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Sample records for simulated inel buried

  1. Treatment of simulated INEL buried wastes using a graphite electrode DC arc furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.; Lawrence, W.E.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Cohn, D.R.; Rhea, D.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1994-08-01

    A program has been established under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD), to develop the graphite electrode DC arc technology for the application of treating buried heterogenous solid wastes. A three way {open_quotes}National Laboratory-University-Industry{close_quotes} partnership was formed to develop this technology in the most timely and cost effective manner. This program is presently testing a newly fabricated pilot-scale DC arc furnace with associated diagnostics at the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Initial testing in a smaller engineering scale furnace has established the viability of this technology for the treatment of solid heterogeneous wastes. Two diagnostic tools were developed under this program which support the evaluation of the DC arc technology. The diagnostics provide for both spatially resolved temperature measurements within the furnace and real time monitoring of the furnace metal emissions.

  2. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Surma, J.E.; Freeman, C.J.; Powell, T.D.; Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.; Hamilton, R.A.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600{degrees}C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation.

  3. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume II: Baseline test data appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Conner, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  4. Engineering-scale test 4: In situ vitrification of toxic metals and volatile organics buried in INEL soils

    SciTech Connect

    Shade, J.W.; Tixier, J.S. ); Farnsworth, R.K. ); Charboneau, B.L. )

    1991-06-01

    An engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test was conducted on soils containing a mixture of buried waste materials expected to be present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) subsurface disposal area (SDA). The test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist INEL in treatability studies of the potential application of ISV to mixed transuranic wastes at the INEL SDA. The purpose of this test was to determine the feasibility of using ISV to vitrify soils containing a mixture of buried hazardous heavy metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Se), with stainless and carbon steels, nonhazardous combustibles, and organics in the form of cemented sludge/grease mixtures. Specific objectives included determining the destruction and removal efficiency of hazardous volatile organics, determining the distribution of hazardous heavy metals between vitrified components, soils, and the ISV off-gas system, determining the leachability of the vitrified product, and evaluating electrode coatings. Actual site soil from INEL was used in the test and a basalt block was placed at a depth of 66 cm (26 in.) below the soil surface. The basalt was included to simulate basalt layers below the SDA and to evaluate bonding of the glass to basalt and possible contaminant transport into the basalt. 5 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. A process for ensuring regulatory compliance at the INEL`s buried waste integrated demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.; Watson, L.R.; Blacker, P.B.

    1993-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program is funded by the Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. The mission of this Integrated Demonstration is to identify, evaluate, and demonstrate a suite of innovative technologies for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous waste buried throughout the DOE complex between 1950 and 1970. The program approach to development of a long-range strategy for improving buried waste remediation capabilities is to combine systems analysis with already identified remediation needs for DOE complex buried waste. The systems analysis effort has produced several configuration options (a top-level block diagram of a cradle-to-grave remediation system) capable of remediating the transuranic-contaminated waste pits and trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Technologies for demonstration are selected using three criteria: (a) the ability to satisfy a specific buried waste need, (b) the ability to satisfy functional and operational requirements defined for functional sub-elements in a configuration option, and (c) performance against Comprehensive Environmental Restoration and Compensation Liability Act selection criteria, such as effectiveness, implementability, and cost. Early demonstrations experienced problems with missed requirements, prompting the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program Office to organize a Corrective Action Team to identify the cause and recommend corrective actions. The result of this team effort is the focus of this paper.

  6. Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter description report. INEL Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration System Analysis project

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Morrison, J.L.; Morneau, R.A.; Rudin, M.J.; Richardson, J.G.

    1992-05-01

    A formal methodology has been developed for identifying technology gaps and assessing innovative or postulated technologies for inclusion in proposed Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) remediation systems. Called the Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter, the methodology provides a formalized selection process where technologies and systems are rated and assessments made based on performance measures, and regulatory and technical requirements. The results are auditable, and can be validated with field data. This analysis methodology will be applied to the remedial action of transuranic contaminated waste pits and trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL).

  7. Baseline tests for arc melter vitrification of INEL buried wastes. Volume 1: Facility description and summary data report

    SciTech Connect

    Oden, L.L.; O`Connor, W.K.; Turner, P.C.; Soelberg, N.R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-11-19

    This report presents field results and raw data from the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Arc Melter Vitrification Project Phase 1 baseline test series conducted by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM). The baseline test series was conducted using the electric arc melter facility at the USBM Albany Research Center in Albany, Oregon. Five different surrogate waste feed mixtures were tested that simulated thermally-oxidized, buried, TRU-contaminated, mixed wastes and soils present at the INEL. The USBM Arc Furnace Integrated Waste Processing Test Facility includes a continuous feed system, the arc melting furnace, an offgas control system, and utilities. The melter is a sealed, 3-phase alternating current (ac) furnace approximately 2 m high and 1.3 m wide. The furnace has a capacity of 1 metric ton of steel and can process as much as 1,500 lb/h of soil-type waste materials. The surrogate feed materials included five mixtures designed to simulate incinerated TRU-contaminated buried waste materials mixed with INEL soil. Process samples, melter system operations data and offgas composition data were obtained during the baseline tests to evaluate the melter performance and meet test objectives. Samples and data gathered during this program included (a) automatically and manually logged melter systems operations data, (b) process samples of slag, metal and fume solids, and (c) offgas composition, temperature, velocity, flowrate, moisture content, particulate loading and metals content. This report consists of 2 volumes: Volume I summarizes the baseline test operations. It includes an executive summary, system and facility description, review of the surrogate waste mixtures, and a description of the baseline test activities, measurements, and sample collection. Volume II contains the raw test data and sample analyses from samples collected during the baseline tests.

  8. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-29

    Under Contract between US DOE Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Blackhawk Geosciences Division of Coleman Research Corporation (BGD-CRC), geophysical investigations were conducted to improve the detection of buried wastes. Site characterization is a costly and time consuming process with the most costly components being drilling, sampling, and chemical analysis of samples. There is a focused effort at US DOE and other agencies to investigate methodologies that reduce costs and shorten the time between characterization and clean-up. These methodologies take the form of employing non-invasive (geophysical) and minimal invasive (e.g., cone penetrometer driving) techniques of characterization, and implementing a near real-time, rational decision-making process (Expedited Site Characterization). Over the Cold Test Pit (CTP) at INEL, data were acquired with multiple sensors on a dense grid. Over the CTP the interpretations inferred from geophysical data are compared with the known placement of various waste forms in the pit. The geophysical sensors employed were magnetics, frequency and time domain electromagnetics, and ground penetrating radar. Also, because of the high data density acquired, filtering and other data processing and imaging techniques were tested. The conclusions derived from the geophysical surveys were that pit boundaries, berms between cells within the pit, and individual objects placed in the pit were best mapped by the new Geonics EM61 time domain EM metal detector. Part of the reason for the effectiveness of the time domain metal detector is that objects buried in the pit are dominantly metallic. Also, the utility of geophysical data is significantly enhanced by dimensional and 3-dimensional imaging formats. These images will particularly assist remediation engineers in visualizing buried wastes.

  9. Crucible melts and bench-scale ISV (in situ vitrification) tests on simulated wastes in INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) soils

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Reimus, M.A.H.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of eight crucible melt tests and three bench-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test that were performed on simulated metals/soils mixtures containing actual site soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The crucible melt and bench-scale ISV tests are a part of efforts by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to assist the INEL in conducting a treatability study on ISV for application to the mixed waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area (SDA). The crucible melt tests were performed to evaluate the effect of various chemical additives and metal oxidation techniques on soil melting temperatures, melt viscosities, metals versus electrode oxidation potentials, and metals incorporation in the glass. The bench-scale ISV tests were performed to supplement the existing ISV data base with information on certain hazardous materials that have not been adequately evaluated in previous ISV tests. These materials included five EP toxicity metals, various volatile organic materials fixed in a cementitious matrix (including carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE)), and asbestos. In addition, the bench-scale test were used to evaluated the effect of the proposed chemical additive on ISV processing performance and product quality. 8 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Simulation of EUV multilayer mirror buried defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brukman, Matthew J.; Deng, Yunfei; Neureuther, Andrew R.

    2000-07-01

    A new interface has been created to link existing deposition/etching and electromagnetic simulation software, allowing the user to program deposition and etching conditions and then find the reflective properties of the resultant structure. The application studied in this paper is the problem of three-dimensional defects which become buried during fabrication of multilayer mirrors for extreme ultraviolet lithography. The software link reads in surface information in the form of linked triangles, determines all nodes within the triangles, and then creates nodes lying between triangles of different layers to create a 3- dimensional inhomogeneous matrix containing the materials' indices of refraction. This allows etching and depositions to be input into SAMPLE-3D, a multi-surface topology to be generated, and then the electromagnetic properties of the structure to be assessed with TEMPEST. This capability was used to study substrate defects in multilayer mirrors by programming a defect and then sputter-depositing some forty layers on top of the defect. Specifically examined was how the topography depended on sputter conditions and determined the defects' impact on the mirrors' imaging properties. While this research was focused on application to EUV lithography, the general technique may be extended to other optical processes such as alignment and mask defects.

  11. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is the third volume of this comprehensive report of the inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains a complete printout of contaminant inventory and other information from the CIDRA Database and is presented in volumes 2 and 3 of the report.

  12. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This is the second volume of this comprehensive report of the inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Appendix B contains a complete printout of contaminant inventory and other information from the CIDRA Database and is presented in volumes 2 and 3 of the report.

  13. INEL cold test pit demonstration of improvements in information derived from non-intrusive geophysical methods over buried waste sites. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-08

    The objectives of this research project were to lay the foundation for further improvement in the use of geophysical methods for detection of buried wastes, and to increase the information content derived from surveys. Also, an important goal was to move from mere detection to characterization of buried wastes. The technical approach to achieve these objectives consisted of: (1) Collect a data set of high spatial density; (2) Acquire data with multiple sensors and integrate the interpretations inferred from the various sensors; (3) Test a simplified time domain electromagnetic system; and (4) Develop imaging and display formats of geophysical data readily understood by environmental scientists and engineers. The breadth of application of this work is far reaching. Not only are uncontrolled waste pits and trenches, abandoned underground storage tanks, and pipelines found throughout most US DOE facilities, but also at military installations and industrial facilities. Moreover, controlled land disposal sites may contain ``hot spots`` where drums and hazardous material may have been buried. The technologies addressed by the R&D will benefit all of these activities.

  14. Full-scale retrieval of simulated buried transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Valentich, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes the results of a field test conducted to determine the effectiveness of using conventional type construction equipment for the retrieval of buried transuranic (TRU) waste. A cold (nonhazardous and nonradioactive) test pit (1,100 yd{sup 3} volume) was constructed with boxes and drums filled with simulated waste materials, such as metal, plastic, wood, concrete, and sludge. Large objects, including truck beds, tanks, vaults, pipes, and beams, were also placed in the pit. These materials were intended to simulate the type of wastes found in TRU buried waste pits and trenches. A series of commercially available equipment items, such as excavators and tracked loaders outfitted with different end effectors, were used to remove the simulated waste. Work was performed from both the abovegrade and belowgrade positions. During the demonstration, a number of observations, measurements, and analyses were performed to determine which equipment was the most effective in removing the waste. The retrieval rates for the various excavation techniques were recorded. The inherent dust control capabilities of the excavation methods used were observed. The feasibility of teleoperating reading equipment was also addressed.

  15. A comprehensive inventory of radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried in the subsurface disposal area of the INEL RWMC during the years 1984-2003, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report presents a comprehensive inventory of the radiological and nonradiological contaminants in waste buried or projected to be buried from 1984 through 2003 in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The project to compile the inventory is referred to as the recent and projected data task. The inventory was compiled primarily for use in a baseline risk assessment under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. The compiled information may also be useful for environmental remediation activities that might be necessary at the RWMC. The information that was compiled has been entered into a database termed CIDRA-the Contaminant Inventory Database for Risk Assessment. The inventory information was organized according to waste generator and divided into waste streams for each generator. The inventory is based on waste information that was available in facility operating records, technical and programmatic reports, shipping records, and waste generator forecasts. Additional information was obtained by reviewing the plant operations that originally generated the waste, by interviewing personnel formerly employed as operators, and by performing nuclear physics and engineering calculations. In addition to contaminant inventories, information was compiled on the physical and chemical characteristics and the packaging of the 99 waste streams. The inventory information for waste projected to be buried at the SDA in the future was obtained from waste generator forecasts. The completeness of the contaminant inventories was confirmed by comparing them against inventories in previous reports and in other databases, and against the list of contaminants detected in environmental monitoring performed at the RWMC.

  16. A simulation study of moisture movement in proposed barriers for the subsurface disposal area, INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, S.O.

    1993-09-01

    This document presents a simulation study that was conducted to investigate moisture movement within two engineered barriers, which are proposed for use in eventual closure of the Subsurface Disposal Area. The results of the study are intended to guide the design and implementation of field test plots that will be constructed to test the barrier designs. Discussed are the sensitivity of barrier performance to changes in the conceptual model, which was used to simulate the barriers, and to changes in hydrologic parameters, which were used to describe the materials composing the barriers. In addition, estimates are presented concerning the time required for the moisture profile within the barriers to come into equilibrium with the meteorological conditions at the surface. In addition, the performance of the barriers under conditions of supplemental precipitation and ponding is presented.

  17. La-oxides as tracers for PuO{sub 2} to simulate contaminated aerosol behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.; Newton, G.J.; Cronenberg, A.W.; Loomis, G.G.

    1994-04-01

    An analytical and experimental study was performed on the use of lanthanide oxides (La-oxides) as surrogates for plutonium oxides (PuO{sub 2}) during simulated buried waste retrieval. This study determined how well the La-oxides move compared to PuO{sub 2} in aerosolized soils during retrieval scenarios. As part of the analytical study, physical properties of La-oxides and PuO{sub 2}, such as molecular diameter, diffusivity, density, and molecular weight are compared. In addition, an experimental study was performed in which Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) soil, INEL soil with lanthanides, and INEL soil with plutonium were aerosolized and collected in filters. Comparison of particle size distribution parameters from this experimental study show similarity between INEL soil, INEL soil with lanthanides, and INEL soil with plutonium.

  18. Atomic friction at exposed and buried graphite step edges: Experiments and simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Zhijiang; Martini, Ashlie

    2015-06-08

    The surfaces of layered materials such as graphite exhibit step edges that affect friction. Step edges can be exposed, where the step occurs at the outmost layer, or buried, where the step is underneath another layer of material. Here, we study friction at exposed and buried step edges on graphite using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and complementary molecular dynamics simulations of the AFM tip apex. Exposed and buried steps exhibit distinct friction behavior, and the friction on either step is affected by the direction of sliding, i.e., moving up or down the step, and the bluntness of the tip. These trends are analyzing in terms of the trajectory of the AFM tip as it moves over the step, which is a convolution of the topography of the surface and the tip shape.

  19. INEL BNCT Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1991-03-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for March 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, a milestone summary, and animal data charts.

  20. INEL BNCT Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1991-04-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for April 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, a milestone summary, and animal data charts. 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. INEL BNCT Program

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.

    1991-08-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for August 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  2. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  3. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  4. Simulation of the environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine and estimate the subsurface total concentration. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  5. Bioelectrochemical denitrification on biocathode buried in simulated aquifer saturated with nitrate-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Khanh; Park, Younghyun; Yu, Jaecheul; Lee, Taeho

    2016-08-01

    Nitrate contamination in aquifers has posed human health under high risk because people still rely on groundwater withdrawn from aquifers as drinking water and running water sources. These days, bioelectrochemical technologies have shown a great number of benefits for nitrate remediation via autotrophic denitrification in groundwater. This study tested the working possibility of a denitrifying biocathode when installed into a simulated aquifer. The reactors were filled with sand and synthetic groundwater at various ratios (10, 50, and 100 %) to clarify the effect of various biocathode states (not-buried, half-buried, and fully buried) on nitrate reduction rate and microbial communities. Decreases in specific nitrate reduction rates were found to be correlated with increases in sand/medium ratios. A specific nitrate reduction rate of 322.6 mg m(-2) day(-1) was obtained when the biocathode was fully buried in an aquifer. Microbial community analysis revealed slight differences in the microbial communities of biocathodes at various sand/medium ratios. Various coccus- and rod-shaped bacteria were found to contribute to bioelectrochemical denitrification including Thiobacillus spp. and Paracoccus spp. This study demonstrated that the denitrifying biocathode could work effectively in a saturated aquifer and confirmed the feasibility of in situ application of microbial electrochemical denitrification technology. PMID:27117152

  6. Groundwater Flow Dynamic Simulations of a Buried Valley Aquifer Calibrated with Field and Remotely Sensed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderhead, A. I.; Hinton, M. J.; Logan, C. E.; Sharpe, D.; Russel, H. A.; Oldenborger, G. A.; Pugin, A.; Rivera, A.; Castellazzi, P.; Martel, R.

    2013-12-01

    Buried valleys are a common occurrence in the North American prairie landscape. They are often characterized as high yield sources of groundwater in regions where low yield shale and tills dominate the hydrogeological setting. Firstly, 3D conceptual and geological models have been generated and used as a basis for creating a 3D finite element groundwater flow model. Field data, including piezometric readings, base flow measurements, and soil moisture probe data were collected between 2011 and 2013 and are used for calibrating the flow model. Secondly, the study aims to improve the spatial discretization of recharge estimates and include these refined values in the flow model. A temporal series of C-band Radar data and several land surface models were compared with the soil moisture probe data from the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer. The radar backscatter was used to develop moisture estimates at the regional scale. These estimates were then input into the HELP multi-parameter recharge model with the aim of assisting in estimates of a spatial discretization for groundwater recharge. Preliminary groundwater simulation results, with uniform recharge, show good agreement with piezometer readings and measured base flow readings. The temporal series of C-band radar backscatter, moisture probe data, and land surface models show corresponding variations between October, 2011 and October, 2012. The high resolution and regional extent of the radar data has a high potential to help develop a better understanding of recharge patterns in buried valley settings. Integrating a temporal series of high-resolution data into conceptual and numerical model development will refine our mapping, understanding and assessment of buried valley aquifers. Future work will include incorporating the spatially variable recharge estimates into the 3D finite element flow model. Additionally, various interpretations of the geological model will be tested to determine the extent, if any, that a

  7. Technology needs for remediation: Hanford and other DOE sites. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    Technologies are being developed under the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program to facilitate remediation of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) buried and stored low-level radioactive, transuranic (TRU), and mixed radioactive and hazardous buried wastes. The BWID program is being coordinated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in southeastern Idaho, a DOE site that has large volumes of buried radioactive wastes. The program is currently focusing its efforts on the problems at INEL`s Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). As specific technologies are successfully demonstrated, they will be available for transfer to applications at other DOE buried waste sites. The purpose of this study is to present buried waste technology needs that have been identified for DOE sites other than INEL.

  8. Numerical Simulations of Detonation of Buried and Flushed Anti-Tank Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Leo; Ranestad, Øyvind; Sandvik, Andreas; Snekkevik, Asbjørn

    2001-06-01

    In order to determine the loads on mine-clearing devices generated by detonations of anti-tank mines, knowledge about the incident impulse and pressure generated in the air are needed. Dependent factors includes the mine’s depth of burial and the properties of the soil. Practical testing show that buried and flushed mines often result in more severe damages on vehicles than surface mines. Numerical simulations were performed to determine incident impulse and pressure history from detonations of fully buried and flushed anti-tank mines for dry porous soil and fully saturated soil. A multi-material Euler processor was used for the numerical studies, and the mine was modelled as a high explosive charge only. By using the Jones-Wilkins-Lee equation of state (EOS) the energy release was modelled. The air was modelled as an ideal gas EOS, and the dry porous soil were represented by a porous EOS together with pressure hardening yield surface. Finally, the fully saturated soil was modelled by shock EOS with a non-pressure hardening yield surface.

  9. Comparison of fast 3D simulation and actinic inspection for EUV masks with buries defects

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, C. H.; Wiraatmadja, S.; Chan, T. T.; Neureuther, A. R.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Liang, T.

    2009-02-23

    Aerial images for isolated defects and the interactions of defects with features are compared between the Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the fast EUV simulation program RADICAL. Comparisons between AIT images from August 2007 and RADICAL simulations are used to extract aberrations. At this time astigmatism was the dominant aberration with a value of 0.55 waves RMS. Significant improvements in the imaging performance of the AIT were made between August 2007 and December 2008. A good match will be shown between the most recent AIT images and RADICAL simulations without aberrations. These comparisons will demonstrate that a large defect, in this case 7nm tall on the surface, is still printable even if it is centered under the absorber line. These comparisons also suggest that the minimum defect size is between 1.5nm and 0.8nm surface height because a 1.5nm defect was printable but a 0.8nm was not. Finally, the image of a buried defect near an absorber line through focus will demonstrate an inversion in the effect of the defect from a protrusion of the dark line into the space to a protrusion of the space into the line.

  10. Field tests and computational simulations of the explosion of buried charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Eve; Loret, Benjamin; Calvel, Jean Paul

    2015-09-01

    Modelling buried explosion is a matter of concern for vehicle protection. Indeed, in the battlefield, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are one of the major threats for land vehicles and, more specifically, for their underbelly. Two series of field tests using several masses of explosives have been performed, varying certain geometrical parameters, the nature and the physical properties of the soil. These controlled tests have shown that the impulse transmitted to the vehicle is a function of the saturation of the soil as well as of depth of burial of the explosive. In an effort to simulate the phenomena that take place during the explosions, these tests have been used to feed the data requested in computational simulations in a finite element context. Soil modelling presents its own difficulties, especially because soil is a porous medium and the three phases (solid grains, water and air) must be considered. A non linear viscoplastic cap model has been developed where the degree of saturation is variable. The yield surface includes a failure part, a cap and a tension cutoff. Soil stiffening associated with the air expulsion has been observed to be an important aspect of the model.

  11. Investigation of buried EUV mask defect printability using actinic inspection and fast simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, C. H.; Chan, T. T.; Neureuther, A. R.; Goldberg, K. A.; Mochi, I.; Liang, T.

    2009-06-16

    The fast simulator RADICAL and the Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT) are used in advance of availability of high volume manufacturing quality exposure tools, resists, and masks to assess the expected defect printability levels in production conditions. AIT images are analyzed to qualitatively demonstrate general trends in defect printability: defects smaller than 0.5nm tall on the multilayer surface can cause an unacceptable critical dimension (CD) change, CD change increases for taller defects, and defect printability varies asymmetrically through focus. RADICAL is used to derive quantitative limits for defect size and demonstrate the effects of focus and illumination for 22nm and 16nm dense lines. For 22nm dense lines at best focus a 0.8nm tall defect causes a 10% CD change. For 16nm lines a 0.4nm tall defect causes a 10% CD change. The CD is shown to be more sensitive to buried defects out of focus, but less sensitive to defects in focus if annular or dipole illumination is used.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulations for the Detection of Buried Objects Using Single Sided Backscattered Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Mary; Saripan, M. Iqbal; Wells, Kevin; Bradley, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Detection of buried improvised explosive devices (IEDs) is a delicate task, leading to a need to develop sensitive stand-off detection technology. The shape, composition and size of the IEDs can be expected to be revised over time in an effort to overcome increasingly sophisticated detection methods. As an example, for the most part, landmines are found through metal detection which has led to increasing use of non-ferrous materials such as wood or plastic containers for chemical based explosives being developed. Methodology Monte Carlo simulations have been undertaken considering three different commercially available detector materials (hyperpure-Ge (HPGe), lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr) and thallium activated sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)), applied at a stand-off distance of 50 cm from the surface and burial depths of 0, 5 and 10 cm, with sand as the obfuscating medium. Target materials representing medium density wood and mild steel have been considered. Each detector has been modelled as a 10 cm thick cylinder with a 20 cm diameter. Principal Findings It appears that HPGe represents the most promising detector for this application. Although it was not the highest density material studied, its excellent energy resolving capability leads to the highest quality spectra from which detection decisions can be inferred. Conclusions The simulation work undertaken here suggests that a vehicle-born threat detection system could be envisaged using a single betatron and a series of detectors operating in parallel observing the space directly in front of the vehicle path. Furthermore, results show that non-ferrous materials such as wood can be effectively discerned in such remote-operated detection system, with the potential to apply a signature analysis template matching technique for real-time analysis of such data. PMID:26348619

  13. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhelmsen, T. N.; Christensen, S.

    2009-12-01

    In this study the Local Grid Refinement (LGR) method developed for MODFLOW-2005 (Mehl and Hill, 2005) is utilized to describe groundwater flow in areas containing buried Quaternary valley structures. The tests are conducted as comparative analysis between simulations run with a globally refined model, a locally refined model, and a globally coarse model, respectively. The models vary from simple one layer models to more complex ones with up to 25 model layers. The comparisons of accuracy are conducted within the locally refined area and focus on water budgets, simulated heads, and simulated particle traces. Simulations made with the globally refined model are used as reference (regarded as “true” values). As expected, for all test cases the application of local grid refinement resulted in more accurate results than when using the globally coarse model. A significant advantage of utilizing MODFLOW-LGR was that it allows increased numbers of model layers to better resolve complex geology within local areas. This resulted in more accurate simulations than when using either a globally coarse model grid or a locally refined model with lower geological resolution. Improved accuracy in the latter case could not be expected beforehand because difference in geological resolution between the coarse parent model and the refined child model contradicts the assumptions of the Darcy weighted interpolation used in MODFLOW-LGR. With respect to model runtimes, it was sometimes found that the runtime for the locally refined model is much longer than for the globally refined model. This was the case even when the closure criteria were relaxed compared to the globally refined model. These results are contradictory to those presented by Mehl and Hill (2005). Furthermore, in the complex cases it took some testing (model runs) to identify the closure criteria and the damping factor that secured convergence, accurate solutions, and reasonable runtimes. For our cases this is judged to

  14. Buried waste integrated demonstration FY 94 deployment plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Walker, S.; Garcia, M.M.

    1994-05-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The fiscal year (FY) 1994 effort will fund thirty-eight technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for INEL field demonstrations, INEL laboratory demonstrations, non-INEL demonstrations, and paper studies. Each technology performing tests will prepare a test plan to detail the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of each test. Therefore, information specific to testing each technology is intentionally omitted from this document.

  15. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form (Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic). The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  16. Melter development needs assessment for RWMC buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.D.; Carpenedo, R.J.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a survey and initial assessment of the existing state-of-the-art melter technology necessary to thermally treat (stabilize) buried TRU waste, by producing a highly leach resistant glass/ceramic waste form suitable for final disposal. Buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) represents an environmental hazard requiring remediation. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) placed the INEL on the National Priorities List in 1989. Remediation of the buried TRU-contaminated waste via the CERCLA decision process is required to remove INEL from the National Priorities List. A Waste Technology Development (WTD) Preliminary Systems Design and Thermal Technologies Screening Study identified joule-heated and plasma-heated melters as the most probable thermal systems technologies capable of melting the INEL soil and waste to produce the desired final waste form [Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) glass/ceramic]. The work reported herein then surveys the state of existing melter technology and assesses it within the context of processing INEL buried TRU wastes and contaminated soils. Necessary technology development work is recommended.

  17. Stormwater management at the ARID INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.D.

    1994-12-31

    NPDES stormwater permits are required for stormwater discharges to waters of the US (WUS). The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) applied for coverage under a general NPDES stormwater permit because there is some potential for stormwater discharge to the Big Lost River System, which could infiltrate to groundwater. The main requirements of the permit are to prevent contaminants from coming into contact with stormwater and prevent contaminated stormwater from running off of facilities into WUS or groundwater. All INEL major facility areas have prepared and implemented stormwater pollution prevention plans (SWPPPs). The INEL also applied for coverage under a separate NPDES general permit for stormwater discharges from construction sites. An INEL Generic SWPPP for construction activities was prepared and implemented for all construction projects at the INEL.

  18. Numerical Simulation of Rock Mass Damage Evolution During Deep-Buried Tunnel Excavation by Drill and Blast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhua; Lu, Wenbo; Hu, Yingguo; Chen, Ming; Yan, Peng

    2015-09-01

    Presence of an excavation damage zone (EDZ) around a tunnel perimeter is of significant concern with regard to safety, stability, costs and overall performance of the tunnel. For deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast, it is generally accepted that a combination of effects of stress redistribution and blasting is mainly responsible for development of the EDZ. However, few open literatures can be found to use numerical methods to investigate the behavior of rock damage induced by the combined effects, and it is still far from full understanding how, when and to what degree the blasting affects the behavior of the EDZ during excavation. By implementing a statistical damage evolution law based on stress criterion into the commercial software LS-DYNA through its user-subroutines, this paper presents a 3D numerical simulation of the rock damage evolution of a deep-buried tunnel excavation, with a special emphasis on the combined effects of the stress redistribution of surrounding rock masses and the blasting-induced damage. Influence of repeated blast loadings on the damage extension for practical millisecond delay blasting is investigated in the present analysis. Accompanying explosive detonation and secession of rock fragments from their initial locations, in situ stress in the immediate vicinity of the excavation face is suddenly released. The transient characteristics of the in situ stress release and induced dynamic responses in the surrounding rock masses are also highlighted. From the simulation results, some instructive conclusions are drawn with respect to the rock damage mechanism and evolution during deep-buried tunnel excavation by drill and blast.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Nonlinear Lamb Waves Used in a Thin Plate for Detecting Buried Micro-Cracks

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xiang; Zhang, Qing; Xu, Guanghua; Tse, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    Compared with conventional linear ultrasonic inspection methods, which are sensitive only to severe defects, nonlinear ultrasonic inspection methods are better for revealing micro-cracks in thin plates. However, most nonlinear ultrasonic inspection methods have only been experimentally investigated using bulk or Rayleigh waves. Numerical studies, especially numerical simulations of Lamb ultrasonic waves, have seldom been reported. In this paper, the interaction between nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves and micro-cracks of various lengths and widths buried in a thin metallic plate was simulated using the finite element method (FEM). The numerical results indicate that after interacting with a micro-crack, a new wave-packet was generated in addition to the S0 mode wave-packet. The second harmonics of the S0 mode Lamb waves and the new wave-packet were caused by nonlinear acoustic effects at the micro-crack. An amplitude ratio indicator is thus proposed for the early detection of buried micro-cracks. PMID:24834908

  20. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

  1. In situ vitrification on buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, S.O.

    1992-08-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being evaluated as a remedial treatment technology for buried mixed and transuranic (TRU) wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and can be related to buried wastes at other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. There are numerous locations around the DOE Complex where wastes were buried in the ground or stored for future burial. The Buried Waste Program (BWP) is conducting a comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) for the Department of Energy - Field Office Idaho (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an ISV scoping study on the treatability of the SDA mixed low-level and mixed TRU waste is being performed for applicability to remediation of the waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The ISV project being conducted at the INEL by EG&G Idaho, Inc. consists of a treatability investigation to collect data to satisfy nine CERCLA criteria with regards to the SDA. This treatability investigation involves a series of experiments and related efforts to study the feasibility of ISV for remediation of mixed and TRU waste disposed of at the SDA.

  2. 3D numerical simulation of the transport of chemical signature compounds from buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irrazabal, Maik; Borrero, Ernesto; Briano, Julio G.; Castro, Miguel; Hernandez, Samuel P.

    2005-06-01

    The transport of the chemical signature compounds from buried landmines in a three-dimensional (3D) array has been numerically modeled using the finite-volume technique. Compounds such as trinitrotoluene, dinitrotoluene, and their degradation products, are semi volatile and somewhat soluble in water. Furthermore, they can strongly adsorb to the soil and undergo chemical and biological degradation. Consequently, the spatial and temporal concentration distributions of such chemicals depend on the mobility of the water and gaseous phases, their molecular and mechanical diffusion, adsorption characteristics, soil water content, compaction, and environmental factors. A 3D framework is required since two-dimensional (2D) symmetry may easily fade due to terrain topography: non-flat surfaces, soil heterogeneity, or underground fractures. The spatial and temporal distribution of the chemical-signature-compounds, in an inclined grid has been obtained. The fact that the chemicals may migrate horizontally, giving higher surface concentrations at positions not directly on top of the objects, emphasizes the need for understanding the transport mechanism when a chemical detector is used. Deformation in the concentration contours after rainfall is observed in the inclined surface and is attributed to both: the advective flux, and to the water flux at the surface caused by the slope. The analysis of the displacements in the position of the maximum concentrations at the surface, respect to the actual location of the mine, in an inclined system, is presented.

  3. INEL spray-forming research

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip >0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  4. INEL Spray-forming Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1993-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g., refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip greater than 0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  5. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration FY-95 Deployment Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, D.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The FY-95 effort will fund 24 technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. Ten of these technologies will take part in the integrated field demonstration that will take place at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities in the summer of 1995. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects funded in FY-95. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for the INEL integrated field demonstration, INEL research and development (R&D) demonstrations, non-INEL R&D demonstrations, and office research and technical review meetings. Each project will have a test plan detailing the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of the test. Therefore, information that is specific to testing each technology is intentionally limited in this document.

  6. 1994 INEL site-specific plan

    SciTech Connect

    Couch, B.

    1994-05-01

    This report presents plans for environmental restoration and waste management activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for fiscal year 1994. This years`s plan focuses on issues affecting the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Programs. The Environmental Restoration Program is concerned with all aspects of assessment and cleanup of inactive operations. It involves assessing and cleaning up (where necessary) inactive INEL waste areas that could release harmful substances into the environment, as well as safely managing surplus nuclear facilities. The Waste Management program involves treatment, storage, and disposal of radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and industrial waste by DOE activities. This program is designed to protect the safety of INEL employees, the public, and the environment in the design, construction, maintenance, and operation of INEL treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. It operates facilities in a cost-effective, environmentally sound, regulatory compliant, and publicly acceptable manner.

  7. Evaluating printability of buried native extreme ultraviolet mask phase defects through a modeling and simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Mihir; Jindal, Vibhu; Basavalingappa, Adarsh; Herbol, Henry; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Jang, Il-Yong; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Marokkey, Sajan; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Pistor, Thomas V.; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2015-04-01

    Since completely defect-free masks will be hard to achieve, it is essential to have a good understanding of the printability of the native extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask defects. In this work, we performed a systematic study of native mask defects to understand the defect printability they cause. The multilayer growth over native substrate mask blank defects was correlated to the multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects having similar profiles in terms of their width and height. To model the multilayer growth over the defects, a multilayer growth model based on a level-set technique was used that took into account the tool deposition conditions of the Veeco Nexus ion beam deposition tool. Further, the printability of the characterized native defects was studied at the SEMATECH-Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT), an EUV mask-imaging microscope at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Printability of the modeled regular-shaped defects, which were propagated up the multilayer stack using level-set growth model, was studied using defect printability simulations implementing the waveguide algorithm. Good comparison was observed between AIT and the simulation results, thus demonstrating that multilayer growth over a defect is primarily a function of a defect's width and height, irrespective of its shape.

  8. Evaluating Printability of Buried Native EUV Mask Phase Defects through a Modeling and Simulation Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, Mihir; Jindal, Vibhu; Basavalingappa, Adarsh; Herbol, Henry; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Jang, Il-Yong; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Marokkey, Sajan; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Pistor, Thomas V.; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2015-03-16

    The availability of defect-free masks is considered to be a critical issue for enabling extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) as the next generation technology. Since completely defect-free masks will be hard to achieve, it is essential to have a good understanding of the printability of the native EUV mask defects. In this work, we performed a systematic study of native mask defects to understand the defect printability caused by them. The multilayer growth over native substrate mask blank defects was correlated to the multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects having similar profiles in terms of their width and height. To model the multilayer growth over the defects, a novel level-set multilayer growth model was used that took into account the tool deposition conditions of the Veeco Nexus ion beam deposition tool. The same tool was used for performing the actual deposition of the multilayer stack over the characterized native defects, thus ensuring a fair comparison between the actual multilayer growth over native defects, and modeled multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects. Further, the printability of the characterized native defects was studied with the SEMATECH-Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT), an EUV mask-imaging microscope at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Printability of the modeled regular-shaped defects, which were propagated up the multilayer stack using level-set growth model was studied using defect printability simulations implementing the waveguide algorithm. Good comparison was observed between AIT and the simulation results, thus demonstrating that multilayer growth over a defect is primarily a function of a defect’s width and height, irrespective of its shape. This would allow us to predict printability of the arbitrarily-shaped native EUV mask defects in a systematic and robust manner.

  9. Evaluating printability of buried native EUV mask phase defects through a modeling and simulation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Mihir; Jindal, Vibhu; Basavalingappa, Adarsh; Herbol, Henry; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Jang, Il-Yong; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Mochi, Iacopo; Marokkey, Sajan; Demmerle, Wolfgang; Pistor, Thomas V.; Denbeaux, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    The availability of defect-free masks is considered to be a critical issue for enabling extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) as the next generation technology. Since completely defect-free masks will be hard to achieve, it is essential to have a good understanding of the printability of the native EUV mask defects. In this work, we performed a systematic study of native mask defects to understand the defect printability caused by them. The multilayer growth over native substrate mask blank defects was correlated to the multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects having similar profiles in terms of their width and height. To model the multilayer growth over the defects, a novel level-set multilayer growth model was used that took into account the tool deposition conditions of the Veeco Nexus ion beam deposition tool. The same tool was used for performing the actual deposition of the multilayer stack over the characterized native defects, thus ensuring a fair comparison between the actual multilayer growth over native defects, and modeled multilayer growth over regular-shaped defects. Further, the printability of the characterized native defects was studied with the SEMATECH-Berkeley Actinic Inspection Tool (AIT), an EUV mask-imaging microscope at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Printability of the modeled regular-shaped defects, which were propagated up the multilayer stack using level-set growth model was studied using defect printability simulations implementing the waveguide algorithm. Good comparison was observed between AIT and the simulation results, thus demonstrating that multilayer growth over a defect is primarily a function of a defect's width and height, irrespective of its shape. This would allow us to predict printability of the arbitrarily-shaped native EUV mask defects in a systematic and robust manner.

  10. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  11. Decision analysis for INEL hazardous waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    Page, L.A.; Roach, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    In mid-November 1993, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) Manager requested that the INEL Hazardous Waste Type Manager perform a decision analysis to determine whether or not a new Hazardous Waste Storage Facility (HWSF) was needed to store INEL hazardous waste (HW). In response to this request, a team was formed to perform a decision analysis for recommending the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. Personnel who participated in the decision analysis are listed in Appendix B. The results of the analysis indicate that the existing HWSF is not the best configuration for storage of INEL HW. The analysis detailed in Appendix C concludes that the best HW storage configuration would be to modify and use a portion of the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) Waste Storage Building (WWSB), PBF-623 (Alternative 3). This facility was constructed in 1991 to serve as a waste staging facility for WERF incineration. The modifications include an extension of the current Room 105 across the south end of the WWSB and installing heating, ventilation, and bay curbing, which would provide approximately 1,600 ft{sup 2} of isolated HW storage area. Negotiations with the State to discuss aisle space requirements along with modifications to WWSB operating procedures are also necessary. The process to begin utilizing the WWSB for HW storage includes planned closure of the HWSF, modification to the WWSB, and relocation of the HW inventory. The cost to modify the WWSB can be funded by a reallocation of funding currently identified to correct HWSF deficiencies.

  12. PDP cycle 1 tests at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Harker, Y.D.; Twedell, G.W.

    1997-11-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a participant in the nondestructive assay Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) as part of the U.S. TRU Waste Characterization Program. The PDP program was designed to help ensure compliance with the quality assurance objectives (QAO`s) in the TRU Waste Characterization Program Plan. In June, 1996, cycle 1 of PDP program was completed at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP) at INEL. The assay capability at INEL/SWEPP consists of a passive active neutron (PAN) radioassay system (for bulk fissile material assay) and a passive gamma spectrometry system (for isotopic mass ratio determination). The results from the two systems are combined to produce a single assay report which contains isotopic information ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu), density, total activity, alpha activity, TRU activity, TRU activity concentration, Pu equivalent Curies and fissile gram equivalent. The PDP cycle 1 tests were expected to test bias and precision of the assay systems under nearly ideal conditions; ie., non-interfering matrices and little or no source self shielding. The test consisted of two drums in which the source loading was not known by the site. One drum was essentially empty and the other was filled with ethafoam. As per PDP`s instructions, the tests were to be conducted using the same procedures and equipment that normally would be used by SWEPP to assay real waste drums. This paper will discuss the lessons learned from these tests and INEL`s plans to improve the capabilities of the SWEPP assay systems. 7 refs., 6 tabs.

  13. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  14. Reservoir technology research at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Renner, J.L.; Shook, G.M.; Faulder, D.D.

    1996-05-01

    Reservoir engineering research at INEL was aimed at developing a better understanding of The Geysers and developing better tools with which to study flow in fractured geothermal reservoirs in general. Two specific topics were studies in the last year: matrix fracture interactions and decline curve analysis. A third project, revisiting the behavior of the `high-temperature reservoir` (HTR), was started near the end of 1995. These projects are being conducted in collaboration with other researchers and/or private industry. For example, our HTR studies are motivated in part because of new isotopic analyses conducted elsewhere (Walters et al., in preparation). The ultimate goal of these projects is to improve predictive capabilities and reservoir management practices and to extend the commercial life of The Geysers. In addition to conducting engineering research for the Reservoir Technology Program, INEL also continued to assist the Geothermal Technology Organization (GTO) with the development and execution of cooperative research projects. In support of the overall mission of the Reservoir Technology program, INEL also entered into a broad program of subcontracts with industrial groups and universities. These programs support the Reservoir Technology mission by providing support for research topics considered particularly important by the geothermal industry. The GTO projects are summarized below.

  15. INEL D&D long-range plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; LaBuy, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Dismantlement (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and policy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. Appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information, a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current D&D surplus facility, and a summary database of all INEL contaminated facilities awaiting or undergoing the facility transition process.

  16. INEL metal recycle annual report, FY-94

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was changed from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to development of technologies for conditioning of spent nuclear fuels and other high-level wastes for disposal in a geologic repository. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a program plan addressing the management of radioactive contaminated scrap metal (RSM) within the DOE complex. Based on discussions with the EM-30 organization, the INEL Metal Recycle program plan was developed to address all issues of RSM management. Major options considered for RSM management were engineered interim storage, land disposal as low-level waste, and beneficial reuse/recycle. From its inception, the Metal Recycle program has emphasized avoidance of storage and disposal costs through beneficial reuse of RSM. The Metal Recycle program plan includes three major activities: Site-by-site inventory of RSM resources; validation of technologies for conversion of RSM to usable products; and identification of parties prepared to participate in development of a RSM recycle business.

  17. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  18. Buried waste integrated demonstration technology integration process

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, J.S.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1992-04-01

    A Technology integration Process was developed for the Idaho National Energy Laboratories (INEL) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) Program to facilitate the transfer of technology and knowledge from industry, universities, and other Federal agencies into the BWID; to successfully transfer demonstrated technology and knowledge from the BWID to industry, universities, and other Federal agencies; and to share demonstrated technologies and knowledge between Integrated Demonstrations and other Department of Energy (DOE) spread throughout the DOE Complex. This document also details specific methods and tools for integrating and transferring technologies into or out of the BWID program. The document provides background on the BWID program and technology development needs, demonstrates the direction of technology transfer, illustrates current processes for this transfer, and lists points of contact for prospective participants in the BWID technology transfer efforts. The Technology Integration Process was prepared to ensure compliance with the requirements of DOE`s Office of Technology Development (OTD).

  19. INEL BNCT research program: Annual report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1995. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, physics (treatment planning software, real-time neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (large animal models efficacy studies). Design of a reactor based epithermal neutron extraction facility is discussed in detail. Final results of boron magnetic resonance imagining is included for both borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) in rats, and BSH in humans. Design of an epithermal neutron facility using electron linear accelerators is presented, including a treatise on energy removal from the beam target. Information on the multiple fraction injection of BSH in rats is presented.

  20. INEL D&D Long-Range Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Buckland, R.J.; Kenoyer, D.J.; Preussner, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    This Long-Range Plan presents the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program planning status for facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The plan provides a general description of the D&D Program objectives, management criteria, and philosophy; discusses current activities; and documents the INEL D&D Program cost and schedule estimate projections for the next 15 years. appendices are included that provide INEL D&D project historical information and a comprehensive descriptive summary of each current surplus facility.

  1. Hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Knudsen, J.K.; Calley, M.B.

    1994-02-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the INEL Landfill Complex (LC) located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, which is operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The hazards assessment was performed to ensure that this facility complies with DOE and company requirements pertaining to emergency planning and preparedness for operational emergencies. DOE Order 5500.3A requires that a facility-specific hazards assessment be performed to provide the technical basis for facility emergency planning efforts. This hazards assessment was conducted in accordance with DOE Headquarters and the DOE Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) guidance to comply with DOE Order 5500.3A. The hazards assessment identifies and analyzes the hazards that are significant enough to warrant consideration in a facility`s operational emergency management program. The area surrounding the LC, the buildings and structures at the LC, and the processes that are used at the LC are described in this report. All hazardous materials, both radiological and nonradiological, at the LC were identified and screened against threshold quantities according to DOE Order 5500.3A guidance. Asbestos at the Asbestos Pit was the only hazardous material that exceeded its specified threshold quantity. However, the type of asbestos received and the packaging practices used are believed to limit the potential for an airborne release of asbestos fibers. Therefore, in accordance with DOE Order 5500.3A guidance, no further hazardous material characterization or analysis was required for this hazards assessment.

  2. INEL BNCT Research Program annual report 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    This report is a summary of the progress and research produced for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Research Program for calendar year 1994. Contributions from the principal investigators about their individual projects are included, specifically, chemistry (pituitary tumor studies, boron drug development including liposomes, lipoproteins, and carboranylalanine derivatives), pharmacology (murine screenings, toxicity testing, ICP-AES analysis of biological samples), physics (treatment planning software, neutron beam and filter design, neutron beam measurement dosimetry), and radiation biology (small and large animal models tissue studies and efficacy studies). Information on the potential toxicity of BSH and BPA is presented and results of 21 spontaneous tumor bearing dogs that have been treated with BNCT at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) are discussed. Several boron carrying drugs exhibiting good tumor uptake are described. Significant progress in the potential of treating pituitary tumors is presented. Highlights from the First International Workshop on Accelerator-Based Neutron Sources for BNCT are included. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Recent INEL spray-forming developments

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

  4. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-12-01

    This document presents the plan of activities for the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program which supports the environmental restoration (ER) objectives of the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. Discussed in this plan are the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, and the process for implementing and managing BWID. BWID is hosted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), but involves participants from throughout the DOE Complex, private industry, universities, and the international community. These participants will support, demonstrate, and evaluate a suite of advanced technologies representing a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for applicability and maturity, selecting appropriate technologies for demonstration, field demonstrating, evaluation of results and transferring technologies to environmental restoration programs are also presented. This document further describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to BWID. It addresses the management processes, operating procedures, programmatic and technical objectives, and schedules. Key functions in support of each demonstration such as regulatory coordination, safety analyses, risk evaluations, facility requirements, and data management are presented.

  5. Design and simulation of a novel 1400 V-4000 V enhancement mode buried gate GaN HEMT for power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramehr, Soroush; Kalna, Karol; Igić, Petar

    2014-11-01

    A novel enhancement mode structure, a buried gate gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with a breakdown voltage (BV) of 1400 V-4000 V for a source-to-drain spacing (LSD) of 6 μm-32 μm, is investigated using simulations by Silvaco Atlas. The simulations are based on meticulous calibration of a conventional lateral 1 μm gate length GaN HEMT with a source-to-drain spacing of 6 μm against its experimental transfer characteristics and BV. The specific on-resistance RS for the new power transistor with the source-to-drain spacing of 6 μm showing BV = 1400 V and the source-to-drain spacing of 8 μm showing BV = 1800 V is found to be 2.3 mΩ · cm2 and 3.5 mΩ · cm2, respectively. Further improvement up to BV = 4000 V can be achieved by increasing the source-to-drain spacing to 32 μm with the specific on-resistance of RS = 35.5 mΩ · cm2. The leakage current in the proposed devices stays in the range of ˜5 × 10-9 mA mm-1.

  6. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

  7. INEL Waste and Environmental Information Integration Project approach and concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, L.A.; Fairbourn, P.J.; Randall, V.C.; Riedesel, A.M.

    1994-06-01

    The Idaho National Engineering, Laboratory (INEL) Waste and Environmental Information integration Project (IWEIIP) was established in December 1993 to address issues related to INEL waste and environmental information including: Data quality; Data redundancy; Data accessibility; Data integration. This effort includes existing information, new development, and acquisition activities. Existing information may not be a database record; it may be an entire document (electronic, scanned, or hard-copy), a video clip, or a file cabinet of information. The IWEIIP will implement an effective integrated information framework to manage INEL waste and environmental information as an asset. This will improve data quality, resolve data redundancy, and increase data accessibility; therefore, providing more effective utilization of the dollars spent on waste and environmental information.

