-water nuclear reactors.

  14. Effects of Simulated Functional Loading Conditions on Dentin, Composite, and Laminate Structures

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Mary P.; Teitelbaum, Heather K.; Eick, J. David; Williams, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    Use of composite restorations continues to increase, tempered by more potential problems when placed in posterior dentition. Thus, it is essential to understand how these materials function under stress-bearing clinical conditions. Since mastication is difficult to replicate in the laboratory, cyclic loading is frequently used within in vitro evaluations but often employs traditional fatigue testing, which typically does not simulate occlusal loading because higher stresses and loading frequencies are used, so failure mechanisms may be different. The present investigation utilized relevant parameters (specimen size; loading frequency) to assess the effects of cyclic loading on flexural mechanical properties and fracture morphology of (coronal) dentin, composite, and dentin-adhesive-composite “laminate” structures. Incremental monitoring of flexural modulus on individual beams over 60,000 loading cycles revealed a gradual increase across materials; post-hoc comparisons indicated statistical significance only for 1 versus 60k cycles. Paired specimens were tested (one exposed to 60k loading cycles, one to static loading only), and comparisons of flexural modulus and strength showed statistically significantly higher values for cyclically-loaded specimens across materials, with no observable differences in fracture morphology. Localized reorganization of dentin collagen and polymer chains could have increased flexural modulus and strength during cyclic loading, which may have implications toward the life and failure mechanisms of clinical restorations and underlying tooth structure. PMID:18823019

  15. Effects of simulated functional loading conditions on dentin, composite, and laminate structures.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mary P; Teitelbaum, Heather K; Eick, J David; Williams, Karen B

    2009-02-01

    Use of composite restorations continues to increase, tempered by more potential problems when placed in posterior dentition. Thus, it is essential to understand how these materials function under stress-bearing clinical conditions. Because mastication is difficult to replicate in the laboratory, cyclic loading is frequently used within in vitro evaluations but often employs traditional fatigue testing, which typically does not simulate occlusal loading because higher stresses and loading frequencies are used, so failure mechanisms may be different. This investigation utilized relevant parameters (specimen size, loading frequency) to assess the effects of cyclic loading on flexural mechanical properties and fracture morphology of (coronal) dentin, composite, and dentin-adhesive-composite "laminate" structures. Incremental monitoring of flexural modulus on individual beams over 60,000 loading cycles revealed a gradual increase across materials; post hoc comparisons indicated statistical significance only for 1 versus 60k cycles. Paired specimens were tested (one exposed to 60k loading cycles, one to static loading only), and comparisons of flexural modulus and strength showed statistically significantly higher values for cyclically loaded specimens across materials, with no observable differences in fracture morphology. Localized reorganization of dentin collagen and polymer chains could have increased flexural modulus and strength during cyclic loading, which may have implications toward the life and failure mechanisms of clinical restorations and underlying tooth structure. PMID:18823019

  16. Auditory spatial discrimination by barn owls in simulated echoic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, Matthew W.; Bala, Avinash D. S.; Takahashi, Terry T.

    2003-03-01

    In humans, directional hearing in reverberant conditions is characterized by a ``precedence effect,'' whereby directional information conveyed by leading sounds dominates perceived location, and listeners are relatively insensitive to directional information conveyed by lagging sounds. Behavioral studies provide evidence of precedence phenomena in a wide range of species. The present study employs a discrimination paradigm, based on habituation and recovery of the pupillary dilation response, to provide quantitative measures of precedence phenomena in the barn owl. As in humans, the owl's ability to discriminate changes in the location of lagging sources is impaired relative to that for single sources. Spatial discrimination of lead sources is also impaired, but to a lesser extent than discrimination of lagging sources. Results of a control experiment indicate that sensitivity to monaural cues cannot account for discrimination of lag source location. Thus, impairment of discrimination ability in the two-source conditions most likely reflects a reduction in sensitivity to binaural directional information. These results demonstrate a similarity of precedence effect phenomena in barn owls and humans, and provide a basis for quantitative comparison with neuronal data from the same species.

  17. Degradation of orthodontic wires under simulated cariogenic and erosive conditions.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Laura Cavalcante Lima; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of cariogenic and erosive challenges (CCs and ECs, respectively) on the degradation of copper-nickel-titanium (CuNiTi) orthodontic wires. Sixty wire segments were divided into four treatment groups and exposed to CCs, ECs, artificial saliva, or dry storage (no-treatment control). CC and EC were simulated using a demineralizing solution (pH 4.3) and a citric acid solution (pH 2.3), respectively. Following treatment, the average surface roughness (Ra) of the wires was assessed, and friction between the wires and a passive self-ligating bracket was measured. CuNiTi wires subjected to ECs exhibited significantly higher Ra values than did those that were stored in artificial saliva. In contrast, surface roughness was not affected by CCs. Finally, friction between the treated wires and brackets was not affected by ECs or CCs. Our results indicate that CuNiTi orthodontic wires may suffer degradation within the oral cavity, as ECs increased the surface roughness of these wires. However, rougher surfaces did not increase friction between the wire and the passive self-ligating bracket. PMID:25098823

  18. Nanophase Separation of Polymers Exposed to Simulated Bonding Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qiang; Wang, Yong; Spencer, Paulette

    2009-01-01

    Under in vivo conditions, there is little control over the amount of water left on the tooth during dentin bonding. As a result, it is possible to leave the dentin surface so wet that the adhesive actually undergoes physical separation into hydrophobic- and hydrophilic-rich phases. Using tapping mode atomic force microscopy/PhaseImaging technique, nanosized phases with worm-like features were found on the surface of model HEMA/BisGMA dentin adhesives cured in the presence of varying concentrations of water. The phase contrast became evident with the increase of water concentration in the initial adhesive formulation and varied with the ratio of hydrophilic/hydrophobic composition. Oversaturated water droplets of variable sizes may accumulate as micro-voids within the hydrophilic and hydrophobic polymer phases. The phase domains were also identified following ethanol-etching in combination with SEM/AFM techniques. PMID:18335432

  19. Behavior of trace metals in simulated gasification conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.A.; Erickson, T.A.; Zygarlicke, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The fate of trace metals is being investigated in two emerging coal gasification electric power-generating systems: integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification fuel cell (IGFC). Some of the trace metals in coal are considered air toxics when released into the atmosphere and can also cause the degradation of fuel cell efficiency as a result of contamination. The fate of trace metals during coal conversion in GCC and IGFC systems is closely tied to how the trace metals are associated in the coal and gasification conditions. Bench- and pilot-scale gasification experiments were performed using Illinois No. 6 coal to determine the partitioning of mercury, selenium, arsenic, nickel, cadmium, lead, and chromium into gas, liquid, and solid phases as a function of gasification conditions and coal composition. Entrained ash was collected from the small-scale reactor using a multicyclone and impinger sampling train. Coal analysis revealed arsenic, mercury, nickel, lead, and selenium to be primarily associated with pyrite. Chromium was associated primarily with clay minerals, and cadmium appeared to have mostly an organic association. The partitioning during gasification indicated that chromium, lead, and nickel were enriched in the small ash particulate fraction (less than 1.5 {mu}m), while arsenic, selenium, and mercury were depleted in the particulate and more enriched in the vapor-phase fraction (collected in the impingers). Oxygen contents were varied to represent both combustion and gasification systems. Most of the work was conducted at lower oxygen-to-carbon ratios. Lower oxygen-to-carbon ratios resulted in more reducing environments in the gasification system, which appeared to drive more mercury to the vapor phase. Under constant oxygen-to-carbon ratios, mercury, selenium, and cadmium showed increasing volatility with increasing reaction zone temperature.

