Science.gov

Sample records for simulated commercial high-level

  1. Reference commercial high-level waste glass and canister definition.

    SciTech Connect

    Slate, S.C.; Ross, W.A.; Partain, W.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents technical data and performance characteristics of a high-level waste glass and canister intended for use in the design of a complete waste encapsulation package suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. The borosilicate glass contained in the stainless steel canister represents the probable type of high-level waste product that will be produced in a commercial nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant. Development history is summarized for high-level liquid waste compositions, waste glass composition and characteristics, and canister design. The decay histories of the fission products and actinides (plus daughters) calculated by the ORIGEN-II code are presented.

  2. SIMULANT DEVELOPMENT FOR SAVANNAH RIVER SITE HIGH LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M; Russell Eibling, R; David Koopman, D; Dan Lambert, D; Paul Burket, P

    2007-09-04

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste (HLW) for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, and sulfate). The HLW is processed in large batches through DWPF; DWPF has recently completed processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and is currently processing Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The composition of metal species in SB4 is shown in Table 1 as a function of the ratio of a metal to iron. Simulants remove radioactive species and renormalize the remaining species. Supernate composition is shown in Table 2.

  3. Thermal analysis of Yucca Mountain commercial high-level waste packages

    SciTech Connect

    Altenhofen, M.K.; Eslinger, P.W.

    1992-10-01

    The thermal performance of commercial high-level waste packages was evaluated on a preliminary basis for the candidate Yucca Mountain repository site. The purpose of this study is to provide an estimate for waste package component temperatures as a function of isolation time in tuff. Several recommendations are made concerning the additional information and modeling needed to evaluate the thermal performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system.

  4. Impact testing of simulated high-level waste glass canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.E.; Alzheimer, J.M.; Slate, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Three Savannah River Laboratory reference high-level waste canisters were subjected to impact tests at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in Richland, Washington, in June 1983. The purpose of the test was to determine the integrity of the canister, nozzle, and final closure weld and to assess the effects of impacts on the glass. Two of the canisters were fabricated from 304L stainless steel and the third canister from titanium. The titanium canister was subjected to two drops. The first drop was vertical from 9.14 m onto an unyielding surface with the bottom corner of the canister receiving the impact. No failure occurred during this drop. The second drop was vertical from 9.14 m onto an unyielding surface with the corner of the fill nozzle receiving the impact. A large breach in the canister occurred in the region where the fill nozzle joins the dished head. The first stainless steel canister was dropped with the corner of the fill nozzle receiving the impact. The canister showed significant strain with no rupturing in the region where the fill nozzle joins the dished head. The second canister was dropped with the bottom corner receiving the impact and also, dropped horizontally onto an unyielding vertical solid steel cylinder in a puncture test. The bottom drop did not damage the weld and the puncture test did not rupture the canister body. The glass particles in the damaged zone of these canisters were sampled and analyzed for particle size. A comparison was made with control canister in which no impact had occurred. The particle size distribution for the control canisters and the zones of damaged glass were determined down to 1.5 ..mu..m. The quantity of glass fines, smaller than 10 ..mu..m, which must be determined for transportation safety studies, was found to be the largest in the bottom-damaged zone. The total amount of fines smaller than 10 ..mu..m after impact was less than 0.01 wt % of the total amount of glass in the canister.

  5. Deposition of volatile fission products during commercial high-level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, M.S.; Carter, J.G.

    1982-09-01

    High-level waste from spent commercial PWR fuel was vitrified during the Nuclear Waste Vitrification Project (NWVP), conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory in 1978 and 1979. The solidification equipment employed sintered metal filters and a conventional wet off-gas cleanup system to decontaminate the gases generated during waste processing. This report is a summary of a study completed under contract with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the fate of volatile fission products in the filters and off-gas system. The study objectives were to determine (1) the extent of volatile fission product deposition within the sintered metal filters, (2) the distribution of fission products in the off-gas system, and (3) the factors that control the distribution. Such information is needed for the design and operation of future waste immobilization systems. The scope of the study included identification, preparation, and microprobe analyses of suitable filter samples and radiochemical analyses of off-gas system samples. The report describes the methods of sample selection and gathering, the analytical methods and results, and the interpretations of the results. Relationships to vitrification system operations are defined and operating conditions to minimize problems recommended. 37 figures, 14 tables.

  6. Selection of containment systems for commercial high-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M. F.; Giuffre, M. S.; Bartlett, J. W.

    1981-05-01

    This document reports the results of a study aimed at determining the best strategy for providing containment during management of commercial high-level radioactive wastes. Containment to assure public and worker safety is needed for all storage, transport, handling, and disposal operations. There are several thousand containment system options; this work determined, in overview rather than detail, which options should be pursued. This work shows that the geologic and engineered barriers in repositories in different geologic media, such as salt and granite, play very different roles in preserving long-term containment. In sum, there is no common engineered waste package that is suitable for disposal in all geologic media, each package must be tailored to the specific repository system. The need to make the waste package specific to the repository system leads to the key elements of waste management containment strategy: perform final packaging at the disposal site, and deliver to the site a waste that is in a form suitable for disposal and in a container that is (a) appropriate for the process that produced the waste form, (b) satisfactory for transport, and (c) suitable as the common basis for custom tailoring the waste package for any repository system. As described in this report, mild carbon steel is a container material that can be expected to meet these requirements.

  7. How valid are commercially available medical simulators?

    PubMed Central

    Stunt, JJ; Wulms, PH; Kerkhoffs, GM; Dankelman, J; van Dijk, CN; Tuijthof, GJM

    2014-01-01

    Background Since simulators offer important advantages, they are increasingly used in medical education and medical skills training that require physical actions. A wide variety of simulators have become commercially available. It is of high importance that evidence is provided that training on these simulators can actually improve clinical performance on live patients. Therefore, the aim of this review is to determine the availability of different types of simulators and the evidence of their validation, to offer insight regarding which simulators are suitable to use in the clinical setting as a training modality. Summary Four hundred and thirty-three commercially available simulators were found, from which 405 (94%) were physical models. One hundred and thirty validation studies evaluated 35 (8%) commercially available medical simulators for levels of validity ranging from face to predictive validity. Solely simulators that are used for surgical skills training were validated for the highest validity level (predictive validity). Twenty-four (37%) simulators that give objective feedback had been validated. Studies that tested more powerful levels of validity (concurrent and predictive validity) were methodologically stronger than studies that tested more elementary levels of validity (face, content, and construct validity). Conclusion Ninety-three point five percent of the commercially available simulators are not known to be tested for validity. Although the importance of (a high level of) validation depends on the difficulty level of skills training and possible consequences when skills are insufficient, it is advisable for medical professionals, trainees, medical educators, and companies who manufacture medical simulators to critically judge the available medical simulators for proper validation. This way adequate, safe, and affordable medical psychomotor skills training can be achieved. PMID:25342926

  8. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitive to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful ‘‘tuning’’ parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.

  9. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitivemore » to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful ‘‘tuning’’ parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.« less

  10. Evaluation of high-level clouds in cloud resolving model simulations with ARM and KWAJEX observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zheng; Muhlbauer, Andreas; Ackerman, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluate high-level clouds in a cloud resolving model during two convective cases, ARM9707 and KWAJEX. The simulated joint histograms of cloud occurrence and radar reflectivity compare well with cloud radar and satellite observations when using a two-moment microphysics scheme. However, simulations performed with a single moment microphysical scheme exhibit low biases of approximately 20 dB. During convective events, two-moment microphysical overestimate the amount of high-level cloud and one-moment microphysics precipitate too readily and underestimate the amount and height of high-level cloud. For ARM9707, persistent large positive biases in high-level cloud are found, which are not sensitive to changes in ice particle fall velocity and ice nuclei number concentration in the two-moment microphysics. These biases are caused by biases in large-scale forcing and maintained by the periodic lateral boundary conditions. The combined effects include significant biases in high-level cloud amount, radiation, and high sensitivity of cloud amount to nudging time scale in both convective cases. The high sensitivity of high-level cloud amount to the thermodynamic nudging time scale suggests that thermodynamic nudging can be a powerful "tuning" parameter for the simulated cloud and radiation but should be applied with caution. The role of the periodic lateral boundary conditions in reinforcing the biases in cloud and radiation suggests that reducing the uncertainty in the large-scale forcing in high levels is important for similar convective cases and has far reaching implications for simulating high-level clouds in super-parameterized global climate models such as the multiscale modeling framework.

  11. High Level Architecture Distributed Space System Simulation for Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization Simulation Smackdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zuqun

    2011-01-01

    Modeling and Simulation plays a very important role in mission design. It not only reduces design cost, but also prepares astronauts for their mission tasks. The SISO Smackdown is a simulation event that facilitates modeling and simulation in academia. The scenario of this year s Smackdown was to simulate a lunar base supply mission. The mission objective was to transfer Earth supply cargo to a lunar base supply depot and retrieve He-3 to take back to Earth. Federates for this scenario include the environment federate, Earth-Moon transfer vehicle, lunar shuttle, lunar rover, supply depot, mobile ISRU plant, exploratory hopper, and communication satellite. These federates were built by teams from all around the world, including teams from MIT, JSC, University of Alabama in Huntsville, University of Bordeaux from France, and University of Genoa from Italy. This paper focuses on the lunar shuttle federate, which was programmed by the USRP intern team from NASA JSC. The shuttle was responsible for provide transportation between lunar orbit and the lunar surface. The lunar shuttle federate was built using the NASA standard simulation package called Trick, and it was extended with HLA functions using TrickHLA. HLA functions of the lunar shuttle federate include sending and receiving interaction, publishing and subscribing attributes, and packing and unpacking fixed record data. The dynamics model of the lunar shuttle was modeled with three degrees of freedom, and the state propagation was obeying the law of two body dynamics. The descending trajectory of the lunar shuttle was designed by first defining a unique descending orbit in 2D space, and then defining a unique orbit in 3D space with the assumption of a non-rotating moon. Finally this assumption was taken away to define the initial position of the lunar shuttle so that it will start descending a second after it joins the execution. VPN software from SonicWall was used to connect federates with RTI during testing

  12. An Evaluation of the High Level Architecture (HLA) as a Framework for NASA Modeling and Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Michael R.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The High Level Architecture (HLA) is a current US Department of Defense and an industry (IEEE-1516) standard architecture for modeling and simulations. It provides a framework and set of functional rules and common interfaces for integrating separate and disparate simulators into a larger simulation. The goal of the HLA is to reduce software costs by facilitating the reuse of simulation components and by providing a runtime infrastructure to manage the simulations. In order to evaluate the applicability of the HLA as a technology for NASA space mission simulations, a Simulations Group at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) conducted a study of the HLA and developed a simple prototype HLA-compliant space mission simulator. This paper summarizes the prototyping effort and discusses the potential usefulness of the HLA in the design and planning of future NASA space missions with a focus on risk mitigation and cost reduction.

  13. High level organizing principles for display of systems fault information for commercial flight crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, William H.; Schutte, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced fault management aiding concepts for commercial pilots are being developed in a research program at NASA Langley Research Center. One aim of this program is to re-evaluate current design principles for display of fault information to the flight crew: (1) from a cognitive engineering perspective and (2) in light of the availability of new types of information generated by advanced fault management aids. The study described in this paper specifically addresses principles for organizing fault information for display to pilots based on their mental models of fault management.

  14. Building the institutional capacity for managing commercial high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    1982-05-01

    In July 1981, the Office of Nuclear Waste Management of the Department of Energy contracted with the National Academy of Public Administration for a study of institutional issues associated with the commercial radioactive waste management program. The two major sets of issues which the Academy was asked to investigate were (1) intergovernmental relationships, how federal, state, local and Indian tribal council governments relate to each other in the planning and implementation of a waste management program, and (2) interagency relationships, how the federal agencies with major responsibilities in this public policy arena interact with each other. The objective of the study was to apply the perspectives of public administration to a difficult and controversial question - how to devise and execute an effective waste management program workable within the constraints of the federal system. To carry out this task, the Academy appointed a panel composed of individuals whose background and experience would provide the several types of knowledge essential to the effort. The findings of this panel are presented along with the executive summary. The report consists of a discussion of the search for a radioactive waste management strategy, and an analysis of the two major groups of institutional issues: (1) intergovernmental, the relationship between the three major levels of government; and (2) interagency, the relationships between the major federal agencies having responsibility for the waste management program.

  15. Corrosion behavior of Alloy 690 and Alloy 693 in simulated nuclear high level waste medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samantaroy, Pradeep Kumar; Suresh, Girija; Paul, Ranita; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Raj, Baldev

    2011-11-01

    Nickel based alloys are candidate materials for the storage of high level waste (HLW) generated from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In the present investigation Alloy 690 and Alloy 693 are assessed by potentiodynamic anodic polarization technique for their corrosion behavior in 3 M HNO 3, 3 M HNO 3 containing simulated HLW and in chloride medium. Both the alloys were found to possess good corrosion resistance in both the media at ambient condition. Microstructural examination was carried out by SEM for both the alloys after electrolytic etching. Compositional analysis of the passive film formed on the alloys in 3 M HNO 3 and 3 M HNO 3 with HLW was carried out by XPS. The surface of Alloy 690 and Alloy 693, both consists of a thin layer of oxide of Ni, Cr, and Fe under passivation in both the media. The results of investigation are presented in the paper.

  16. Stress corrosion cracking tests on high-level-waste container materials in simulated tuff repository environments

    SciTech Connect

    Abraham, T.; Jain, H.; Soo, P.

    1986-06-01

    Types 304L, 316L, and 321 austenitic stainless steel and Incoloy 825 are being considered as candidate container materials for emplacing high-level waste in a tuff repository. The stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of these materials under simulated tuff repository conditions was evaluated by using the notched C-ring method. The tests were conducted in boiling synthetic groundwater as well as in the steam/air phase above the boiling solutions. All specimens were in contact with crushed Topopah Spring tuff. The investigation showed that microcracks are frequently observed after testing as a result of stress corrosion cracking or intergranular attack. Results showing changes in water chemistry during test are also presented.

  17. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected

  18. Immobilization of simulated high-level radioactive waste in borosilicate glass: Pilot scale demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.; Hutson, N.D.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Carter, J.T.

    1991-12-31

    The Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS), operated by the Savannah River Laboratory, is a pilot scale facility used in support of the start-up and operation of the Department of Energy`s Defense Waste Processing Facility. The IDMS has successfully demonstrated, on an engineering scale (one-fifth), that simulated high level radioactive waste (HLW) sludge can be chemically treated with formic acid to adjust both its chemical and physical properties, and then blended with simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product and borosilicate glass frit to produce a melter feed which can be processed into a durable glass product. The simulated sludge, PHA and frit were blended, based on a product composition program, to optimize the loading of the waste glass as well as to minimize those components which can cause melter processing and/or glass durability problems. During all the IDMS demonstrations completed thus far, the melter feed and the resulting glass that has been produced met all the required specifications, which is very encouraging to future DWPF operations. The IDMS operations also demonstrated that the volatile components of the melter feed (e.g., mercury, nitrogen and carbon, and, to a lesser extent, chlorine, fluorine and sulfur) did not adversely affect the melter performance or the glass product.

  19. Alternative Chemical Cleaning Methods for High Level Waste Tanks: Simulant Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; King, W.; Hay, M.; Jones, D.

    2015-11-19

    Solubility testing with simulated High Level Waste tank heel solids has been conducted in order to evaluate two alternative chemical cleaning technologies for the dissolution of sludge residuals remaining in the tanks after the exhaustion of mechanical cleaning and sludge washing efforts. Tests were conducted with non-radioactive pure phase metal reagents, binary mixtures of reagents, and a Savannah River Site PUREX heel simulant to determine the effectiveness of an optimized, dilute oxalic/nitric acid cleaning reagent and pure, dilute nitric acid toward dissolving the bulk non-radioactive waste components. A focus of this testing was on minimization of oxalic acid additions during tank cleaning. For comparison purposes, separate samples were also contacted with pure, concentrated oxalic acid which is the current baseline chemical cleaning reagent. In a separate study, solubility tests were conducted with radioactive tank heel simulants using acidic and caustic permanganate-based methods focused on the “targeted” dissolution of actinide species known to be drivers for Savannah River Site tank closure Performance Assessments. Permanganate-based cleaning methods were evaluated prior to and after oxalic acid contact.

  20. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 625 in Simulated Nuclear High-Level Waste Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girija, S.; Nandakumar, T.; Mudali, U. Kamachi

    2015-11-01

    The present investigation aims to study the effect of various ions present in nuclear high-level waste (HLW) (acidic) medium on the corrosion resistance of Alloy 625, with solution-annealed and sensitized microstructure. The heat-affected zones are prone to sensitization during welding of components and subsequent exposure to acidic waste during service could result in intergranular corrosion in these regions and hence it was attempted to study the corrosion behavior of the alloy under sensitized conditions. Double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test was carried out to obtain the extent of chromium depletion. Potentiodynamic anodic polarization and electrochemical noise investigations were carried out on Alloy 625 in 3 M nitric acid and simulated nuclear HLW medium (prepared in 3 M nitric acid) at 298 K and 323 K. The study showed that the alloy possess good corrosion resistance in 3 M nitric acid and simulated HLW medium. However, a marginal decrease in the corrosion resistance occurred in simulated HLW when compared to the plain acid, as observed from an increase in passivation current density, decrease in transpassive potentials, and decrease in electrochemical noise resistance. Increase in temperature of the medium and change in microstructure from solution-annealed to sensitized state further decreased the corrosion resistance of Alloy 625. Electrochemical noise time records obtained at open circuit conditions showed a stable passive film for 22 h of immersion of the alloy in 3 M nitric acid and simulated HLW. However, the amplitude of current fluctuations was higher for the sensitized microstructure when compared to the solution-annealed microstructure.

  1. Oxidative Alkaline leaching of Americium from simulated high-level nuclear waste sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Wendy A.; Garnov, Alexander Yu.; Rao, Linfeng; Nash, Kenneth L.; Bond, Andrew H.

    2004-01-23

    Oxidative alkaline leaching has been proposed to pre-treat the high-level nuclear waste sludges to remove some of the problematic (e.g., Cr) and/or non-radioactive (e.g., Na, Al) constituents before vitrification. It is critical to understand the behavior of actinides, americium and plutonium in particular, in oxidative alkaline leaching. We have studied the leaching behavior of americium from four different sludge simulants (BiPO{sub 4}, BiPO{sub 4 modified}, Redox, PUREX) using potassium permanganate and potassium persulfate in alkaline solutions. Up to 60% of americium sorbed onto the simulants is leached from the sludges by alkaline persulfate and permanganate. The percentage of americium leached increases with [NaOH] (between 1.0 and 5.0 M). The initial rate of americium leaching by potassium persulfate increases in the order BiPO{sub 4} sludge < Redox sludge < PUREX sludge. The data are most consistent with oxidation of Am{sup 3+} in the sludge to either AmO{sub 2}{sup +} or AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+} in solution. Though neither of these species is expected to exhibit long-term stability in solution, the potential for mobilization of americium from sludge samples would have to be accommodated in the design of any oxidative leaching process for real sludge samples.

  2. Steam stripping of polycyclic aromatics from simulated high-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.; Shah, H.B.; Young, S.R.; Edwards, R.E.; Carter, J.T.

    1992-12-31

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) will be the United States` first facility to process High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) into a borosilicate glass matrix. The removal of aromatic precipitates by hydrolysis, evaporation, liquid-liquid extraction and decantation will be a key step in the processing of the HLW. This step, titled the Precipitate Hydrolysis Process, has been demonstrated by the Savannah River Technology Center with the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF). The mission of the PHEF is to demonstrate processing of simulated high level radioactive waste which contains tetraphenylborate precipitates and nitrite. Aqueous washing or nitrite destruction is used to reduce nitrite. Formic acid with a copper catalyst is used to hydrolyze tetraphenylborate (TPB). The primary offgases are benzene, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and nitric oxide. Hydrolysis of TPB in the presence of nitrite results in the production of polycyclic aromatics and aromatic amines (referred as high boiling organics) such as biphenyl, diphenylamine, terphenyls etc. The decanter separates the organic (benzene) and aqueous phase, but the high boiling organic separation is difficult. This paper focuses on the evaluation of the operating strategies, including steam stripping, to maximize the removal of the high boiling organics from the aqueous stream. Two areas were investigated, (1) a stream stripping comparison of the late wash flowsheet to the HAN flowsheet and (2) the extraction performance of the original decanter to the new decanter. The focus of both studies was to minimize the high boiling organic content of the Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA) product in order to minimize downstream impacts caused by organic deposition.

  3. Vapor Corrosion Response of Low Carbon Steel Exposed to Simulated High Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wiersma, B

    2006-01-26

    A program to resolve the issues associated with potential vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion in the Type III high level waste tanks is in place. The objective of the program is to develop understanding of vapor space (VSC) and liquid/air interface (LAIC) corrosion to ensure a defensible technical basis to provide accurate corrosion evaluations with regard to vapor space and liquid/air interface corrosion. The results of the FY05 experiments are presented here. The experiments are an extension of the previous research on the corrosion of tank steel exposed to simple solutions to corrosion of the steel when exposed to complex high level waste simulants. The testing suggested that decanting and the consequent residual species on the tank wall is the predominant source of surface chemistry on the tank wall. The laboratory testing has shown that at the boundary conditions of the chemistry control program for solutions greater than 1M NaNO{sub 3}{sup -}. Minor and isolated pitting is possible within crevices in the vapor space of the tanks that contain stagnant dilute solution for an extended period of time, specifically when residues are left on the tank wall during decanting. Liquid/air interfacial corrosion is possible in dilute stagnant solutions, particularly with high concentrations of chloride. The experimental results indicate that Tank 50 would be most susceptible to the potential for liquid/air interfacial corrosion or vapor space corrosion, with Tank 49 and 41 following, since these tanks are nearest to the chemistry control boundary conditions. The testing continues to show that the combination of well-inhibited solutions and mill-scale sufficiently protect against pitting in the Type III tanks.

  4. Turbulent impinging flow simulation for high-level waste storage and processing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rhea, Simon; Fairweather, Michael

    2007-07-01

    The efficient storage and processing of high-level nuclear waste could be improved by a better understanding of the behaviour of the particle-laden fluid flows involved. This work reports a mathematical modeling study of impinging single and two-phase turbulent jets that is of relevance to the flows used industrially to prevent the settling of solid particles in storage tanks, and to re-suspend particles that form a bed. A computational fluid dynamic model, that embodies a Lagrangian particle tracking technique, is applied to the prediction of these flows. Predictions in the free flow and wall regions, and along the stagnation line, of the single phase flow are in reasonable accord with data, although the addition of particles results in less satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements. The influence of particles is, however, reproduced qualitatively by the mathematical model, with quantitative differences attributable to a lack of particle drag in the simulations. Uncertainties in experimental parameters may be responsible for some of the differences between predictions and data, and examination of the data used casts doubts on its reliability. Further work is required in terms of the use of more advanced turbulence modeling techniques, and the provision of detailed and reliable data sets. (authors)

  5. Measurement of cesium emissions during the vitrification of simulated high level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Miller, D.H.; Carter, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    In the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site, it is desired to eliminate a startup test that would involve adding small amounts of radioactive cesium-137 to simulated high-level waste. In order to eliminate this test, a reliable method for measuring non-radioactive cesium in the offgas system from the glass melter is required. From a pilot scale melter system, offgas particulate samples were taken on filter paper media and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICPMS method proved to be sufficiently sensitive to measure cesium quantities as low as 0.135 {mu}g, with the sensitivity being limited by the background cesium present in the filter paper. Typical particulate loadings ranged from <0.2 to >800 {mu}g of cesium. This sensitivity allowed determination of cesium decontamination factors for four of the five major components of the offgas system. The decontamination factors measured experimentally compared favorably with the process design basis values.

  6. Measurement of cesium emissions during the vitrification of simulated high level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.; Miller, D.H.; Carter, J.T.

    1992-09-01

    In the Defense Waste Processing Facility at the Savannah River Site, it is desired to eliminate a startup test that would involve adding small amounts of radioactive cesium-137 to simulated high-level waste. In order to eliminate this test, a reliable method for measuring non-radioactive cesium in the offgas system from the glass melter is required. From a pilot scale melter system, offgas particulate samples were taken on filter paper media and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ICPMS method proved to be sufficiently sensitive to measure cesium quantities as low as 0.135 {mu}g, with the sensitivity being limited by the background cesium present in the filter paper. Typical particulate loadings ranged from <0.2 to >800 {mu}g of cesium. This sensitivity allowed determination of cesium decontamination factors for four of the five major components of the offgas system. The decontamination factors measured experimentally compared favorably with the process design basis values.

  7. Sedimentation behavior of noble metal particles in simulated high-level waste borosilicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, M.; Ohyama, K.; Morikawa, Y.; Miyauchi, A.; Yamashita, T.; Komamine, S.; Ochi, E.

    2013-07-01

    Solubility of noble metal elements (NME) in the melted borosilicate glass is much smaller than its normal concentration of the high level liquid waste. Thus most of NME show small particles in the melted glass and tend to sediment in the bottom region of the vitrification melter due to their higher density than that of glass. Experiments of the sedimentation of NME particles in the melted glass were carried out under static condition. Three conditions of initial NME concentration (1.1, 3.0, 6.1 wt % with an equivalent for each oxide) in the simulated glass were set and held at 1100 C. degrees up to 2880 hours. The specimen with 1.1 wt % initial NME concentration indicated zone settling, and the settling rate of the interface is constant: 2.4 mm/h. This sedimentation behavior is the type of rapid settling. Following the rapid settling, the settling rate goes gradually slower; this is the type of compressive settling. The specimens with 3.0 wt % and 6.1 wt % initial NME concentration showed compression settling from the beginning. From the settling curve of the interface, the maximum concentration of NME in sediment was estimated to be around 23- 26 wt %. Growth of NME particles was observed by holding at 1100 C. degrees for up to 2880 hours. The viscosity becomes higher as NME concentration increases and the dependence on shear rate becomes simultaneously stronger. The effect of the particle growth to viscosity appears to be not significant.