  8. Experimental and simulation studies of printability of buried EUV mask defects and study of EUV reflectivity loss mechanisms due to standard EUV mask cleaning processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyaya, Mihirkant

    There's a big push for development and commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography for high-volume semiconductor manufacturing of 14 nm half-pitch patterning and beyond. One of the primary concerns for making this a reality has been the ability to achieve defect-free masks. My study is focused on two aspects related to the performance degradation of the EUV masks namely EUV mask cleaning induced reflectivity loss mechanisms, and the buried multilayer phase defects in EUV masks. Standard EUV mask cleaning processes involve various steps and chemistries that lead to degradation of the multilayer structure, in turn leading to EUV reflectivity loss, hence impacting the throughput. In this work, we developed an understanding of the root causes of how different cleaning chemistries cause EUV reflectivity loss, and quantified these losses. Upon subjecting the mask blanks to multiple cleaning cycles, multilayer degradation observed was in terms of multilayer etching and pitting, surface roughness increase and surface oxidation. We studied each of these phenomena through experiments and simulations, and correlated the extent of EUV reflectivity loss to each of the degradation phenomena. The second aspect of this work involved investigating the printability behavior of buried native phase defects in EUV mask blanks. Since completely defect-free masks will be hard to achieve, it is essential to have a good understanding of the printability of EUV mask defects. In this work, the printability of native mask defects was studied using a novel level-set multilayer growth model that took into account the tool deposition conditions where the multilayer deposition took place. For this study, the native mask blank defects were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the defect printability of these defects was evaluated using simulations implementing the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) and the

  9. Idaho, Navy, DOE agree on shipments to, from INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, B.

    1995-12-01

    This report describes aspects of a legal agreement between the U.S. Navy, the state of Idaho, and the United States Department of Energy (US DOE) regarding shipments of radioactive wastes. The agreement will allow for the shipment of 244 spent fuel shipments from the Fort St Vrain facility in Colorado, if a repository or interim storage facility outside Idaho is open and accepting spent fuel from INEL. The number of shipments to the INEL will be limited to 1133, instead of the 1940 originally planned. The Navy will be allowed 575 total shipments through the year 2035.

  10. Monte Carlo simulations of electromagnetic wave scattering from a random rough surface with three-dimensional penetrable buried object: mine detection application using the steepest-descent fast multipole method.

    PubMed

    El-Shenawee, M; Rappaport, C; Silevitch, M

    2001-12-01

    We present a statistical study of the electric field scattered from a three-dimensional penetrable object buried under a two-dimensional random rough surface. Monte Carlo simulations using the steepest-descent fast multipole method (SDFMM) are conducted to calculate the average and the standard deviation of the near-zone scattered fields. The SDFMM, originally developed at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, has been modified to calculate the unknown surface currents both on the rough ground and on the buried object that are due to excitation by a tapered Gaussian beam. The rough ground medium used is an experimentally measured typical dry Bosnian soil with 3.8% moisture, while the buried object represents a plastic land mine modeled as an oblate spheroid with dimensions and burial depth smaller than the free-space wavelength. Both vertical and horizontal polarizations for the incident waves are studied. The numerical results show that the TNT mine signature is almost 5% of the total field scattered from the ground. Moreover, relatively recognizable object signatures are observed even when the object is buried under the tail of the incident beam. Interestingly, even for the small surface roughness parameters considered, the standard deviation of the object signature is almost 30% of the signal itself, indicating significant clutter distortion that is due to the roughness of the ground. PMID:11760205

  11. INEL BNCT Program: Volume 5, No. 9. Bulletin, September 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.

    1991-12-31

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for September 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and updates to the animal data charts.

  12. Ultra wide band radar holographic imaging of buried waste at DOE sites

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, H.D.; Gribble, R.P.; Hall, T.E.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1995-04-01

    Ultra wideband linear array holography is a unique real-time imaging technique for in-situ inspection of buried waste at various DOE sites. The array can be mounted on various platforms such as crane booms, pickup trucks, ATVs, and scanned generating ``3-D`` subsurface images in real time. Inspection speeds are 0.5 to 2 meters/sec, if the image is viewed in real time, greater for off-line processing. The Ground Penetrating Holographic (GPH) system developed for inspection of DOE sites employs two 32element arrays of tapered-slot antenna operating at 5-GHz and 2.5-GHz center frequencies. The GPH system, which is mounted on a small trailer with a computer image processor, display, and power supply, is capable of imaging a wide swath (1 to 2 meters) with its linear arrays. The lower frequency array will be used at INEL (for greater depth penetration) because of high soil attenuation. Recent holographic ``3-D`` images of buried waste container lids and dielectrics obtained in Hanford sand and INEL soils at various depths graphically illustrate the unique image resolution capabilities of the system. Experimental results using the 5-GHz array will be presented showing the excellent holographic image quality of various subsurface targets in sand and INEL soil.

  13. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies and system concepts for testing the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L. ); Feizollahi, F. ); Del Signore, J.C. )

    1991-09-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  14. Preliminary Systems Design Study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each concept.

  15. Evaluation of the Contamination Control Unit during simulated transuranic waste retrieval

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.N.; Freeman, A.L.; Wixom, V.E.

    1993-11-01

    This report presents the results of a field demonstration at the INEL of the Contamination Control Unit (CCU). The CCU is a field deployable self-contained trailer mounted system to control contamination spread at the site of transuranic (TRU) handling operations. This is accomplished primarily by controlling dust spread. This demonstration was sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Technology Development Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. The CCU, housed in a mobile trailer for easy transport, supports four different contamination control systems: water misting, dust suppression application, soil fixative application, and vacuuming operations. Assessment of the CCU involved laboratory operational performance testing, operational testing and contamination control at a decommissioned Idaho National Engineering Laboratory reactor, and field testing in conjunction with a simulated TRU buried waste retrieval effort at the Cold Test Pit.

  16. Facility status and progress of the INEL`s WERF MLLW and LLW incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.; Corrigan, S.

    1996-05-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) incinerator began processing beta/gamma- emitting low-level waste (LLW) in September 1984. A Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) trial burn for the WERF incinerator was conducted in 1986, and in 1989 WERF began processing (hazardous and low-level radioactive) waste known as mixed low-level waste (MLLW). On February 14, 1991 WERF operations were suspended to improve operating procedures and configuration management. On July 12, 1995, WERF initiated incineration of LLW; and on September 20, 1995 WERF resumed its primary mission of incinerating MLLW. MLLW incineration is proceeding under RCRA interim status. State of Idaho issuance of the Part B permit is one of the State`s highest permitting priorities. The State of Idaho`s Division of Environmental Quality is reviewing the permit application along with a revised trial burn plan that was also submitted with the application. The trial burn has been proposed to be performed in 1996 to demonstrate compliance with the current incinerator guidance. This paper describes the experiences and problems associated with WERF`s operations, incineration of MLLW, and the RCRA Part B Permit Application. Some of the challenges that have been overcome include waste characterization, waste repackaging, repackaged waste storage, and implementation of RCRA interim status requirements. A number of challenges remain. They include revision of the RCRA Part B Permit Application and the Trial Burn Plan in response to comments from the state permit application reviewers as well as facility and equipment upgrades required to meet RCRA Permitted Status.

  17. INEL metal recycle radioactive scrap metal survey report

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, D.M.

    1994-09-01

    DOE requested that inventory and characterization of radioactive scrap metal (RSM) be conducted across the DOE complex. Past studies have estimated the metal available from unsubstantiated sources. In meetings held in FY-1993, with seven DOE sites represented and several DOE-HQ personnel present, INEL personnel discovered that these numbers were not reliable and that large stockpiles did not exist. INEL proposed doing in-field measurements to ascertain the amount of RSM actually available. This information was necessary to determine the economic viability of recycling and to identify feed stock that could be used to produce containers for radioactive waste. This inventory measured the amount of RSM available at the selected DOE sites. Information gathered included radionuclide content and chemical form, general radiation field, alloy type, and mass of metal.

  18. Human applications of the INEL patient treatment planning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, F.; Wessol, D.; Atkinson, C.; Nigg, D.

    1995-11-01

    During the past few years, murine and large animal research, as well as human studies have provided data to the point where human clinical trials have been initiated at the BMRR using BPA-F for gliomas and at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Reactor (MITR) using BPA for melanomas of the extremeties. It is expected that glioma trials using BSH will proceed soon at the Petten High Flux Reactor (HFR) in the Netherlands. The first human glioma epithermal boron neutron capture therapy application was performed at the BMRR in the fall of 1994. This was a collaborative effort by BNL, Beth Israel Manhattan hospital, and INEL. The INEL planning system was chosen to perform dose predictions for this application.

  19. Snake River Plain FORGE Well Data for INEL-1

    DOE Data Explorer

    Robert Podgorney

    1979-03-01

    Well data for the INEL-1 well located in eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. This data collection includes caliper logs, lithology reports, borehole logs, temperature at depth data, neutron density and gamma data, full color logs, fracture analysis, photos, and rock strength parameters for the INEL-1 well. This collection of data has been assembled as part of the site characterization data used to develop the conceptual geologic model for the Snake River Plain site in Idaho, as part of phase 1 of the Frontier Observatory for Research in Geothermal Energy (FORGE) initiative. They were assembled by the Snake River Geothermal Consortium (SRGC), a team of collaborators that includes members from national laboratories, universities, industry, and federal agencies, lead by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  20. Computer modeling of jet mixing in INEL waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the feasibility of using submerged jet mixing pumps to mobilize and suspend settled sludge materials in INEL High Level Radioactive Waste Tanks. Scenarios include removing the heel (a shallow liquid and sludge layer remaining after tank emptying processes) and mobilizing and suspending solids in full or partially full tanks. The approach used was to (1) briefly review jet mixing theory, (2) review erosion literature in order to identify and estimate important sludge characterization parameters (3) perform computer modeling of submerged liquid mixing jets in INEL tank geometries, (4) develop analytical models from which pump operating conditions and mixing times can be estimated, and (5) analyze model results to determine overall feasibility of using jet mixing pumps and make design recommendations.

  1. Thermal processing system concepts and considerations for RWMC buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy, T.L.; Kong, P.C.; Raivo, B.D.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-02-01

    This report presents a preliminary determination of ex situ thermal processing system concepts and related processing considerations for application to remediation of transuranic (TRU)-contaminated buried wastes (TRUW) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Beginning with top-level thermal treatment concepts and requirements identified in a previous Preliminary Systems Design Study (SDS), a more detailed consideration of the waste materials thermal processing problem is provided. Anticipated waste stream elements and problem characteristics are identified and considered. Final waste form performance criteria, requirements, and options are examined within the context of providing a high-integrity, low-leachability glass/ceramic, final waste form material. Thermal processing conditions required and capability of key systems components (equipment) to provide these material process conditions are considered. Information from closely related companion study reports on melter technology development needs assessment and INEL Iron-Enriched Basalt (IEB) research are considered. Five potentially practicable thermal process system design configuration concepts are defined and compared. A scenario for thermal processing of a mixed waste and soils stream with essentially no complex presorting and using a series process of incineration and high temperature melting is recommended. Recommendations for applied research and development necessary to further detail and demonstrate the final waste form, required thermal processes, and melter process equipment are provided.

  2. The INEL approach: Environmental Restoration Program management and implementation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The overall objectives of the INEL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program management approach are to facilitate meeting mission needs through the successful implementation of a sound, and effective project management philosophy. This paper outlines the steps taken to develop the ER program, and explains further the implementing tools and processes used to achieve what can be viewed as fundamental to a successful program. The various examples provided will demonstrate how the strategies for implementing these operating philosophies are actually present and at work throughout the program, in spite of budget drills and organizational changes within DOE and the implementing contractor. A few of the challenges and successes of the INEL Environmental Restoration Program have included: a) completion of all enforceable milestones to date, b) acceleration of enforceable milestones, c) managing funds to reduce uncosted obligations at year end by utilizing greater than 99% of FY-95 budget, d) an exemplary safety record, e) developing a strategy for partial Delisting of the INEL by the year 2000, f) actively dealing with Natural Resource Damages Assessment issues, g) the achievement of significant project cost reductions, h) and implementation of a partnering charter and application of front end quality principles.

  3. INEL test plan for evaluating waste assay systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mandler, J.W.; Becker, G.K.; Harker, Y.D.; Menkhaus, D.E.; Clements, T.L. Jr.

    1996-09-01

    A test bed is being established at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). These tests are currently focused on mobile or portable radioassay systems. Prior to disposal of TRU waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), radioassay measurements must meet the quality assurance objectives of the TRU Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan. This test plan provides technology holders with the opportunity to assess radioassay system performance through a three-tiered test program that consists of: (a) evaluations using non-interfering matrices, (b) surrogate drums with contents that resemble the attributes of INEL-specific waste forms, and (c) real waste tests. Qualified sources containing a known mixture and range of radionuclides will be used for the non-interfering and surrogate waste tests. The results of these tests will provide technology holders with information concerning radioassay system performance and provide the INEL with data useful for making decisions concerning alternative or improved radioassay systems that could support disposal of waste at WIPP.

  4. Operation Hardtack. Project 1. 9. Loading on buried simulated structures in high-overpressure regions. Report for April-October 1958

    SciTech Connect

    Bultmann, E.H.; McDonough, G.F.; Sinnamon, G.K.

    1984-10-31

    The objective of this project was to study some of the factors affecting the transmission of air-blast-induced pressure through soil and the loading produced on buried structures by such pressures in the high-pressure region (approximately 250 psi). Factors studied were: (1) the attenuation of pressure in a sand deposit when the water table is a few feet below the ground surface; (2) the effect of duration of positive phase of blast on the pressure transmitted through such a soil; (3) the effect of structure flexibility on the pressure acting on structures buried in such a soil; and (4) the relationship between horizontal and vertical pressures in such a soil. The project employed 43 devices, each a rigid cylinder having one rigid end and one deformable-diaphragm end. The devices were buried at depths ranging from 0 to 20 feet at each of two locations at the Eniwetok Proving Ground. The locations were chosen to give a predicted ground surface overpressure of about 250 psi from each of two shots, Cactus and Koa.

  5. Chemical detection of buried landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1998-03-01

    Of all the buried landmine identification technologies currently available, sensing the chemical signature from the explosive components found in landmines is the only technique that can classify non-explosive objects from the real threat. In the last two decades, advances in chemical detection methods has brought chemical sensing technology to the foreground as an emerging technological solution. In addition, advances have been made in the understanding of the fundamental transport processes that allow the chemical signature to migrate from the buried source to the ground surface. A systematic evaluation of the transport of the chemical signature from inside the mine into the soil environment, and through the soil to the ground surface is being explored to determine the constraints on the use of chemical sensing technology. This effort reports on the results of simulation modeling using a one-dimensional screening model to evaluate the impacts on the transport of the chemical signature by variation of some of the principal soil transport parameters.

  6. Solute travel time in the vadose zone under RWMC at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, J.C.P.; Tian, J.

    1995-02-27

    Solute transport in the vadose zone under the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is considered. The objective is to assess the relative importance of variables involved in modeling the travel time of a conservative solute from ground surface to water table. The vadose zone under RWMC is composed of several layers of basalt flows interceded with sediment layers. The thickness of the layers varies with location. The hydraulic properties also vary. The extents of the variations are large, with standard deviations exceed mean in some instances. The vadose zone is idealized as composed of horizontal layers. Solute transport starts at the ground surface and moves vertically downwards to the water table. The perceived process is one-dimensional. This study used VS2DT, a computer code developed by the US Geological Survey, for simulating solute transport in variably saturated porous media.

  7. INEL integrated spent nuclear fuel consolidation task team report

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.N.; Clark, J.H.; Chipman, N.A.

    1994-09-12

    This document describes a draft plan and schedule to consolidate spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and special nuclear material (SNW) from aging storage facilities throughout the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in a safe, cost-effective, and expedient manner. A fully integrated and resource-loaded schedule was developed to achieve consolidation as soon as possible. All of the INEL SNF and SNM management task, projects, and related activities from fiscal year 1994 to the end of the consolidation period are logic-tied and integrated with each other. The schedule and plan are presented to initiate discussion of their implementation, which is expected to generate alternate concepts that can be evaluated using the methodology described in this report. Three perturbations to consolidating SNF as soon as possible are also explored. If the schedule is executed as proposed, the new and on-going consolidation activities will require about 6 years to complete and about $25.3M of additional funding. Reduced annual operating costs are expected to recover the additional investment in about 6.4 years. The total consolidation program as proposed will cost about $66.8M and require about 6 years to recover via reduced operating costs from retired SNF/SNM storage facilities. Detailed schedules and cost estimates for the Test Reactor Area Materials Test Reactor canal transfers are included as an example of the level of detail that is typical of the entire schedule (see Appendix D). The remaining work packages for each of the INEL SNF consolidation transfers are summarized in this document. Detailed cost and resource information is available upon request for any of the SNF consolidation transfers.

  8. INEL BNCT Research Program, September--October 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotain. carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophonylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  9. INEL BNCT research program, July--August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  10. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, ``Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.`` The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG&G Idaho, Inc.`s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  11. Project Management Plan for the INEL technology logic diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, M.J.

    1992-10-01

    This Project Management Plan (PjMP) describes the elements of project planning and control that apply to activities outlined in Technical Task Plan (TTP) ID-121117, Technology Logic Diagrams For The INEL.'' The work on this project will be conducted by personnel in EG G Idaho, Inc.'s Waste Technology Development Program. Technology logic diagrams represent a formal methodology to identify technology gaps or needs within Environmental Restoration/Waste Management Operations, which will focus on Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM-50) research and development, demonstration, test, and evaluation efforts throughout the US Department of Energy complex. This PjMP describes the objectives, organization, roles and responsibilities, workscope and processes for implementing and managing the technology logic diagram for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory project.

  12. TIDBIT - the INEL database of BNCT information and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, C.A.

    1995-11-01

    The INEL Database of BNCT Information and Treatment (TIDBIT) has been under development for several years. Late in 1993, a new software development team took over the project and did and assessment of the current implementation status, and determined that the user interface was unsatisfactory for the expected users and that the data structures were out of step with the current state of reality. The team evaluated several tools that would improve the user interface to make the system easier to use. Uniface turned out to be the product of choice. During 1994, TIDBIT got its name, underwent a complete change of appearance, had a major overhaul to the data structures that support the application, and system documentation was begun. A prototype of the system was demonstrated in September 1994.

  13. INEL BNCT Research Program, May/June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (IBPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  14. INEL BNCT Research Program, January/February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murine screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor cell culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronophenylaianine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  15. Compliance agreements at the INEL: A success story

    SciTech Connect

    McBath, W.H.

    1995-11-01

    The Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), is the storage facility for approximately 135,000 containers of radioactive mixed waste that must be stored in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. Collectively, the compliance and safety basis documents governing the operation of the storage facility contain approximately 2,500 specific, identifiable requirements. Critical to the compliance with these 2,500 requirements was the development of a process which converted these requirements to a form and format that allowed implementation at the operator level. Additionally, to ensure continued compliance, a method of identifying and controlling implementing documents is imperative. This paper discusses the methods employed to identify, implement, and control these requirements.

  16. Mixed debris treatment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, E.C.; Porter, C.L.; Wallace, M.T.

    1993-10-01

    August 18, 1992 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the final revised treatment standards for hazardous debris, including mixed debris. (1) Whereas previous standards had been concentration based, the revised standards are performance based. Debris must be treated prior to land disposal, using specific technologies from one or more of the following families of debris treatment technologies: Extraction, destruction, or immobilization. Seventeen specific technologies with generic application are discussed in the final rule. The existing capabilities and types of debris at the INEL were scrubbed against the debris rule to determine an overall treatment strategy. Seven types of debris were identified: combustible, porous, non-porous, inherently hazardous, HEPA filters, asbestos contaminated, and reactive metals contaminated debris. With the exception of debris contaminated with reactive metals treatment can be achieved utilizing existing facilities coupled with minor modifications.

  17. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, T.J.; Reed, W.C.; Welland, H.J. )

    1993-01-15

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway.

  18. INEL BNCT Research Program, March/April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Venhuizen, J.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents summaries for two months of current research for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program. Information is presented on development and murino screening experiments of low-density lipoprotein, carboranyl alanine, and liposome boron containing compounds. Pituitary tumor call culture studies are described. Drug stability, pharmacology and toxicity evaluation of borocaptate sodium (BSH) and boronopheoylalanine (BPA) are described. Treatment protocol development via the large animal (canine) model studies and physiological response evaluation in rats are discussed. Supporting technology development and technical support activities for boron drug biochemistry and purity, analytical and measurement dosimetry, and noninvasive boron quantification activities are included for the current time period. Current publications for the two months are listed.

  19. Plasma treatment of INEL soil contaminated with heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Detering, B.A.; Batdorf, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    INEL soil spiked with inorganic salts of chromium, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc was melted in a 150 kW plasma furnace to produce a glassy slag product. This glassy slag is an environmentally safe waste form. In order to reduce the melting temperature of the soil, sodium carbonate was added to half of the test batches. Random sample from each batch of glassy slag product were analyzed by an independent laboratory for total metals concentration and leachability of metals via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxicity characterization leaching procedure (RCLP) tests. These tests showed the residual metals were very tightly bound to the slag matrix and were within EPA TCLP limits under these test conditions. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and emissions dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the vitrified soil also confirmed that the added metals present in the vitrified soil were totally contained in the crystalline phase as distinct oxide crystallites.

  20. Electromagnetic modeling of buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.F.

    1994-12-31

    In this paper, radar cross section (RCS) models of buried dipoles, surface steel pipe, and buried steel pipes are discussed. In all these models, the ground is assumed to be a uniform half space. The calculated results for the buried dipoles and the surface steel pipe compare favorably with those measured in the 1993 Yuma ground penetration radar (GPR) experiment. For the buried dipoles, a first-order RCS model is developed. In this model, a solution for an infinitely long conducting cylinder, together with a mirror image approximation (which accounts for the coupling between the dipole and the ground-air interface) is used to calculate the dipole RCS. This RCS model of the buried dipoles explains the observed loss of dipole RCS. For the surface steel pipe, a geometrical optics model, which includes the multipath interaction, is developed. This model explains the observed multipath gain/loss. For the buried steel pipes, a zero order physical optics model is developed. Also discussed is desert radar clutter statistics as a function of depression angle. Preliminary analysis, based on samples of Yuma desert surface profiles, indicates that simple rough-surface models cannot explain the observed average backscatter from desert clutter.

  1. Bearingless Segment Motor with Buried Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Wolfgang; Amrhein, Wolfgang; Stallinger, Thomas; Grabner, Herbert

    Bearingless motors combine contactless levitation and rotation in a preferably compact system design, because bearing as well as motor windings are located on the same lamination stack. The bearingless slice motor features comparatively low complexity for a fully magnetically levitated drive system, because it allows the passive stabilization of three degrees of freedom by reluctance forces. By the use of a proper control scheme and the superposition of different current components, bearing forces and motor torque can be generated simultaneously by applying concentrated windings. This leads to a further simplification of the mechanical configuration. The bearingless segment motor features such concentrated coils on separated stator elements, which reduce the stator iron and therefore weight and cost, especially for constructions with large diameter. However, so far all bearingless slice motors are designed with surface mounted permanent magnets on the rotor, neglecting the advantages of buried permanent magnets. In this paper a novel bearingless segment motor featuring a rotor with buried permanent magnets is investigated. The motor specific mathematical model of force and torque generation is presented, a proper control scheme is introduced and the optimization of the prototype motor is outlined. Motor specific considerations concerning the angular sensors are given. Finally, the performance of the bearingless segment motor with buried permanent magnets is shown by the comparison of simulation results with measurement data of the manufactured prototype.

  2. INEL BNCT Program: Bulletin, Volume 5, No. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, A.L.

    1991-07-01

    This Bulletin presents a summary of accomplishments and highlights in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's (INEL) Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) Program for June, 1991. This bulletin includes information on the brain tumor and melanoma research programs, Power Burst Facility (PBF) technical support and modifications, PBF operations, and animal data charts. Specific highlights include: final-dosage-form BSH samples were analyzed for purity, with the sample from Centronic Ltd the most free from contamination and oxidation products; MRI spectroscopy will be upgraded to provide a potential for boron resolution of 0.75 cm/pixel; neutron and gamma measurements were made for the HFR epithermal neutron beam; the current status of six spontaneous brain-tumor dogs; production of MoAbs against the pituitary CRF receptor; growth of BL6 in low Phe/Tyr medium; an altered synthetic pathway for carboranyl alanine; and encapsulation of {ital i}-B{sub 20}H{sub 18}{sup 2-} into liposomes for baseline murine studies. 2 figs., 4 tabs. (MHB)

  3. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  4. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2009-12-15

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  5. Ultrasonic isolation of buried pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Lowe, Michael J. S.; Cawley, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is used routinely for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to above ground configurations due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this paper, the effect of pipe coatings on the guided wave attenuation is investigated with the aim of increasing test ranges for buried pipelines. The attenuation of the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave modes is measured using a full-scale experimental apparatus in a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8 in. pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand. Tests are performed over a frequency range typically used in GWT of 10-35 kHz and compared with model predictions. It is shown that the application of a low impedance coating between the FBE layer and the sand effectively decouples the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. Ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe is demonstrated by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both the pipe and sand, and has the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is found to be substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dB m-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to measured attenuation of 1.7-4.7 dB m-1 in the buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry and incorporated into model predictions of guided wave propagation in buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the experimental measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges; such

  6. Strain field of a buried oxide aperture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kießling, F.; Niermann, T.; Lehmann, M.; Schulze, J.-H.; Strittmatter, A.; Schliwa, A.; Pohl, U. W.

    2015-02-01

    The strain field of an AlOx current aperture, fabricated by selective oxidation of an AlAs/GaAs layer buried in a circular GaAs mesa, is studied. Components of the strain tensor for a thin cross-section lamella cut out of such a structure are evaluated from dark-field electron holography, proving the validity of simulations based on linear elasticity. Simulation of the entire structure is utilized to prepare mesa surfaces with tailored strain fields for controlling the nucleation site of InGaAs quantum dots. The experimental proof of strain simulations allows estimating the magnitude of piezoelectricity, yielding for the studied mesa structures a piezoelectric potential up to 50 mV.

  7. Preliminary systems design study assessment report. [Evaluation of using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and surrounding contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mayberry, J.L.; Feizollahi, F.; Del Signore, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The System Design Study (SDS), part of the Waste Technology Development Department at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), examined techniques available for the remediation of hazardous and transuranic waste stored at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex's Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEL. Using specific technologies, system concepts for treating the buried waste and the surrounding contaminated soil were evaluated. Evaluation included implementability, effectiveness, and cost. The SDS resulted in the development of technology requirements including demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities needed for implementing each. This volume contains the descriptions and other relevant information of the four subsystems required for most of the ex situ processing systems. This volume covers the metal decontamination and sizing subsystem, soils processing subsystem, low-level waste subsystem, and retrieval subsystem.

  8. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P. ); Wicks, G.G. ); Clark, D.E. ); Lodding, A.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  9. Analyses of SRS waste glass buried in granite in Sweden and salt in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.P.; Wicks, G.G.; Clark, D.E.; Lodding, A.R.

    1991-12-31

    Simulated Savannah River Site (SRS) waste glass forms have been buried in the granite geology of the Stirpa mine in Sweden for two years. Analyses of glass surfaces provided a measure of the performance of the waste glasses as a function of time. Similar SRS waste glass compositions have also been buried in salt at the WIPP facility in Carlsbad, New Mexico for a similar time period. Analyses of the SRS waste glasses buried in-situ in granite will be presented and compared to the performance of these same compositions buried in salt at WIPP.

  10. The Buried Town of Beaver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jostad, Karen

    Local history as source material for environmental education is uniquely portrayed in this resource kit. Utilizing a Winona County Historical Society publication, "The Beaver Story" and accompanied by a teacher's guide, "The Buried Town of Beaver," and other teaching aids, a case study of the area can be developed. Based on the reminiscences of…

  11. Environment, Safety and Health progress assessment of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Department`s continuous improvement process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. The purpose of the INEL ES&H Progress Assessment is to provide the Department with concise independent information on the following: (1) change in culture and attitude related to ES&H activities; (2) progress and effectiveness of the ES&H corrective actions resulting from previous Tiger Team Assessments; (3) adequacy and effectiveness of the ES&H self-assessment programs of the DOE line organizations and the site management and operating contractor; and (4) effectiveness of DOE and contractor management structures, resources, and systems to effectively address ES&H problems. It is not intended that this Progress Assessment be a comprehensive compliance assessments of ES&H activities. The points of reference for assessing programs at the INEL were, for the most part, the 1991 INEL Tiger Team Assessment, the INEL Corrective Action Plan, and recent appraisals and self-assessments of INEL. Horizontal and vertical reviews of the following programmatic areas were conducted: Management: Corrective action program; self-assessment; oversight; directives, policies, and procedures; human resources management; and planning, budgeting, and resource allocation. Environment: Air quality management, surface water management, groundwater protection, and environmental radiation. Safety and Health: Construction safety, worker safety and OSHA, maintenance, packaging and transportation, site/facility safety review, and industrial hygiene.

  12. High-resolution subsurface imaging and neural network recognition: Non-intrusive buried substance location. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1997-01-26

    A high-frequency, high-resolution electromagnetic (EM) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHz), (4) elimination of electric-field interference at high frequencies, (5) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (6) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (7) visualization of complex structures during the survey. Four major experiments were conducted with the system: (1) Data were collected for several targets in our physical modeling facility. (2) The authors tested the system over targets buried in soil. (3) The authors conducted an extensive survey at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Cold Test Pit (CTP). The location of the buried waste, category of waste, and thickness of the clay cap were successfully mapped. (4) The authors ran surveys over the acid pit at INEL. This was an operational survey over a hot site. The interpreted low-resistivity region correlated closely with the known extent of the acid pit.

  13. High-resolution subsurface imaging and neural network recognition: Non-intrusive buried substance location. Final report, January 26, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Sternberg, B.K.; Poulton, M.M.

    1998-12-31

    A high-frequency, high-resolution electromagnetic (EIVI) imaging system has been developed for environmental geophysics surveys. Some key features of this system include: (1) rapid surveying to allow dense spatial sampling over a large area, (2) high-accuracy measurements which are used to produce a high-resolution image of the subsurface, (3) measurements which have excellent signal-to-noise ratio over a wide bandwidth (31 kHz to 32 MHZ), (4) elimination of electric-field interference at high frequencies, (5) large-scale physical modeling to produce accurate theoretical responses over targets of interest in environmental geophysics surveys, (6) rapid neural network interpretation at the field site, and (7) visualization of complex structures during the survey. Four major experiments were conducted with the system: (1) Data were collected for several targets in our physical modeling facility. (2) We tested the system over targets buried in soil. (3) We conducted an extensive survey at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Cold Test Pit (CTP). The location of the buried waste, category of waste, and thickness of the clay cap were successfully mapped. (4) We ran surveys over the acid pit at INEL. This was an operational survey over a hot site. The interpreted low-resistivity region correlated closely with the known extent of the acid pit.

  14. Buried object remote detection technology for law enforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Grande, Nancy K.; Clark, Gregory A.; Durbin, Philip F.; Fields, David J.; Hernandez, Jose E.; Sherwood, Robert J.

    1991-08-01

    A precise airborne temperature-sensing technology to detect buried objects for use by law enforcement is developed. Demonstrations have imaged the sites of buried foundations, walls and trenches; mapped underground waterways and aquifers; and been used to locate underground military objects. The methodology is incorporated in a commercially available, high signal-to-noise, dual-band infrared scanner with real-time, 12-bit digital image processing software and display. The method creates color-coded images based on surface temperature variations of 0.2 degree(s)C. Unlike other less-sensitive methods, it maps true (corrected) temperatures by removing the (decoupled) surface emissivity mask equivalent to 1 degree(s)C or 2 degree(s)C; this mask hinders interpretation of apparent (blackbody) temperatures. Once removed, it is possible to identify surface temperature patterns from small diffusivity changes at buried object sites which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Objects made of different materials and buried at different depths are identified by their unique spectral, spatial, thermal, temporal, emissivity and diffusivity signatures. The authors have successfully located the sites of buried (inert) simulated land mines 0.1 to 0.2 m deep; sod-covered rock pathways alongside dry ditches, deeper than 0.2 m; pavement covered burial trenches and cemetery structures as deep as 0.8 m; and aquifers more than 6 m and less than 60 m deep. The technology could be adapted for drug interdiction and pollution control. For the former, buried tunnels, underground structures built beneath typical surface structures, roof-tops disguised by jungle canopies, and covered containers used for contraband would be located. For the latter, buried waste containers, sludge migration pathways from faulty containers, and the juxtaposition of groundwater channels, if present, nearby, would be depicted. The precise airborne temperature-sensing technology has a promising potential

  15. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material...

  16. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buried cable. 32.2423 Section 32.2423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a) This account shall include the original cost of buried cable as well as the cost of other material...

  17. Buried object remote detection technology for law enforcement

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Clark, G.A.; Durbin, P.F.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1991-03-01

    We have developed a precise airborne temperature-sensing technology to detect buried objects for use by law enforcement. Demonstrations have imaged the sites of buried foundations, walls and trenches; mapped underground waterways and aquifers; and been used to locate underground military objects. Our patented methodology is incorporated in a commercially available, high signal-to-noise, dual-band infrared scanner with real-time, 12-bit digital image processing software and display. Our method creates color-coded images based on surface temperature variations of 0.2 {degrees}C. Unlike other less-sensitive methods, it maps true (corrected) temperatures by removing the (decoupled) surface emissivity mask equivalent to 1{degrees}C or 2{degrees}C; this mask hinders interpretation of apparent (blackbody) temperatures. Once removed, were are able to identify surface temperature patterns from small diffusivity changes at buried object sites which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Objects made of different materials and buried at different depths are identified by their unique spectra, spatial, thermal, temporal, emissivity and diffusivity signatures. We have successfully located the sites of buried (inert) simulated land mines 0.1 to 0.2 m deep; sod-covered rock pathways alongside dry ditches, deeper than 0.2 m; pavement covered burial trenches and cemetery structures as deep as 0.8 m; and aquifers more than 6 m and less 60 m deep. Our technology could be adapted for drug interdiction and pollution control. 16 refs., 14 figs.

  18. INEL oversight program. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-01

    Idaho`s successful lawsuit over shipments of spent nuclear fuel is a major milestone for 1993. The challenge forced the U.S. Department of Energy to cease all shipments of spent nuclear fuel to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory until a site-wide environmental impact statement is completed. This agreement is a significant victory in Idaho`s battle to hold the federal government responsible for its actions and force compliance with applicable laws. Much of the State`s INEL-related activity in 1993 focused on ensuring that INEL operations are conducted in a manner that protects public health and the environment.

  19. A document review to characterize Atomic International SNAP fuels shipped to INEL 1966--1973

    SciTech Connect

    Wahnschaffe, S.D.; Lords, R.E.; Kneff, D.W.; Nagel, W.E.; Pearlman, H.; Schaubert, V.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides the results of a document search and review study to obtain information on the spent fuels for the following six Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) reactor cores now stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL): SNAP-2 Experimental Reactor, SNAP-2 Development Reactor, SNAP-10A Ground Test Reactor, SNAP-8 Experimental Reactor, SNAP-8 Development Reactor, and Shield Test Reactor. The report also covers documentation on SNAP fuel materials from four in-pile materials tests: NAA-82-1, NAA-115-2, NAA-117-1, and NAA-121. Pieces of these fuel materials are also stored at INEL as part of the SNAP fuel shipments.

  20. Full-scale structural testing for severe wind, 1995. Proceedings of the INEL severe windstorm testing workshop

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, C.C.

    1996-05-01

    This document provides brief background information and reports the discussions and findings of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Severe Windstorm Testing Workshop held November 29-30, 1995, in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Section 1 presents a historical perspective on wind engineering and testing in the U.S. Section 2 discusses INEL`s and the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) interest in a new testing facility, and the efforts that led to the organization of the work-shop. The workshop discussions are then described in Sections 3 through 8. These sections focus on the interaction of the participants and are not intended to be exhaustive discussion of the subjects. A summary of the findings, along with the INEL`s recommendations, are presented in Section 9. A list of the workshop participants, a glossary, and additional technical information provided by selected participants are included in the Appendices.

  1. Electromagnetic scattering from buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Brock, B.C.; Sorensen, K.W.

    1994-10-01

    Radar imaging and detection of objects buried in soil has potentially important applications in the areas of nonproliferation of weapons, environmental monitoring, hazardous-waste site location and assessment, and even archeology. In order to understand and exploit this potential, it is first necessary to understand how the soil responds to an electromagnetic wave, and how targets buried within the soil scatter the electromagnetic wave. We examine the response of the soil to a short pulse, and illustrate the roll of the complex dielectric permittivity of the soil in determining radar range resolution. This leads to a concept of an optimum frequency and bandwidth for imaging in a particular soil. We then propose a new definition for radar cross section which is consistent with the modified radar equation for use with buried targets. This radar cross section plays the same roll in the modified radar equation as the traditional radar cross section does in the free-space radar equation, and is directly comparable to it. The radar cross section of several canonical objects in lossy media is derived, and examples are given for several object/soil combinations.

  2. Digital conversion of INEL archeological data using ARC/INFO and Oracle

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.D.; Brizzee, J.; White, L.

    1993-11-04

    This report documents the procedures used to convert archaeological data for the INEL to digital format, lists the equipment used, and explains the verification and validation steps taken to check data entry. It also details the production of an engineered interface between ARC/INFO and Oracle.

  3. 138. ARAII Building ARA606 floor plan for remodel as Inel ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    138. ARA-II Building ARA-606 floor plan for remodel as Inel Welding Laboratory. Shows room divisions and welding stations to be installed. Aerojet Nuclear Company 1375-ARA-II-606-E-2. Date: June 1976. Ineel index code no. 070-0606-10-400-156552. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  4. Blast wave from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-08-01

    While much airblast data are available for height-of-burst (HOB) effects, systematic airblast data for depth-of-burst (DOB) effects are more limited. It is logical to ask whether the spherical 0.5-g Nitropenta charges that, proved to be successful for HOB tests at EMI are also suitable for experiments with buried charges in the laboratory scale; preliminary studies indicated in the alternative. Of special interest is the airblast environment generated by detonations just above or below the around surface. This paper presents a brief summary of the test results.

  5. Nonlinear vibrations of buried landmines.

    PubMed

    Donskoy, Dimitri; Reznik, Alexander; Zagrai, Andrei; Ekimov, Alexander

    2005-02-01

    The seismo-acoustic method is one of the most promising emerging techniques for the detection of landmines. Numerous field tests have demonstrated that buried landmines manifest themselves at the surface through linear and nonlinear responses to acoustic/seismic excitation. The present paper describes modeling of the nonlinear response in the framework of the mass-spring model of the soil-mine system. The perturbation method used in the model allows for the derivation of an analytical solution describing both quadratic and cubic acoustic interactions at the soil-mine interface. This solution has been compared with actual field measurements to obtain nonlinear parameters of the buried mines. These parameters have been analyzed with respect to mine types and burial depths. It was found that the cubic nonlinearity could be a significant contributor to the nonlinear response. This effect has led to the development of a new intermodulation detection algorithm based on dual-frequency excitation. Both quadratic and intermodulation nonlinear algorithms were evaluated at the U.S. Army outdoor testing facilities. The algorithms appear to complement each other in improving the overall detection performance. PMID:15759689

  6. Numerical Modeling of Mechanical Behavior for Buried Steel Pipelines Crossing Subsidence Strata

    PubMed Central

    Han, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the mechanical behavior of buried steel pipeline crossing subsidence strata. The investigation is based on numerical simulation of the nonlinear response of the pipeline-soil system through finite element method, considering large strain and displacement, inelastic material behavior of buried pipeline and the surrounding soil, as well as contact and friction on the pipeline-soil interface. Effects of key parameters on the mechanical behavior of buried pipeline were investigated, such as strata subsidence, diameter-thickness ratio, buried depth, internal pressure, friction coefficient and soil properties. The results show that the maximum strain appears on the outer transition subsidence section of the pipeline, and its cross section is concave shaped. With the increasing of strata subsidence and diameter-thickness ratio, the out of roundness, longitudinal strain and equivalent plastic strain increase gradually. With the buried depth increasing, the deflection, out of roundness and strain of the pipeline decrease. Internal pressure and friction coefficient have little effect on the deflection of buried pipeline. Out of roundness is reduced and the strain is increased gradually with the increasing of internal pressure. The physical properties of soil have a great influence on the mechanical properties of buried pipeline. The results from the present study can be used for the development of optimization design and preventive maintenance for buried steel pipelines. PMID:26103460

  7. Environmental effects on detection of buried mines and UXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detsch, Richard M.; Jenkins, Thomas F.; Arcone, Steven A.; Koh, Gary; O'Neill, Kevin

    1998-09-01

    Several studies are under way at the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) to define environmental effects on detection and classification of buried mines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). Ground that is very wet, frozen, or snow covered can pose severe constraints on demining operations. The qualitative and quantitative nature of chemical signatures of buried land mines is being documented. Research to date indicates that although 2,4,6- trinitrotoluene constitutes over 99% of military-grade TNT, it is a minor component of the vapor signature at ground level. CRREL operates a year-round test site to determine the effect of weather on radar and IR systems used to detect buried mines. The New England site experiences many of the weather conditions likely to interfere with mine detection around the world. Short-pulse ground penetrating radar (GPR) was used to profile both ordnance and non-ordnance targets at the 40-acre UXO site at Jefferson Proving Ground. Analysis of the data indicates that future systems will have to operate at faster data acquisition rates. Radar modeling is being used to simulate the effects of the environment and identify new techniques for finding and classifying buried ferrous objects.

  8. Vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor with Buried Metal Layer

    PubMed Central

    Nadda, Kanika; Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    2015-01-01

    A self-aligned vertical Bipolar Charge Plasma Transistor (V-BCPT) with a buried metal layer between undoped silicon and buried oxide of the silicon-on-insulator substrate, is reported in this paper. Using two-dimensional device simulation, the electrical performance of the proposed device is evaluated in detail. Our simulation results demonstrate that the V-BCPT not only has very high current gain but also exhibits high BVCEO · fT product making it highly suitable for mixed signal high speed circuits. The proposed device structure is also suitable for realizing doping-less bipolar charge plasma transistor using compound semiconductors such as GaAs, SiC with low thermal budgets. The device is also immune to non-ideal current crowding effects cropping up at high current densities. PMID:25597295

  9. Mining metrics for buried treasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konkowski, D. A.; Helliwell, T. M.

    2006-06-01

    The same but different: That might describe two metrics. On the surface CLASSI may show two metrics are locally equivalent, but buried beneath may be a wealth of further structure. This was beautifully described in a paper by Malcolm MacCallum in 1998. Here I will illustrate the effect with two flat metrics — one describing ordinary Minkowski spacetime and the other describing a threeparameter family of Gal'tsov-Letelier-Tod spacetimes. I will dig out the beautiful hidden classical singularity structure of the latter (a structure first noticed by Tod in 1994) and then show how quantum considerations can illuminate the riches. I will then discuss how quantum structure can help us understand classical singularities and metric parameters in a variety of exact solutions mined from the Exact Solutions book.

  10. 7 CFR 1755.505 - Buried services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Buried services. 1755.505 Section 1755.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.505 Buried services. (a)...

  11. 7 CFR 1755.505 - Buried services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Buried services. 1755.505 Section 1755.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TELECOMMUNICATIONS POLICIES ON SPECIFICATIONS, ACCEPTABLE MATERIALS, AND STANDARD CONTRACT FORMS § 1755.505 Buried services. (a)...

  12. The Intense Slow Positron Source concept: A theoretical perspective on a proposed INEL Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Makowitz, H.; Abrashoff, J.D.; Landman, W.H.; Albano, R.K.; Tajima, T.; Larson, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    An analysis has been performed of the INEL Intense Slow Positron Source (ISPS) concept. The results of the theoretical study are encouraging. A full-scale device with a monoenergetic 5 KeV positron beam of {ge}10{sup 12} e{sup +}/s on a {le}0.03-cmdiameter target appears feasible and can be obtained within the existing infrastructure of INEL reactor facilities. A 30.0-cm-diameter, large area source dish, moderated at first with thin crystalline W films and later by solid Ne, is proposed as the initial device in order to explore problems with a facility scale system. A demonstration scale beam at {ge}10{sup 10} slow e{sup +}/s is proposed using a {sup 58}Co source plated on a 6-cm-diameter source dish insert, placed in a 30- cm adapter.

  13. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG&G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  14. A comparative analysis of alternative fuels for the INEL vehicle fleet

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, S.; Boyer, W.; Church, K.

    1992-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a comparative systems analysis of various alternative fuels for use in the buses, mid-size vehicles, and automobiles that make up the vehicle fleet at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The study was performed as part of the Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program for EG G Idaho, Inc. Regulations will require the INEL to reduce total gasoline and diesel fuel use 10% by 1995 compared with 1991 levels, and will require that 50% of all new vehicles be fueled by some type of alternative fuel by 1998. A model was developed to analyze how these goals could be achieved, and what the cost would be to implement the goals.

  15. Annual report on monitoring of the unsaturated zone and recharge areas at INEL to the state of Idaho INEL Oversight Committee

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.; Bloomsburg, G.; Horn, D.; Liou, J.; Finnie, J.

    1992-01-01

    During the early years of the INEL, the USGS conducted extensive studies (sitewide drilling program) of the geology and hydrology of the area collecting varied data over the years. The unsaturated zone has not received much attention until recently. The studies that have been done are a result of problems or concerns arising from liquid radioactive waste disposal. The TRA facility has the most information published about its waste disposal activities. The ICPP has less data about the unsaturated zone due to the fact that most waste water disposal has been to a well. Little is known about the effect of waste water disposal at the NRF on the unsaturated zone. Essentially no information was found about waste disposal activities at other facilities, primarily because there does not appear to be any reported problems associated with waste water disposal at these locations. The RWMC has received much attention in the last few years as the result of being priority No. 1 in the superfund clean up of the INEL. A considerable amount of data are available describing the unsaturated zone at the RWMC. These data have been collected to field calibrate a radionuclide migration model for the RWMC.

  16. Annual report on monitoring of the unsaturated zone and recharge areas at INEL to the state of Idaho INEL Oversight Committee

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.; Bloomsburg, G.; Horn, D.; Liou, J.; Finnie, J.

    1992-12-31

    During the early years of the INEL, the USGS conducted extensive studies (sitewide drilling program) of the geology and hydrology of the area collecting varied data over the years. The unsaturated zone has not received much attention until recently. The studies that have been done are a result of problems or concerns arising from liquid radioactive waste disposal. The TRA facility has the most information published about its waste disposal activities. The ICPP has less data about the unsaturated zone due to the fact that most waste water disposal has been to a well. Little is known about the effect of waste water disposal at the NRF on the unsaturated zone. Essentially no information was found about waste disposal activities at other facilities, primarily because there does not appear to be any reported problems associated with waste water disposal at these locations. The RWMC has received much attention in the last few years as the result of being priority No. 1 in the superfund clean up of the INEL. A considerable amount of data are available describing the unsaturated zone at the RWMC. These data have been collected to field calibrate a radionuclide migration model for the RWMC.

  17. Summary of INEL research on the iron-enriched basalt waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.; Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the knowledge base on the iron-enriched basalt (IEB) waste form developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during 1979--1982. The results presented discuss the applicability of IEB in converting retrieved transuranic (TRU) waste from INEL`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) into a vitreous/ceramic (glassy/rock) stable waste form suitable for permanent disposal in an appropriate repository, such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Borosilicate glass (BSG), the approved high-level waste form, appears unsuited for this application. Melting the average waste-soil mix from the RWMC produces the IEB composition and attempting to convert IEB to the BSG composition would require additions of substantial B{sub 2}0{sub 3}, Na, and SiO{sub 2} (glass frit). IEB requires processing temperatures of 1400 to 1600{degrees}C, depending upon the waste composition. Production of the IEB waste form, using Joule heated melters, has proved difficult in the past because of electrode and refractory corrosion problems associated with the high temperature melts. Higher temperature electric melters (arc and plasma) are available to produce this final waste form. Past research focused on extensive slag property measurements, waste form leachability tests, mechanical, composition, and microstructure evaluations, as well as a host of experiments to improve production of the waste form. Past INEL studies indicated that the IEB glass-ceramic is a material that will accommodate and stabilize a wide range of heterogeneous waste materials, including long lived radionuclides and scrap metals, while maintaining a superior level of chemical and physical performance characteristics. Controlled cooling of the molten IEB and subsequent heat treatment will produce a glass-ceramic waste form with superior leach resistance.

  18. Robotic systems for the high level waste tank farm replacement project at INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, A.; White, D.; Thompson, B.; Christensen, M.

    1993-06-01

    Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company (WINCO) is specifying and designing a new high level waste tank farm at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The farm consists of four underground storage tanks, which replace the existing tanks. The new facility includes provisions for remote operations. One of the planned remote operations is robotic inspection of the tank from the interior and exterior. This paper describes the process used to design the robotic system for the inspection tasks.

  19. Application of non-radiometric methods to the determination of plutonium. Literature review conducted for the Buried Waste Integrated Program

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, M.C.

    1992-03-05

    This literature review was motivated by discussions that took place during a review of contamination control technologies proposed for INEL (buried waste). It should be a useful tool in identifying non-radiation measurement techniques for Pu and Am such as ICP-MS, which should fulfill the following criteria: apparatus must be field deployable; up to 100 samples per day; and lower levels of detection and required time must be listed. The sensitivity of ICP and RIMS is compared against that needed for contamination monitoring at INEL. Only Pu-241, with a required detection limit of 400 ppt, would challenge the sensitivity of ICP-MS; Pu-238 would be easily determined. The need to determine Pu-238 and Am-241 in the presence of U-238 and Pu-241 seems to preclude the possibility of using laser ablation ICP-MS for Pu monitoring. ICP-AES and -LEAFS methods may not have enough sensitivity to determine Pu-238 at 2 ppb level with confidence, but RIMS (resonance ionization mass spectroscopy) should be adequate. 47 refs, figs.