  20. Using a Clinical Knowledge Base to Assess Comorbidity Interrelatedness Among Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zulman, Donna M.; Martins, Susana B.; Liu, Yan; Tu, Samson W.; Hoffman, Brian B.; Asch, Steven M.; Goldstein, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    Decision support tools increasingly integrate clinical knowledge such as medication indications and contraindications with electronic health record (EHR) data to support clinical care and patient safety. The availability of this encoded information and patient data provides an opportunity to develop measures of clinical decision complexity that may be of value for quality improvement and research efforts. We investigated the feasibility of using encoded clinical knowledge and EHR data to develop a measure of comorbidity interrelatedness (the degree to which patients’ co-occurring conditions interact to generate clinical complexity). Using a common clinical scenario—decisions about blood pressure medications in patients with hypertension—we quantified comorbidity interrelatedness by calculating the number of indications and contraindications to blood pressure medications that are generated by patients’ comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, gout, depression). We examined properties of comorbidity interrelatedness using data from a decision support system for hypertension in the Veterans Affairs Health Care System. PMID:26958279

  1. Martian dust threshold measurements: Simulations under heated surface conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Bruce R.; Greeley, Ronald; Leach, Rodman N.

    1991-01-01

    Diurnal changes in solar radiation on Mars set up a cycle of cooling and heating of the planetary boundary layer, this effect strongly influences the wind field. The stratification of the air layer is stable in early morning since the ground is cooler than the air above it. When the ground is heated and becomes warmer than the air its heat is transferred to the air above it. The heated parcels of air near the surface will, in effect, increase the near surface wind speed or increase the aeolian surface stress the wind has upon the surface when compared to an unheated or cooled surface. This means that for the same wind speed at a fixed height above the surface, ground-level shear stress will be greater for the heated surface than an unheated surface. Thus, it is possible to obtain saltation threshold conditions at lower mean wind speeds when the surface is heated. Even though the mean wind speed is less when the surface is heated, the surface shear stress required to initiate particle movement remains the same in both cases. To investigate this phenomenon, low-density surface dust aeolian threshold measurements have been made in the MARSWIT wind tunnel located at NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. The first series of tests examined threshold values of the 100 micron sand material. At 13 mb surface pressure the unheated surface had a threshold friction speed of 2.93 m/s (and approximately corresponded to a velocity of 41.4 m/s at a height of 1 meter) while the heated surface equivalent bulk Richardson number of -0.02, yielded a threshold friction speed of 2.67 m/s (and approximately corresponded to a velocity of 38.0 m/s at a height of 1 meter). This change represents an 8.8 percent decrease in threshold conditions for the heated case. The values of velocities are well within the threshold range as observed by Arvidson et al., 1983. As the surface was heated the threshold decreased. At a value of bulk Richardson number equal to -0.02 the threshold

  2. Postnatal development under conditions of simulated weightlessness and space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, K.

    1998-01-01

    The adaptability of the developing nervous system to environmental influences and the mechanisms underlying this plasticity has recently become a subject of interest in space neuroscience. Ground studies on neonatal rats using the tail suspension model of weightlessness have shown that the force of gravity clearly influences the events underlying the postnatal development of motor function. These effects depend on the age of the animal, duration of the perturbation and the motor function studied. A nine-day flight study has shown that a dam and neonates can develop under conditions of space flight. The motor function of the flight animals after landing was consistent with that seen in the tail suspension studies, being marked by limb joint extension. However, there were expected differences due to: (1) the unloading of the vestibular system in flight, which did not occur in the ground-based experiments; (2) differences between flight and suspension durations; and (3) the inability to evaluate motor function during the flight. The next step is to conduct experiments in space with the flexibility and rigor that is now limited to ground studies: an opportunity offered by the International Space Station. Copyright 1998 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  3. In Silico Simulation of a Clinical Trial Concerning Tumour Response to Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dionysiou, Dimitra D.; Stamatakos, Georgios S.; Athanaileas, Theodoras E.; Merrychtas, Andreas; Kaklamani, Dimitra; Varvarigou, Theodora; Uzunoglu, Nikolaos

    2008-11-06

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how multilevel tumour growth and response to therapeutic treatment models can be used in order to simulate clinical trials, with the long-term intention of both better designing clinical studies and understanding their outcome based on basic biological science. For this purpose, an already developed computer simulation model of glioblastoma multiforme response to radiotherapy has been used and a clinical study concerning glioblastoma multiforme response to radiotherapy has been simulated. In order to facilitate the simulation of such virtual trials, a toolkit enabling the user-friendly execution of the simulations on grid infrastructures has been designed and developed. The results of the conducted virtual trial are in agreement with the outcome of the real clinical study.

  4. The impact of clinical simulation on learner self-efficacy in pre-registration nursing education.

    PubMed

    Pike, Tamsin; O'Donnell, Victoria

    2010-07-01

    Clinical simulation is becoming increasingly popular in pre-registration nursing education. Incorporating teaching and learning strategies that enhance learner self-efficacy will theoretically improve clinical competence (Bandura, 1986, 1997). This paper presents the findings of a study that aimed to explore the impact of clinical simulation on self-efficacy beliefs amongst pre-registration nurses. A preliminary study (Pike, 2008) used a pre- and post-test design to measure learner self-efficacy before and after a clinical simulation session. Qualitative responses to questions on the post-test questionnaire provided themes to explore in a focus group interview with a convenience sample of nine participants. Thematic content analysis of the interview highlighted two principal findings. Firstly, students described low levels of self-efficacy with regards to communication skills, an area identified as a priority within pre-registration nursing education (NMC, 2007a). Second, students highlighted the need for learning experiences within clinical simulation to be more authentic, to improve the theory to practice gap. It is argued by incorporating strategies within clinical simulation that enhance learner self-efficacy, overall clinical competence will be improved. Suggestions for how pedagogical approaches may be developed within clinical simulation are discussed, whilst acknowledging the limitations of the small scale nature of the study. PMID:19883960

  5. Integrated Clinical Training for Space Flight Using a High-Fidelity Patient Simulator in a Simulated Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor; Doerr, Harold K.; Polk, J. D.; Schmid, Josef; Parazynksi, Scott; Kelly, Scott

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of telemedicine in a simulated microgravity environment using a patient simulator. For decades, telemedicine techniques have been used in terrestrial environments by many cohorts with varied clinical experience. The success of these techniques has been recently expanded to include microgravity environments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). In order to investigate how an astronaut crew medical officer will execute medical tasks in a microgravity environment, while being remotely guided by a flight surgeon, the Medical Operation Support Team (MOST) used the simulated microgravity environment provided aboard DC-9 aircraft teams of crew medical officers, and remote flight surgeons performed several tasks on a patient simulator.