  8. A Dual Regime Reactive Transport Model for Simulation of High Level Waste Tank Closure Scenarios - 13375

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Sohini; Kosson, David S.; Brown, Kevin; Garrabrants, Andrew C.; Meeussen, Hans; Van der Sloot, Hans

    2013-07-01

    A numerical simulation framework is presented in this paper for estimating evolution of pH and release of major species from grout within high-level waste tanks after closure. This model was developed as part of the Cementitious Barriers Partnership. The reactive transport model consists of two parts - (1) transport of species, and (2) chemical reactions. The closure grout can be assumed to have varying extents of cracking and composition for performance assessment purposes. The partially or completely degraded grouted tank is idealized as a dual regime system comprising of a mobile region having solid materials with cracks and macro-pores, and an immobile/stagnant region having solid matrix with micropores. The transport profiles of the species are calculated by incorporating advection of species through the mobile region, diffusion of species through the immobile/stagnant region, and exchange of species between the mobile and immobile regions. A geochemical speciation code in conjunction with the pH dependent test data for a grout material is used to obtain a mineral set that best describes the trends in the test data of the major species. The dual regime reactive transport model predictions are compared with the release data from an up-flow column percolation test. The coupled model is then used to assess effects of crack state of the structure, rate and composition of the infiltrating water on the pH evolution at the grout-waste interface. The coupled reactive transport model developed in this work can be used as part of the performance assessment process for evaluating potential risks from leaching of a cracked tank containing elements of human health and environmental concern. (authors)

  9. Instructional Simulation of a Commercial Banking System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, Donald D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an instructional simulation of a commercial banking system. Identifies the teaching of portfolio theory, market robustness, and the subtleties of institutional constraints and decision making under uncertainty as the project's goals. Discusses the results of applying the simulation in an environment of local and national markets and a…

  10. Hydrothermal transformations in an aluminophosphate glass matrix containing simulators of high-level radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudintsev, S. V.; Mal'kovsky, V. I.; Mokhov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    The interaction of aluminophosphate glass with water at 95°C for 35 days results in glass heterogenization and in the appearance of a gel layer and various phases. The leaching rate of elements is low owing to the formation of a protective layer on the glass surface. It is shown that over 80% of uranium leached from the glass matrix occurs as colloids below 450 nm in size characterized by high migration ability in the geological environment. To determine the composition of these colloids is a primary task for further studies. Water vapor is a crystallization factor for glasses. The conditions as such may appear even at early stages of glass storage because of the failure of seals on containers of high-level radioactive wastes. The examination of water resistance of crystallized matrices and determination of the fraction of radionuclide in colloids are also subjects for further studies.

  11. International overview of high-level simulation education initiatives in relation to critical care.

    PubMed

    Alinier, Guillaume; Platt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The use of simulation in health care education has become very topical across all professions and specialties in order to improve patient safety and quality of care. In the last decade, the adoption of more realistic simulation-based teaching methodologies, which serves as a bridge between the acquisition and application of clinical skills, knowledge, and attributes, has been accompanied by the development of a multitude of international and national simulation societies. These serve as important exchange fora for educators, clinicians, researchers, and engineers who desire to learn and share their experience and knowledge around simulation-based education. Several countries have derived their own strategy in order to promote the use of such training methodology. Current key national strategies will be presented in this paper alongside a discussion of their expected impact. Various approaches have been adopted and each has their own place and the potential to be adopted by other nations depending on their political, economic or even geographic context. Within the critical care arena, simulation has generated considerable interest and there is a growing evidence base for its use as a learning and teaching strategy within this environment. A number of critical care-related associations and societies are now recognizing simulation as an appropriate pedagogical approach and acknowledging its potential to improve patient care and clinical outcomes. Its implementation should be carefully considered to ensure that developments are based on current best educational practice to maximize the efficiency of these educational interventions. PMID:24400608

  12. High-level multifunction radar simulation for studying the performance of multisensor data fusion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huizing, Albert G.; Bosse, Eloi

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents the basic requirements for a simulation of the main capabilities of a shipborne MultiFunction Radar (MFR) that can be used in conjunction with other sensor simulations in scenarios for studying Multi Sensor Data Fusion (MSDF) systems. This simulation is being used to support an ongoing joint effort (Canada - The Netherlands) in the development of MSDF testbeds. This joint effort is referred as Joint-FACET (Fusion Algorithms & Concepts Exploration Testbed), a highly modular and flexible series of applications that is capable of processing both real and synthetic input data. The question raised here is how realistic should the sensor simulations be to trust the MSDF performance assessment? A partial answer to this question is that at least, the dominant perturbing effects on sensor detection (true or false) are sufficiently represented. Following this philosophy, the MFR model, presented here, takes into account sensor's design parameters and external environmental effects such as clutter, propagation and jamming. Previous radar simulations capture most of these dominant effects. In this paper the emphasis is on an MFR scheduler which is the key element that needs to be added to the previous simulations to represent the MFR capability to search and track a large number of targets and at the same time support a large number of (semi-active) surface-to-air missiles (SAM) for the engagement of multiple hostile targets.

  13. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-01-17

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described.

  14. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests - 13342

    SciTech Connect

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)

  15. Integrated Numerical Simulation of Thermo-Hydro-Chemical Phenomena Associated with Geologic Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jun-Mo; Kihm, Jung-Hwi

    2014-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations was performed using a multiphase thermo-hydro-chemical numerical model to predict integratedly and evaluate quantitatively thermo-hydro-chemical phenomena due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The average mineralogical composition of the fifteen unweathered igneous rock bodies, which were classified as granite, in Republic of Korea was adopted as an initial (primary) mineralogical composition of the host rock of the repository of high-level radioactive waste in the numerical simulations. The numerical simulation results show that temperature rises and thus convective groundwater flow occurs near the repository due to heat generation associated with geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste. Under these circumstances, a series of water-rock interactions take place. As a result, among the primary minerals, quartz, plagioclase (albite), biotite (annite), and muscovite are dissolved. However, orthoclase is initially precipitated and is then dissolved, whereas microcline is initially dissolved and is then precipitated. On the other hand, the secondary minerals such as kaolinite, Na-smectite, chlorite, and hematite are precipitated and are then partly dissolved. In addition, such dissolution and precipitation of the primary and secondary minerals change groundwater chemistry (quality) and induce reactive chemical transport. As a result, in groundwater, Na+, Fe2+, and HCO3- concentrations initially decrease, whereas K+, AlO2-, and aqueous SiO2 concentrations initially increase. On the other hand, H+ concentration initially increases and thus pH initially decreases due to dissociation of groundwater in order to provide OH-, which is essential in precipitation of Na-smectite and chlorite. Thus, the above-mentioned numerical simulation results suggest that thermo-hydro-chemical numerical simulation can provide a better understanding of heat transport, groundwater flow, and reactive

  16. Minor component study for simulated high-level nuclear waste glasses (Draft)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Langowskim, M.H.; Hrma, P.R.; Schweiger, M.J.; Vienna, J.D.; Smith, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    Hanford Site single-shell tank (SSI) and double-shell tank (DSI) wastes are planned to be separated into low activity (or low-level waste, LLW) and high activity (or high-level waste, HLW) fractions, and to be vitrified for disposal. Formulation of HLW glass must comply with glass processibility and durability requirements, including constraints on melt viscosity, electrical conductivity, liquidus temperature, tendency for phase segregation on the molten glass surface, and chemical durability of the final waste form. A wide variety of HLW compositions are expected to be vitrified. In addition these wastes will likely vary in composition from current estimates. High concentrations of certain troublesome components, such as sulfate, phosphate, and chrome, raise concerns about their potential hinderance to the waste vitrification process. For example, phosphate segregation in the cold cap (the layer of feed on top of the glass melt) in a Joule-heated melter may inhibit the melting process (Bunnell, 1988). This has been reported during a pilot-scale ceramic melter run, PSCM-19, (Perez, 1985). Molten salt segregation of either sulfate or chromate is also hazardous to the waste vitrification process. Excessive (Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni) spinel crystal formation in molten glass can also be detrimental to melter operation.

  17. Rhenium volatilisation as caesium perrhenate from simulated vitrified high level waste from a melter crucible

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, T.A.; Short, R.J.; Gribble, N.R.; Roe, J.I.; Steele, C.J.

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Vitrification Plant (WVP) converts Highly Active Liquor (HAL) from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing into a stable vitrified product. Recently WVP have been experiencing accumulation of solids in their primary off gas (POG) system leading to potential blockages. Chemical analysis of the blockage material via Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) has shown it to exclusively consist of caesium, technetium and oxygen. The solids are understood to be caesium pertechnetate (CsTcO{sub 4}), resulting from the volatilisation of caesium and technetium from the high level waste glass melt. Using rhenium as a chemical surrogate for technetium, a series of full scale experiments have been performed in order to understand the mechanism of rhenium volatilisation as caesium perrhenate (CsReO{sub 4}), and therefore technetium volatilisation as CsTcO{sub 4}. These experiments explored the factors governing volatilisation rates from the melt, potential methods of minimising the amount of volatilisation, and various strategies for mitigating the deleterious effects of the volatile material on the POG. This paper presents the results from those experiments, and discusses potential methods to minimise blockages that can be implemented on WVP, so that the frequency of the CsTcO{sub 4} blockages can be reduced or even eradicated altogether. (authors)

  18. Whole Genome Comparison Reveals High Levels of Inbreeding and Strain Redundancy Across the Spectrum of Commercial Wine Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Borneman, Anthony R; Forgan, Angus H; Kolouchova, Radka; Fraser, James A; Schmidt, Simon A

    2016-01-01

    Humans have been consuming wines for more than 7000 yr . For most of this time, fermentations were presumably performed by strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that naturally found their way into the fermenting must . In contrast, most commercial wines are now produced by inoculation with pure yeast monocultures, ensuring consistent, reliable and reproducible fermentations, and there are now hundreds of these yeast starter cultures commercially available. In order to thoroughly investigate the genetic diversity that has been captured by over 50 yr of commercial wine yeast development and domestication, whole genome sequencing has been performed on 212 strains of S. cerevisiae, including 119 commercial wine and brewing starter strains, and wine isolates from across seven decades. Comparative genomic analysis indicates that, despite their large numbers, commercial strains, and wine strains in general, are extremely similar genetically, possessing all of the hallmarks of a population bottle-neck, and high levels of inbreeding. In addition, many commercial strains from multiple suppliers are nearly genetically identical, suggesting that the limits of effective genetic variation within this genetically narrow group may be approaching saturation. PMID:26869621

  19. Whole Genome Comparison Reveals High Levels of Inbreeding and Strain Redundancy Across the Spectrum of Commercial Wine Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Borneman, Anthony R.; Forgan, Angus H.; Kolouchova, Radka; Fraser, James A.; Schmidt, Simon A.

    2016-01-01

    Humans have been consuming wines for more than 7000 yr . For most of this time, fermentations were presumably performed by strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that naturally found their way into the fermenting must . In contrast, most commercial wines are now produced by inoculation with pure yeast monocultures, ensuring consistent, reliable and reproducible fermentations, and there are now hundreds of these yeast starter cultures commercially available. In order to thoroughly investigate the genetic diversity that has been captured by over 50 yr of commercial wine yeast development and domestication, whole genome sequencing has been performed on 212 strains of S. cerevisiae, including 119 commercial wine and brewing starter strains, and wine isolates from across seven decades. Comparative genomic analysis indicates that, despite their large numbers, commercial strains, and wine strains in general, are extremely similar genetically, possessing all of the hallmarks of a population bottle-neck, and high levels of inbreeding. In addition, many commercial strains from multiple suppliers are nearly genetically identical, suggesting that the limits of effective genetic variation within this genetically narrow group may be approaching saturation. PMID:26869621

  20. Low-temperature lithium diffusion in simulated high-level boroaluminosilicate nuclear waste glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Neeway, James J.; Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Gin, Stephane; Wang, Zhaoying; Zhu, Zihua; Ryan, Joseph V.

    2014-12-01

    Ion exchange is recognized as an integral, if underrepresented, mechanism influencing glass corrosion. However, due to the formation of various alteration layers in the presence of water, it is difficult to conclusively deconvolute the mechanisms of ion exchange from other processes occurring simultaneously during corrosion. In this work, an operationally inert non-aqueous solution was used as an alkali source material to isolate ion exchange and study the solid-state diffusion of lithium. Specifically, the experiments involved contacting glass coupons relevant to the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste, SON68 and CJ-6, which contained Li in natural isotope abundance, with a non-aqueous solution of 6LiCl dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide at 90 °C for various time periods. The depth profiles of major elements in the glass coupons were measured using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Lithium interdiffusion coefficients, DLi, were then calculated based on the measured depth profiles. The results indicate that the penetration of 6Li is rapid in both glasses with the simplified CJ-6 glass (D6Li ≈ 4.0-8.0 × 10-21 m2/s) exhibiting faster exchange than the more complex SON68 glass (DLi ≈ 2.0-4.0 × 10-21 m2/s). Additionally, sodium ions present in the glass were observed to participate in ion exchange reactions; however, different diffusion coefficients were necessary to fit the diffusion profiles of the two alkali ions. Implications of the diffusion coefficients obtained in the absence of alteration layers to the long-term performance of nuclear waste glasses in a geological repository system are also discussed.

  1. Simulation-based high-level synthesis of Nyquist-rate data converters using MATLAB/SIMULINK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Amaya, Jesus; de la Rosa, Jose M.; Delgado-Restituto, Manuel; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Angel

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a toolbox for the simulation, optimization and high-level synthesis of Nyquist-rate Analog-to-Digital (A/D) and Digital-to-Analog (D/A) Converters in MATLAB. The embedded simulator uses SIMULINK C-coded S-functions to model all required subcircuits including their main error mechanisms. This approach allows to drastically speed up the simulation CPU-time up to 2 orders of magnitude as compared with previous approaches - based on the use of SIMULINK elementary blocks. Moreover, S-functions are more suitable for implementing a more detailed description of the circuit. For all subcircuits, the accuracy of the behavioral models has been verified by electrical simulation using HSPICE. For synthesis purposes, the simulator is used for performance evaluation and combined with an hybrid optimizer for design parameter selection. The optimizer combines adaptive statistical optimization algorithm inspired in simulated annealing with a design-oriented formulation of the cost function. It has been integrated in the MATLAB/SIMULINK platform by using the MATLAB engine library, so that the optimization core runs in background while MATLAB acts as a computation engine. The implementation on the MATLAB platform brings numerous advantages in terms of signal processing, high flexibility for tool expansion and simulation with other electronic subsystems. Additionally, the presented toolbox comprises a friendly graphical user interface to allow the designer to browse through all steps of the simulation, synthesis and post-processing of results. In order to illustrate the capabilities of the toolbox, a 0.13μm CMOS 12-bit@80MS/s analog front-end for broadband power line communications, made up of a pipeline ADC and a current steering DAC, is synthesized and high-level sized. Different experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  2. Computer simulation and high level virial theory of Saturn-ring or UFO colloids.

    PubMed

    Bates, Martin A; Dennison, Matthew; Masters, Andrew

    2008-08-21

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to map out the complete phase diagram of hard body UFO systems, in which the particles are composed of a concentric sphere and thin disk. The equation of state and phase behavior are determined for a range of relative sizes of the sphere and disk. We show that for relatively large disks, nematic and solid phases are observed in addition to the isotropic fluid. For small disks, two different solid phases exist. For intermediate sizes, only a disordered fluid phase is observed. The positional and orientational structure of the various phases are examined. We also compare the equations of state and the nematic-isotropic coexistence densities with those predicted by an extended Onsager theory using virial coefficients up to B(8). PMID:19044798

  3. Computer simulation and high level virial theory of Saturn-ring or UFO colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Martin A.; Dennison, Matthew; Masters, Andrew

    2008-08-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are used to map out the complete phase diagram of hard body UFO systems, in which the particles are composed of a concentric sphere and thin disk. The equation of state and phase behavior are determined for a range of relative sizes of the sphere and disk. We show that for relatively large disks, nematic and solid phases are observed in addition to the isotropic fluid. For small disks, two different solid phases exist. For intermediate sizes, only a disordered fluid phase is observed. The positional and orientational structure of the various phases are examined. We also compare the equations of state and the nematic-isotropic coexistence densities with those predicted by an extended Onsager theory using virial coefficients up to B8.

  4. Design of a mixing system for simulated high-level nuclear waste melter feed slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.E.; McCarthy, D.; Muhlstein, K.D.

    1986-03-01

    The Nuclear Waste Treatment Program development program consists of coordinated nonradioactive and radioactive testing combined with numerical modeling of the process to provide a complete basis for design and operation of a vitrification facility. The radioactive demonstration tests of equipment and processes are conducted before incorporation in radioactive pilot-scale melter systems for final demonstration. The mixing system evaluation described in this report was conducted as part of the nonradioactive testing. The format of this report follows the sequence in which the design of a large-scale mixing system is determined. The initial program activity was concerned with gaining an understanding of the theoretical foundation of non-Newtonian mixing systems. Section 3 of this report describes the classical rheological models that are used to describe non-Newtonian mixing systems. Since the results obtained here are only valid for the slurries utilized, Section 4, Preparation of Simulated Hanford and West Valley Slurries, describes how the slurries were prepared. The laboratory-scale viscometric and physical property information is summarized in Section 5, Laboratory Rheological Evaluations. The bench-scale mixing evaluations conducted to define the effects of the independent variables described above on the degree of mixing achieved with each slurry are described in Section 6. Bench-scale results are scaled-up to establish engineering design requirements for the full-scale mixing system in Section 7. 24 refs., 37 figs., 44 tabs.

  5. Crystallization in simulated glasses from Hanford high-level nuclear waste composition range

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Hrma, P.; Smith, D.E.; Schweiger, M.J.

    1993-04-01

    Glass crystallization was investigated as part of a property-composition relationship study of Hanford waste glasses. Non-radioactive glass samples were heated in a gradient furnace over a wide range of temperatures. The liquidus temperature was measured, and primary crystalline phases were determined using optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (SEM/EDS). Samples have also been heat treated according to a simulated canister centerline cooling curve. The crystalline phases in these samples have been identified by optical microscopy, SEM/EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Major components of the borosilicate glasses that were melted at approximately 1150{degrees}C were SiO{sub 2}, B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O, CaO, MgO, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2}, and ``Others`` (sum of minor components). The major crystalline phases identified in this study were zircon, nepheline, calcium silicate, lithium silicate, and a range of solid solutions from clinopyroxenes, orthopyroxenes, olivines, and spiners.

  6. CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF SIMULATED HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASSES TO SUPPORT SULFATE SOLUBILITY MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2014-08-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is sponsoring an international, collaborative project to develop a fundamental model for sulfate solubility in nuclear waste glass. The solubility of sulfate has a significant impact on the achievable waste loading for nuclear waste forms both within the DOE complex and to some extent at U.K. sites. The development of enhanced borosilicate glass compositions with improved sulfate solubility will allow for higher waste loadings and accelerated cleanup missions. Much of the previous work on improving sulfate retention in waste glasses has been done on an empirical basis, making it difficult to apply the findings to future waste compositions despite the large number of glass systems studied. A more fundamental, rather than empirical, model of sulfate solubility in glass, under development at Sheffield Hallam University (SHU), could provide a solution to the issues of sulfate solubility. The model uses the normalized cation field strength index as a function of glass composition to predict sulfate capacity, and has shown early success for some glass systems. The objective of the current scope is to mature the sulfate solubility model to the point where it can be used to guide glass composition development for DOE waste vitrification efforts, allowing for enhanced waste loadings and waste throughput. A series of targeted glass compositions was selected to resolve data gaps in the current model. SHU fabricated these glasses and sent samples to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for chemical composition analysis. SHU will use the resulting data to enhance the sulfate solubility model and resolve any deficiencies. In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses for simulated waste glasses fabricated SHU in support of sulfate solubility model development. A review of the measured compositions revealed that there are issues with the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations

  7. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF VITREOUS STATE LABORATORY AY102/C106 AND AZ102 HIGH LEVEL WASTE MELTER FEED SIMULANTS (U)

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E

    2005-03-31

    The objective of this task is to characterize and report specified physical properties and pH of simulant high level waste (HLW) melter feeds (MF) processed through the scaled melters at Vitreous State Laboratories (VSL). The HLW MF simulants characterized are VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AZ102 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide melter feed, VSL AY102/C106 straight hydroxide rheology adjusted melter feed, and Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) AY102/C106 precipitated hydroxide processed sludge blended with glass former chemicals at VSL to make melter feed. The physical properties and pH were characterized using the methods stated in the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) characterization procedure (Ref. 7).

  8. Evaluation of high-level waste vitrification feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant, FY 1994: Alternate flowsheets (DRAFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.D.; Merz, M.D.; Wiemers, K.D.; Smith, G.L.

    1996-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste stored in tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site will be pretreated to concentrate radioactive constituents and fed to the vitrification plant A flowsheet for feed preparation within the vitrification plant (based on the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) design) called for HCOOH addition during the feed preparation step to adjust rheology and glass redox conditions. However, the potential for generating H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} during treatment of high-level waste (HLW) with HCOOH was identified at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Studies at the University of Georgia, under contract with Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) and PNL, have verified the catalytic role of noble metals (Pd, Rh, Ru), present in the waste, in the generation of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}. Both laboratory-scale and pilot-scale studies at SRTC have documented the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} generation phenomenal Because H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} may create hazardous conditions in the vessel vapor space and offgas system of a vitrification plant, reducing the H{sub 2} generation rate and the NH{sub 3} generation to the lowest possible levels consistent with desired melter feed characteristics is important. The Fiscal Year 1993 and 1994 studies were conducted with simulated (non-radioactive), pre-treated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). Neutralized current acid waste is a high-level waste originating from the plutonium/uranium extraction (PUREX) plant that has been partially denitrated with sugar, neutralized with NaOH, and is presently stored in double-shell tanks. The non-radioactive simulant used for the present study includes all of the trace components found in the waste, or substitutes a chemically similar element for radioactive or very toxic species. The composition and simulant preparation steps were chosen to best simulate the chemical processing characteristics of the actual waste.

  9. High level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1980-01-01

    The DOE Division of Waste Products through a lead office at Savannah River is developing a program to immobilize all US high-level nuclear waste for terminal disposal. DOE high-level wastes include those at the Hanford Plant, the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, and the Savannah River Plant. Commercial high-level wastes, for which DOE is also developing immobilization technology, include those at the Nuclear Fuel Services Plant and any future commercial fuels reprocessing plants. The first immobilization plant is to be the Defense Waste Processing Facility at Savannah River, scheduled for 1983 project submission to Congress and 1989 operation. Waste forms are still being selected for this plant. Borosilicate glass is currently the reference form, but alternate candidates include concretes, calcines, other glasses, ceramics, and matrix forms.

  10. REDOX state analysis of platinoid elements in simulated high-level radioactive waste glass by synchrotron radiation based EXAFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Yoshihiro; Shiwaku, Hideaki; Nakada, Masami; Komamine, Satoshi; Ochi, Eiji; Akabori, Mitsuo

    2016-04-01

    Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) analyses were performed to evaluate REDOX (REDuction and OXidation) state of platinoid elements in simulated high-level nuclear waste glass samples prepared under different conditions of temperature and atmosphere. At first, EXAFS functions were compared with those of standard materials such as RuO2. Then structural parameters were obtained from a curve fitting analysis. In addition, a fitting analysis used a linear combination of the two standard EXAFS functions of a given elements metal and oxide was applied to determine ratio of metal/oxide in the simulated glass. The redox state of Ru was successfully evaluated from the linear combination fitting results of EXAFS functions. The ratio of metal increased at more reducing atmosphere and at higher temperatures. Chemical form of rhodium oxide in the simulated glass samples was RhO2 unlike expected Rh2O3. It can be estimated rhodium behaves according with ruthenium when the chemical form is oxide.

  11. DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

    1998-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage.

  12. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, Jonathan Q.; Weare, John H.

    2013-08-01

    environment using very slow transmission control protocol/Internet protocol networks. Scripts written in Python that make calls to a precompiled quantum chemistry package (NWChem) are demonstrated to provide an actual speedup of 8.2 for a 2.5 ps AIMD simulation of HCl + 4H2O at the MP2/6-31G* level. Implemented in this way these algorithms can be used for long time high-level AIMD simulations at a modest cost using machines connected by very slow networks such as WiFi, or in different time zones connected by the Internet. The algorithms can also be used with programs that are already parallel. Using these algorithms, we are able to reduce the cost of a MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) simulation that had reached its maximum possible speedup in the parallelization of the electronic structure calculation from 32 s/time step to 6.9 s/time step.

  13. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    SciTech Connect

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, Jonathan Q.; Weare, John H.

    2013-08-21

    written in Python that make calls to a precompiled quantum chemistry package (NWChem) are demonstrated to provide an actual speedup of 8.2 for a 2.5 ps AIMD simulation of HCl+4H2O at the MP2/6-31G* level. Implemented in this way these algorithms can be used for long time high-level AIMD simulations at a modest cost using machines connected by very slow networks such as WiFi, or in different time zones connected by the Internet. The algorithms can also be used with programs that are already parallel. By using these algorithms we are able to reduce the cost of a MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) simulation that had reached its maximum possible speedup in the parallelization of the electronic structure calculation from 32 seconds per time step to 6.9 seconds per time step.