  20. Lessons on in-vessel severe accidents from experiments at KfK and the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, S.; Hofmann, P. ); Allison, C. )

    1993-01-01

    At the time of the Three Mile Island unit 2 accident, the severe fuel damage data base was very limited. However, as a result of international severe accident research programs, that data base has been greatly expanded to include experiments ranging from single rod tests in the NIELS facility at the Kernforschungszentrum, Karlsruhe, Germany (KfK), to the coupled reactor coolant system (RCS) thermal-hydraulics-assembly melting loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) LP-FP-2 test in the LOFT reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In addition to these tests at the extreme ends of the scaling spectrum, other experiments in the CORA facility at the KfK and the Power Burst Facility at the INEL have also made a substantial contribution to the severe fuel damage data base. The experiments performed at the KfK and the INEL have included different modes of heating from the electrically heated experiments in Germany to the fission and decay-heat-driven experiments in Idaho. The tests have included (a) different heating rates, peak bundle temperatures, and coolant conditions, (b) fresh, trace-irradiated, and previously irradiated (36,000 MWd/tonne U) fuel, and (c) different bundle designs, including fuel-only bundles, fuel bundles with Ag-In-Cd control rods, and fuel bundles with representative B[sub 4]C control blade/channel boxes. This paper discusses several key results from these experiments that are common across all the facilities.

  1. Corrective Action Plan for INEL low-level waste management ES&H vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Low-level waste (LLW) activities at INEL include numerous waste generators, storage facilities, three treatment facilities, and one disposal facility. The Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT) conducted an assessment of the LLW management program in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2 (Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Facilities). Assessment included review of waste generators, liquid effluent treatment, storage facilities and practices, and a disposal facility with vaults and a shallow subsurface burial site. WGAT reviewed relevant documents and conducted tours concerning these LLW operations. The vulnerabilities identified by WGAT were similar to those self-identified by INEL (storage and disposal of LLW). This assessment resulted in the documentation of 8 vulnerabilities and 3 conditions. WGAT assessed the overall LLW/mixed low-level waste (MLLW) management program at INEL as being generally effective. As recommended by DNFSB, a site-specific Corrective Action Plan has been prepared and constitutes the initial site improvement activities.

  2. Probing the Buried Magnetic Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenqing; Zhou, Qionghua; Chen, Qian; Niu, Daxin; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Yongbing; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Jinlan; van der Laan, Gerrit

    2016-03-01

    Understanding magnetism in ferromagnetic metal/semiconductor (FM/SC) heterostructures is important to the development of the new-generation spin field-effect transistor. Here, we report an element-specific X-ray magnetic circular dichroism study of the interfacial magnetic moments for two FM/SC model systems, namely, Co/GaAs and Ni/GaAs, which was enabled using a specially designed FM1/FM2/SC superstructure. We observed a robust room temperature magnetization of the interfacial Co, while that of the interfacial Ni was strongly diminished down to 5 K because of hybridization of the Ni d(eg) and GaAs sp(3) states. The validity of the selected method was confirmed by first-principles calculations, showing only small deviations (<0.02 and <0.07 μB/atom for Co/GaAs and Ni/GaAs, respectively) compared to the real FM/SC interfaces. Our work proved that the electronic structure and magnetic ground state of the interfacial FM2 is not altered when the topmost FM2 is replaced by FM1 and that this model is applicable generally for probing the buried magnetic interfaces in the advanced spintronic materials.. PMID:26887429

  3. Mapping Buried Hydrogen-Bonding Networks.

    PubMed

    Thomas, John C; Goronzy, Dominic P; Dragomiretskiy, Konstantin; Zosso, Dominique; Gilles, Jérôme; Osher, Stanley J; Bertozzi, Andrea L; Weiss, Paul S

    2016-05-24

    We map buried hydrogen-bonding networks within self-assembled monolayers of 3-mercapto-N-nonylpropionamide on Au{111}. The contributing interactions include the buried S-Au bonds at the substrate surface and the buried plane of linear networks of hydrogen bonds. Both are simultaneously mapped with submolecular resolution, in addition to the exposed interface, to determine the orientations of molecular segments and directional bonding. Two-dimensional mode-decomposition techniques are used to elucidate the directionality of these networks. We find that amide-based hydrogen bonds cross molecular domain boundaries and areas of local disorder. PMID:27096290

  4. Implementation of the buried waste integrated demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Merrill, S.K.

    1992-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD) has initiated the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) to resolve technological deficiencies associated with the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. The BWID mission is to identify, demonstrate, and transfer innovative technologies for the remediation of DOE buried waste. To accomplish the mission, BWID is using a systems approach which supports the development of a suite of advanced and innovative technologies for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. This systems approach includes technologies for theentire remediation cycle. Specifically, BWID sponsors technology development in the following technology categories: site and waste characterization, retrieval, preprocessing, ex situ treatment, packaging, transportation, storage, disposal, and post-disposal monitoring.

  5. Implementation of the buried waste integrated demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Merrill, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD) has initiated the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) to resolve technological deficiencies associated with the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. The BWID mission is to identify, demonstrate, and transfer innovative technologies for the remediation of DOE buried waste. To accomplish the mission, BWID is using a systems approach which supports the development of a suite of advanced and innovative technologies for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. This systems approach includes technologies for theentire remediation cycle. Specifically, BWID sponsors technology development in the following technology categories: site and waste characterization, retrieval, preprocessing, ex situ treatment, packaging, transportation, storage, disposal, and post-disposal monitoring.

  6. Electromagnetic response of buried cylindrical structures for line current excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Ponti, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    The Cylindrical-Wave Approach (CWA) rigorously solves, in the spectral domain, the electromagnetic forward scattering by a finite set of buried two-dimensional perfectly-conducting or dielectric objects [1]-[2]. In this technique, the field scattered by underground objects is represented in terms of a superposition of cylindrical waves. Use is made of the plane-wave spectrum [1] to take into account the interaction of such waves with the planar interface between air and soil, and between different layers eventually present in the ground [3]. Obstacles of general shape can be simulated through the CWA with good results, by using a suitable set of small circular-section cylinders [4]. Recently, we improved the CWA by facing the fundamental problem of losses in the ground [5]: this is of significant importance in remote-sensing applications, since real soils often have complex permittivity and conductivity, and sometimes also a complex permeability. While in previous works concerning the CWA a monochromatic or pulsed plane-wave incident field was considered, in the present work a different source of scattering is present: a cylindrical wave radiated by a line source. Such a source is more suitable to model the practical illumination field used in GPR surveys. The electric field radiated by the line current is expressed by means of a first-kind Hankel function of 0-th order. The theoretical solution to the scattering problem is developed for both dielectric and perfectly-conducting cylinders buried in a dielectric half-space. The approach is implemented in a Fortran code; an accurate numerical evaluation of the involved spectral integrals is performed, the highly-oscillating behavior of the homogeneous waves is correctly followed and evanescent contributions are taken into account. The electromagnetic field scattered in both air and ground can be obtained, in near- and far-field regions, for arbitrary radii and permittivity of the buried cylinders, as well as for

  7. Potential of bioremediation for buried oil removal in beaches after an oil spill.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Joana; Mucha, Ana P; Santos, Hugo; Reis, Izabela; Bordalo, Adriano; Basto, M Clara; Bernabeu, Ana; Almeida, C Marisa R

    2013-11-15

    Bioremediation potential for buried oil removal, an application still lacking thorough research, was assessed in a specifically designed system in which an artificially contaminated oil layer of sand was buried in a sand column subjected to tidal simulation. The efficiency of biostimulation (BS, fertilizer addition) and bioaugmentation (BA, inoculation of pre-stimulated indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms plus fertilizer) compared to natural attenuation was tested during a 180-day experimental period. The effect of BA was evident after 60 days (degradation of hydrocarbons reached 80%). BS efficacy was revealed only after 120 days. Microorganisms and nutrients added at the top of the sand column were able to reach the buried oil layer and contributed to faster oil elimination, an important feature for effective bioremediation treatments. Therefore, autochthonous BA with suitable nutritive conditions results in faster oil-biodegradation, appears to be a cost-effective methodology for buried oil remediation and contributes to the recovery of oil-impacted areas. PMID:24054785

  8. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration. Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that offer promising solutions to the problems associated with the remediation of buried waste. BWID addresses the difficult remediation problems associated with DOE complex-wide buried waste, particularly transuranic (TRU) contaminated buried waste. BWID has implemented a systems approach to the development and demonstration of technologies that will characterize, retrieve, treat, and dispose of DOE buried wastes. This approach encompasses the entire remediation process from characterization to post-monitoring. The development and demonstration of the technology is predicated on how a technology fits into the total remediation process. To address all of these technological issues, BWID has enlisted scientific expertise of individuals and groups from within the DOE Complex, as well as experts from universities and private industry. The BWID mission is to support development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially-available technologies, forms a comprehensive, remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the DOE Complex. BWID will evaluate and validate demonstrated technologies and transfer this information and equipment to private industry to support the Office of Environmental Restoration (ER), Office of Waste Management (WM), and Office of Facility Transition (FT) remediation planning and implementation activities.

  9. TNX Burying Ground: Environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Dunaway, J.K.W.; Johnson, W.F.; Kingley, L.E.; Simmons, R.V.; Bledsoe, H.W.

    1987-03-01

    The TNX Burying Ground, located within the TNX Area of the Savannah River Plant (SRP), was originally built to dispose of debris from an experimental evaporator explosion at TNX in 1953. This evaporator contained approximately 590 kg of uranyl nitrate. From 1980 to 1984, much of the waste material buried at TNX was excavated and sent to the SRP Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds for reburial. An estimated 27 kg of uranyl nitrate remains buried at TNX. The TNX Burying Ground consists of three sites known to contain waste and one site suspected of containing waste material. All four sites are located within the TNX security fenceline. Groundwater at the TNX Burying Ground was not evaluated because there are no groundwater monitoring wells installed in the immediate vicinity of this waste site. The closure options considered for the TNX Burying Ground are waste removal and closure, no waste removal and closure, and no action. The predominant pathways for human exposure to chemical and/or radioactive constituents are through surface, subsurface, and atmospheric transport. Modeling calculations were made to determine the risks to human population via these general pathways for the three postulated closure options. An ecological assessment was conducted to predict the environmental impacts on aquatic and terrestrial biota. The relative costs for each of the closure options were estimated.

  10. Summary of INEL research on the iron-enriched basalt waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.; Grandy, J.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes the knowledge base on the iron-enriched basalt (IEB) waste form developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during 1979--1982. The results presented discuss the applicability of IEB in converting retrieved transuranic (TRU) waste from INEL's Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) into a vitreous/ceramic (glassy/rock) stable waste form suitable for permanent disposal in an appropriate repository, such as the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Borosilicate glass (BSG), the approved high-level waste form, appears unsuited for this application. Melting the average waste-soil mix from the RWMC produces the IEB composition and attempting to convert IEB to the BSG composition would require additions of substantial B{sub 2}0{sub 3}, Na, and SiO{sub 2} (glass frit). IEB requires processing temperatures of 1400 to 1600{degrees}C, depending upon the waste composition. Production of the IEB waste form, using Joule heated melters, has proved difficult in the past because of electrode and refractory corrosion problems associated with the high temperature melts. Higher temperature electric melters (arc and plasma) are available to produce this final waste form. Past research focused on extensive slag property measurements, waste form leachability tests, mechanical, composition, and microstructure evaluations, as well as a host of experiments to improve production of the waste form. Past INEL studies indicated that the IEB glass-ceramic is a material that will accommodate and stabilize a wide range of heterogeneous waste materials, including long lived radionuclides and scrap metals, while maintaining a superior level of chemical and physical performance characteristics. Controlled cooling of the molten IEB and subsequent heat treatment will produce a glass-ceramic waste form with superior leach resistance.

  11. Use of Monte Carlo methods in environmental risk assessments at the INEL: Applications and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, G.; Van Horn, R.

    1996-06-01

    The EPA is increasingly considering the use of probabilistic risk assessment techniques as an alternative or refinement of the current point estimate of risk. This report provides an overview of the probabilistic technique called Monte Carlo Analysis. Advantages and disadvantages of implementing a Monte Carlo analysis over a point estimate analysis for environmental risk assessment are discussed. The general methodology is provided along with an example of its implementation. A phased approach to risk analysis that allows iterative refinement of the risk estimates is recommended for use at the INEL.

  12. Acoustic identification of buried underwater unexploded ordnance using a numerically trained classifier (L).

    PubMed

    Bucaro, Joseph A; Waters, Zachary J; Houston, Brian H; Simpson, Harry J; Sarkissian, Angie; Dey, Saikat; Yoder, Timothy J

    2012-12-01

    Using a finite element-based structural acoustics code, simulations were carried out for the acoustic scattering from an unexploded ordnance rocket buried in the sediment under 3 m of water. The simulation treated 90 rocket burial angles in steps of 2°. The simulations were used to train a generative relevance vector machine (RVM) algorithm for identifying rockets buried at unknown angles in an actual water/sediment environment. The trained RVM algorithm was successfully tested on scattering measurements made in a sediment pool facility for six buried targets including the rocket at 90°, 120°, and 150°, a boulder, a cinderblock, and a cinderblock rolled 45° about its long axis. PMID:23231093

  13. Airblast environments from buried HE charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the airblast environment generated by the detonation of buried HE charges. Spherical 0.5-g charges of Nitropenta were used as the HE source. Three ground materials were used: (1) a porous, crushable grout (YTONG, {rho} = 0.4 g/cm{sup 3}); (2) a water-saturated grout ({rho} {approx_equal} 0.7 g/Cm{sup 3}) to investigate the effects of density increase; and (3) a clay-loam material ({rho} {approx_equal} 1.8 g/cm{sup 3}) to simulate some of the previous field tests conducted in clay. Diagnostics consisted of 13 flush-mounted pressure gauges, and single-frame schlieren photography. A special shock isolation system was used to eliminate the acceleration effects on the gauges that were induced by the cratering process. Analysis of the pressure measurements resulted in an experimental definition of the airblast environment as a function of ground range (GR) and depth-of-burst (DOB). Synthesis of these results allowed one to construct airblast DOB curves, similar to the airblast height-of-burst curves that we published previously for Nitropenta charges. Variables analyzed were: peak pressure, arrival time, positive phase duration and impulse. As in field tests, we found that the airblast waveforms changed character with increasing DOB. The crater characteristics (e.a., depth, radius and volume) were also measured. The cube-root-scaled crater volume was in qualitative agreement with data from field tests (e.g., charge weights up to 10{sup 4} lbs.). Since the present scaled results compare well with data from large-scale HE tests, we conclude that the present experimental technique provides a useful tool for parametric investigations of explosion effects in the laboratory.

  14. Analytical model of LDMOS with a single step buried oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Song; Duan, Baoxing; Cao, Zhen; Guo, Haijun; Yang, Yintang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional analytical model is established for the Single-Step Buried Oxide SOI structure proposed by the authors. Based on the two-dimensional Poisson equation, the analytic expression of the surface electric field and potential distributions for the device is achieved. In the SBOSOI (Single-Step Buried Oxide Silicon On Insulator) structure, the buried oxide layer thickness changes stepwise along the drift region, and the electric field in the oxide layer also varies with the different buried oxide layer thickness. These variations will modulate the surface electric field distribution through the electric field modulation effects, which makes the surface electric field distribution more uniform. As a result, the breakdown voltage of the device is improved by 60% compared with the conventional SOI structure. To verify the accuracy of the analytical model, the device simulation software ISE TCAD is utilized, the analytical values are in good agreement with the simulation results by the simulation software. The results verified the established two-dimensional analytical model for SBOSOI structure is valid, and it also illustrates the breakdown voltage enhancement by the electric field modulation effect sufficiently. The established analytical models will provide the physical and mathematical basis for further analysis of the new power devices with the patterned buried oxide layer.

  15. 1995 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs): Radionuclides. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Under Section 61.94 of 40 CFR 61, Subpart H (National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From Department of Energy Facilities), each DOE facility must submit an annual report documenting compliance. This report addresses the Section 61.94 reporting requirements for operations at INEL for CY 1995. For that year, airborne radionuclide emissions from INEL operations were calculated to result in a maximum individual dose to a member of the public of 1.80E-02 mrem (1.80E-07 Sievert), well below the 40 CFR 61, Subpart H, regulatory standard of 10 mrem per year (1.0E-04 Sievert per year).

  16. Track 2 sites: Guidance for assessing low probability hazard sites at the INEL. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This document presents guidance for assessment of Track 2 low probability hazard sites (LPHS) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The Track 2 classification was developed specifically for the INEL to streamline the implementation of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Track 2 LPHSs are described as sites where insufficient data are available to make a decision concerning the risk level or to select or design a remedy. As such, these types of sites are not described in the National Contingency Plan or existing regulatory guidance. The goal of the Track 2 process is to evaluate LPHSs using existing qualitative and quantitative data to minimize the collection of new environmental data. To this end, this document presents a structured format consisting of a series of questions and tables. A qualitative risk assessment is used. The process is iterative, and addresses an LPHS from multiple perspectives (i.e., historical, empirical, process) in an effort to generate a reproducible and defensible method. This rigorous approach follows the data quality objective process and establishes a well organized, logical approach to consolidate and assess existing data, and set decision criteria. If necessary, the process allows for the design of a sampling and analysis strategy to obtain new environmental data of appropriate quality to support decisions for each LPHS. Finally, the guidance expedites consensus between regulatory parties by emphasizing a team approach to Track 2 investigations.

  17. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

  18. Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Patel, B.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Adams, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes.

  19. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Gratson, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the Acid Pit and Transuranic Pits and Trenches (TRU-PTs) that are present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues exist that must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues associated with ISV application at the INEL SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in three volumes of this report. Volume 1 identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues, and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. This document Volume 2 and Volume 3 discusses each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTs, respectively.

  20. Risk-based decision-making: A reality at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Halford, V.E.; Nitschke, R.L.; Hula, G.A.

    1994-12-31

    Risk Analysis and Risk Management are major components of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL`s) environmental restoration and waste management program. These tools help define responsible and cost-effective approaches to address potential human health and environmental risks from past operational practices. These techniques along with stake holder involvement, play a key role in the decision-making process which involves the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE), the US Environmental Protection Agency Region 10 (EPA), and the State of Idaho Department of Health and Welfare (IDHW), hereafter referred to as the agencies. An example of how this process works is Pad A, an above-ground mixed waste disposal site composed mainly of transuranic-contaminated evaporation pond salts. The site was constructed in 1972 for the disposal of solid radioactive wastes. A Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) baseline risk assessment was conducted to determine the incremental cancer risk and potential for adverse health effects to the public and the impacts to the environment if no action was performed. The risk characterization indicated that the carcinogenic risk for current and future hypothetical scenarios was below or within the NCP acceptable risk range. There was a potential 10 year window for an adverse health effect to an infant from nitrate contamination of the groundwater in about 250 years. Based on these results, a responsible and sound decision was reached to maintain and recontour the existing soil cover and to perform monitoring to confirm modeling assumptions.

  1. Frost heave induced mechanics of buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Selvadurai, A.P.S.; Shinde, S.B.

    1993-12-01

    This paper examines the problem of the flexural interaction between a long-distance buried pipeline embedded in a soil medium that experiences differential frost heave. The modeling takes into consideration the interaction at a transition zone between a frozen region and a frost-susceptible region that experiences a time-dependent growth of a frost bulb around the buried pipeline. The heave that accompanies the development of a frost bulb induces the soil-pipeline interaction process. The analysis focuses on the development of a computational scheme that addresses the three-dimensional nature of the soil-pipeline interaction problem, the creep susceptibility of the frozen region, and a prescribed time- and stress-dependent heave in an evolving frost bulb zone. The numerical results presented in the paper illustrate the influence of the heave process and the creep behavior of the frozen soil on the displacements and stresses in the buried pipeline.

  2. Prioritization for rehabilitation of buried lifelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.R.L.; Ishibashi, I.; Li, H.

    1995-12-31

    Seismic rehabilitation or retrofit is a cost-effective way to prevent pipeline damage caused by future earthquakes. In general, it is very difficult, if not impossible, to rehabilitate all buried pipelines at the same time because of limited funds and time available. The purpose of this study is to establish a priority strategy for rehabilitation of buried pipelines considering several important factors such as pipeline damage probability, rehabilitation cost, rehabilitation rate (e.g. km/day), pipeline importance and total funds available.

  3. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration test objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.L.; Heard, R.E.

    1993-05-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies form a comprehensive system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technology solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY) 1991. This document provides the test objectives against which the demonstrations will be tested during FY-93.

  4. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  5. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  6. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  7. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  8. Limited Panniculectomy for Adult Buried Penis Repair.

    PubMed

    Figler, Bradley D; Chery, Lisly; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Wessells, Hunter; Voelzke, Bryan B

    2015-11-01

    Patients with buried or hidden penis may be unable to carry out normal hygiene, void with a directable urine stream, or be sexually active as a result of the condition. Although these patients are nearly always obese, weight loss often does not reverse the problem, as the mons pannus may remain after weight loss. Furthermore, associated penile skin changes such as lichen sclerosus or stenosis of the penile shaft skin are often irreversible. Treatment includes removal of the diseased shaft skin surrounding the penis, in combination with a limited panniculectomy. The authors present their technique for this procedure in a typical patient with buried penis that prevented him from voiding effectively. PMID:26182174

  9. An integrated systems approach to remote retrieval of buried transuranic waste using a telerobotic transport vehicle, innovative end effector, and remote excavator

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.M.; Rice, P.; Hyde, R.; Peterson, R.

    1995-02-01

    Between 1952 and 1970, over two million cubic feet of transuranic mixed waste was buried in shallow pits and trenches in the Subsurface Disposal Area at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex. Commingled with this two million cubic feet of waste is up to 10 million cubic feet of fill soil. The pits and trenches were constructed similarly to municipal landfills with both stacked and random dump waste forms such as barrels and boxes. The main contaminants are micron-sized particles of plutonium and americium oxides, chlorides, and hydroxides. Retrieval, treatment, and disposal is one of the options being considered for the waste. This report describes the results of a field demonstration conducted to evaluate technologies for excavating, and transporting buried transuranic wastes at the INEL, and other hazardous or radioactive waste sites throughout the US Department of Energy complex. The full-scale demonstration, conduced at RAHCO Internationals facilities in Spokane, Washington, in the summer of 1994, evaluated equipment performance and techniques for digging, dumping, and transporting buried waste. Three technologies were evaluated in the demonstration: an Innovative End Effector for dust free dumping, a Telerobotic Transport Vehicle to convey retrieved waste from the digface, and a Remote Operated Excavator to deploy the Innovative End Effector and perform waste retrieval operations. Data were gathered and analyzed to evaluate retrieval performance parameters such as retrieval rates, transportation rates, human factors, and the equipment`s capability to control contamination spread.

  10. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for disposal of INEL low-level waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgenson-Waters, M.J.

    1993-07-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility (MLLWDF) project was established in 1992 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to provide enhanced disposal capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This Preliminary Evaluation of Alternatives for Disposal of INEL Low-Level Waste and Low-Level Mixed Waste identifies and evaluates-on a preliminary, overview basis-the alternatives for disposal of that waste. Five disposal alternatives, ranging from of no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWDF, are identified and evaluated. Several subalternatives are formulated within the MLLWDF alternative. The subalternatives involve various disposal technologies as well as various scenarios related to the waste volumes and waste forms to be received for disposal. The evaluations include qualitative comparisons of the projected isolation performance for each alternative, and facility, health and safety, environmental, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude life-cycle cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decisionmaking. The analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of long-term future waste volume and characteristics from the INEL Environmental Restoration activities and the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program.

  11. Detection of buried mines with seismic sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir, Thomas G.; Baker, Steven R.; Gaghan, Frederick E.; Fitzpatrick, Sean M.; Hall, Patrick W.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Guy, Jeremie

    2003-10-01

    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of the target strengths of buried test targets as well as targets of interest, and has also examined detection and confirmatory classification of these, all using arrays of seismic sources and receivers as well as signal processing techniques to enhance target recognition. The target strengths of two test targets (one a steel gas bottle, the other an aluminum powder keg), buried in a sand beach, were examined as a function of internal mass load, to evaluate theory developed for seismic sonar target strength [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2344-2353 (1998)]. The detection of buried naval and military targets of interest was achieved with an array of 7 shaker sources and 5, three-axis seismometers, at a range of 5 m. Vector polarization filtering was the main signal processing technique for detection. It capitalizes on the fact that the vertical and horizontal components in Rayleigh wave echoes are 90 deg out of phase, enabling complex variable processing to obtain the imaginary component of the signal power versus time, which is unique to Rayleigh waves. Gabor matrix processing of this signal component was the main technique used to determine whether the target was man-made or just a natural target in the environment. [Work sponsored by ONR.

  12. 47 CFR 32.2423 - Buried cable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2423 Buried cable. (a... other associated material used in constructing a physical path for the transmission of... single or paired conductor cable, wire and other associated material used in constructing a physical...

  13. Seismic response of buried submarine pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, T.K.; Mashaly, E.A.

    1988-12-01

    Submarine pipelines are many a time buried into a jet-blasted channel in the seabed. Seismic response of such buried pipelines are investigated in this paper. The earthquake is considered as a partially correlated stationary random proceeds characterized by a power spectral density function (PSDF). The cross-spectral density function between two random inputs along the length of the pipe is defined with the help of the local earthquake PSDF, which is the same for all points, and a frequency-dependent, exponentially decaying function (with distance). A lumped-mass model with 2-D beam elements is used to write the equation of motion. Soil resistance to dynamic excitation along the pipe length is obtained in an approximate manner with the help of frequency-independent impedance functions derived from half-space analysis and Mindlin's static stresses within the soil due to point loads. The responses are obtained by a spectral analysis for horizontal ground motions in two principal directions, which are assumed to coincide with pipe axis and the perpendicular to it. Using the proposed method of analysis, a parametric study is conducted. The results of the study help in understanding the behavior of buried submarine pipelines under seismic forces and its differences from that of the buried pipelines on land.

  14. Instability of buried hydration sites increases protein subdomains fluctuations in the human prion protein by the pathogenic mutation T188R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomobe, Katsufumi; Yamamoto, Eiji; Akimoto, Takuma; Yasui, Masato; Yasuoka, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    The conformational change from the cellular prion protein (PrPc) to scrapie prion protein (PrPsc) is a key process in prion diseases. The prion protein has buried water molecules which significantly contribute to the stability of the protein; however, there has been no report investigating the influence on the buried hydration sites by a pathogenic mutation not adjacent to the buried hydration sites. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations of wild type (WT) PrPc and pathogenic point mutant T188R to investigate conformational changes and the buried hydration sites. In WT-PrPc, four buried hydration sites are identified by residence time and rotational relaxation analysis. However, there are no stable buried hydration sites in one of T188R simulations, which indicates that T188R sometimes makes the buried hydration sites fragile. We also find that fluctuations of subdomains S1-H1-S2 and H1-H2 increase in T188R when the buried hydration sites become unstable. Since the side chain of arginine which is replaced from threonine in T188R is larger than of threonine, the side chain cannot be embedded in the protein, which is one of the causes of the instability of subdomains. These results show correlations between the buried hydration sites and the mutation which is far from them, and provide a possible explanation for the instability by mutation.

  15. Subcritical scattering from buried elastic shells.

    PubMed

    Lucifredi, Irena; Schmidt, Henrik

    2006-12-01

    Buried objects have been largely undetectable by traditional high-frequency sonars due to their insignificant bottom penetration. Further, even a high grazing angle sonar approach is vastly limited by the coverage rate dictated by the finite water depth, making the detection and classification of buried objects using low frequency, subcritical sonar an interesting alternative. On the other hand, such a concept would require classification clues different from the traditional high-resolution imaging and shadows to maintain low false alarm rates. A potential alternative, even for buried targets, is classification based on the acoustic signatures of man-made elastic targets. However, the elastic responses of buried and proud targets are significantly different. The objective of this work is to identify, analyze, and explain some of the effects of the sediment and the proximity of the seabed interface on the scattering of sound from completely and partially buried elastic shells. The analysis was performed using focused array processing of data from the GOATS98 experiment carried out jointly by MIT and SACLANTCEN, and a new hybrid modeling capability combining a virtual source-or wave-field superposition-approach with an exact spectral integral representation of the Green's functions for a stratified ocean waveguide, incorporating all multiple scattering between the object and the seabed. Among the principal results is the demonstration of the significant role of structural circumferential waves in converting incident, evanescent waves into backscattered body waves, emanating to the receivers at supercritical grazing angles, in effect making the target appear closer to the sonar than predicted by traditional ray theory. PMID:17225387

  16. Sensor feature fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Hernandez, J.E.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1993-04-01

    Given multiple registered images of the earth`s surface from dual-band sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. The sensor suite currently includes two sensors (5 micron and 10 micron wavelengths) and one ground penetrating radar (GPR) of the wide-band pulsed synthetic aperture type. We use a supervised teaming pattern recognition approach to detect metal and plastic land mines buried in soil. The overall process consists of four main parts: Preprocessing, feature extraction, feature selection, and classification. These parts are used in a two step process to classify a subimage. Thee first step, referred to as feature selection, determines the features of sub-images which result in the greatest separability among the classes. The second step, image labeling, uses the selected features and the decisions from a pattern classifier to label the regions in the image which are likely to correspond to buried mines. We extract features from the images, and use feature selection algorithms to select only the most important features according to their contribution to correct detections. This allows us to save computational complexity and determine which of the sensors add value to the detection system. The most important features from the various sensors are fused using supervised teaming pattern classifiers (including neural networks). We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing feature information from multiple sensor types, including dual-band infrared and ground penetrating radar. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved operational problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  17. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Gas Generation Testing Program at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    1994-10-01

    The data quality objectives (DQOs) for the Program are to evaluate compliance with the limits on total gas generation rates, establish the concentrations of hydrogen and methane in the total gas flow, determine the headspace concentration of VOCs in each drum prior to the start of the test, and obtain estimates of the concentrations of several compounds for mass balance purposes. Criteria for the selection of waste containers at the INEL and the parameters that must be characterized prior to and during the tests are described. Collection of gaseous samples from 55-gallon drums of contact-handled transuranic waste for the gas generation testing is discussed. Analytical methods and calibrations are summarized. Administrative quality control measures described in this QAPjP include the generation, review, and approval of project documentation; control and retention of records; measures to ensure that personnel, subcontractors or vendors, and equipment meet the specifications necessary to achieve the required data quality for the project.

  18. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF) is a facility safety reference document for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) environmental restoration activities. The BSAF contains information and guidance for safety analysis documentation required by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for environmental restoration (ER) activities, including: Characterization of potentially contaminated sites. Remedial investigations to identify and remedial actions to clean up existing and potential releases from inactive waste sites Decontamination and dismantlement of surplus facilities. The information is INEL-specific and is in the format required by DOE-EM-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports. An author of safety analysis documentation need only write information concerning that activity and refer to BSAF for further information or copy applicable chapters and sections. The information and guidance provided are suitable for: {sm_bullet} Nuclear facilities (DOE Order 5480-23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) with hazards that meet the Category 3 threshold (DOE-STD-1027-92, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports) {sm_bullet} Radiological facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94, Hazard Baseline Documentation) Nonnuclear facilities (DOE-EM-STD-5502-94) that are classified as {open_quotes}low{close_quotes} hazard facilities (DOE Order 5481.1B, Safety Analysis and Review System). Additionally, the BSAF could be used as an information source for Health and Safety Plans and for Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) for nuclear facilities with hazards equal to or greater than the Category 2 thresholds, or for nonnuclear facilities with {open_quotes}moderate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}high{close_quotes} hazard classifications.

  19. Behavior of pipelines buried in SCP-improved ground during earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchida, Kunihiko; Akiyoshi, Takashi; Hyodo, Takeshi

    1995-12-31

    Behavior of pipelines buried in the improved ground by sand compaction pile (SCP) and subjected to permanent ground displacement induced by liquefaction is investigated. Combining the programs for the simulation of SCP-improvement, the liquefaction analysis and the permanent ground displacement, the soil spring and the input ground displacement for the analysis of pipelines are evaluated. Results of numerical computations for the pipeline responses show that SCP ground improvement is effective to prevent soil liquefaction and reduce responses of pipeline buried in SCP-improved ground.

  20. 47 CFR 32.6423 - Buried cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Buried cable expense. 32.6423 Section 32.6423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6423 Buried cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with buried cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  1. 47 CFR 32.6423 - Buried cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buried cable expense. 32.6423 Section 32.6423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6423 Buried cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with buried cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  2. 47 CFR 32.6423 - Buried cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Buried cable expense. 32.6423 Section 32.6423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6423 Buried cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with buried cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  3. 47 CFR 32.6423 - Buried cable expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Buried cable expense. 32.6423 Section 32.6423... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6423 Buried cable expense. (a) This account shall include expenses associated with buried cable. (b) Subsidiary record...

  4. Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG&G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code.

  5. Summary of ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport computer codes used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). [Contaminant transport computer codes

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, P.J.; Hall, L.F.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents information on computer codes for numerical and analytical models that have been used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to model ground water and surface water flow and contaminant transport. Organizations conducting modeling at the INEL include: EG G Idaho, Inc., US Geological Survey, and Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company. Information concerning computer codes included in this report are: agency responsible for the modeling effort, name of the computer code, proprietor of the code (copyright holder or original author), validation and verification studies, applications of the model at INEL, the prime user of the model, computer code description, computing environment requirements, and documentation and references for the computer code.

  6. The thermal regime around buried submarine high-voltage cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeana, C. J.; Hughes, T. J.; Dix, J. K.; Gernon, T. M.; Henstock, T. J.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Pilgrim, J. A.

    2016-08-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the need for trans-continental shelf power transmission require the use of submarine high-voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70 °C and are typically buried 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the heat flow pattern and potential effects on the sedimentary environments around such anomalously high heat sources in the near-surface sediments are poorly understood. We present temperature measurements from a 2-D laboratory experiment representing a buried submarine HV cable, and identify the thermal regimes generated within typical unconsolidated shelf sediments-coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. We used a large (2 × 2.5 m2) tank filled with water-saturated spherical glass beads (ballotini) and instrumented with a buried heat source and 120 thermocouples to measure the time-dependent 2-D temperature distributions. The observed and corresponding Finite Element Method simulations of the steady state heat flow regimes and normalized radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that the heat transfer and thus temperature fields generated from submarine HV cables buried within a range of sediments are highly variable. Coarse silts are shown to be purely conductive, producing temperature increases of >10 °C up to 40 cm from the source of 60 °C above ambient; fine sands demonstrate a transition from conductive to convective heat transfer between cf. 20 and 36 °C above ambient, with >10 °C heat increases occurring over a metre from the source of 55 °C above ambient; and very coarse sands exhibit dominantly convective heat transfer even at very low (cf. 7 °C) operating temperatures and reaching temperatures of up to 18 °C above ambient at a metre from the source at surface temperatures of only 18 °C. These findings are important for the surrounding near

  7. The thermal regime around buried submarine high voltage cables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emeana, C. J.; Hughes, T. J.; Dix, J. K.; Gernon, T. M.; Henstock, T. J.; Thompson, C. E. L.; Pilgrim, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    The expansion of offshore renewable energy infrastructure and the need for trans-continental shelf power transmission require the use of submarine High Voltage (HV) cables. These cables have maximum operating surface temperatures of up to 70°C and are typically buried 1-2 m beneath the seabed, within the wide range of substrates found on the continental shelf. However, the heat flow pattern and potential effects on the sedimentary environments around such anomalously high heat sources in the near surface sediments are poorly understood. We present temperature measurements from a 2D laboratory experiment representing a buried submarine HV cable, and identify the thermal regimes generated within typical unconsolidated shelf sediments-coarse silt, fine sand and very coarse sand. We used a large (2 × 2.5 m) tank filled with water-saturated spherical glass beads (ballotini) and instrumented with a buried heat source and 120 thermocouples, to measure the time-dependent 2D temperature distributions. The observed and corresponding Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations of the steady state heat flow regimes, and normalised radial temperature distributions were assessed. Our results show that the heat transfer and thus temperature fields generated from submarine HV cables buried within a range of sediments are highly variable. Coarse silts are shown to be purely conductive, producing temperature increases of >10°C up to 40 cm from the source of 60°C above ambient; fine sands demonstrate a transition from conductive to convective heat transfer between c. 20°C and 36°C above ambient, with >10°C heat increases occurring over a metre from the source of 55°C above ambient; and very coarse sands exhibit dominantly convective heat transfer even at very low (c. 7°C) operating temperatures and reaching temperatures of up to 18°C above ambient at a metre from the source at surface temperatures of only 18°C. These findings are important for the surrounding near surface

  8. Effect of magnetite on GPR for detection of buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, Remke L.; Borchers, Brian; Hendrickx, Jan M. H.

    2006-05-01

    Ferrimagnetic minerals such as magnetite and maghaemite can affect ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals. This may lead to false alarms and missed targets when surveying for the detection of buried landmines and unexploded ordnance (UXO). In most field situations ferrimagnetic mineral content is too low to affect GPR wave behavior. However, in soils and sedimentary material with magnetite-rich parent material large concentrations of magnetite can be found. This paper is a first systematic experimental effort to study the effects of large concentrations of magnetite for GPR detection of subsurface targets. We study the effects of (i) different homogeneous mixtures of magnetite and quartz sand and (ii) magnetite concentrated in layers (placer deposits), on the propagation behavior of GPR waves and reflection characteristics of steel and plastic balls. The balls are buried in homogeneous mixtures of magnetite and quartz sand and below a layer of pure magnetite. Important observations include that the simulated placer deposits did have a large effect on the detectability of balls below the placer deposits and that homogeneous mixtures had no significant effect.

  9. Centrifuge modeling of buried continuous pipelines subjected to normal faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Majid; Rojhani, Mahdi; Galandarzadeh, Abbas; Takada, Shiro

    2013-03-01

    Seismic ground faulting is the greatest hazard for continuous buried pipelines. Over the years, researchers have attempted to understand pipeline behavior mostly via numerical modeling such as the finite element method. The lack of well-documented field case histories of pipeline failure from seismic ground faulting and the cost and complicated facilities needed for full-scale experimental simulation mean that a centrifuge-based method to determine the behavior of pipelines subjected to faulting is best to verify numerical approaches. This paper presents results from three centrifuge tests designed to investigate continuous buried steel pipeline behavior subjected to normal faulting. The experimental setup and procedure are described and the recorded axial and bending strains induced in a pipeline are presented and compared to those obtained via analytical methods. The influence of factors such as faulting offset, burial depth and pipe diameter on the axial and bending strains of pipes and on ground soil failure and pipeline deformation patterns are also investigated. Finally, the tensile rupture of a pipeline due to normal faulting is investigated.

  10. RELAP5 based engineering simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, T.R.; Laats, E.T.; Burtt, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    The INEL Engineering Simulation Center was established in 1988 to provide a modern, flexible, state-of-the-art simulation facility. This facility and two of the major projects which are part of the simulation center, the Advance Test Reactor (ATR) engineering simulator project and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) advanced reactor control system, have been the subject of several papers in the past few years. Two components of the ATR engineering simulator project, RELAP5 and the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), have recently been improved significantly. This paper will present an overview of the INEL Engineering Simulation Center, and discuss the RELAP5/MOD3 and NPA/MOD1 codes, specifically how they are being used at the INEL Engineering Simulation Center. It will provide an update on the modifications to these two codes and their application to the ATR engineering simulator project, as well as, a discussion on the reactor system representation, control system modeling, two phase flow and heat transfer modeling. It will also discuss how these two codes are providing desktop, stand-alone reactor simulation. 12 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Process for buried metallization in diamond film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Max L.; Ting, Jyh-Ming; Lagounov, Alex; Tang, Chi

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate methods of combining chemical vapor deposition diamond growth techniques with state-of-the-art physical vapor deposition or ion beam enhanced deposition to produce buried metallization of polycrystalline diamond films. The mechanical and electrical integrity of both the insulating and conducting elements following metallization and diamond overgrowth was shown. Both methods were shown to have bonding strength sufficient to withstand tape lift-off, which is regarded to be a good indication of strength needed for die attachment and wire bonding. Diamond overgrowth was also shown, thus enabling buried metallized layers to be created. Electrical resistivity property measurements on metallized layers and between metallization separated by diamond films were shown to be sufficient to allow the use of diamond as an insulating inter-layer material for multi-layer circuit boards.

  12. Buried pipelines in large fault movements

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.J.; Wang, L.R.L.

    1995-12-31

    Responses of buried pipelines in large fault movements are examined based upon a non-linear cantilever beam analogy. This analogy assumes that the pipeline in a large deflection zone behaves like a cantilever beam under a transverse-concentrated shear at the inflection point with a uniformly distributed soil pressure along the entire span. The tangent modulus approach is adopted to analyze the coupled axial force-bending moment interaction on pipeline deformations in the inelastic range. The buckling load of compressive pipeline is computed by the modified Newmark`s numerical integration scheme. Parametric studies of both tensile and compressive pipeline responses to various fault movements, pipeline/fault crossing angles, soil/pipe friction angles, buried depths, pipe diameters and thickness are investigated. It is shown by the comparisons that previous findings were unconservative.

  13. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology`s threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

  14. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Strategy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    1993-02-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ERWM) needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. Long and short term strategies of the BWID are provided. Processes for identifying technological needs, screening candidate technologies for BWID applicability, researching technical issues, field demonstrating technologies, evaluating demonstration results to determine each technology's threshold of capability, and commercializing successfully demonstrated technologies for implementation for environmental restoration also are presented in this report.

  15. Analytical model of LDMOS with a double step buried oxide layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Song; Duan, Baoxing; Cao, Zhen; Guo, Haijun; Yang, Yintang

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a two-dimensional analytical model is established for the Buried Oxide Double Step Silicon On Insulator structure proposed by the authors. Based on the two-dimensional Poisson equation, the analytic expressions of the surface electric field and potential distributions for the device are achieved. In the BODS (Buried Oxide Double Step Silicon On Insulator) structure, the buried oxide layer thickness changes stepwise along the drift region, and the positive charge in the drift region can be accumulated at the corner of the step. These accumulated charge function as the space charge in the depleted drift region. At the same time, the electric field in the oxide layer also varies with the different drift region thickness. These variations especially the accumulated charge will modulate the surface electric field distribution through the electric field modulation effects, which makes the surface electric field distribution more uniform. As a result, the breakdown voltage of the device is improved by 30% compared with the conventional SOI structure. To verify the accuracy of the analytical model, the device simulation software ISE TCAD is utilized, the analytical values are in good agreement with the simulation results by the simulation software. That means the established two-dimensional analytical model for BODS structure is valid, and it also illustrates the breakdown voltage enhancement by the electric field modulation effect sufficiently. The established analytical models will provide the physical and mathematical basis for further analysis of the new power devices with the patterned buried oxide layer.

  16. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  17. Buried caldera of mauna kea volcano, hawaii.

    PubMed

    Porter, S C

    1972-03-31

    An elliptical caldera (2.1 by 2.8 kilometers) at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano is inferred to lie buried beneath hawaiite lava flows and pyroclastic cones at an altitude of approximately 3850 meters. Stratigraphic relationships indicate that hawaiite eruptions began before a pre-Wisconsin period of ice-cap glaciation and that the crest of the mountain attained its present altitude and gross form during a glaciation of probable Early Wisconsin age. PMID:17842285

  18. Laser neutralization of surface and buried munitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habersat, James D.; Schilling, Bradley W.; Alexander, Joe; Lehecka, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    In recent years NVESD has been investigating laser-based neutralization of buried mines and minelike targets. This paper covers the most recent efforts in this area. A field-test was conducted to demonstrate the state-of-the-art capability for standoff laser neutralization of surface and buried mines. The neutralization laser is a Ytterbium fiber laser with a nominal power output of 10 kW and a beam quality of M2 ~ 1.8 at maximum power. Test trials were conducted at a standoff range of 50 meters with a 20° angle of attack. The laser was focused to a submillimeter spot using a Cassegrain telescope with a 12.5 inch diameter primary mirror. The targets were 105 mm artillery rounds with a composition B explosive fill. Three types of overburden were studied: sand, soil, and gravel. Laser neutralization capability was demonstrated under these conditions for live rounds buried under 7 cm of dry sand, 4 cm of soil, and 2 cm of gravel.

  19. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m[sup 3] of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  20. Multiple instance learning for buried hazard detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Joseph; Pinar, Anthony; Havens, Timothy C.; Webb, Adam; Schulz, Timothy J.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosives hazards are one of the many deadly threats facing our Soldiers, thus the U.S. Army is interested in the detection and neutralization of these hazards. One method of buried target detection uses forward-looking ground-penetrating radar (FLGPR), and it has grown in popularity due to its ability to detect buried targets at a standoff distance. FLGPR approaches often use machine learning techniques to improve the accuracy of detection. We investigate an approach to explosive hazard detection that exploits multi-instance features to discriminate between hazardous and non-hazardous returns in FLGPR data. One challenge this problem presents is a high number of clutter and non-target objects relative to the number of targets present. Our approach learns a bag of words model of the multi-instance signatures of potential targets and confuser objects in order to classify alarms as either targets or false alarms. We demonstrate our method on test data collected at a U.S. Army test site.

  1. The 1988 INEL (Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) microearthquake survey near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.M.; Anderson, D.M.; Carpenter, G.S.; Gilbert, H.K.; Martin, S.M.; Permann, P.J.

    1989-08-01

    A network of seventeen analog recording seismograph, spaced approximately 2 km apart, were operated from May to November, 1988 near the western edge of the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) to record small magnitude microearthquakes. Two three-component digital seismographs were also installed to record the microearthquake activity for analysis of earthquake source parameters and any regional earthquakes for possible analysis of the localized site and crustal effects of the ESRP on earthquake ground motions. We determined near-surface crustal velocities for this area that were slightly lower than the near-surface crustal velocities presently used in routine locations of events recorded by the INEL Seismic Network from five 100 lb surface blasts. During the survey period, only two earthquakes were located near the network area. One of the events occurred in May and was recorded by four of the portable seismic stations and two of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. It had a coda magnitude (M{sub c}) of approximately 0.3. The other event was recorded by seventeen portable analog stations and three of the permanent INEL Seismic Network stations. We located this microearthquake, M{sub c}=0.5, about 2 km west of Howe, Idaho, off of the ESRP. We determined an unconstrained focal mechanism for this event, which could be interpreted as normal faulting striking N 44{degree} W or strike-slip faulting on a plane striking either N 44{degree} W or N 47{degree} E. 26 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Krisman, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the acid pit and transuranic pits and trenches (TRU-PTs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues lated with ISV application at the SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in a three-volume report. Volume I identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. Volumes 2 and 3 discuss each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTS, respectively. The three-volume report is a working document that will be updated as necessary to reflect current evaluation strategy for the ISV technology. This is Volume 3.

  3. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (ERP), Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF). Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-20

    This document was prepared to take the place of a Safety Evaluation Report since the Baseline Safety Analysis File (BSAF)and associated Baseline Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) File do not meet the requirements of a complete safety analysis documentation. Its purpose is to present in summary form the background of how the BSAF and Baseline TSR originated and a description of the process by which it was produced and approved for use in the Environmental Restoration Program.The BSAF is a facility safety reference document for INEL environmental restoration activities including environmental remediation of inactive waste sites and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of surplus facilities. The BSAF contains safety bases common to environmental restoration activities and guidelines for performing and documenting safety analysis. The common safety bases can be incorporated by reference into the safety analysis documentation prepared for individual environmental restoration activities with justification and any necessary revisions. The safety analysis guidelines in BSAF provide an accepted method for hazard analysis; analysis of normal, abnormal, and accident conditions; human factors analysis; and derivation of TSRS. The BSAF safety bases and guidelines are graded for environmental restoration activities.

  4. Buried Alive: Microbes from Ancient Halite.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Salla T; Ravantti, Janne J; Oksanen, Hanna M; Bamford, Dennis H

    2016-02-01

    Halite is one of the most extreme environments to support life. From the drought of the Atacama Desert to salt deposits up to Permian in age and 2000 meters in burial depth, live microbes have been found. Because halite is geologically stable and impermeable to ground water, the microbes allegedly have a syndepositional origin, making them the oldest organisms known to live on Earth. Recently, our understanding of the microbial diversity inside halite has broadened, and the first genome sequences of ancient halite-buried microbes are now available. The secrets behind prolonged survival in salt are also starting to be revealed. PMID:26796472

  5. Fabrication of Buried Nanochannels From Nanowire Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Daniel; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2007-01-01

    A method of fabricating channels having widths of tens of nanometers in silicon substrates and burying the channels under overlying layers of dielectric materials has been demonstrated. With further refinement, the method might be useful for fabricating nanochannels for manipulation and analysis of large biomolecules at single-molecule resolution. Unlike in prior methods, burying the channels does not involve bonding of flat wafers to the silicon substrates to cover exposed channels in the substrates. Instead, the formation and burying of the channels are accomplished in a more sophisticated process that is less vulnerable to defects in the substrates and less likely to result in clogging of, or leakage from, the channels. In this method, the first step is to establish the channel pattern by forming an array of sacrificial metal nanowires on an SiO2-on-Si substrate. In particular, the wire pattern is made by use of focused-ion-beam (FIB) lithography and a subsequent metallization/lift-off process. The pattern of metal nanowires is then transferred onto the SiO2 layer by reactive-ion etching, which yields sacrificial SiO2 nanowires covered by metal. After removal of the metal covering the SiO2 nanowires, what remains are SiO2 nanowires on an Si substrate. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is used to form a layer of a dielectric material over the Si substrate and over the SiO2 wires on the surface of the substrate. FIB milling is then performed to form trenches at both ends of each SiO2 wire. The trenches serve as openings for the entry of chemicals that etch SiO2 much faster than they etch Si. Provided that the nanowires are not so long that the diffusion of the etching chemicals is blocked, the sacrificial SiO2 nanowires become etched out from between the dielectric material and the Si substrate, leaving buried channels. At the time of reporting the information for this article, channels 3 m long, 20 nm deep, and 80 nm wide (see figure) had been

  6. Substrate discrimination in burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin Louise

    1991-01-01

    Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.