  6. Boundary objects in clinical simulation and design of eHealth.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sanne; Kushniruk, Andre

    2016-06-01

    Development and implementation of eHealth is challenging due to the complexity of clinical work practices and organizations. Standardizing work processes and documentation procedures is one way of coping with these challenges, and acceptance of these initiatives and acceptance of the clinical information system are vital for success. Clinical simulation may be used as "boundary objects" and help transferring of knowledge between groups of stakeholders and help to better understand needs and requirements in other parts of the organization. This article presents a case study about design of electronic documentation templates for nurses' initial patient assessment, where clinical simulation was used as a boundary object and thereby achieved mutual clinical agreement on the content. Results showed that meetings prior to and in between workshops allowed all communities of practice an opportunity to voice their point of view and affect the final result. Implications of considering clinical simulations as boundary objects are discussed. PMID:25301197

  7. The empathic brain and its dysfunction in psychiatric populations: implications for intervention across different clinical conditions

    PubMed Central

    Decety, Jean; Moriguchi, Yoshiya

    2007-01-01

    Empathy is a concept central to psychiatry, psychotherapy and clinical psychology. The construct of empathy involves not only the affective experience of the other person's actual or inferred emotional state but also some minimal recognition and understanding of another's emotional state. It is proposed, in the light of multiple levels of analysis including social psychology, cognitive neuroscience and clinical neuropsychology, a model of empathy that involves both bottom-up and top-down information processing underpinned by parallel and distributed computational mechanisms. The predictive validity of this model is explored with reference to clinical conditions. As many psychiatric conditions are associated with deficits or even lack of empathy, we discuss a limited number of these disorders including psychopathy/antisocial personality disorders, borderline and narcissistic personality disorders, autistic spectrum disorders, and alexithymia. We argue that future clinical investigations of empathy disorders can only be informative if behavioral, dispositional and biological factors are combined. PMID:18021398

  8. RANS simulation of cavitation and hull pressure fluctuation for marine propeller operating behind-hull condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, Kwang-Jun; Park, Hyung-Gil; Seo, Jongsoo

    2013-12-01

    Simulations of cavitation flow and hull pressure fluctuation for a marine propeller operating behind a hull using the unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS) are presented. A full hull body submerged under the free surface is modeled in the computational domain to simulate directly the wake field of the ship at the propeller plane. Simulations are performed in design and ballast draught conditions to study the effect of cavitation number. And two propellers with slightly different geometry are simulated to validate the detectability of the numerical simulation. All simulations are performed using a commercial CFD software FLUENT. Cavitation patterns of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental results carried out in Samsung CAvitation Tunnel (SCAT). The simulation results for the hull pressure fluctuation induced by a propeller are also compared with the experimental results showing good agreement in the tendency and amplitude, especially, for the first blade frequency.

  9. Using Clinical Trial Simulators to Analyse the Sources of Variance in Clinical Trials of Novel Therapies for Acute Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Weverling, Gerrit-Jan; de Wolf, Frank; Anderson, Roy M.

    2016-01-01

    Background About 90% of drugs fail in clinical development. The question is whether trials fail because of insufficient efficacy of the new treatment, or rather because of poor trial design that is unable to detect the true efficacy. The variance of the measured endpoints is a major, largely underestimated source of uncertainty in clinical trial design, particularly in acute viral infections. We use a clinical trial simulator to demonstrate how a thorough consideration of the variability inherent in clinical trials of novel therapies for acute viral infections can improve trial design. Methods and Findings We developed a clinical trial simulator to analyse the impact of three different types of variation on the outcome of a challenge study of influenza treatments for infected patients, including individual patient variability in the response to the drug, the variance of the measurement procedure, and the variance of the lower limit of quantification of endpoint measurements. In addition, we investigated the impact of protocol variation on clinical trial outcome. We found that the greatest source of variance was inter-individual variability in the natural course of infection. Running a larger phase II study can save up to $38 million, if an unlikely to succeed phase III trial is avoided. In addition, low-sensitivity viral load assays can lead to falsely negative trial outcomes. Conclusions Due to high inter-individual variability in natural infection, the most important variable in clinical trial design for challenge studies of potential novel influenza treatments is the number of participants. 100 participants are preferable over 50. Using more sensitive viral load assays increases the probability of a positive trial outcome, but may in some circumstances lead to false positive outcomes. Clinical trial simulations are powerful tools to identify the most important sources of variance in clinical trials and thereby help improve trial design. PMID:27332704

  10. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 {times} 3.0 {times} 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  11. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, T.L.; Turner, J.P.; Hasfurther, V.R.; Skinner, Q.D.

    1992-06-01

    The scope of this program is to study interacting hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical factors affecting the behavior and disposal of combusted processed oil shale. The research combines bench-scale testing with large scale research sufficient to describe commercial scale embankment behavior. The large scale approach was accomplished by establishing five lysimeters, each 7.3 [times] 3.0 [times] 3.0 m deep, filled with processed oil shale that has been retorted and combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas (Lurgi) process. Approximately 400 tons of Lurgi processed oil shale waste was provided by RBOSC to carry out this study. Research objectives were designed to evaluate hydrologic, geotechnical, and chemical properties and conditions which would affect the design and performance of large-scale embankments. The objectives of this research are: assess the unsaturated movement and redistribution of water and the development of potential saturated zones and drainage in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the unsaturated movement of solubles and major chemical constituents in disposed processed oil shale under natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the physical and constitutive properties of the processed oil shale and determine potential changes in these properties caused by disposal and weathering by natural and simulated climatic conditions; assess the use of previously developed computer model(s) to describe the infiltration, unsaturated movement, redistribution, and drainage of water in disposed processed oil shale; evaluate the stability of field scale processed oil shale solid waste embankments using computer models.

  12. OVERALL MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENT FOR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM SMALL WATER POOLS UNDER SIMULATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small chamber tests were conducted to experimentally determine the overall mass transfer coefficient for pollutant emissions from still water under simulated indoor-residential or occupational-environmental conditions. Fourteen tests were conducted in small environmental chambers...

  13. Simulations of Prebiotic Chemistry under Post-Impact Conditions on Titan

    PubMed Central

    Turse, Carol; Leitner, Johannes; Firneis, Maria; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The problem of how life began can be considered as a matter of basic chemistry. How did the molecules of life arise from non-biological chemistry? Stanley Miller’s famous experiment in 1953, in which he produced amino acids under simulated early Earth conditions, was a huge leap forward in our understanding of this problem. Our research first simulated early Earth conditions based on Miller’s experiment and we then repeated the experiment using Titan post-impact conditions. We simulated conditions that could have existed on Titan after an asteroid strike. Specifically, we simulated conditions after a potential strike in the subpolar regions of Titan that exhibit vast methane-ethane lakes. If the asteroid or comet was of sufficient size, it would also puncture the icy crust and bring up some of the subsurface liquid ammonia-water mixture. Since, O’Brian, Lorenz and Lunine showed that a liquid water-ammonia body could exist between about 102–104 years on Titan after an asteroid impact we modified our experimental conditions to include an ammonia-water mixture in the reaction medium. Here we report on the resulting amino acids found using the Titan post-impact conditions in a classical Miller experimental reaction set-up and how they differ from the simulated early Earth conditions. PMID:25369885

  14. The human simulation lab-dissecting sex in the simulator lab: the clinical lacuna of transsexed embodiment.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ben