  14. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations.

    PubMed

    Bylaska, Eric J; Weare, Jonathan Q; Weare, John H

    2013-08-21

    distributed computing environment using very slow transmission control protocol/Internet protocol networks. Scripts written in Python that make calls to a precompiled quantum chemistry package (NWChem) are demonstrated to provide an actual speedup of 8.2 for a 2.5 ps AIMD simulation of HCl + 4H2O at the MP2/6-31G* level. Implemented in this way these algorithms can be used for long time high-level AIMD simulations at a modest cost using machines connected by very slow networks such as WiFi, or in different time zones connected by the Internet. The algorithms can also be used with programs that are already parallel. Using these algorithms, we are able to reduce the cost of a MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) simulation that had reached its maximum possible speedup in the parallelization of the electronic structure calculation from 32 s/time step to 6.9 s/time step. PMID:23968079

  15. Extending molecular simulation time scales: Parallel in time integrations for high-level quantum chemistry and complex force representations

    SciTech Connect

    Bylaska, Eric J.; Weare, Jonathan Q.; Weare, John H.

    2013-08-21

    to 14.3. The parallel in time algorithms can be implemented in a distributed computing environment using very slow transmission control protocol/Internet protocol networks. Scripts written in Python that make calls to a precompiled quantum chemistry package (NWChem) are demonstrated to provide an actual speedup of 8.2 for a 2.5 ps AIMD simulation of HCl + 4H{sub 2}O at the MP2/6-31G* level. Implemented in this way these algorithms can be used for long time high-level AIMD simulations at a modest cost using machines connected by very slow networks such as WiFi, or in different time zones connected by the Internet. The algorithms can also be used with programs that are already parallel. Using these algorithms, we are able to reduce the cost of a MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) simulation that had reached its maximum possible speedup in the parallelization of the electronic structure calculation from 32 s/time step to 6.9 s/time step.

  16. Adsorption of Ruthenium, Rhodium and Palladium from Simulated High-Level Liquid Waste by Highly Functional Xerogel - 13286

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, Takashi; Koyama, Shin-ichi; Mimura, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Fission products are generated by fission reactions in nuclear fuel. Platinum group (Pt-G) elements, such as palladium (Pd), rhodium (Rh) and ruthenium (Ru), are also produced. Generally, Pt-G elements play important roles in chemical and electrical industries. Highly functional xerogels have been developed for recovery of these useful Pt-G elements from high - level radioactive liquid waste (HLLW). An adsorption experiment from simulated HLLW was done by the column method to study the selective adsorption of Pt-G elements, and it was found that not only Pd, Rh and Ru, but also nickel, zirconium and tellurium were adsorbed. All other elements were not adsorbed. Adsorbed Pd was recovered by washing the xerogel-packed column with thiourea solution and thiourea - nitric acid mixed solution in an elution experiment. Thiourea can be a poison for automotive exhaust emission system catalysts, so it is necessary to consider its removal. Thermal decomposition and an acid digestion treatment were conducted to remove sulfur in the recovered Pd fraction. The relative content of sulfur to Pd was decreased from 858 to 0.02 after the treatment. These results will contribute to design of the Pt-G element separation system. (authors)

  17. Dissolution of Simulated and Radioactive Savannah River Site High-Level Waste Sludges with Oxalic Acid & Citric Acid Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    STALLINGS, MARY

    2004-07-08

    sludge solids. We recommend that these results be evaluated further to determine if these solutions contain sufficient neutron poisons. We observed low general corrosion rates in tests in which carbon steel coupons were contacted with solutions of oxalic acid, citric acid and mixtures of oxalic and citric acids. Wall thinning can be minimized by maintaining short contact times with these acid solutions. We recommend additional testing with oxalic and oxalic/citric acid mixtures to measure dissolution performance of sludges that have not been previously dried. This testing should include tests to clearly ascertain the effects of total acid strength and metal complexation on dissolution performance. Further work should also evaluate the downstream impacts of citric acid on the SRS High-Level Waste System (e.g., radiochemical separations in the Salt Waste Processing Facility and addition of organic carbon in the Saltstone and Defense Waste Processing facilities).

  18. SIMULATION OF FLUID FLOW AND ENERGY TRANSPORT PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL IN UNSATURATED ALLUVIUM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollock, David W.

    1986-01-01

    Many parts of the Great Basin have thick zones of unsaturated alluvium which might be suitable for disposing of high-level radioactive wastes. A mathematical model accounting for the coupled transport of energy, water (vapor and liquid), and dry air was used to analyze one-dimensional, vertical transport above and below an areally extensive repository. Numerical simulations were conducted for a hypothetical repository containing spent nuclear fuel and located 100 m below land surface. Initial steady state downward water fluxes of zero (hydrostatic) and 0. 0003 m yr** minus **1 were considered in an attempt to bracket the likely range in natural water flux. Predicted temperatures within the repository peaked after approximately 50 years and declined slowly thereafter in response to the decreasing intensity of the radioactive heat source. The extent of the dry zone was strongly controlled by the mobility of liquid water near the repository under natural conditions. In the case of initial hydrostatic conditions, the dry zone extended approximately 10 m above and 15 m below the repository. For the case of a natural flux of 0. 0003 m yr** minus **1 the relative permeability of water near the repository was initially more than 30 times the value under hydrostatic conditions, consequently the dry zone extended only about 2 m above and 5 m below the repository. In both cases a significant perturbation in liquid saturation levels persisted for several hundred years. This analysis illustrates the extreme sensitivity of model predictions to initial conditions and parameters, such as relative permeability and moisture characteristic curves.

  19. High Level of Soluble HLA-G in the Female Genital Tract of Beninese Commercial Sex Workers Is Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Valérie; Lajoie, Julie; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Zannou, Marcel D.; Fowke, Keith R.; Alary, Michel; Poudrier, Johanne; Roger, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background Most HIV infections are transmitted across mucosal epithelium. Understanding the role of innate and specific mucosal immunity in susceptibility or protection against HIV infection, as well as the effect of HIV infection on mucosal immunity, are of fundamental importance. HLA-G is a powerful modulator of the immune response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G) expression in the female genital tract is associated with HIV-1 infection. Methods and Findings Genital levels of sHLA-G were determined in 52 HIV-1-uninfected and 44 antiretroviral naïve HIV-1-infected female commercial sex workers (CSWs), as well as 71 HIV-1-uninfected non-CSW women at low risk of exposure, recruited in Cotonou, Benin. HIV-1-infected CSWs had higher genital levels of sHLA-G compared with those in both the HIV-1-uninfected CSW (P = 0.009) and non-CSW groups (P = 0.0006). The presence of bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.008), and HLA-G*01:01:02 genotype (P = 0.002) were associated with higher genital levels of sHLA-G in the HIV-1-infected CSWs, whereas the HLA-G*01:04:04 genotype was also associated with higher genital level of sHLA-G in the overall population (P = 0.038). When adjustment was made for all significant variables, the increased expression of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa remained significantly associated with both HIV-1 infection (P = 0.02) and bacterial vaginosis (P = 0.03). Conclusion This study demonstrates that high level of sHLA-G in the genital mucosa is independently associated with both HIV-1 infection and bacterial vaginosis. PMID:21966450

  20. Thermal-Hydrology Simulations of Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste in a Single Deep Borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Hadgu, Teklu; Stein, Emily; Hardin, Ernest; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Hammond, Glenn Edward

    2015-11-01

    Simulations of thermal-hydrology were carried out for the emplacement of spent nuclear fuel canisters and cesium and strontium capsules using the PFLOTRAN simulator. For the cesium and strontium capsules the analysis looked at disposal options such as different disposal configurations and surface aging of waste to reduce thermal effects. The simulations studied temperature and fluid flux in the vicinity of the borehole. Simulation results include temperature and vertical flux profiles around the borehole at selected depths. Of particular importance are peak temperature increases, and fluxes at the top of the disposal zone. Simulations of cesium and strontium capsule disposal predict that surface aging and/or emplacement of the waste at the top of the disposal zone reduces thermal effects and vertical fluid fluxes. Smaller waste canisters emplaced over a longer disposal zone create the smallest thermal effect and vertical fluid fluxes no matter the age of the waste or depth of emplacement.

  1. Using a Commercial Simulator to Teach Sorption Separations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wankat, Phillip C.

    2006-01-01

    The commercial simulator Aspen Chromatography was used in the computer laboratory of a dual-level course. The lab assignments used a cookbook approach to teach basic simulator operation and open-ended exploration to understand adsorption. The students learned theory better than in previous years despite having less lecture time. Students agreed…

  2. High Level Requirements for the Nuclear Energy -- Knowledge Base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NE-KAMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rich Johnson; Hyung Lee; Kimberlyn C. Mousseau

    2011-09-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), has been tasked with the important mission of ensuring that nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy source in the U.S. The motivations behind this mission include cost-effectively meeting the expected increases in the power needs of the country, reducing carbon emissions and reducing dependence on foreign energy sources. In the near term, to ensure that nuclear power remains a key element of U.S. energy strategy and portfolio, the DOE-NE will be working with the nuclear industry to support safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants. In the long term, to meet the increasing energy needs of the U.S., the DOE-NE will be investing in research and development (R&D) and working in concert with the nuclear industry to build and deploy new, safer and more efficient nuclear power plants. The safe and efficient operations of existing nuclear power plants and designing, licensing and deploying new reactor designs, however, will require focused R&D programs as well as the extensive use and leveraging of advanced modeling and simulation (M&S). M&S will play a key role in ensuring safe and efficient operations of existing and new nuclear reactors. The DOE-NE has been actively developing and promoting the use of advanced M&S in reactor design and analysis through its R&D programs, e.g., the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) and Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) programs. Also, nuclear reactor vendors are already using CFD and CSM, for design, analysis, and licensing. However, these M&S tools cannot be used with confidence for nuclear reactor applications unless accompanied and supported by verification and validation (V&V) and uncertainty quantification (UQ) processes and procedures which provide quantitative measures of uncertainty for specific applications. The Nuclear Energy Knowledge base for Advanced Modeling and Simulation

  3. Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Lavelle, Thomas; Litt, Jonathan; Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (CMAPSS40k) software package is a nonlinear dynamic simulation of a 40,000-pound (approximately equals 178-kN) thrust class commercial turbofan engine, written in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The model has been tuned to capture the behavior of flight test data, and is capable of running at any point in the flight envelope [up to 40,000 ft (approximately equals 12,200 m) and Mach 0.8]. In addition to the open-loop engine, the simulation includes a controller whose architecture is representative of that found in industry. C-MAPSS40k fills the need for an easy-to-use, realistic, transient simulation of a medium-size commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller. It is a detailed component level model (CLM) written in the industry-standard graphical MATLAB/Simulink environment to allow for easy modification and portability. At the time of this reporting, no other such model exists in the public domain.

  4. Final report on cermet high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Kobisk, E.H.; Quinby, T.C.; Aaron, W.S.

    1981-08-01

    Cermets are being developed as an alternate method for the fixation of defense and commercial high level radioactive waste in a terminal disposal form. Following initial feasibility assessments of this waste form, consisting of ceramic particles dispersed in an iron-nickel base alloy, significantly improved processing methods were developed. The characterization of cermets has continued through property determinations on samples prepared by various methods from a variety of simulated and actual high-level wastes. This report describes the status of development of the cermet waste form as it has evolved since 1977. 6 tables, 18 figures.

  5. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  6. Driver Training Simulator for Backing Up Commercial Vehicles with Trailers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Uwe; Wojke, Philipp; Zöbel, Dieter

    Backing up tractors with trailers is a difficult task since the kinematic behavior of articulated vehicles is complex and hard to control. Especially unskilled drivers are overstrained with the complicated steering process. To learn and practice the steering behavior of articulated vehicles, we developed a 3D driving simulator. The simulator can handle different types of articulated vehicles like semi-trailers, one- and two-axle trailers, or gigaliners. The use of a driving simulator offers many advantages over the use of real vehicles. One of the main advantages is the possibility to learn the steering behavior of all vehicle types. Drivers can be given more and better driving instructions like collision warnings or steering hints. Furthermore, the driver training costs can be reduced. Moreover, mistakes of the student do not lead to real damages and costly repairs. The hardware of the simulator consists of a low cost commercial driving stand with original truck parts, a projection of the windshield and two flat panel monitors for the left and right exterior mirrors. Standard PC hardware is used for controlling the driving stand and for generating the realtime 3D environment. Each aspect of the simulation like realistic vehicle movements or generation of different views, is handled by a specific software module. This flexible system can be easily extended which offers the opportunity for other uses than just driver training. Therefore, we use the simulator for the development and test of driver assistance systems.

  7. Using DOE Commercial Reference Buildings for Simulation Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Field, K.; Deru, M.; Studer, D.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy developed 256 EnergyPlus models for use in studies that aim to characterize about 70% of the U.S. commercial building stock. Sixteen building types - including restaurants, health care, schools, offices, supermarkets, retail, lodging, and warehouses - are modeled across 16 cities to represent the diversity of U.S. climate zones. Weighting factors have been developed to combine the models in proportions similar to those of the McGraw-Hill Construction Projects Starts Database for 2003-2007. This paper reviews the development and contents of these models and their applications in simulation studies.

  8. Guidelines for Energy Simulation of Commercial Buildings: Final.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, Michael; Caner, Phoebe

    1992-03-01

    This report distills the experience gained from intensive computer building simulation work for the Energy Edge project. The purpose of this report is twofold: to use that experience to guide conservation program managers in their use of modeling, and to improve the accuracy of design-phase computer models. Though the main emphasis of the report is on new commercial construction, it also addresses modeling as it pertains to retrofit construction. To achieve these purposes, this report will: (1) discuss the value of modeling for energy conservation programs; (2) discuss strengths and weaknesses of computer models; (3) provide specific guidelines for model input; (4) discuss input topics that are unusually large drivers of energy use and model inaccuracy; (5) provide guidelines for developing baseline models; (6) discuss types of energy conservation measures (ECMs) and building operation that are not suitable to modeling and present possible alternatives to modeling for analysis; and (7) provide basic requirements for model documentation. This project was initiated to determine whether commercial buildings can be designed and constructed to use at least 30% less energy than if they were designed and built to meet the current regional model energy code, the Model Conservation Standards (MCS) developed by the Pacific Northwest Electric Power and Conservation Planning Council. Secondary objectives of the project are to determine the incremental energy savings of a wide variety of ECMs and to compare the predictive accuracy of design-phase models with models that are carefully tuned to monitored building data.

  9. Simulated vortex encounters by a twin-engine commercial transport aircraft during final approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Piloted simulations of encounters with vortices of various ages and degrees of attenuation were performed with the Visual Motion Simulator. In the simulations, a twin-engine, commercial transport on final approach encountered the modeled vortices of a four-engine, wide-body, commercial transport. The data in this report show the effect of vortex age and ground effect on the severity of the initial upset, as well as the effect of the vortex encounters on the landing capability.

  10. Effect of Zn- and Ca-oxides on the structure and chemical durability of simulant alkali borosilicate glasses for immobilisation of UK high level wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Corkhill, Claire L.; Heath, Paul G.; Hand, Russell J.; Stennett, Martin C.; Hyatt, Neil C.

    2015-07-01

    Compositional modification of United Kingdom high level nuclear waste (HLW) glasses was investigated with the aim of understanding the impact of adopting a ZnO/CaO modified base glass on the vitrified product phase assemblage, glass structure, processing characteristics and dissolution kinetics. Crystalline spinel phases were identified in the vitrified products derived from the Na2O/Li2O and the ZnO/CaO modified base glass compositions; the volume fraction of the spinel crystallites increased with increasing waste loading from 15 to 20 wt%. The spinel composition was influenced by the base glass components; in the vitrified product obtained with the ZnO/CaO modified base glass, the spinel phase contained a greater proportion of Zn, with a nominal composition of (Zn0.60Ni0.20Mg0.20)(Cr1.37Fe0.63)O4. The addition of ZnO and CaO to the base glass was also found to significantly alter the glass structure, with changes identified in both borate and silicate glass networks using Raman spectroscopy. In particular, these glasses were characterised by a significantly higher Q3 species, which we attribute to Si-O-Zn linkages; addition of ZnO and CaO to the glass composition therefore enhanced glass network polymerisation. The increase in network polymerisation, and the presence of spinel crystallites, were found to increase the glass viscosity of the ZnO/CaO modified base glass; however, the viscosities were within the accepted range for nuclear waste glass processing. The ZnO/CaO modified glass compositions were observed to be significantly more durable than the Na2O/Li2O base glass up to 28 days, due to a combination of the enhanced network polymerisation and the formation of Ca/Si containing alteration layers.

  11. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing

  12. A Software Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shen,G.

    2009-05-04

    A modular software platform for high level applications is under development at the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. This platform is based on client-server architecture, and the components of high level applications on this platform will be modular and distributed, and therefore reusable. An online model server is indispensable for model based control. Different accelerator facilities have different requirements for the online simulation. To supply various accelerator simulators, a set of narrow and general application programming interfaces is developed based on Tracy-3 and Elegant. This paper describes the system architecture for the modular high level applications, the design of narrow and general application programming interface for an online model server, and the prototype of online model server.

  13. The effect of adding crystalline silicotitanate on the durability, liquidus, and viscosity of simulated high-level waste glasses at Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J.R.

    2000-01-26

    This report provides a summary of the results obtained for a limited variability study for glasses containing Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST), Monosodium Titanate (MST), and either simulated Purex or HM sludge. Twenty-two glasses containing Purex sludge and three glasses containing HM sludge were fabricated and tested. The fabricated glasses were tested for durability using the 7-day Product Consistency Test (PCT) and characterized by measuring the viscosity at 1,150 C and by determining an approximate, bounding liquidus temperature. The current models used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for predicting durability, viscosity, and liquidus temperature were applied to all 25 glasses. The goal of this work was to identify any major problems from a glass perspective, within the scope of this effort, which could potentially preclude the use of CST at DWPF.

  14. Commercial facility site selection simulating based on MAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Yi; Li, Qingquan; Zheng, Guizhou

    2008-10-01

    The location of commercial facility decides the benefit of the operator to a large degree. Existing location methods can express the static relationships between site selection result and location factors, but there still are some limites when express the dynamic and uncertain relationship between them. Hence, a dynamic, stochastic and forecastable location model should be built which can introduce the customer's behavior into the model and combine the macro pattern and micro spatial interaction. So the authors proposes Geosim-LM based on MAS. Geosim-LM has 3 kinds of agents, CustAgent, SiteAgent and GovAgent. They represent the customers, commercial fercilities and government. The land type, land price and traffic are the model environment. Then Geosim-LM is applied in the bank branches site evaluation and selection in Liwan district, Guangzhou. In existing bank branches site evaluation, there are 70% consistent in score grade between result of Geosim-LM after 200 round runing and actual rebust location. It proves the model is reliable and feasible. The conclusions can be get from the paper. MAS have advantages in location choice than existed methods. The result of Geosim-LM running can powerfully proves that building location model based on MAS is feasible.

  15. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties of salt cake simulant relevant to hanford and SRS high-level waste tanks using a pilot-scale setup

    SciTech Connect

    Tachiev, G.; Yaari, G.; Long, S.; Srivastava, R.; Roelant, D.

    2007-07-01

    Closure of the remaining tanks and final disposition of the radioactive waste is a high priority task at both Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford. The radioactive waste in the tanks are generally found in layers: supernate (on top) containing soluble fission products, and salt-cake and sludge (on the bottom of the tank) containing insoluble actinides. One strategy for minimizing the waste volume is to segregate the low curie salt waste from the high curie salt supernate by draining the supernate and interstitial salt solution from the salt-cake. The retrieval of the interstitial fluid will require knowledge of relevant properties of salt-cake waste including drainage parameters, more specifically, its hydraulic properties. The hydraulic parameters of the salt-cake have significance with respect to: 1) Kinetics of the retrieval process; and 2) Equilibrium conditions of the drainage. While the saturated hydraulic properties of the salt waste (hydraulic conductivity in the vertical and horizontal direction) can be used to determine the kinetics of the flow through the salt waste, the unsaturated properties are needed in order to assess not only the time frame of tank drainage but also the equilibrium conditions. How much and how fast fluid can be drained at given initial and boundary conditions (atmospheric pressure and temperature) can be analyzed. A series of dissolution and drainage experiments was conducted using S-112, S-109 and Tank 41 simulants in a pilot-scale column (1' diameter, 10' high). The major goal of these experiments was to determine the hydraulic parameters of flow through the column and the dissolution patterns upon addition of fresh water. The hydraulic experiments were conducted using interstitial fluid as well as fresh water. A series of one-step outflow experiments were used to evaluate the drainage patterns for salt-bed heights ranging from 1' to 8'. Measured data include bulk densities and saturated hydraulic conductivities as a function of

  16. On thermohydrologic conditions near high-level nuclear wastes emplaced in partially saturated fractured tuff: 1. Simulation studies with explicit consideration of fracture effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruess, K.; Wang, J. S. Y.; Tsang, Y. W.

    1990-06-01

    We have performed modeling studies on the simultaneous transport of heat, liquid water, vapor, and air in partially saturated, fractured porous rock. Formation parameters were chosen as representative of the potential nuclear waste repository site in the Topopah Spring unit of the Yucca Mountain tuffs. The presence of fractures makes the transport problem very complex, both in terms of flow geometry and physics. The numerical simulator used for our flow calculations takes into account most of the physical effects believed to be important in multiphase fluid and heat flow. It has provisions for handling the extreme nonlinearities that arise in phase transitions, component disappearances, and capillary discontinuities at fracture faces. We model a region around an infinite linear string of nuclear waste canisters, taking into account both the discrete fractures and the porous matrix. Thermohydrologic conditions in the vicinity of the waste packages are found to depend strongly on relative permeability and capillary pressure characteristics of the fractures, which are unknown at the present time. If liquid held on the rough walls of drained fractures is assumed to be mobile, strong heat pipe effects are predicted. Under these conditions the host rock will remain in two-phase conditions right up to the emplacement hole, and formation temperatures will peak near 100°C. If it is assumed that liquid cannot move along drained fractures, the region surrounding the waste packages is predicted to dry up, and formation temperatures will rise beyond 200°C. A substantial fraction of waste heat can be removed if emplacement holes are left open and ventilated, as opposed to backfilled and sealed emplacement conditions. Comparing our model predictions with observations from in situ heater experiments reported by Zimmerman and coworkers, some intriguing similarities are noted. However, for a quantitative evaluation, additional carefully controlled laboratory and field experiments

  17. High-level-waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, J L

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of risks, environmental effects, process feasibility, and costs for disposal of immobilized high-level wastes in geologic repositories indicates that the disposal system safety has a low sensitivity to the choice of the waste disposal form.

  18. The Bunny: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, David; Gallagher, Patrick; Grannan, William; Martin, Jennifer; Mastej, Nicole; Wujek, Brett

    1993-01-01

    The Bunny is a single-engine, 100 passenger commercial transport designed to serve the high density short-to-medium range markets in AEROWORLD. The aircraft's design range is 10,000 feet at a cruise velocity of 30 ft/s. The aircraft features a low wing which incorporates polyhedral for roll control. Yaw and pitch control are accomplished by a rudder and elevator, respectively. Propulsion is provided by a nose-mounted Astro 15 electric motor powered by thirteen 1.2 V, 1000 mah batteries with a Zinger 12-6 propeller. The aircraft is structurally designed with a safety factor of 1.5 and is constructed primarily of balsa, bass, and birch wood. Passenger seating is arranged on two levels, with three-abreast on the lower level and two-abreast on the upper level. The factors which had the most significant influence on the final design were the direct operating cost and the take-off distance. The primary strength of The Bunny is its ability to compete economically with the HB-40. At full capacity and mid-range fuel costs, the cost per seat per thousand feet (CPSK) of this aircraft is 25% less than the HB-40. Another principal strength is its ability to operate in all airports in AEROWORLD. Also, The Bunny's two-piece removable wing is an advantage from a transportability standpoint.

  19. Energy simulation and optimization for a small commercial building through Modelica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, Bryan

    Small commercial buildings make up the majority of buildings in the United States. Energy consumed by these buildings is expected to drastically increase in the next few decades, with a large percentage of the energy consumed attributed to cooling systems. This work presents the simulation and optimization of a thermostat schedule to minimize energy consumption in a small commercial building test bed during the cooling season. The simulation occurs through the use of the multi-engineering domain Dymola environment based on the Modelica open source programming language and is optimized with the Java based optimization program GenOpt. The simulation uses both physically based modeling utilizing heat transfer principles for the building and regression analysis for energy consumption. GenOpt is dynamically coupled to Dymola through various interface files. There are very few studies that have coupled GenOpt to a building simulation program and even fewer studies have used Dymola for building simulation as extensively as the work presented here. The work presented proves Dymola as a viable alternative to other building simulation programs such as EnergyPlus and MatLab. The model developed is used to simulate the energy consumption of a test bed, a commissioned real world small commercial building, while maintaining indoor thermal comfort. Potential applications include smart or intelligent building systems, predictive simulation of small commercial buildings, and building diagnostics.

  20. High-Level Radioactive Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Howard C.

    1995-01-01

    Presents a method to calculate the amount of high-level radioactive waste by taking into consideration the following factors: the fission process that yields the waste, identification of the waste, the energy required to run a 1-GWe plant for one year, and the uranium mass required to produce that energy. Briefly discusses waste disposal and…

  1. A Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of a commercial engine has been developed in a graphical environment to meet the increasing need across the controls and health management community for a common research and development platform. This paper describes the Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS), which is representative of a 90,000-lb thrust class two spool, high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. A control law resembling the state-of-the-art on board modern aircraft engines is included, consisting of a fan-speed control loop supplemented by relevant engine limit protection regulator loops. The objective of this paper is to provide a top-down overview of the complete engine simulation package.