  7. Virtual environmental applications for buried waste characterization technology evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The project, Virtual Environment Applications for Buried Waste Characterization, was initiated in the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program in fiscal year 1994. This project is a research and development effort that supports the remediation of buried waste by identifying and examining the issues, needs, and feasibility of creating virtual environments using available characterization and other data. This document describes the progress and results from this project during the past year.

  8. Sensor system for buried waste containment sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, May Catherine

    2000-01-01

    A sensor system is disclosed for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  9. Computer vision for locating buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; DelGrande, N.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Lu, Shin-Yee; Schaich, P.C.; Durbin, P.F.

    1991-11-01

    Given two registered images of the earth, measured with aerial dual-band infrared (IR) sensors, we use advanced computer vision/automatic target recognition techniques to estimate the positions of buried land mines. The images are very difficult to interpret, because of large amounts of clutter. Conventional techniques use single-band imagery and simple correlations. They rely heavily on the judgment of the human doing the interpretation, and give unsatisfactory results with difficult data sets of the type we analyzed. Our automatic algorithms are able to eliminate most of the clutter and give greatly improved indications of regions in the image that could be interpreted as mines. The novelty of our approach lies in the following aspects: (1) a patented data fusion technique using two IR images and physical principles based on Planck`s law, (2) a new region-based texture segmentation algorithm using Gabor Transform features and a clustering/thresholding algorithm based on a neural network (Self-Organizing Feature Map), (3) Prior knowledge of measured feasible temperatures and emissivities, and (4) results with real data using buried surrogate mines.

  10. Computer vision for locating buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; DelGrande, N.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Lu, Shin-Yee; Schaich, P.C.; Durbin, P.F.

    1991-11-01

    Given two registered images of the earth, measured with aerial dual-band infrared (IR) sensors, we use advanced computer vision/automatic target recognition techniques to estimate the positions of buried land mines. The images are very difficult to interpret, because of large amounts of clutter. Conventional techniques use single-band imagery and simple correlations. They rely heavily on the judgment of the human doing the interpretation, and give unsatisfactory results with difficult data sets of the type we analyzed. Our automatic algorithms are able to eliminate most of the clutter and give greatly improved indications of regions in the image that could be interpreted as mines. The novelty of our approach lies in the following aspects: (1) a patented data fusion technique using two IR images and physical principles based on Planck's law, (2) a new region-based texture segmentation algorithm using Gabor Transform features and a clustering/thresholding algorithm based on a neural network (Self-Organizing Feature Map), (3) Prior knowledge of measured feasible temperatures and emissivities, and (4) results with real data using buried surrogate mines.

  11. Healing from incest: resurrecting the buried self.

    PubMed

    Godbey, J K; Hutchinson, S A

    1996-10-01

    Writers on the incest experience estimate conservatively that 10% to 30% of all girls and 30% of all boys have had at least one childhood experience of incest. Incest is emotionally devastating to a child as it involves betrayal, and the irretrievable loss of trust in the adults in the child's life. Little is written about the healing processes of incest survivors. The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive grounded theory that provides an explanatory schema for understanding the healing process of adult female incest survivors. The sample consisted of 10 adult women who had a history of incest and who volunteered to participate in in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using grounded theory techniques. Data analysis revealed that these women had buried an integral part of the self because of the trauma of incest; The healing process required resurrecting the buried self through a series of seven phases. The model generated from this research provides a heuristic for nurse therapists that assists in assessing and counseling incest survivors. PMID:8897713

  12. Retrieval of Shape Characteristics for Buried Objects with GPR Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldovieri, F.; Comite, D.; Galli, A.; Valerio, G.; Barone, P. M.; Lauro, S. E.; Mattei, E.; Pettinelli, E.

    2012-04-01

    Information retrieval on the location and the geometrical features (dimensions and shape) of buried objects is of fundamental importance in geosciences areas involving environmental protection, mine clearance, archaeological investigations, space and planetary exploration, and so forth. Among the different non-invasive sensing techniques usually employed to achieve this kind of information, those based on ground-penetrating-radar (GPR) instruments are well-established and suitable to the mentioned purposes [1]. In this context, our interest in the present work is specifically focused on testing the potential performance of typical GPR instruments by means of appropriate data processing. It will be shown in particular to what extent the use of a suitable "microwave tomographic approach" [2] is able to furnish a shape estimation of the targets, possibly recognizing different kinds of canonical geometries, even having reduced cross sections and in critical conditions, where the scatterer size is comparable with resolution limits imposed by the usual measurement configurations. Our study starts by obtaining the typical "direct" information from the GPR techniques that is the scattered field in subsurface environments under the form of radargrams. In order to get a wide variety of scenarios for the operating conditions, this goal is achieved by means of two different and independent approaches [3]. One approach is based on direct measurements through an experimental laboratory setup: commercial GPR instruments (typically bistatic configurations operating around 1 GHz frequency range) are used to collect radargram profiles by investigating an artificial basin filled of liquid and/or granular materials (sand, etc.), in which targets (having different constitutive parameters, shape, and dimensions) can be buried. The other approach is based on numerical GPR simulations by means of a commercial CAD electromagnetic tool (CST), whose suitable implementation and data

  13. System and method for removal of buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, Robert G.; Crass, Dennis; Grams, William; Phillips, Steven J.; Riess, Mark

    2008-06-03

    The present invention is a system and method for removal of buried objects. According to one embodiment of the invention, a crane with a vibrator casing driver is used to lift and suspend a large diameter steel casing over the buried object. Then the casing is driven into the ground by the vibratory driver until the casing surrounds the buried object. Then the open bottom of the casing is sealed shut by injecting grout into the ground within the casing near its bottom. When the seal has cured and hardened, the top of the casing is lifted to retrieve the casing, with the buried object inside, from the ground.

  14. Multi channel FM reflection profiler for buried pipeline surveying

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, S.G.; LeBlanc, L.R.

    1996-12-31

    A towed multi-channel FM acoustic reflection profiler has been developed for locating and generating images of buried objects. One significant application of this sonar is buried pipeline surveying. The multi-channel reflection profiler uses 16 line arrays mounted in a towed vehicle to determine the position and burial depth of an 18 inch steel pipe filled with concrete buried under 1.5 meters of sand. This sonar will allow a survey vessel to continuously track a buried pipeline providing a continuous record of pipe burial depth and position.

  15. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    D.F. Nickelson; D.K. Jorgensen; J.J. Jessmore; R.A. Hyde; R.K. Farnsworth

    1999-02-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy's Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE's Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  16. Evaluating In Situ Treatment Technologies for Buried Mixed Waste Remediation at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, Douglas Kay; Nickelson, David Frank; Nickelson, Reva Anne; Farnsworth, Richard Kent; Jessmore, James Joseph

    1999-03-01

    Mixed radioactive and hazardous wastes were buried at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Subsurface Disposal Area from 1952 to 1969. To begin the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) remediation process for the Subsurface Disposal Area, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) added the INEEL to its National Priorities List in 1989. DOE’s Office of Environmental Restoration is planning several CERCLA treatability studies of remedial technologies that will be evaluated for potential remediation of the buried waste in the Subsurface Disposal Area. This paper discusses the in situ treatability studies that will be performed, including in situ vitrification, in situ grouting, and in situ thermal desorption. The in situ treatability studies will be conducted on simulated and actual buried wastes at the INEEL in 1999 and 2000. Results from the treatability studies will provide substantial information on the feasibility, implementability, and cost of applying these technologies to the INEEL Subsurface Disposal Area. In addition, much of the treatability study data will be applicable to buried waste site remediation efforts across the DOE complex.

  17. Thermal convection in high-pressure ice layers beneath a buried ocean within Titan and Ganymede

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choblet, G.; Tobie, G.; Dumont, M.

    2015-10-01

    Deep interiors of large icy satellites such as Titan and Ganymede probably harbor a buried ocean above highpressure (HP) ice layers. The nature and location of the lower interface of the ocean involves equilibration of heat and melt transfer in the HP ices. It is ultimately controlled by the amount of heat transferred through the surface ice Ih layer. We describe 3D spherical simulations of thermal convection in these HP ices layers that address for the first time this complex interplay.

  18. Backyard bolides: finding a buried impact crater.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poag, C. W.

    1998-10-01

    The author reports the scientific activities that led to his discovery of a huge submerged impact crater in Chesapeake Bay, some 140 km east of Atlantic City, New Jersey. This crater, buried under 350 m of sediment is 80 km wide and almost 1 km deep. Microfossil evidence shows that the crater is approximately 35 million years old. The author futher identified 14 small secondary craters with diamters of 0.4 to 0.5 km diameter within 60 km of the primary crater. These were caused by the impact of huge blocks of material ejected by the primary impact event. In addition, the author identified an intermediate-size primary crater (19 km diameter) in Toms Canyon, some 300 km from the Chesapeake crater and, again from microfossil evidence, identical in age.

  19. Landslide Buries Valley of the Geysers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Geysers are a rare natural phenomena found only in a few places, such as New Zealand, Iceland, the United States (Yellowstone National Park), and on Russia's far eastern Kamchatka Peninsula. On June 3, 2007, one of these rare geyser fields was severely damaged when a landslide rolled through Russia's Valley of the Geysers. The landslide--a mix of mud, melting snow, trees, and boulders--tore a scar on the land and buried a number of geysers, thermal pools, and waterfalls in the valley. It also blocked the Geyser River, causing a new thermal lake to pool upstream. The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared-enhanced image on June 11, 2007, a week after the slide. The image shows the valley, the landslide, and the new thermal lake. Even in mid-June, just days from the start of summer, the landscape is generally covered in snow, though the geologically heated valley is relatively snow free. The tree-covered hills are red (the color of vegetation in this false-color treatment), providing a strong contrast to the aquamarine water and the gray-brown slide. According to the Russian News and Information Agency (RIA) [English language], the slide left a path roughly a kilometer and a half (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide. Within hours of the landslide, the water in the new lake inundated a number of additional geysers. The geysers directly buried under the landslide now lie under as much as 60 meters (180 feet) of material, according to RIA reports. It is unlikely that the geysers will be able to force a new opening through this thick layer, adds RIA. Among those directly buried is Pervenets (Firstborn), the first geyser found in the valley, in 1941. Other geysers, such as the Bolshoi (Greater) and Maly (Lesser) Geysers, were silenced when buried by water building up behind the new natural dam. According to Vladimir and Andrei Leonov of the Russian Federation Institute of

  20. A Novel MESFET structure by U-shape buried oxide for improving the DC and RF Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahnazarisani, Hadi; Orouji, Ali A.

    2015-06-01

    For the first time, a new type of silicon on insulator metal semiconductor field-effect transistor (SOI-MESFET), the U-shape buried oxide (UBO) SOI-MESFET, is proposed and investigated. The proposed structure is similar to that of the conventional SOI-MESFET with the exception that the shape of buried oxide is reformed to the U-shape. The influence of U-shape buried oxide on saturation current (ID), breakdown voltage (VBR), and small-signal characteristics of the UBO-SOI MESFET is studied by numerical device simulation and compared with a conventional SOI MESFET (C-SOI MESFET) characteristics. The simulated results show that the U-shape buried oxide has excellent effect on cut-off frequency (fT), maximum oscillation frequency (fmax), maximum available gain (MAG), and unilateral power gain (U) for the UBO-SOI MESFET structure. Also the U-shape buried oxide leads to the enhancement of VBR and ID of the UBO-SOI MESFET structure. The optimized results showed that VBR of the UBO-SOI MESFET is 77% larger than that of the C-SOI MESFET, which meanwhile maintains almost 90% higher saturation drain current characteristics. The maximum output power densities of 0.05 and 0.014 W/mm are obtained for the UBO-SOI and C- SOI MESFET structures, respectively, which means about 3.5 times larger output power for the proposed device.

  1. Buried bumper syndrome: a rare complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    PubMed

    Kurek, Krzysztof; Baniukiewicz, Andrzej; Świdnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka

    2015-09-01

    Feeding via percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is the preferred form of alimentation when oral feeding is impossible. Although it is a relatively safe method, some complications may occur. One uncommon PEG complication is buried bumper syndrome. In this paper we report a case of buried bumper syndrome, successfully managed with PEG tube repositioning. PMID:26649105

  2. DOE complex buried waste characterization assessment. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kaae, P.S.; Holter, G.M.; Garrett, S.M.K.

    1993-01-01

    The work described in this report was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to provide information to the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. The information in this report is intended to provide a complex-wide planning base for th.e BWID to ensure that BWID activities are appropriately focused to address the range of remediation problems existing across the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. This report contains information characterizing the 2.1 million m{sup 3} of buried and stored wastes and their associated sites at six major DOE facilities. Approximately 85% of this waste is low-level waste, with about 12% TRU or TRU mixed waste; the remaining 3% is low-level mixed waste. In addition, the report describes soil contamination sites across the complex. Some of the details that would be useful in further characterizing the buried wastes and contaminated soil sites across the DOE complex are either unavailable or difficult to locate. Several options for accessing this information and/or improving the information that is available are identified in the report. This document is a companion to Technology Needs for Remediation: Hanford and Other DOE Sites, PNL-8328 (Stapp 1993).

  3. Buried antenna analysis at VHF. Part 1: The buried horizontal electric dipole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burks, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A method was developed to find the far field radiation pattern of a buried horizontal electric dipole (HED) at 37.5 MHz. The imaginary part of the index of refraction was shown to be negligible for dry soil at this frequency so standard antenna theory and ray optic theory was used. The effect of the ground-air interface was modeled using the transmission coefficient and Snell's law for a dielectric interface. Because the current distribution for the buried HED depends on antenna construction, results are shown for the far field pattern in the air for different current distributions on the HED. The literature on this problem was reviewed; most used the Sommerfeld or moment methods to make the same calculations. The results of one of the reports using the Sommerfeld method could be compared and were found to be similar. An extensive bibliography is included. The analysis was then applied to a buried antenna array. The current distribution was known and was used to calculate the far field pattern. It was concluded that the far field pattern is highly dependent on the current distribution. This part is classified.

  4. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-10-01

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the "real" geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures. PMID

  5. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-10-01

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the "real" geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  6. A servo controlled gradient loading triaxial model test system for deep-buried cavern

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xu-guang; Zhang, Qiang-yong; Li, Shu-cai

    2015-10-15

    A servo controlled gradient loading model test system is developed to simulate the gradient geostress in deep-buried cavern. This system consists of the gradient loading apparatus, the digital servo control device, and the measurement system. Among them, the gradient loading apparatus is the main component which is used for exerting load onto the model. This loading apparatus is placed inside the counterforce wall/beam and is divided to several different loading zones, with each loading zone independently controlled. This design enables the gradient loading. Hence, the “real” geostress field surrounding the deep-buried cavern can be simulated. The loading or unloading process can be controlled by the human-computer interaction machines, i.e., the digital servo control system. It realizes the automation and visualization of model loading/unloading. In addition, this digital servo could control and regulate hydraulic loading instantaneously, which stabilizes the geostress onto the model over a long term. During the loading procedure, the collision between two adjacent loading platens is also eliminated by developing a guide frame. This collision phenomenon is induced by the volume shrinkage of the model when compressed in true 3D state. In addition, several accurate measurements, including the optical and grating-based method, are adopted to monitor the small deformation of the model. Hence, the distortion of the model could be accurately measured. In order to validate the performance of this innovative model test system, a 3D geomechanical test was conducted on a simulated deep-buried underground reservoir. The result shows that the radial convergence increases rapidly with the release of the stress in the reservoir. Moreover, the deformation increases with the increase of the gas production rate. This observation is consistence with field observation in petroleum engineering. The system is therefore capable of testing deep-buried engineering structures.

  7. Radiation and Electromagnetic Induction Data Fusion for Detection of Buried Radioactive Metal Waste - 12282

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Zhiling; Wei, Wei; Turlapaty, Anish; Du, Qian; Younan, Nicolas H.; Waggoner, Charles

    2012-07-01

    At the United States Army's test sites, fired penetrators made of Depleted Uranium (DU) have been buried under ground and become hazardous waste. Previously, we developed techniques for detecting buried radioactive targets. We also developed approaches for locating buried paramagnetic metal objects by utilizing the electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor data. In this paper, we apply data fusion techniques to combine results from both the radiation detection and the EMI detection, so that we can further distinguish among DU penetrators, DU oxide, and non- DU metal debris. We develop a two-step fusion approach for the task, and test it with survey data collected on simulation targets. In this work, we explored radiation and EMI data fusion for detecting DU, oxides, and non-DU metals. We developed a two-step fusion approach based on majority voting and a set of decision rules. With this approach, we fuse results from radiation detection based on the RX algorithm and EMI detection based on a 3-step analysis. Our fusion approach has been tested successfully with data collected on simulation targets. In the future, we will need to further verify the effectiveness of this fusion approach with field data. (authors)

  8. Detection of buried targets using a new enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, numerical simulations of a new enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system are presented, where a horizontal transmitting loop and two horizontal receiving loops are used to detect buried targets, in which three loops share the same axis and the transmitter is located at the center of receivers. In the new VETEM system, the difference of signals from two receivers is taken to eliminate strong direct-signals from the transmitter and background clutter and furthermore to obtain a better SNR for buried targets. Because strong coupling exists between the transmitter and receivers, accurate analysis of the three-loop antenna system is required, for which a loop-tree basis function method has been utilized to overcome the low-frequency breakdown problem. In the analysis of scattering problem from buried targets, a conjugate gradient (CG) method with fast Fourier transform (FFT) is applied to solve the electric field integral equation. However, the convergence of such CG-FFT algorithm is extremely slow at very low frequencies. In order to increase the convergence rate, a frequency-hopping approach has been used. Finally, the primary, coupling, reflected, and scattered magnetic fields are evaluated at receiving loops to calculate the output electric current. Numerous simulation results are given to interpret the new VETEM system. Comparing with other single-transmitter-receiver systems, the new VETEM has better SNR and ability to reduce the clutter.

  9. Dual-band infrared capabilities for imaging buried object sites

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Gorvad, M.R.; Perkins, D.E.; Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sherwood, R.J.

    1993-04-02

    We discuss dual-band infrared (DBIR) capabilities for imaging buried object sizes. We identify physical features affecting thermal contrast needed to distinguish buried object sites from undisturbed sites or surface clutter. Apart from atmospheric transmission and system performance, these features include: object size, shape, and burial depth; ambient soil, disturbed soil and object site thermal diffusivity differences; surface temperature, emissivity, plant-cover, slope, albedo and roughness variations; weather conditions and measurement times. We use good instrumentation to measure the time-varying temperature differences between buried object sites and undisturbed soil sites. We compare near surface soil temperature differences with radiometric infrared (IR) surface temperature differences recorded at 4.7 {plus_minus} 0.4 {mu}m and at 10.6 {plus_minus} 1.0 {mu}m. By producing selective DBIR image ratio maps, we distinguish temperature-difference patterns from surface emissivity effects. We discuss temperature differences between buried object sites, filled hole site (without buried objects), cleared (undisturbed) soil sites, and grass-covered sites (with and without different types of surface clutter). We compare temperature, emissivity-ratio, visible and near-IR reflectance signatures of surface objects, leafy plants and sod. We discuss the physical aspects of environmental, surface and buried target features affecting interpretation of buried targets, surface objects and natural backgrounds.

  10. Preliminary study of detection of buried landmines using a programmable hyperspectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Ripley, Herb T.; Buxton, Roger; Thriscutt, Andrew M.

    1996-05-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine if buried mines could be detected by measuring the change in reflectance spectra of vegetation above mine burial sites. Mines were laid using hand methods and simulated mechanical methods and spectral images were obtained over a three month period using a casi hyperspectral imager scanned from a personnel lift. Mines were not detectable by measurement of the shift of the red edge of vegetative spectra. By calculating the linear correlation coefficient image, some mines in light vegetative cover (grass, grass/blueberries) were apparently detected, but mines buried in heavy vegetation cover (deep ferns) were not detectable. Due to problems with ground truthing, accurate probabilities of detection and false alarm rates were not obtained.

  11. Development of buried wire gages for measurement of wall shear stress in Blastane experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. V.; Steinle, F. W.

    1986-01-01

    Buried Wire Gages operated from a Constant Temperature Anemometer System are among the special types of instrumentation to be used in the Boundary Layer Apparatus for Subsonic and Transonic flow Affected by Noise Environment (BLASTANE). These Gages are of a new type and need to be adapted for specific applications. Methods were developed to fabricate Gage inserts and mount those in the BLASTANE Instrumentation Plugs. A large number of Gages were prepared and operated from a Constant Temperature Anemometer System to derive some of the calibration constants for application to fluid-flow wall shear-stress measurements. The final stage of the calibration was defined, but could not be accomplished because of non-availability of a suitable flow simulating apparatus. This report provides a description of the Buried Wire Gage technique, an explanation of the method evolved for making proper Gages and the calibration constants, namely Temperature Coefficient of Resistance and Conduction Loss Factor.

  12. Buried object detection by means of a Lp Banach-space inversion procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estatico, Claudio; Fedeli, Alessandro; Pastorino, Matteo; Randazzo, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic inspection techniques are becoming powerful tools for buried object detection and subsurface prospection in several applicative fields, such as civil engineering and archeology. However, the nonlinearity and ill-posedness of the underlying inverse problem make the development of efficient imaging techniques a very challenging task. In the present paper, an algorithm based on a regularizing approach in Lp Banach spaces is proposed for tackling such problems. The effectiveness of the approach is verified by means of numerical simulations in a noisy environment aimed at evaluating the reconstruction capabilities with respect to the choice of several model parameters. The reported results show that, for small targets, the use of Lp Banach spaces with 1 < p < 2 allows to obtain a better localization of different buried scatterers.

  13. Overcoming the fill factor limit of double sided buried contact silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebong, A. U.; Lee, S. H.

    1997-11-01

    The double sided buried contact (DSBC) silicon solar cells have consistently demonstrated output parameters superior to those of its single sided counterparts. This is because the high surface recombination velocity of the single sided cells was reduced to minimum by the rear floating junction in conjunction with high quality silicon dioxide. However, the somewhat lower fill factor ( FF) exhibited by single sided illumination of the structure can disappear if the bifacial testing equipment is used to properly characterize the cells. A 2D simulation has shown that a rear illumination of only 0.2 sun in conjunction with 1 sun front illumination, is quite adequate to bias the rear junction to a high voltage required to maintain good fill factor. This article discusses the fill factor of double sided buried contact silicon solar cells under single and double sided illumination.

  14. A preliminary evaluation of alternatives for treatment of INEL Low-Level Waste and low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, T.H.; Roesener, W.S.; Jorgensen-Waters, M.J.; Edinborough, C.R.

    1992-06-01

    The Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility (MLLWTF) project was established in 1991 by the US Department of Energy Idaho Field Office to provide treatment capabilities for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed waste and low-level waste. This report identifies and evaluates the alternatives for treating that waste. Twelve treatment alternatives, ranging from ``no-action`` to constructing and operating the MLLWTF, are identified and evaluated. Evaluations include facility performance, environmental, safety, institutional, schedule, and rough order-of-magnitude cost comparisons. The performance of each alternative is evaluated against lists of ``musts`` and ``wants.`` Also included is a discussion of other key considerations for decision making. Analysis of results indicated further study is necessary to obtain the best estimate of future waste volumes and characteristics from the expanded INEL Decontamination and Decommissioning Program. It is also recommended that conceptual design begin as scheduled on the MLLWTF, maximum treatment alternative while re-evaluating the waste volume projections.

  15. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A. ); Luey, J.K. )

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy's Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  16. ISV technology development plan for buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.F.; Callow, R.A.; Luey, J.K.

    1992-07-01

    This report identifies the main technical issues facing the in situ vitrification (ISV) application to buried waste, and presents a plan showing the top-level schedule and projected resources needed to develop and demonstrate the technology for meeting Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) needs. The plan also proposes a model strategy for the technology transfer from the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development (DOE-OTD) to the Office of Environmental Restoration (DOE-ER) as the technology proceeds from issues resolution (development) to demonstration and remedial readiness. Implementation of the plan would require $34,91 1K in total funding to be spread in the years FY-93 through FY-98. Of this amount, $10,183K is planned to be funded by DOE-OTD through the ISV Integrated Program. The remaining amount, $24,728K, is recommended to be split between the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development ($6,670K) and DOE Office of Environmental Restoration ($18,058K).

  17. Xenon Isotope Releases from Buried Transuranic Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresel, P. E.; Waichler, S. R.; Kennedy, B. M.; Hayes, J. C.; McIntyre, J. I.; Giles, J. R.; Sondrup, A. J.

    2004-12-01

    Xenon is an inert rare gas produced as a fission product in nuclear reactors and through spontaneous fission of some transuranic isotopes. Thus, xenon will be released from buried transuranic waste. Two complementary methods are used to measure xenon isotopes: radiometric analysis for short-lived radioxenon isotopes and mass spectrometry for detection of stable xenon isotopes. Initial measurements near disposal facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site show radioxenon and stable xenon isotopic signatures that are indicative of transuranic waste. Radioxenon analysis has greater sensitivity due to the lower background concentrations and indicates spontaneous fission due to the short half life of the isotopes. Stable isotope ratios may be used to distinguish irradiated fuel sources from pure spontaneous fission sources and are not as dependent on rapid release from the waste form. The release rate is dependent on the type of waste and container integrity and is the greatest unknown in application of this technique. Numerical multi-phase transport modeling of burial grounds at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory indicates that, under generalized conditions, the radioxenon isotopes will diffuse away from the waste and be found in the soil cap and adjacent to the burial ground at levels many orders of magnitude above the detection limit.

  18. Common trenching reduces damage to buried utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alfiere, E.P.

    1982-09-01

    Since 1972 Niagara Mohawk Power Co. has established a utility corridor, installing 503 miles of buried gas mains and electric cables in a common trench. Their guidelines for common trenching included (1) the developer's responsibility for providing a subdivision map showing the location of each sidewalk, lot, and roadway, (2) an easement strip paralleling the front lot (street) line that is to be cleared and graded by the developer before construction is started, (3) an electric planning department to prepare detailed construction drawings, coordinate plans with other utilities, determine the responsibility for trenching and backfilling, and determine that all the necessary easements have been secured, and (4) construction specifications varying the width and depth of the trench with the number and type of utilties occupying the joint trench. Advantages of the common trench program comprise reduced exposure to digups, communication and concern for each utility's facility, water and sewer construction installed before the common trench, and cost sharing that would reduce each facility's construction and restoration costs.

  19. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  20. Buried nanoantenna arrays: versatile antireflection coating.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Ali; Girgis, Emad; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Reflection is usually a detrimental phenomenon in many applications such as flat-panel-displays, solar cells, photodetectors, infrared sensors, and lenses. Thus far, to control and suppress the reflection from a substrate, numerous techniques including dielectric interference coatings, surface texturing, adiabatic index matching, and scattering from plasmonic nanoparticles have been investigated. A new technique is demonstrated to manage and suppress reflection from lossless and lossy substrates. It provides a wider flexibility in design versus previous methods. Reflection from a surface can be suppressed over a narrowband, wideband, or multiband frequency range. The antireflection can be dependent or independent of the incident wave polarization. Moreover, antireflection at a very wide incidence angle can be attained. The reflection from a substrate is controlled by a buried nanoantenna array, a structure composed of (1) a subwavelength metallic array and (2) a dielectric cover layer referred to as a superstrate. The material properties and thickness of the superstrate and nanoantennas' geometry and periodicity control the phase and intensity of the wave circulating inside the superstrate cavity. A minimum reflectance of 0.02% is achieved in various experiments in the mid-infrared from a silicon substrate. The design can be integrated in straightforward way in optical devices. The proposed structure is a versatile AR coating to optically impedance matches any substrate to free space in selected any narrow and broadband spectral response across the entire visible and infrared spectrum. PMID:24266700

  1. Seismic sonar sources for buried mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Steven R.; Muir, Thomas G.; Gaghan, Frederick E.; Fitzpatrick, Sean M.; Sheetz, Kraig E.; Guy, Jeremie

    2003-10-01

    Prior research on seismo-acoustic sonar for detection of buried targets [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2333-2343 (1998)] has continued with examination of various means for exciting interface waves (Rayleigh or Scholte) used to reflect from targets. Several seismic sources were examined for sand beach applications, including vibrating shakers, shaker devices configured to preferentially excite interface waves, linear force actuators, and arrays of shaker sources to create directional interface wave beams. Burial of some plate-like or rod-like portion of the vibrating devices was found to ensure good coupling to the beach. The preferential interface excitation device employed two degrees of freedom to mimic the two components of elliptically polarized interface waves, and was successfully demonstrated. However, it was found that at long ranges, the medium itself created two component interface waves from vibrating source radiations operating with one degree of freedom in the vertical plane. Linear force actuators were functional in this mode. An array of seven vertical shakers was utilized to create interface waves at ranges of 5 m, in the form of directional beams, some 8 deg wide at the half-power points, at frequencies around 100 Hz. Application of these devices for target detection is discussed in the companion paper. [Work sponsored by ONR.

  2. Compressive strain limits for buried pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, T.J.E.; Stephens, M.J.; DeGeer, D.D.; Chen, Q.

    1995-12-31

    Buried pipelines subjected to large differential ground movements experience deformation-induced stresses and strains that can cause local buckling, or pipe wrinkling. Severe wrinkling is a structural integrity concern, as it can lead to pipeline rupture. To assess this situation, current practice takes a conservative approach that suggests that compressive strains in a pipeline should be limited in order to avoid local buckle initiation. The research project discussed in this paper has developed an alternative approach that recognizes the ability of a pipe to plastically deform and wrinkle without being functionally impaired, provided a rational limit is set on the amount of wrinkling that is allowed to take place. This paper presents and discusses selected results from the four phases of this research work: (1) an assessment of existing data and analytical methods; (2) a large-scale experimental testing program; (3) development of a non-linear finite element model; and (4) development of new design criteria and semi-empirical prediction methods.

  3. Computer vision and sensor fusion for detecting buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Hernandez, J.E.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Schaich, P.C.; Buhl, M.R.; Kane, R.J.; DelGrande, N.K.

    1992-10-01

    Given multiple images of the surface of the earth from dual-band infrared sensors, our system fuses information from the sensors to reduce the effects of clutter and improve the ability to detect buried or surface target sites. Supervised learning pattern classifiers (including neural networks,) are used. We present results of experiments to detect buried land mines from real data, and evaluate the usefulness of fusing information from multiple sensor types. The novelty of the work lies mostly in the combination of the algorithms and their application to the very important and currently unsolved problem of detecting buried land mines from an airborne standoff platform.

  4. The problem of burying radioactive wastes containing transplutonium elements (TPE)

    SciTech Connect

    Bryzgalova, R.V.; Krivokhatskii, A.S.; Rogozin, Y.M.; Sinitsyna, G.S.

    1986-09-01

    This paper discusses the problem of burying radioactive wastes containing TPE. The most acceptable and developed method at present is that of disposal into continental, deep-lying, geological formatins. Based on an analysis of estimates of the thermal conditions on burying highly active wastes, including TPE concentrates, data on the filtration and sorption characteristics of rocks, estimates of the diffusion of radionuclide species capable of migrating, and taking into account the retention powers of rocks it is concluded that it is possible to bury such wastes in weakly permeable geological formations possessing shielding characteristics which ensure reliability and safety in burial.

  5. Designable buried waveguides in sapphire by proton implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Laversenne, L.; Hoffmann, P.; Pollnau, M.; Moretti, P.; Mugnier, J.

    2004-11-29

    Buried and stacked planar as well as buried single and parallel channel waveguides are fabricated in sapphire by proton implantation. Good control of the implantation parameters provides excellent confinement of the guided light in each structure. Low propagation losses are obtained in fundamental-mode, buried channel waveguides without postimplantation annealing. Choice of the implantation parameters allows one to design mode shapes with different ellipticity and/or mode asymmetry in each orthogonal direction, thus demonstrating the versatility of the fabrication method. Horizontal and vertical parallelization is demonstrated for the design of one- or two-dimensional waveguide arrays in hard crystalline materials.

  6. Identification of buried structures (aerial surveillance and analysis of buried waste) long-range project plan

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, K.L.

    1991-11-01

    This long-range plan presents the plan (i.e., budget, schedule, justification, and plans for technology deployment) for implementation of the Identification of Buried Structures project. Two subcontractors will test and demonstrate their technologies at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during October and November 1991, and will analyze their data and submit final reports to EG&G Idaho, Inc., by the end of December 1991. By February 21, 1992, EG&G Idaho will present a final report to the Department of Energy, assessing the subcontractor`s results and recommending further action.

  7. Mars - Paleostratigraphic restoration of buried surfaces in Tharsis montes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, D. H.; Tanaka, K. L.

    1981-01-01

    Volcanism in the Tharsis province of Mars occurred in several different areas and was generally continuous without large time intervals between eruptive episodes. Major lava flow units are numerous and extensive, but relatively thin. In many places, impact craters on buried surfaces project above younger flows that overlie them. A new application of crater dating methods has been developed to aid in the identification of these buried surfaces and to determine their lateral extent. The technique is especially adaptable to the Tharsis region where the stratigraphic succession of major flow units has been established by detailed geologic mapping. Knowledge of the overall stratigraphy allows correlations to be made between known and unknown surfaces by comparing their crater frequencies at diameters large enough to insure their recognition on the buried unit. The method has been applied to aid in the restoration of buried rock units and to construct a series of paleostratigraphic maps showing the sequence of major eruptive events in the Tharsis region.

  8. Carbon limitation patterns in buried and open urban streams

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urban streams alternate between darkened buried segments dominated by heterotrophic processes and lighted open segments dominated by autotrophic processes. We hypothesized that labile carbon leaking from autotrophic cells would reduce heterotrophic carbon limitation in open chan...

  9. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M; Powell, John S; Barlaz, Morton A

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C+H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0-10% in most samples. The C+H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27gOCg(-1) dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than previously reported. PMID:23942265

  10. Decomposition of forest products buried in landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiaoming; Padgett, Jennifer M.; Powell, John S.; Barlaz, Morton A.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • This study tracked chemical changes of wood and paper in landfills. • A decomposition index was developed to quantify carbohydrate biodegradation. • Newsprint biodegradation as measured here is greater than previous reports. • The field results correlate well with previous laboratory measurements. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to investigate the decomposition of selected wood and paper products in landfills. The decomposition of these products under anaerobic landfill conditions results in the generation of biogenic carbon dioxide and methane, while the un-decomposed portion represents a biogenic carbon sink. Information on the decomposition of these municipal waste components is used to estimate national methane emissions inventories, for attribution of carbon storage credits, and to assess the life-cycle greenhouse gas impacts of wood and paper products. Hardwood (HW), softwood (SW), plywood (PW), oriented strand board (OSB), particleboard (PB), medium-density fiberboard (MDF), newsprint (NP), corrugated container (CC) and copy paper (CP) were buried in landfills operated with leachate recirculation, and were excavated after approximately 1.5 and 2.5 yr. Samples were analyzed for cellulose (C), hemicellulose (H), lignin (L), volatile solids (VS), and organic carbon (OC). A holocellulose decomposition index (HOD) and carbon storage factor (CSF) were calculated to evaluate the extent of solids decomposition and carbon storage. Samples of OSB made from HW exhibited cellulose plus hemicellulose (C + H) loss of up to 38%, while loss for the other wood types was 0–10% in most samples. The C + H loss was up to 81%, 95% and 96% for NP, CP and CC, respectively. The CSFs for wood and paper samples ranged from 0.34 to 0.47 and 0.02 to 0.27 g OC g{sup −1} dry material, respectively. These results, in general, correlated well with an earlier laboratory-scale study, though NP and CC decomposition measured in this study were higher than

  11. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    SciTech Connect

    Mallay, D.

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  12. Data fusion for the detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Schaich, P.C.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-10-01

    The authors conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced delectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar, have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. The authors present this data along with a discussion of the application of sensor fusion techniques for this particular detection problem. The authors describe the data fusion architecture and discuss some relevant results of these classification methods.

  13. Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation. There are three possible combinations of BED strategies: (1) buried ducts; (2) encapsulated ducts (with ccSPF); and (3) buried and encapsulated ducts. The best solution for each situation depends on the climate, age of the house, and the configuration of the HVAC system and attic. For new construction projects, the team recommends that ducts be both encapsulated and buried as the minimal planning and costs required for this will yield optimal energy savings. The encapsulated/buried duct strategy, which utilizes ccSPF to address condensation concerns, is an approach that was developed specifically for humid climates.

  14. Comparison of broadband and hyperspectral thermal infrared imaging of buried threat objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFee, John E.; Achal, Steve B.; Diaz, Alejandra U.; Faust, Anthony A.

    2013-06-01

    Previous research by many groups has shown that broad-band thermal infrared (TIR) imagers can detect buried explosive threat devices, such as unexploded ordnance (UXO), landmines and improvised explosive devices (IEDs). Broad-band detection measures the apparent temperature - an average over the wave band of the product of the true soil surface temperature and the emissivity. Broad-band detection suffers from inconsistent performance (low signal, high clutter rates), due in part to diurnal variations, environmental and meteorological conditions, and soil surface effects. It has been suggested that hyperspectral TIR imaging might have improved performance since it can, in principle, allow extraction of the wavelength-dependent emissivity and the true soil surface temperature. This would allow the surface disturbance effects to be separated from the soil column (bulk) effects. A significant, and as yet unanswered, question is whether hyperspectral TIR images provide better detection capability (higher probability of detection and/or lower false alarm rate) than do broad-band thermal images. TIR hyperspectral image data of threat objects, buried and surface-laid in bare soil, were obtained in arid, desert-like conditions over full diurnal cycles for several days. Regions of interest containing threat objects and backgrounds were extracted throughout the time period. Simulated broad-band images were derived from the hyperspectral images. The diurnal variation of the images was studied. Hyperspectral was found to provide some advantage over broad-band imaging in detection of buried threat objects for the limited data set studied.

  15. Bistatic, above-critical angle scattering measurements of fully buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and clutter.

    PubMed

    Waters, Z J; Simpson, H J; Sarkissian, A; Dey, S; Houston, B H; Bucaro, J A; Yoder, T J

    2012-11-01

    Laboratory grade bistatic scattering measurements are conducted in order to examine the acoustic response of realistic fully buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) from above-critical angle insonification, between 2 and 40 kHz. A 127 mm diameter rocket UXO, a 155 mm diameter artillery shell, a natural rock of approximately the same size, and a cinder block are fully buried in water-saturated medium grained sand (mean grain diameter, 240 μm) at depths of 10 cm below the water-sediment interface. A two-dimensional array of bistatic scattering measurements is generated synthetically by scanning a single hydrophone in steps of 3 cm over a 1 m × 1 m patch directly above the targets at a height of 20 cm above the water-sediment interface. Three-dimensional volumetric acoustic images generated from the return waveforms reveal scattering components attributed to geometric and elastic scattering, as well as multiple-scattering interactions of returns between the sediment-water interface and the buried objects. The far-field target strength of the objects is estimated through extrapolation of the angular spectrum. Agreement is found between experimental data and simulated data generated from a finite-element-based, three-dimensional time-harmonic model (2-25 kHz). Separation of the measured UXO from the clutter objects is demonstrated through exploitation of structural-acoustics-based features. PMID:23145593

  16. User`s and reference guide to the INEL RML/analytical radiochemistry sample tracking database version 1.00

    SciTech Connect

    Femec, D.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report discusses the sample tracking database in use at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the Radiation Measurements Laboratory (RML) and Analytical Radiochemistry. The database was designed in-house to meet the specific needs of the RML and Analytical Radiochemistry. The report consists of two parts, a user`s guide and a reference guide. The user`s guide presents some of the fundamentals needed by anyone who will be using the database via its user interface. The reference guide describes the design of both the database and the user interface. Briefly mentioned in the reference guide are the code-generating tools, CREATE-SCHEMA and BUILD-SCREEN, written to automatically generate code for the database and its user interface. The appendices contain the input files used by the these tools to create code for the sample tracking database. The output files generated by these tools are also included in the appendices.

  17. Experimental investigation of buried tritium in plant and animal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. B.; Workman, W. J. G.; Davis, P. A.

    2008-07-15

    Buried exchangeable tritium appears as part of organically bound tritium (OBT) in the traditional experimental determination of OBT. Since buried tritium quickly exchanges with hydrogen atoms in the body following ingestion, assuming that it is part of OBT rather than part of tritiated water (HTO) could result in a significant overestimate of the ingestion dose. This paper documents an experimental investigation into the existence, amount and significance of buried tritium in plant and fish samples. OBT concentrations in the samples were determined in the traditional way and also following denaturing with five chemical solutions that break down large molecules and expose buried tritium to exchange with free hydrogen atoms. A comparison of the OBT concentrations before and after denaturing, together with the concentration of HTO in the supernatant obtained after denaturing, suggests that buried OBT may exist but makes up less than 5% of the OBT concentration in plants and at most 20% of the OBT concentration in fish. The effects of rinse time and rinse water volumes were investigated to optimize the removal of exchangeable OBT from the samples. (authors)

  18. Buried Alive! An Investigation of Plant Dormancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ashley J.; Balschweid, Mark; Hammond, Paul; Henderson, Brian; Johnson, Peggy A.; Kite, Abigayle; Martin, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    In this investigation, pairs of upper elementary students test germination percentage using seeds of Indian corn ("Zea mays"), scarlet runner beans ("Phaseolus coccineus"), and the prairie cup-plant ("Silphium perfoliatum") grown on rolled, damp paper towels. The pairs compare seeds that have been stratified, a simulation of overwintering and…

  19. Tabernaemontana divaricata leaves extract exacerbate burying behavior in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chanchal, Raj; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam; Navin, Raj; Nadeem, Sayyed

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Tabernaemontana divaricata (TD) from Apocynaceae family offers the traditional folklore medicinal benefits such as an anti-epileptic, anti-mania, brain tonic, and anti-oxidant. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of TD leaves on burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: Mice were treated with oral administration (p.o.) of ethanolic extract of TD (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg). Fluoxetine (FLX, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) was used as a reference drug. Obsessive-compulsive behavior was evaluated using marble-burying apparatus. Results: TD at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg dose-dependently inhibited the obsessive and compulsive behavior. The similar results were obtained from 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of FLX. TD and FLX did not affect motor activity. Conclusion: The results indicated that TD and FLX produced similar inhibitory effects on marble-burying behavior. PMID:26445709

  20. End effectors and attachments for buried waste excavation equipment

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. Their efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER&WM) Department`s needs and objectives. The present focus of BWID is to support retrieval and ex-situ treatment configuration options. Future activities will explore and support containment, and stabilization efforts in addition to the retrieval/ex situ treatment options. This report presents a literature search on the state-of-the-art in end effectors and attachments in support of excavator of buried transuranic waste. Included in the report are excavator platforms and a discussion of the various attachments. Also included is it list of vendors and specifications.

  1. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Final report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Loehr, C.A.; Bates, S.O. ); Thompson, L.E.; McGrail, B.P. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes two in situ vitrification field tests conducted on simulated buried waste pits during June and July 1990 at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to access the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste. Test results indicate the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 33 refs., 109 figs., 39 tabs.

  2. Sensor fusion methodology for remote detection of buried land mines

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.

    1990-04-01

    We are investigation a sensor fusion methodology for remote detection of buried land mines. Our primary approach is sensor intrafusion. Our dual-channel passive IR methodology decouples true (corrected) surface temperature variations of 0.2{degree}C from spatially dependent surface emissivity noise. It produces surface temperature maps showing patterns of conducted heat from buried objects which heat and cool differently from their surroundings. Our methodology exploits Planck's radiation law. It produces separate maps of surface emissivity variations which allow us to reduce false alarms. Our secondary approach is sensor interfusion using other methodologies. For example, an active IR CO{sub 2} laser reflectance channel helps distinguish surface targets unrelated to buried land mines at night when photographic methods are ineffective. Also, the interfusion of ground penetrating radar provides depth information for confirming the site of buried objects. Together with EG G in Las Vegas, we flew a mission at Nellis AFB using the Daedalus dual-channel (5 and 10 micron) IR scanner mounted on a helicopter platform at an elevation of 60 m above the desert sand. We detected surface temperature patterns associated with buried (inert) land mines covered by as much as 10 cm of dry sand. The respective spatial, spectral, thermal, emissivity and temporal signatures associated with buried targets differed from those associated with surface vegetation, rocks and manmade objects. Our results were consistent with predictions based on the annual Temperature Wave Model.They were confirmed by field measurements. The dual-channel sensor fusion methodology is expected to enhance the capabilities of the military and industrial community for standoff mine detection. Other important potential applications are open skies, drug traffic control and environmental restoration at waste burial sites. 11 figs.

  3. Method of forming buried oxide layers in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2000-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  4. Guided wave attenuation in coated pipes buried in sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is routinely used for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines in various industries. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to aboveground pipelines due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this study, we aim to increase test ranges for buried pipelines. The effect of pipe coatings on the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave attenuation is investigated using a full-scale experimental apparatus and model predictions. Tests are performed on a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8" pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand over a frequency range of 10-35 kHz. The application of a low impedance coating is shown to effectively decouple the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. We demonstrate ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both pipe and sand and the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dBm-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam, where the measured attenuation is in the range of 1.7-4.7 dBm-1. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry technique and used in model predictions of guided wave propagation in a buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the attenuation measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges, so such coatings would be attractive for new pipeline installations.

  5. Buried wire gage for wall shear stress measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, V. S.; Rose, W. C.

    1978-01-01

    A buried wire gage for measuring wall shear stress in fluid flow was studied and further developed. Several methods of making this relatively new type of gage were examined to arrive at a successful technique that is well-suited for wind-tunnel testing. A series of measurements was made to demonstrate the adequacy of a two-point calibration procedure for these gages. The buried wire gage is also demonstrated to be ideally suited for quantitative measurement of wall shear stress in wind-tunnel testing.

  6. Annual report on monitoring of the unsaturated zone and recharge areas at INEL to the state of Idaho INLEL Oversight COmmittee. Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.; Liou, J.; Finnie, J.

    1993-03-01

    This project, begun in March 1991, was originally structured as two separate research efforts: An investigation of the recharge phenomenon and surface water-ground water interactions at the INEL; and a study of water and contaminant movement through the unsaturated zone, including a review of computer models used to described this process. During the initial months of work, it became obvious to those involved in these studies that the two topic areas were intimately related, and work since that time has proceeded with no firm boundaries between the two efforts. Much of the Phase I work (March 1991--March 1992) consisted of a detailed review of available literature pertinent to the two research topics and to the INEL site. This Annual Report summarizes the other project activities during Phase III, and is organized into three sections: Section I -- an overview of the ongoing efforts related to computer model algorithms and data requirements for modeling the transport process in the unsaturated zone (Dr. Jim Liou). Section H -- a review of ongoing work to predict the growth and decay of the ground water mound beneath the INEL spreading basins, using the computer model UNSAT-2 (Dr. John Finnie). Section M -- a final report of the completed study effort examining the recharge rates associated with stream flow in the Big Lost River, and the effects of this recharge on ground water levels at the INEL site (Dr. Dennis Horn). Phase M of the project has now begun, and will conclude in December 1993 with two final reports documenting the work that has been briefly described in Sections I and H of this report.

  7. Annual report on monitoring of the unsaturated zone and recharge areas at INEL to the state of Idaho INLEL Oversight COmmittee

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, D.; Liou, J.; Finnie, J.

    1993-03-01

    This project, begun in March 1991, was originally structured as two separate research efforts: An investigation of the recharge phenomenon and surface water-ground water interactions at the INEL; and a study of water and contaminant movement through the unsaturated zone, including a review of computer models used to described this process. During the initial months of work, it became obvious to those involved in these studies that the two topic areas were intimately related, and work since that time has proceeded with no firm boundaries between the two efforts. Much of the Phase I work (March 1991--March 1992) consisted of a detailed review of available literature pertinent to the two research topics and to the INEL site. This Annual Report summarizes the other project activities during Phase III, and is organized into three sections: Section I -- an overview of the ongoing efforts related to computer model algorithms and data requirements for modeling the transport process in the unsaturated zone (Dr. Jim Liou). Section H -- a review of ongoing work to predict the growth and decay of the ground water mound beneath the INEL spreading basins, using the computer model UNSAT-2 (Dr. John Finnie). Section M -- a final report of the completed study effort examining the recharge rates associated with stream flow in the Big Lost River, and the effects of this recharge on ground water levels at the INEL site (Dr. Dennis Horn). Phase M of the project has now begun, and will conclude in December 1993 with two final reports documenting the work that has been briefly described in Sections I and H of this report.

  8. Modeling Blast Loading on Buried Reinforced Concrete Structures with Zapotec

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bessette, Greg C.

    2008-01-01

    A coupled Euler-Lagrange solution approach is used to model the response of a buried reinforced concrete structure subjected to a close-in detonation of a high explosive charge. The coupling algorithm is discussed along with a set of benchmark calculations involving detonations in clay and sand.

  9. Risk and cost tradeoffs for remote retrieval of buried waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, R.A.; Grienbenow, B.E.; Nickelson, D.F.

    1994-12-31

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration is supporting the development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of technologies that, when integrated with commercially available technologies, form a comprehensive system for the remediation of radioactive and hazardous buried waste. As a part of the program`s technology development, remote retrieval equipment is being developed and tested for the remediation of buried waste. During remedial planning, several factors are considered when choosing remote versus manual retrieval systems. Time that workers are exposed to radioactivity, chemicals, air particulate, and industrial hazards is one consideration. The generation of secondary waste is also a consideration because it amounts to more waste to treat and some wastes may require special handling or treatment. Cost is also a big factor in determining whether remote or manual operations will be used. Other considerations include implementability, effectiveness, and the number of required personnel. This paper investigates each of these areas to show the risk and cost benefits and limitations for remote versus manual retrieval of buried waste.