    2013-06-01

    This article begins with an ethnographically documented incident whereby nursing students dissected a medical human simulator model and rearranged it so that the "male" head and torso was attached to the "female" lower half. They then joked about the embodiment of the model, thus staging a scene of anti-trans ridicule. The students' lack of ability, or purposeful refusal, to recognize morphological biodiversity in medical settings indicates a lacuna in clinical imaginaries. Even as trans-identified and gender nonconforming people increasingly access care in the clinic, the lacuna of transsex-as a proxy term for non-binary embodiment-persists at the heart of clinical practice. This article concludes that we might engage in more ethical clinical practice if we recognize and affirm the trace of multiple forms of human being in the non-human simulator. PMID:23475454

  15. A Simulation of Strategic Decision Making in Situational Stereotype Conditions for Entrepreneurial Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, G. Page, III; Wilson, E. Vance

    1995-01-01

    Examines simulation in entrepreneurial research, reviews cognitive structures and theories, and presents a computerized simulation of strategic decision-making in situational stereotype conditions for entrepreneurial companies. The study suggests repeated exposure to a pattern recognition issue in entrepreneurship may lead to a broader…

  16. ISIM3D: AN ANSI-C THREE-DIMENSIONAL MULTIPLE INDICATOR CONDITIONAL SIMULATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The indicator conditional simulation technique provides stochastic simulations of a variable that (i) honor the initial data and (ii) can feature a richer family of spatial structures not limited by Gaussianity. he data are encoded into a series of indicators which then are used ...

  17. Simulated Family Therapy Interviews in Clinical Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooradian, John K.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a learning method that employed theatre students as family clients in an advanced social work practice course. Students were provided with an opportunity to integrate and apply their learning of theory, clinical skills, and professional conduct in full-length family therapy sessions that occurred in the classroom and were…

  18. Students' Experiences of Learning Manual Clinical Skills through Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesson, Eva; Silen, Charlotte; Kvist, Joanna; Hult, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students' experiences and…

  19. Recognition and Evaluation of Clinical Section Headings in Clinical Documents Using Token-Based Formulation with Conditional Random Fields

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Chen, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) is a digital data format that collects electronic health information about an individual patient or population. To enhance the meaningful use of EHRs, information extraction techniques have been developed to recognize clinical concepts mentioned in EHRs. Nevertheless, the clinical judgment of an EHR cannot be known solely based on the recognized concepts without considering its contextual information. In order to improve the readability and accessibility of EHRs, this work developed a section heading recognition system for clinical documents. In contrast to formulating the section heading recognition task as a sentence classification problem, this work proposed a token-based formulation with the conditional random field (CRF) model. A standard section heading recognition corpus was compiled by annotators with clinical experience to evaluate the performance and compare it with sentence classification and dictionary-based approaches. The results of the experiments showed that the proposed method achieved a satisfactory F-score of 0.942, which outperformed the sentence-based approach and the best dictionary-based system by 0.087 and 0.096, respectively. One important advantage of our formulation over the sentence-based approach is that it presented an integrated solution without the need to develop additional heuristics rules for isolating the headings from the surrounding section contents. PMID:26380302

  20. Recognition and Evaluation of Clinical Section Headings in Clinical Documents Using Token-Based Formulation with Conditional Random Fields.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hong-Jie; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Chen, Chih-Wei; Wu, Chieh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Electronic health record (EHR) is a digital data format that collects electronic health information about an individual patient or population. To enhance the meaningful use of EHRs, information extraction techniques have been developed to recognize clinical concepts mentioned in EHRs. Nevertheless, the clinical judgment of an EHR cannot be known solely based on the recognized concepts without considering its contextual information. In order to improve the readability and accessibility of EHRs, this work developed a section heading recognition system for clinical documents. In contrast to formulating the section heading recognition task as a sentence classification problem, this work proposed a token-based formulation with the conditional random field (CRF) model. A standard section heading recognition corpus was compiled by annotators with clinical experience to evaluate the performance and compare it with sentence classification and dictionary-based approaches. The results of the experiments showed that the proposed method achieved a satisfactory F-score of 0.942, which outperformed the sentence-based approach and the best dictionary-based system by 0.087 and 0.096, respectively. One important advantage of our formulation over the sentence-based approach is that it presented an integrated solution without the need to develop additional heuristics rules for isolating the headings from the surrounding section contents. PMID:26380302

  1. Teaching medical students a clinical approach to altered mental status: simulation enhances traditional curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Sperling, Jeremy D.; Clark, Sunday; Kang, Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is increasingly being utilized for teaching clinical skills in undergraduate medical education. Studies have evaluated the impact of adding SBME to third- and fourth-year curriculum; however, very little research has assessed its efficacy for teaching clinical skills in pre-clerkship coursework. To measure the impact of a simulation exercise during a pre-clinical curriculum, a simulation session was added to a pre-clerkship course at our medical school where the clinical approach to altered mental status (AMS) is traditionally taught using a lecture and an interactive case-based session in a small group format. The objective was to measure simulation's impact on students’ knowledge acquisition, comfort, and perceived competence with regards to the AMS patient. Methods AMS simulation exercises were added to the lecture and small group case sessions in June 2010 and 2011. Simulation sessions consisted of two clinical cases using a high-fidelity full-body simulator followed by a faculty debriefing after each case. Student participation in a simulation session was voluntary. Students who did and did not participate in a simulation session completed a post-test to assess knowledge and a survey to understand comfort and perceived competence in their approach to AMS. Results A total of 154 students completed the post-test and survey and 65 (42%) attended a simulation session. Post-test scores were higher in students who attended a simulation session compared to those who did not (p<0.001). Students who participated in a simulation session were more comfortable in their overall approach to treating AMS patients (p=0.05). They were also more likely to state that they could articulate a differential diagnosis (p=0.03), know what initial diagnostic tests are needed (p=0.01), and understand what interventions are useful in the first few minutes (p=0.003). Students who participated in a simulation session were more likely

  2. Epidemiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Portugal: Prevalence, Clinical Characterization, and Medical Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Guiomar; Ataide, Assuncao; Marques, Carla; Miguel, Teresa S.; Coutinho, Ana Margarida; Mota-Vieira, Luisa; Goncalves, Esmeralda; Lopes, Nazare Mendes; Rodrigues, Vitor; Carmona da Mota, Henrique; Vicente, Astrid Moura

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) and identify its clinical characterization, and medical conditions in a paediatric population in Portugal. A school survey was conducted in elementary schools, targeting 332 808 school-aged children in the mainland and 10 910 in the Azores islands.…

  3. Laboratory assessment of impression accuracy by clinical simulation.

    PubMed

    Wassell, R W; Abuasi, H A

    1992-04-01

    Some laboratory tests of impression material accuracy mimic the clinical situation (simulatory) while others attempt to quantify a material's individual properties. This review concentrates on simulatory testing and aims to give a classification of the numerous tests available. Measurements can be made of the impression itself or the resulting cast. Cast measurements are divided into those made of individual dies and those made of interdie relations. Contact measurement techniques have the advantage of simplicity but are potentially inaccurate because of die abrasion. Non-contact techniques can overcome the abrasion problem but the measurements, especially those made in three dimensions, may be difficult to interpret. Nevertheless, providing that care is taken to avoid parallax error non-contact methods are preferable as experimental variables are easier to control. Where measurements are made of individual dies these should include the die width across the finishing line, as occlusal width measurements provide only limited information. A new concept of 'differential die distortion' (dimensional difference from the master model in one plane minus the dimensional difference in the perpendicular plane) provides a clinically relevant method of interpreting dimensional changes. Where measurements are made between dies movement of the individual dies within the master model must be prevented. Many of the test methods can be criticized as providing clinically unrealistic master models/dies or impression trays. Phantom head typodonts form a useful basis for the morphology of master models providing that undercuts are standardized and the master model temperature adequately controlled. PMID:1564180