  2. RELATIVE AIRBORNE LOSSES OF COMMERCIAL 2,4-D FORMULATIONS FROM A SIMULATED WHEAT FIELD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative airborne losses of seven commercial 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) formulations were evaluated in a simulated wheat field. The formulations tested were butyl ester, isooctyl ester, two propylene glycol butyl ether esters, ethanol/isopropyl amine, and two dime...

  3. Application of commercial simulator to reproduce a real natural gas processing unit

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, L.G.; Maciel, M.R.W.

    1996-12-31

    In this work the intention is, using a commercial simulator, to reproduce the operating conditions of a Natural Gas Processing Unit. This is a complex task since in a real plant there are several kinds of equipments, accessories and designs that the most important available simulators cannot represent properly. This being the case, in this study, the simulation has been built in a unique computer file, simulating 48 equipments and 16 valves of the process unit. It was created five additional equipments and some adjust, recycle and set operations to adjust the simulator equipments to the real ones. The simulations has 84 operations and 116 streams of mass and energy. To bring near the column internal flows and temperatures to the real values, it were incorporated the column stage efficiencies, using a method, beginning with O`Connell global efficiency. 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  4. Upset Simulation and Training Initiatives for U.S. Navy Commercial Derived Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, Steven; Priest, James; Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    Militarized versions of commercial platforms are growing in popularity due to many logistical benefits in the form of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts, established production methods, and commonality for different certifications. Commercial data and best practices are often leveraged to reduce procurement and engineering development costs. While the developmental and cost reduction benefits are clear, these militarized aircraft are routinely operated in flight at significantly different conditions and in significantly different manners than for routine commercial flight. Therefore they are at a higher risk of flight envelope exceedance. This risk may lead to departure from controlled flight and/or aircraft loss1. Historically, the risk of departure from controlled flight for military aircraft has been mitigated by piloted simulation training and engineering analysis of typical aircraft response. High-agility military aircraft simulation databases are typically developed to include high angles of attack (AoA) and sideslip due to the dynamic nature of their missions and have been developed for many tactical configurations over the previous decades. These aircraft simulations allow for a more thorough understanding of the vehicle flight dynamics characteristics at high AoA and sideslip. In recent years, government sponsored research on transport airplane aerodynamic characteristics at high angles of attack has produced a growing understanding of stall/post-stall behavior. This research along with recent commercial airline training initiatives has resulted in improved understanding of simulator-based training requirements and simulator model fidelity.2-5 In addition, inflight training research over the past decade has produced a database of pilot performance and recurrency metrics6. Innovative solutions to aerodynamically model large commercial aircraft for upset conditions such as high AoA, high sideslip, and ballistic damage, as well as capability to accurately

  5. Umbra's High Level Architecture (HLA) Interface

    SciTech Connect

    GOTTLIEB, ERIC JOSEPH; MCDONALD, MICHAEL J.; OPPEL III, FRED J.

    2002-04-01

    This report describes Umbra's High Level Architecture HLA library. This library serves as an interface to the Defense Simulation and Modeling Office's (DMSO) Run Time Infrastructure Next Generation Version 1.3 (RTI NG1.3) software library and enables Umbra-based models to be federated into HLA environments. The Umbra library was built to enable the modeling of robots for military and security system concept evaluation. A first application provides component technologies that ideally fit the US Army JPSD's Joint Virtual Battlespace (JVB) simulation framework for Objective Force concept analysis. In addition to describing the Umbra HLA library, the report describes general issues of integrating Umbra with RTI code and outlines ways of building models to support particular HLA simulation frameworks like the JVB.

  6. Design study to simulate the development of a commercial transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Seven teams of senior-level Aerospace Engineering undergraduates were given a Request for Proposals (RFP) for a design concept of a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). The RPV designs were intended to simulate commercial transport aircraft within the model of 'Aeroworld.' The Aeroworld model was developed so that the RPV designs would be subject to many of the engineering problems and tradeoffs that dominate real-world commercial air transport designs, such as profitability, fuel efficiency, range vs. payload capabilities, and ease of production and maintenance. As part of the proposal, each team was required to construct a prototype and validate its design with a flight demonstration.

  7. The CMS high level trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gori, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system: the Level 1 Trigger, implemented on custom-designed electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running on the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. Here we will present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simpler single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We will discuss the optimisation of the triggers and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  8. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  9. Simulation of chaotic electrokinetic transport: performance of commercial software versus custom-built direct numerical simulation codes.

    PubMed

    Karatay, Elif; Druzgalski, Clara L; Mani, Ali

    2015-05-15

    Many microfluidic and electrochemical applications involve chaotic transport phenomena that arise due to instabilities stemming from coupling of hydrodynamics with ion transport and electrostatic forces. Recent investigations have revealed the contribution of a wide range of spatio-temporal scales in such electro-chaotic systems similar to those observed in turbulent flows. Given that these scales can span several orders of magnitude, significant numerical resolution is needed for accurate prediction of these phenomena. The objective of this work is to assess accuracy and efficiency of commercial software for prediction of such phenomena. We have considered the electroconvective flow induced by concentration polarization near an ion selective surface as a model problem representing chaotic elecrokinetic phenomena. We present detailed comparison of the performance of a general-purpose commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and transport solver against a custom-built direct numerical simulation code that has been tailored to the specific physics of unsteady electrokinetic flows. We present detailed statistics including velocity and ion concentration spectra over a wide range of frequencies as well as time-averaged statistics and computational time required for each simulation. Our results indicate that while accuracy can be guaranteed with proper mesh resolution and avoiding numerical dissipation, commercial solvers are generally at least an order of magnitude slower than custom-built direct numerical simulation codes. PMID:25660706

  10. Comparison of DOE-2 computer program simulations to metered data for seven commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, S.C.; Hunn, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    As part of the DOE-2 Verification Project being conducted by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, seven existing commercial buildings were simulated using the DOE-2 computer program. These buildings included a restaurant, single-floor office building, retail store, hospital, multifloor office building, school, and solar-heated and -cooled building. This comparison test required each building to be simulated by a separate contractor or national laboratory. Predictions of the DOE-2 computer program were then compared to the utility company monthly metered data. Results of these comparisons for gas/fuel oil use, electric energy use, and total energy use are reported.

  11. User's Guide for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS): Version 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan; Frederick, Dean K.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Chan, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This report is a Users Guide for version 2 of the NASA-developed Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS) software, which is a transient simulation of a large commercial turbofan engine (up to 90,000-lb thrust) with a realistic engine control system. The software supports easy access to health, control, and engine parameters through a graphical user interface (GUI). C-MAPSS v.2 has some enhancements over the original, including three actuators rather than one, the addition of actuator and sensor dynamics, and an improved controller, while retaining or improving on the convenience and user-friendliness of the original. C-MAPSS v.2 provides the user with a graphical turbofan engine simulation environment in which advanced algorithms can be implemented and tested. C-MAPSS can run user-specified transient simulations, and it can generate state-space linear models of the nonlinear engine model at an operating point. The code has a number of GUI screens that allow point-and-click operation, and have editable fields for user-specified input. The software includes an atmospheric model which allows simulation of engine operation at altitudes from sea level to 40,000 ft, Mach numbers from 0 to 0.90, and ambient temperatures from -60 to 103 F. The package also includes a power-management system that allows the engine to be operated over a wide range of thrust levels throughout the full range of flight conditions.

  12. User's Guide for the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederick, Dean K.; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    This report is a Users Guide for the NASA-developed Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS) software, which is a transient simulation of a large commercial turbofan engine (up to 90,000-lb thrust) with a realistic engine control system. The software supports easy access to health, control, and engine parameters through a graphical user interface (GUI). C-MAPSS provides the user with a graphical turbofan engine simulation environment in which advanced algorithms can be implemented and tested. C-MAPSS can run user-specified transient simulations, and it can generate state-space linear models of the nonlinear engine model at an operating point. The code has a number of GUI screens that allow point-and-click operation, and have editable fields for user-specified input. The software includes an atmospheric model which allows simulation of engine operation at altitudes from sea level to 40,000 ft, Mach numbers from 0 to 0.90, and ambient temperatures from -60 to 103 F. The package also includes a power-management system that allows the engine to be operated over a wide range of thrust levels throughout the full range of flight conditions.

  13. Large Scale Monte Carlo Simulation of Neutrino Interactions Using the Open Science Grid and Commercial Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, A.; Boyd, J.; Davies, G.; Flumerfelt, E.; Herner, K.; Mayer, N.; Mhashilhar, P.; Tamsett, M.; Timm, S.

    2015-12-01

    Modern long baseline neutrino experiments like the NOvA experiment at Fermilab, require large scale, compute intensive simulations of their neutrino beam fluxes and backgrounds induced by cosmic rays. The amount of simulation required to keep the systematic uncertainties in the simulation from dominating the final physics results is often 10x to 100x that of the actual detector exposure. For the first physics results from NOvA this has meant the simulation of more than 2 billion cosmic ray events in the far detector and more than 200 million NuMI beam spill simulations. Performing these high statistics levels of simulation have been made possible for NOvA through the use of the Open Science Grid and through large scale runs on commercial clouds like Amazon EC2. We details the challenges in performing large scale simulation in these environments and how the computing infrastructure for the NOvA experiment has been adapted to seamlessly support the running of different simulation and data processing tasks on these resources.

  14. Preliminary results of simulated vortex encounters by a twin-engine, commercial aircraft during final landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Holbrook, G. T.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Piloted simulations of encounters with vortices of various ages and degrees of attenuation were performed with the Visual Motion Simulator. In the simulations, a twin engine, commercial transport on final approach, encountered the modeled vortices of a four engine, wide body, commercial transport. The data show the effect of vortex age and attenuation on the severity of the initial upset, as well as the effect of the vortex encounters on the landing capability.

  15. Optimizing High Level Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Dirk Gombert

    2005-09-01

    If society is ever to reap the potential benefits of nuclear energy, technologists must close the fuel-cycle completely. A closed cycle equates to a continued supply of fuel and safe reactors, but also reliable and comprehensive closure of waste issues. High level waste (HLW) disposal in borosilicate glass (BSG) is based on 1970s era evaluations. This host matrix is very adaptable to sequestering a wide variety of radionuclides found in raffinates from spent fuel reprocessing. However, it is now known that the current system is far from optimal for disposal of the diverse HLW streams, and proven alternatives are available to reduce costs by billions of dollars. The basis for HLW disposal should be reassessed to consider extensive waste form and process technology research and development efforts, which have been conducted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), international agencies and the private sector. Matching the waste form to the waste chemistry and using currently available technology could increase the waste content in waste forms to 50% or more and double processing rates. Optimization of the HLW disposal system would accelerate HLW disposition and increase repository capacity. This does not necessarily require developing new waste forms, the emphasis should be on qualifying existing matrices to demonstrate protection equal to or better than the baseline glass performance. Also, this proposed effort does not necessarily require developing new technology concepts. The emphasis is on demonstrating existing technology that is clearly better (reliability, productivity, cost) than current technology, and justifying its use in future facilities or retrofitted facilities. Higher waste processing and disposal efficiency can be realized by performing the engineering analyses and trade-studies necessary to select the most efficient methods for processing the full spectrum of wastes across the nuclear complex. This paper will describe technologies being

  16. Nanoelectronic Modeling (NEMO): Moving from commercial grade 1-D simulation to prototype 3-D simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimeck, Gerhard

    2001-03-01

    The quantum mechanical functionality of commercially pursued heterostructure devices such as resonant tunneling diodes (RTDs), quantum well infrared photodetectors, and quantum well lasers are enabled by material variations on an atomic scale. The creation of these heterostructure devices is realized in a vast design space of material compositions, layer thicknesses and doping profiles. The full experimental exploration of this design space is unfeasible and a reliable design tool is needed. The Nanoelectronic Modeling tool (NEMO) is one of the first commercial grade attempts for such a modeling tool. NEMO was developed as a general-purpose quantum mechanics-based 1-D device design and analysis tool from 1993-97 by the Central Research Laboratory of Texas Instruments (later Raytheon Systems). NEMO enables(R. Lake, G. Klimeck, R. C. Bowen, and D. Jovanovic, J. Appl. Phys. 81), 7845 (1997). the fundamentally sound inclusion of the required(G. Klimeck et al.), in the 1997 55th Annual Device Research Conference Digest, (IEEE, NJ, 1997), p. 92^,(R. C. Bowen et al.), J. Appl. Phys 81, 3207 (1997). physics: bandstructure, scattering, and charge self-consistency based on the non-equilibrium Green function approach. A new class of devices which require full 3-D quantum mechanics based models is starting to emerge: quantum dots, or in general semiconductor based deca-nano devices. We are currently building a 3-D modeling tool based on NEMO to include the important physics to understand electronic stated in such superscaled structures. This presentation will overview various facets of the NEMO 1-D tool such electron transport physics in RTDs, numerical technology, software engineering and graphical user interface. The lessons learned from that work are now entering the NEMO 3-D development and first results using the NEMO 3-D prototype will be shown. More information about

  17. Accurate Simulation of MPPT Methods Performance When Applied to Commercial Photovoltaic Panels

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions. PMID:25874262

  18. Accurate simulation of MPPT methods performance when applied to commercial photovoltaic panels.

    PubMed

    Cubas, Javier; Pindado, Santiago; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions. PMID:25874262

  19. Suitability of commercial software for direct numerical simulations of chaotic electrokinetic transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatay, Elif; Mani, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Many microfluidic and electrochemical applications involve chaotic transport phenomena that arise due to instabilities stemming from coupling of hydrodynamics with ion transport and electrostatic forces. Recent investigations have revealed contribution of a wide range of spatio-temporal scales in such chaotic systems similar to those observed in turbulent flows. Given that these scales can span several orders of magnitude, significant numerical resolution is needed for accurate prediction of these phenomena. The objective of this work is to assess efficiency of commercial software for prediction of such phenomena. To this end we have considered Comsol Multiphysics as a general-purpose commercial CFD/transport solver, and have compared its performance against a custom-made DNS code tailored to the specific physics of chaotic electrokinetic phenomena. We present comparison for small systems, which can be simulated on a single core, and show detailed statistics including velocity and concentration spectra over a wide range of frequencies. Our results indicate that while accuracy can be guaranteed with proper mesh resolution, commercial solvers are generally at least an order of magnitude slower than custom-made DNS codes. Supported by NWO, Rubicon Grant.

  20. Toward Real-Time Monte Carlo Simulation Using a Commercial Cloud Computing Infrastructure+

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Henry; Ma, Yunzhi; Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Monte Carlo (MC) methods are the gold standard for modeling photon and electron transport in heterogeneous medium; however, their computational cost prohibits their routine use in the clinic. Cloud computing, wherein computing resources are allocated on-demand from a third party, is a new approach for high performance computing and is implemented to perform ultra-fast MC calculation in radiation therapy. Methods We deployed the EGS5 MC package in a commercial cloud environment. Launched from a single local computer with Internet access, a python script allocates a remote virtual cluster. A handshaking protocol designates master and worker nodes. The EGS5 binaries and the simulation data are initially loaded onto the master node. The simulation is then distributed among independent worker nodes via the Message Passing Interface (MPI), and the results aggregated on the local computer for display and data analysis. The described approach is evaluated for pencil beams and broad beams of high-energy electrons and photons. Results The output of the cloud-based MC simulation is identical to that produced by the single-threaded implementation. For 1 million electrons, a simulation that takes 2.58 hour on a local computer can be executed in 3.3 minutes on the cloud with 100 nodes, a 47x speed-up. Simulation time scales inversely with the number of parallel nodes. The parallelization overhead is also negligible for large simulations. Conclusion Cloud computing represents one of the most important recent advances in supercomputing technology and provides a promising platform for substantially improved MC simulation. In addition to the significant speed up, cloud computing builds a layer of abstraction for high performance parallel computing, which may change the way dose calculations are performed and radiation treatment plans are completed. PMID:21841211

  1. Toward real-time Monte Carlo simulation using a commercial cloud computing infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Henry; Ma, Yunzhi; Pratx, Guillem; Xing, Lei

    2011-09-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are the gold standard for modeling photon and electron transport in a heterogeneous medium; however, their computational cost prohibits their routine use in the clinic. Cloud computing, wherein computing resources are allocated on-demand from a third party, is a new approach for high performance computing and is implemented to perform ultra-fast MC calculation in radiation therapy. We deployed the EGS5 MC package in a commercial cloud environment. Launched from a single local computer with Internet access, a Python script allocates a remote virtual cluster. A handshaking protocol designates master and worker nodes. The EGS5 binaries and the simulation data are initially loaded onto the master node. The simulation is then distributed among independent worker nodes via the message passing interface, and the results aggregated on the local computer for display and data analysis. The described approach is evaluated for pencil beams and broad beams of high-energy electrons and photons. The output of cloud-based MC simulation is identical to that produced by single-threaded implementation. For 1 million electrons, a simulation that takes 2.58 h on a local computer can be executed in 3.3 min on the cloud with 100 nodes, a 47× speed-up. Simulation time scales inversely with the number of parallel nodes. The parallelization overhead is also negligible for large simulations. Cloud computing represents one of the most important recent advances in supercomputing technology and provides a promising platform for substantially improved MC simulation. In addition to the significant speed up, cloud computing builds a layer of abstraction for high performance parallel computing, which may change the way dose calculations are performed and radiation treatment plans are completed. This work was presented in part at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), Philadelphia, PA.

  2. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-12-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented.

  3. A High-Fidelity Simulation of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine and Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Csank, Jeffrey; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2010-01-01

    A new high-fidelity simulation of a generic 40,000 lb thrust class commercial turbofan engine with a representative controller, known as CMAPSS40k, has been developed. Based on dynamic flight test data of a highly instrumented engine and previous engine simulations developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, this non-proprietary simulation was created especially for use in the development of new engine control strategies. C-MAPSS40k is a highly detailed, component-level engine model written in MATLAB/Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc.). Because the model is built in Simulink, users have the ability to use any of the MATLAB tools for analysis and control system design. The engine components are modeled in C-code, which is then compiled to allow faster-than-real-time execution. The engine controller is based on common industry architecture and techniques to produce realistic closed-loop transient responses while ensuring that no safety or operability limits are violated. A significant feature not found in other non-proprietary models is the inclusion of transient stall margin debits. These debits provide an accurate accounting of the compressor surge margin, which is critical in the design of an engine controller. This paper discusses the development, characteristics, and capabilities of the C-MAPSS40k simulation

  4. Numerical simulations of a vertical tail of a commercial aircraft with active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasquin, Michel; Martin, Jeffrey; Jansen, Kenneth

    2012-11-01

    A series of numerical simulations of a realistic vertical tail of a commercial aircraft, with a tapered swept stabilizer and a rudder, is considered in this work with application of flow control. Flow control is known to have the capacity to augment the streamwise momentum near the rudder suction peak where separation is typically observed to limit rudder effectiveness for high deflection angles. Specifically, we use Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES) to study the interaction of a cross flow with an array of 24 synthetic jets for a 0° angle of attack, a 30° deflection angle and a Reynolds number of 7×105. We concentrate our analysis on the influence of the spacing between successive active jets in the spanwise direction. Indeed, our current simulations suggest that doubling the number of active jets at a lower Reynolds number improves the lateral force while opposite effect is observed at the considered Reynolds number when using the same size jets. These simulations offer insight into the fundamental physics of the flow structures in the vicinity of the synthetic jets by accurately resolving the complete synthetic jet pathway and the vorticity plume where the jet structures interact with each other and with the primary flow. The Boeing Company and the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility are acknowledged for their support and resources through the INCITE program.

  5. The effects of simulated space environmental parameters on six commercially available composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, Joan G.; Sykes, George F., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of simulated space environmental parameters on microdamage induced by the environment in a series of commercially available graphite-fiber-reinforced composite materials were determined. Composites with both thermoset and thermoplastic resin systems were studied. Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) exposures were simulated by thermal cycling; geosynchronous-orbit (GEO) exposures were simulated by electron irradiation plus thermal cycling. The thermal cycling temperature range was -250 F to either 200 F or 150 F. The upper limits of the thermal cycles were different to ensure that an individual composite material was not cycled above its glass transition temperature. Material response was characterized through assessment of the induced microcracking and its influence on mechanical property changes at both room temperature and -250 F. Microdamage was induced in both thermoset and thermoplastic advanced composite materials exposed to the simulated LEO environment. However, a 350 F cure single-phase toughened epoxy composite was not damaged during exposure to the LEO environment. The simuated GEO environment produced microdamage in all materials tested.

  6. Stability of anthocyanins from commercial black currant juice under simulated gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Uzunović, Alija; Vranić, Edina

    2008-08-01

    Anthocyanins are effective antioxidants but they have also been proposed to have other biological activities independent of their antioxidant capacities that produce health benefits. Examples range from inhibition of cancer cell growth in vitro, induction of insulin production in isolated pancreatic cells, reduction of starch digestion through inhibition of a-glucosidase activity, suppression of inflammatory responses as well as protection against age-related declines in cognitive behavior and neuronal dysfunction in the central nervous system. However, to achieve any biological effect in a specific tissue or organ, anthocyanins must be bioavailable; i.e. effectively absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) into the circulation and delivered to the appropriate location within the body. In this study, we assess the stability of anthocyanins from commercial Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice using an in vitro digestion procedure that mimics the physiochemical and biochemical conditions encountered in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The main objective of this work was the evaluation of stability of anthocyanins during in vitro digestion in gastric and intestinal fluid regarding whether appropriate enzyme (pepsin or pancreatin) was added or not. Anthocyanins present in commercial black currant juice remain stable during in vitro digestion in gastric fluid regardless whether pepsin was added into the medium or not. Also, they remain stable during in vitro digestion in simulated intestinal fluid without pancreatin. The stability studies of anthocyanins in the intestinal fluid containing pancreatin indicated reduced stability, which also mainly contribute to slight reduction of total anthocyanins content (-1.83%) in commercial black currant juice. PMID:18816259

  7. Simulator study of vortex encounters by a twin-engine, commercial, jet transport airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A simulator study of vortex encounters was conducted for a twin-engine, commercial, jet transport airplane encountering the vortex flow field of a heavy, four-engine, commercial, jet transport airplane in the final-approach configuration. The encounters were conducted with fixed controls and with a pilot using a state-of-the-art, manual-control system. Piloted encounters with the base-line vortex flow field out of ground effect (unattenuated) resulted in initial bank-angle excursions greater than 40 deg, coupled with initial sideslip-angle excursions greater than 10 deg. The severity of these initial upsets was significantly reduced when the vortex center was moved laterally or vertically away from the flight path of the encountering airplane. Smaller reductions occurred when the flow field was attenuated by the flight spoilers on the generating airplane. The largest reduction in the severity of the initial upsets, however, was from aging in ground effect. The severity of the initial upsets of the following airplane was relatively unaffected by the approach speed. Increasing the lift coefficient of the generating airplane resulted in an increase in the severity of the initial upsets.

  8. CFD simulation of MSW combustion and SNCR in a commercial incinerator.

    PubMed

    Xia, Zihong; Li, Jian; Wu, Tingting; Chen, Caixia; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2014-09-01

    A CFD scheme was presented for modeling municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in a moving-grate incinerator, including the in-bed burning of solid wastes, the out-of-bed burnout of gaseous volatiles, and the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process between urea (CO(NH2)2) and NOx. The in-bed calculations provided 2-D profiles of the gas-solid temperatures and the gas species concentrations along the bed length, which were then used as inlet conditions for the out-of-bed computations. The over-bed simulations provided the profiles of incident radiation heat flux on the top of bed. A 3-dimensional benchmark simulation was conducted with a 750 t/day commercial incinerator using the present coupling scheme incorporating with a reduced SNCR reduction mechanism. Numerical tests were performed to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as injection position, injection speed and the normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) on the SNCR performance. The simulation results showed that the distributions of gas velocity, temperature and NOx concentration were highly non-uniform, which made the injection position one of the most sensitive operating parameters influencing the SNCR performance of moving grate incinerators. The simulation results also showed that multi-layer injections were needed to meet the EU2000 standard, and a NSR 1.5 was suggested as a compromise of a satisfactory NOx reduction and reasonable NH3 slip rates. This work provided useful guides to the design and operation of SNCR process in moving-grate incinerators. PMID:24863625

  9. A Comparison between Ultraviolet Disinfection and Copper Alginate Beads within a Vortex Bioreactor for the Deactivation of Bacteria in Simulated Waste Streams with High Levels of Colour, Humic Acid and Suspended Solids

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Simon F.; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M.; Mason, Paul T.; Allen, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries. PMID:25541706

  10. An Approach to Assess Delamination Propagation Simulation Capabilities in Commercial Finite Element Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    An approach for assessing the delamination propagation simulation capabilities in commercial finite element codes is presented and demonstrated. For this investigation, the Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) specimen and the Single Leg Bending (SLB) specimen were chosen for full three-dimensional finite element simulations. First, benchmark results were created for both specimens. Second, starting from an initially straight front, the delamination was allowed to propagate. The load-displacement relationship and the total strain energy obtained from the propagation analysis results and the benchmark results were compared and good agreements could be achieved by selecting the appropriate input parameters. Selecting the appropriate input parameters, however, was not straightforward and often required an iterative procedure. Qualitatively, the delamination front computed for the DCB specimen did not take the shape of a curved front as expected. However, the analysis of the SLB specimen yielded a curved front as was expected from the distribution of the energy release rate and the failure index across the width of the specimen. Overall, the results are encouraging but further assessment on a structural level is required.