  10. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  11. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  12. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  13. 49 CFR 195.248 - Cover over buried pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cover over buried pipeline. 195.248 Section 195.248 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  14. Detection of concealed and buried chemicals by using multifrequency excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Yaohui; Chen, Meng-Ku; Yang, Chia-En; Chang, Yun-Ching; Yao, Jim; Cheng Jiping; Yin, Stuart; Hui Rongqing; Ruffin, Paul; Brantley, Christina; Edwards, Eugene; Luo, Claire

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we present a new type of concealed and buried chemical detection system by stimulating and enhancing spectroscopic signatures with multifrequency excitations, which includes a low frequency gradient dc electric field, a high frequency microwave field, and higher frequency infrared (IR) radiations. Each excitation frequency plays a unique role. The microwave, which can penetrate into the underground and/or pass through the dielectric covers with low attenuation, could effectively transform its energy into the concealed and buried chemicals and increases its evaporation rate from the sample source. Subsequently, a gradient dc electric field, generated by a Van De Graaff generator, not only serves as a vapor accelerator for efficiently expediting the transportation process of the vapor release from the concealed and buried chemicals but also acts as a vapor concentrator for increasing the chemical concentrations in the detection area, which enables the trace level chemical detection. Finally, the stimulated and enhanced vapors on the surface are detected by the IR spectroscopic fingerprints. Our theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that more than sixfold increase in detection signal can be achieved by using this proposed technology. The proposed technology can also be used for standoff detection of concealed and buried chemicals by adding the remote IR and/or thermal spectroscopic and imaging detection systems.

  15. Investigating buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhan

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the studies of buried polymer interfaces using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. Both buried solid/liquid and solid/solid interfaces involving polymeric materials are discussed. SFG studies of polymer/water interfaces show that different polymers exhibit varied surface restructuring behavior in water, indicating the importance of probing polymer/water interfaces in situ. SFG has also been applied to the investigation of interfaces between polymers and other liquids. It has been found that molecular interactions at such polymer/liquid interfaces dictate interfacial polymer structures. The molecular structures of silane molecules, which are widely used as adhesion promoters, have been investigated using SFG at buried polymer/silane and polymer/polymer interfaces, providing molecular-level understanding of polymer adhesion promotion. The molecular structures of polymer/solid interfaces have been examined using SFG with several different experimental geometries. These results have provided molecular-level information about polymer friction, adhesion, interfacial chemical reactions, interfacial electronic properties, and the structure of layer-by-layer deposited polymers. Such research has demonstrated that SFG is a powerful tool to probe buried interfaces involving polymeric materials, which are difficult to study by conventional surface sensitive analytical techniques. PMID:21113334

  16. Predicting the long-term fate of buried organic carbon in colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengang; Van Oost, Kristof; Govers, Gerard

    2015-04-01

    A significant part of the soil organic carbon (SOC) that is eroded in uplands is deposited and buried in colluvial settings. Understanding the fate of this deposited soil organic carbon is of key importance for the understanding of the role of (accelerated) erosion in the global C cycle: the residence time of the deposited carbon will determine if, and for how long, accelerated erosion due to human disturbance will induce sequestration of SOC from the atmosphere to the soil. Experimental studies may provide useful information, but, given the time scale under consideration, the response of the colluvial SOC can only be simulated using numerical models which need careful calibration using field data. In this study, we present a depth explicit SOC model (ICBM-DE) including soil profile evolution due to sedimentation to simulate the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils. The SOC profile predicted by our model is in good agreement with field observations. The C burial efficiency (the ratio of current C content of the buried sediments to the original C content at the time of sedimentation) of deposited sediments exponentially decreases with time and gradually reached an equilibrium value. This equilibrium C burial efficiency is positively correlated with the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate is crucial for the long-term dynamics of the deposited SOC as it controls the time that buried sediments spend at a given soil depth, thereby determining its temporal evolution of C input and decomposition rate during the burial process: C input and decomposition rate vary with depth due to the vertical variation of root distribution and soil environmental factors such as (but not limited to) humidity, temperature and aeration. The model demonstrates that, for the profiles studied, it takes ca. 300 yr for the buried SOC to lose half of its C load. It would also take centuries for the SOC accumulated in colluvial soils over the past decades due to soil redistribution under

  17. Predicting the long-term fate of buried organic carbon in colluvial soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhengang; Van Oost, Kristof; Govers, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    A significant part of the soil organic carbon (SOC) that is eroded in uplands is deposited and buried in colluvial settings. Understanding the fate of this deposited soil organic carbon is of key importance for the understanding of the role of (accelerated) erosion in the global C cycle: the residence time of the deposited carbon will determine if, and for how long, accelerated erosion due to human disturbance will induce sequestration of SOC from the atmosphere to the soil. Experimental studies may provide useful information, but, given the time scale under consideration, the response of the colluvial SOC can only be simulated using numerical models which need careful calibration using field data. In this study, we present a depth explicit SOC model including soil profile evolution due to sedimentation to simulate the long-term C dynamics in colluvial soils. The SOC profile predicted by our model is in good agreement with field observations. The C burial efficiency (the ratio of current C content of the buried sediments to the original C content at the time of sedimentation) of deposited sediments exponentially decreases with time and gradually reaches an equilibrium value. This equilibrium C burial efficiency is positively correlated with the sedimentation rate. The sedimentation rate is crucial for the long-term dynamics of the deposited SOC as it controls the time that buried sediments spend at a given soil depth, thereby determining its temporal evolution of C input and decomposition rate during the burial process: C input and decomposition rate vary with depth due to the vertical variation of root distribution and soil environmental factors such as (but not limited to) humidity, temperature, and aeration. The model demonstrates that, for the profiles studied, it takes circa 300 years for the buried SOC to lose half of its C load. It would also take centuries for the SOC accumulated in colluvial soils over the past decades due to soil redistribution under

  18. MCNP Modeling Results for Location of Buried TRU Waste Drums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinman, D. K.; Schweitzer, J. S.

    2006-05-01

    In the 1960's, fifty-five gallon drums of TRU waste were buried in shallow pits on remote U.S. Government facilities such as the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (now split into the Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Completion Project [ICP]). Subsequently, it was decided to remove the drums and the material that was in them from the burial pits and send the material to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. Several technologies have been tried to locate the drums non-intrusively with enough precision to minimize the chance for material to be spread into the environment. One of these technologies is the placement of steel probe holes in the pits into which wireline logging probes can be lowered to measure properties and concentrations of material surrounding the probe holes for evidence of TRU material. There is also a concern that large quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOC) are also present that would contaminate the environment during removal. In 2001, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) built two pulsed neutron wireline logging tools to measure TRU and VOC around the probe holes. The tools are the Prompt Fission Neutron (PFN) and the Pulsed Neutron Gamma (PNG), respectively. They were tested experimentally in surrogate test holes in 2003. The work reported here estimates the performance of the tools using Monte-Carlo modelling prior to field deployment. A MCNP model was constructed by INEEL personnel. It was modified by the authors to assess the ability of the tools to predict quantitatively the position and concentration of TRU and VOC materials disposed around the probe holes. The model was used to simulate the tools scanning the probe holes vertically in five centimetre increments. A drum was included in the model that could be placed near the probe hole and at other locations out to forty-five centimetres from the probe-hole in five centimetre increments. Scans were performed with no chlorine in the

  19. An iterative analytic—numerical method for scattering from a target buried beneath a rough surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Run-Wen; Guo, Li-Xin; Wang, Rui

    2014-11-01

    An efficiently iterative analytical—numerical method is proposed for two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic scattering from a perfectly electric conducting (PEC) target buried under a dielectric rough surface. The basic idea is to employ the Kirchhoff approximation (KA) to accelerate the boundary integral method (BIM). Below the rough surface, an iterative system is designed between the rough surface and the target. The KA is used to simulate the initial field on the rough surface based on the Fresnel theory, while the target is analyzed by the boundary integral method to obtain a precise result. The fields between the rough surface and the target can be linked by the boundary integral equations below the rough surface. The technique presented here is highly efficient in terms of computational memory, time, and versatility. Numerical simulations of two typical models are carried out to validate the method.

  20. New Screw Design for Securing Buried Distractors Usefulness and Ease of Removal.

    PubMed

    Fariña, Rodrigo; Hinojosa, Andrés; Sánchez, Martín; Olate, Sergio

    2015-07-01

    There are 2 types of distraction devices for mandibular distraction: buried and external. The advantage of buried devices is the stability, but the difficulty in removing the screws is the greatest disadvantage. To resolve this problem, an osteosynthesis screw (Fariña Screw) has been designed, which greatly facilitates its removal when buried distractors are used. PMID:26102540

  1. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  2. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  3. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2629 - External corrosion control: buried or submerged components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: buried or submerged... corrosion control: buried or submerged components. (a) Each buried or submerged component that is subject to external corrosive attack must be protected from external corrosion by— (1) Material that has been...

  6. Estimating the impulse response of buried objects from ground-penetrating radar signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Lijn, Fedde; Roth, Friedrich; Verhaegen, Michel

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a novel deconvolution algorithm designed to estimate the impulse response of buried objects based on ground penetrating radar (GPR) signals. The impulse response is a rich source of information about the buried object and therefore very useful for intelligent signal processing of GPR data. For example, it can be used in a target classification scheme to reduce the false alarm rate in demining operations. Estimating the target impulse response from the incident and scattered radar signals is a basic deconvolution problem. However, noise sensitivity and ground dispersion prevent the use of simple deconvolution methods like linear least squares deconvolution. Instead, a new deconvolution algorithm has been developed that computes estimates adhering to a physical impulse response model and that can be characterized by a limited number of parameters. It is shown that the new algorithm is robust with respect to noise and that it can deal with ground dispersion. The general performance of the algorithm has been tested on data generated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. The results demonstrate that the algorithm can distinguish between different dielectric and metal targets, making it very suitable for use in a classification scheme. Moreover, since the estimated impulse responses have physical meaning they can be related to target characteristics such as size and material properties. A direct application of this is the estimation of the permittivity of a dielectric target from its impulse response and that of a calibration target.

  7. Cryofracture as a tool for preprocessing retrieved buried and stored transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Winberg, M.R.; Ancho, M.L. ); Osborne, D. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes important features of an experimental demonstration of applying the Cryofracture process to size-reduce retrieved buried and stored transuranic-contaminated wastes. By size reducing retrieved buried and stored waste, treatment technologies such as thermal treatment can be expedited. Additionally, size reduction of the waste can decrease the amount of storage space required by reducing the volume requirements of storage containers. A demonstration program was performed at the Cryofracture facility by Nuclear Remedial Technologies for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Cryofracture is a size-reducing process whereby objects are frozen to liquid nitrogen temperatures and crushed in a large hydraulic press. Material s at cryogenic temperatures have low ductility and are easily size-reduced by fracturing. Six 55-gallon drums and six 2 {times} 2 {times} 8 ft boxes containing simulated waste with tracers were subjected to the Cryofracture process. Data was obtained on (a) cool-down time, (b) yield strength of the containers, (c) size distribution of the waste before and after the Cryofracture process, (d) volume reduction of the waste, and (e) sampling of air and surface dusts for spread of tracers to evaluate potential contamination spread. The Cryofracture process was compared to conventional shredders and detailed cost estimates were established for construction of a Cryofracture facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  8. Cryofracture as a tool for preprocessing retrieved buried and stored transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, G.G.; Winberg, M.R.; Ancho, M.L.; Osborne, D.

    1992-08-01

    This paper summarizes important features of an experimental demonstration of applying the Cryofracture process to size-reduce retrieved buried and stored transuranic-contaminated wastes. By size reducing retrieved buried and stored waste, treatment technologies such as thermal treatment can be expedited. Additionally, size reduction of the waste can decrease the amount of storage space required by reducing the volume requirements of storage containers. A demonstration program was performed at the Cryofracture facility by Nuclear Remedial Technologies for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Cryofracture is a size-reducing process whereby objects are frozen to liquid nitrogen temperatures and crushed in a large hydraulic press. Material s at cryogenic temperatures have low ductility and are easily size-reduced by fracturing. Six 55-gallon drums and six 2 {times} 2 {times} 8 ft boxes containing simulated waste with tracers were subjected to the Cryofracture process. Data was obtained on (a) cool-down time, (b) yield strength of the containers, (c) size distribution of the waste before and after the Cryofracture process, (d) volume reduction of the waste, and (e) sampling of air and surface dusts for spread of tracers to evaluate potential contamination spread. The Cryofracture process was compared to conventional shredders and detailed cost estimates were established for construction of a Cryofracture facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory.

  9. In situ grouting of buried transuranic waste with polyacrylamide

    SciTech Connect

    Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Farmer, C.D.; Hyder, L.K.; Supaokit, P.

    1987-01-01

    This project is a demonstration and evaluation of the in situ hydrologic stabilization of buried transuranic waste at a humid site via grout injection. Two small trenches, containing buried transuranic waste, were filled with 34.000 L of polyacrylamide grout. Initial field results have indicated that voids within the trenches were totally filled by the grout and that the intratrench hydraulic conductivity was reduced to below field-measurable values. No evidence of grout constituents were observed in twelve perimeter groundwater monitoring wells indicating that grout was contained completely within the two trenches. Polyacrylamide grout was selected for field demonstration over the polyacrylate grout due to its superior performance in laboratory degradation studies. Also supporting the selection of polyacrylamide was the difficulty in controlling the set time of the acrylate polymerization. Based on preliminary degradation monitoring, the polyacrylamide was estimated to have a microbiological half-life of 362 years in the test soil. 15 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Field test plan: Buried waste technologies, Fiscal Year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Heard, R.E.; Hyde, R.A.; Engleman, V.S.; Evans, J.D.; Jackson, T.W.

    1995-06-01

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development, supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that, when integrated with commercially available baseline technologies, form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The Fiscal Year 1995 effort is to deploy and test multiple technologies from four functional areas of buried waste remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, and treatment. This document is the basic operational planning document for the deployment and testing of the technologies that support the field testing in Fiscal Year 1995. Discussed in this document are the scope of the tests; purpose and objective of the tests; organization and responsibilities; contingency plans; sequence of activities; sampling and data collection; document control; analytical methods; data reduction, validation, and verification; quality assurance; equipment and instruments; facilities and utilities; health and safety; residuals management; and regulatory management.

  11. Continuum soil modeling in the static analysis of buried structures

    SciTech Connect

    Julyk, L.J.; Marlow, R.S.; Moore, C.J.; Day, J.P.; Dyrness, A.D.

    1993-10-01

    Soil loading traditionally has been modeled as a hydrostatic pressure, a practice acceptable for many design applications. In the analyses of buried structure with predictive goals, soil compliance and load redistribution in the presence of soil plasticity are important factors to consider in determining the appropriate response of the structure. In the analysis of existing buried waste-storage tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, three soil-tank interaction modeling considerations are addressed. First, the soil interacts with the tank as the tank expands and contracts during thermal cycles associated with changes in the heat generated by the waste material as a result of additions and subtractions of the waste. Second, the soil transfers loads from the surface to the tank and provides support by resisting radial displacement of the tank haunch. Third, conventional finite-element mesh development causes artificial stress concentrations in the soil associated with differential settlement.

  12. Burying flowlines and cables in 186-m water

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, G.

    1983-07-01

    UDI Group Ltd. and British Petroleum Development Ltd. have developed a 30-ton remote controlled seabed vehicle. The vehicle was built with the expressed purpose of burying the 35 km of flowlines for the remote wellheads on the Magnus field in 186-m of water, in order to increase thermal insulation of pipelines and to produce a greater degree of physical protection against damage from fishing gear, etc. During the 1981 trials, it was decided to carry out further development of the system for simultaneous laying and burial of the control umbilicals required for the remote wellhead controls on Magnus. For this work, it was necessary for each control umbilical to be positioned alongside its respective flowline along the route between the wellhead and the platform. At the platform end of the route, the flowlines and umbilicals are densely concentrated, and accuracy is required in the laying and burying of the umbilicals.

  13. Aeromagnetic Expression of Buried Basaltic Volcanoes Near Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, D. W.; Mankinen, E.A.; Blakely, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Ponce, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey has defined a number of small dipolar anomalies indicating the presence of magnetic bodies buried beneath the surface of Crater Flat and the Amargosa Desert. Results of potential-field modeling indicate that isolated, small-volume, highly magnetic bodies embedded within the alluvial deposits of both areas produce the anomalies. Their physical characteristics and the fact that they tend to be aligned along major structural trends provide strong support for the hypothesis that the anomalies reflect buried basaltic volcanic centers. Other, similar anomalies are identified as possible targets for further investigation. High-resolution gravity and ground-magnetic surveys, perhaps along with drilling sources of selected anomalies and radiometric age determinations, can provide valuable constraints in estimating potential volcanic hazard to the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain.

  14. Schedule optimization for IR detection of buried targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derzko, Zenon; Eylander, John B.; Broach, J. Thomas

    2012-06-01

    Schedule optimization of air platforms for IR sensors is a priority because of 1) the time sensitive nature of the IR detection of buried targets, 2) limited air platform assets, and 3) limited bandwidth for live-feed video. Scheduling optimization for airborne IR sensors depends on transient meteorological predictions, transient soil properties, target type and depth. This work involves using predictions from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, a regional weather model, as input to the Countermine Computational Test Bed (CTB), a 3D finite element model that accounts for coupled heat and moisture transfer in soil and targets. The result is a continuous 2-day optimized schedule for airborne IR assets. In this paper, a 2-day optimized schedule for an airborne IR sensor asset is demonstrated for a single geographical location with a buried target. Transient physical surface and subsurface soil temperatures are presented as well as the phase-shifted, transient thermal response of the target.

  15. Common causes of material degradation in buried piping

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, C.F.

    1997-01-20

    Buried pipe may fail for innumerable reasons. Causes can be mechanical damage/breakage, chemically initiated corrosion, or a combination. Failures may originate either internally or externally on the pipe. They may be related to flaws in the design, to excessive or unanticipated internal pressure or ground level loading, and/or to poor or uncertain installation practice. Or the pipe may simply ``wear out`` in service. Steel is strong and very forgiving in underground applications, especially with regard to backfill. However, soil support developed through densification or compaction is critical for brittle concrete and vitrified clay tile pipe, and is very important for cast iron and plastic pipe. Chemistry of the soil determines whether or not it will enhance corrosion or other types of degradation. Various causes and mechanisms for deterioration of buried pipe are indicated. Some peculiarities of the different materials of construction are characterized. Repair methods and means to circumvent special problems are described.

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Buried and Encapsulated Ducts, Jacksonville, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    Ductwork installed in unconditioned attics can significantly increase the overall heating and cooling costs of residential buildings. In fact, estimated duct thermal losses for single-family residential buildings with ductwork installed in unconditioned attics range from 10% to 45%. In a study of three single-story houses in Florida, the Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) investigated the strategy of using buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BED) to reduce duct thermal losses in existing homes. The BED strategy consists of burying ducts in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulating them in closed cell polyurethane spray foam (ccSPF) insulation; specifically for use in humid climates.

  17. Buried Porous Silicon-Germanium Layers in Monocrystalline Silicon Lattices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); George, Thomas (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    Monocrystalline semiconductor lattices with a buried porous semiconductor layer having different chemical composition is discussed and monocrystalline semiconductor superlattices with a buried porous semiconductor layers having different chemical composition than that of its monocrystalline semiconductor superlattice are discussed. Lattices of alternating layers of monocrystalline silicon and porous silicon-germanium have been produced. These single crystal lattices have been fabricated by epitaxial growth of Si and Si-Ge layers followed by patterning into mesa structures. The mesa structures are strain etched resulting in porosification of the Si-Ge layers with a minor amount of porosification of the monocrystalline Si layers. Thicker Si-Ge layers produced in a similar manner emitted visible light at room temperature.

  18. FY-94 buried waste integrated demonstration program report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (ER/WM) needs and objectives. This document summarizes previous demonstrations and describes the FY-94 BWID technology development and demonstration activities. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (OTD), BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process.

  19. Prediction of the TNT signature from buried UXO/landmines

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; Phelan, J.M.; Finsterle, S.A.; Pruess, K.

    1998-06-01

    The detection and removal of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) and landmines is one of the most important problems facing the world today. Numerous detection strategies are being developed, including infrared, electrical conductivity, ground-penetrating radar, and chemical sensors. Chemical sensors rely on the detection of TNT molecules, which are transported from buried UXO/landmines by advection and diffusion in the soil. As part of this effort, numerical models are being developed to predict TNT transport in soils including the effect of precipitation and evaporation. Modifications will be made to TOUGH2 for application to the TNT chemical sensing problem. Understanding the fate and transport of TNT in the soil will affect the design, performance and operation of chemical sensors by indicating preferred sensing strategies.

  20. Investigation of guided waves propagation in pipe buried in sand

    SciTech Connect

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J.S.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of pipelines by guided wave testing is a well-established method for the detection of corrosion defects in pipelines, and is currently used routinely in a variety of industries, e.g. petrochemical and energy. When the method is applied to pipes buried in soil, test ranges tend to be significantly compromised because of attenuation of the waves caused by energy radiating into the soil. Moreover, the variability of soil conditions dictates different attenuation characteristics, which in-turn results in different, unpredictable, test ranges. We investigate experimentally the propagation and attenuation characteristics of guided waves in pipes buried in fine sand using a well characterized full scale experimental apparatus. The apparatus consists of an 8 inch-diameter, 5.6-meters long steel pipe embedded over 3 meters of its length in a rectangular container filled with fine sand, and an air-bladder for the application of overburden pressure. Longitudinal and torsional guided waves are excited in the pipe and recorded using a transducer ring (Guided Ultrasonics Ltd). Acoustic properties of the sand are measured independently in-situ and used to make model predictions of wave behavior in the buried pipe. We present the methodology and the systematic measurements of the guided waves under a range of conditions, including loose and compacted sand. It is found that the application of overburden pressure modifies the compaction of the sand and increases the attenuation, and that the measurement of the acoustic properties of sand allows model prediction of the attenuation of guided waves in buried pipes with a high level of confidence.

  1. Quantitation of buried contamination by use of solvents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, S. P.; Hsiao, P.; Hill, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    A method for determining the quantity of buried contamination using solvents is presented. A nonsporocidal method with which high spore recoveries are achievable from silicone coatings and potting compounds was developed. An extension of the method to silicon potting compound RTV 60 is reported. It is stated that spores remain viable during chemical curing of silicone potting compounds and more than ninety percent of the spore population is recoverable by amine dissolution and proper plating techniques.

  2. Final Report: Imaging of Buried Nanoscale Optically Active Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Appelbaum, Ian

    2011-07-05

    This is a final report covering work done at University of Maryland to develop a Ballistic Electron Emission Luminescence (BEEL) microscope. This technique was intended to examine the carrier transport and photon emission in deeply buried optically-active layers and thereby provide a means for materials science to unmask the detailed consequences of experimentally controllable growth parameters, such as quantum dot size, statistics and orientation, and defect density and charge recombination pathways.

  3. Detection of buried objects using reflected GNSS signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notarpietro, Riccardo; De Mattia, Salvatore; Campanella, Maurizio; Pei, Yuekun; Savi, Patrizia

    2014-12-01

    The use of reflected Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals for sensing the Earth has been growing rapidly in recent years. This technique is founded on the basic principle of detecting GNSS signals after they have been reflected off the Earth's surface and using them to determine the properties of the reflecting surface remotely. This is the so-called GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) technique. In this paper, a new application regarding the detection of metallic buried objects is analyzed and it is validated through several experimental campaigns. Although the penetration depth of GNSS signals into the ground is not optimal and depends on the soil moisture, GNSS signals can likely interact approximately with the first 10 cm of the ground and therefore can be reflected back by any metallic object buried on the first terrain layer. A very light and low-cost GNSS receiver prototype based on a software-defined radio approach was developed. This receiver can be used as a payload on board small drones or unmanned aerial systems to detect metallic objects (mines or other explosive devices). A signal processing tool based on an open-loop GNSS signal acquisition strategy was developed. The results of two experiments which show the possibility of using GNSS-R signals to detect buried metallic objects and to provide an estimate of their dimensions are discussed.

  4. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  5. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  6. Degradation of carbohydrates and lignins in buried woods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedges, J.I.; Cowie, G.L.; Ertel, J.R.; James, Barbour R.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Spruce, alder, and oak woods deposited in coastal sediments were characterized versus their modern counterparts by quantification of individual neutral sugars and lignin-derived phenols as well as by scanning electron microscopy, 13C NMR, and elemental analysis. The buried spruce wood from a 2500 yr old deposit was unaltered whereas an alder wood from the same horizon and an oak wood from an open ocean sediment were profoundly degraded. Individual sugar and lignin phenol analyses indicate that at least 90 and 98 wt% of the initial total polysaccharides in the buried alder and oak woods, respectively, have been degraded along with 15-25 wt% of the lignin. At least 75% of the degraded biopolymer has been physically lost from these samples. This evidence is supported by the SEM, 13C NMR and elemental analyses, all of which indicate selective loss of the carbohydrate moiety. The following order of stability was observed for the major biochemical constituents of both buried hardwoods: vanillyl and p-hydroxyl lignin structural units > syringyl lignin structural units > pectin > ??-cellulose > hemicellulose. This sequence can be explained by selective preservation of the compound middle lamella regions of the wood cell walls. The magnitude and selectivity of the indicated diagenetic reactions are sufficient to cause major changes in the chemical compositions of wood-rich sedimentary organic mixtures and to provide a potentially large in situ nutrient source. ?? 1985.

  7. Comparison of the 1981 INEL dispersion data with results from a number of different models

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, W S; Sykes, R I; Parker, S F

    1985-05-01

    The results from simulations by 12 different dispersion models are compared with observations from an extensive field experiment conducted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in July, 1981. Comparisons were made on the bases of hourly SF/sub 6/ samples taken at the surface, out to approximately 10 km from the 46 m release tower, both during and following 7 different 8-hour releases. Comparisons are also made for total integrated doses collected out to approximately 40 km. Three classes of models are used. Within the limited range appropriate for Class A models this data comparison shows that neither the puff models or the transport and diffusion models agree with the data any better than the simple Gaussian plume models. The puff and transport and diffusion models do show a slight edge in performance in comparison with the total dose over the extended range approximate for class B models. The best model results for the hourly samples show approximately 40% calculated within a factor of two when a 15/sup 0/ uncertainty in plume position is permitted and it is assumed that higher data samples may occur at stations between the actual sample sites. This is increased to 60% for the 12 hour integrated dose and 70% for the total integrated dose when the same performance measure is used. None of the models reproduce the observed patchy dose patterns. This patchiness is consistent with the discussion of the inherent uncertainty associated with time averaged plume observations contained in our companion reports on the scientific critique of available models.

  8. Neural Network Simulation Package from Ohio State University

    SciTech Connect

    Wickham, K.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report describes the Neural Network Simulation Package acquired from Ohio State University. The package known as Neural Shell V2.1 was evaluated and benchmarked at the INEL Supercomputing Center (ISC). The emphasis was on the Back Propagation Net which is currently considered one of the more promising types of neural networks. This report also provides additional documentation that may be helpful to anyone using the package.

  9. Straddle-packer determination of the vertical distribution of hydraulic properties in the Snake River Plain Aquifer at well USGS-44, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, INEL

    SciTech Connect

    Monks, J.I.

    1994-09-23

    Many of the monitor wells that penetrate the upper portion of the Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are open over large intervals that include multiple water-bearing zones. Most of these wells are equipped with dedicated submersible pumps. Water of varying quality from different water-bearing zones is mixed within the wells. The hydrologic properties of individual water bearing zones are difficult to determine. Water quality and water-level data on organic, heavy metal, and radioactive contaminants have been collected, reported, and interpreted from these monitor wells for more than forty years. The problems associated with well completions over large intervals through multiple water-bearing zones raise significant questions about the data. A straddle-packer system was developed and applied at the INEL site to investigate the monitor well network. The straddle-packer system, hydraulic testing methods, data analysis procedures, and testing results are described in this report. The straddle-packer system and the straddle-packer testing and data evaluation procedures can be improved for future testing at the INEL site. Recommended improvements to the straddle-packer system are: (1) improved transducer pressure sensing systems, (2) faster opening riser valve, and (3) an in-line flowmeter in the riser pipe. Testing and data evaluation recommended improvements are: (1) simultaneous valve opening during slug tests, (2) analysis of the ratio of the times for head change and recovery to occur, (3) constant-drawdown tests of high transmissivity intervals, (4) multiple-well aquifer tests, and (5) long term head monitoring.

  10. Measurement of the Buried Structure of Sub-30 nm Block Copolymer Lithography Patterns Using Resonant X-ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kline, Joseph

    2014-03-01

    The semiconductor industry is pushing the limits of conventional optical lithography. According to the ITRS roadmap, new lithographic methods will be required to economically produce the smaller patterned features of future processing generations. Technologies being evaluated to produce these finer feature sizes include extreme ultraviolet lithography, multiple-beam electron beam lithography, multiple exposures, and directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs). One of the critical questions remaining for BCP lithography is the buried structure and potential 3D defects not visible with surface characterization methods such as scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We have combined resonant soft x-ray scattering with critical-dimension small-angle x-ray scattering (CD-SAXS) to determine the buried structure of the two blocks, the interfacial roughness, and the pitch uniformity in native BCP films with sub-12 nm features with programmed changes in the template. We found samples that had similar top surface structure often had substantial variations in their buried structure. We also found that lamella on a neutral surface were almost always different from the neighboring lamella on a preferential surface. We will discuss how these insights into the 3D structure of the block copolymer interface correspond to computational simulations of the directed self-assembly process of line-space pattern gratings.

  11. CONTAMINATION CONTROL DURING IN SITU JET GROUTING FOR APPLICATION IN A BURIED TRANSURANIC WASTE SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Guy G.; Jessmore, Jim J.

    2003-02-27

    Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

  12. Contamination Control During In Situ Jet Grouting for Application in a Buried Transuranic Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, Guy George; Jessmore, James Joseph

    2003-02-01

    Engineers at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) have developed means of contamination control associated with jet-grouting buried radioactive mixed waste sites. Finely divided plutonium/americium oxide particulate can escape as the drill stem of the jet-grouting apparatus exits a waste deposit in preparation for insertion in another injection hole. In studying various options for controlling this potential contamination, engineers found that an elaborate glovebox/drill string shroud system prevents contaminants from spreading. Researchers jet-grouted a pit with nonradioactive tracers to simulate the movement of plutonium fines during an actual application. Data from the testing indicate that the grout immobilizes the tracer material by locking it up in particles large enough to resist aerosolization.

  13. Computation of Rate Constants for Diffusion of Small Ligands to and from Buried Protein Active Sites.

    PubMed

    Wang, P-H; De Sancho, D; Best, R B; Blumberger, J

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of ligands to actives sites of proteins is essential to enzyme catalysis and many cellular signaling processes. In this contribution we review our recently developed methodology for calculation of rate constants for diffusion and binding of small molecules to buried protein active sites. The diffusive dynamics of the ligand obtained from molecular dynamics simulation is coarse grained and described by a Markov state model. Diffusion and binding rate constants are then obtained either from the reactive flux formalism or by fitting the time-dependent population of the Markov state model to a phenomenological rate law. The method is illustrated by applications to diffusion of substrate and inhibitors in [NiFe] hydrogenase, CO-dehydrogenase, and myoglobin. We also discuss a recently developed sensitivity analysis that allows one to identify hot spots in proteins, where mutations are expected to have the strongest effects on ligand diffusion rates. PMID:27497172

  14. Estimating Magnetic Polarizability Tensor of Buried Metallic Targets for Land Mine Clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekdouk, B.; Marsh, L. A.; Armitage, D. W.; Peyton, A. J.

    This chapter addresses the problem of identifying metallic objects in buried land mines and discriminating them from clutter using low-frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) techniques. From dipolar fields, the magnetic polarizability tensor extracted from the target response can be used as a basis for identification. Here, a deterministic nonlinear optimization method is presented to estimate target polarizability matrix and location by fitting a dipole model to EMI data collected above target in a least squares sense. Using finite element simulated data with added synthetic low-frequency noise (10 dB SNR), results show initial guess misestimating target position with few centimeters in the transversal (x, y) plane can be corrected very close to the true location. The method is also able to estimate the polarizability tensor to within 12 % error of the true tensor.

  15. Computational methods for shape restoration of buried objects in Compton backscatter imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Yoichi; Monroe, J.; Keshavmurthy, S.; Jacobs, A.M.; Dugan, E.T.

    1996-01-01

    Image restoration techniques are studied for Compton backscatter imaging as applied to identification of a land mine buried in soil. Mathematical methods are developed to restore images, which include artifacts due to photon noise, soil surface irregularity, and vertical motion of the imaging system. The image restoration is formulated as an inverse photon transport problem. The forward photon transport is modeled by using a two-collision response function. The inverse problem then is solved by applying an iterative minimization algorithm, resulting in an estimation of characteristic parameters of objects. Mathematical relations among detector responses are derived by experimentally analyzing the detector response characteristics when there are soil surface irregularity and vertical motion of the imaging system. These are used to remove the artifacts from the images. The method successfully restores the geometrical feature of the object under simulated battlefield imaging conditions.

  16. Exploiting sparsity and field conditioning in subsurface microwave imaging of nonweak buried targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevacqua, Martina; Crocco, Lorenzo; Donato, Loreto Di; Isernia, Tommaso; Palmeri, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    An efficient inverse scattering strategy is proposed to achieve dielectric characterization of buried objects in lossy soils. The approach takes advantage of Virtual Experiments and Compressive Sensing to obtain quantitative reconstructions of nonweak targets which are nonsparse in the pixel representation basis, commonly adopted in microwave imaging. In addition, an original strategy is adopted to overcome the relevant information lack arising when data are gathered under aspect-limited configurations, such as in ground penetrating radar (GPR) surveys. The proposed strategy significantly outperforms the results achievable with the "state of the art" standard approaches since it allows to achieve nearly optimal reconstructions within a linear framework and without increasing the overall computational burden. Numerical examples with simulated data are given to show the feasibility of the proposed strategy.

  17. Recent studies of airblast from buried charges, for environmental charges, for environmental protection from HEST events

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Characteristics of blast waves from explosions in simple geometries and containment media have been well defined by hydrodynamic models and verified by experiment. A large class of useful explosions, those only partially contained by the close surrounding medium, are less-adequately understood. This report addresses the problem of airblast emitted into the atmosphere from explosions buried in the ground at less than containment depth. Examples of such explosions have arisen in cratering excavation, mining and quarrying, ordnance disposal, and military High Explosives Simulation Tests (HEST). Some recent HEST data have been assembled here to help define an empirical approach to airblast predictions, for operational safety as well as for controlling environmental impact on neighboring communities.

  18. Tracer dispersion simulation in low wind speed conditions with a new 2D Langevin equation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anfossi, D.; Alessandrini, S.; Trini Castelli, S.; Ferrero, E.; Oettl, D.; Degrazia, G.

    The simulation of atmospheric dispersion in low wind speed conditions (LW) is still recognised as a challenge for modellers. Recently, a new system of two coupled Langevin equations that explicitly accounts for meandering has been proposed. It is based on the study of turbulence and dispersion properties in LW. The new system was implemented in the Lagrangian stochastic particle models LAMBDA and GRAL. In this paper we present simulations with this new approach applying it to the tracer experiments carried out in LW by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL, USA) in 1974 and by the Graz University of Technology and CNR-Torino near Graz in 2003. To assess the improvement obtained with the present model with respect to previous models not taking into account the meandering effect, the simulations for the INEL experiments were also performed with the old version of LAMBDA. The results of the comparisons clearly indicate that the new approach improves the simulation results.

  19. Reflection Seismic Imaging of Buried Valleys, Onshore Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykke-Andersen, H.; Jørgensen, F.; Nørmark, E.

    The steadily increasing demands for securing supplies of clean groundwater have in recent years led to the adoption of reflection seismics in the family of geophysical methods used for groundwater research in Denmark. Buried valleys- often some km wide and a few hundred metres deep - have proved to be important sites for deeply seated, well protected groundwater reservoirs. It is a well known fact that the structure of buried valleys is complicated. With their potential for generation of relatively high resolution images of depositional and tectonic structures, reflection seismics have be- come a valuable supplement to the traditional resistivity methods in the study of buried valleys. Reflection seismic is an expensive method compared to other methods in use for groundwater research; therefore, careful selection of profile locations is mandatory. A practice has developed where selection of locations are based on mapping results obtained by resistivity methods. Results obtained by dynamite and vibrator sources are presented. Experience shows that the quality of the two data types is comparable. Vertical resolution better than ca. 10 m can be obtained, but the bandwidth of data is variable. In areas where non-(water) saturated shallow sediments are present; the bandwidth may be strongly reduced. Depth penetration down to at least one km is normally obtained. The seismic data are tied to wells by means of vertical seismic profiles in exploratory wells. Results are presented to illustrate: 1) potentials and limi- tations of the method and 2) a number of valleys with different types of valley-fill and relationships with the substratum. The genesis of the valleys will be briefly discussed.

  20. A Large Buried Felsic Component in the Ancient Martian Crust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, D.; Monnereau, M.; Samuel, H.; Michaut, C.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Garcia, R.

    2014-12-01

    A new range of crustal density values for Mars was calculated from the major element chemistry of Martian meteorites
(3100 - 3700 kg/m3), igneous rocks at Gusev crater (3100 - 3600 kg/m3) and from the surface concentration of Fe, Al, Ca, Si, and K measured by the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) (3250 - 3450 kg/m3) (Baratoux et al., 2014). Whereas a dense basaltic crust would be compatible with the moment of inertia factor of Mars, its thickness would exceed 100 km. Such a thick crust is not compatible with the geoid-to-topography ratios in the highlands, and would be unstable and prone to basal flow and/or crustal delamination. An alternative possibility is the existence of a buried light felsic or anorthositic component. A low-density crustal component in the highlands would be consistent with an isostatic compensation associated with a difference in elevation between the two hemispheres of Mars. This alternative is reinforced in the context of the findings of felsic or anorthositic material from visible/NIR spectroscopy (Carter and Poulet, 2013, Wray et al. 2013), and the identification of feldspar-rich rocks at Gale crater (Sautter et al., 2014), whereas felsic lithologies were already identified by Pathfinder. The recently identified outcrops could be either remnants of an ancient anorthositic crust or the result of local igneous differentiation of plutonic bodies. The latter interpretation is currently preferred as early Mars conditions should not be compatible with the formation of a plagioclase floatation crust (Elkins-Tanton et al., 2005). However, in light of the geophysical and petrological constraints discussed above, and given the absence of abundant light material at the surface, we advocate for the existence of a buried anorthositic crustal component that has been largely buried by volcanic material of basaltic composition in the late Noachian or Hesperian eras. Implications regarding the magma ocean scenario for Mars will be discussed.

  1. Ion-implanted planar-buried-heterostructure diode laser

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.; Hammons, Burrell E.; Myers, David R.; Vawter, Gregory A.

    1991-01-01

    A Planar-Buried-Heterostructure, Graded-Index, Separate-Confinement-Heterostructure semiconductor diode laser 10 includes a single quantum well or multi-quantum well active stripe 12 disposed between a p-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 14 and an n-type compositionally graded Group III-V cladding layer 16. The laser 10 includes an ion implanted n-type region 28 within the p-type cladding layer 14 and further includes an ion implanted p-type region 26 within the n-type cladding layer 16. The ion implanted regions are disposed for defining a lateral extent of the active stripe.

  2. Explosive fluid transmitted shock method for mining deeply buried coal

    DOEpatents

    Archibald, Paul B.

    1976-06-22

    A method for recovering coal from deeply buried deposits comprising drilling a hole down into a coal seam, filling the hole with water, and periodically detonating an explosive charge at the bottom of the water-filled hole. The water transmits the explosive shock wave to the face of the coal seam, thereby fracturing and dislodging the coal. The resulting suspension of loose coal in water is then pumped to the surface where the coal is recovered and the water is recycled to the mining operation.

  3. Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Backscatter from Buried Tunnels

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, K; Pao, H

    2006-06-21

    This progress report is submitted under a contract between the Special Project Office of DARPA and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Project Manager at DARPA is Dr. Michael Zatman. Our purpose under this contract is to investigate interactions between electromagnetic waves and a class of buried targets located in multilayered media with rough interfaces. In this report, we investigate three preliminary problems. In each case our specific goal is to understand various aspects of the electromagnetic wave interaction mechanisms with targets in layered media. The first problem, discussed in Section 2, is that of low-frequency electromagnetic backscattering from a tunnel that is cut into a lossy dielectric half-space. In this problem, the interface between the upper (free space) region and the lower (ground) region is smooth. The tunnel is assumed to be a cylindrical free-space region of infinite extent in its axial direction and with a diameter that is small in comparison to the free-space wavelength. Because its diameter is small, the tunnel can be modeled as a buried ''wire'' described by an equivalent impedance per unit length. In Section 3 we extend the analysis to include a statistically rough interface between the air and ground regions. The interface is modeled as a random-phase screen. Such a screen reduces the coherent power in a plane wave that is transmitted through it, scattering some of the total power into an incoherent field. Our analysis of this second problem quantifies the reduction in the coherent power backscattered from the buried tunnel that is caused by the roughness of the air-ground interface. The problem of low-frequency electromagnetic backscattering from two buried tunnels, parallel to each other but at different locations in the ground, is considered in Section 4. In this analysis, we wish to determine the conditions under which the presence of more than one tunnel can be detected via backscattering. Section 5 concludes the report

  4. Approximation functions for airblast environments from buried charges

    SciTech Connect

    Reichenbach, H.; Behrens, K.; Kuhl, A.L.

    1993-11-01

    In EMI report E 1/93, ``Airblast Environments from Buried HE-Charges,`` fit functions were used for the compact description of blastwave parameters. The coefficients of these functions were approximated by means of second order polynomials versus DOB. In most cases, the agreement with the measured data was satisfactory; to reduce remaining noticeable deviations, an approximation by polygons (i.e., piecewise-linear approximation) was used instead of polynomials. The present report describes the results of the polygon approximation and compares them to previous data. We conclude that the polygon representation leads to a better agreement with the measured data.

  5. Technology status report: In situ vitrification applied to buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.E.; Bates, S.O.; Hansen, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    This document is a technical status report on In Situ Vitrification (ISV) as applied to buried waste; the report takes both technical and institutional concerns into perspective. The ISV process involves electrically melting such contaminated solid media as soil, sediment, sludge, and mill tailings. The resultant product is a high-quality glass-and-crystalline waste form that possesses high resistance to corrosion and leaching and is capable of long-term environmental exposure without significant degradation. The process also significantly reduces the volume of the treated solid media due to the removal of pore spaces in the soil.

  6. Polarization lidar measurements of honeybees for locating buried landmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Joseph A.; Seldomridge, Nathan L.; Dunkle, Dustin L.; Nugent, Paul W.; Spangler, Lee H.; Churnside, James H.; Wilson, James W.; Bromenshenk, Jerry J.; Henderson, Colin B.

    2005-08-01

    A polarization-sensitive lidar was used to detect honeybees trained to locate buried landmines by smell. Lidar measurements of bee location agree reasonably well with maps of chemical plume strength and bee density determined by visual and video counts, indicating that the bees are preferentially located near the explosives and that the lidar identifies the locations of higher bee concentration. The co-polarized lidar backscatter signal is more effective than the cross-polarized signal for bee detection. Laboratory measurements show that the depolarization ratio of scattered light is near zero for bee wings and up to approximately thirty percent for bee bodies.

  7. Remote Excavation System technology evaluation report: Buried Waste Robotics Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This document describes the results from the Remote Excavation System demonstration and testing conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory during June and July 1993. The purpose of the demonstration was to ascertain the feasibility of the system for skimming soil and removing various types of buried waste in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements, and to compare the performances of manual and remote operation of a backhoe. The procedures and goals of the demonstration were previously defined in The Remote Excavation System Test Plan, which served as a guideline for evaluating the various components of the system and discussed the procedures used to conduct the tests.

  8. Defensive burying in rodents: ethology, neurobiology and psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    De Boer, Sietse F; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2003-02-28

    Defensive burying refers to the typical rodent behavior of displacing bedding material with vigorous treading-like movements of their forepaws and shoveling movements of their heads directed towards a variety of noxious stimuli that pose a near and immediate threat, such as a wall-mounted electrified shock-prod. Since its introduction 25 years ago by Pinel and Treit [J. Comp. Physiol. Psychol. 92 (1978) 708], defensive (shock-prod) burying has been the focus of a considerable amount of research effort delineating the methodology/ethology, psychopharmacology and neurobiology of this robust and species-specific active avoidance or coping response. The present review gives a summary of this research with special reference to the behavioral (face and construct) and pharmacological (predictive) validity of the shock-prod burying test as an animal model for human anxiety. Emphasis is also placed on some recent modifications of the paradigm that may increase its utility and reliability as to individual differences in expressed emotional coping responses and sensitivity to pharmacological treatments. Overall, the behavioral and physiological responses displayed in the shock-prod paradigm are expressions of normal and functionally adaptive coping patterns and the extremes of either active (i.e., burying) or passive (i.e., freezing) forms of responding in this test cannot simply be regarded as inappropriate, maladaptive or pathological. For this reason, the shock-prod paradigm is not an animal model for anxiety disorder or for any other psychiatric disease, but instead possesses a high degree of face and construct validity for normal and functionally adaptive human fear and anxious apprehension. However, the apparent good pharmacological validation (predictive validity) of this test reinforces the view that normal and pathological anxiety involves, at least partly, common neurobiological substrates. Therefore, this paradigm is not only suitable for screening potential

  9. Elastic Phase Response of Silica Nanoparticles Buried in Soft Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Tetard, Laurene; Passian, Ali; Lynch, Rachel M; Voy, Brynn H; Shekhawat, Gajendra; Dravid, Vinayak; Thundat, Thomas George

    2008-01-01

    Tracking the uptake of nanomaterials by living cells is an important component in assessing both potential toxicity and in designing future materials for use in vivo. We show that the difference in the local elasticity at the site of silica (SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles confined within a macrophage enables functional ultrasonic interactions. By elastically exciting the cell, a phase perturbation caused by the buried SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was detected and used to map the subsurface populations of nanoparticles. Localization and mapping of stiff chemically synthesized silica nanoparticles within the cellular structures of a macrophage are important in basic as well as applied studies.

  10. Ancient buried submarine trough, northwest Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berryhill, H.L., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A large buried submarine trough crosses the seaward margin of the continental shelf off the southwest coast of Louisiana. Original length was about 90 km, and width at the shelf edge was 16 km. Maximum eroded depth may have been as much as 305 m. Seismic characteristics of the prograded fill indicate cyclically repeated sequences of retrogressive deltaic and partly slumped sediments overlain by well-layered transgressive deposits. Slumping was increasingly prevalent toward the shelf edge. The cyclic sequences indicate that the trough was a passageway for large volumes of sediment onto the continental slope during several stages of lowered sea level. ?? 1981 A.M. Dowden, Inc.

  11. A novel partial SOI LDMOSFET with periodic buried oxide for breakdown voltage and self heating effect enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali Mahabadi, S. E.; Rajabi, Saba; Loiacono, Julian

    2015-09-01

    In this paper a partial silicon on insulator (PSOI) lateral double diffused metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (LDMOSFET) with periodic buried oxide layer (PBO) for enhancing breakdown voltage (BV) and self-heating effects (SHEs) is proposed for the first time. This new structure is called periodic buried oxide partial silicon on insulator (PBO-PSOI). In this structure, periodic small pieces of SiO2 were used as the buried oxide (BOX) layer in PSOI to modulate the electric field in the structure. It was demonstrated that the electric field is distributed more evenly by producing additional electric field peaks, which decrease the common peaks near the drain and gate junctions in the PBO-PSOI structure. Hence, the area underneath the electric field curve increases which leads to higher breakdown voltage. Also a p-type Si window was introduced in the source side to force the substrate to share the vertical voltage drop, leading to a higher vertical BV. Furthermore, the Si window under the source and those between periodic pieces of SiO2 create parallel conduction paths between the active layer and substrate thereby alleviating the SHEs. Simulations with the two dimensional ATLAS device simulator from the Silvaco suite of simulation tools show that the BV of PBO-PSOI is 100% higher than that of the conventional partial SOI (C-PSOI) structure. Furthermore the PBO-PSOI structure alleviates SHEs to a greater extent than its C-PSOI counterpart. The achieved drain current for the PBO-PSOI structure (100 μA), at drain-source voltage of VDS = 100 V and gate-source voltage of VGS = 25 V, is shown to be significantly larger than that in C-PSOI and fully depleted SOI (FD-SOI) structures (87 μA and 51 μA respectively). Drain current can be further improved at the expense of BV by increasing the doping of the drift region.

  12. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area. Volume 2, Application of technical issues to the Acid Pit

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Gratson, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the Acid Pit and Transuranic Pits and Trenches (TRU-PTs) that are present at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues exist that must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues associated with ISV application at the INEL SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in three volumes of this report. Volume 1 identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues, and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. This document Volume 2 and Volume 3 discusses each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTs, respectively.

  13. Contrast mechanism due to interface trapped charges for a buried SiO2 microstructure in scanning electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Bo; Li, Wei-Qin; Wu, Dan-Wei

    2009-01-01

    We clarify the scanning electron microscopic contrast mechanism for imaging a buried SiO(2) trench microstructure with interface trapped charges by simulating both electron scattering and transport. Here, the interface trapped charges make the SiO(2) film more negatively charged and increase excess holes in the space charge distribution of the electron scattering region. The generated positive surface electric field thus redistributes some emitted secondary electrons and results in the dark contrast. This contrast mechanism is validated by comparing with experiments, and it may also provide an interesting approach for imaging and detecting deep interface trapped charges in insulating films. PMID:19029106

  14. INEL seismograph stations

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, S.M.; Anderson, D.M.