  4. Periodic boundary conditions for long-time nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of incompressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    This work presents a generalization of the Kraynik-Reinelt (KR) boundary conditions for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. In the simulation of steady, homogeneous flows with periodic boundary conditions, the simulation box deforms with the flow, and it is possible for image particles to become arbitrarily close, causing a breakdown in the simulation. The KR boundary conditions avoid this problem for planar elongational flow and general planar mixed flow [T. A. Hunt, S. Bernardi, and B. D. Todd, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 154116 (2010)] through careful choice of the initial simulation box and by periodically remapping the simulation box in a way that conserves image locations. In this work, the ideas are extended to a large class of three-dimensional flows by using multiple remappings for the simulation box. The simulation box geometry is no longer time-periodic (which was shown to be impossible for uniaxial and biaxial stretching flows in the original work by Kraynik and Reinelt [Int. J. Multiphase Flow 18, 1045 (1992)]. The presented algorithm applies to all flows with nondefective flow matrices, and in particular, to uniaxial and biaxial flows.

  5. Clinical validation of robot simulation of toothbrushing - comparative plaque removal efficacy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical validation of laboratory toothbrushing tests has important advantages. It was, therefore, the aim to demonstrate correlation of tooth cleaning efficiency of a new robot brushing simulation technique with clinical plaque removal. Methods Clinical programme: 27 subjects received dental cleaning prior to 3-day-plaque-regrowth-interval. Plaque was stained, photographically documented and scored using planimetrical index. Subjects brushed teeth 33–47 with three techniques (horizontal, rotating, vertical), each for 20s buccally and for 20s orally in 3 consecutive intervals. The force was calibrated, the brushing technique was video supported. Two different brushes were randomly assigned to the subject. Robot programme: Clinical brushing programmes were transfered to a 6-axis-robot. Artificial teeth 33–47 were covered with plaque-simulating substrate. All brushing techniques were repeated 7 times, results were scored according to clinical planimetry. All data underwent statistical analysis by t-test, U-test and multivariate analysis. Results The individual clinical cleaning patterns are well reproduced by the robot programmes. Differences in plaque removal are statistically significant for the two brushes, reproduced in clinical and robot data. Multivariate analysis confirms the higher cleaning efficiency for anterior teeth and for the buccal sites. Conclusions The robot tooth brushing simulation programme showed good correlation with clinically standardized tooth brushing. This new robot brushing simulation programme can be used for rapid, reproducible laboratory testing of tooth cleaning. PMID:24996973

  6. High-Fidelity Patient Simulators to Expose Undergraduate Students to the Clinical Relevance of Physiology Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, David M.; Bellew, Christine; Cheng, Zixi J.; Cendán, Juan C.; Kibble, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    The use of high-fidelity patient simulators (HFPSs) has expanded throughout medical, nursing, and allied health professions education in the last decades. These manikins can be programmed to represent pathological states and are used to teach clinical skills as well as clinical reasoning. First, the students are typically oriented either to the…

  7. Teaching Clinical Reasoning and Problem-solving Skills Using Human Patient Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Deepti; Ottis, Erica J.; Caligiuri, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses using human patient simulation (HPS) to expose students to complex dynamic patient cases that require clinical judgment, problem-solving skills, and teamwork skills for success. An example of an HPS exercise used to teach multifaceted clinical concepts in a therapeutics course also is provided. PMID:22171117

  8. Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of Large Transport Airplanes in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John V.; Cunningham, Kevin; Fremaux, Charles M.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, research has been in progress to develop aerodynamic modeling methods for simulations that accurately predict the flight dynamics characteristics of large transport airplanes in upset conditions. The motivation for this research stems from the recognition that simulation is a vital tool for addressing loss-of-control accidents, including applications to pilot training, accident reconstruction, and advanced control system analysis. The ultimate goal of this effort is to contribute to the reduction of the fatal accident rate due to loss-of-control. Research activities have involved accident analyses, wind tunnel testing, and piloted simulation. Results have shown that significant improvements in simulation fidelity for upset conditions, compared to current training simulations, can be achieved using state-of-the-art wind tunnel testing and aerodynamic modeling methods. This paper provides a summary of research completed to date and includes discussion on key technical results, lessons learned, and future research needs.

  9. From Ischemic Conditioning to ‘Hyperconditioning’: Clinical Phenomenon and Basic Science Opportunity

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, Peter; Przyklenk, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Thousands of articles have been published on the topic of ischemic conditioning. Nevertheless, relatively little attention has been given to assessment of conditioning’s dose-response characteristics. Specifically, the consequences of multiple conditioning episodes, what we will term “hyperconditioning”, have seldom been examined. We propose that hyperconditioning warrants investigation because it; (1) may be of clinical importance, (2) could provide insight into conditioning mechanisms, and (3) might result in development of novel models of human disease. The prevalence of angina pectoris and intermittent claudication is sufficiently high and the potential for daily ischemia-reperfusion episodes sufficiently large that hyperconditioning is a clinically relevant phenomenon. In basic science, attenuation of conditioning-mediated infarct size reduction found in some studies after hyperconditioning offers a possible means to facilitate further discernment of cardioprotective signaling pathways. Moreover, hyperconditioning’s impact extends beyond cytoprotection to tissue structural elements. Several studies demonstrate that hyperconditioning produces collagen injury (primarily fiber breakage). Such structural impairment could have adverse clinical consequences; however, in laboratory studies, selective collagen damage could provide the basis for models of cardiac rupture and dilated cardiomyopathy. Accordingly, we propose that hyperconditioning represents the dark, but potentially illuminating, side of ischemic conditioning - a paradigm that merits attention and prospective evaluation. PMID:25552962

  10. Laboratory evaluation and application of microwave absorption properties under simulated conditions for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, Paul G.

    1987-01-01

    Laboratory measurements were conducted to evaluate properties of atmospheric gases under simulated conditions for the outer planets. A significant addition to this effort was the capability to make such measurements at millimeter wavelengths. Measurements should soon be completed on the millimeter wave absorption from ammonia under Jovian conditions. Also studied will be the feasibility of measuring the microwave and millimeter wave properties of phosphine (PH3) under simulated Jovian conditions. Further analysis and application of the laboratory results to microwave and millimeter wave absorption data for the outer planet, such as Voyager Radio Occultation experiments, will be pursued.