  11. CFD simulation of MSW combustion and SNCR in a commercial incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Zihong; Li, Jian; Wu, Tingting; Chen, Caixia; Zhang, Xiaoke

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Presented a CFD scheme for modeling MSW incinerator including SNCR process. • Performed a sensitivity analysis of SNCR operating conditions. • Non-uniform distributions of gas velocity, temperature and NO{sub x} in the incinerator. • The injection position of reagent was critical for a desirable performance of SNCR. • A NSR 1.5 was recommended as a compromise of NO{sub x} reduction rates and NH{sub 3} slip. - Abstract: A CFD scheme was presented for modeling municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in a moving-grate incinerator, including the in-bed burning of solid wastes, the out-of-bed burnout of gaseous volatiles, and the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process between urea (CO(NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) and NO{sub x}. The in-bed calculations provided 2-D profiles of the gas–solid temperatures and the gas species concentrations along the bed length, which were then used as inlet conditions for the out-of-bed computations. The over-bed simulations provided the profiles of incident radiation heat flux on the top of bed. A 3-dimensional benchmark simulation was conducted with a 750 t/day commercial incinerator using the present coupling scheme incorporating with a reduced SNCR reduction mechanism. Numerical tests were performed to investigate the effects of operating parameters such as injection position, injection speed and the normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) on the SNCR performance. The simulation results showed that the distributions of gas velocity, temperature and NO{sub x} concentration were highly non-uniform, which made the injection position one of the most sensitive operating parameters influencing the SNCR performance of moving grate incinerators. The simulation results also showed that multi-layer injections were needed to meet the EU2000 standard, and a NSR 1.5 was suggested as a compromise of a satisfactory NO{sub x} reduction and reasonable NH{sub 3} slip rates. This work provided useful guides to the design and

  12. Localized corrosion behaviour in simulated human body fluids of commercial Ni-Ti orthodontic wires.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, G; Vicentini, B

    1999-04-01

    The corrosion performances in simulated human body fluids of commercial equiatomic Ni-Ti orthodontic wires having various shape and size and produced by different manufacturers were evaluated; for comparison purposes wires made of stainless steel and of cobalt-based alloy were also examined. Potentiodynamic tests in artificial saliva at 40 degrees C indicated a sufficient pitting resistance for the Ni-Ti wires, similar to that of cobalt-based alloy wire; the stainless steel wire, instead, exhibited low pitting potential. Potentiodynamic tests at 40 degrees C in isotonic saline solution (0.9% NaCl) showed, for Ni-Ti and stainless steel wires, pitting potential values in the range approximately 200-400 mV and approximately 350 mV versus SCE, respectively: consequently, according to literature data (Hoar TP, Mears DC. Proc Roy Soc A 1996;294:486-510), these materials should be considered potentially susceptible to pitting; only the cobalt-based alloy should be immune from pitting. The localized corrosion potentials determined in the same environment by the ASTM F746 test (approximately 0-200 mV and 130 mV versus SCE for Ni-Ti and stainless steel, respectively) pointed out that for these materials an even higher risk of localized corrosion. Slight differences in localized corrosion behaviour among the various Ni-Ti wires were detected. PMID:10353661

  13. Simulation of commercial scale CO2 injection into a fracture reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, S.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Geologic Carbon Sequestration is a proposed means to reduce atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2). At Teapot Dome, Wyoming, CO2 will be injected into the Tensleep Formation, a depleted oil reservoir characterized with significant heterogeneity including facies, faults, and fractures. We've collected geological and engineering characterization data of the entire Teapot Dome field, including core data, well logs, seismic data, and production records. All data were screened for accuracy, before subsets of the data are used to build a geologic reservoir model. A formation structural model is created first by interpreting faults and stratigraphy from 3D seismic data. Formation MicroImager logs are analyzed for fracture characteristics to generate in-situ fracture intensity at wells, which is subsequently interpolated throughout the model with kriging. Based on the intensity and a set of geometric fracture parameters (constrained by outcrop and core measurements), a 3D stochastic Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) is created. One realization of the DFN is upscaled to a dual-porosity simulation model using a variant of the Oda's method. This method upscales the fracture network to an effective grid-block fracture permeability. To account for fluid transfer from matrix to fracture, a sigma factor is computed using average fracture spacings within the grid block. Matrix porosity is populated in the model by kriging interpolation of well-log-derived values. With the dual-porosity model, CO2 is injected near the crest of the dome (the proposed location) at a rate of 2.6 Mt/year for 50 years, with an injection bottomhole pressure set at 160% hydrostatic pressure. Boundary of the model is open except along one bounding fault assumed sealed. Results of the simulation suggest that provided that fluid pressure buildup is not an issue (simulated pressure buildup near the fault is minor), the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome can sustain commercial-scale injection over time

  14. Evaluation and selection of candidate high-level waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T. A.; Allender, J. S.; Butler, J. L.; Gordon, D. E.; Gould, Jr., T. H.; Stone, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    Seven candidate waste forms being developed under the direction of the Department of Energy's National High-Level Waste (HLW) Technology Program, were evaluated as potential media for the immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level nuclear wastes. The evaluation combined preliminary waste form evaluations conducted at DOE defense waste-sites and independent laboratories, peer review assessments, a product performance evaluation, and a processability analysis. Based on the combined results of these four inputs, two of the seven forms, borosilicate glass and a titanate based ceramic, SYNROC, were selected as the reference and alternative forms for continued development and evaluation in the National HLW Program. Both the glass and ceramic forms are viable candidates for use at each of the DOE defense waste-sites; they are also potential candidates for immobilization of commercial reprocessing wastes. This report describes the waste form screening process, and discusses each of the four major inputs considered in the selection of the two forms.

  15. High-level waste processing and disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crandall, J. L.; Drause, H.; Sombret, C.; Uematsu, K.

    The national high level waste disposal plans for France, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, and the United States are covered. Three conclusions are reached. The first conclusion is that an excellent technology already exists for high level waste disposal. With appropriate packaging, spent fuel seems to be an acceptable waste form. Borosilicate glass reprocessing waste forms are well understood, in production in France, and scheduled for production in the next few years in a number of other countries. For final disposal, a number of candidate geological repository sites have been identified and several demonstration sites opened. The second conclusion is that adequate financing and a legal basis for waste disposal are in place in most countries. Costs of high level waste disposal will probably and about 5 to 10% to the costs of nuclear electric power. Third conclusion is less optimistic.

  16. High-Level Application Framework for LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P; Chevtsov, S.; Fairley, D.; Larrieu, C.; Rock, J.; Rogind, D.; White, G.; Zalazny, M.; /SLAC

    2008-04-22

    A framework for high level accelerator application software is being developed for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The framework is based on plug-in technology developed by an open source project, Eclipse. Many existing functionalities provided by Eclipse are available to high-level applications written within this framework. The framework also contains static data storage configuration and dynamic data connectivity. Because the framework is Eclipse-based, it is highly compatible with any other Eclipse plug-ins. The entire infrastructure of the software framework will be presented. Planned applications and plug-ins based on the framework are also presented.

  17. Clinical evaluation of a commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction tool for CT simulations in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Hua; Noel, Camille; Chen, Haijian; Harold Li, H.; Low, Daniel; Moore, Kevin; Klahr, Paul; Michalski, Jeff; Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: Severe artifacts in kilovoltage-CT simulation images caused by large metallic implants can significantly degrade the conspicuity and apparent CT Hounsfield number of targets and anatomic structures, jeopardize the confidence of anatomical segmentation, and introduce inaccuracies into the radiation therapy treatment planning process. This study evaluated the performance of the first commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction function (O-MAR) for radiation therapy, and investigated its clinical applications in treatment planning. Methods: Both phantom and clinical data were used for the evaluation. The CIRS electron density phantom with known physical (and electron) density plugs and removable titanium implants was scanned on a Philips Brilliance Big Bore 16-slice CT simulator. The CT Hounsfield numbers of density plugs on both uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images were compared. Treatment planning accuracy was evaluated by comparing simulated dose distributions computed using the true density images, uncorrected images, and O-MAR corrected images. Ten CT image sets of patients with large hip implants were processed with the O-MAR function and evaluated by two radiation oncologists using a five-point score for overall image quality, anatomical conspicuity, and CT Hounsfield number accuracy. By utilizing the same structure contours delineated from the O-MAR corrected images, clinical IMRT treatment plans for five patients were computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images, respectively, and compared. Results: Results of the phantom study indicated that CT Hounsfield number accuracy and noise were improved on the O-MAR corrected images, especially for images with bilateral metal implants. The {gamma} pass rates of the simulated dose distributions computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images referenced to those of the true densities were higher than 99.9% (even when using 1% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criterion), suggesting that dose

  18. Clinical evaluation of a commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction tool for CT simulations in radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua; Noel, Camille; Chen, Haijian; Harold Li, H.; Low, Daniel; Moore, Kevin; Klahr, Paul; Michalski, Jeff; Gay, Hiram A.; Thorstad, Wade; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Severe artifacts in kilovoltage-CT simulation images caused by large metallic implants can significantly degrade the conspicuity and apparent CT Hounsfield number of targets and anatomic structures, jeopardize the confidence of anatomical segmentation, and introduce inaccuracies into the radiation therapy treatment planning process. This study evaluated the performance of the first commercial orthopedic metal artifact reduction function (O-MAR) for radiation therapy, and investigated its clinical applications in treatment planning. Methods: Both phantom and clinical data were used for the evaluation. The CIRS electron density phantom with known physical (and electron) density plugs and removable titanium implants was scanned on a Philips Brilliance Big Bore 16-slice CT simulator. The CT Hounsfield numbers of density plugs on both uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images were compared. Treatment planning accuracy was evaluated by comparing simulated dose distributions computed using the true density images, uncorrected images, and O-MAR corrected images. Ten CT image sets of patients with large hip implants were processed with the O-MAR function and evaluated by two radiation oncologists using a five-point score for overall image quality, anatomical conspicuity, and CT Hounsfield number accuracy. By utilizing the same structure contours delineated from the O-MAR corrected images, clinical IMRT treatment plans for five patients were computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images, respectively, and compared. Results: Results of the phantom study indicated that CT Hounsfield number accuracy and noise were improved on the O-MAR corrected images, especially for images with bilateral metal implants. The γ pass rates of the simulated dose distributions computed on the uncorrected and O-MAR corrected images referenced to those of the true densities were higher than 99.9% (even when using 1% and 3 mm distance-to-agreement criterion), suggesting that dose

  19. High Level Architecture - Version 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-05-13

    This package enables an Umbra simulation to join an HLA federation to co-simulate with other simulations such as another Umbra instance and OpNet. This enables higher fidelity models to be incorporated into an Umbra simulation. This also enables existing simulations/models to be integrated into Umbra without the need of writing the code specifically for Umbra.

  20. PAIRWISE BLENDING OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE (HLW)

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA, P.J.

    2006-02-22

    The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate a mission scenario that uses pairwise and incidental blending of high level waste (HLW) to reduce the total mass of HLW glass. Secondary objectives include understanding how recent refinements to the tank waste inventory and solubility assumptions affect the mass of HLW glass and how logistical constraints may affect the efficacy of HLW blending.

  1. High-level radioactive wastes. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    McLaren, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography contains information on high-level radioactive wastes included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from August 1982 through December 1983. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number. 1452 citations.

  2. [Corrosion testing of high level radioactive waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Alloys under consideration as candidates for the high level nuclear waste containers at Yucca Mountain were exposed to a range of corrosion conditions and their performance measured. The alloys tested were Incoloy 825, 70/30 Copper-Nickel, Monel 400, Hastelloy C- 22, and low carbon steel. The test conditions varied were: temperature, concentration, agitation, and crevice simulation. Only in the case of carbon steel was significant attack noted. This attack appeared to be transport limited.

  3. Modeling and optimization of defense high level waste removal sequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Pran Krishna

    A novel methodology has been developed which makes possible a very fast running computational tool, capable of performing 30 to 50 years of simulation of the entire Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste complex in less than 2 minutes on a work station. The methodology has been implemented in the Production Planning Model (ProdMod) simulation code which uses Aspen Technology's dynamic simulation software development package SPEEDUP. ProdMod is a pseudo-dynamic simulation code solely based on algebraic equations, using no differential equations. The dynamic nature of the plant process is captured using linear constructs in which the time dependence is implicit. Another innovative approach implemented in ProdMod development is the mapping of event-space on to time-space and vice versa, which accelerates the computation without sacrificing the necessary details in the event-space. ProdMod uses this approach in coupling the time-space continuous simulation with the event-space batch simulation, avoiding the discontinuities inherent in dynamic simulation batch processing. In addition, a general purpose optimization scheme has been devised based on the pseudo-dynamic constructs and the event- and time-space algorithms of ProdMod. The optimization scheme couples a FORTRAN based stand-alone optimization driver with the SPEEDUP based ProdMod simulator to perform dynamic optimization. The scheme is capable of generating single or multiple optimal input conditions for different types of objective functions over single or multiple years of operations depending on the nature of the objective function and operating constraints. The resultant optimal inputs are then interfaced with ProdMod to simulate the dynamic behavior of the waste processing operations. At the conclusion on an optimized advancement step, the simulation parameters are then passed to the optimization driver to generate the next set of optimized parameters. An optimization algorithm using linear programming

  4. Evaluating the Impact of Road Grade on Simulated Commercial Vehicle Fuel Economy Using Real-World Drive Cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lopp, Sean; Wood, Eric; Duran, Adam

    2015-10-13

    Commercial vehicle fuel economy is known to vary significantly with both positive and negative road grade. Medium- and heavy-duty vehicles operating at highway speeds require incrementally larger amounts of energy to pull heavy payloads up inclines as road grade increases. Non-hybrid vehicles are then unable to recapture energy on descent and lose energy through friction braking. While the on-road effects of road grade are well understood, the majority of standard commercial vehicle drive cycles feature no climb or descent requirements. Additionally, existing literature offers a limited number of sources that attempt to estimate the on-road energy implications of road grade in the medium- and heavy-duty space. This study uses real-world commercial vehicle drive cycles from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fleet DNA database to simulate the effects of road grade on fuel economy across a range of vocations, operating conditions, and locations. Drive-cycles are matched with vocation-specific vehicle models and simulated with and without grade. Fuel use due to grade is presented, and variation in fuel consumption due to drive cycle and vehicle characteristics is explored through graphical and statistical comparison. The results of this study suggest that road grade accounts for 1%-9% of fuel use in commercial vehicles on average and up to 40% on select routes.

  5. High-Level Waste Melter Study Report

    SciTech Connect

    Perez Jr, Joseph M; Bickford, Dennis F; Day, Delbert E; Kim, Dong-Sang; Lambert, Steven L; Marra, Sharon L; Peeler, David K; Strachan, Denis M; Triplett, Mark B; Vienna, John D; Wittman, Richard S

    2001-07-13

    At the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, the path to site cleanup involves vitrification of the majority of the wastes that currently reside in large underground tanks. A Joule-heated glass melter is the equipment of choice for vitrifying the high-level fraction of these wastes. Even though this technology has general national and international acceptance, opportunities may exist to improve or change the technology to reduce the enormous cost of accomplishing the mission of site cleanup. Consequently, the U.S. Department of Energy requested the staff of the Tanks Focus Area to review immobilization technologies, waste forms, and modifications to requirements for solidification of the high-level waste fraction at Hanford to determine what aspects could affect cost reductions with reasonable long-term risk. The results of this study are summarized in this report.

  6. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    N. E. Pettit

    2001-07-13

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms [IPWF]) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. US Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as co-disposal. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister inserted in the center and/or one or more DOE SNF canisters displacing a HLW canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by

  7. RETENTION OF SULFATE IN HIGH LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE GLASS

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2010-09-07

    High level radioactive wastes are being vitrified at the Savannah River Site for long term disposal. Many of the wastes contain sulfate at concentrations that can be difficult to retain in borosilicate glass. This study involves efforts to optimize the composition of a glass frit for combination with the waste to improve sulfate retention while meeting other process and product performance constraints. The fabrication and characterization of several series of simulated waste glasses are described. The experiments are detailed chronologically, to provide insight into part of the engineering studies used in developing frit compositions for an operating high level waste vitrification facility. The results lead to the recommendation of a specific frit composition and a concentration limit for sulfate in the glass for the next batch of sludge to be processed at Savannah River.

  8. EAP high-level product architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudlaugsson, T. V.; Mortensen, N. H.; Sarban, R.

    2013-04-01

    EAP technology has the potential to be used in a wide range of applications. This poses the challenge to the EAP component manufacturers to develop components for a wide variety of products. Danfoss Polypower A/S is developing an EAP technology platform, which can form the basis for a variety of EAP technology products while keeping complexity under control. High level product architecture has been developed for the mechanical part of EAP transducers, as the foundation for platform development. A generic description of an EAP transducer forms the core of the high level product architecture. This description breaks down the EAP transducer into organs that perform the functions that may be present in an EAP transducer. A physical instance of an EAP transducer contains a combination of the organs needed to fulfill the task of actuator, sensor, and generation. Alternative principles for each organ allow the function of the EAP transducers to be changed, by basing the EAP transducers on a different combination of organ alternatives. A model providing an overview of the high level product architecture has been developed to support daily development and cooperation across development teams. The platform approach has resulted in the first version of an EAP technology platform, on which multiple EAP products can be based. The contents of the platform have been the result of multi-disciplinary development work at Danfoss PolyPower, as well as collaboration with potential customers and research institutions. Initial results from applying the platform on demonstrator design for potential applications are promising. The scope of the article does not include technical details.

  9. Evaluating Treatment Efficacy in Commercial Food Facilities: Insights Gained from Small-Scale Simulated Warehouse Experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although critical to a successful IPM program, it is challenging to evaluate treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities because of the inability to obtain absolute estimates of insect population levels. These populations are spatially fragmented and occupy cryptic habitats, such as equipment,...

  10. Evaluating treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities: Insights gained from small-scale simulated warehouse experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although critical to a successful IPM program, it is challenging to evaluate treatment efficacy in commercial food facilities because of the inability to obtain absolute estimates of insect population levels. These populations are spatial fragmented and occupy cryptic habitats such as equipment, pa...

  11. The CMS High-Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Covarelli, R.

    2009-12-17

    At the startup of the LHC, the CMS data acquisition is expected to be able to sustain an event readout rate of up to 100 kHz from the Level-1 trigger. These events will be read into a large processor farm which will run the 'High-Level Trigger'(HLT) selection algorithms and will output a rate of about 150 Hz for permanent data storage. In this report HLT performances are shown for selections based on muons, electrons, photons, jets, missing transverse energy, {tau} leptons and b quarks: expected efficiencies, background rates and CPU time consumption are reported as well as relaxation criteria foreseen for a LHC startup instantaneous luminosity.

  12. The effects of high level infrasound

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.L.

    1980-02-01

    This paper will attempt to survey the current knowledge on the effects of relative high levels of infrasound on humans. While this conference is concerned mainly about hearing, some discussion of other physiological effects is appropriate. Such discussion also serves to highlight a basic question, 'Is hearing the main concern of infrasound and low frequency exposure, or is there a more sensitive mechanism'. It would be comforting to know that the focal point of this conference is indeed the most important concern. Therefore, besides hearing loss and auditory threshold of infrasonic and low frequency exposure, four other effects will be provided. These are performance, respiration, annoyance, and vibration.

  13. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, Chungming; Chevtsov, Sergei; Wu, Juhao; Shen, Guobao; /Brookhaven

    2012-06-28

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  14. High-level waste qualification: Managing uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, B.A.

    1993-09-01

    A vitrification facility is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at the West Valley Demonstration Plant (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York, where approximately 300 canisters of high-level nuclear waste glass will be produced. To assure that the produced waste form is acceptable, uncertainty must be managed. Statistical issues arise due to sampling, waste variations, processing uncertainties, and analytical variations. This paper presents elements of a strategy to characterize and manage the uncertainties associated with demonstrating that an acceptable waste form product is achieved. Specific examples are provided within the context of statistical work performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  15. Effectiveness evaluation of STOL transport operations (phase 2). [computer simulation program of commercial short haul aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welp, D. W.; Brown, R. A.; Ullman, D. G.; Kuhner, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    A computer simulation program which models a commercial short-haul aircraft operating in the civil air system was developed. The purpose of the program is to evaluate the effect of a given aircraft avionics capability on the ability of the aircraft to perform on-time carrier operations. The program outputs consist primarily of those quantities which can be used to determine direct operating costs. These include: (1) schedule reliability or delays, (2) repairs/replacements, (3) fuel consumption, and (4) cancellations. More comprehensive models of the terminal area environment were added and a simulation of an existing airline operation was conducted to obtain a form of model verification. The capability of the program to provide comparative results (sensitivity analysis) was then demonstrated by modifying the aircraft avionics capability for additional computer simulations.

  16. Technetium Chemistry in High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hess, Nancy J.

    2006-06-01

    Tc contamination is found within the DOE complex at those sites whose mission involved extraction of plutonium from irradiated uranium fuel or isotopic enrichment of uranium. At the Hanford Site, chemical separations and extraction processes generated large amounts of high level and transuranic wastes that are currently stored in underground tanks. The waste from these extraction processes is currently stored in underground High Level Waste (HLW) tanks. However, the chemistry of the HLW in any given tank is greatly complicated by repeated efforts to reduce volume and recover isotopes. These processes ultimately resulted in mixing of waste streams from different processes. As a result, the chemistry and the fate of Tc in HLW tanks are not well understood. This lack of understanding has been made evident in the failed efforts to leach Tc from sludge and to remove Tc from supernatants prior to immobilization. Although recent interest in Tc chemistry has shifted from pretreatment chemistry to waste residuals, both needs are served by a fundamental understanding of Tc chemistry.

  17. High level intelligent control of telerobotics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckee, James

    1988-01-01

    A high level robot command language is proposed for the autonomous mode of an advanced telerobotics system and a predictive display mechanism for the teleoperational model. It is believed that any such system will involve some mixture of these two modes, since, although artificial intelligence can facilitate significant autonomy, a system that can resort to teleoperation will always have the advantage. The high level command language will allow humans to give the robot instructions in a very natural manner. The robot will then analyze these instructions to infer meaning so that is can translate the task into lower level executable primitives. If, however, the robot is unable to perform the task autonomously, it will switch to the teleoperational mode. The time delay between control movement and actual robot movement has always been a problem in teleoperations. The remote operator may not actually see (via a monitor) the results of high actions for several seconds. A computer generated predictive display system is proposed whereby the operator can see a real-time model of the robot's environment and the delayed video picture on the monitor at the same time.

  18. Using a Readily Available Commercial Spreadsheet to Teach a Graduate Course on Chemical Process Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew A.; Giraldo, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Chemical process simulation is one of the most fundamental skills that is expected from chemical engineers, yet relatively few graduates have the opportunity to learn, in depth, how a process simulator works, from programming the unit operations to the sequencing. The University of Calgary offers a "hands-on" postgraduate course in Chemical…

  19. Design study to simulate the development of a commercial freight transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, Stephen M.; Costello, Kevin; Pinkelman, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The Notre Dame Aerospace Engineering senior class was divided into six design teams. A request for proposals (RFP) asking for the design of a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) was given to the class, and each design team was responsible for designing, developing, producing, and presenting an RPV concept. The RFP called for the design of commercial freight transport RPV. The RFP provided a description of a fictitious world called 'Aeroworld'. Aeroworld's characteristics were scaled to provide the same types of challenges for RPV design that the real world market provides for the design of commercial aircraft. Fuel efficiency, range and payload capabilities, production and maintenance costs, and profitability are a few of the challenges that were addressed in this course. Each design team completed their project over the course of a semester by designing and flight testing a prototype, freight-carrying remotely piloted vehicle.

  20. Alternate methods for high level pyrotechnic shock simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Phillip J., Sr.

    Two effective methods to recreate a realistic pyrotechnic shock are presented. The first method employs a resonant beam and is used for SRS levels of 12,000 G or more. The test unit is at one end of the beam and a hammer strikes the opposite end causing a shock to be transmitted to the other end of the fixture. The second method is based on a standard shaker system with a resonant beam to amplify the input signal. The engineer defines the duration of the shock signal induced to the vibration amplifier using the GenRad 2514 controller. The shock signal is then input via the shaker to the resonant beam, which amplifies the signal to produce the desired response at the end of the fixture. The shock response spectrum stays within a +/-6 dB tolerance with levels as high as 3000 G peak. These methods are repeatable, reliable, cost-effective, and consistent with a real pyroevent.

  1. Simulation Study of Flap Effects on a Commercial Transport Airplane in Upset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Shah, Gautam H.; Stewart, Eric C.; Ventura, Robin N.; Rivers, Robert A.; Wilborn, James E.; Gato, William

    2005-01-01

    As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, a simulation study of a twinjet transport airplane crew training simulation was conducted to address fidelity for upset or loss of control conditions and to study the effect of flap configuration in those regimes. Piloted and desktop simulations were used to compare the baseline crew training simulation model with an enhanced aerodynamic model that was developed for high-angle-of-attack conditions. These studies were conducted with various flap configurations and addressed the approach-to-stall, stall, and post-stall flight regimes. The enhanced simulation model showed that flap configuration had a significant effect on the character of departures that occurred during post-stall flight. Preliminary comparisons with flight test data indicate that the enhanced model is a significant improvement over the baseline. Some of the unrepresentative characteristics that are predicted by the baseline crew training simulation for flight in the post-stall regime have been identified. This paper presents preliminary results of this simulation study and discusses key issues regarding predicted flight dynamics characteristics during extreme upset and loss-of-control flight conditions with different flap configurations.