    1985-10-01

    The report describes the array of five seismograph stations operated by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to monitor earthquake activity on and adjacent to the eastern Snake River plain. Also included is the earthquake catalog from October 1972-December 1984. 2 refs., 2 figs. (ACR)

  15. Note: Laser ablation technique for electrically contacting a buried implant layer in single crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, M. P.; Baldwin, J. W.; Butler, J. E.; Pate, B. B.; Feygelson, T. I.

    2011-05-15

    The creation of thin, buried, and electrically conducting layers within an otherwise insulating diamond by annealed ion implantation damage is well known. Establishing facile electrical contact to the shallow buried layer has been an unmet challenge. We demonstrate a new method, based on laser micro-machining (laser ablation), to make reliable electrical contact to a buried implant layer in diamond. Comparison is made to focused ion beam milling.

  16. Beam and shell modes of buckling of buried pipes induced by compressive ground failure

    SciTech Connect

    Chiou, Y.J.; Chi, S.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The buckling of buried pipeline induced by compressive ground failure was investigated. Both the beam mode of buckling and local shell mode of buckling, and their interactions were studied. The pipeline response was analyzed numerically. The results agree qualitatively with past researches and possess satisfactory comparisons with actual case histories. The relations of critical buried depth versus ratio of pipe diameter to thickness for buried pipe with different imperfections and various soil foundations were established.

  17. Preliminary observations of arthropods associated with buried carrion on Oahu.

    PubMed

    Rysavy, Noel M; Goff, M Lee

    2015-03-01

    Several studies in Hawaii have focused on arthropod succession and decomposition patterns of surface remains, but the current research presents the first study to focus on shallow burials in this context. Three domestic pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were buried at the depths of 20-40 cm in silty clay loam soil on an exposed ridge on the leeward side of the volcanically formed Koolau Mountain Range. One carcass was exhumed after 3 weeks, another after 6 weeks, and the last carcass was exhumed after 9 weeks. An inventory of arthropod taxa present on the carrion and in the surrounding soil and observations pertaining to decomposition were recorded at each exhumation. The longer the carrion was buried, the greater the diversity of arthropod species that were recovered from the remains. Biomass loss was calculated to be 49% at the 3-week interval, 56% at the 6-week interval, and 59% at the 9-week interval. PMID:25413711

  18. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, Mary Catherine

    2003-11-18

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  19. Sensor System Fo4r Buried Waste Containment Sites

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Ann Marie; Gardner, Bradley M.; Kostelnik, Kevin M.; Partin, Judy K.; Lancaster, Gregory D.; Pfeifer, Mary Catherine

    2005-09-27

    A sensor system for a buried waste containment site having a bottom wall barrier and/or sidewall barriers, for containing hazardous waste. The sensor system includes one or more sensor devices disposed in one or more of the barriers for detecting a physical parameter either of the barrier itself or of the physical condition of the surrounding soils and buried waste, and for producing a signal representing the physical parameter detected. Also included is a signal processor for receiving signals produced by the sensor device and for developing information identifying the physical parameter detected, either for sounding an alarm, displaying a graphic representation of a physical parameter detected on a viewing screen and/or a hard copy printout. The sensor devices may be deployed in or adjacent the barriers at the same time the barriers are deployed and may be adapted to detect strain or cracking in the barriers, leakage of radiation through the barriers, the presence and leaking through the barriers of volatile organic compounds, or similar physical conditions.

  20. Sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopic studies on buried heterogeneous biointerfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Jasensky, Joshua; Leng, Chuan; Del Grosso, Chelsey; Smith, Gary D; Wilker, Jonathan J; Chen, Zhan

    2014-05-01

    A sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational micro-spectroscopy system was developed to examine buried heterogeneous biointerfaces. A compact optical microscope was constructed with total-internal reflection (TIR) SFG geometry to monitor the tightly focused SFG laser spots on interfaces, providing the capability of selectively probing different regions on heterogeneous biointerfaces. The TIR configuration ensures and enhances the SFG signal generated only from the sample/substrate interfacial area. As an example for possible applications in biointerfaces studies, the system was used to probe and compare buried interfacial structures of different biological samples attached to underwater surfaces. We studied the interface of a single mouse oocyte on a silica prism to demonstrate the feasibility of tracing and studying a single live cell and substrate interface using SFG. We also examined the interface between a marine mussel adhesive plaque and a CaF2 substrate, showing the removal of interface-bonded water molecules. This work also paves the way for future integration of other microscopic techniques such as TIR-fluorescence microscopy or nonlinear optical imaging with SFG spectroscopy for multimodal surface or interface studies. PMID:24784085

  1. Helmet-mounted uncooled FPA camera for buried object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, John L.; Duvoisin, Herbert A., III; Wiltsey, George

    1997-08-01

    Software neural nets hosted on a parallel processor can analyze input from an IR imager to evaluate the likelihood of a buried object. However, it is only recently that low weight, staring LWIR sensors have become available in uncooled formats at sensitivities that provide enough information for useful man-portable helmet mounted applications. The images from the IR are presented to a human user through a see-through display after processing and highlighting by a neural net housed in a fanny-pack. This paper describes the phenomenology of buried object detection in the infrared, the neural net based image processing, the helmet mounted IR sensor and the ergonomics of mounting a sensor to head gear. The maturing and commercialization of uncooled focal plane arrays and high density electronics enables lightweight, low cost, small camera packages that can be integrated with hard hats and military helmets. The head gear described has a noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT) of less than 50 milliKelvin, consumes less than 10 watts and weighs about 1.5 kilograms.

  2. Buried Impact Basins and the Earliest History of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    The "Quasi-Circular Depressions" (QCDs) seen in MOLA data which have little or no visible appearance in image data have been interpreted as buried impact basins on Mars. These have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, what mechanisms could produce the crustal dichotomy, and the existence of crust older than the oldest observed surface units on Mars. A global survey of large QCDs using high resolution MOLA data now available has provided further details of the earliest history of Mars. The lowlands are of Early Noachian age, slightly younger than the buried highlands and definitely older than the exposed highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands and/or the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins.

  3. Buried structure for increasing fabrication performance of micromaterial by electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yasuhiro; Saka, Masumi

    2016-06-01

    The electromigration (EM) technique is a physical synthetic growth method for micro/nanomaterials. EM causes atomic diffusion in a metal line by high-density electron flows. The intentional control of accumulation and relaxation of atoms by EM can lead to the fabrication of a micro/nanomaterial. TiN passivation has been utilized as a component of sample in the EM technique. Although TiN passivation can simplify the cumbersome processes for preparing the sample, the leakage of current naturally occurs because of the conductivity of TiN as a side effect and decreases the performance of micro/nanomaterial fabrication. In the present work, we propose a buried structure, which contributes to significantly decreasing the current for fabricating an Al micromaterial by confining the current flow in the EM technique. The fabrication performance was evaluated based on the threshold current for fabricating an Al micromaterial using the buried structure and the previous structure with the leakage of current.

  4. Stabilization of ancient organic matter in deep buried paleosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chaopricha, N. T.; Mueller, C.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Plante, A. F.; Grandy, S.; Mason, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Buried soils representing ancient surface horizons can contain large organic carbon reservoirs that may interact with the atmosphere if exposed by erosion, road construction, or strip mining. Paleosols in long-term depositional sites provide a unique opportunity for studying the importance of different mechanisms on the persistence of organic matter (OM) over millennial time-scales. We report on the chemistry and bioavailability of OM stored in the Brady soil, a deeply buried (7 m) paleosol in loess deposits of southwestern Nebraska, USA. The Brady Soil developed 9,000-13,500 years ago during a time of warming and drying. The Brady soil represents a dark brown horizon enriched in C relative to loess immediately above and below. Spanning much of the central Great Plains, this buried soil contains large C stocks due to the thickness of its A horizon (0.5 to 1 m) and wide geographic extent. Our research provides a unique perspective on long-term OM stabilization in deep soils using multiple analytical approaches. Soils were collected from the Brady soil A horizon (at 7 m depth) and modern surface A horizons (0-15 cm) at two sites for comparison. Soils were separated by density fractionation using 1.85 g ml-1 sodium polytungstate into: free particulate organic matter (fPOM) and aggregate-occluded (oPOM) of two size classes (large: >20 μm, and small: < 20 μm). The remaining dense fraction was separated into sand, silt, and clay size fractions. The distribution and age of C among density and particle-size fractions differed between surface and Brady soils. We isolated the source of the characteristic dark coloring of the Brady soil to the oPOM-small fraction, which also contained 20% of the total organic C pool in the Brady soil. The oPOM-small fraction and the bulk soil in the middle of the Brady A horizon had 14C ages of 10,500-12,400 cal yr BP, within the time that the soil was actively forming at the land surface. Surface soils showed modern ages. Lipid analyses of

  5. Provenance of buried esker groundwater: the case of Vars-Winchester esker aquifer, Eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauriol, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    An innovative mode of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer is considered. The current conceptual model affords a natural safeguard to underlying aquifers from the overlying muds. A hypothesis of groundwater recharge to a buried esker aquifer via preferential pathways across its overlying muds is tested here by heuristic numerical one-dimensional and two-dimensional modeling simulations. The hypothesis has been tested against two other conventionally accepted scenarios involving: (1) distal esker outcrop areas and (2) remote shallow-bedrock recharge areas. The main evidence comes from documented recharge pressure pulses in the overlying mud aquitard and in the underlying esker hydraulic-head time series for the Vars-Winchester esker aquifer in Eastern Ontario, Canada. These perturbations to the potentiometric surface are believed to be the aquifer response to recharge events. The migration rate of these pressure pulses is directly related to the hydraulic diffusivity of the formation. The measured response time and response amplitude between singular radar precipitation events and well hydrographs constituted the heuristic model calibration targets. The main evidence also includes mud-layering deformation (water escape features) which was observed in seismic surveys of the over-esker muds. These disturbed stratigraphic elements provide a realistic mechanism for migrating water to transit through the muds. The effective hydraulic conductivities of these preferential pathways in the muds were estimated to be between 2 × 10-6 and 7 × 10-6 m/s. The implications of these findings relate to the alleged natural safeguard of these overlying muds.

  6. GWSCREEN: A semi-analytical model for assessment of the groundwater pathway from surface or buried contamination. Theory and user`s manual, Version 2.0: Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Rood, A.S.

    1994-06-01

    Multimedia exposure assessment of hazardous chemicals and radionuclides requires that all pathways of exposure be investigated. The GWSCREEN model was designed to perform initial screening calculations for groundwater pathway impacts resulting from the leaching of surficial and buried contamination at CERCLA sites identified as low probability hazard at the INEL. In Version 2.0, an additional model was added to calculate impacts to groundwater from the operation of a percolation pond. The model was designed to make best use of the data that would potentially be available. These data include the area and depth of contamination, sorptive properties and solubility limit of the contaminant, depth to aquifer, and the physical properties of the aquifer (porosity, velocity, and dispersivity). For the pond model, data on effluent flow rates and operation time are required. Model output includes the limiting soil concentration such that, after leaching and transport to the aquifer, regulatory contaminant levels in groundwater are not exceeded. Also, groundwater concentration as a function of time may be calculated. The model considers only drinking water consumption and does not include the transfer of contamination to food products due to irrigation with contaminated water. Radiological dose, carcinogenic risk, and the hazard quotient are calculated for the peak time using the user-defined input mass (or activity). Appendices contain sample problems and the source code listing.

  7. Lunar Radar Scattering from Near-Surface Buried Crater Ejecta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, T. W.; Ustinov, E. A.; Heggy, E.

    2009-12-01

    The Apollo 15, 16, and 17 core tubes show that the uppermost few meters of the lunar regolith are interlaced layers of a fine grained powders and blocky crater ejecta. The layers of crater ejecta have dielectric constants in the range of 7-9 while the fine-grained powders has dielectric constant on the order of 2.7. These differences in dielectric constant, in turn, create radar reflections that are both refracted and reflected back through the space-regolith interface. Note that for a dielectric constant of 2.7 for the lunar regolith, radio waves incident on the lunar surface at the angle of 30-degrees from the normal will propagate in the regolith at an angle of 18-degrees. At the limb, radio waves incident on the lunar surface at an angle near 90-degrees from the normal will propagate in the regolith at an angle of about 37-degrees. These angles are within the range where radar backscatter is in the quasi-specular regime. When these buried crater ejecta layers are modeled using Hagfors’ formulation (Hagfors, 1963), echo powers match the behavior observed for average lunar backscatter at centimeter wavelengths for higher (30° to 90°) angles of incidence. In addition, Hagfors et al. (1965) conducted an experiment where the Moon was illuminated at 23-cm wavelength with circular polarization and the differences were observed in orthogonal linear polarizations. Modeling of these observations and assuming again that the buried crater ejecta scatter in a quasi-specular manner, echo differences in horizontal and vertical linear polarizations are in relatively good agreement with the observations. The data from Chandrayaan Mini-RF radar, which operated at S-Band (13cm) wavelength, and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Mini-RF radar, which is operating at S-Band and X-Band (4-cm) wavelengths, provide an opportunity for a new examination of whether radar backscatter from buried crater ejecta behaves like a quasi-specular scatter. These radars reproduce the

  8. Large-Diameter Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Implications for age of the Highlands and (Buried) Lowlands and Turn-off of the Global Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.

    2003-01-01

    The global populations of visible and buried impact basins less than 200 km diameter revealed by high resolution gridded MOLA indicate: (a) a small (approx. 10) number of very large basins (D=1300-3000km), most of which have remained visible over martian history; (b) a much larger population of smaller basins (D=200-800 km) with many more buried than visible (on images); (c) a depletion of visible basins at intermediate diameters which may be a signature of some global-scale event (formation of the lowlands? origin of Tharsis?); and (d) a crater retention age for the buried lowlands greater than that of the visible highlands but less than that of the total (visible + buried) highlands. Crustal magnetic anomalies are generally not present in the interiors of the largest basins with two exceptions: these two (which appear to be the oldest) may predate the demise of the global magnetic field.

  9. Radargrams of Buried Basin from Two Adjacent Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    These two radargrams from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) show echoes from an approximately 250-kilometer (155-mile) diameter circular structure below the surface of Mars. The circular structure is interpreted to be a buried impact basin.

    In two orbits spaced about 50 kilometers (31 miles) apart, MARSIS detected a series of arc-shaped reflectors that have no apparent source in the surface topography or geology. In the lower image, a linear reflector nearly parallel to the surface is seen embedded in the arcs. This reflection may be coming from the floor of the basin. The time delay to the linear reflector suggests a depth of 1.5 to 2.5 kilometers (0.9 to 1.6 miles).

    MARSIS is an instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. NASA and the Italian Space Agency jointly funded the instrument.

  10. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration: Selection of potential demonstration locations

    SciTech Connect

    Arrenholz, D.A.; Knight, J.L.

    1991-11-01

    The first step towards identifying primary Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration locations is the selection of potential demonstration sites within the Subsurface Disposal Area. The sites selected are Pits 4, 5, 6, and 9, containing transuranic waste of Rocky Flats origin, the Acid Pit, and Pad A. The criteria and methodology for selection of these sites, as well as a description of the wastes present in each area, are included in this report. At a later date, technology-specific demonstration locations will be selected from these six potential sites. The selected locations will be used as necessary to demonstrate technologies whose potential abilities may be optimal on waste forms present at these identified locations.

  11. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  12. Smooth plains deformation in a buried crater of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, V.; Ruiz, J.; Vazquez, A.

    2012-09-01

    The surface of Mercury shows different kinds of tectonics landforms, mostly indicating surface contraction [1,2]. Compressional features include lobate scarps, wrinkle ridges, and high relief ridges, which are different manifestations of thrust faults, depending on, for example, deep angle of faulting and type of surface geology [3-5]. Also, there are evidences of long-wavelengh topography variations, affecting to the northern smooth plains and Caloris basin, which could also be the expression of contraction (and maybe large scale folding) related to the cooling of Mercury [6]. In this work we focus on the deformation in an area centered in the equator comprising a buried crater affected by two different sets of tectonic features.

  13. Solid state television camera (CCD-buried channel)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of an all solid state television camera, which uses a buried channel charge coupled device (CCD) as the image sensor, was undertaken. A 380 x 488 element CCD array is utilized to ensure compatibility with 525 line transmission and display monitor equipment. Specific camera design approaches selected for study and analysis included (a) optional clocking modes for either fast (1/60 second) or normal (1/30 second) frame readout, (b) techniques for the elimination or suppression of CCD blemish effects, and (c) automatic light control and video gain control (i.e., ALC and AGC) techniques to eliminate or minimize sensor overload due to bright objects in the scene. Preferred approaches were determined and integrated into a deliverable solid state TV camera which addressed the program requirements for a prototype qualifiable to space environment conditions.

  14. Structure of ancient buried wood from Phyllocladus trichomanoides

    SciTech Connect

    Attalla, M.I.; Serra, R.G.; Vassallo, A.M.; Wilson, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Trees of the fossil gymnosperm Phyllocladus trichomanoides were buried by a volcanic eruption at Taupo, New Zealand about 2000 years ago. Three samples of fossil heartwood and fossil sapwood from this tree have been studied by /sup 13/C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques including dipolar dephasing. The spectra of sapwood contain more resonances from carbohydrates at 66 and 75 ppm whereas the spectra of heartwood contain significantly more signal from methoxyl and other lignin derived carbons. Values obtained for the fraction of aromatic carbon that is protonated in the samples fa are of the order of 0.50, in good agreement with that expected for a lignin-based, mainly guaiacyl structure. In addition to estimating fa dipolar dephasing appears to be useful in accentuating differences in methoxyl content between heartwood and sapwood.

  15. Enhanced buried UXO detection via GPR/EMI data fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Matthew P.; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian T.; Kelly, Jack; Havens, Timothy C.

    2016-05-01

    This paper investigates the enhancements to detection of buried unexploded ordinances achieved by combining ground penetrating radar (GPR) data with electromagnetic induction (EMI) data. Novel features from both the GPR and the EMI sensors are concatenated as a long feature vector, on which a non-parametric classifier is then trained. The classifier is a boosting classifier based on tree classifiers, which allows for disparate feature values. The fusion algorithm was applied to a government-provided dataset from an outdoor testing site, and significant performance enhancements were obtained relative to classifiers trained solely on the GPR or EMI data. It is shown that the performance enhancements come from a combination of improvements in detection and in clutter rejection.

  16. Surface acoustic wave devices as passive buried sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedt, J.-M.; Rétornaz, T.; Alzuaga, S.; Baron, T.; Martin, G.; Laroche, T.; Ballandras, S.; Griselin, M.; Simonnet, J.-P.

    2011-02-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices are currently used as passive remote-controlled sensors for measuring various physical quantities through a wireless link. Among the two main classes of designs—resonator and delay line—the former has the advantage of providing narrow-band spectrum informations and hence appears compatible with an interrogation strategy complying with Industry-Scientific-Medical regulations in radio-frequency (rf) bands centered around 434, 866, or 915 MHz. Delay-line based sensors require larger bandwidths as they consists of a few interdigitated electrodes excited by short rf pulses with large instantaneous energy and short response delays but is compatible with existing equipment such as ground penetrating radar (GPR). We here demonstrate the measurement of temperature using the two configurations, particularly for long term monitoring using sensors buried in soil. Although we have demonstrated long term stability and robustness of packaged resonators and signal to noise ratio compatible with the expected application, the interrogation range (maximum 80 cm) is insufficient for most geology or geophysical purposes. We then focus on the use of delay lines, as the corresponding interrogation method is similar to the one used by GPR which allows for rf penetration distances ranging from a few meters to tens of meters and which operates in the lower rf range, depending on soil water content, permittivity, and conductivity. Assuming propagation losses in a pure dielectric medium with negligible conductivity (snow or ice), an interrogation distance of about 40 m is predicted, which overcomes the observed limits met when using interrogation methods specifically developed for wireless SAW sensors, and could partly comply with the above-mentioned applications. Although quite optimistic, this estimate is consistent with the signal to noise ratio observed during an experimental demonstration of the interrogation of a delay line buried at a depth of 5

  17. Location of Buried Mineshafts and Adits Using Reconnaissance Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, Martin; Donnelly, Laurance; McCann, David

    Britain has a long history of mining activity, which stretches back some 3000 years to the excavation of flint in East Anglia. The legacy of this long period of activity is the presence of many buried mineshafts and adits, whose location is often unknown precisely and in many cases not even recorded in historical mining records. As has been shown by Donnelly et al (2003) the discovery of a mineshaft in an area of housing development can have a profound effect on property values in its vicinity. Hence, urgent action must be taken to establish at the site investigation stage of a development to determine whether any mineshafts are present at the site so that remedial action can be taken before construction commences. A study of historical information and the drilling may well enable the developer to locate any suspected mineshafts and adits on his site. However, the use of geophysical reconnaissance methods across the whole site may well provide sufficient information to simplify the drilling programme and reduce its cost to a minimum. In this paper a number of rapid reconnaissance geophysical methods are described and evaluated in terms of their success in the location of buried mineshafts and adits. It has shown that a combination of ground conductivity and magnetic surveys provides a most effective approach on open sites in greenfield and brownfield areas. Ground penetrating radar and micro-gravity surveys have proved to be a valuable approach in urban areas where the use of many geophysical methods is prevented by the presence of various types of cultural noise. On a regional scale the infrared thermography method is being increasingly used but care must be taken to overcome certain environmental difficulties. The practical use of all these geophysical methods in the field is illustrated by a number of appropriate case histories.

  18. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating...

  19. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating...

  20. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating...

  1. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating...

  2. 49 CFR 192.459 - External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when exposed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Examination of buried... Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.459 External corrosion control: Examination of buried pipeline when... portion must be examined for evidence of external corrosion if the pipe is bare, or if the coating...

  3. Broadband infrared electro-optic modulator having a buried microstrip network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheo, Peter K. (Inventor); Gilden, Meyer (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A microwave infrared modulator having a novel three dimensional structure is presented. The modulator includes a waveguide and metal base with a dielectric wafer buried therebetween. The buried wafer allows for conventional microstrip structures to be employed with larger microstrip electrode dimensions than would otherwise be possible.

  4. 75 FR 32313 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Executive Order 12372'' (50 FR 47034), advising that USDA Rural Development Utilities Programs loans and... Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1755 Specifications and Drawings for Construction Direct Buried Plant... Construction of Direct Buried Plant (Form 515a). The revised specification will include new construction...

  5. Bent channel design in buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide fabricated by field-assisted annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ruitu; Wang, Mu; Chen, Baojie; Liu, Ke; Pun, Edwin Yue-Bun; Lin, Hai

    2011-04-01

    Bent waveguide structures (S-, U-, and F-bend) based on buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguide channel fabricated by field-assisted annealing have been designed to achieve high-gain C-band integrated amplification. Using a simulated-bend method, the optimal radius for the curved structure is derived to be 0.90 cm with loss coefficient of 0.02 dB/cm, as the substrate size is schemed to be 4×3 cm2. In the wavelength range of 1520 to 1575 nm, obvious gain enhancement for the bent structure waveguides is anticipated, and for the F-bend waveguide, the internal gain at 1534-nm wavelength is derived to be 41.61 dB, which is much higher than the value of 26.22 and 13.81 dB in the U- and S-bend waveguides, respectively, and over three times higher than that of the straight one. The simulation results indicate that the bent structure design is beneficial in obtaining high signal gain in buried Er3+/Yb3+ codoped phosphate glass waveguides, which lays the foundation for further design and fabrication of integrated devices.

  6. Ion heating dynamics in solid buried layer targets irradiated by ultra-short intense laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, L. G.; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01328 Dresden; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing ; Bussmann, M.; Kluge, T.; Lei, A. L.; Yu, W.; Cowan, T. E.; Technische Universität Dresden, 01062 Dresden

    2013-09-15

    We investigate bulk ion heating in solid buried layer targets irradiated by ultra-short laser pulses of relativistic intensities using particle-in-cell simulations. Our study focuses on a CD{sub 2}-Al-CD{sub 2} sandwich target geometry. We find enhanced deuteron ion heating in a layer compressed by the expanding aluminium layer. A pressure gradient created at the Al-CD{sub 2} interface pushes this layer of deuteron ions towards the outer regions of the target. During its passage through the target, deuteron ions are constantly injected into this layer. Our simulations suggest that the directed collective outward motion of the layer is converted into thermal motion inside the layer, leading to deuteron temperatures higher than those found in the rest of the target. This enhanced heating can already be observed at laser pulse durations as low as 100 fs. Thus, detailed experimental surveys at repetition rates of several ten laser shots per minute are in reach at current high-power laser systems, which would allow for probing and optimizing the heating dynamics.

  7. Contribution to classification of buried objects based on acoustic impedance matching.

    PubMed

    Stepanić, J; Wüstenberg, H; Krstelj, V; Mrasek, H

    2003-03-01

    Determination of material the buried objects are made of could contribute significantly to their recognition, or classification. This is important in detecting buried antipersonnel landmines within the context of humanitarian demining, as well as in a variety of other applications. In this article the concept has been formulated of the approach to buried object's material determination starting with ultrasonic impulse propagation analysis in a particular testing set configuration. The impulse propagates through a characterized transfer material in such a way that a part of it, a reflected wave, carries the information about the buried object's surface material acoustic impedance. The limit of resolution capability is theoretically analyzed and experimentally evaluated and the influencing factors described. Among these, the contact between clean surfaces of the transfer material and buried object is emphasized. PMID:12565075

  8. Image restoration techniques using Compton backscatter imaging for the detection of buried land mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehlburg, Joseph C.; Keshavmurthy, Shyam P.; Watanabe, Yoichi; Dugan, Edward T.; Jacobs, Alan M.

    1995-06-01

    Earlier landmine imaging systems used two collimated detectors to image objects. These systems had difficulty in distinguishing between surface features and buried features. Using a combination of collimated and uncollimated detectors in a Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) system, allows the identification of surface and buried features. Images created from the collimated detectors contain information about the surface and the buried features, while the uncollimated detectors respond (approximately 80%) to features on the surface. The analysis of surface features are performed first, then these features can be removed and the buried features can be identified. Separation of the surface and buried features permits the use of a globbing algorithm to define regions of interest that can then be quantified [area, Y dimension, X dimension, and center location (xo, yo)]. Mine composition analysis is also possible because of the properties of the four detector system. Distinguishing between a pothole and a mine, that was previously very difficult, can now be easily accomplished.

  9. Buried topography of Utopia, Mars - Persistence of a giant impact depression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.

    1989-01-01

    Knobs, partially buried craters, ring fractures, and some mesas permit a qualitative determination of the topography buried beneath younger northern plains materials. These features are widely distributed in the Utopia area but are absent in a large, roughly circular region centered at about 48 deg N, 240 deg W. This implies the existence of a circular depression about 3300 km in diameter buried beneath Utopia Planitia that is interpreted to represent the central part of a very large impact basin. The presence of buried curved massifs around part of this depression, and a roughly coincident mascon, lend further support. Present topography, areal geology, and paleotopography of buried surfaces all point to the persistence of this major depression for almost the entire history of Mars.

  10. Fast evaluation of Sommerfeld integrals for EM scattering and radiation by three-dimensional buried objects

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a fast method for electromagnetic scattering and radiation problems pertinent to three-dimensional (3-D) buried objects. In this approach, a new symmetrical form of the Green`s function is derived, which can reduce the number of Sommerfeld integrals involved in the buried objects problem. The integration along steepest descent paths and leading-order approximations are introduced to evaluate these Sommerfeld integrals, which can greatly accelerate the computation. Based on the fast evaluation of Sommerfeld integrals, the radiation of an arbitrarily oriented electric dipole buried in a half space is first analyzed and computed. Then, the scattering by buried dielectric objects and conducting objects is considered using the method of moments (MOM). Numerical results show that the fast method can save tremendous CPU time in radiation and scattering problems involving buried objects.

  11. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  12. The effect of immersion time on burying depth of the bivalve Macoma balthica (Tellinidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Goeij, Petra; Honkoop, Pieter J. C.

    2002-03-01

    As a characteristic buried tellinid bivalve, Macoma balthica has a long inhalent siphon that enables it to feed in two different ways: deposit and suspension feeding. To deposit feed efficiently on benthic microalgae, Macoma has to live close to the sediment surface, where it can graze an extensive surface area, but is within reach of many predators. Individuals that are more safely buried at a greater depth can only suspension feed, or deposit feed from a small surface area. We expected local differences in burying depth on intertidal mudflats to be caused by differences in immersion time (i.e. time available for feeding, particularly suspension feeding), since immersion time has been shown experimentally to affect body condition positively, and since body condition and burying depth in Macoma are postively related in the field. To test this we experimentally manipulated immersion time, and followed changes in burying depth and body condition. In the experiments, longer immersion time went consistently with greater burying depth of Macoma and higher body condition. On a transect in the western Wadden Sea, the deepest Macoma were indeed found at the intertidal level with the longest immersion time, but these were at that time not the animals with the highest body condition. Within each locality, however, body condition was positively correlated with burying depth. The experimental data and the within-locality data support the hypothesis that longer immersion time may influence burying depth through body condition. However, the fact that between-locality differences in burying depth seemed to be consistently related to immersion time, but not to body condition, indicates that body condition alone does not explain place-to-place variation in burying depth.

  13. Buried Object Detection Method Using Optimum Frequency Range in Extremely Shallow Underground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Tsuneyoshi; Abe, Touma

    2011-07-01

    We propose a new detection method for buried objects using the optimum frequency response range of the corresponding vibration velocity. Flat speakers and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) are used for noncontact acoustic imaging in the extremely shallow underground. The exploration depth depends on the sound pressure, but it is usually less than 10 cm. Styrofoam, wood (silver fir), and acrylic boards of the same size, different size styrofoam boards, a hollow toy duck, a hollow plastic container, a plastic container filled with sand, a hollow steel can and an unglazed pot are used as buried objects which are buried in sand to about 2 cm depth. The imaging procedure of buried objects using the optimum frequency range is given below. First, the standardized difference from the average vibration velocity is calculated for all scan points. Next, using this result, underground images are made using a constant frequency width to search for the frequency response range of the buried object. After choosing an approximate frequency response range, the difference between the average vibration velocity for all points and that for several points that showed a clear response is calculated for the final confirmation of the optimum frequency range. Using this optimum frequency range, we can obtain the clearest image of the buried object. From the experimental results, we confirmed the effectiveness of our proposed method. In particular, a clear image of the buried object was obtained when the SLDV image was unclear.

  14. Geological characteristics in buried coalfields synthetically using remote sensing and non-remote sensing information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Shifeng; Wang, Silong; Liu, Yurong

    1998-08-01

    With the rapid development of coal industry in China, the emphasis of the geological exploration has been changed from the exposed area to the buried area. Because of the limitation of the geological condition and the exploration methods, it is very difficult to study the geological phenomena in buried coalfield. To the coal geologists in China, to search an effective and practical method has been the important tackle key problem for recent years. In this paper, the authors discussed the characteristics of remote sensing technology in the geological study, and the forming mechanism of remote sensing information in the buried area from the view of agrology and physics, so the important academic evidences were offered for the geological study using remote sensing image in the buried coalfield. The characteristics of the non-remote sensing information, the geophysics information and the basal geological information, were also introduced in the study of buried geological bodies. The authors expounded the general processing method in the investigation of buried geological bodies using remote sensing and non-remote sensing information. At last, the probable distribution area of buried igneous rocks, in Huaibei coalfield in China, were successfully forecasted synthetically using the remote sensing, and non-remote sensing information.

  15. Bedrock mapping of buried valley networks using seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldenborger, G. A.; Logan, C. E.; Hinton, M. J.; Pugin, A. J.-M.; Sapia, V.; Sharpe, D. R.; Russell, H. A. J.

    2016-05-01

    In glaciated terrain, buried valleys often host aquifers that are significant groundwater resources. However, given the range of scales, spatial complexity and depth of burial, buried valleys often remain undetected or insufficiently mapped. Accurate and thorough mapping of bedrock topography is a crucial step in detecting and delineating buried valleys and understanding formative valley processes. We develop a bedrock mapping procedure supported by the combination of seismic reflection data and helicopter time-domain electromagnetic data with water well records for the Spiritwood buried valley aquifer system in Manitoba, Canada. The limited spatial density of water well bedrock observations precludes complete depiction of the buried valley bedrock topography and renders the water well records alone inadequate for accurate hydrogeological model building. Instead, we leverage the complementary strengths of seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic data for accurate local detection of the sediment-bedrock interface and for spatially extensive coverage, respectively. Seismic reflection data are used to define buried valley morphology in cross-section beneath survey lines distributed over a regional area. A 3D model of electrical conductivity is derived from inversion of the airborne electromagnetic data and used to extrapolate buried valley morphology over the entire survey area. A spatially variable assignment of the electrical conductivity at the bedrock surface is applied to different features of the buried valley morphology identified in the seismic cross-sections. Electrical conductivity is then used to guide construction of buried valley shapes between seismic sections. The 3D locus of points defining each morphological valley feature is constructed using a path optimization routine that utilizes deviation from the assigned electrical conductivities as the cost function. Our resulting map represents a bedrock surface of unprecedented detail with more

  16. Of mice and marbles: Novel perspectives on burying behavior as a screening test for psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Wolmarans, De Wet; Stein, Dan J; Harvey, Brian H

    2016-06-01

    Burying forms part of the normal behavioral routine of rodents, although its expression is species-specific. However, it has been suggested that aberrant burying behavior, of which marble-burying (MB) is an example, may represent neophobic and/or compulsive-like behavior. In the present investigation, we assessed MB in an established animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)-namely, spontaneous stereotypy in the deer mouse-to establish whether high (H) stereotypy is associated with neophobia and/or another compulsive endophenotype, i.e. MB, as compared to nonstereotypical (N) controls. A three-trial, one-zone MB test was performed over three consecutive evenings both before and after chronic treatment with high-dose (50 mg/kg/day) oral escitalopram. Neophobia was measured via the number of marbles buried during the first pre- and posttreatment MB trials, and compulsive-like behavior via the number of marbles buried over all pre- and posttreatment MB trials. The data from the present study support earlier findings that burying is a normal behavioral routine (inherent burying behavior, IBB) that is expressed by all deer mice, irrespective of stereotypical cohort, and is not associated with either neophobia or compulsiveness. Indeed, chronic escitalopram treatment, which is similarly effective in treating clinical anxiety and OCD, as well as in attenuating H behavior, failed to influence IBB. Although 11 % of the animals presented with a unique burying endophenotype (high burying behavior), escitalopram also failed to attenuate said behavior, necessitating further investigation as to its relevance. In conclusion, MB cannot be regarded as a measure of anxiety-like or compulsive behavior in the deer mouse model of OCD. PMID:26920212

  17. The Low Frequency Aeroacoustics of Buried Nozzle Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. V.; Crighton, D. G.; Cargill, A. M.

    1993-05-01

    A simplified model of a "buried nozzle" aeroengine system is considered. The primary flow issues into a co-annular flow within a mixing chamber, and then the co-annular flow issues into the ambient medium from a secondary nozzle. Within the mixing chamber only fine scale mixing takes place, and shear layers within the mixing chamber and downstream of the secondary nozzle are assumed to sustain large scale instability waves. Excitation of this system is provided by low frequency plane waves, incident from upstream on the primary nozzle (and emanating from combustion processes in the hot core of an aeroengine). The response of this system, in the acoustic far field and in the mixing chamber, is obtained analytically from the asymptotic solution, at low frequency, of model sub-problems the solutions of which determine the wave reflection and transmission processes at the primary and secondary nozzles. In these sub-problems the shear layers are represented by vortex sheets and the nozzle walls by semi-infinite circular ducts, with Kutta conditions imposed on the unsteady flow at the primary and secondary nozzle lips. Analytical descriptions are given of the various wave modes (quasi-plane acoustic waves, and instability waves localized on the primary and secondary shear layers), of the acoustic field strength and directivity (essentially monopole, dipole and quadrupole fields), and of the conditions under which near-resonant response may occur, with large amplitudes of the perturbations in the mixing chamber and in the acoustic field.

  18. Colossal optical transmission through buried metal gratings (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Christopher M.; Liu, Runyu; Zhao, Xiang; Yu, Lan; Li, Xiuling; Wasserman, Daniel M.; Podolskiy, Viktor A.

    2015-09-01

    In Extraordinary Optical Transmission (EOT), a metallic film perforated with an array of [periodic] apertures exhibits transmission over 100% normalized to the total aperture area, at selected frequencies. EOT devices have potential applications as optical filters and as couplers in hybrid electro-optic contacts/devices. Traditional passive extraordinary optical transmission structures, typically demonstrate un-normalized transmission well below 50%, and are typically outperformed by simpler thin-film techniques. To overcome these limitations, we demonstrate a new breed of extraordinary optical transmission devices, by "burying" an extraordinary optical transmission grating in a dielectric matrix via a metal-assisted-chemical etching process. The resulting structure is an extraordinary optical transmission grating on top of a dielectric substrate with dielectric nano-pillars extruded through the grating apertures. These structures not only show significantly enhanced peak transmission when normalized to the open area of the metal film, but more importantly, peak transmission greater than that observed from the bare semiconductor surface. The structures were modeled using three-dimensional rigorous coupled wave analysis and characterized experimentally by Fourier transform infrared reflection and transmission spectroscopy, and the good agreement between the two has been demonstrated. The drastic enhancement of light transmission in our structures originates from structuring of high-index dielectric substrate, with pillars effectively guiding light through metal apertures.

  19. Buried Mesozoic rift basins of Moroccan Atlantic continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, N.; Jabour, H.; El Mostaine, M.

    1995-08-01

    The Atlantic continental margin is the largest frontier area for oil and gas exploration in Morocco. Most of the activity has been concentrated where Upper Jurassic carbonate rocks have been the drilling objectives, with only one significant but non commercial oil discovery. Recent exploration activities have focused on early Mesozoic Rift basins buried beneath the post-rift sediments of the Middle Atlantic coastal plain. Many of these basins are of interest because they contain fine-grained lacustrine rocks that have sufficient organic richness to be classified as efficient oil prone source rock. Location of inferred rift basins beneath the Atlantic coastal plain were determined by analysis of drilled-hole data in combination with gravity anomaly and aeromagnetic maps. These rift basins are characterized by several half graben filled by synrift sediments of Triassic age probably deposited in lacustrine environment. Coeval rift basins are known to be present in the U.S. Atlantic continental margin. Basin modeling suggested that many of the less deeply bored rift basins beneath the coastal plain are still within the oil window and present the most attractive exploration targets in the area.

  20. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  1. The Challenging Buried Bumper Syndrome after Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Ibrahim; Zarour, Ahmad; Al-Hassani, Ammar; Peralta, Ruben; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a rare complication developed after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). We report a case of a 38-year-old male patient who sustained severe traumatic brain injury that was complicated with early BBS after PEG tube insertion. On admission, bedside PEG was performed, and 7 days later the patient developed signs of sepsis with rapid progression to septic shock and acute kidney injury. Abdominal CT scan revealed no collection or leakage of the contrast, but showed malpositioning of the tube bumper at the edge of the stomach and not inside of it. Diagnostic endoscopy revealed that the bumper was hidden in the posterolateral part of the stomach wall forming a tract inside of it, which confirmed the diagnosis of BBS. The patient underwent laparotomy with a repair of the stomach wall perforation, and the early postoperative course was uneventful. Acute BBS is a rare complication of PEG tube insertion which could be manifested with severe complications such as pressure necrosis, peritonitis and septic shock. Early identification is the mainstay to prevent such complications. Treatment selection is primarily guided by the presenting complications, ranging from simple endoscopic replacement to surgical laparotomy. PMID:27462190

  2. Whole-field digital vibrometer system for buried landmine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Amit; Hess, Cecil; Scott, Eddie; Dang, Michael; Nichols, Robert

    2005-06-01

    Previous results have shown the potential of acoustic-to-seismic coupling with Laser Doppler Vibrometry for the detection of buried landmines. An important objective of the present technology is to improve the spatial resolution and the speed of the measurement. In this paper, MetroLaser reports on a whole-field digital vibrometer (WDV) that measures an entire one meter area with sub-centimeter spatial resolution in just a few seconds. The WDV is based on a dual-pulsed laser such that each pulse illuminates a one meter area on the ground, and the temporal separation between the two laser pulses can be adjusted to match the ground excitation frequency. By sweeping this excitation frequency, a displacement map of the ground at each frequency can be quickly generated. In addition, an innovative speckle repositioning strategy allows for movement of the measurement platform at reasonable speeds while still obtaining measurements with interferometric precision. This paper describes the WDV instrument and presents preliminary experimental results obtained with this system. This research is being supported by the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD under Contract W909MY04-C-0004.

  3. Buried threat detection using a handheld ground penetrating radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, Mary; Torrione, Peter; Collins, Leslie; Morton, Kenneth

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we explore the efficacy of two buried threat detectors on handheld data. The first algorithm is an energy-based algorithm, which computes how anomalous a given A-scan measurement after it is normalized according to its local statistics. It is based on a commonly used prescreener for the Husky Mounted Detection System (HMDS). In the HMDS setting measurements are sampled on a crosstrack-downtrack grid, and sequential measurements are at neighboring downtrack locations. In contrast, in the handheld setting sequential scans are often taken at neighboring crosstrack locations, and neighboring downtrack locations can be hundreds of scans away. In order to include both downtrack and crosstrack information, we compute local statistics over a much larger area than in the HMDS setting. The second algorithm is a shape-based algorithm. Shape Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) features, which capture the gradient distributions of local patches, are extracted and used to train a non-linear Support Vector Machine (SVM). We found that in terms of AUC, the SIFT-SVM algorithm results in a 2.2% absolute improvement over the energy-based algorithm, with the greatest gains seen at lower false alarm rates.

  4. The Panther Mountain circular structure, a possible buried meteorite crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isachsen, Y. W.; Wright, S. F.; Revetta, F. A.; Duneen, R. J.

    Panther Mountain, located near Phoenicia, New York, is part of the Catskill Mountains, which form the eastern end of the Allegheny Plateau in New York. It is a circular mass defined physiographically by an anomalous circular drainage pattern produced by Esopus Creek and its tributary Woodland Creek. The circular valley that rings the mountain is fracture-controlled; where bedrock is exposed, it shows a joint density 5 to 10 times greater than that on either side of the valley. Where obscured by alluvial valley fill, the bedrock's low seismic velocity suggests that this anomalous fracturing is continuous in the bedrock underlying the rim valley. North-south and east-west gravity and magnetic profiles were made across the structure. Terrane-corrected, residual gravity profiles show an 18-mgal negative anomaly, and very steep gradients indicate a near-surface source. Several possible explanations of the gravity data were modeled. We conclude that the Panther Mountain circular structure is probably a buried meteorite crater that formed contemporaneously with marine or fluvial sedimentation during Silurian or Devonian time. An examination of drill core and cuttings in the region is underway to search for ejecta deposits and possible seismic and tsunami effects in the sedimentary section. Success would result in both dating the impact and furnishing a chronostratigraphic marker horizon.

  5. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  6. Soil drying characteristics around a buried heated pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, W.E.; Miller, B.D.; Felton, G.K.

    1995-11-01

    Research on ground coupled heat pumps began in the late 1940s, but they became commercially available only in the 1980s. The system components are off-the-shelf items used in other applications, but the ground heat exchanger is unique for each installation. Ground heat transfer is complicated by soil porosity and the many variables needed to characterize soil properties. Another complication is the coupling of the heat and mass transfers. A finite difference numerical model was developed for a horizontal buried pipe where the heat and mass transfer relationships in the unsaturated porous soil were fully accounted for. The comparison of predicted temperature profiles and controlled laboratory measurements produced significant deviations after several days from the start of the test. These differences were likely due to the underprediction by the model of the moisture movement away from the pipe. Nearly complete drying out of the soil around the pipe was predicted by the model and was observed experimentally. The primary difficulty in obtaining good agreement with experimental results over all time periods was due to soil physical property variation with moisture content.

  7. Climate-mediated cooperation promotes niche expansion in burying beetles

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Syuan-Jyun; Rubenstein, Dustin R; Chen, Bo-Fei; Chan, Shih-Fan; Liu, Jian-Nan; Liu, Mark; Hwang, Wenbe; Yang, Ping-Shih; Shen, Sheng-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The ability to form cooperative societies may explain why humans and social insects have come to dominate the earth. Here we examine the ecological consequences of cooperation by quantifying the fitness of cooperative (large groups) and non-cooperative (small groups) phenotypes in burying beetles (Nicrophorus nepalensis) along an elevational and temperature gradient. We experimentally created large and small groups along the gradient and manipulated interspecific competition with flies by heating carcasses. We show that cooperative groups performed as thermal generalists with similarly high breeding success at all temperatures and elevations, whereas non-cooperative groups performed as thermal specialists with higher breeding success only at intermediate temperatures and elevations. Studying the ecological consequences of cooperation may not only help us to understand why so many species of social insects have conquered the earth, but also to determine how climate change will affect the success of these and other social species, including our own. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02440.001 PMID:24842999

  8. Detecting buried explosive hazards with handheld GPR and deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besaw, Lance E.

    2016-05-01

    Buried explosive hazards (BEHs), including traditional landmines and homemade improvised explosives, have proven difficult to detect and defeat during and after conflicts around the world. Despite their various sizes, shapes and construction material, ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an excellent phenomenology for detecting BEHs due to its ability to sense localized differences in electromagnetic properties. Handheld GPR detectors are common equipment for detecting BEHs because of their flexibility (in part due to the human operator) and effectiveness in cluttered environments. With modern digital electronics and positioning systems, handheld GPR sensors can sense and map variation in electromagnetic properties while searching for BEHs. Additionally, large-scale computers have demonstrated an insatiable appetite for ingesting massive datasets and extracting meaningful relationships. This is no more evident than the maturation of deep learning artificial neural networks (ANNs) for image and speech recognition now commonplace in industry and academia. This confluence of sensing, computing and pattern recognition technologies offers great potential to develop automatic target recognition techniques to assist GPR operators searching for BEHs. In this work deep learning ANNs are used to detect BEHs and discriminate them from harmless clutter. We apply these techniques to a multi-antennae, handheld GPR with centimeter-accurate positioning system that was used to collect data over prepared lanes containing a wide range of BEHs. This work demonstrates that deep learning ANNs can automatically extract meaningful information from complex GPR signatures, complementing existing GPR anomaly detection and classification techniques.

  9. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  10. Strong and Tough Layered Nanocomposites with Buried Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Tang, Xuke; Yue, Yonghai; Zhao, Hewei; Guo, Lin

    2016-04-26

    In nacre, the excellent mechanical properties of materials are highly dependent on their intricate hierarchical structures. However, strengthening and toughening effects induced by the buried inorganic-organic interfaces actually originate from various minerals/ions with small amounts, and have not drawn enough attention yet. Herein, we present a typical class of artificial nacres, fabricated by graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) polymer, and multivalent cationic (M(n+)) ions, in which the M(n+) ions cross-linking with plenty of oxygen-containing groups serve as the reinforcing "evocator", working together with other cooperative interactions (e.g., hydrogen (H)-bonding) to strengthen the GO/CMC interfaces. When compared with the pristine GO/CMC paper, the cross-linking strategies dramatically reinforce the mechanical properties of our artificial nacres. This special reinforcing effect opens a promising route to strengthen and toughen materials to be applied in aerospace, tissue engineering, and wearable electronic devices, which also has implication for better understanding of the role of these minerals/ions in natural materials for the mechanical improvement. PMID:27070962

  11. Imaging of buried phosphorus nanostructures in silicon using scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, Lars; Reusch, Thilo C. G.; Hallam, Toby; Simmons, Michelle Y. E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au; Schofield, Steven R.; Curson, Neil J. E-mail: michelle.simmons@unsw.edu.au

    2014-06-23

    We demonstrate the locating and imaging of single phosphorus atoms and phosphorus dopant nanostructures, buried beneath the Si(001) surface using scanning tunneling microscopy. The buried dopant nanostructures have been fabricated in a bottom-up approach using scanning tunneling microscope lithography on Si(001). We find that current imaging tunneling spectroscopy is suited to locate and image buried nanostructures at room temperature and with residual surface roughness present. From these studies, we can place an upper limit on the lateral diffusion during encapsulation with low-temperature Si molecular beam epitaxy.

  12. Pannus Is the New Prepuce? Penile Cancer in a Buried Phallus

    PubMed Central

    Manwaring, Jared; Vourganti, Srinivas; Nikolavsky, Dmitriy; Valente, Alfredo L.; Byler, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Two males presented to our urology department with complaints of bleeding and malodor from buried phallus within a suprapubic fat pad. Although both men had neonatal circumcisions, advanced penile carcinoma was found in both men. Formal penectomies showed high grade, poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma invading the corporal bodies and urethra. Buried penis represents a difficulty in early detection of suspicious lesions but may also provide an environment susceptible to poor hygiene and subsequent chronic inflammation. Patients with buried penis may be at a higher risk for development of invasive penile cancer and may benefit from regular and thorough genital exams. PMID:26446361

  13. Novel back-reflector architecture with nanoparticle based buried light-scattering microstructures for improved solar cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desta, Derese; Ram, Sanjay K.; Rizzoli, Rita; Bellettato, Michele; Summonte, Caterina; Jeppesen, Bjarke R.; Jensen, Pia B.; Tsao, Yao-Chung; Wiggers, Hartmut; Pereira, Rui N.; Balling, Peter; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted

    2016-06-01

    A new back-reflector architecture for light-management in thin-film solar cells is proposed that includes a morphologically smooth top surface with light-scattering microstructures buried within. The microstructures are pyramid shaped, fabricated on a planar reflector using TiO2 nanoparticles and subsequently covered with a layer of Si nanoparticles to obtain a flattened top surface, thus enabling growth of good quality thin-film solar cells. The optical properties of this back-reflector show high broadband haze parameter and wide angular distribution of diffuse light-scattering. The n-i-p amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells grown on such a back-reflector show enhanced light absorption resulting in improved external quantum efficiency. The benefit of the light trapping in those solar cells is evidenced by the gains in short-circuit current density and efficiency up to 15.6% and 19.3% respectively, compared to the reference flat solar cells. This improvement in the current generation in the solar cells grown on the flat-topped (buried pyramid) back-reflector is observed even when the irradiation takes place at large oblique angles of incidence. Finite-difference-time-domain simulation results of optical absorption and ideal short-circuit current density values agree well with the experimental findings. The proposed approach uses a low cost and simple fabrication technique and allows effective light manipulation by utilizing the optical properties of micro-scale structures and nanoscale constituent particles.