  11. Performance evaluation of automated fingerprint identification systems for specific conditions observed in casework using simulated fingermarks.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Arent; Rodriguez, Crystal M

    2012-07-01

    Few studies have been reported on the performance evaluation of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) for fingermark-to-fingerprint comparisons. This paper aims to illustrate to fingerprint examiners the relevance of evaluating the AFIS performance under specific conditions by carrying out five types of performance tests. The conditions addressed are the number of minutiae assigned to a fingermark, manual and automatic assignment of the minutiae, the finger region from which the fingermark originates, the degree of distortion in the fingermark, and the difference in orientation between fingermarks and fingerprints. In these tests, the magnitude of the influence for each condition was quantified. The comparisons were performed using a research AFIS technology with simulated fingermarks. Simulated fingermarks provide a practical way to create fingermarks for specific conditions in large quantities. The results showed that each condition influences the performance significantly, emphasizing the relevance of developing, and applying performance tests for specific conditions. PMID:22458701

  12. Design, simulation and conditioning of the fundamental power couplers for BNL SRF gun

    SciTech Connect

    Xu W.; Altinbas, Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I. et al

    2012-05-20

    The 704 MHz SRF gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype uses two fundamental power couplers (FPCs) to deliver up to 1 MW of CW RF power to the half-cell cavity. To prepare the couplers for high-power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A room-temperature test stand was configured for conditioning FPCs in full reflection regime with varied phase of the reflecting wave. The FPCs have been conditioned up to 250 kW in pulse mode and 125 kW in CW mode. The multipacting simulations were carried out with Track3P code developed at SLAC. The simulations matched the experimental results very well. This paper presents the FPC RF and thermal design, multipacting simulations and conditioning of the BNL gun FPCs.

  13. Growth and photosynthesis of Japanese flowering cherry under simulated microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugano, Mami; Ino, Yoshio; Nakamura, Teruko

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate, the leaf characteristics related to photosynthesis, such as the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and density of the stomata, the leaf area and the dry weight in seedlings of Japanese flowering cherry grown under normal gravity and simulated microgravity conditions were examined. No significant differences were found in the photosynthetic rates between the two conditions. Moreover, leaf characteristics such as the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and density of the stomata in the seedlings grown under the simulated microgravity condition were not affected. However, the photosynthetic product of the whole seedling under the simulated microgravity condition increased compared with the control due to its leaf area increase. The results suggest that dynamic gravitational stimulus controls the partitioning of the products of photosynthesis.

  14. Sustained effect of simulation-based ultrasound training on clinical performance: a randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Tolsgaard, M G; Ringsted, C; Dreisler, E; Nørgaard, L N; Petersen, J H; Madsen, M E; Freiesleben, N L C; Sørensen, J L; Tabor, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of initial simulation-based transvaginal sonography (TVS) training compared with clinical training only, on the clinical performance of residents in obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn), assessed 2 months into their residency. Methods In a randomized study, new Ob-Gyn residents (n = 33) with no prior ultrasound experience were recruited from three teaching hospitals. Participants were allocated to either simulation-based training followed by clinical training (intervention group; n = 18) or clinical training only (control group; n = 15). The simulation-based training was performed using a virtual-reality TVS simulator until an expert performance level was attained, and was followed by training on a pelvic mannequin. After 2 months of clinical training, one TVS examination was recorded for assessment of each resident's clinical performance (n = 26). Two ultrasound experts blinded to group allocation rated the scans using the Objective Structured Assessment of Ultrasound Skills (OSAUS) scale. Results During the 2 months of clinical training, participants in the intervention and control groups completed an average ± SD of 58 ± 41 and 63 ± 47 scans, respectively (P = 0.67). In the subsequent clinical performance test, the intervention group achieved higher OSAUS scores than did the control group (mean score, 59.1% vs 37.6%, respectively; P < 0.001). A greater proportion of the intervention group passed a pre-established pass/fail level than did controls (85.7% vs 8.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusion Simulation-based ultrasound training leads to substantial improvement in clinical performance that is sustained after 2 months of clinical training. © 2015 The Authors. Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. PMID:25580809

  15. Self-consistently simulation of RF sheath boundary condition in BOUT + + framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the RF sheath boundary condition on the edge-localized modes and the turbulent transport is simulated in this work. The work includes two parts. The first part is to calculate the equilibrium radial electric field with RF sheath boundary condition. It is known the thermal sheath or the rectified RF sheath will modify the potential in the SOL region. The modified potential induces addition shear flow in SOL. In this part, the equilibrium radial electric field across the separatrix is calculated by solving the 2D current continuity equation with sheath boundary condition, drifts and viscosity. The second part is applying the sheath boundary condition on the perturbed variables of the six-field two fluid model in BOUT + + framework. The six-field two-fluid model simulates the ELMs and turbulent transport. The sheath boundary condition is applied in this model and it aims to simulate effect of sheath boundary condition on the turbulent transport. It is found the sheath boundary plays as a sink in the plasma and suppresses the local perturbation. Based on this two work, the effect of RF sheath boundary condition on the ELMs and turbulent transport could be self-consistently simulated. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Simulation-Based Dysphagia Training: Teaching Interprofessional Clinical Reasoning in a Hospital Environment.

    PubMed

    Miles, Anna; Friary, Philippa; Jackson, Bianca; Sekula, Julia; Braakhuis, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated hospital readiness and interprofessional clinical reasoning in speech-language pathology and dietetics students following a simulation-based teaching package. Thirty-one students participated in two half-day simulation workshops. The training included orientation to the hospital setting, part-task skill learning and immersive simulated cases. Students completed workshop evaluation forms. They filled in a 10-question survey regarding confidence, knowledge and preparedness for working in a hospital environment before and immediately after the workshops. Students completed written 15-min clinical vignettes at 1 month prior to training, immediately prior to training and immediately after training. A marking rubric was devised to evaluate the responses to the clinical vignettes within a framework of interprofessional education. The simulation workshops were well received by all students. There was a significant increase in students' self-ratings of confidence, preparedness and knowledge following the study day (p < .001). There was a significant increase in student overall scores in clinical vignettes after training with the greatest increase in clinical reasoning (p < .001). Interprofessional simulation-based training has benefits in developing hospital readiness and clinical reasoning in allied health students. PMID:26803776

  17. Simulation Study of Flap Effects on a Commercial Transport Airplane in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Ventura, Robin N.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twinjet transport airplane crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss of control conditions and to study the effect of flap configuration in those regimes. Piloted and desktop simulations were used to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted with various flap configurations and addressed the approach-to-stall, stall, and post-stall flight regimes. The enhanced simulation model showed that flap configuration had a significant effect on the character of departures that occurred during post-stall flight. Preliminary comparisons with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified. This paper presents preliminary results of this simulation study and discusses key issues regarding predicted flight dynamics characteristics during extreme upset and loss-of-control flight conditions with different flap configurations.