  2. Moisture measurement for high-level-waste tanks using copper activation probe in cone penetrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Brodzinski, R.L.; Reeves, J.H.; Wilson, W.E.

    1995-10-01

    Laboratory tests have established the feasibility of using neutron activation of copper as a means for measuring the moisture in Hanford`s high-level radioactive waste tanks. The performance of the neutron activation technique to measure moisture is equivalent to the neutron moisture gauges or neutron logs commonly used in commercial well-logging. The principle difference is that the activation of {sup 64}Cu (t{sub 1/2} = 12.7 h) replaces the neutron counters used in moisture gauges or neutron logs. For application to highly radioactive waste tanks, the Cu activation technique has the advantage that it is insensitive to very strong gamma radiation fields or high temperatures. In addition, this technique can be deployed through tortuous paths or in confined spaces such as within the bore of a cone penetrometer. However, the results are not available in ``real-time``. The copper probe`s sensitivity to moisture was measured using simulated tank waste of known moisture content. This report describes the preparation of the simulated waste mixtures and the experiments performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the neutron activation technique. These experiments included determination of the calibration curve of count rate versus moisture content using a single copper probe, measurement of the calibration curve based on ``near-field `` to ``far-field`` counting ratios using a multiple probe technique, and profiling the activity of the copper probe as a function of the vertical height within a simulated waste barrel.

  3. High-level connectionist models. Semiannual report

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, J.B.

    1989-08-01

    The major achievement of this semiannum was the significant revision and extension of the Recursive Auto-Associative Memory (RAAM) work for publication in the journal Artificial Intelligence. Included as an appendix to this report, the article includes several new elements: (1) Background - The work was more clearly set into the area of recursive distributed representations, machine learning, and the adequacy of the connectionist approach for high-level cognitive modeling; (2) New Experiment - RAAM was applied to finding compact representations for sequences of letters; (3) Analysis - The developed representations were analyzed as features which range from categorical to distinctive. Categorical features distinguish between conceptual categories while distinctive features vary within categories and discriminate or label the members. The representations were also analyzed geometrically; and (4) Applications - Feasibility studies were performed and described on inference by association, and on using RAAM-generated patterns along with cascaded networks for natural language parsing. Both of these remain long-term goals of the project.

  4. Airway injury during high-level exercise.

    PubMed

    Kippelen, Pascale; Anderson, Sandra D

    2012-05-01

    Airway epithelial cells act as a physical barrier against environmental toxins and injury, and modulate inflammation and the immune response. As such, maintenance of their integrity is critical. Evidence is accumulating to suggest that exercise can cause injury to the airway epithelium. This seems the case particularly for competitive athletes performing high-level exercise, or when exercise takes place in extreme environmental conditions such as in cold dry air or in polluted air. Dehydration of the small airways and increased forces exerted on to the airway surface during severe hyperpnoea are thought to be key factors in determining the occurrence of injury of the airway epithelium. The injury-repair process of the airway epithelium may contribute to the development of the bronchial hyper-responsiveness that is documented in many elite athletes. PMID:22247295

  5. The High Level Data Reduction Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballester, P.; Gabasch, A.; Jung, Y.; Modigliani, A.; Taylor, J.; Coccato, L.; Freudling, W.; Neeser, M.; Marchetti, E.

    2015-09-01

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) provides pipelines to reduce data for most of the instruments at its Very Large telescope (VLT). These pipelines are written as part of the development of VLT instruments, and are used both in the ESO's operational environment and by science users who receive VLT data. All the pipelines are highly specific geared toward instruments. However, experience showed that the independently developed pipelines include significant overlap, duplication and slight variations of similar algorithms. In order to reduce the cost of development, verification and maintenance of ESO pipelines, and at the same time improve the scientific quality of pipelines data products, ESO decided to develop a limited set of versatile high-level scientific functions that are to be used in all future pipelines. The routines are provided by the High-level Data Reduction Library (HDRL). To reach this goal, we first compare several candidate algorithms and verify them during a prototype phase using data sets from several instruments. Once the best algorithm and error model have been chosen, we start a design and implementation phase. The coding of HDRL is done in plain C and using the Common Pipeline Library (CPL) functionality. HDRL adopts consistent function naming conventions and a well defined API to minimise future maintenance costs, implements error propagation, uses pixel quality information, employs OpenMP to take advantage of multi-core processors, and is verified with extensive unit and regression tests. This poster describes the status of the project and the lesson learned during the development of reusable code implementing algorithms of high scientific quality.

  6. Interactive simulation and analysis of emission reduction systems in commercial boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Diachin, D.; Freitag, L.; Heath, D.; Herzog, J.; Plassmann, P.; Michels, W.

    1996-12-31

    In this paper the authors describe an interactive virtual environment developed to model an emission reduction system for commercial boilers. The interactive environment is used to optimize the performance of the reduction system through the spatial adjustment and spray reconfiguration of reagent injectors. They describe the three principal components of the system: a computational model for the particle dynamics, a three-dimensional display device and graphics environment, and the communication layer that allows the interaction of the user in the visualization environment with the computational model. Timing results for each component are given for three hardware configurations that demonstrate the real-time performance of this tool.

  7. High level radioactive waste glass production and product description

    SciTech Connect

    Sproull, J.F.; Marra, S.L.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report examines borosilicate glass as a means of immobilizing high-level radioactive wastes. Borosilicate glass will encapsulate most of the defense and some of the commercial HLW in the US. The resulting waste forms must meet the requirements of the WA-SRD and the WAPS, which include a short term PCT durability test. The waste form producer must report the composition(s) of the borosilicate waste glass(es) produced but can choose the composition(s) to meet site-specific requirements. Although the waste form composition is the primary determinant of durability, the redox state of the glass; the existence, content, and composition of crystals; and the presence of glass-in-glass phase separation can affect durability. The waste glass should be formulated to avoid phase separation regions. The ultimate result of this effort will be a waste form which is much more stable and potentially less mobile than the liquid high level radioactive waste is currently.

  8. Feasibility of utilizing a commercial eye tracker to assess electronic health record use during patient simulation.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jeffrey Allen; Stephenson, Laurel E; Gorsuch, Adriel; Parthasarathy, Keshav; Mohan, Vishnu

    2016-09-01

    Numerous reports describe unintended consequences of electronic health record implementation. Having previously described physicians' failures to recognize patient safety issues within our electronic health record simulation environment, we now report on our use of eye and screen-tracking technology to understand factors associated with poor error recognition during an intensive care unit-based electronic health record simulation. We linked performance on the simulation to standard eye and screen-tracking readouts including number of fixations, saccades, mouse clicks and screens visited. In addition, we developed an overall Composite Eye Tracking score which measured when, where and how often each safety item was viewed. For 39 participants, the Composite Eye Tracking score correlated with performance on the simulation (p = 0.004). Overall, the improved performance was associated with a pattern of rapid scanning of data manifested by increased number of screens visited (p = 0.001), mouse clicks (p = 0.03) and saccades (p = 0.004). Eye tracking can be successfully integrated into electronic health record-based simulation and provides a surrogate measure of cognitive decision making and electronic health record usability. PMID:26142432

  9. Lead-iron phosphate glass as a containment medium for the disposal of high-level nuclear wastes

    DOEpatents

    Boatner, L.A.; Sales, B.C.

    1984-04-11

    Disclosed are lead-iron phosphate glasses containing a high level of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ for use as a storage medium for high-level radioactive nuclear waste. By combining lead-iron phosphate glass with various types of simulated high-level nuclear waste

  10. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  11. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  12. HIGH LEVEL RF FOR THE SNS RING.

    SciTech Connect

    ZALTSMAN,A.; BLASKIEWICZ,M.; BRENNAN,J.; BRODOWSKI,J.; METH,M.; SPITZ,R.; SEVERINO,F.

    2002-06-03

    A high level RF system (HLRF) consisting of power amplifiers (PA's) and ferrite loaded cavities is being designed and built by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project. It is a fixed frequency, two harmonic system whose main function is to maintain a gap for the kicker rise time. Three cavities running at the fundamental harmonic (h=l) will provide 40 kV and one cavity at the second harmonic (h=2) will provide 20 kV. Each cavity has two gaps with a design voltage of 10 kV per gap and will be driven by a power amplifier (PA) directly adjacent to it. The PA uses a 600kW tetrode to provide the necessary drive current. The anode of the tetrode is magnetically coupled to the downstream cell of the cavity. Drive to the PA will be provided by a wide band, solid state amplifier located remotely. A dynamic tuning scheme will be implemented to help compensate for the effect of beam loading.

  13. Decontamination of high-level waste canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Slate, S.C.; Fetrow, L.K.

    1980-12-01

    This report presents evaluations of several methods for the in-process decontamination of metallic canisters containing any one of a number of solidified high-level waste (HLW) forms. The use of steam-water, steam, abrasive blasting, electropolishing, liquid honing, vibratory finishing and soaking have been tested or evaluated as potential techniques to decontaminate the outer surfaces of HLW canisters. Either these techniques have been tested or available literature has been examined to assess their applicability to the decontamination of HLW canisters. Electropolishing has been found to be the most thorough method to remove radionuclides and other foreign material that may be deposited on or in the outer surface of a canister during any of the HLW processes. Steam or steam-water spraying techniques may be adequate for some applications but fail to remove all contaminated forms that could be present in some of the HLW processes. Liquid honing and abrasive blasting remove contamination and foreign material very quickly and effectively from small areas and components although these blasting techniques tend to disperse the material removed from the cleaned surfaces. Vibratory finishing is very capable of removing the bulk of contamination and foreign matter from a variety of materials. However, special vibratory finishing equipment would have to be designed and adapted for a remote process. Soaking techniques take long periods of time and may not remove all of the smearable contamination. If soaking involves pickling baths that use corrosive agents, these agents may cause erosion of grain boundaries that results in rough surfaces.

  14. Demonstration of Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction with Savannah River Site High Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2001-08-27

    Researchers successfully demonstrated the chemistry and process equipment of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) flowsheet for the decontamination of high level waste using a 33-stage, 2-cm centrifugal contactor apparatus at the Savannah River Technology Center. This represents the first CSSX process demonstration using Savannah River Site (SRS) high level waste. Three tests lasting 6, 12, and 48 hours processed simulated average SRS waste, simulated Tank 37H/44F composite waste, and Tank 37H/44F high level waste, respectively.

  15. Adapting a commercial power system simulator for smart grid based system study and vulnerability assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navaratne, Uditha Sudheera

    The smart grid is the future of the power grid. Smart meters and the associated network play a major role in the distributed system of the smart grid. Advance Metering Infrastructure (AMI) can enhance the reliability of the grid, generate efficient energy management opportunities and many innovations around the future smart grid. These innovations involve intense research not only on the AMI network itself but as also on the influence an AMI network can have upon the rest of the power grid. This research describes a smart meter testbed with hardware in loop that can facilitate future research in an AMI network. The smart meters in the testbed were developed such that their functionality can be customized to simulate any given scenario such as integrating new hardware components into a smart meter or developing new encryption algorithms in firmware. These smart meters were integrated into the power system simulator to simulate the power flow variation in the power grid on different AMI activities. Each smart meter in the network also provides a communication interface to the home area network. This research delivers a testbed for emulating the AMI activities and monitoring their effect on the smart grid.

  16. DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE GLASS DEGRADATION

    SciTech Connect

    W. Ebert

    2001-09-20

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the analyses that were done to develop models for radionuclide release from high-level waste (HLW) glass dissolution that can be integrated into performance assessment (PA) calculations conducted to support site recommendation and license application for the Yucca Mountain site. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). It specifically addresses the item, ''Defense High Level Waste Glass Degradation'', of the product technical work plan. The AP-3.15Q Attachment 1 screening criteria determines the importance for its intended use of the HLW glass model derived herein to be in the category ''Other Factors for the Postclosure Safety Case-Waste Form Performance'', and thus indicates that this factor does not contribute significantly to the postclosure safety strategy. Because the release of radionuclides from the glass will depend on the prior dissolution of the glass, the dissolution rate of the glass imposes an upper bound on the radionuclide release rate. The approach taken to provide a bound for the radionuclide release is to develop models that can be used to calculate the dissolution rate of waste glass when contacted by water in the disposal site. The release rate of a particular radionuclide can then be calculated by multiplying the glass dissolution rate by the mass fraction of that radionuclide in the glass and by the surface area of glass contacted by water. The scope includes consideration of the three modes by which water may contact waste glass in the disposal system: contact by humid air, dripping water, and immersion. The models for glass dissolution under these contact modes are all based on the rate expression for aqueous dissolution of borosilicate glasses. The mechanism and rate expression for aqueous dissolution are adequately understood; the analyses in this AMR were conducted to

  17. The high-level trigger of ALICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilsner, H.; Alt, T.; Aurbakken, K.; Grastveit, G.; Helstrup, H.; Lindenstruth, V.; Loizides, C.; Nystrand, J.; Roehrich, D.; Skaali, B.; Steinbeck, T.; Ullaland, K.; Vestbo, A.; Vik, T.

    One of the main tracking detectors of the forthcoming ALICE Experiment at the LHC is a cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) with an expected data volume of about 75 MByte per event. This data volume, in combination with the presumed maximum bandwidth of 1.2 GByte/s to the mass storage system, would limit the maximum event rate to 20 Hz. In order to achieve higher event rates, online data processing has to be applied. This implies either the detection and read-out of only those events which contain interesting physical signatures or an efficient compression of the data by modeling techniques. In order to cope with the anticipated data rate, massive parallel computing power is required. It will be provided in form of a clustered farm of SMP-nodes, based on off-the-shelf PCs, which are connected with a high bandwidth low overhead network. This High-Level Trigger (HLT) will be able to process a data rate of 25 GByte/s online. The front-end electronics of the individual sub-detectors is connected to the HLT via an optical link and a custom PCI card which is mounted in the clustered PCs. The PCI card is equipped with an FPGA necessary for the implementation of the PCI-bus protocol. Therefore, this FPGA can also be used to assist the host processor with first-level processing. The first-level processing done on the FPGA includes conventional cluster-finding for low multiplicity events and local track finding based on the Hough Transformation of the raw data for high multiplicity events. PACS: 07.05.-t Computers in experimental physics - 07.05.Hd Data acquisition: hardware and software - 29.85.+c Computer data analysis

  18. Antagonistic effect of Pseudomonas graminis CPA-7 against foodborne pathogens in fresh-cut apples under simulated commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Isabel; Viñas, Inmaculada; Usall, Josep; Anguera, Marina; Altisent, Rosa; Abadias, Maribel

    2013-04-01

    Recently, we reported that the application of the strain CPA-7 of Pseudomonas graminis, previously isolated from apple, could reduce the population of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed (MP) apples and peaches under laboratory conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to find an antioxidant treatment and a packaging atmosphere condition to improve CPA-7 efficacy in reducing a cocktail of four Salmonella and five Listeria monocytogenes strains on MP apples under simulated commercial processing. The effect of CPA-7 application on apple quality and its survival to simulated gastric stress were also evaluated. Ascorbic acid (2%, w/v) and N-acetyl-l-cysteine (1%, w/v) as antioxidant treatments reduced Salmonella, L. monocytogenes and CPA-7 recovery, meanwhile no reduction was observed with NatureSeal(®) AS1 (NS, 6%, w/v). The antagonistic strain was effective on NS-treated apple wedges stored at 10 °C with or without modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Then, in a semi-commercial assay, efficacy of CPA-7 inoculated at 10(5) and 10(7) cfu mL(-1) against Salmonella and L. monocytogenes strains on MP apples with NS and MAP and stored at 5 and 10 °C was evaluated. Although high CPA-7 concentrations/populations avoided Salmonella growth at 10 °C and lowered L. monocytogenes population increases were observed at both temperatures, the effect was not instantaneous. No effect on apple quality was detected and CPA-7 did not survived to simulated gastric stress throughout storage. Therefore, CPA-7 could avoid pathogens growth on MP apples during storage when use as part of a hurdle technology in combination with disinfection techniques, low storage temperature and MAP. PMID:23200645

  19. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kruetz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  20. High level language-based robotic control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Guillermo (Inventor); Kreutz, Kenneth K. (Inventor); Jain, Abhinandan (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    This invention is a robot control system based on a high level language implementing a spatial operator algebra. There are two high level languages included within the system. At the highest level, applications programs can be written in a robot-oriented applications language including broad operators such as MOVE and GRASP. The robot-oriented applications language statements are translated into statements in the spatial operator algebra language. Programming can also take place using the spatial operator algebra language. The statements in the spatial operator algebra language from either source are then translated into machine language statements for execution by a digital control computer. The system also includes the capability of executing the control code sequences in a simulation mode before actual execution to assure proper action at execution time. The robot's environment is checked as part of the process and dynamic reconfiguration is also possible. The languages and system allow the programming and control of multiple arms and the use of inward/outward spatial recursions in which every computational step can be related to a transformation from one point in the mechanical robot to another point to name two major advantages.

  1. Demand Shifting With Thermal Mass in Large Commercial Buildings:Field Tests, Simulation and Audits

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Peng; Haves, Philip; Piette, Mary Ann; Zagreus, Leah

    2005-09-01

    The principle of pre-cooling and demand limiting is to pre-cool buildings at night or in the morning during off-peak hours, storing cooling in the building thermal mass and thereby reducing cooling loads and reducing or shedding related electrical demand during the peak periods. Cost savings are achieved by reducing on-peak energy and demand charges. The potential for utilizing building thermal mass for load shifting and peak demand reduction has been demonstrated in a number of simulation, laboratory, and field studies (Braun 1990, Ruud et al. 1990, Conniff 1991, Andresen and Brandemuehl 1992, Mahajan et al. 1993, Morris et al. 1994, Keeney and Braun 1997, Becker and Paciuk 2002, Xu et al. 2003). This technology appears to have significant potential for demand reduction if applied within an overall demand response program. The primary goal associated with this research is to develop information and tools necessary to assess the viability of and, where appropriate, implement demand response programs involving building thermal mass in buildings throughout California. The project involves evaluating the technology readiness, overall demand reduction potential, and customer acceptance for different classes of buildings. This information can be used along with estimates of the impact of the strategies on energy use to design appropriate incentives for customers.

  2. Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System Description

    SciTech Connect

    2000-10-12

    The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System supports the confinement and isolation of waste within the Engineered Barrier System of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). Disposal containers are loaded and sealed in the surface waste handling facilities, transferred to the underground through the accesses using a rail mounted transporter, and emplaced in emplacement drifts. The defense high level waste (HLW) disposal container provides long-term confinement of the commercial HLW and defense HLW (including immobilized plutonium waste forms (IPWF)) placed within disposable canisters, and withstands the loading, transfer, emplacement, and retrieval loads and environments. U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in disposable canisters may also be placed in a defense HLW disposal container along with commercial HLW waste forms, which is known as 'co-disposal'. The Defense High Level Waste Disposal Container System provides containment of waste for a designated period of time, and limits radionuclide release. The disposal container/waste package maintains the waste in a designated configuration, withstands maximum handling and rockfall loads, limits the individual canister temperatures after emplacement, resists corrosion in the expected handling and repository environments, and provides containment of waste in the event of an accident. Defense HLW disposal containers for HLW disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters. Defense HLW disposal containers for co-disposal will hold up to five HLW canisters arranged in a ring and one DOE SNF canister in the ring. Defense HLW disposal containers also will hold two Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) and two HLW canisters in one disposal container. The disposal container will include outer and inner cylinders, outer and inner cylinder lids, and may include a canister guide. An exterior label will provide a means by which to identify the disposal container and its contents. Different materials

  3. Impact of transporting defense high-level waste to a geologic repository

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Boyle, J.W.

    1984-08-01

    This transportation study assumes that defense high-level waste is stored in three locations (the Savannah River, Hanford, and Idaho Falls plants) and may be disposed of in (1) a commercial repository or (2) a defense-only repository, either of which could be located at one of the five candidate sites; also documented is a preliminary analysis of the costs and risks of transporting defense high-level waste from the three storage sites to the five potential candidate repository sites. 17 references, 4 figures, 27 tables.

  4. Suggesting a new design for multileaf collimator leaves based on Monte Carlo simulation of two commercial systems.

    PubMed

    Hariri, Sanaz; Shahriari, Majid

    2010-01-01

    Due to intensive use of multileaf collimators (MLCs) in clinics, finding an optimum design for the leaves becomes essential. There are several studies which deal with comparison of MLC systems, but there is no article with a focus on offering an optimum design using accurate methods like Monte Carlo. In this study, we describe some characteristics of MLC systems including the leaf tip transmission, beam hardening, leakage radiation and penumbra width for Varian and Elekta 80-leaf MLCs using MCNP4C code. The complex geometry of leaves in these two common MLC systems was simulated. It was assumed that all of the MLC systems were mounted on a Varian accelerator and with a similar thickness as Varian's and the same distance from the source. Considering the obtained results from Varian and Elekta leaf designs, an optimum design was suggested combining the advantages of three common MLC systems and the simulation results of this proposed one were compared with the Varian and the Elekta. The leakage from suggested design is 29.7% and 31.5% of the Varian and Elekta MLCs. In addition, other calculated parameters of the proposed MLC leaf design were better than those two commercial ones. Although it shows a wider penumbra in comparison with Varian and Elekta MLCs, taking into account the curved motion path of the leaves, providing a double focusing design will solve the problem. The suggested leaf design is a combination of advantages from three common vendors (Varian, Elekta and Siemens) which can show better results than each one. Using the results of this theoretical study may bring about superior practical outcomes. PMID:20717079

  5. A High-Resolution Spatially Explicit Monte-Carlo Simulation Approach to Commercial and Residential Electricity and Water Demand Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, April M; McManamay, Ryan A; Nagle, Nicholas N; Piburn, Jesse O; Stewart, Robert N; Surendran Nair, Sujithkumar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As urban areas continue to grow and evolve in a world of increasing environmental awareness, the need for high resolution spatially explicit estimates for energy and water demand has become increasingly important. Though current modeling efforts mark significant progress in the effort to better understand the spatial distribution of energy and water consumption, many are provided at a course spatial resolution or rely on techniques which depend on detailed region-specific data sources that are not publicly available for many parts of the U.S. Furthermore, many existing methods do not account for errors in input data sources and may therefore not accurately reflect inherent uncertainties in model outputs. We propose an alternative and more flexible Monte-Carlo simulation approach to high-resolution residential and commercial electricity and water consumption modeling that relies primarily on publicly available data sources. The method s flexible data requirement and statistical framework ensure that the model is both applicable to a wide range of regions and reflective of uncertainties in model results. Key words: Energy Modeling, Water Modeling, Monte-Carlo Simulation, Uncertainty Quantification Acknowledgment This manuscript has been authored by employees of UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  6. Screening of commercial cyclic peptide as inhibitor NS5 methyltransferase of Dengue virus through Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend; Zahroh, Hilyatuz; Utomo, Bimo Budi; Parikesit, Arli Aditya

    2014-01-01

    Dengue has become a major global health threat, especially in tropical and subtropical regions. The development of antiviral agent targeting viral replication is really needed at this time. NS5 methyltransferase presents as a novel antiviral target. This enzyme plays an important role in the methylation of 5'-cap mRNA. Inhibition of the NS5 methyltransferase could inhibit dengue virus replication. In this research, two sites of NS5 methyltransferase (S-Adenosyl methionine/SAM binding site and RNA-cap site) were used as targets for inhibition. As much as 300 commercial cyclic peptides were screened to these target sites by means of molecular docking. Analysis of ligand-enzyme binding free energy and pharmacological prediction revealed two best ligands, namely [Tyr123] Prepro Endothelin (110-130), amide, human and Urotensin II, human. According to molecular dynamic simulation, both ligands maintain a stable complex conformation between enzyme and ligand at temperature 310 K and 312 K. Hence, Urotensin II, human is more reactive at 312 K than at 310 K. However, both ligands can be used as potential inhibitor candidates against NS5 methyltransferase of dengue virus with Urotensin II, human exposes more promising activity at 312 K. PMID:24516322

  7. Fabrication of nanotube arrays on commercially pure titanium and their apatite-forming ability in a simulated body fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Hsueh-Chuan; Wu, Shih-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Kuang; Chang, Yu-Chen; Ho, Wen-Fu

    2015-02-15

    In this study, we investigated self-organized TiO{sub 2} nanotubes that were grown using anodization of commercially pure titanium at 5 V or 10 V in NH{sub 4}F/NaCl electrolyte. The nanotube arrays were annealed at 450 °C for 3 h to convert the amorphous nanotubes to anatase and then they were immersed in simulated body fluid at 37 °C for 0.5, 1, and 14 days. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the apatite-formation abilities of anodized Ti nanotubes with different tube diameters and lengths. The nanotubes that formed on the surfaces of Ti were examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope. When the anodizing potential was increased from 5 V to 10 V, the pore diameter of the nanotube increased from approximately 24–30 nm to 35–53 nm, and the tube length increased from approximately 590 nm to 730 nm. In vitro testing of the heat-treated nanotube arrays indicated that Ca-P formation occurred after only 1 day of immersion in simulated body fluid. This result was particularly apparent in the samples that were anodized at 10 V. It was also found that the thickness of the Ca-P layer increases as the applied potential for anodized c.p. Ti increases. The average thickness of the Ca-P layer on Ti that was anodized at 5 V and 10 V was approximately 170 nm and 190 nm, respectively, after immersion in simulated body fluid for 14 days. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanotube on Ti surface was formed by anodic oxidation in a NaCl/NH{sub 4}F solution. • TiO{sub 2} layers show a tube length of 590 nm and 730 nm at 5 V and 10 V, respectively. • After soaking in SBF, Ca-P layer completely covered the entire nanotubular surfaces. • The Ca-P layer was thicker on the Ti surface anodized at 10 V.