  14. Novel back-reflector architecture with nanoparticle based buried light-scattering microstructures for improved solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Desta, Derese; Ram, Sanjay K; Rizzoli, Rita; Bellettato, Michele; Summonte, Caterina; Jeppesen, Bjarke R; Jensen, Pia B; Tsao, Yao-Chung; Wiggers, Hartmut; Pereira, Rui N; Balling, Peter; Larsen, Arne Nylandsted

    2016-06-01

    A new back-reflector architecture for light-management in thin-film solar cells is proposed that includes a morphologically smooth top surface with light-scattering microstructures buried within. The microstructures are pyramid shaped, fabricated on a planar reflector using TiO2 nanoparticles and subsequently covered with a layer of Si nanoparticles to obtain a flattened top surface, thus enabling growth of good quality thin-film solar cells. The optical properties of this back-reflector show high broadband haze parameter and wide angular distribution of diffuse light-scattering. The n-i-p amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells grown on such a back-reflector show enhanced light absorption resulting in improved external quantum efficiency. The benefit of the light trapping in those solar cells is evidenced by the gains in short-circuit current density and efficiency up to 15.6% and 19.3% respectively, compared to the reference flat solar cells. This improvement in the current generation in the solar cells grown on the flat-topped (buried pyramid) back-reflector is observed even when the irradiation takes place at large oblique angles of incidence. Finite-difference-time-domain simulation results of optical absorption and ideal short-circuit current density values agree well with the experimental findings. The proposed approach uses a low cost and simple fabrication technique and allows effective light manipulation by utilizing the optical properties of micro-scale structures and nanoscale constituent particles. PMID:27244247

  15. Chemical Sensing for Buried Landmines - Fundamental Processes Influencing Trace Chemical Detection

    SciTech Connect

    PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-05-01

    Mine detection dogs have a demonstrated capability to locate hidden objects by trace chemical detection. Because of this capability, demining activities frequently employ mine detection dogs to locate individual buried landmines or for area reduction. The conditions appropriate for use of mine detection dogs are only beginning to emerge through diligent research that combines dog selection/training, the environmental conditions that impact landmine signature chemical vapors, and vapor sensing performance capability and reliability. This report seeks to address the fundamental soil-chemical interactions, driven by local weather history, that influence the availability of chemical for trace chemical detection. The processes evaluated include: landmine chemical emissions to the soil, chemical distribution in soils, chemical degradation in soils, and weather and chemical transport in soils. Simulation modeling is presented as a method to evaluate the complex interdependencies among these various processes and to establish conditions appropriate for trace chemical detection. Results from chemical analyses on soil samples obtained adjacent to landmines are presented and demonstrate the ultra-trace nature of these residues. Lastly, initial measurements of the vapor sensing performance of mine detection dogs demonstrates the extreme sensitivity of dogs in sensing landmine signature chemicals; however, reliability at these ultra-trace vapor concentrations still needs to be determined. Through this compilation, additional work is suggested that will fill in data gaps to improve the utility of trace chemical detection.

  16. Development of a Laboratory Scale Test Facility (LSTF) to investigate Armor solutions against buried explosive threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Felipe; Sinibaldi, Jose

    2009-11-01

    This LSTF will address the effects of High Velocity Sand Blast Impact; massive overpressures, impulsive effects, kinetic energy and momentum, from developing the type of flat sand- loading profile required for code validation purposes. The background of this study is to generate a planar shock-wave profile and a flat-loading profile from high velocity sand and air blast onto intended flat-plate targets, to properly characterize the codes under development; to do this we propose to use a flyer plate, which is explosively driven, so, we end with a design in which a slanted flyer plate, with an explosive layer underneath it, is set-up and detonated from one end, as the detonation wave runs through the explosive layer, it pushes the flyer plate. If all the geometry is carefully designed and the flyer plate/explosive layers are precisely positioned, in theory we should be able to produce a flat flyer plate that travels on the order of 1 to 2 km/s towards a layer of sand, therefore generating a shock wave within the sand that will eventually accelerate the sand with a flat top-hat profile towards the intended target, thus achieving a flat sand loading profile onto the target. Success in this domain will allow ease of testing of advanced armor concepts against simulate buried explosive threats, thus providing validation for numerical codes that will be used to perform optimization of novel armor designs at low costs.

  17. Electromagnetic scattering by two concentric spheres buried in a stratified material.

    PubMed

    Frezza, F; Mangini, F; Tedeschi, N

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, a rigorous method to analyze the electromagnetic scattering of an elliptically polarized plane wave by two concentric spheres buried in a dielectric stratified medium is presented. The interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with the stratified material is taken into account by means of the transfer matrix approach, in this way we can consider the stratified medium as an effective single interface. All the electromagnetic fields are expanded in series of spherical vector harmonics. The transmitted field through the stratified medium is obtained by means of the effective transmission coefficient. This field is scattered by the two concentric spheres, and the scattered field interacts again with the stratified material. The scattered-reflected and scattered-transmitted fields by the layered medium are computed by exploiting the plane-wave spectrum of the scattered field, considering the reflection and transmission of each elementary plane wave by the effective interface. The boundary conditions imposition on the spheres' surfaces leads to a linear system that returns the unknown coefficients of the problem. A numerical code has been implemented to compute the field over all the space. In order to compute the scattered fields, a truncation criterion has been proposed for the numerical evaluation of the series. Finally, to validate the presented method, comparisons between the results of the proposed code and the results of simulations with a software based on the finite element method have been implemented, showing very good agreement. PMID:26366600

  18. Fouling detection in buried water pipelines by observation of the scattered electromagnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezza, Fabrizio; Mangini, Fabio; Santini, Carlo; Stoja, Endri; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic scattered field by a buried pipeline is calculated by means of frequency-domain numerical simulations and by making use of the scattered-field formulation. The pipeline, supposed to be used for water conveyance, is modeled as a cylindrical shell made of poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) material buried in a wall or pavement composed of cement with very low losses and filled with water. In order to make the model simpler, the pipeline is supposed running parallel to the air-cement interface. To excite the model, a linearly-polarized plane wave impinging normally on the above-mentioned interface is adopted. We consider two different polarizations in order to determine the most useful in terms of scattered-field sensitivity. Moreover, a preliminary frequency sweep allows us to choose the most suitable operating frequency depending on the dimensions of the pipeline cross-section. All the three components of the scattered field are monitored along a line just above the interface. The electromagnetic properties of the materials employed in this study are present in the literature and, since a frequency-domain technique is adopted, no further approximation is needed. Once the ideal problem has been studied, we further complicate the model by introducing two fouling scenarios due to limestone formation on the pipeline walls. In the first case, the fouling is deposited at the bottom of the pipeline when the water pressure is low enough and the second one considers the fouling to deposit on the entire internal perimeter of the pipeline's cross-section by forming an additional limestone cylindrical layer. The results obtained in these cases are compared with those of the initial problem with the goal of determining the scattered field dependency on the fouling geometrical characteristics. One of the practical applications in the field of Civil Engineering of this study may be the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques to monitor the fouling conditions of

  19. Acoustic and electromagnetic wave interaction in the detection and identification of buried objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Daniel Edward

    2002-09-01

    In order to facilitate the development of a hybrid acoustic and electromagnetic (EM) system for buried object detection, a number of analytical solutions and a novel numerical technique are developed to analyze the complex interaction between acoustic and EM scattering. The essence of the interaction lies in the fact that identifiable acoustic properties of an object, such as acoustic resonances, can be observed in the scattered EM Doppler spectrum. Using a perturbation approach, analytical solutions are derived for the EM scattering from infinitely long circular cylinders, both metallic and dielectric, under acoustic vibration in a homogeneous background medium. Results indicate that both the shape variation and dielectric constant contribute to the scattered EM Doppler spectrum. To model the effect of a cylinder beneath an acoustically excited half-space, a new analytical solution is presented for EM scattering from a cylinder beneath a slightly rough surface. The solution is achieved by using plane-wave expansion of the fields and an iterative technique to account for the multiple interactions between the cylinder and rough surface. Following a similar procedure, a novel solution for elastic-wave scattering from a solid cylinder embedded in a solid half-space is developed and used to calculate the surface displacement. Simulations indicate that only a finite range of spatial surface frequencies, corresponding to surface roughness on the order of the EM wavelength; affect the EM scattering from buried objects and suggest that object detection can be improved if the acoustic excitation induces surface roughness outside this range. To extend the study to non-canonical scenarios, a novel numerical approach is introduced in which time-varying impedance boundary conditions (IBCs) are used in conjunction with the method of moments (MoM) to model the EM scattering from vibrating metallic objects of arbitrary shape. It is shown that the standard IBC provides a first

  20. Detection of Buried Empty Lunar Lava Tubes Using GRAIL Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, R.; Chappaz, L.; Melosh, H. J.; Howell, K. C.; Blair, D. M.; Milbury, C.

    2015-10-01

    GRAIL gravity data is used to detect buried empty lunar lava tubes that are of interest as possible habitation sites safe from cosmic radiation and micrometeorite impacts. Regions in the maria with known skylights and sinuous rilles are investigated.

  1. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Buried and Encapsulated Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    In this innovation profile, CARB research shows HVAC ducts that are encapsulated in closed-cell spray foam and buried in blown insulation in a vented attic meet the code requirements for ducts in conditioned space.

  2. [Super-low-frequency spectrum analysis for buried faults in coalfield].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Qin, Qi-Ming; Zhen, Guang-Wei; Wang, Nan; Bai, Yan-Bing; Chen, Chao

    2013-08-01

    Based on the super-low-frequency (SLF) electromagnetic detection technology, the advanced detection for the buried fault in the coalfield is still at the exploratory stage, while the technology has a strong practical significance for production and design of the coal mine. Firstly, in this paper, the SLF electromagnetic detection signals were collected in study area. Spectrum analysis of SLF signal by wavelet transform can remove high-frequency noise. Secondly, the profile of the measuring line across the fault was analyzed and interpreted geologically. Accordingly SLF spectrum characteristics of the buried fault could be researched. Finally, combined with the geological and seismic data, the characteristics and distribution of fault structures can be verified in the mining area. The results show that: the buried fault could be detected quickly and effectively by SLF electromagnetic detection Hence, SLF electromagnetic detection technology is an effective method for buried fault detection. PMID:24159862

  3. Buried-Hill discoveries of the Damintun depression in north China

    SciTech Connect

    Tong XiaoGuang; Huang Zuan )

    1991-04-01

    Several buried-hill oil fields recently have been found in the Damintun depression. All the buried hills except one consist of Archean metamorphic rocks. Of these, the Dongshenpu buried hill is the largest. The metamorphic rocks have no original porosity but have secondary porosity, such as weathering fractures, structural fractures, brecciated pores, secondary corrosion pores, and secondary replacement pores. Fractures, especially structural fractures, form the only migration passages and main reservoir spaces for hydrocarbons in the buried hill. Crude oil comes from Paleogene continental source rocks and is very waxy. Based on the interpretation of log data, the porosity averages 3.24%. According to calculations using pressure build-up curves, the effective permeability averages 0.140 {mu}m{sup 2}.

  4. DRAINAGE PIPE DETECTOR: GROUND PENETRATING RADAR SHOWS PROMISE IN LOCATING BURIED SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the more frustrating problems confronting farmers and land improvement contractors in the Midwestern United States involves locating buried agricultural drainage pipes. Conventional geophysical methods, particularly ground penetrating radar (GPR), presently being used for environmental and co...

  5. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho

    2004-12-01

    This Inverse Problems special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles contains a selection of 14 invited papers, involving 41 authors and 19 research groups worldwide. (Though this section consists of invited papers, the standard refereeing procedures of Inverse Problems have been rigorously observed.) We do not claim to have reached all the high-level researchers in the field, but we believe that we have made a fair attempt. As illustrated by the variety of contributions included, the aim of this special section is to address theoretical and practical inversion problems (and the solutions thereof) that arise in the field of electromagnetic characterization of obstacles (artificial or natural) buried on the Earth or in planetary subsoil. Civil and military engineering, archaeological and environmental issues are typically among those within the scope of the investigation. An example is the characterization of a single (or multiple) obstacle(s) located near the interface or at shallow depths via electromagnetic means operating within relevant frequency bands. However, we also welcomed novel and thought-provoking investigations, even though their direct application to the real world, or even to laboratory-controlled settings, may still be far off. Within this general mathematical and applied framework, the submitted papers focused on a combination of theoretical, computational and experimental developments. They either reviewed the most recent advances in a particular area of research or were an original and specialized contribution. Let us now take the opportunity to remind the readers that this special section harks back (in addition to sharing some common contributors) to two special sections already published in the journal which possessed the same flavour of wave-field inversion and its many applications. They were `Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface', which was published in October 2000 (volume 16, issue 5

  6. Nutrition, hormones and life history in burying beetles.

    PubMed

    Trumbo, Stephen T; Robinson, Gene E

    2004-05-01

    Nutrition, hormones and the allocation of physiological resources are intricately related. To investigate these inter-relationships in female burying beetles (Nicrophorus spp.), we examined the effect of diet quality on juvenile hormone (JH) levels and reproduction, and the effect of JH supplementation on reproduction and resistance to starvation. Nicrophorus orbicollis adult females fed a less preferred mealworm larvae diet gained less body mass, had smaller ovaries and had lower titers of JH in their hemolymph than females fed a preferred blowfly diet. When presented a carcass for breeding, females on a less preferred diet oviposited 33% fewer eggs, and eggs were of 18% less mass. Females on the less preferred diet also took longer to begin oviposition as indicated indirectly by the time when their eggs hatched. To investigate the effects of JH, independent of nutrition, JH was topically applied to single and paired females of Nicrophorus tomentosus. When presented a carcass, JH-treated paired females oviposited more eggs (28%-year 1, 44%-year 2) than control females, and also showed a trend toward faster oviposition. JH supplementation had a greater effect on single females. JH treatment increased the proportion of single females attempting reproduction (at least one viable larva), increased the number of eggs (69%-year 1, 123%-year 2), and increased the proportion of females ovipositing early. In separate experiments, treatment with JH or a JH analog negatively affected resistance to starvation in three species. Treatment with JH reduced starvation survival by 10.3% days in N. tomentosus females. Treatment with the JH analog methoprene reduced starvation survival 17.8% in N. orbicollis females and by 18% in Ptomascopus morio females. These results suggest that JH has positive and negative effects on different components of life history. PMID:15121451

  7. Buried bumper syndrome: A complication of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Cyrany, Jiri; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopacova, Marcela; Bures, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a widely used method of nutrition delivery for patients with long-term insufficiency of oral intake. The PEG complication rate varies from 0.4% to 22.5% of cases, with minor complications being three times more frequent. Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is a severe complication of this method, in which the internal fixation device migrates alongside the tract of the stoma outside the stomach. Excessive compression of tissue between the external and internal fixation device of the gastrostomy tube is considered the main etiological factor leading to BBS. Incidence of BBS is estimated at around 1% (0.3%-2.4%). Inability to insert, loss of patency and leakage around the PEG tube are considered to be a typical symptomatic triad. Gastroscopy is indicated in all cases in which BBS is suspected. The depth of disc migration in relation to the lamina muscularis propria of the stomach is critical for further therapy and can be estimated by endoscopic or transabdominal ultrasound. BBS can be complicated by gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, peritonitis, intra-abdominal and abdominal wall abscesses, or phlegmon, and these complications can lead to fatal outcomes. The most important preventive measure is adequate positioning of the external bolster. A conservative approach should be applied only in patients with high operative risk and dismal prognosis. Choice of the method of release is based on the type of the PEG set and depth of disc migration. A disc retained inside the stomach and completely covered by the overgrowing tissue can be released using some type of endoscopic dissection technique (needle knife, argon plasma coagulation, or papillotome through the cannula). Proper patient selection and dissection of the overgrowing tissue are the major determinants for successful endoscopic therapy. A disc localized out of the stomach (lamina muscularis propria) should be treated by a surgeon. PMID:26811611

  8. Review of Concrete Biodeterioration in Relation to Buried Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Turick, C; Berry, C.

    2012-10-15

    Long-term storage of low level radioactive material in below ground concrete disposal units (DUs) (Saltstone Disposal Facility) is a means of depositing wastes generated from nuclear operations of the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on the currently modeled degradation mechanisms, possible microbial induced effects on the structural integrity of buried low level wastes must be addressed. Previous international efforts related to microbial impacts on concrete structures that house low level radioactive waste showed that microbial activity can play a significant role in the process of concrete degradation and ultimately structural deterioration. This literature review examines the recent research in this field and is focused on specific parameters that are applicable to modeling and prediction of the fate of concrete vaults housing stored wastes and the wastes themselves. Rates of concrete biodegradation vary with the environmental conditions, illustrating a need to understand the bioavailability of key compounds involved in microbial activity. Specific parameters require pH and osmotic pressure to be within a certain range to allow for microbial growth as well as the availability and abundance of energy sources like components involved in sulfur, iron and nitrogen oxidation. Carbon flow and availability are also factors to consider in predicting concrete biodegradation. The results of this review suggest that microbial activity in Saltstone, (grouted low level radioactive waste) is unlikely due to very high pH and osmotic pressure. Biodegradation of the concrete vaults housing the radioactive waste however, is a possibility. The rate and degree of concrete biodegradation is dependent on numerous physical, chemical and biological parameters. Results from this review point to parameters to focus on for modeling activities and also, possible options for mitigation that would minimize concrete biodegradation. In addition, key chemical components that drive microbial

  9. FOREWORD: Special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesselier, Dominique; Chew, Weng Cho

    2004-12-01

    This Inverse Problems special section on electromagnetic characterization of buried obstacles contains a selection of 14 invited papers, involving 41 authors and 19 research groups worldwide. (Though this section consists of invited papers, the standard refereeing procedures of Inverse Problems have been rigorously observed.) We do not claim to have reached all the high-level researchers in the field, but we believe that we have made a fair attempt. As illustrated by the variety of contributions included, the aim of this special section is to address theoretical and practical inversion problems (and the solutions thereof) that arise in the field of electromagnetic characterization of obstacles (artificial or natural) buried on the Earth or in planetary subsoil. Civil and military engineering, archaeological and environmental issues are typically among those within the scope of the investigation. An example is the characterization of a single (or multiple) obstacle(s) located near the interface or at shallow depths via electromagnetic means operating within relevant frequency bands. However, we also welcomed novel and thought-provoking investigations, even though their direct application to the real world, or even to laboratory-controlled settings, may still be far off. Within this general mathematical and applied framework, the submitted papers focused on a combination of theoretical, computational and experimental developments. They either reviewed the most recent advances in a particular area of research or were an original and specialized contribution. Let us now take the opportunity to remind the readers that this special section harks back (in addition to sharing some common contributors) to two special sections already published in the journal which possessed the same flavour of wave-field inversion and its many applications. They were `Electromagnetic imaging and inversion of the Earth's subsurface', which was published in October 2000 (volume 16, issue 5

  10. Seismic fragility analysis of buried steel piping at P, L, and K reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Wingo, H.E.

    1989-10-01

    Analysis of seismic strength of buried cooling water piping in reactor areas is necessary to evaluate the risk of reactor operation because seismic events could damage these buried pipes and cause loss of coolant accidents. This report documents analysis of the ability of this piping to withstand the combined effects of the propagation of seismic waves, the possibility that the piping may not behave in a completely ductile fashion, and the distortions caused by relative displacements of structures connected to the piping.

  11. Analysis of 1.2 kV SiC buried-grid VJFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, J.-K.; Bakowski, M.

    2010-11-01

    1.2 kV buried-grid vertical 4H-SiC JFET structures with normally-on (N-on) and normally-off (N-off) designs were investigated by simulation. The static and dynamic characteristics of the devices were determined over a wide range of current, voltage and gate drive conditions in the temperature range -50 °C to 250 °C. In this paper, the properties of the N-on designs with threshold voltages (Vth) -50 and -10 V are compared with the properties of the N-off design (Vth=0). For constant Vth, on-resistance decreases and output current increases with increasing channel doping and decreasing channel width. Simulations show that an on-resistance lower than 2 mΩ cm2 at 250 °C can be obtained provided the channel width is smaller than 1.5 and 0.5 μm for N-on JFETs with Vth=-50 V and Vth=-10 V, respectively, and lower than 3 mΩ cm2 provided the channel width is smaller than 0.3 μm for the N-off JFET. At the same time, Eon decreases and Eoff increases with increased channel doping concentration and reduced channel width. It is shown that Eon decreases with increasing channel doping concentration due to the reduced channel resistance for the faster turn-on process. Eoff increases with increasing channel doping concentration due to the increase in gate-drain capacitance, CGD.

  12. Experimental Studies about Transient Characteristics of a Deeply Buried Grounding Electrode and a Grounding Mesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Kazuo; Yanagawa, Shunichi; Sekioka, Shozo

    When lightning strikes the tower of a cellular phone base station or other such facilities, power and communication equipments in the vicinity of the tower may suffer extensive damages due to the lightning current flowing backward from the grounding system of the tower. The use of a deeply buried grounding electrode has been proposed recently to suppress such back flow current and a potential rise in the vicinity of the tower. The deeply buried grounding electrode is a bare conductor buried deep in the ground that is connected to a lightning rod on the ground by an insulated wire. When lightning strikes the lightning rod, the lightning current is directed to the electrode from which it diffuses to the ground. The deeply buried grounding electrodes have been installed in cellular phone base stations and other such facilities to solve such problems caused by the back flow current and the potential rise. A grounding mesh is usually laid around such base stations as a grounding system for the facilities on the ground. Therefore, it is important to understand the interactions between the deeply buried grounding electrode and the grounding mesh. In this study, experiments on the interactions between a grounding mesh and a deeply buried grounding electrode have been carried out. Additionally, the transient characteristics of the mesh grounding have researched.

  13. Cannabidiol reverses the mCPP-induced increase in marble-burying behavior.

    PubMed

    Nardo, Mirella; Casarotto, Plinio C; Gomes, Felipe V; Guimarães, Francisco S

    2014-10-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), one of the main components of Cannabis sp., presents clinical and preclinical anxiolytic properties. Recent results using the marble-burying test (MBT) suggest that CBD can also induce anticompulsive-like effects. Meta-chloro-phenyl-piperazine (mCPP) is a nonspecific serotonergic agonist (acting mainly at 5HT1A, 5HT2C and 5HT1D receptors) reported to increase symptoms in OCD patients and block the anticompulsive-like effect of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in animal models. The aim of this study was to investigate the interference of CBD on mCPP effects in repetitive burying. Administration of mCPP showed dual effects in the MBT, increasing the number of buried marbles at lower (0.1 mg/kg) while decreasing it at higher doses (1 mg/kg), an effect not related to a general increase in anxiety-like behavior. As found previously, CBD (30 mg/kg) and the positive control fluoxetine (FLX; 10 mg/kg) decreased burying behavior without changing general exploratory activity. A similar effect was found when subeffective doses of CBD (15 mg/kg) and FLX (3 mg/kg) were administered together. These subeffective doses alone were also able to block mCPP-induced repetitive burying. The results, in addition to reinforcing a possible anticompulsive effect of CBD, also suggest that mCPP-induced repetitive burying could be a useful test for the screening of compounds with presumed anticompulsive properties. PMID:24118015

  14. Imaging of Au nanoparticles deeply buried in polymer matrix by various atomic force microscopy techniques.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kuniko; Kobayashi, Kei; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2013-10-01

    Recently, some papers reported successful imaging of subsurface features using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Some theoretical studies have also been presented, however the imaging mechanisms are not fully understood yet. In the preceeding papers, imaging of deeply buried nanometer-scale features has been successful only if they were buried in a soft matrix. In this paper, subsurface features (Au nanoparticles) buried in a soft polymer matrix were visualized. To elucidate the imaging mechanisms, various AFM techniques; heterodyne force microscopy, ultrasonic atomic force microscopy (UAFM), 2nd-harmonic UAFM and force modulation microscopy (FMM) were employed. The particles buried under 960 nm from the surface were successfully visualized which has never been achieved. The results elucidated that it is important for subsurface imaging to choose a cantilever with a suitable stiffness range for a matrix. In case of using the most suitable cantilever, the nanoparticles were visualized using every technique shown above except for FMM. The experimental results suggest that the subsurface features buried in a soft matrix with a depth of at least 1 µm can affect the local viscoelasticity (mainly viscosity) detected as the variation of the amplitude and phase of the tip oscillation on the surface. This phenomenon presumably makes it possible to visualize such deeply buried nanometer-scale features in a soft matrix. PMID:23770541

  15. Progestogens and Estrogen Influence Impulsive Burying and Avoidant Freezing Behavior of Naturally Cycling and Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Llaneza, Danielle C.; Frye, Cheryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormones, progesterone and estradiol, may influence approach and/or anxiety behavior. Female rats in behavioral estrus, have elevated levels of these steroid hormones and demonstrate more approach and less anxiety behavior than do diestrous rats. Ovariectomy obviates these cyclic variations and systemic progesterone and/or estrogen replacement can enhance approach and anti-anxiety behavior. However, the role of progesterone and/or estrogen in mediating impulsive, avoidant and/or fear behaviors requires further investigation. We hypothesized that if progesterone and/or estrogen influences impulsivity and/or fear then rats in behavioral estrus would demonstrate less impulsive behavior in a burying task and freezing behavior in a conditioned fear task than will diestrous rats. Ovariectomized rats administered progesterone and/or estrogen would show less impulsive burying and freezing behaviors than will vehicle-administered rats. Experiment 1: Naturally cycling rats were tested in marble burying or conditioned fear when they were in behavioral estrus or diestrus. Experiment 2: Ovariectomized rats were administered progesterone, estrogen or vehicle, then tested in marble burying or conditioned fear. Results of Experiment 1 show rats in behavioral estrus demonstrate less impulsive burying and less freezing behavior than diestrous rats. Results of Experiment 2 show administration of progesterone or both estrogen and progesterone decreases impulsive burying and each decrease freezing behavior compared to vehicle. Thus, progesterone and/or estrogen may mediate impulsive and/or avoidant behavior. PMID:19447128

  16. Distinct microbial communities associated with buried soils in the Siberian tundra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Mikutta, Robert; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Maerz, Joeran; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Čapek, Petr; Šantrůčková, Hana; Gentsch, Norman; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas; Torsvik, Vigdis; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Cryoturbation, the burial of topsoil material into deeper soil horizons by repeated freeze-thaw events, is an important storage mechanism for soil organic matter (SOM) in permafrost-affected soils. Besides abiotic conditions, microbial community structure and the accessibility of SOM to the decomposer community are hypothesized to control SOM decomposition and thus have a crucial role in SOM accumulation in buried soils. We surveyed the microbial community structure in cryoturbated soils from nine soil profiles in the northeastern Siberian tundra using high-throughput sequencing and quantification of bacterial, archaeal and fungal marker genes. We found that bacterial abundances in buried topsoils were as high as in unburied topsoils. In contrast, fungal abundances decreased with depth and were significantly lower in buried than in unburied topsoils resulting in remarkably low fungal to bacterial ratios in buried topsoils. Fungal community profiling revealed an associated decrease in presumably ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. The abiotic conditions (low to subzero temperatures, anoxia) and the reduced abundance of fungi likely provide a niche for bacterial, facultative anaerobic decomposers of SOM such as members of the Actinobacteria, which were found in significantly higher relative abundances in buried than in unburied topsoils. Our study expands the knowledge on the microbial community structure in soils of Northern latitude permafrost regions, and attributes the delayed decomposition of SOM in buried soils to specific microbial taxa, and particularly to a decrease in abundance and activity of ECM fungi, and to the extent to which bacterial decomposers are able to act as their functional substitutes.

  17. The Vertical Distribution of Buried Volatiles at the Moon revealed by Thermal and Epithermal Neutron Fluxes from LEND Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, G.; Sagdeev, R.; Su, J. J.; Murray, J.; Livengood, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Determining the quantity and vertical distribution of volatile species on and below the surface of planetary bodies is vital to understand the primordial chemical inventory and subsequent evolution of planets. Volatiles may provide resources to support future human exploration. This is particularly true for the Moon, which is well observed by many methods from ground-based, lunar orbit, and in situ, and is an accessible destination or way station for human exploration. We present Geant4 models of relative fluxes of Fast, Epithermal, and Thermal neutron emission generated in a planetary regolith by galactic cosmic rays to reveal the first 1-2 meters vertical structure of embedded hydrogen or water. Varying ratios of Thermal versus Epithermal, low-energy-Epithermal versus high-energy-Epithermal, and Thermal versus Fast neutron emissions are diagnostics of the depth in which hydrogen/water layers are buried within the top 1-2 meters of the regolith. In addition, we apply model calculations to Lunar Exploration Neutron Detector (LEND) thermal and epithermal data, acquired on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), in specific regions of the Moon to retrieve the vertical distribution of buried ice from the remote sensing information. GEANT4 is a set of particle physics transport simulation codes that exploits object-oriented software methods to deliver a comprehensive and flexible toolkit that is modular and extensible, based on a free open-source development model. GEANT4 has become a standard tool to simulate applications as diverse as particle telescope and detector response, space radiation shielding and optimization, total ionizing dose in spacecraft components, and biological effects of radiation.

  18. Reconstruction of buried objects embedded in circular opaque structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persico, Raffaele; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Soldovieri, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    This contribution deals with the ground penetrating radar imaging of targets embedded in a visually opaque circular structure. The problem has practical relevance in civil engineering and archeological prospections, where structures of interest such as columns or pillars may have to be inspected in non-invasive way in order to detect the possible presence of anomalies (e.g. cracks, water infiltrations, and so on). In this framework, we investigate the possibility to inspect the circular region of interest thanks to a radar system composed by two antennas that are in contact with the structure and rotate simultaneously around it in order to illuminate and measure the field scattered by buried objects from multiple directions. Two different measurement strategies are examined. The first one is the multimonostatic configuration where the backscattered signal is collected by the transmitting antenna itself, as it moves along the circular observation line. The second acquisition strategy is the multibistatic one, with the transmitting and receiving antennas shifted by a constant angular offset of ninety degrees as they move around the column. From the mathematical viewpoint, the imaging problem is formulated as a linear inverse scattering one holding under Born approximation [1]. Furthermore, the Green's function of a homogeneous medium [2] is used to simplify the evaluation of the kernel of the integral equation. The inverse problem is then solved via the Truncated Singular Value Decomposition algorithm [3] in order to obtain a regularized solution. Tomographic reconstructions based on full-wave synthetic data generated by the Finite Difference Time Domain code GPRmax2D [4] are shown to assess the effectiveness of the reconstruction process. REFERENCES [1] W. C. Chew, Waves and fields in inhomogeneous media, IEEE Press, 1995. [2] R. F. Harrington, Time harmonic electromagnetic waves, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA, 1961. [3] M. Bertero and P. Boccacci, Introduction to

  19. Technical issues associated with in situ vitrification of the INEL Subsurface Disposal Area. Volume 3, Application of technical issues to the TRU-contaminated pits and trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Stoots, C.M.; Bates, S.O.; Callow, R.A.; Campbell, K.A.; Farnsworth, R.K.; Krisman, G.K.; McKellar, M.G.; Nickelson, D.F.; Slater, C.E.

    1992-07-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) has been identified as an alternative technology for remediation of the acid pit and transuranic pits and trenches (TRU-PTs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). However, a number of technical issues must be resolved before ISV can be considered applicable to these waste sites. To assist in the ISV technology evaluation, an ISV Steering Committee was formed to identify, prioritize, and develop closure roadmaps for technical issues lated with ISV application at the SDA. The activities of the ISV Steering Committee are summarized in a three-volume report. Volume I identifies the systematic approach used to identify and prioritize the ISV technical issues and briefly discusses the methodology that will be employed to resolve these issues. Volumes 2 and 3 discuss each technical issue in greater detail and suggest specific closure roadmaps to be used in resolving technical issues associated with ISV at the SDA Acid Pit and TRU-PTS, respectively. The three-volume report is a working document that will be updated as necessary to reflect current evaluation strategy for the ISV technology. This is Volume 3.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Anti-tank Mine Detonations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, Leo; Ranestad, Øyvind; Sandvik, Andreas; Snekkevik, Asbjørn

    2002-07-01

    In order to determine the loads on mine-clearing devices generated by detonations of anti-tank mines, knowledge about the incident impulse and pressure generated in the air are needed. Dependent factors include the mine's depth of burial and the properties of the soil. Numerical simulations were performed with a multi-material Euler processor to determine incident impulses and pressure histories from detonations of fully buried, flushed and surface anti-tank mines for dry porous sand and saturated clay. The simulations showed that the maximum incident impulse in air, at stand off distance below 1 m, increases for both flushed and buried mines compared to a surface mine. Additionally, a concentration in the vertical direction of the maximum impulse was found for the buried mine. For buried mines it was found that the incident maximum pressure and impulse straight above the mines were significantly affected by the soil material properties.

  1. Web technology in the separation of strontium and cesium from INEL-ICPP radioactive acid waste (WM-185)

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Brown, G.N.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium and cesium were successfully removed from radioactive acidic waste (WM-185) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), with web technology from 3M and IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC). A technical team from Pacific Northwest Laboratory, ICPP, 3M and IBC conducted a very successful series of experiments from August 15 through 18, 1994. The ICPP, Remote Analytical Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, provided the hot cell facilities and staff to complete these milestone experiments. The actual waste experiments duplicated the initial `cold` simulated waste results and confirmed the selective removal provided by ligand-particle web technology.

  2. Template-matching based detection of hyperbolas in ground-penetrating radargrams for buried utilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagnard, Florence; Tarel, Jean-Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is a mature geophysical technique that is used to map utility pipelines buried within 1.5 m of the ground surface in the urban landscape. In this work, the template-matching algorithm has been originally applied to the detection and localization of pipe signatures in two perpendicular antenna polarizations. The processing of a GPR radargram is based on four main steps. The first step consists in defining a template, usually from finite-difference time-domain simulations, made of the nearby area of the hyperbola apex associated with the mean size object to be detected in the soil, whose mean permittivity has been previously experimentally estimated. In the second step, the raw radargram is pre-processed to correct variations due to antenna coupling, then the template matching algorithm is used to detect and localize individual hyperbola signatures in an environment containing unwanted reflections, noise and overlapping signatures. The distance between the shifted template and a local zone in the radargram, based on the L1 norm, allows us to obtain a map of distances. A user-defined threshold allows us to select a reduced number of zones having a high similarity measure. In the third step, minimum or maximum discrete amplitudes belonging to a selected hyperbola curve are semi-automatically extracted in each zone. In the fourth step, the discrete hyperbola data (i, j) are fitted by a parametric hyperbola model using a non-linear least squares criterion. The algorithm was implemented and evaluated on numerical radargrams, and afterwards on experimental radargrams.

  3. Strain relaxation in buried strained layers by mixture of single and dipolar dislocation arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Z.; Yang, S.; Ma, C.; Liu, S.

    1999-06-01

    The strain relaxation in buried strained layers is investigated using an elastic continuum model. The mixture of single dislocations residing at the substrate/strained layer interface (lower interface) and dipolar dislocations in which one is at the lower interface and the other at the strained layer/capping layer interface (upper interface), is proposed. In the mixture, the dislocation distributions are denoted by a parameter which is the ratio of the density of misfit dislocations at the upper interface to that at the lower interface. In a buried strained layer, relaxation of mean strain occurs by introduction of two orthogonal arrays of mixture of single and dipolar dislocations. Considering both the free surface and interactions between dislocations, the total elastic energy per unit area of buried strained layer containing two orthogonal arrays of mixture of single and dipolar dislocations is calculated. The energy is dependent on the misfit dislocation distributions. On energy minimization considerations, the expression of the misfit dislocation distributions in a buried strained layer with arbitrary strain relaxation and capping layer thickness is derived. It is demonstrated that the strain is initially relaxed by the single misfit dislocations and relaxed by the mixture of single and dipolar misfit dislocations in the final stage of strain relaxation in many buried layers of practical interest.

  4. Role and development of soil parameters for seismic responses of buried lifelines

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Buried lifelines, e.g. oil, gas, water and sewer pipelines have been damaged heavily in recent earthquakes such as 1971 San Fernando Earthquake, in U.S.A., 1976 Tangshan Earthquake, in China, and 1978 MiyagiKen-Oki Earthquake, in Japan, among others. Researchers on the seismic performance of these buried lifelines have been initiated in the United States and many other countries. Various analytical models have been proposed. However, only limited experimental investigations are available. The sources of earthquake damage to buried lifelines include landslide, tectonic uplift-subsidence, soil liquefaction, fault displacement and ground shaking (effects of wave propagation). This paper is concerned with the behavior of buried lifeline systems subjected to surface faulting and ground shaking. The role and development of soil parameters that significantly influence the seismic responses are discussed. The scope of this paper is to examine analytically the influence of various soil and soilstructure interaction parameters to the seismic responses of buried pipelines, to report the currently available physical data of these and related parameters for immediate applications, and to describe the experiments to obtain additional information on soil resistant characteristics to longitudinal pipe motions.

  5. Kelvin probe characterization of buried graphitic microchannels in single-crystal diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardi, E. Battiato, A.; Olivero, P.; Vittone, E.; Picollo, F.

    2015-01-14

    In this work, we present an investigation by Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM) of buried graphitic microchannels fabricated in single-crystal diamond by direct MeV ion microbeam writing. Metal deposition of variable-thickness masks was adopted to implant channels with emerging endpoints and high temperature annealing was performed in order to induce the graphitization of the highly-damaged buried region. When an electrical current was flowing through the biased buried channel, the structure was clearly evidenced by KPM maps of the electrical potential of the surface region overlying the channel at increasing distances from the grounded electrode. The KPM profiling shows regions of opposite contrast located at different distances from the endpoints of the channel. This effect is attributed to the different electrical conduction properties of the surface and of the buried graphitic layer. The model adopted to interpret these KPM maps and profiles proved to be suitable for the electronic characterization of buried conductive channels, providing a non-invasive method to measure the local resistivity with a micrometer resolution. The results demonstrate the potential of the technique as a powerful diagnostic tool to monitor the functionality of all-carbon graphite/diamond devices to be fabricated by MeV ion beam lithography.

  6. Kelvin probe characterization of buried graphitic microchannels in single-crystal diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardi, E.; Battiato, A.; Olivero, P.; Picollo, F.; Vittone, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present an investigation by Kelvin Probe Microscopy (KPM) of buried graphitic microchannels fabricated in single-crystal diamond by direct MeV ion microbeam writing. Metal deposition of variable-thickness masks was adopted to implant channels with emerging endpoints and high temperature annealing was performed in order to induce the graphitization of the highly-damaged buried region. When an electrical current was flowing through the biased buried channel, the structure was clearly evidenced by KPM maps of the electrical potential of the surface region overlying the channel at increasing distances from the grounded electrode. The KPM profiling shows regions of opposite contrast located at different distances from the endpoints of the channel. This effect is attributed to the different electrical conduction properties of the surface and of the buried graphitic layer. The model adopted to interpret these KPM maps and profiles proved to be suitable for the electronic characterization of buried conductive channels, providing a non-invasive method to measure the local resistivity with a micrometer resolution. The results demonstrate the potential of the technique as a powerful diagnostic tool to monitor the functionality of all-carbon graphite/diamond devices to be fabricated by MeV ion beam lithography.

  7. GPR investigations in galleries buried inside a karstified limestone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousset, D.; Sénéchal, G.; Gaffet, S.

    2009-04-01

    A large scientific program of geophysical investigations is presently performed inside the Low-Noise Underground Laboratory (Laboratoire Souterrain à Bas Bruit / LSBB, Rustrel, France) which is an decomissioned underground missile control center, buried in a karstified limestone formation. One of the goals of this project is the understanding of the water circulation inside the structure. This experimental site offers a unique opportunity of perfoming measurements within an unweathered limestone massif. The tunnel has been dug in lower cretaceous limestone which is characterized by a low clay content, high electrical resistivity. The dip is around 25 degrees and vertical faults locally affect the structure. The studied zone is located in south-eastern France (Provence) and is characterized by a mediterranean climate with long dry periods and strong, short events of rain. This phenomenon induces large variations of water content within the karstified limestone from dry to saturated conditions. Analysis of the spatial and temporal variations of the water flow in a karstified limestones needs to define the geological context and the adequate geophysical methods. GPR offers a good tradeoff between resolution and ease of use on one hand and investigation depth on the other hand. We present some GPR profiles which have been acquired in April 2008 after a quite long and strong period of rain, inducing a complete water saturation inside the karstified massif. We used several RAMAC shielded antennas from 100 to 500 MHz. The longest profile is around 600 m long, with a 20 cm spacing, running from a raw to a concrete gallery. These data sets are characterized by a very good signal to noise ratio and a signal penetration, up to 18 meters. Signal processing includes very low frequency filtering, amplitude compensation, keeping lateral relative attenuation and ringing suppression. Final sections includes migration and time to depth conversion or depth migration. The estimated

  8. Engineering-scale in situ vitrification tests of simulated Oak Ridge National Laboratory buried wastes

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process for remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, a public meeting was held on the proposed plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and environment. The US Department of Energy (DOE) in conjunction with the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated.

  9. Sticking your neck out and burying the hatchet: what idioms reveal about embodied simulation

    PubMed Central

    Kacinik, Natalie A.

    2014-01-01

    Idioms are used in conventional language twice as frequently as metaphors, but most research, particularly recent work on embodiment has focused on the latter. However, idioms have the potential to significantly deepen our understanding of embodiment because their meanings cannot be derived from their component words. To determine whether sensorimotor states could activate idiomatic meaning, participants were instructed to engage in postures/actions reflecting various idioms (e.g., sticking your neck out) relative to non-idiomatic control postures/actions while reading and responding to statements designed to assess idiomatic meaning. The results showed that statements were generally more strongly endorsed after idiom embodiment than control conditions, indicating that the meaning of idiomatic expressions may not be as disconnected from perceptual and motor experiences than previously thought. These findings are discussed in terms of the mirror neuron system and the necessity of pluralistic contributions from both sensorimotor and amodal linguistic systems to fully account for the representation and processing of idioms and other figurative expressions. PMID:25309381

  10. Engineering simulator applications to emergency preparedness at DOE (Department of Energy) reactor sites

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1984 the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) has conducted twenty-five comprehensive emergency preparedness exercises at the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Headquarters Operations Center and Regional Incident Response Centers using the NRC's Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), developed at the INEL, as an engineering simulator. The objective of these exercises has been to assist the NRC in upgrading its preparedness to provide technical support backup and oversight to US commercial nuclear plant licensees during emergencies such as the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident. With the current focus on Department of Energy (DOE) reactor operational safety and emergency preparedness, this capability is envisioned as a means of upgrading emergency preparedness at DOE production and test reactor sites such as the K-Reactor at Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at INEL. These technically challenging exercises have been instrumental in enhancing the NRC's technical support capability and overall emergency preparedness and would be expected to produce similar results at DOE reactor sites. 3 refs.

  11. Method and apparatus for increasing resistance of bipolar buried layer integrated circuit devices to single-event upsets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Bipolar transistors fabricated in separate buried layers of an integrated circuit chip are electrically isolated with a built-in potential barrier established by doping the buried layer with a polarity opposite doping in the chip substrate. To increase the resistance of the bipolar transistors to single-event upsets due to ionized particle radiation, the substrate is biased relative to the buried layer with an external bias voltage selected to offset the built-in potential just enough (typically between about +0.1 to +0.2 volt) to prevent an accumulation of charge in the buried-layer-substrate junction.

  12. Effects on the Electromagnetic Scattering of a Plane Wave due to the Surface Roughness of a Buried Perfectly Conducting Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frezza, Fabrizio; Mangini, Fabio; Stoja, Endri; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2013-04-01

    In this work we present a numerical study of the effects that can be observed in the electromagnetic scattering of a plane wave due to the surface roughness of a buried scatterer. The latter is supposed to be a metallic pipeline modeled as a perfect-electric conducting cylinder immersed in a half-space occupied by a lossy medium. Considering the pipeline's cross-section, the surface roughness is modeled as a sinusoidal variation of the radius of the cylinder's surface with respect to the revolution angle. A linearly-polarized plane wave impinging normally to the interface between air and the previously-mentioned medium excites the structure. As a result, we monitor the three components of the scattered electric field along a line just above the interface between the two media. To perform the study, a commercially available simulator which implements the Finite Element Method was adopted. In order to discriminate the effects due only to the surface roughness, we compare the results obtained by the rough surface scatterers with the reference case of a perfect cylinder in which the surface roughness is absent, for a fixed depth and a fixed mean radius of the cylinder. In our study, we vary the amplitude and the angular frequency of the sinusoidal disturbance to model different surface roughness scenarios. For all the scenarios taken in consideration, a frequency sweep of the impinging radiation is performed. This allows us to investigate the relation between the excitation frequency and the sinusoidal disturbance frequency of the rough surface. The study has several implications in the field of civil engineering. One example might be the one in which the geometrical characteristics of the buried pipeline are known in advance, and it is important to continuously monitor the structural variations of its external surface due to the deterioration in time under the action of various environmental factors.

  13. Carboxyl-peptide plane stacking is important for stabilization of buried E305 of Trichoderma reesei Cel5A.

    PubMed

    He, Chunyan; Chen, Jingfei; An, Liaoyuan; Wang, Yefei; Shu, Zhiyu; Yao, Lishan

    2015-01-26

    Hydrogen bonds or salt bridges are usually formed to stabilize the buried ionizable residues. However, such interactions do not exist for two buried residues D271 and E305 of Trichoderma reesei Cel5A, an endoglucanase. Mutating D271 to alanine or leucine improves the enzyme thermostability quantified by the temperature T50 due to the elimination of the desolvation penalty of the aspartic acid. However, the same mutations for E305 decrease the enzyme thermostability. Free energy calculations based on the molecular dynamics simulation predict the thermostability of D271A, D271L, and E305A (compared to WT) in line with the experimental observation but overestimate the thermostability of E305L. Quantum mechanical calculations suggest that the carboxyl-peptide plane stacking interactions occurring to E305 but not D271 are important for the carboxyl group stabilization. For the protonated carboxyl group, the interaction energy can be as much as about -4 kcal/mol for parallel stacking and about -7 kcal/mol for T-shaped stacking. For the deprotonated carboxyl group, the largest interaction energies for parallel stacking and T-shaped stacking are comparable, about -7 kcal/mol. The solvation effect generally weakens the interaction, especially for the charged system. A search of the carboxyl-peptide plane stacking in the PDB databank indicates that parallel stacking but not T-shaped stacking is quite common, and the most probable distance between the two stacking fragments is close to the value predicted by the QM calculations. This work highlights the potential role of carboxyl amide π-π stacking in the stabilization of aspartic acid and glutamic acid in proteins. PMID:25569819

  14. Characterization of the Marquez Dome buried impact crater using gravity and magnetic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, A. M.; Reid, A. M.; Hall, S. A.; Sharpton, V. L.

    1993-01-01

    The buried impact crater, Marquez Dome, located in Leon County in east central Texas, is an approximately 15 km diameter structure whose central uplift is now partially exposed due to headward erosion of the post-impact cover. The central uplift is approximately 3 km in diameter and the rocks within it have been uplifted more than 1200 m above their regional level. The crater rim remains buried and previous attempts to determine its location have had to rely on seismic reflection data and geologic well logs. These attempts have been somewhat successful in mapping the extent of the disturbed zone around Marquez Dome, but more limited in their ability to image the shallow buried rim. In an attempt to define accurately the whole Marquez Dome structure and assist in the selection of drilling sites, a geophysical investigation involving gravity and magnetic data over the central uplift and the surrounding area has been undertaken.

  15. Buried-hill discoveries in Damintan depression of North China basin

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoguang, T.; Zuan, H.

    1988-01-01

    The Damintan fault depression is about 20 km west of Shenyang, Liaoning Province, North China, and is a small Tertiary continental depression, covering only about 800 km/sup 2/. In the depression, the Tertiary system unconformably overlies upper-middle Proterozoic sedimentary rocks and Archean metamorphic rocks. The Tertiary system is up to 6,600 m in thickness. Source rocks are in the third and fourth members of the Eocens Shahejie Formation. Buried-hill traps were formed in Proterozoic carbonates and metamorphic rocks of the Archean. Fault block, stratigraphic, and lithologic traps also occur in sandstones of the Shahejie Formation, especially in those of the third member. Several buried-hill-drape traps occur in the depression. The various types of oil pole in each buried-hill-drape trap constitute a complex hydrocarbon accumulation zone. A series of oil fields have been found in the depression. The crude oil is characterized by high wax content and high pour point.