  18. Assessment of student competency in a simulated speech-language pathology clinical placement.

    PubMed

    Hill, Anne E; Davidson, Bronwyn J; McAllister, Sue; Wright, Judith; Theodoros, Deborah G

    2014-10-01

    Clinical education programs in speech-language pathology enable the transition of students' knowledge and skills from the classroom to the workplace. Simulated clinical learning experiences provide an opportunity to address the competency development of novice students. This study reports on the validation of an assessment tool designed to evaluate speech-language pathology students' performance in a simulated clinical placement. The Assessment of Foundation Clinical Skills (AFCS) was designed to link to concepts and content of COMPASS(®): Competency Assessment in Speech Pathology, a validated assessment of performance in the workplace. It incorporates units and elements of competency relevant to the placement. The validity of the AFCS was statistically investigated using Rasch analysis. Participants were 18 clinical educators and 130 speech-language pathology students undertaking the placement. Preliminary results support the validity of the AFCS as an assessment of foundation clinical skills of students in this simulated clinical placement. All units of competency and the majority of elements were relevant and representative of these skills. The use of a visual analogue scale which included a pre-Novice level to rate students' performance on units of competency was supported. This research provides guidance for development of quality assessments of performance in simulated placements. PMID:23992225

  19. Hereditary and acquired polyneuropathy conditions of the peripheral nerves: clinical considerations and MR neurography imaging.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Jaya R; Phillips, Lauren; Chhabra, Avneesh

    2015-04-01

    Polyneuropathies can be classified as either primarily demyelinating or axonal, and further as hereditary or acquired. It is important to recognize acquired neuropathies because some are amenable to treatment. Clinical findings and electrophysiology are used in the routine diagnosis of these conditions. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is a helpful supplementary diagnostic tool. This article discusses the typical clinical findings, electrophysiology findings, and MRN appearances of common hereditary or acquired neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, multifocal motor neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapy-induced neuropathy, and postsurgical neuropathy. PMID:25764237

  20. Shifted periodic boundary conditions for large-eddy simulation of wind farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munters, Wim; Meneveau, Charles; Meyers, Johan

    2015-11-01

    In wall-bounded turbulent flow simulations, periodic boundary conditions combined with insufficiently long domains lead to persistent spanwise locking of large-scale turbulent structures. In the context of wind-farm large-eddy simulations, this effect induces artificial spanwise inhomogeneities in the time-averaged local wind conditions as seen by the wind turbines, leading to spurious differences in power prediction between otherwise equivalent columns of wind turbines in a wind farm (a column is defined here as a set of turbines parallel to the mean flow direction). We propose a shifted periodic boundary condition that eliminates this effect without the need for excessive streamwise domain lengths. Instead of straightforwardly reintroducing the velocity from the outlet plane back at the inlet, as in classic periodic boundary conditions, this plane is first shifted in the spanwise direction by a predefined and constant distance. The method is tested based on a set of direct numerical simulations of a turbulent channel flow, and large-eddy simulations of a high Reynolds number rough-wall half-channel flow. Finally, we apply the method in a precursor simulation, generating inlet conditions for a spatially developing wind-farm boundary layer. WM and JM are supported by the ERC (ActiveWindFarms, grant no: 306471). CM acknowledges support by the NSF (grant IIA-1243482, the WINDINSPIRE project).

  1. The influence of simulator input conditions on the wear of total knee replacements: An experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Brockett, Claire L; Abdelgaied, Abdellatif; Haythornthwaite, Tony; Hardaker, Catherine; Fisher, John; Jennings, Louise M

    2016-05-01

    Advancements in knee replacement design, material and sterilisation processes have provided improved clinical results. However, surface wear of the polyethylene leading to osteolysis is still considered the longer-term risk factor. Experimental wear simulation is an established method for evaluating the wear performance of total joint replacements. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of simulation input conditions, specifically input kinematic magnitudes, waveforms and directions of motion and position of the femoral centre of rotation, on the wear performance of a fixed-bearing total knee replacement through a combined experimental and computational approach. Studies were completed using conventional and moderately cross-linked polyethylene to determine whether the influence of these simulation input conditions varied with material. The position of the femoral centre of rotation and the input kinematics were shown to have a significant influence on the wear rates. Similar trends were shown for both the conventional and moderately cross-linked polyethylene materials, although lower wear rates were found for the moderately cross-linked polyethylene due to the higher level of cross-linking. The most important factor influencing the wear was the position of the relative contact point at the femoral component and tibial insert interface. This was dependent on the combination of input displacement magnitudes, waveforms, direction of motion and femoral centre of rotation. This study provides further evidence that in order to study variables such as design and material in total knee replacement, it is important to carefully control knee simulation conditions. This can be more effectively achieved through the use of displacement control simulation. PMID:27160561

  2. The influence of simulator input conditions on the wear of total knee replacements: An experimental and computational study

    PubMed Central

    Brockett, Claire L; Abdelgaied, Abdellatif; Haythornthwaite, Tony; Hardaker, Catherine; Fisher, John; Jennings, Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in knee replacement design, material and sterilisation processes have provided improved clinical results. However, surface wear of the polyethylene leading to osteolysis is still considered the longer-term risk factor. Experimental wear simulation is an established method for evaluating the wear performance of total joint replacements. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of simulation input conditions, specifically input kinematic magnitudes, waveforms and directions of motion and position of the femoral centre of rotation, on the wear performance of a fixed-bearing total knee replacement through a combined experimental and computational approach. Studies were completed using conventional and moderately cross-linked polyethylene to determine whether the influence of these simulation input conditions varied with material. The position of the femoral centre of rotation and the input kinematics were shown to have a significant influence on the wear rates. Similar trends were shown for both the conventional and moderately cross-linked polyethylene materials, although lower wear rates were found for the moderately cross-linked polyethylene due to the higher level of cross-linking. The most important factor influencing the wear was the position of the relative contact point at the femoral component and tibial insert interface. This was dependent on the combination of input displacement magnitudes, waveforms, direction of motion and femoral centre of rotation. This study provides further evidence that in order to study variables such as design and material in total knee replacement, it is important to carefully control knee simulation conditions. This can be more effectively achieved through the use of displacement control simulation. PMID:27160561

  3. Exploring a New Simulation Approach to Improve Clinical Reasoning Teaching and Assessment: Randomized Trial Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Ahmed; Loye, Nathalie; Charlin, Bernard; Audétat, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Helping trainees develop appropriate clinical reasoning abilities is a challenging goal in an environment where clinical situations are marked by high levels of complexity and unpredictability. The benefit of simulation-based education to assess clinical reasoning skills has rarely been reported. More specifically, it is unclear if clinical reasoning is better acquired if the instructor's input occurs entirely after or is integrated during the scenario. Based on educational principles of the dual-process theory of clinical reasoning, a new simulation approach called simulation with iterative discussions (SID) is introduced. The instructor interrupts the flow of the scenario at three key moments of the reasoning process (data gathering, integration, and confirmation). After each stop, the scenario is continued where it was interrupted. Finally, a brief general debriefing ends the session. System-1 process of clinical reasoning is assessed by verbalization during management of the case, and System-2 during the iterative discussions without providing feedback. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Simulation with Iterative Discussions versus the classical approach of simulation in developing reasoning skills of General Pediatrics and Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine residents. Methods This will be a prospective exploratory, randomized study conducted at Sainte-Justine hospital in Montreal, Qc, between January and March 2016. All post-graduate year (PGY) 1 to 6 residents will be invited to complete one SID or classical simulation 30 minutes audio video-recorded complex high-fidelity simulations covering a similar neonatology topic. Pre- and post-simulation questionnaires will be completed and a semistructured interview will be conducted after each simulation. Data analyses will use SPSS and NVivo softwares. Results This study is in its preliminary stages and the results are expected to be made available by April, 2016. Conclusions