  8. Comparison of Commercial Aircraft Fuel Requirements in Regards to FAR, Flight Profile Simulation, and Flight Operational Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitzman, Nicholas

    There are significant fuel consumption consequences for non-optimal flight operations. This study is intended to analyze and highlight areas of interest that affect fuel consumption in typical flight operations. By gathering information from actual flight operators (pilots, dispatch, performance engineers, and air traffic controllers), real performance issues can be addressed and analyzed. A series of interviews were performed with various individuals in the industry and organizations. The wide range of insight directed this study to focus on FAA regulations, airline policy, the ATC system, weather, and flight planning. The goal is to highlight where operational performance differs from design intent in order to better connect optimization with actual flight operations. After further investigation and consensus from the experienced participants, the FAA regulations do not need any serious attention until newer technologies and capabilities are implemented. The ATC system is severely out of date and is one of the largest limiting factors in current flight operations. Although participants are pessimistic about its timely implementation, the FAA's NextGen program for a future National Airspace System should help improve the efficiency of flight operations. This includes situational awareness, weather monitoring, communication, information management, optimized routing, and cleaner flight profiles like Required Navigation Performance (RNP) and Continuous Descent Approach (CDA). Working off the interview results, trade-studies were performed using an in-house flight profile simulation of a Boeing 737-300, integrating NASA legacy codes EDET and NPSS with a custom written mission performance and point-performance "Skymap" calculator. From these trade-studies, it was found that certain flight conditions affect flight operations more than others. With weather, traffic, and unforeseeable risks, flight planning is still limited by its high level of precaution. From this

  9. Simulation d'un systeme de stockage saisonnier de glace pour la climatisation d'un batiment commercial ou institutionnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Raul Alberto

    The principal goal of this study was to evaluate, using numerical simulation, the feasibility of an air conditioning system, supported by a seasonal ice storage system, installed in a commercial or institutional building. In this regard, the effects of changing several elements around the design of two possible scenarios were modeled in TRNSYS using Matlab® as a programming tool. In the first scenario, the air demanded inside the building passes directly through the ice storage system. In a second scenario, a closed loop pipe full of glycol transports the heat between the ice reservoir and an air cooling coil. First of all, the literature review shows some studies and earlier relevant applications, as well as different solving methods for moving boundary problems in a biphasic medium (waterice). Next, the heat load profile for a typical institutional building in Montreal is determined as a reference point using EE4 and three different methods of solving the boundary motion problem are compared for both, ice training and ice melting. Subsequently, the design parameters are presented for each scenario. This is followed by a description of the programming codes in Matlab® and the components that have been implemented in TRNSYS. Finally, the results involving the heat exchanged and the waterice boundary movements, among others, are collected for one year and for three years. The simulations of both scenarios have also included the experimental variation of some parameters such as the construction area for the ice reservoir, the duration of the ice melting period and other related physical variables. A final analysis of results was followed by an economic study, which considered the changes in initial investment and the potential energy savings for each scenario, compared with a traditional air conditioning unit. This showed that, although research is still needed on many improvements in the design of scenarios and whether its application is limited by several

  10. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  11. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  12. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  13. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING...-level radioactive waste. High-level radioactive waste means the aqueous waste resulting from...

  14. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  15. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  16. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  17. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  18. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  19. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a... operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the following normally unmanned spaces: (1)...

  20. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  1. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  2. 46 CFR 119.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 119.530 Section 119.530... Bilge and Ballast Systems § 119.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) Each vessel must be provided with a visual and audible alarm at the operating station to indicate a high water level in each of the...

  3. Process for solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    DOEpatents

    Ross, Wayne A.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of a small amount of reducing agent to a mixture of a high-level radioactive waste calcine and glass frit before the mixture is melted will produce a more homogeneous glass which is leach-resistant and suitable for long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste products.

  4. 46 CFR 153.409 - High level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false High level alarms. 153.409 Section 153.409 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Gauging Systems § 153.409 High level alarms. When Table...

  5. Accelerator-driven transmutation of high-level waste from the defense and commercial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.; Arthur, E.; Beard, C.

    1996-09-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The major goal has been to develop accelerator transmutation of waste (ATW) system designs that will thoroughly and rapidly transmute nuclear waste, including plutonium from dismantled weapons and spent reactor fuel, while generating useful electrical power and without producing a long-lived radioactive waste stream. We have identified and quantified the unique qualities of subcritical nuclear systems and their capabilities in bringing about the complete destruction of plutonium. Although the 1191 subcritical systems involved in our most effective designs radically depart from traditional nuclear reactor concepts, they are based on extrapolations of existing technologies. Overall, care was taken to retain the highly desired features that nuclear technology has developed over the years within a conservative design envelope. We believe that the ATW systems designed in this project will enable almost complete destruction of nuclear waste (conversion to stable species) at a faster rate and without many of the safety concerns associated with the possible reactor approaches.

  6. Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of high- level calcined waste

    SciTech Connect

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms are being evaluated as candidates for immobilization of the high level calcined waste stored onsite at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing a mixture of simulated nonradioactive high level calcined waste, talc, silicon and aluminum metal additives. The waste forms were characterized for density, chemical durability, and glass and crystalline phase compositions. The results indicate improved density and chemical durability as the silicon content is increased.

  7. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  8. HIGH-LEVEL OZONE DISINFECTION OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER EFFLUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 20 month operating experimental program was conducted at Marlborough, Massachusetts to evaluate the feasibility, engineering, and economic aspects of achieving high levels of effluent disinfection with ozone. The ozone research pilot facility was designed to operate at a consta...

  9. High-Level Waste System Process Interface Description

    SciTech Connect

    d'Entremont, P.D.

    1999-01-14

    The High-Level Waste System is a set of six different processes interconnected by pipelines. These processes function as one large treatment plant that receives, stores, and treats high-level wastes from various generators at SRS and converts them into forms suitable for final disposal. The three major forms are borosilicate glass, which will be eventually disposed of in a Federal Repository, Saltstone to be buried on site, and treated water effluent that is released to the environment.

  10. Decision Document for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-07-31

    This document establishes the combination of design and operational configurations that will be used to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. The chosen method--to use the primary and annulus ventilation systems to remove heat from the high-level waste tanks--is documented herein.

  11. 46 CFR 182.530 - Bilge high level alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge high level alarms. 182.530 Section 182.530 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Bilge and Ballast Systems § 182.530 Bilge high level alarms. (a) On a vessel of at least 7.9 meters (26 feet) in...

  12. An overview of very high level software design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asdjodi, Maryam; Hooper, James W.

    1988-01-01

    Very High Level design methods emphasize automatic transfer of requirements to formal design specifications, and/or may concentrate on automatic transformation of formal design specifications that include some semantic information of the system into machine executable form. Very high level design methods range from general domain independent methods to approaches implementable for specific applications or domains. Applying AI techniques, abstract programming methods, domain heuristics, software engineering tools, library-based programming and other methods different approaches for higher level software design are being developed. Though one finds that a given approach does not always fall exactly in any specific class, this paper provides a classification for very high level design methods including examples for each class. These methods are analyzed and compared based on their basic approaches, strengths and feasibility for future expansion toward automatic development of software systems.

  13. Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coopersmith, Jonathan

    1992-08-01

    A solution of launching high-level nuclear waste into space is suggested. Disposal in space includes solidifying the wastes, embedding them in an explosion-proof vehicle, and launching it into earth orbit, and then into a solar orbit. The benefits of such a system include not only the safe disposal of high-level waste but also the establishment of an infrastructure for large-scale space exploration and development. Particular attention is given to the wide range of technical choices along with the societal, economic, and political factors needed for success.

  14. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  15. The Use of ARTEMIS with High-Level Applications

    SciTech Connect

    B. A. Bowling; H. Shoaee; S. Witherspoon

    1995-10-01

    ARTEMIS is an online accelerator modeling server developed at CEBAF. One of the design goals of ARTEMIS was to provide an integrated modeling environment for high- level accelerator diagnostic and control applications such as automated beam steering, Linac Energy management (LEM) and the fast feedback system. This report illustrates the use of ARTEMIS in these applications as well as the application interface using the EPICS cdev device support API. Concentration is placed on the design and implementation aspects of high- level applications which utilize the ARTEMIS server for information on beam dynamics. Performance benchmarks for various model operations provided by ARTEMIS are also discussed.

  16. Sterilization, high-level disinfection, and environmental cleaning.

    PubMed

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2011-03-01

    Failure to perform proper disinfection and sterilization of medical devices may lead to introduction of pathogens, resulting in infection. New techniques have been developed for achieving high-level disinfection and adequate environmental cleanliness. This article examines new technologies for sterilization and high-level disinfection of critical and semicritical items, respectively, and because semicritical items carry the greatest risk of infection, the authors discuss reprocessing semicritical items such as endoscopes and automated endoscope reprocessors, endocavitary probes, prostate biopsy probes, tonometers, laryngoscopes, and infrared coagulation devices. In addition, current issues and practices associated with environmental cleaning are reviewed. PMID:21315994

  17. High level radioactive waste management facility design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, N.A.; Salaymeh, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    This paper discusses the engineering systems for the structural design of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). At the DWPF, high level radioactive liquids will be mixed with glass particles and heated in a melter. This molten glass will then be poured into stainless steel canisters where it will harden. This process will transform the high level waste into a more stable, manageable substance. This paper discuss the structural design requirements for this unique one of a kind facility. A special emphasis will be concentrated on the design criteria pertaining to earthquake, wind and tornado, and flooding.

  18. Development of Crystal-Tolerant High-Level Waste Glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Vienna, John D.; Schaible, Micah J.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Arrigoni, Alyssa L.; Tate, Rachel M.

    2010-12-17

    Twenty five glasses were formulated. They were batched from HLW AZ-101 simulant or raw chemicals and melted and tested with a series of tests to elucidate the effect of spinel-forming components (Ni, Fe, Cr, Mn, and Zn), Al, and noble metals (Rh2O3 and RuO2) on the accumulation rate of spinel crystals in the glass discharge riser of the high-level waste (HLW) melter. In addition, the processing properties of glasses, such as the viscosity and TL, were measured as a function of temperature and composition. Furthermore, the settling of spinel crystals in transparent low-viscosity fluids was studied at room temperature to access the shape factor and hindered settling coefficient of spinel crystals in the Stokes equation. The experimental results suggest that Ni is the most troublesome component of all the studied spinel-forming components producing settling layers of up to 10.5 mm in just 20 days in Ni-rich glasses if noble metals or a higher concentration of Fe was not introduced in the glass. The layer of this thickness can potentially plug the bottom of the riser, preventing glass from being discharged from the melter. The noble metals, Fe, and Al were the components that significantly slowed down or stopped the accumulation of spinel at the bottom. Particles of Rh2O3 and RuO2, hematite and nepheline, acted as nucleation sites significantly increasing the number of crystals and therefore decreasing the average crystal size. The settling rate of ≤10-μm crystal size around the settling velocity of crystals was too low to produce thick layers. The experimental data for the thickness of settled layers in the glasses prepared from AZ-101 simulant were used to build a linear empirical model that can predict crystal accumulation in the riser of the melter as a function of concentration of spinel-forming components in glass. The developed model predicts the thicknesses of accumulated layers quite well, R2 = 0.985, and can be become an efficient tool for the formulation

  19. Integrating water quality models in the High Level Architecture (HLA) environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenschmidt, K.-E.; Hesser, F. B.; Rode, M.

    2005-08-01

    HLA (High Level Architecture) is a computer architecture for constructing distributed simulations. It facilitates interoperability among different simulations and simulation types and promotes reuse of simulation software modules. The core of the HLA is the Run-Time Infrastructure (RTI) that provides services to start and stop a simulation execution, to transfer data between interoperating simulations, to control the amount and routing of data that is passed, and to co-ordinate the passage of simulated time among the simulations. The authors are not aware of any HLA applications in the field of water resources management. The development of such a system is underway at the UFZ -Centre for Environmental Research, Germany, in which the simulations of a hydrodynamic model (DYNHYD), eutrophication model (EUTRO) and sediment and micro-pollutant transport model (TOXI) are interlinked and co-ordinated by the HLA RTI environment. This configuration enables extensions such as (i) "cross-model" uncertainty analysis with Monte Carlo Analysis: time synchronisation allows EUTRO and TOXI simulations to be made after each successive simulation time step in DYNHYD, (ii) information transfer from EUTRO to TOXI to compute organic carbon fractions of particulate matter in TOXI, (iii) information transfer from TOXI to EUTRO to compute extinction coefficients in EUTRO and (iv) feedback from water quality simulations to the hydrodynamic modeling.

  20. High-Level Clouds and Relation to Sea Surface Temperature as Inferred from Japan's GMS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Lindzen, Richard S.; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    High-level clouds have a significant impact on the radiation energy budgets and, hence, the climate of the Earth. Convective cloud systems, which are controlled by large-scale thermal and dynamical conditions, propagate rapidly within days. At this time scale, changes of sea surface temperature (SST) are small. Radiances measured by Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS) are used to study the relation between high-level clouds and SST in the tropical western and central Pacific (30 S-30 N; 130 E-170 W), where the ocean is warm and deep convection is intensive. Twenty months (January 1998 - August, 1999) of GMS data are used, which cover the second half of the strong 1997-1998 El Nino. Brightness temperature at the 11-micron channel is used to identify high-level clouds. The core of convection is identified based on the difference in the brightness temperatures of the 11- and 12-micron channels. Because of the rapid movement of clouds, there is little correlation between clouds six hours apart. When most of deep convection moves to regions of high SST, the domain averaged high-level cloud amount decreases. A +2C change of SST in cloudy regions results in a relative change of -30% in high-level cloud amount. This large change in cloud amount is due to clouds moving from cool regions to warm regions but not the change in SST itself. A reduction in high-level cloud amount in the equatorial region implies an expanded dry upper troposphere in the off-equatorial region, and the greenhouse warming of high clouds and water vapor is reduced through enhanced longwave cooling to space. The results are important for understanding the physical processes relating SST, convection, and water vapor in the tropics. They are also important for validating climate simulations using global general circulation models.

  1. 40 CFR 227.30 - High-level radioactive waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-level radioactive waste. 227.30 Section 227.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.30...

  2. The ATLAS Data Acquisition and High Level Trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the data acquisition and high level trigger system of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, as deployed during Run 1. Data flow as well as control, configuration and monitoring aspects are addressed. An overview of the functionality of the system and of its performance is presented and design choices are discussed.

  3. A comparison of high-level waste form characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, R.; Notz, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    There are currently about 1055 million curies of high-level waste with a thermal output of about 2950 kilowatts (KW) at four sites in the United States: West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford Site (HANF), and Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). These quantities are expected to increase to about 1200 million curies and 3570 kw by the end of year 2020. Under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act, this high-level waste must ultimately be disposed of in a geologic repository. Accordingly, canisters of high-level waste immobilized in borosilicate glass or glass-ceramic mixtures are to be produced at the four sites and stored there until a repository becomes available. Data on the estimated production schedules and on the physical, chemical, and radiological characteristics of the canisters of immobilized high-level waste have been collected in OCRWM's Waste Characteristics Data Base, including recent updates an revisions. Comparisons of some of these data for the four sites are presented in this report. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Typewriter Modifications for Persons Who Are High-Level Quadriplegics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reagan, James R.; And Others

    Standard, common electric typewriters are not completely suited to the needs of a high-level quadriplegic typing with a mouthstick. Experiences show that for complete control of a typewriter a mouthstick user needs the combined features of one-button correction, electric forward and reverse indexing, and easy character viewing. To modify a…

  5. THE XAL INFRASTRUCTURE FOR HIGH LEVEL CONTROL ROOM APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Allen, Christopher K; Chu, Paul; Galambos, John D; Pelaia II, Tom

    2009-01-01

    XAL is a Java programming framework for building high-level control applications related to accelerator physics. The structure, details of implementation, and interaction between components, auxiliary XAL packages, and the latest modifications are discussed. A general overview of XAL applications created for the SNS project is presented.

  6. High-Level waste process and product data annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stegen, G.E.

    1996-02-13

    The objective of this document is to provide information on available issued documents that will assist interested parties in finding available data on high-level waste and transuranic waste feed compositions, properties, behavior in candidate processing operations, and behavior on candidate product glasses made from those wastes. This initial compilation is only a partial list of available references.

  7. The Politics of High-Level Manpower Supply in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooke-Smith, Robin

    1978-01-01

    In its policies related to high-level manpower, the Tanzanian Government attaches great importance to the university, viewing it as a key institution in its policies for national development. Describes the difficulties the administration of President Nyerere has had in using the university as a political tool and analyzes various instances of…

  8. MIXING PROCESSES IN HIGH-LEVEL WASTE TANKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flammable gases can be generated in DOE high-level waste tanks, including radiolytic hydrogen, and during cesium precipitation from salt solutions, benzene. Under normal operating conditions the potential for deflagration or detonation from these gases is precluded by purging and...

  9. Nano Ag-enhanced energy conversion efficiency in standard commercial pc-Si solar cells and numerical simulations with finite difference time domain method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Shao, Weijia; Zhou, Yao; Wang, Huijie; Liu, Xiao; Xu, Xiaoliang

    2013-11-01

    Nano Ag-enhanced energy conversion efficiency (ECE) in one standard commercial pc-Si solar cell utilizing the forward scattering by Ag nanoparticles on surface has been researched experimentally and simulatively in this paper. Directly assembling Ag nanoparticles (with size about 100 nm) on the surface, it is found when the particle surface coverage is 10%, the ECE and the short circuit current density are increased by 2.8% and 1.4%, respectively. Without changing any existing structure of the ready-made solar cell, this facile and efficient method has huger applications than other methods.

  10. Deployment of a Full-Scope Commercial Nuclear Power Plant Control Room Simulator at the Idaho National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Boring; Julius Persensky; Kenneth Thomas

    2011-09-01

    The INL operates the HSSL to conduct research in the design and evaluation of advanced reactor control rooms, integration of intelligent support systems to assist operators, development and assessment of advanced human performance models, and visualizations to assess advanced operational concepts across various infrastructures. This advanced facility consists of a reconfigurable simulator and a virtual reality capability (known as the Computer-Aided Virtual Environment (CAVE)) (Figure 2). It supports human factors research, including human-in-the-loop performance, HSI, and analog and digital hybrid control displays. It can be applied to the development and evaluation of control systems and displays for complex systems such as existing and advanced NPP control rooms, command and control systems, and advance emergency operations centers. The HSSL incorporates a reconfigurable control room simulator, which is currently housed in the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a joint venture of the DOE and the Idaho University System. The simulator is a platform- and plant-neutral environment intended for full-scope and part-task testing of operator performance in various control room configurations. The simulator is not limited to a particular plant or even simulator architecture. It can support engineering simulator platforms from multiple vendors using digital interfaces. Due to its ability to be reconfigured, it is possible to switch the HSI - not just to digital panels but also to different control modalities such as those using greater plant automation or intelligent alarm filtering. The simulator currently includes three operator workstations, each capable of driving up to eight 30-inch monitors. The size and number of monitors varies depending on the particular front-end simulator deployed for a simulator study. These operator workstations would typically be used for the shift supervisor or senior reactor operator, reactor operator, and assistant reactor

  11. On verifying a high-level design. [cost and error analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathew, Ben; Wehbeh, Jalal A.; Saab, Daniel G.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of design verification techniques is presented, and some of the current research in high-level design verification is described. Formal hardware description languages that are capable of adequately expressing the design specifications have been developed, but some time will be required before they can have the expressive power needed to be used in real applications. Simulation-based approaches are more useful in finding errors in designs than they are in proving the correctness of a certain design. Hybrid approaches that combine simulation with other formal design verification techniques are argued to be the most promising over the short term.

  12. Visual high-level regions respond to high-level stimulus content in the absence of low-level confounds.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Andreas; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-05-15

    High-level regions of the ventral stream exhibit strong category selectivity to stimuli such as faces, houses, or objects. However, recent studies suggest that at least part of this selectivity stems from low-level differences inherent to images of the different categories. For example, visual outdoor and indoor scenes as well as houses differ in spatial frequency, rectilinearity and obliqueness when compared to face or object images. Correspondingly, scene responsive para-hippocampal place area (PPA) showed strong preference to low-level properties of visual scenes also in the absence of high-level scene content. This raises the question whether all high-level responses in PPA, the fusiform face area (FFA), or the object-responsive lateral occipital compex (LOC) may actually be explained by systematic differences in low-level features. In the present study we contrasted two classes of simple stimuli consisting of ten rectangles each. While both were matched in visual low-level features only one class of rectangle arrangements gave rise to a percept compatible with a high-level 3D layout such as a scene or an object. We found that areas PPA, transverse occipital sulcus (TOS, also referred to as occipital place area, OPA), as well as FFA and LOC showed robust responses to the visual scene class compared to the low-level matched control. Our results suggest that visual category responsive regions are not purely driven by low-level visual features but also by the high-level perceptual stimulus interpretation. PMID:26975552

  13. Ceramic process and plant design for high-level nuclear waste immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Grantham, L.F.; McKisson, R.L.; De Wames, R.E.; Guon, J.; Flintoff, J.F.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    In the last 3 years, significant advances in ceramic technology for high-level nuclear waste solidification have been made. Product quality in terms of leach-resistance, compositional uniformity, structural integrity, and thermal stability promises to be superior to borosilicate glass. This paper addresses the process effectiveness and preliminary designs for glass and ceramic immobilization plants. The reference two-step ceramic process utilizes fluid-bed calcination (FBC) and hot isostatic press (HIP) consolidation. Full-scale demonstration of these well-developed processing steps has been established at DOE and/or commercial facilities for processing radioactive materials. Based on Savannah River-type waste, our model predicts that the capital and operating cost for the solidification of high-level nuclear waste is about the same for the ceramic and glass options. However, when repository costs are included, the ceramic option potentially offers significantly better economics due to its high waste loading and volume reduction. Volume reduction impacts several figures of merit in addition to cost such as system logistics, storage, transportation, and risk. The study concludes that the ceramic product/process has many potential advantages, and rapid deployment of the technology could be realized due to full-scale demonstrations of FBC and HIP technology in radioactive environments. Based on our finding and those of others, the ceramic innovation not only offers a viable backup to the glass reference process but promises to be a viable future option for new high-level nuclear waste management opportunities.

  14. Management of data quality of high level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-12

    Over the past 10 years, the Hanford Site has been transitioning from nuclear materials production to Site cleanup operations. High-level waste characterization at the Hanford Site provides data to support present waste processing operations, tank safety programs, and future waste disposal programs. Quality elements in the high-level waste characterization program will be presented by following a sample through the data quality objective, sampling, laboratory analysis and data review process. Transition from production to cleanup has resulted in changes in quality systems and program; the changes, as well as other issues in these quality programs, will be described. Laboratory assessment through quality control and performance evaluation programs will be described, and data assessments in the laboratory and final reporting in the tank characterization reports will be discussed.

  15. Radioactive high level waste insight modelling for geological disposal facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Alexander; Kelly, Martin; Bailey, Lucy

    Within this paper we present a simplified analytical model to provide insight into the key performance measures of a generic disposal system for high level waste within a geological disposal facility. The model assumes a low solubility waste matrix within a corrosion resistant disposal container surrounded by a low permeability buffer. Radionuclides migrate from the disposal area through a porous geosphere to the biosphere and give a radiological dose to a receptor. The system of equations describing the migration is transformed into Laplace space and an approximation used to determine peak values for the radionuclide mass transfer rate entering the biosphere. Results from the model are compared with those from more detailed numerical models for key radionuclides in the UK high level waste inventory. Such an insight model can provide a valuable second line of argument to assist in confirming the results of more detailed models and build confidence in the safety case for a geological disposal facility.

  16. Multipurpose optimization models for high level waste vitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoza, M.

    1994-08-01

    Optimal Waste Loading (OWL) models have been developed as multipurpose tools for high-level waste studies for the Tank Waste Remediation Program at Hanford. Using nonlinear programming techniques, these models maximize the waste loading of the vitrified waste and optimize the glass formers composition such that the glass produced has the appropriate properties within the melter, and the resultant vitrified waste form meets the requirements for disposal. The OWL model can be used for a single waste stream or for blended streams. The models can determine optimal continuous blends or optimal discrete blends of a number of different wastes. The OWL models have been used to identify the most restrictive constraints, to evaluate prospective waste pretreatment methods, to formulate and evaluate blending strategies, and to determine the impacts of variability in the wastes. The OWL models will be used to aid in the design of frits and the maximize the waste in the glass for High-Level Waste (HLW) vitrification.

  17. The tracking of high level waste shipments-TRANSCOM system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Joy, D.S.; Pope, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    The TRANSCOM (transportation tracking and communication) system is the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) real-time system for tracking shipments of spent fuel, high-level wastes, and other high-visibility shipments of radioactive material. The TRANSCOM system has been operational since 1988. The system was used during FY1993 to track almost 100 shipments within the US.DOE complex, and it is accessed weekly by 10 to 20 users.

  18. Automatic rule generation for high-level vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhee, Frank Chung-Hoon; Krishnapuram, Raghu

    1992-01-01

    Many high-level vision systems use rule-based approaches to solving problems such as autonomous navigation and image understanding. The rules are usually elaborated by experts. However, this procedure may be rather tedious. In this paper, we propose a method to generate such rules automatically from training data. The proposed method is also capable of filtering out irrelevant features and criteria from the rules.