  16. A "watch window" technique for monitoring buried free jejunum flaps during circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Zhang, Xin-Rui; Liu, Xue-Kui; Zhang, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Wei-Wei; Li, Hao; Guo, Zhu-Ming

    2012-07-01

    The free jejunum flap approach is the optimal option for circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy reconstruction. In this study, we designed a "watch window" for monitoring buried free jejunum flaps, thereby allowing us to assess graft viability. From 2007 to 2011, 14 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer underwent circumferential pharyngolaryngectomy that was reconstructed using a free jejunum flap at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Centre. During the closing of the neck incision, a "watch window" was designed for postoperative monitoring. Two patients experienced thrombosis of the pedicle. One was detected early and successfully rescued by removal of the thrombosis, the other one managed with a second free jejunum flap. The success rate of the buried flaps was 92.9%. No pharyngocutaneous fistulas or strictures occurred. All patients eventually resumed oral feeding and swallowing. The "watch window" technique for monitoring buried free jejunum flaps is simple, reliable and useful for finding vascular problems. Level of evidence Case series. PMID:22116384

  17. Buried penis: An unrecognized risk factor in the development of invasive penile cancer

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Alym; Daya, Dean; Pinthus, Jehonathan; Davies, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    One of the documented benefits of neonatal circumcision is protection against invasive penile cancer. To date there have been a handful of published cases of invasive penile cancer in men circumcised as neonates. We report a case of a 73-year-old man, with a history of neonatal circumcision with no evidence of previous human papillomavirus exposure, who developed a buried penis secondary to obesity. He was diagnosed with Grade 2, pT3N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the penis. This report suggests that buried penis may pose a risk factor for the development of penile cancer despite the protective effects of neonatal circumcision. Thus periodic examination of a buried penis is warranted even in patients with no risk factors for penile cancer. A review of the literature is provided. PMID:23093645

  18. Radar Detections of Buried Supraglacial Lakes Across the Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, L.; Lampkin, D. J.; Montgomery, L.; Hamilton, S.; Joseph, C.; Moustafa, S.; Panzer, B.; Casey, K.; Paden, J. D.; Leuschen, C.; Gogineni, S.

    2014-12-01

    Surface melt over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is increasing and estimated to account for half or more of the total mass loss. Little, however, is known about the hydrologic pathways that route surface melt within the ice sheet. Radar imaging provides a tool to investigate the englacial water storage and pathways across the GrIS. Here, we present data from the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets' radars flown by NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB). OIB flights occur in the spring, before significant GrIS melt. The airborne radar echograms collected in the supraglacial lake regions show a unique attenuation signal attributed to over-winter storage of water, referred to here as buried lakes. The Snow Radar (~2-8 Ghz), that images the top 10's of meters of the ice sheet at high vertical resolution in the snow/firn (~4 cm), is used to map the spatial extent and depth of the retained water along OIB flight lines from 2009-2012. The buried lakes are distributed extensively around the margin of the GrIS. The subsurface water can persist through multiple winters and is, on average, ~4.2 + 0.4 m below the surface. Most buried lakes have no visible surface expression at the time of overflight but the few buried lakes that are visible have a unique visible signature associated with a darker blue color where subsurface water is located. The volume of retained water in the buried lakes is small compared to the total mass loss from the GrIS but the water will have important implications locally for the development of the englacial hydrologic network, ice temperature profiles and glacial dynamics. The buried lakes represent a year-round source of meltwater in the GrIS englacial hydrologic system.

  19. Physical Modelling on Detecting Buried Object Using Electrical Resistivity Imaging (ERI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazreek, Z. A. M.; Nizam, Z. M.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Aziman, M.; Shaylinda, M. Z. N.

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on the evaluation of electrical resistivity method (ERM) for buried object detection and its relationship due to the different stiffness of material. In the past, the conventional method to detect the buried structure was face some limitation due to the time and cost. For example, previous approach related to the trial and error excavation has always expose to some risky outcome due to the uncertainties of the buried object location. Hence, this study introduced an alternative technique with particular reference to resistivity method to detect and evaluate the buried object with different strength of stiffness. The experiment was performed based on field miniature model (small scale study) using soil trial embankment made by lateritic soil and various concrete cube strengths (grade 20, 25 and 30) representing buried object with different conditions. 2D electrical resistivity test (electrical resistivity imaging) was perform using ABEM Terrameter SAS4000 during the data acquisition while the raw data was process using RES2DINV software. It was found that the electrical resistivity method was able to detect the buried concrete structures targeted based on the contrast of the electrical resistivity image produced. Moreover, three different strength of concrete cube were able to be differentiated based on the electrical resistivity values (ERV) obtained. This study found that the ERV of concrete cube for grade 20, 25 and 30 were 170 Ωm, 227 Ωm and 503 Ωm, respectively. Hence, this study shows that the ERV has a strong relationship with different stiffness of material thus applicable to be a useful alternative tool in underground structure detection.

  20. Distinct microbial communities associated with buried soils in the Siberian tundra

    PubMed Central

    Gittel, Antje; Bárta, Jiří; Kohoutová, Iva; Mikutta, Robert; Owens, Sarah; Gilbert, Jack; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Hannisdal, Bjarte; Maerz, Joeran; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Čapek, Petr; Šantrůčková, Hana; Gentsch, Norman; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg; Richter, Andreas; Torsvik, Vigdis L; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Cryoturbation, the burial of topsoil material into deeper soil horizons by repeated freeze–thaw events, is an important storage mechanism for soil organic matter (SOM) in permafrost-affected soils. Besides abiotic conditions, microbial community structure and the accessibility of SOM to the decomposer community are hypothesized to control SOM decomposition and thus have a crucial role in SOM accumulation in buried soils. We surveyed the microbial community structure in cryoturbated soils from nine soil profiles in the northeastern Siberian tundra using high-throughput sequencing and quantification of bacterial, archaeal and fungal marker genes. We found that bacterial abundances in buried topsoils were as high as in unburied topsoils. In contrast, fungal abundances decreased with depth and were significantly lower in buried than in unburied topsoils resulting in remarkably low fungal to bacterial ratios in buried topsoils. Fungal community profiling revealed an associated decrease in presumably ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi. The abiotic conditions (low to subzero temperatures, anoxia) and the reduced abundance of fungi likely provide a niche for bacterial, facultative anaerobic decomposers of SOM such as members of the Actinobacteria, which were found in significantly higher relative abundances in buried than in unburied topsoils. Our study expands the knowledge on the microbial community structure in soils of Northern latitude permafrost regions, and attributes the delayed decomposition of SOM in buried soils to specific microbial taxa, and particularly to a decrease in abundance and activity of ECM fungi, and to the extent to which bacterial decomposers are able to act as their functional substitutes. PMID:24335828

  1. Buried anode lithium thin film battery and process for forming the same

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Se-Hee; Tracy, C. Edwin; Liu, Ping

    2004-10-19

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  2. Buried waste integrated demonstration fiscal year 1992 close-out report

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, P.G.; Kostelnik, K.M.; Owens, K.J.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program (BWID) is to support the development and demonstration of a suite of technologies that when integrated with commercially-available baseline technologies form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste disposed of throughout the US Department of Energy complex. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated the BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory in fiscal year (FY)-91. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID Program during FY-92.

  3. Buried Anode Device Development: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-11-451

    SciTech Connect

    Tenent, R.

    2015-03-01

    The possibility of a reflecting electrochromic device is very attractive, and the 'Buried Anode' architecture developed at NREL could yield such a device. The subject of this cooperative agreement will be the development and refinement of a Buried Anode device process. This development will require the active involvement of NREL and US e-Chromic personnel, and will require the use of NREL equipment as much as possible. When this effort is concluded, US e-Chromic will have enough information to construct a pilot production line, where further development can continue.

  4. Nanoscale Imaging of Buried Structures with Elemental Specificity Using Resonant X-Ray Diffraction Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Changyong; Bergstrom, Raymond; Ramunno-Johnson, Damien; Jiang, Huaidong; Miao, Jianwei; Paterson, David; Jonge, Martin D. de; McNulty, Ian; Lee, Jooyoung; Wang, Kang L.

    2008-01-18

    We report the first demonstration of resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy for element specific imaging of buried structures with a pixel resolution of {approx}15 nm by exploiting the abrupt change in the scattering cross section near electronic resonances. We performed nondestructive and quantitative imaging of buried Bi structures inside a Si crystal by directly phasing coherent x-ray diffraction patterns acquired below and above the Bi M{sub 5} edge. We anticipate that resonant x-ray diffraction microscopy will be applied to element and chemical state specific imaging of a broad range of systems including magnetic materials, semiconductors, organic materials, biominerals, and biological specimens.

  5. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pipelines installed before August 1, 1971. 192.457 Section 192.457 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971. (a) Except for buried piping at compressor, regulator, and measuring stations, each buried or submerged transmission line installed before August 1,...

  6. 49 CFR 192.455 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.455 External corrosion control: Buried or... against external corrosion, including the following: (1) It must have an external protective...

  7. 49 CFR 192.455 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.455 External corrosion control: Buried or... against external corrosion, including the following: (1) It must have an external protective...

  8. 49 CFR 192.455 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed after July 31, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.455 External corrosion control: Buried or... against external corrosion, including the following: (1) It must have an external protective...

  9. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  10. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  11. 49 CFR 192.457 - External corrosion control: Buried or submerged pipelines installed before August 1, 1971.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External corrosion control: Buried or submerged... SAFETY STANDARDS Requirements for Corrosion Control § 192.457 External corrosion control: Buried or... areas in which active corrosion is found: (1) Bare or ineffectively coated transmission lines. (2)...

  12. Cadaver dog and handler team capabilities in the recovery of buried human remains in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Lasseter, Alanna E; Jacobi, Keith P; Farley, Ricky; Hensel, Lee

    2003-05-01

    The detection of human remains that have been deliberately buried to escape detection is a problem for law enforcement. Sometimes the cadaver dog and handler teams are successful, while other times law enforcement and cadaver dog teams are frustrated in their search. Five field trials tested the ability of four cadaver dog and handler teams to detect buried human remains. Human and animal remains were buried in various forested areas during the summer months near Tuscaloosa, Alabama. The remains ranged in decomposition from fresh to skeletonized. Cadaver dogs detected with varying success: buried human remains at different stages of decomposition, buried human remains at different depths, and buried decomposed human and animal remains. The results from these trials showed that some cadaver dogs were able to locate skeletonized remains buried at a significant depth. Fresh and skeletonized remains were found equally by the cadaver dogs along with some caveats. Dog handlers affected the reliability of the cadaver dog results. Observations and videotape of the cadaver dogs during field trials showed that they were reliable in finding buried human remains. PMID:12762533

  13. Low dose effects of a Withania somnifera extract on altered marble burying behavior in stressed mice

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Amitabha; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Withania somnifera root (WSR) extracts are often used in traditionally known Indian systems of medicine for prevention and cure of psychosomatic disorders. The reported experiment was designed to test whether low daily oral doses of such extracts are also effective in suppressing marble burying behavior in stressed mice or not. Materials and Methods: Groups of mice treated with 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg daily oral doses of WSR were subjected to a foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia test on the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10th day of the experiment. On the 11th and 12th treatment days, they were subjected to marble burying tests. Stress response suppressing effects of low dose WSR were estimated by its effects on body weight and basal core temperature of animals during the course of the experiment. Results: Alterations in bodyweight and basal core temperature triggered by repeated exposures to foot shock stress were absent even in the 10 mg/kg/day WSR treated group, whereas the effectiveness of the extract in foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia and marble burying tests increased with its increasing daily dose. Conclusion: Marble burying test in stressed mice is well suited for identifying bioactive constituents of W. somnifera like medicinal plants with adaptogenic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, or for quantifying pharmacological interactions between them. PMID:27366354

  14. 75 FR 38042 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., at 75 FR 32313 regarding the request for comments on revising RUS Bulletin 1753F-150, Specifications... document FR Doc. 2010-12830 beginning on page 32313 in the issue of June 8, 2010, make the following... Construction of Direct Buried Plant AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed Rule;...

  15. Saqqar Impact Structure: A Buried 34 km Crater in Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenkmann, T.; Afifi, A. M.; Stewart, S. A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Cook, D. J.; Neville, A. S.

    2015-09-01

    We present evidence for an impact origin of a circular structure with an apparent diameter of 34 km, centered at 29°35’N, 38°42’E, which is partially buried under ~400 m of Cretaceous-Paleogene strata in the Nafud basin in NW Saudi Arabia.

  16. Buried Seed Banks as Indicators of Seed Output along an Altitudinal Gradient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, K.

    1985-01-01

    Study of buried seed banks (viable seeds deposited in the soil near parent plants) provides a relatively easy way of determining cumulative effects on seed production and species' altitudinal limits. Sites, methods, validity, interpretation, problems of collection on a mountain, and germination techniques are discussed. (Author/DH)

  17. Transformation of lignin in surface and buried soils of mountainous landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N. O.; Kovalev, I. V.

    2009-11-01

    The content and composition of the lignin phenols in plants and soils of vertical natural zones were studied in the Northern Caucasus region and Northwestern Tien Shan. Three types of lignin transformation were revealed: steppe, forest, and meadow ones. It was shown that the degree of oxidation of the biopolymer during the transformation of organic matter increased when going from the living plant tissues to humic acids in surface and buried soils. The portion of lignin fragments remained unchanged during the biopolymer transformation in the following series: plant tissues-falloff-litter-soil-humic acids-buried humic acids. It was also shown that the biochemical composition of the plants had a decisive effect on the structure of the humic acids in the soils. The quantitative analysis of the lignin phenols and the 13C NMR spectroscopy proved that the lignin in higher plants was involved in the formation of specific compounds of soil humus, including aliphatic and aromatic molecular fragments. The first analysis of the lignin content and composition in buried soils of different ages was performed, and an increase in the degree of oxidation of the lignin structures was revealed in the soil chronoseries. It was proposed to use the proportions of lignin phenols in surface and buried soils as diagnostic criteria of the vegetation types in different epochs.

  18. Boston's Historic Burying Grounds Initiative: An Innovative and Educational Public/Private Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Regina

    1988-01-01

    Discusses Boston's Historic Burying Ground Initiative, which was undertaken from a concern for public education. The public-private partnership is expected to take 10 years and six million dollars to restore the final resting places of figures such as Paul Revere, Samuel Adams, Robert Treat Paine, and the Mather family of Puritan ministers. (GEA)

  19. Dual-band, infrared buried mine detection using a statistical pattern recognition approach

    SciTech Connect

    Buhl, M.R.; Hernandez, J.E.; Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.

    1993-08-01

    The main objective of this work was to detect surrogate land mines, which were buried in clay and sand, using dual-band, infrared images. A statistical pattern recognition approach was used to achieve this objective. This approach is discussed and results of applying it to real images are given.

  20. Marble burying as a test of the delayed anxiogenic effects of acute immobilisation stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Sonal; Chattarji, Sumantra

    2014-08-15

    A majority of rodent studies characterizing the anxiogenic effects of stress have utilized exploration-based models, such as the elevated plus-maze. An alternative strategy has relied on ethologically natural behavior such as defensive burying. One such paradigm, marble burying, has proven to be an effective behavioral assay of the anxiolytic effects of pharmacological manipulations, and of genetically modified mouse models. Relatively little, however, is known about the sensitivity of this test in assessing the anxiogenic effects of stress. Most of the earlier reports have examined the immediate, but not more long-term, effects of pharmacological or environmental manipulations in mice. Hence, we used the marble burying test to examine if acute immobilization stress leads to enhanced anxiety-like behavior in C57Bl/6 mice if the test is employed with a significant time delay. We find this test to be sensitive enough to detect the anxiogenic effects even 10 days after a single episode of 2-h immobilization stress. Our results suggest that the marble burying test could serve as a useful behavioral paradigm for not only estimating the gradual progression of the anxiogenic impact of stress over time, but also raises the possibility of using the temporal delay after stress to test the potential efficacy of post-stress interventions with anxiolytic drugs. PMID:24932962

  1. Method of making a nonplanar buried-heterostructure distributed-feedback laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dolan, G.J.; Logan, R.A.; Temkin, H.; Wilt, D.P.

    1987-10-27

    This patent describes a method for making a distributed feedback laser. The method comprises forming a buried heterostructure on a substrate by sequential deposition of layers including an active layer and a cladding layer. The method comprises producing a grating structure on a nonplanar surface of the cladding layer.

  2. Superior broadband antireflection from buried Mie resonator arrays for high-efficiency photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Sihua; Zeng, Yang; Huang, Zengguang; Shen, Wenzhong

    2015-01-01

    Establishing reliable and efficient antireflection structures is of crucial importance for realizing high-performance optoelectronic devices such as solar cells. In this study, we provide a design guideline for buried Mie resonator arrays, which is composed of silicon nanostructures atop a silicon substrate and buried by a dielectric film, to attain a superior antireflection effect over a broadband spectral range by gaining entirely new discoveries of their antireflection behaviors. We find that the buried Mie resonator arrays mainly play a role as a transparent antireflection structure and their antireflection effect is insensitive to the nanostructure height when higher than 150 nm, which are of prominent significance for photovoltaic applications in the reduction of photoexcited carrier recombination. We further optimally combine the buried Mie resonator arrays with micron-scale textures to maximize the utilization of photons, and thus have successfully achieved an independently certified efficiency of 18.47% for the nanostructured silicon solar cells on a large-size wafer (156 mm × 156 mm). PMID:25746848

  3. PROCESSING TECHNIQUES FOR DISCRIMINATION BETWEEN BURIED UXO AND CLUTTER USING MULTISENSOR ARRAY DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this project is to develop reliable techniques for discriminating between buried UXO and clutter using multisensor electromagnetic induction sensor array data. The basic idea is to build on existing research which exploits differences in shape between or...

  4. Microwave remote sensing of physically buried objects in the Negev desert: Implications for subsurface Martian exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Julian; Blumberg, Dan G.; Vulfson, Leonid D.; Kotlyar, Alex L.; Freiliker, Valentin; Ronen, Gefen; Ben-Asher, Jiftach

    2003-03-01

    We report the remote detection of a physically buried specular reflecting object using microwave radar at Ashalim in the northern region of the Negev desert, Israel. Such detection provides an important terrestrial analogy for the potential detection of specularly reflecting subsurfaces under the desiccated regolith on Mars, such as ground-ice and liquid water. At Ashalim, a scatterometer operating in the P-band (441 MHz, 68 cm) was mounted on a cherry picker truck at a height of 8 m and used to detect two triangular aluminum mesh reflectors (forming a one meter square area reflector) buried down to a depth of 8 cm in dry sand. The decrease in measured backscattered power with increasing burial depth of the reflector is clearly evident. The experimental results compare well with a theoretical model that incorporates radar absorption effects arising in the sandy subsurface layer and radar interference effects arising from phase differences between reflections from the surface and buried reflector. This experiment and the associated modeling approach is the first of a series of planned experiments, which we outline for the detection and the theoretical evaluation of buried reflectors using remote microwave and VHF radar. We identify many potential subject areas for subsurface remote sensing in the Martian domain, particularly groundwater/ground-ice.

  5. Influence of Population Density on Offspring Number and Size in Burying Beetles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauter, Claudia M.

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory exercise investigates the influence of population density on offspring number and size in burying beetles. Students test the theoretical predictions that brood size declines and offspring size increases when competition over resources becomes stronger with increasing population density. Students design the experiment, collect and…

  6. Hypothesis about the function of membrane-buried proline residues in transport proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Brandl, C J; Deber, C M

    1986-01-01

    In a survey of the bilayer-spanning regions of integral membrane proteins, membrane-buried proline residues were found in nearly all transport proteins examined, whereas membrane-buried regions of nontransport proteins were largely devoid of intramembranous proline residues. When amino acids from the complete sequences of representative sets of transport and nontransport membrane proteins were analyzed for the distribution of proline residues between aqueous vs. membranous domains, proline was shown to be selectively excluded from membranous domains of the nontransport proteins, in accord with expectation from energetic and structural considerations. In contrast, proline residues in transport proteins were evenly distributed between aqueous and membranous domains, consistent with the notion that functional membrane-buried proline residues are selectively included in transport proteins. As cis peptide bonds involving proline arise in proteins and have been implicated in protein dynamic processes, the cis-trans isomerization of an Xaa-Pro peptide bond (Xaa = unspecified amino acid) buried within the membrane--and the resulting redirection of the protein chain--is proposed to provide the reversible conformational change requisite for the regulation (opening/closing) of a transport channel. Parallel to this function, the relatively negative character of the carbonyl groups of Xaa-Pro peptide bonds may promote their participation as intramembranous liganding sites for positive species in proton/cation transport processes. PMID:3456574

  7. Testosterone reduces cumulative burying in female Wistar rats with minimal participation of estradiol.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-García, Ana G; Contreras, Carlos M; Vásquez-Hernández, Diana I; Molina-Jiménez, Tania; Jacome-Jacome, Emma

    2009-10-01

    Testosterone exerts anxiolytic effects, but the participation of its aromatase metabolic product estradiol is controversial. Therefore, we used the defensive burying paradigm in female Wistar rats to explore testosterone's (1.0 mg/rat, s.c.) interactions with picrotoxin (a noncompetitive gamma-aminobutyric acid-A receptor [GABA(A)] antagonist; 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.), formestane (an aromatase inhibitor; 3.0 mg/rat, s.c.), and tamoxifen (an estrogen receptor-beta antagonist; 1.0 mg/kg, s.c.). Serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, and progesterone were determined in the same rats. Burying latency and locomotion did not significantly change. Systemic testosterone administration enhanced serum testosterone and estradiol levels and reduced defensive burying. This reduction in total burying was blocked by pretreatment with picrotoxin and tamoxifen, but not formestane. We conclude that testosterone produced anxiolytic-like effects in female rats that were mediated by actions at the GABA(A) receptor, with participation of the estradiol receptor-beta, rather than estradiol aromatization. PMID:19520107

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS TO THE CHEMICAL SIGNATURE EMANATING FROM BURIED UNEXPLODED ORDNANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of locating buried UXO and landmines is a significant challenge to science and technology. Technology development efforts are under way to use chemical sensors that can discriminate inert ordnance and clutter from live munitions that continue to be a threat. However, t...

  9. Feasibility of fast neutron analysis for the detection of explosives buried in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, A. A.; McFee, J. E.; Bowman, C. L.; Mosquera, C.; Andrews, H. R.; Kovaltchouk, V. D.; Ing, H.

    2011-12-01

    A commercialized thermal neutron analysis (TNA) sensor has been developed to confirm the presence of buried bulk explosives as part of a multi-sensor anti-tank landmine detection system. Continuing improvements to the TNA system have included the use of an electronic pulsed neutron generator that offers the possibility of applying fast neutron analysis (FNA) methods to improve the system's detection capability. This paper describes an investigation into the use of FNA as a complementary component in such a TNA system. The results of a modeling study using simple geometries and a full model of the TNA sensor head are presented, as well as preliminary results from an experimental associated particle imaging (API) system that supports the modeling study results. The investigation has concluded that the pulsed beam FNA approach would not improve the detection performance of a TNA system for landmine or buried IED detection in a confirmation role, and could not be made into a practical stand-alone detection system for buried anti-tank landmines. Detection of buried landmines and IEDs by FNA remains a possibility, however, through the use of the API technique.

  10. Road detection and buried object detection in elevated EO/IR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, Levi; Kolba, Mark P.; Walters, Joshua R.

    2012-06-01

    To assist the warfighter in visually identifying potentially dangerous roadside objects, the U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC Night Vision and Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has developed an elevated video sensor system testbed for data collection. This system provides color and mid-wave infrared (MWIR) imagery. Signal Innovations Group (SIG) has developed an automated processing capability that detects the road within the sensor field of view and identifies potentially threatening buried objects within the detected road. The road detection algorithm leverages system metadata to project the collected imagery onto a flat ground plane, allowing for more accurate detection of the road as well as the direct specification of realistic physical constraints in the shape of the detected road. Once the road has been detected in an image frame, a buried object detection algorithm is applied to search for threatening objects within the detected road space. The buried object detection algorithm leverages textural and pixel intensity-based features to detect potential anomalies and then classifies them as threatening or non-threatening objects. Both the road detection and the buried object detection algorithms have been developed to facilitate their implementation in real-time in the NVESD system.

  11. 75 FR 59933 - Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ...The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) is amending its regulations on Telecommunications Policies on Specifications, Acceptable Materials, and Standard Contract Forms, by revising RUS Bulletin 1753F-150, Specifications and Drawings for Construction of Direct Buried Plant (Form 515a). The revised specifications will include new construction units for Fiber-to-the-Home, remove redundant or outdated......

  12. A Large Buried Felsic/Anorthositic Component in the Ancient Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratoux, D.; Monnereau, M.; Samuel, H.; Michaut, C.; Wieczorek, M. A.

    2014-11-01

    The density of the basaltic component of the martian crust is revised to values >3100 kg/m3 in light of new data. A buried light (feldic/anorthositic) component is required to explain the field of gravity. It possible origins are discussed.

  13. Remotely controlled vehicles and systems for integrated remediation of buried tru wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, H.J.; Ballantyne, J.; Rife, G.; Fung, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of remotely controlled vehicle systems developed for cooperative retrieval and transportation of Transuranic (TRU) buried wastes. The systems described are for the control of a Remote Excavator (REMEX), a Self Guided Transfer Vehicle (SGTV), a Remotely Controlled Materials Handling System and a Virtual Environment for Remote Operations (VERO), using imaging by a 3D Laser Camera.

  14. Detection of buried landmine with X-ray backscatter technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuk, Sunwoo; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Yi, Yun

    2006-11-01

    We describe a continuously operating scanning X-ray imaging system developed for landmine detection based on a backscatter X-ray principle, thus detection is done from the same side as the source. The source operates at 120 kV p and 3 mA. To study the physics of Compton X-ray backscattering, the photon transport factor, backscatter factor (BSF) and backscatter probability (BSP) were simulated using Monte-Carlo calculations using the generalized particle transport program MCNP. Based on the Monte-Carlo analyses results, a mine detecting system has been designed. It potentially has a low false alarm rate and a high detection probability, and a direct imaging facility.

  15. Validating Ancient Age of the Buried Floor of the Northern Lowlands, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buczkowski, D. L.; Frey, H. V.; Roark, J. H.; McGill, G. E.

    2004-01-01

    Hesperian and Amazonian plains units cover the northern lowlands but little is known about what this surface covers. Models for the creation of the lowlands and the dichotomy boundary implement mechanisms which vary from internal processes, such as plate tectonics or first-order mantle convection, to external processes, such as a single large impact or multiple impacts. Different models require different time scales for low-land formation; determining the age of the buried low-land surface would help constrain the formation models. The Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) has yielded a high-precision, topographic gridded data set that reveals the presence of Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs) in both the southern highlands and the northern lowlands. Most of these roughly circular depressions have no corresponding visible structural feature on the surface. It is proposed that these QCDs are the surface representation of buried impact craters. Based on this assumption, cumulative number vs. diameter curves were constructed, which placed the age of the buried surface of the northern lowlands in the Early or pre-Noachian. A Noachian basement is supported by the remnants of large craters and multi-ring basins discovered in earlier research, but the QCDs provide the first evidence of this for the entire lowland. Constraining the age of the basement floor to the earliest Noachian, however, would require that the process that formed the northern lowlands either occurred in the early Noachian or involves removal of material from the bottom of the crust without destroying the previously formed craters to achieve the modeled crustal thinning. But can we establish that the QCDs do in fact represent buried impact craters, and thus validate an Early Noachian age for the buried lowland floor?

  16. Buried soils of Late Quaternary moraines of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, D.E. . Geography Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Buried soils occur on kettle floors of four Pinedale moraine catenas of the western Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. Radiocarbon ages from bulk samples of Ab horizons indicate the soils were buried during the mid-Holocene. Soils on kettle floors have silty A and Bw horizons that overlie buried A and B horizons that also formed in silt-rich sediments. Crests and backslope soils also have A and Bw horizons of sandy loam formed over 2BCb and 2Cb horizons of stony coarse loamy sand. Recent data show the silty textures of the A and B horizons are due to eolian silt and clay from the Green River Basin just west of the mountains. The buried soils appear to represent alternate periods of erosion and deposition on the moraines during the Holocene. The original soils developed on higher slopes of the moraines were eroded during the mid-Holocene and the 2BC and 2C horizons exposed at the surface. Eroded soil sediments were transported downslope onto the kettle floors. Following erosion, silt-rich eolian sediments accumulated on all surfaces and mixed with the BC and C horizons (the mixed loess of Shroba and Birkeland). The present surface soils developed within this silt-rich material. Stone lines often occur at the Bw-2BCb/2Cb boundary, and mark the depth to which the earlier soils were eroded. Thus, soil profiles at the four localities result from two periods of soil formation, interrupted by an interval of erosion during the mid-Holocene. Moraines of this study are adjacent to the Fremont Lake type area for the Pinedale glaciation of the Rocky Mountains. Buried soils in kettles of the moraines indicates the soil characteristics of the Pinedale type region are not necessarily due to continuous post-Pinedale development, but may result from more than one episode of soil formation.

  17. Significant role of structural fractures in Ren-Qiu buried-block oil field, eastern China

    SciTech Connect

    Fei, Q.; Xie-Pei, W.

    1983-03-01

    Ren-qui oil field is in a buried block of Sinian (upper Proterozoic) rocks located in the Ji-zhong depression of the western Bohai Bay basin in eastern China. The main reservoir consists of Sinian dolomite rocks. It is a fault block with a large growth fault on the west side which trends north-northeast with throws of up to 1 km (0.6 mi) or more. The source rocks for the oil are Paleogene age and overlie the Sinian dolomite rocks. The structural fractures are the main factor forming the reservoir of the buried-block oil field. Three structural lines, trending northeast, north-northeast, and northwest, form the regional netted fracture system. The north-northeast growth fault controlled the structural development of the buried block. The block was raised and eroded before the Tertiary sediments were deposited. In the Eocene Epoch, the Ji-zhong depression subsided, but the deposition, faulting, and related uplift of the block happened synchronously as the block was gradually submerged. At the same time, several horizontal and vertical karst zones were formed by the karst water along the netted structural fractures. The Eocene oil source rocks lapped onto the block and so the buried block, with many developed karst fractures, was surrounded by a great thickness of source rocks. As the growth fault developed, the height of the block was increased from 400 m (1300 ft) before the Oligocene to 1300 m (4250 ft) after. As the petroleum was generated, it migrated immediately into the karst fractures of the buried block along the growth fault. The karst-fractured block reservoir has an 800-m (2600-ft) high oil-bearing closure and good connections developed between the karst fractures.

  18. Carbon stored in peatlands formed by terrestrialization: the importance of buried lake sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talbot, J.

    2015-12-01

    A lot of efforts have been made over the last few decades to quantify the amount of carbon stored in soils, including in peat-producing systems. Estimates of soil carbon storage at the landscape scale has to take into account all buried carbon pools, including deep-buried lake sediments found under many peatlands that formed by terrestrialization. To illustrate the importance of buried lake sediments in the overall carbon storage of a peatland site, we studied a small peat swamp located in Gatineau Park (Quebec, Canada), the Folly peatland (45°27'18.12"N 75°46'57.38''W). This 7 ha peatland developed from a small lake that appeared after the postglacial Champlain Sea receded from the region, about 12 200 years ago. Its development followed a classical terrestrialization sequence and its hydrology has been stable since peat inception. A profile of over 8.5 m of organic matter was collected at the site, of which 2.5 m is peat and the rest is composed of lake sediments (gyttja). With the exception of a few tephra layers, the organic matter content exceeds 75 % of dry weight for the entire profile. Although it constitutes only 30 % of the profile depth, peat contains 48 % of the buried carbon because of its higher bulk density, and peat carbon accumulated at a rate of 88 g C m-2 yr-1. Overall, the site carbon density (including buried lake sediments) is 172 kg C m-2, a value comparable to the carbon density of many peatlands with much deeper peat profiles. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of global peatland carbon inventories and peatland biogeochemistry.

  19. A Re-Examination of the Relative Ages of Mare-Filled Impact Basins on the Lunar Nearside from the Gravity Signatures of Buried Craters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, A. J.; Soderblom, J. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-05-01

    GRAIL gravity data have revealed more than 100 putative buried impact craters beneath the nearside maria. We use this population of buried craters to re-assess basin chronology and the impact crater density of the lunar nearside.

  20. Detection of Two Buried Cross Pipelines by Observation of the Scattered Electromagnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangini, Fabio; Di Gregorio, Pietro Paolo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Muzi, Marco; Tedeschi, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    In this work we present a numerical study on the effects that can be observed in the electromagnetic scattering of a plane wave due to the presence of two crossed pipelines buried in a half-space occupied by cement. The pipeline, supposed to be used for water conveyance, is modeled as a cylindrical shell made of metallic or poly-vinyl chloride (PVC) material. In order to make the model simpler, the pipelines are supposed running parallel to the air-cement interface on two different parallel planes; moreover, initially we suppose that the two tubes make an angle of 90 degrees. We consider a circularly-polarized plane wave impinging normally to the interface between air and the previously-mentioned medium, which excites the structure in order to determine the most useful configuration in terms of scattered-field sensitivity. To perform the study, a commercially available simulator which implements the Finite Element Method was adopted. A preliminary frequency sweep allows us to choose the most suitable operating frequency depending on the dimensions of the commercial pipeline cross-section. We monitor the three components of the scattered electric field along a line just above the interface between the two media. The electromagnetic properties of the materials employed in this study are taken from the literature and, since a frequency-domain technique is adopted, no further approximation is needed. Once the ideal problem has been studied, i.e. having considered orthogonal and tangential scenario, we further complicate the model by considering different crossing angles and distances between the tubes, in two cases of PVC and metallic material. The results obtained in these cases are compared with those of the initial problem with the goal of determining the scattered field dependence on the geometrical characteristics of the cross between two pipelines. One of the practical applications in the field of Civil Engineering of this study may be the use of ground

  1. Channeled substrate buried heterostructure InGaAsP/InP laser employing a buried Fe ion implant for current confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, D.P.; Schwartz, B.; Tell, B.; Beebe, E.D.; Nelson, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    A channeled substrate buried heterostructure InGaAsP/InP laser is demonstrated using a hybrid technique of Fe ion implantation followed by liquid phase epitaxy. A high resistivity region is formed by the implantation and subsequent anneal of Fe into an n-type InP substrate, and this is used to provide a self-aligned current confinement barrier layer. The use of an in situ anneal prior to liquid phase epitaxy minimizes the number of processing steps. Pulsed threshold currents as low as 22 mA have been achieved on devices utilizing broad area metal contacts.

  2. Modelling the effect of buried valleys on groundwater flow: case study in Ventspils vicinity, Latvia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads; Bikse, Janis; Retike, Inga; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta

    2015-04-01

    Buried subglacial valleys are widely distributed in glaciated regions and they can have great influence on groundwater flow and hence on groundwater resources. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of the buried valleys on groundwater flow in a confined aquifer (Middle Devonian Eifelian stage Arukila aquifer, D2ar) applying numerical modelling. The study area is located at vicinity of Ventspils Town, near wellfield Ogsils where number of the buried valleys with different depth and filling material are present. Area is located close to the Baltic Sea at Piejūra lowland Rinda plain and regional groundwater flow is towards sea. Territory is covered by thin layer of Quaternary sediments in thicknesses of 10 to 20 meters although Prequaternary sediments are exposed at some places. Buried valleys are characterized as narrow, elongated and deep formations that is be filled with various, mainly Pleistocene glacigene sediments - either till loam of different ages or sand and gravel or interbedding of both above mentioned. The filling material of the valleys influences groundwater flow in the confined aquifers which is intercepted by the valleys. It is supposed that glacial till loam filled valleys serves as a barrier to groundwater flow and as a recharge conduit when filled with sand and gravel deposits. Numerical model was built within MOSYS modelling system (Virbulis et al. 2012) using finite element method in order to investigate buried valley influence on groundwater flow in the study area. Several conceptual models were tested in numerical model depending on buried valley filling material: sand and gravel, till loam or mixture of them. Groundwater flow paths and travel times were studied. Results suggested that valley filled with glacial till is acting as barrier and it causes sharp drop of piezometric head and downward flow. Valley filled with sand and gravel have almost no effect on piezometric head distribution, however it this case buried valleys

  3. Chemical Soil Physics Phenomena for Chemical Sensing of Buried UXO

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James, M.; Webb, Stephen W.

    1999-06-14

    Technology development efforts are under way to apply chemical sensors to discriminate inert ordnance and clutter from live munitions that remain a threat to reutilization of military ranges. However, the chemical signature is affected by multiple environmental phenomena that can enhance or reduce its presence and transport behavior, and can affect the distribution of the chemical signature in the environment. For example, the chemical can be present in the vapor, aqueous, and solid phases. The distribution of the chemical among these phases, including the spatial distribution, is key in designing appropriate detectors, e.g., gas, aqueous or solid phase sampling instruments. A fundamental understanding of the environmental conditions that affect the chemical signature is needed to describe the favorable and unfavorable conditions of a chemical detector based survey to minimize the consequences of a false negative. UXO source emission measurements are being made to estimate the chemical flux from a limited set of ordnance items. Phase partitioning analysis has been completed to show what the expected concentrations of chemical analytes would be fi-om total concentrations measured in the soil. The soil moisture content in the dry region has been shown to be critical in the attenuation of soil gas concentrations by increased sorption to soil particles. Numerical simulation tools have been adapted to include surface boundary conditions such as solar radiation, surface boundary layer (which is a function of wind speed), precipitation and evaporation, and plant cover/root density to allow transport modeling and evaluate long term processes. Results of this work will provide performance targets for sensor developers and support operational decisions regarding field deployments.

  4. Buried aquifers in the Brooten-Belgrade and Lake Emily areas, west-central Minnesota--Factors related to developing water for irrigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolf, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Potential water problems include slow rate of recharge to buried aquifers, and head loss caused by screening of the surficial and buried aquifers in the same well, and by allowing well to flow unabated. Another potential problem is possible pollution of the buried aquifers through the boreholes of multiaquifer wells.

  5. The INEL beryllium multiplication experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.; King, J.J.

    1991-03-01

    The experiment to measure the multiplication of 14-MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium has been completed. The experiment consists of determining the ratio of {sup 56}Mn activities induced in a large manganese bath by a central 14-MeV neutron source, with and without a beryllium sample surrounding the source. In the manganese bath method a neutron source is placed at the center of a totally-absorbing aqueous solution of MnSo{sub 4}. The capture of neutrons by Mn produces a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the emission rate of the source. As applied to the measurement of the multiplication of 14- MeV neutrons in bulk beryllium, the neutron source is a tritium target placed at the end of the drift tube of a small deuteron accelerator. Surrounding the source is a sample chamber. When the sample chamber is empty, the neutrons go directly to the surrounding MnSO{sub 4} solution, and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate. When the chamber contains a beryllium sample, the neutrons first enter the beryllium and multiply through the (n,2n) process. Neutrons escaping from the beryllium enter the bath and produce a {sup 56}Mn activity proportional to the neutron emission rate multiplied by the effective value of the multiplication in bulk beryllium. The ratio of the activities with and without the sample present is proportional to the multiplication value. Detailed calculations of the multiplication and all the systematic effects were made with the Monte Carlo program MCNP, utilizing both the Young and Stewart and the ENDF/B-VI evaluations for beryllium. Both data sets produce multiplication values that are in excellent agreement with the measurements for both raw and corrected values of the multiplication. We conclude that there is not real discrepancy between experimental and calculated values for the multiplication of neutrons in bulk beryllium. 12 figs., 11 tabs., 18 refs.

  6. Severe Accident Sequence Analysis Program: Anticipated transient without scram simulations for Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dallman, R J; Gottula, R C; Holcomb, E E; Jouse, W C; Wagoner, S R; Wheatley, P D

    1987-05-01

    An analysis of five anticipated transients without scram (ATWS) was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The five detailed deterministic simulations of postulated ATWS sequences were initiated from a main steamline isolation valve (MSIV) closure. The subject of the analysis was the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant Unit 1, a boiling water reactor (BWR) of the BWR/4 product line with a Mark I containment. The simulations yielded insights to the possible consequences resulting from a MSIV closure ATWS. An evaluation of the effects of plant safety systems and operator actions on accident progression and mitigation is presented.

  7. Formation of multiple levels of porous silicon for buried insulators and conductors in silicon device technologies

    DOEpatents

    Blewer, Robert S.; Gullinger, Terry R.; Kelly, Michael J.; Tsao, Sylvia S.

    1991-01-01

    A method of forming a multiple level porous silicon substrate for semiconductor integrated circuits including anodizing non-porous silicon layers of a multi-layer silicon substrate to form multiple levels of porous silicon. At least one porous silicon layer is then oxidized to form an insulating layer and at least one other layer of porous silicon beneath the insulating layer is metallized to form a buried conductive layer. Preferably the insulating layer and conductive layer are separated by an anodization barrier formed of non-porous silicon. By etching through the anodization barrier and subsequently forming a metallized conductive layer, a fully or partially insulated buried conductor may be fabricated under single crystal silicon.

  8. Buried waste integrated demonstration Fiscal Year 1993 close-out report

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, K.J.; Hyde, R.A.

    1994-04-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) supports the applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies. These technologies are being integrated to form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Restoration and Waste Management needs and objectives. BWID works with universities and private industry to develop these technologies, which are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. A public participation policy has been established to provide stakeholders with timely and accurate information and meaningful opportunities for involvement in the technology development and demonstration process. To accomplish this mission of identifying technological solutions for remediation deficiencies, the Office of Technology Development initiated BWID at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This report summarizes the activities of the BWID program during FY-93.

  9. Detection of spin-resolved electronic structures from a buried ferromagnetic layer utilizing forward Mott scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, S.; Mizuguchi, M.; Kojima, T.; Takanashi, K.; Ishimaru, S.; Tsujikawa, M.; Shirai, M.

    2014-03-31

    We report ultrahigh-resolution spin-resolved hard X-ray photoemission (HAXPES) for a buried FeNi alloy film. By utilizing the forward Mott scattering in a Au layer on FeNi, our spin-resolved HAXPES method does not require a standard spin detector and allows us to use the multi-channel electron detection system for the high-efficient electron detection as used in conventional photoemission spectroscopy. A combination of the forward Mott scattering and multi-channel detection leads us to measure a clear spin polarization as well as spin-resolved majority and minority states in the Fe 2p core-level spectra without using the standard spin detector. This method enables us to measure spin-resolved core-level spectra for buried ferromagnetic materials.

  10. Field investigation and analysis of buried pipelines under various seismic environments. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.R.L.

    1982-08-01

    A research project is proposed in which the behavior of oil, water, sewer, and gas pipelines under various seismic environments, including seismic shaking and large ground deformation would be investigated. It is suggested that the investigation be conducted in the Beijing and Tangshan areas. Three major hazards to underground pipelines are identified: the effect of wave propagation; ground rupture and differential movement along fault lines; and soil liquefaction induced by ground shaking. Ruptures or severe distortions of the pipe are most often associated with fault movements, landslides, or ground squeeze associated with fault zones. A model is presented to evaluate the general longitudinal responses of buried pipelines, both segmented and continuous, subjected to ground shakings and vibrations. The results of these tests will be used to develop aseismic codes for buried pipelines.

  11. Topographic Map of Chryse Planitia with Location of Possible Buried Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This topographic map, based on data from the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, shows the ground track of the 1,892nd and the 1,903rd orbits of Mars Express and the arc structures detected by that orbiter's Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS). The arc structures are interpreted to be part of a buried impact basin about 250 kilometers (155 miles) in diameter.

    The topographic relief represented in the image is 1 kilometer (0.6 mile), from low (purple) to high (red). The projected arcs are shown in red for orbit 1892 and white for orbit 1903. There is no obvious feature in the surface topography that corresponds to the buried feature identified with MARSIS data.

    NASA and the Italian Space Agency jointly funded the MARSIS instrument on the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter is an instrument on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter.

  12. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  13. Scanning capacitance microscopy registration of buried atomic-precision donor devices.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, E; Rudolph, M; Subramania, G S; Misra, S; Carr, S M; Langlois, E; Dominguez, J; Pluym, T; Lilly, M P; Carroll, M S

    2015-02-27

    We show that a scanning capacitance microscope (SCM) can image buried delta-doped donor nanostructures fabricated in Si via a recently developed atomic-precision scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) lithography technique. A critical challenge in completing atomic-precision nanoelectronic devices is to accurately align mesoscopic metal contacts to the STM defined nanostructures. Utilizing the SCMs ability to image buried dopant nanostructures, we have developed a technique by which we are able to position metal electrodes on the surface to form contacts to underlying STM fabricated donor nanostructures with a measured accuracy of 300 nm. Low temperature (T = 4 K) transport measurements confirm successful placement of the contacts to the donor nanostructures. PMID:25649193

  14. Dual-band infrared imaging applications: Locating buried minefields, mapping sea ice, and inspecting aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Del Grande, N.K.; Durbin, P.F.; Perkins, D.E.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the use of dual-band infrared (DBIR) imaging for three quantitative NDE applications: location buried surrogate mines, mapping sea ice thicknesses and inspecting subsurface flaws in aging aircraft parts. Our system of DBIR imaging offers a unique combination of thermal resolution, detectability, and interpretability. Pioneered at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, it resolves 0.2 {degrees}C differences in surface temperatures needed to identify buried mine sites and distinguish them from surface features. It produces both surface temperature and emissivity-ratio images of sea ice, needed to accurately map ice thicknesses (e.g., by first removing clutter due to snow and surface roughness effects). The DBIR imaging technique depicts subsurface flaws in composite patches and lap joints of aircraft, thus providing a needed tool for aging aircraft inspections.

  15. Non-destructive imaging of buried electronic interfaces using a decelerated scanning electron beam.

    PubMed

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Murphy, Benedict A; Vick, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology enables the production of atomically abrupt interfaces in multilayered junctions, allowing for an increase in the number of transistors in a processor. However, uniform electron transport has not yet been achieved across the entire interfacial area in junctions due to the existence of local defects, causing local heating and reduction in transport efficiency. To date, junction uniformity has been predominantly assessed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, which requires slicing and milling processes that can potentially introduce additional damage and deformation. It is therefore essential to develop an alternative non-destructive method. Here we show a non-destructive technique using scanning electron microscopy to map buried junction properties. By controlling the electron-beam energy, we demonstrate the contrast imaging of local junction resistances at a controlled depth. This technique can be applied to any buried junctions, from conventional semiconductor and metal devices to organic devices. PMID:27586090

  16. Development and calibration of buried wire gages for wall shear stress measurements in fluid flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Sreedhara V.; Steinle, Frank W.

    1988-01-01

    Special methods were developed to arrange 'Buried Wire Gage' inserts flush to the contoured flow surfaces of instrument plugs of a boundary-layer flow apparatus. The fabrication process was aimed at producing proper bonding of the sensor wire to the substrate surface, without causing excessive surface waviness. A large number of gages were built and first calibrated for the resistance-temperature characteristics. The gages were then installed in a flow calibration apparatus and operated from a constant temperature anemometer system for a series of flow settings to derive the calibration constants of each of the gages. The flow settings included a range of subsonic freestream Mach numbers in order to help establish the gage calibration characteristics for compressible flow fields. This paper provides a description of the buried wire gage technique, an explanation of the method evolved for making proper gages, the procedure for calibrating the gages and the results of measurements performed for determining the calibration constants.

  17. Distributed feedback GaSb based laser diodes with buried grating

    SciTech Connect

    Gaimard, Q.; Cerutti, L.; Teissier, R.; Vicet, A.

    2014-04-21

    We report on the growth, fabrication, and experimental study of distributed feed-back antimonide diode lasers with buried grating. A second order index-coupled grating was defined by interferometric lithography on the top of the laser waveguide and dry etched by reactive ion etching. The grating was then buried thanks to an overgrowth of the top cladding layer using molecular beam epitaxy. The wafer was then processed using standard photolithography and wet etching into 15 μm-wide laser ridges. Single frequency laser emission at a wavelength of 2.2 μm was measured with a side mode suppression ratio of 34 dB, a maximum output power of 30 mW, and a total continuous tuning range of 6.5 nm.

  18. Buried Bumper Syndrome Revisited: A Rare but Potentially Fatal Complication of PEG Tube Placement

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Saptarshi; Dontukurthy, Sujana; Rosenzweig, Mathew G.; Kothuru, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) has been used for providing enteral access to patients who require long-term enteral nutrition for years. Although generally considered safe, PEG tube placement can be associated with many immediate and delayed complications. Buried bumper syndrome (BBS) is one of the uncommon and late complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement. It occurs when the internal bumper of the PEG tube erodes into the gastric wall and lodges itself between the gastric wall and skin. This can lead to a variety of additional complications such as wound infection, peritonitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. We present here a case of buried bumper syndrome which caused extensive necrosis of the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:24829838

  19. Detection of buried objects by fusing dual-band infrared images

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G.A.; Sengupta, S.K.; Sherwood, R.J.; Buhl, M.R.; Schaich, P.C.; Kane, R.J.; Barth, M.J.; Fields, D.J.; Carter, M.R.

    1993-11-01

    We have conducted experiments to demonstrate the enhanced detectability of buried land mines using sensor fusion techniques. Multiple sensors, including visible imagery, infrared imagery, and ground penetrating radar (GPR), have been used to acquire data on a number of buried mines and mine surrogates. Because the visible wavelength and GPR data are currently incomplete. This paper focuses on the fusion of two-band infrared images. We use feature-level fusion and supervised learning with the probabilistic neural network (PNN) to evaluate detection performance. The novelty of the work lies in the application of advanced target recognition algorithms, the fusion of dual-band infrared images and evaluation of the techniques using two real data sets.

  20. Technology evaluation report for the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project

    SciTech Connect

    Griebenow, B.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the work performed in support of the Buried Waste Robotics Program Subsurface Mapping Project. The project objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of remotely characterizing buried waste sites. To fulfill this objective, a remotely-operated vehicle, equipped with several sensors, was deployed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Descriptions of the equipment and areas involved in the project are included in this report. Additionally, this document provides data that was obtained during characterization operations at the Cold Test Pit and the Subsurface Disposal Area, both at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The knowledge gained from the experience, that can be applied to the next generation remote-characterization system, is extensive and is presented in this report.