  4. Biomechanical Analysis of Simulated Clinical Testing and Reconstruction of the Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Luke; Burkhart, Timothy A.; Tran, Michael N.; Rezansoff, Alex James; Deo, Shaneel; Caterine, Scott; Getgood, Alan M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Anatomic anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction has been proposed to assist anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in controlling anterolateral rotational laxity of the knee. However, the biomechanical effects have not been reported. Purpose: (1) To investigate the effect of ALL transection on rotational knee kinematics and (2) to determine the effect on knee biomechanics of ALL reconstruction procedures compared with lateral extra-articular tenodesis (LET). Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: A total of 12 cadaveric knee specimens were tested in the following sequence: (1) ACLintact, (2) anteromedial bundle of ACL sectioned (ACLamb), (3) complete ACL sectioned (ACLfull), (4) ALL sectioned (ALLsec), (5) anatomic ALL reconstruction (ALLanat), and (6) LET. Biomechanical anterior drawer and Lachman tests were performed in which a 90-N load was applied to the posterior tibia, and anterior translation was measured. A combined load to simulate the early phase of the pivot-shift test was executed in which a 5-N·m internal rotation moment was applied to a fully extended knee; anterior translation and internal rotation were measured. Results: Anterior translation increased across conditions for the biomechanical tests. Internal rotation during the simulated early-phase pivot-shift test was significantly different between ACLfull and ALLsec. Anatomic ALL reconstruction did not significantly reduce internal rotation or anterior translation during the simulated early-phase pivot-shift test. After LET, a significant decrease in anterior translation was found. There was no evidence of over-constraint of the knee with either anatomic ALL reconstruction or LET. Conclusion: The ALL demonstrated a role in controlling anterolateral laxity. LET had a composite effect in governing both anterior and rotational laxity. Anatomic ALL reconstruction did not reduce anterolateral rotational laxity. Clinical Relevance: Profiling the biomechanical

  5. Incorporating Standardized Colleague Simulations in a Clinical Assessment Course and Evaluating the Impact on Interprofessional Communication

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Brianne; Blake, Elizabeth; Phillips, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine the impact of incorporating standardized colleague simulations on pharmacy students’ confidence and interprofessional communication skills. Design. Four simulations using standardized colleagues portraying attending physicians in inpatient and outpatient settings were integrated into a required course. Pharmacy students interacted with the standardized colleagues using the Situation, Background, Assessment, Request/Recommendation (SBAR) communication technique and were evaluated on providing recommendations while on simulated inpatient rounds and in an outpatient clinic. Additionally, changes in student attitudes and confidence toward interprofessional communication were assessed with a survey before and after the standardized colleague simulations. Assessment. One hundred seventy-one pharmacy students participated in the simulations. Student interprofessional communication skills improved after each simulation. Student confidence with interprofessional communication in both inpatient and outpatient settings significantly improved. Conclusion. Incorporation of simulations using standardized colleagues improves interprofessional communication skills and self-confidence of pharmacy students. PMID:26089566

  6. Simulating the forecasting of meteorological and oceanic conditions as a part of the planning cycle in simulated command and control

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.

    1998-07-01

    Weather can be a decisive factor in military operations. Numerous examples can be found in history when weather conditions played a critical role in determining the outcome of a battle. The impact of weather must, therefore, be considered in the planning of missions as well as in its execution. For example, in planning air missions, the ewather conditions during all phases of the mission (launch, over target, and recovery) need to be considered including weather factors during the real world planning process is done as a normal part of the situations awareness process. Including weather factors in simulated planning processes, should, and can be done as a normal part. In this Paper, the authors discuss how the forecasting of meteorological and oceanic can be incorporated into the planning process of analytical simulations.

  7. Numerical simulations of the cavitation phenomena in a Francis turbine at deep part load conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wack, J.; Riedelbauch, S.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years, the operating range of hydraulic machines has been more and more extended. As a consequence, the turbines are facing off-design conditions with highly complex flow phenomena like cavitation. In the present study, the occurrences of cavitating inter blade vortices at deep part load conditions in a Francis turbine are investigated using two-phase flow simulations. The numerical simulations require small time steps and fine meshes to reproduce the required flow characteristics and resolve the minimum pressure in the vortex core. Furthermore, the treatment of the outlet boundary condition is important, as this operating point is facing severe backflow in one diffusor channel in the draft tube. The simulation results indicate that the inter blade vortices can be reproduced.

  8. Laboratory evaluation and application of microwave absorption properties under simulated conditions for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffes, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    After long arduous work with the simulator, measurements of the refractivity and absorptivity of nitrogen under conditions similar to those for Titan were completed. The most significant measurements, however, were those of the microwave absorption from gaseous ammonia under simulated conditions for the Jovian atmospheres over wavelengths from 1.3 to 22 cm. The results of these measurements are critical in that they confirm the theoretical calculation of the ammonia opacity using the Ben-Reuven lineshape. The application of both these results, and results obtained previously, to planetary observations at microwave frequencies were especially rewarding. Applications of the results for ammonia to radio astronomical observations of Jupiter in the 1.3 to 20 cm wavelength range and the application of results for gaseous H2SO4 under simulated Venus conditions are discussed.

  9. Simulation-based education for building clinical teams

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stuart D; Flanagan, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Failure to work as an effective team is commonly cited as a cause of adverse events and errors in emergency medicine. Until recently, individual knowledge and skills in managing emergencies were taught, without reference to the additional skills required to work as part of a team. Team training courses are now becoming commonplace, however their strategies and modes of delivery are varied. Just as different delivery methods of traditional education can result in different levels of retention and transfer to the real world, the same is true in team training of the material in different ways in traditional forms of education may lead to different levels of retention and transfer to the real world, the same is true in team training. As team training becomes more widespread, the effectiveness of different modes of delivery including the role of simulation-based education needs to be clearly understood. This review examines the basis of team working in emergency medicine, and the components of an effective emergency medical team. Lessons from other domains with more experience in team training are discussed, as well as the variations from these settings that can be observed in medical contexts. Methods and strategies for team training are listed, and experiences in other health care settings as well as emergency medicine are assessed. Finally, best practice guidelines for the development of team training programs in emergency medicine are presented. PMID:21063559

  10. Preclinical and clinical examinations of Salvia miltiorrhiza and its tanshinones in ischemic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adams, James David; Wang, Rubin; Yang, Jun; Lien, Eric Jungchi

    2006-01-01

    Salvia miltiorrhiza (Labiatae, Laminaceae), danshen, is an annual sage mainly found in China and neighboring countries. The crude drug (dried root) and its preparations are currently used in China to treat patients suffering from heart attack, angina pectoris, stroke and some other conditions. The use of S. miltiorrhiza has been increasing in the management of stroke. Pharmacological examinations showed that the plant and its active ingredients, tanshinones and salvianolic acids, have anticoagulant, vasodilatory, increased blood flow, anti-inflammatory, free radical scavenging, mitochondrial protective and other activities. This review discusses the pharmacology, medicinal chemistry and clinical studies published, especially in China, for danshen and tanshinone preparations. Clinical examinations are evaluated in terms of S. miltiorrhiza preparation, dose, double blinding, control, clinical assessments of outcomes and other parameters. Meta-analyses of S. miltiorrhiza are also discussed. PMID:17302964