  19. Case for retrievable high-level nuclear waste disposal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseboom, Eugene H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Plans for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository have called for permanently closing and sealing the repository soon after it is filled. However, the hydrologic environment of the proposed site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, should allow the repository to be kept open and the waste retrievable indefinitely. This would allow direct monitoring of the repository and maintain the options for future generations to improve upon the disposal methods or use the uranium in the spent fuel as an energy resource.

  20. Mixing Processes in High-Level Waste Tanks - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, P.F.

    1999-05-24

    The mixing processes in large, complex enclosures using one-dimensional differential equations, with transport in free and wall jets is modeled using standard integral techniques. With this goal in mind, we have constructed a simple, computationally efficient numerical tool, the Berkeley Mechanistic Mixing Model, which can be used to predict the transient evolution of fuel and oxygen concentrations in DOE high-level waste tanks following loss of ventilation, and validate the model against a series of experiments.

  1. Handbook of high-level radioactive waste transportation

    SciTech Connect

    Sattler, L.R.

    1992-10-01

    The High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Handbook serves as a reference to which state officials and members of the general public may turn for information on radioactive waste transportation and on the federal government`s system for transporting this waste under the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. The Handbook condenses and updates information contained in the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer. It is intended primarily to assist legislators who, in the future, may be called upon to enact legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste through their jurisdictions. The Handbook is divided into two sections. The first section places the federal government`s program for transporting radioactive waste in context. It provides background information on nuclear waste production in the United States and traces the emergence of federal policy for disposing of radioactive waste. The second section covers the history of radioactive waste transportation; summarizes major pieces of legislation pertaining to the transportation of radioactive waste; and provides an overview of the radioactive waste transportation program developed by the US Department of Energy (DOE). To supplement this information, a summary of pertinent federal and state legislation and a glossary of terms are included as appendices, as is a list of publications produced by the Midwestern Office of The Council of State Governments (CSG-MW) as part of the Midwestern High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Project.

  2. High level cognitive information processing in neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnden, John A.; Fields, Christopher A.

    1992-01-01

    Two related research efforts were addressed: (1) high-level connectionist cognitive modeling; and (2) local neural circuit modeling. The goals of the first effort were to develop connectionist models of high-level cognitive processes such as problem solving or natural language understanding, and to understand the computational requirements of such models. The goals of the second effort were to develop biologically-realistic model of local neural circuits, and to understand the computational behavior of such models. In keeping with the nature of NASA's Innovative Research Program, all the work conducted under the grant was highly innovative. For instance, the following ideas, all summarized, are contributions to the study of connectionist/neural networks: (1) the temporal-winner-take-all, relative-position encoding, and pattern-similarity association techniques; (2) the importation of logical combinators into connection; (3) the use of analogy-based reasoning as a bridge across the gap between the traditional symbolic paradigm and the connectionist paradigm; and (4) the application of connectionism to the domain of belief representation/reasoning. The work on local neural circuit modeling also departs significantly from the work of related researchers. In particular, its concentration on low-level neural phenomena that could support high-level cognitive processing is unusual within the area of biological local circuit modeling, and also serves to expand the horizons of the artificial neural net field.

  3. Materials Science of High-Level Nuclear Waste Immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, William J.; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Stefanovsky, S. V.; Vance, E. R.; Vernaz, Etienne Y.

    2009-01-09

    With the increasing demand for the development of more nuclear power comes the responsibility to address the technical challenges of immobilizing high-level nuclear wastes in stable solid forms for interim storage or disposition in geologic repositories. The immobilization of high-level nuclear wastes has been an active area of research and development for over 50 years. Borosilicate glasses and complex ceramic composites have been developed to meet many technical challenges and current needs, although regulatory issues, which vary widely from country to country, have yet to be resolved. Cooperative international programs to develop advanced proliferation-resistant nuclear technologies to close the nuclear fuel cycle and increase the efficiency of nuclear energy production might create new separation waste streams that could demand new concepts and materials for nuclear waste immobilization. This article reviews the current state-of-the-art understanding regarding the materials science of glasses and ceramics for the immobilization of high-level nuclear waste and excess nuclear materials and discusses approaches to address new waste streams.

  4. Overview of high-level waste management accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Lawroski, H; Berreth, J R; Freeby, W A

    1980-01-01

    Storage of power reactor spent fuel is necessary at present because of the lack of reprocessing operations particularly in the U.S. By considering the above solidification and storage scenario, there is more than reasonable assurance that acceptable, stable, low heat generation rate, solidified waste can be produced, and safely disposed. The public perception of no waste disposal solutions is being exploited by detractors of nuclear power application. The inability to even point to one overall system demonstration lends credibility to the negative assertions. By delaying the gathering of on-line information to qualify repository sites, and to implement a demonstration, the actions of the nuclear power detractors are self serving in that they can continue to point out there is no demonstration of satisfactory high-level waste disposal. By maintaining the liquid and solidified high-level waste in secure above ground storage until acceptable decay heat generation rates are achieved, by producing a compatible, high integrity, solid waste form, by providing a second or even third barrier as a compound container and by inserting the enclosed waste form in a qualified repository with spacing to assure moderately low temperature disposal conditions, there appears to be no technical reason for not progressing further with the disposal of high-level wastes and needed implementation of the complete nuclear power fuel cycle.

  5. Evaluation of the applicability of nonlinear programming algorithms to a typical commercial process flow-sheeting simulator (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    An efficient methodology for using commercial flowsheeting programs with advanced mathematical programming algorithms was developed for the optimization of operating plants. The methodology was demonstrated and validated using ChemShare Corporation's DESIGN/2000 simulation of the Freeport Chemical Company's plant for sulfuric acid manufacture and three nonlinear programming techniques: successive linear programming, successive quadratic programming, and the generalized reduced-gradient method. The application of this methodology begins with the development of a feasible base-case simulation. Partial derivatives of the economic model and constraint equations are computed using fully converged simulations. This information is used to formulate an optimization problem that can be solved with the NLP algorithms giving improved values of the economic model. A line search is constructed through the point found from the nonlinear programming algorithm to find the best feasible point to repeat the procedure. The procedure is repeated using the ChemShare simulation program and the NLP code until convergence criteria are met. This method was applied to three flowsheeting problems; a plant-scale-contact sulfuric acid process model, a packed-bed-reactor design model, and an adiabatic-flash problem.

  6. High Level Architecture (HLA) federation with Umbra and OPNET federates.

    SciTech Connect

    Oppel, Fred John III; Hart, Brian; Van Leeuwen, Brian P.

    2004-03-01

    Network-centric systems that depend on mobile wireless ad hoc networks for their information exchange require detailed analysis to support their development. In many cases, this critical analysis is best provided with high-fidelity system simulations that include the effects of network architectures and protocols. In this research, we developed a high-fidelity system simulation capability using an HLA federation. The HLA federation, consisting of the Umbra system simulator and OPNET Modeler network simulator, provides a means for the system simulator to both affect, and be affected by, events in the network simulator. Advances are also made in increasing the fidelity of the wireless communication channel and reducing simulation run-time with a dead reckoning capability. A simulation experiment is included to demonstrate the developed modeling and simulation capability.

  7. Multiresolution modeling with a JMASS-JWARS high-level architecture (HLA) federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotz, Gary A.; Prince, John

    2003-09-01

    Traditionally, acquisition analyses require a hierarchical suite of simulation models to address engineering, engagement, mission and theater/campaign measures of performance, measures of effectiveness and measures of merit. Configuring and running this suite of simulations and transferring the appropriate data between each model are both time consuming and error prone. The ideal solution would be a single simulation with the requisite resolution and fidelity to perform all four levels of acquisition analysis. However, current computer hardware technologies cannot deliver the runtime performance necessary to support the resulting "extremely large" simulation. One viable alternative is to "integrate" the current hierarchical suite of simulation models using the DoD's High Level Architecture (HLA) in order to support multi-resolution modeling. An HLA integration -- called a federation -- eliminates the problem of "extremely large" models, provides a well-defined and manageable mixed resolution simulation and minimizes Verification, Validation, and Accreditation (VV&A) issues. This paper describes the process and results of integrating the Joint Modeling and Simulation System (JMASS) and the Joint Warfare System (JWARS) simulations -- two of the Department of Defense's (DoD) next-generation simulations -- using a HLA federation.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of military, commercial and novel skin decontamination products against a chemical warfare agent simulant (methyl salicylate).

    PubMed

    Matar, Hazem; Guerreiro, Antonio; Piletsky, Sergey A; Price, Shirley C; Chilcott, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    Rapid decontamination is vital to alleviate adverse health effects following dermal exposure to hazardous materials. There is an abundance of materials and products which can be utilised to remove hazardous materials from the skin. In this study, a total of 15 products were evaluated, 10 of which were commercial or military products and five were novel (molecular imprinted) polymers. The efficacies of these products were evaluated against a 10 µl droplet of (14)C-methyl salicylate applied to the surface of porcine skin mounted on static diffusion cells. The current UK military decontaminant (Fuller's earth) performed well, retaining 83% of the dose over 24 h and served as a benchmark to compare with the other test products. The five most effective test products were Fuller's earth (the current UK military decontaminant), Fast-Act® and three novel polymers [based on itaconic acid, 2-trifluoromethylacrylic acid and N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide)]. Five products (medical moist-free wipes, 5% FloraFree™ solution, normal baby wipes, baby wipes for sensitive skin and Diphotérine™) enhanced the dermal absorption of (14)C-methyl salicylate. Further work is required to establish the performance of the most effective products identified in this study against chemical warfare agents. PMID:26339920

  9. Systems modeling of space medical support architecture: topological mapping of high level characteristics and constraints.

    PubMed

    Musson, David M; Doyle, Thomas E; Saary, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The challenges associated with providing medical support to astronauts on long duration lunar or planetary missions are significant. Experience to date in space has included short duration missions to the lunar surface and both short and long duration stays on board spacecraft and space stations in low Earth orbit. Live actor, terrestrial analogue setting simulation provides a means of studying multiple aspects of the medical challenges of exploration class space missions, though few if any published models exist upon which to construct systems-simulation test beds. Current proposed and projected moon mission scenarios were analyzed from a systems perspective to construct such a model. A resulting topological mapping of high-level architecture for a reference lunar mission with presumed EVA excursion and international mission partners is presented. High-level descriptions of crew operational autonomy, medical support related to crew-member status, and communication characteristics within and between multiple teams are presented. It is hoped this modeling will help guide future efforts to simulate medical support operations for research purposes, such as in the use of live actor simulations in terrestrial analogue environments. PMID:23367318

  10. Effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products on the removal of selected radionuclides from high-level waste. Part II: Distributions of Sr, Cs, Tc, and Am onto 32 absorbers from four variations of Hanford tank 101-SY simulant solution

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, S.F.; Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M.

    1995-04-01

    Many of the radioactive waste storage tanks at U.S. Department of Energy facilities contain organic compounds that have been degraded by radiolysis and chemical reactions during decades of storage. In this second part of our three-part investigation of the effects of soluble organic complexants and their degradation products, we measured the sorption of strontium, cesium, technetium, and americium onto 32 absorbers that offer high sorption of these elements in the absence of organic complexants. The four solutions tested were (1) a simulant for a 3:1 dilution of Hanford Tank 101-SY contents that initially contained ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), (2) this simulant after gamma-irradiation to 34 Mrads, (3) the unirradiated simulant after treatment with a hydrothermal organic-destruction process, and (4) the irradiated simulant after hydrothermal processing. For each of 512 element/absorber/solution combinations, we measured distribution coefficients (Kds) twice for each period for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of our 3,072 measured Kd values, the sorption of strontium and americium is significantly decreased by the organic components of the simulant solutions, whereas the sorption of cesium and technetium appears unaffected by the organic components of the simulant solutions.

  11. High-level waste management technology program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this plan is to document the integrated technology program plan for the Savannah River Site (SRS) High-Level Waste (HLW) Management System. The mission of the SRS HLW System is to receive and store SRS high-level wastes in a see and environmentally sound, and to convert these wastes into forms suitable for final disposal. These final disposal forms are borosilicate glass to be sent to the Federal Repository, Saltstone grout to be disposed of on site, and treated waste water to be released to the environment via a permitted outfall. Thus, the technology development activities described herein are those activities required to enable successful accomplishment of this mission. The technology program is based on specific needs of the SRS HLW System and organized following the systems engineering level 3 functions. Technology needs for each level 3 function are listed as reference, enhancements, and alternatives. Finally, FY-95 funding, deliverables, and schedules are s in Chapter IV with details on the specific tasks that are funded in FY-95 provided in Appendix A. The information in this report represents the vision of activities as defined at the beginning of the fiscal year. Depending on emergent issues, funding changes, and other factors, programs and milestones may be adjusted during the fiscal year. The FY-95 SRS HLW technology program strongly emphasizes startup support for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and In-Tank Precipitation. Closure of technical issues associated with these operations has been given highest priority. Consequently, efforts on longer term enhancements and alternatives are receiving minimal funding. However, High-Level Waste Management is committed to participation in the national Radioactive Waste Tank Remediation Technology Focus Area. 4 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  12. Development of a High Level Waste Tank Inspection System

    SciTech Connect

    Appel, D.K.; Loibl, M.W.; Meese, D.C.

    1995-03-21

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Technology Center was requested by it`s sister site, West Valley Nuclear Service (WVNS), to develop a remote inspection system to gather wall thickness readings of their High Level Waste Tanks. WVNS management chose to take a proactive approach to gain current information on two tanks t hat had been in service since the early 70`s. The tanks contain high level waste, are buried underground, and have only two access ports to an annular space between the tank and the secondary concrete vault. A specialized remote system was proposed to provide both a visual surveillance and ultrasonic thickness measurements of the tank walls. A magnetic wheeled crawler was the basis for the remote delivery system integrated with an off-the-shelf Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. A development program was initiated for Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to design, fabricate, and test a remote system based on the Crawler. The system was completed and involved three crawlers to perform the needed tasks, an Ultrasonic Crawler, a Camera Crawler, and a Surface Prep Crawler. The crawlers were computer controlled so that their operation could be done remotely and their position on the wall could be tracked. The Ultrasonic Crawler controls were interfaced with ABB Amdata`s I-PC, Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System so that thickness mapping of the wall could be obtained. A second system was requested by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), to perform just ultrasonic mapping on their similar Waste Storage Tanks; however, the system needed to be interfaced with the P-scan Ultrasonic Data Acquisition System. Both remote inspection systems were completed 9/94. Qualifications tests were conducted by WVNS prior to implementation on the actual tank and tank development was achieved 10/94. The second inspection system was deployed at WSRC 11/94 with success, and the system is now in continuous service inspecting the remaining high level waste tanks at WSRC.

  13. Market Designs for High Levels of Variable Generation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L.

    2014-10-01

    Variable renewable generation is increasing in penetration in modern power systems, leading to higher variability in the supply and price of electricity as well as lower average spot prices. This raises new challenges, particularly in ensuring sufficient capacity and flexibility from conventional technologies. Because the fixed costs and lifetimes of electricity generation investments are significant, designing markets and regulations that ensure the efficient integration of renewable generation is a significant challenge. This papers reviews the state of play of market designs for high levels of variable generation in the United States and Europe and considers new developments in both regions.

  14. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR DEFENSE HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL CONTIANER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) defense high-level waste disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333PY ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  15. Ionization chamber for measurements of high-level tritium gas

    SciTech Connect

    Carstens, D.H.W.; David, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction and calibration of a simple ionization-chamber apparatus for measurement of high level tritium gas is described. The apparatus uses an easily constructed but rugged chamber containing the unknown gas and an inexpensive digital multimeter for measuring the ion current. The equipment after calibration is suitable for measuring 0.01 to 100% tritium gas in hydrogen-helium mixes with an accuracy of a few percent. At both the high and low limits of measurements deviations from the predicted theoretical current are observed. These are briefly discussed.

  16. Modern Alchemy: Solidifying high-level nuclear waste

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, C.C.

    1997-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is putting a modern version of alchemy to work to produce an answer to a decades-old problem. It is taking place at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) near Buffalo, New York. At both locations, contractor Westinghouse Electric Corporation is applying technology that is turning liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) into a stabilized, durable glass for safer and easier management. The process is called vitrification. SRS and WVDP are now operating the nation`s first full-scale HLW vitrification plants.

  17. Corrosion and failure processes in high-level waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Mahidhara, R.K.; Elleman, T.S.; Murty, K.L.

    1992-11-01

    A large amount of radioactive waste has been stored safely at the Savannah River and Hanford sites over the past 46 years. The aim of this report is to review the experimental corrosion studies at Savannah River and Hanford with the intention of identifying the types and rates of corrosion encountered and indicate how these data contribute to tank failure predictions. The compositions of the High-Level Wastes, mild steels used in the construction of the waste tanks and degradation-modes particularly stress corrosion cracking and pitting are discussed. Current concerns at the Hanford Site are highlighted.

  18. High-level neutron coincidence counter maintenance manual

    SciTech Connect

    Swansen, J.; Collinsworth, P.

    1983-05-01

    High-level neutron coincidence counter operational (field) calibration and usage is well known. This manual makes explicit basic (shop) check-out, calibration, and testing of new units and is a guide for repair of failed in-service units. Operational criteria for the major electronic functions are detailed, as are adjustments and calibration procedures, and recurrent mechanical/electromechanical problems are addressed. Some system tests are included for quality assurance. Data on nonstandard large-scale integrated (circuit) components and a schematic set are also included.

  19. Solidification of Savannah River Plant high-level waste

    SciTech Connect

    Maher, R; Shafranek, L F; Stevens, III, W R

    1983-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in accord with recommendations from the Du Pont Company, has started construction of a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Plant. The facility should be completed by the end of 1988, and full-scale operation should begin in 1990. This facility will immobilize in borosilicate glass the large quantity of high-level radioactive waste now stored at the plant plus the waste to be generated from continued chemical reprocessing operations. The existing wastes at the Savannah River Plant will be completely converted by about 2010. 21 figures.

  20. VITRIFICATION OF HIGH LEVEL WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-17

    The objective of this study was to experimentally measure the properties and performance of a series of glasses with compositions that could represent high level waste Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) as vitrified at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility. These data were used to guide frit optimization efforts as the SB5 composition was finalized. Glass compositions for this study were developed by combining a series of SB5 composition projections with a group of candidate frits. The study glasses were fabricated using depleted uranium and their chemical compositions, crystalline contents and chemical durabilities were characterized. Trevorite was the only crystalline phase that was identified in a few of the study glasses after slow cooling, and is not of concern as spinels have been shown to have little impact on the durability of high level waste glasses. Chemical durability was quantified using the Product Consistency Test (PCT). All of the glasses had very acceptable durability performance. The results of this study indicate that a frit composition can be identified that will provide a processable and durable glass when combined with SB5.

  1. Executive functions in kindergarteners with high levels of disruptive behaviours.

    PubMed

    Monette, Sébastien; Bigras, Marc; Guay, Marie-Claude

    2015-11-01

    Executive function (EF) deficits have yet to be demonstrated convincingly in children with disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD), as only a few studies have reported these. The presence of EF weaknesses in children with DBD has often been contested on account of the high comorbidity between DBD and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and of methodological shortcomings regarding EF measures. Against this background, the link between EF and disruptive behaviours in kindergarteners was investigated using a carefully selected battery of EF measures. Three groups of kindergarteners were compared: (1) a group combining high levels of disruptive behaviours and ADHD symptoms (COMB); (2) a group presenting high levels of disruptive/aggressive behaviours and low levels of ADHD symptoms (AGG); and (3) a normative group (NOR). Children in the COMB and AGG groups presented weaker inhibition capacities compared with normative peers. Also, only the COMB group showed weaker working memory capacities compared with the NOR group. Results support the idea that preschool children with DBD have weaker inhibition capacities and that this weakness could be common to both ADHD and DBD. PMID:26198079

  2. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  3. Space augmentation of military high-level waste disposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, T.; Lees, L.; Divita, E.

    1979-01-01

    Space disposal of selected components of military high-level waste (HLW) is considered. This disposal option offers the promise of eliminating the long-lived radionuclides in military HLW from the earth. A space mission which meets the dual requirements of long-term orbital stability and a maximum of one space shuttle launch per week over a period of 20-40 years, is a heliocentric orbit about halfway between the orbits of earth and Venus. Space disposal of high-level radioactive waste is characterized by long-term predictability and short-term uncertainties which must be reduced to acceptably low levels. For example, failure of either the Orbit Transfer Vehicle after leaving low earth orbit, or the storable propellant stage failure at perihelion would leave the nuclear waste package in an unplanned and potentially unstable orbit. Since potential earth reencounter and subsequent burn-up in the earth's atmosphere is unacceptable, a deep space rendezvous, docking, and retrieval capability must be developed.

  4. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  5. Spent Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by SSEB in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste Issues. In addition. this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages will be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  6. Spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste transportation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-11-01

    This publication is intended to provide its readers with an introduction to the issues surrounding the subject of transportation of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, especially as those issues impact the southern region of the United States. It was originally issued by the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) in July 1987 as the Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste Transportation Primer, a document patterned on work performed by the Western Interstate Energy Board and designed as a ``comprehensive overview of the issues.`` This work differs from that earlier effort in that it is designed for the educated layman with little or no background in nuclear waste issues. In addition, this document is not a comprehensive examination of nuclear waste issues but should instead serve as a general introduction to the subject. Owing to changes in the nuclear waste management system, program activities by the US Department of Energy and other federal agencies and developing technologies, much of this information is dated quickly. While this report uses the most recent data available, readers should keep in mind that some of the material is subject to rapid change. SSEB plans periodic updates in the future to account for changes in the program. Replacement pages sew be supplied to all parties in receipt of this publication provided they remain on the SSEB mailing list.

  7. Permitting plan for the high-level waste interim storage

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-04-23

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of solidified high-level waste (HLW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Solidified HLW consists of canisters containing vitrified HLW (glass) and containers that hold cesium separated during low-level waste pretreatment. The glass canisters and cesium containers will be transported to the Canister Storage Building (CSB) in a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-provided transportation cask via diesel-powered tractor trailer. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms; and (2) interim storage and disposal of TWRS immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW). An environmental requirements checklist and narrative was developed to identify the permitting path forward for the HLW interim storage (HLWIS) project (See Appendix B). This permitting plan will follow the permitting logic developed in that checklist.

  8. High-level power analysis and optimization techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghunathan, Anand

    1997-12-01

    This thesis combines two ubiquitous trends in the VLSI design world--the move towards designing at higher levels of design abstraction, and the increasing importance of power consumption as a design metric. Power estimation and optimization tools are becoming an increasingly important part of design flows, driven by a variety of requirements such as prolonging battery life in portable computing and communication devices, thermal considerations and system cooling and packaging costs, reliability issues (e.g. electromigration, ground bounce, and I-R drops in the power network), and environmental concerns. This thesis presents a suite of techniques to automatically perform power analysis and optimization for designs at the architecture or register-transfer, and behavior or algorithm levels of the design hierarchy. High-level synthesis refers to the process of synthesizing, from an abstract behavioral description, a register-transfer implementation that satisfies the desired constraints. High-level synthesis tools typically perform one or more of the following tasks: transformations, module selection, clock selection, scheduling, and resource allocation and assignment (also called resource sharing or hardware sharing). High-level synthesis techniques for minimizing the area, maximizing the performance, and enhancing the testability of the synthesized designs have been investigated. This thesis presents high-level synthesis techniques that minimize power consumption in the synthesized data paths. This thesis investigates the effects of resource sharing on the power consumption in the data path, provides techniques to efficiently estimate power consumption during resource sharing, and resource sharing algorithms to minimize power consumption. The RTL circuit that is obtained from the high-level synthesis process can be further optimized for power by applying power-reducing RTL transformations. This thesis presents macro-modeling and estimation techniques for switching

  9. New Generation Nuclear Plant -- High Level Functions and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Ryskamp; E. J. Gorski; E. A. Harvego; S. T. Khericha; G. A. Beitel

    2003-09-01

    This functions and requirements (F&R) document was prepared for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The highest-level functions and requirements for the NGNP preconceptual design are identified in this document, which establishes performance definitions for what the NGNP will achieve. NGNP designs will be developed based on these requirements by commercial vendor(s).

  10. A preliminary investigation of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the flow around a cylinder at ReD = 3900 using a commercial CFD code

    SciTech Connect

    Paschkewitz, J S

    2006-02-14

    Engineering fluid mechanics simulations at high Reynolds numbers have traditionally been performed using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations and a turbulence model. The RANS methodology has well-documented shortcomings in the modeling of separated or bluff body wake flows that are characterized by unsteady vortex shedding. The resulting turbulence statistics are strongly influenced by the detailed structure and dynamics of the large eddies, which are poorly captured using RANS models (Rodi 1997; Krishnan et al. 2004). The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methodology offers the potential to more accurately simulate these flows as it resolves the large-scale unsteady motions and entails modeling of only the smallest-scale turbulence structures. Commercial computational fluid dynamics products are beginning to offer LES capability, allowing practicing engineers an opportunity to apply this turbulence modeling technique to much wider array of problems than in dedicated research codes. Here, we present a preliminary evaluation of the LES capability in the commercial CFD solver StarCD by simulating the flow around a cylinder at a Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter, D, of 3900 using the constant coefficient Smagorinsky LES model. The results are compared to both the experimental and computational results provided in Kravchenko & Moin (2000). We find that StarCD provides predictions of lift and drag coefficients that are within 15% of the experimental values. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the time-averaged velocity statistics and the published data. The differences in these metrics may be due to the use of a truncated domain in the spanwise direction and the short time-averaging period used for the statistics presented here. The instantaneous flow field visualizations show a coarser, larger-scale structure than the study of Kravchenko & Moin (2000), which may be a product of the LES implementation or of the domain and resolution used